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CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT

CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT

Electrical Chargeman Category B0

ILSAS/MFF/2007

Page 1 of 136

CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT

Contents
Title 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.0 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 FUNDAMENTALS OF BASIC ELECTRICITY Definition of electrical power Apparent Power (VA) Real Power or True Power (Watts) Reactive Power (Var) Power Factor Relationship between Real, Reactive, and Apparent power Equipment Causing Poor Power Factor Calculation for power factor EFFECT OF LOW POWER FACTOR POWER FACTOR CORRECTION Capacitive Power Factor correction Function of PFC Capacitors How capacitors work Categories of Power Factor Correction CAPACITOR BANK SIZING Selecting kVAR for 3-Phase Motors Power Factor Correction Capacitors on Reduced Voltage Motors and Multi-Speed Motors Selecting kVAR for Bulk Correction MV CAPACITOR BANK DESIGN Function of a capacitor bank Capacitor unit & Capacitor Bank configuration Capacitor construction Basic design of power capacitor Page No. 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 13 14 20 21 21 23 24 25 30 30 33 34 38 38 38 40 69

ILSAS/MFF/2007

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CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT

6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5

PROTECTION OF Y-Y CAPACITORS Capacitor fusing Relaying protection The concept of unbalance current flow Basics on relay unbalance & Unbalance CT Typical settings for a 11 kV 3-5 MVar Y-Y Capacitor Banks Lightning protection PROTECTION FOR DELTA CAPACITORS Fusing arrangement for Delta Capacitors Comparison between fusing arrangement for Delta & Y capacitors Relaying protection

73 73 74 81 82 83 84 85 85 87 90

MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES FOR A Y-Y CAPACITOR BANK Safety Regulations Maintenance Methodology for Y-Y Capacitor Banks Maintenance program 91 91 95

MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES FOR A DELTA CAPACITOR BANK Safety Regulations Maintenance Methodology for Delta Capacitor Banks Maintenance program COMMISSIONING Before energizing the bank, check: Setting for Power Factor Regulator (Controller) Calculation of resonance frequency Calculation for the increase in line voltage Inspection after commissioning 121 121 129 132 134 108 108 111

Sample for Inspection & Maintenance Forms are attached as Appendix A. Sample for commissioning forms are attached as Appendix B.

ILSAS/MFF/2007

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CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 4 of 136 .

CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 5 of 136 .

1. Water performs work when it turns the turbine blades of a hydroelectric plant.3 Real Power or True Power (Watts) The real amount of power a device is using. while these devices then release some energy. For a resistive and/or DC circuit. or results in actual work performed. Real power is presented in Watts. There is mathematically no difference between watts and volt-amperes. at a later time. but for a capacitive or inductive circuit. like in capacitive or inductive devices. the product of current times voltage tells us a device appears to be using a certain amount of power. or thousand-volt-amperes (kVA). the real power is heavily dependent on the amount that the current or voltage is delayed. or how many horsepower our motor is delivering. except that we use one term for apparent power. or power.2 Apparent Power (VA) Apparent power is defined as the power that is "apparently" absorbed by a system.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 1. 1. and one for real power. is called the "real power". That is. but they are both units of power. It takes power to store energy. The real power tells us how much actual work can be performed. Generators are rated in volt-amperes (VA). Real power = P=VIR = VI cos θ IR = I cos θ cos θ = power factor (1) ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 6 of 136 .0 1.1 FUNDAMENTALS OF BASIC ELECTRICITY Definition of electrical power Power is the ability of a system to perform work. We use the power factor to go from apparent power to real power. Electricity performs work when it heats up a heating element or turns a motor. the apparent power and the real power are the same.

as always). rather than watts. and it is the product of a circuit's voltage and current.4 Reactive Power (Var) The instantaneous power absorbed by the reactive part of the load is given by: Reactive power =Q=VIX = VI sin θ (2) Q refers to the maximum value of the instantaneous power absorbed by the reactive component of the load. A common power factor for electric motors is 0. the current or voltage flowing through the circuit will be slightly delayed. For an inductive load. Apparent power is measured in the unit of Volt-Amps (VA) and is symbolized by the capital letter S. 1. is the cosine of the phase angle. 1.6 Relationship between Real. Adding resistance to the circuit will decrease the leading/lagging angle. and the current lags behind the voltage. without reference to phase angle. or dissipated. The actual amount of power being used. For a purely capacitive or inductive circuit with zero resistance. which gives us a lagging angle of 36° (This is because there is some resistance inside the motor windings). the angle of lead/lag is 90°.5 Power Factor When we use any capacitive or inductive device on an AC circuit. The instantaneous reactive power is alternately positive and negative.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 1. and it is measured in a unit called VoltAmps-Reactive (VAR). In a capacitor the voltage lags behind the current. and the power factor is zero [cosine (900)=0]. this “phantom power” is called reactive power. and it expresses the reversible flow of energy to and from the reactive component of the load. and the power factor is said to be lagging.8. the lag angle is 90°. in a circuit is called true power. yet the fact that they drop voltage and draw current gives the deceptive impression that they actually do dissipate power. As mentioned above. The combination of reactive power and true power is called apparent power. A motor is an inductive element. or out of phase. For a purely inductive circuit. the current lags the voltage. the current leads the voltage. and the power factor is said to be leading. and Apparent power We know that reactive loads such as inductors and capacitors dissipate zero power. Reactive. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 7 of 136 . For capacitive loads. and it is measured in watts (symbolized by the capital letter P. The term "Power factor".

CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT As a rule. Reactive power is a function of a circuit's reactance (X). Apparent power is a function of a circuit's total impedance (Z). Since we're dealing with scalar quantities for power calculation. reactance. current. and impedance must be represented by their polar magnitudes. usually resistances (R). not by real or imaginary rectangular components. For instance. both of these formerly complex quantities must be reduced to their polar magnitudes for the scalar arithmetic. any complex starting quantities such as voltage. If I'm calculating apparent power from voltage and impedance. and impedance (all using scalar quantities): (3) (4) (5) ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 8 of 136 . if I'm calculating true power from current and resistance. I must use the polar magnitude for current. There are several power equations relating the three types of power to resistance. and not merely the “real” or “imaginary” portion of the current. true power is a function of a circuit's dissipative elements.

CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Please note that there are two equations each for the calculation of true and reactive power. reactive power. a purely reactive load in Figure below and a resistive/reactive load in Figure below. 1.1 Resistive load only: 120 Volt 50 Hz Figure 1: True power. (E is equivalent to Voltage). ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 9 of 136 . There are three equations available for the calculation of apparent power. P=IE being useful only for that purpose. Examine the following circuits and see how these three types of power interrelate for: a purely resistive load in Figure below.6. and apparent power for a purely resistive load.

CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 1.6. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 10 of 136 . and apparent power for a purely reactive load.2 Reactive load only: 120 Volt 50 Hz Figure 2: True power. reactive power.

true. and apparent power for a resistive/reactive load. reactive power. We call this the power triangle: ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 11 of 136 .3 Resistive/reactive load: 120 Volt 50 Hz Figure 3: True power. and apparent -. These three types of power -.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 1.6.relate to one another in trigonometric form. reactive.

or the length of one side and an angle. we can solve for the length of any side (amount of any type of power). given the lengths of the other two sides.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Figure 4: Power Triangle Using the laws of trigonometry. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 12 of 136 .

Power merely absorbed and returned in load due to its reactive properties is referred to as reactive power. The opposite angle is equal to the circuit's impedance (Z) phase angle.7 A great deal of equipment utilized by todays modern industry causes poor plant power factor. 60% to 80% power factor: Induction furnaces. Total power in an AC circuit. cold headers. 60% power factor and below: Single stroke presses. and S = hypotenuse length. These three types of power are trigonometrically related to one another. Equipment Causing Poor Power Factor • • • 1. Q = opposite length. In a right triangle. standard stamping machines and weaving machines. P = adjacent length. welders. finish grinders. Apparent power is symbolized by the letter S and is measured in the unit of Volt-Amps (VA). up setters. pumps. both dissipated and absorbed/returned is referred to as apparent power. True power is symbolized by the letter P and is measured in the unit of Watts (W). center less grinders. Examples of this type of equipment and their approximate power factors are: 80% power factor or better: Air conditioners. When the above equipment functions within a plant. One of the worst offenders is the lightly loaded induction motor. Reactive power is symbolized by the letter Q and is measured in the unit of Volt-Amps-Reactive (VAR). automated machine tools. fans or blowers.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT REVIEW: • Power dissipated by a load is referred to as true power. savings can be achieved by utilizing industrial capacitors ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 13 of 136 .

It is a measure of how effectively the current is being converted into useful work output and more particularly is a good indicator of the effect of the load current on the efficiency of the supply system. the angle of this “power triangle” graphically indicates the ratio between the amount of dissipated (or consumed) power and the amount of absorbed/returned power. lighting ballasts.5 will result in much higher losses in the supply system. A load with a power factor of 1. All current flow will cause losses in the supply and distribution system. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 14 of 136 . this ratio between true power and apparent power is called the power factor for this circuit. respectively.8 Calculation for power factor Power factor is the ratio between the kW (Kilo-Watts) and the kVA (Kilo-Volt Amperes) drawn by an electrical load where the kW is the actual (true) load power and the kVA is the apparent load power. A distorted current waveform can be the result of a rectifier. welder or induction furnace. switched mode power supply.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 1. It also happens to be the same angle as that of the circuit's impedance in polar form. Because true power and apparent power form the adjacent and hypotenuse sides of a right triangle. power transformer. the power factor ratio is also equal to the cosine of that phase angle. discharge lighting or other electronic load. or it can be due to a high harmonic content or distorted/discontinuous current waveform. A poor power factor can be the result of either a significant phase difference between the voltage and current at the load terminals. Power Factor (PF) = Power Factor (PF) = cos φ kW = KVA True Power Apparent Power (6) (7) |kVA| = √ [(kW)2 + ( kVAr)2] (8) As was mentioned before. When expressed as a fraction. Poor load current phase angle is generally the result of an inductive load such as an induction motor.0 results in the most efficient loading of the supply and a load with a power factor of 0. variable speed drive.

because true power equals zero. rather than the mere 119. If there are no dissipative (resistive) components in the circuit. is a unit less quantity. Power factor can be an important aspect to consider in an AC circuit. For the purely resistive circuit.365 watts that it is presently dissipating with that same current quantity. the power factor is zero. because the opposite (reactive power) side would have zero length. the power factor is 1 (perfect).256 watts to the load with the same 1.410 amps of current. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 15 of 136 . like all ratio measurements. making any power in the circuit purely reactive. we would have been able to deliver a full 169. The same could be said for a purely capacitive circuit. If our last example circuit had been purely resistive. The poor power factor makes for an inefficient power delivery system. Here. Here.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Using values from the last example circuit using Equation (7): It should be noted that power factor. because the reactive power equals zero. the power triangle would look like a vertical line. because any power factor less than 1 means that the circuit's wiring has to carry more current than what would be necessary with zero reactance in the circuit to deliver the same amount of (true) power to the resistive load. then the true power must be equal to zero. For the purely inductive circuit. the power triangle would look like a horizontal line. The power triangle for a purely capacitive circuit would again be a vertical line (pointing down instead of up as it was for the purely inductive circuit). because the adjacent (true power) side would have zero length.

by adding another load to the circuit drawing an equal and opposite amount of reactive power. which starts from voltage and reactance: ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 16 of 136 .998 VAR (inductive). we'll use the power formula. The effect of these two opposing reactances in parallel is to bring the circuit's total impedance equal to its total resistance (to make the impedance phase angle equal. Since we know that the (uncorrected) reactive power is 119. or at least closer. paradoxically. to zero).CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Poor power factor can be corrected. to cancel out the effects of the load's inductive reactance. we need to calculate the correct capacitor size to produce the same quantity of (capacitive) reactive power. so we have to add a capacitor in parallel to our example circuit as the additional load. Inductive reactance can only be canceled by capacitive reactance. Since this capacitor will be directly in parallel with the source (of known voltage).

CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Let's use a rounded capacitor value of 22 µF and see what happens to our circuit: 120 Volt 50 Hz Figure 4: Parallel capacitor corrects lagging power factor of inductive load. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 17 of 136 .

for continuous AC service. we would have ended up with an impedance angle that was negative. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 18 of 136 . we would have arrived at an impedance angle of exactly zero. You must be careful not to over-correct when adding capacitance to an AC circuit. indicating that the circuit was more capacitive than inductive. we know that the circuit.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT The power factor for the circuit. It should be noted that too much capacitance in an AC circuit will result in a low power factor just as well as too much inductance. or purely resistive. If we had added too large of a capacitor in parallel. The power factor is much closer to being 1: Since the impedance angle is still a positive number. while the power dissipated at the load resistor remains unchanged at 119.365 watts. If our power factor correction efforts had been perfectly on-target.41 amps to 994. The main current has been decreased from 1. is still more inductive than it is capacitive.7 milliamps. and capable of handling the expected levels of current). overall. You must also be very careful to use the proper capacitors for the job (rated adequately for power system voltages and the occasional voltage spike from lightning strikes. overall. has been substantially improved.

What is the % loading of the transformer? ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 19 of 136 .CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT If a circuit is predominantly inductive. What is the value of the power factor for the transformer? Exercise No. Exercise No. parallel capacitance is what is needed to correct the poor power factor.2 A 1000 kVA transformer has maximum loading of 800kW & power factor of 0.1 A transformer delivers maximum loading of 800kW & 700 kVar. • • REVIEW: Poor power factor in an AC circuit may be “corrected”.705 lagging.45. we say that its power factor is lagging (because the current wave for the circuit lags behind the applied voltage wave). Thus. If the load's reactance is inductive in nature (which it almost always will be). if a circuit is predominantly capacitive. or re-established at a value close to 1. Conversely. and was corrected to a power factor of 0. our example circuit started out with a power factor of 0. by adding a parallel reactance opposite the effect of the load's reactance.999 lagging. we say that its power factor is leading.

to some extent. Second. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 20 of 136 . use motor power factor rating as a power factor rating as a criterion in choosing among competing motors. First. lighting. transformers. it increases the cost incurred by the power company because more current must be transmitted than is actually used to perform useful work. The power factors in industrial plants are usually lagging due to the inductive nature of induction motors. induction heating furnaces. etc. This lagging power factor has two costly disadvantages for the power user. especially when a large motor is involved. it reduces the load handling capability of the industrial plants electrical transmission system which means that the industrial power user must spend more on transmission lines and transformers to get a given amount of useful power through his plant. It is important that we clearly understand the meaning of "Power Factor" and its effect on the electrical supply system for the following reasons: • • • • • a low power factor can increase the cost of power to the user a low power factor can increase the cost of power transmission equipment to the user a customer may request assistance in selecting equipment to correct a low power factor over-correction of power factor by the addition of excessive capacitance is sometimes dangerous to a motor and the driven equipment.0 EFFECT OF LOW POWER FACTOR "Power Factor" is an electrical term used to rate the degree of the synchronization of power supply current with the power supply voltage. This increased cost is passed on to the industrial customer by means of power factor adjustments to the rate schedules.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 2. (above 95% power factor) a customer may.

a poor power factor due to a distorted current waveform requires change in equipment design or expensive harmonic filters to gain an appreciable improvement. The resistive components are:1) Load current. Many inverters are quoted as having a power factor of better than 0.75.5 and 0. There should be no effect on the operation of the motor itself. which include induction motors as a means of reducing the inductive component of the current and thereby reduce the losses in the supply. 4) Magnetizing current. the true power factor is between 0. An induction motor draws current from the supply that is made up of resistive components and inductive components. but.0 POWER FACTOR CORRECTION A poor power factor due to an inductive load can be improved by the addition of power factor correction (PFC) capacitor.95 when in reality.95 is based on the cosine of the angle between the voltage and current but does not take into account that the current waveform is discontinuous and therefore contributes to increased losses on the supply 3. and the inductive components are: 3) Leakage reactance. The figure of 0. 2) Loss current.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 3.1 Capacitive Power Factor correction Capacitive Power Factor correction is applied to circuits. Figure 5: ILSAS/MFF/2007 Magnetizing current Page 21 of 136 .

Typically. or applied at the switchboard or distribution panel.777 or a 78% increase in the supply losses. the consumer will be encouraged to apply power factor correction. but the magnetizing current is independent of the load on the motor. In the interest of reducing the losses in the distribution system.75 The resistive component of the current is 75 Amps and this is what the KWh meter measures. The magnetizing current and the leakage reactance can be considered passenger components of current that will not affect the power drawn by the motor. power factor correction is added to neutralize a portion of the magnetizing current of the motor.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT The current due to the leakage reactance is dependant on the total current drawn by the motor.95. the corrected power factor will be 0. The higher current will result in an increase in the distribution losses of (100x 100)/(75x75) = 1. The magnetizing current is the current that establishes the flux in the iron and is very necessary if the motor is going to operate. Figure 6: ILSAS/MFF/2007 Power Factor Correction (1) Page 22 of 136 . The magnetizing current will typically be between 20% and 60% of the rated full load current of the motor. but the net result is that in order to reduce wasted energy in the distribution system. but will contribute to the power dissipated in the supply and distribution system.0. There are many ways that this is metered. The magnetizing current does not actually contribute to the actual work output of the motor. It is the catalyst that allows the motor to work properly. Take for example a motor with a current draw of 100 Amps and a power factor of 0. Power factor correction is achieved by the addition of capacitors in parallel with the connected motor circuits and can be applied at the starter. The resulting capacitive current is leading current and is used to cancel the lagging inductive current flowing from the supply.92 .

With Power Factor Correction Figure 7: Power Factor Correction (2) ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 23 of 136 . No Power Factor Correction kVar supplies by Capacitor Bank b. since the kVA demand is also reduced. a. Reducing the reactive power supplied by the utility results in a cost reduction to electrical bills.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 3.2 Function of Power Factor Correction (PFC) Capacitors PFC equipment provides the means of reducing the reactive power being supplied by the utility.

Figure 8 illustrates how a PFC capacitor works when installed on the line side of a motor. This makes the utility transmission/distribution system more efficient. Figure 8: 3. By supplying kVAR right at the load. The ratio of actual power to apparent power is usually expressed in percentage and is called power factor. By representing these components of apparent power (kVA) as the sides of a right triangle. you must shorten the line that represents the kVAR. To reduce the kVA required for any given load. transformers and many other electrical loads require magnetizing current (kVAR) as well as actual power (kW).CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT PFC capacitors are the main component in PFC equipment. reducing cost for the utility and their customers. we can determine the apparent power from the right triangle rule: kVA2 = kW2 + kVAR2. This is precisely what capacitors do.3 Power Factor Correction for Induction motors How capacitors work Induction motors. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 24 of 136 . the capacitors relieve the utility of the burden of carrying the extra kVAR. with their size most often referred to in kVAr.

(Typically 0.4. 3.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 3. the power factor should be as close to unity (Power factor of "1") as possible.2 Static Correction Bulk correction As a large proportion of the inductive or lagging current on the supply is due to the magnetizing current of induction motors.1 Bulk Correction The Power factor of the total current supplied to the distribution board is monitored by a controller which then switches capacitor banks In a fashion to maintain a power factor better than a preset limit. Figure 9: 3.4 Categories of Power Factor Correction Capacitors connected at each starter and controlled by each starter is known as "Static Power Factor Correction" while capacitors connected at a distribution board and controlled independently from the individual starters is known as "Bulk Correction". There is no problem with bulk correction operating at unity.4.95) Ideally. it is important that the capacitive current is less than the inductive magnetizing current of the induction motor. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 25 of 136 . it is easy to correct each individual motor by connecting the correction capacitors to the motor starters. With static correction.

It is not practical to use a "Standard table" for the correction of induction motors giving optimum correction on all motors. An induction motor. is driven by a rotating magnetic field in the stator. the capacitors are also connected providing correction at all times that the motor is connected to the supply. When the motor is connected to the supply. a magnetic field associated with the rotor. The capacitors connected across the motor terminals. Tables result in under correction on most motors but can result in over correction in some cases. If the motor is critically corrected. form a resonant circuit with the motor inductance. When the motor is disconnected from the supply. while connected to the supply. This can result in sever damage to the capacitors and motor. Where the open shaft current cannot be measured. Static power factor correction should provide capacitive current equal to 80% of the magnetizing current. the correction capacitors are connected directly in parallel with the motor windings. In this situation. If the motor is over corrected. there is for a period of time.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT In many installations employing static power factor correction. As the motor decelerates. If the frequency of the voltage generated by the decelerating motor passes through the resonant frequency of the corrected motor. It is imperative that motors are never over corrected or critically corrected when static correction is employed. an approximate level for the maximum correction that can be applied can be calculated from the half load characteristics of the motor. When the motor is off-line. which is essentially the open shaft current of the motor. This removes the requirement for any expensive power factor monitoring and control equipment. The magnetizing current for induction motors can vary considerably. the capacitors are also off-line. which induces current into the rotor. motors can exhibit a high leakage reactance and correction to ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 26 of 136 . Typically. it generates voltage out its terminals at a frequency which is related to it's speed. the capacitors remain connected to the motor terminals as the motor slows down. (corrected to a power factor of 1. the resonant frequency will be below the line frequency. It is dangerous to base correction on the full load characteristics of the motor as in some cases. and the magnetizing current is not quoted. there will be high currents and voltages around the motor/capacitor circuit. magnetizing currents for large two pole machines can be as low as 20% of the rated current of the motor while smaller low speed motors can have a magnetizing current as high as 60% of the rated full load current of the motor.0) the inductive reactance equals the capacitive reactance at the line frequency and therefore the resonant frequency is equal to the line frequency.

It is better practice to use two contactors.95 and this is generally true. The inverter does not however.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 0. one for the motor and one for the capacitors. The connection of capacitors to the output of an inverter can cause serious damage to the inverter and the capacitors due to the high frequency switched voltage on the output of the inverters.3 Precaution on use of Static Connection 3. particularly at low load.4.3. The current drawn from the inverter has a poor power factor.95 at full load will result in over correction under no load. The use of a second contactor eliminates the problems of resonance between the motor and the capacitors. The phase angle of the current drawn by the inverter from the supply is close to zero resulting in very low inductive current irrespective of what the motor is doing. operate with a good power factor. Static correction is commonly applied by using one contactor to control both the motor and the capacitors. Figure 10: Static correction 3.4. Many inverter manufacturers quote a cos Ø of better than 0.1 Inverter. it should be up sized for the capacitive load. however the current is non sinusoidal and the resultant harmonics ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 27 of 136 . Static Power factor correction must not be used when the motor is controlled by a variable speed drive or inverter. Where one contactor is employed. but the motor current is isolated from the supply by the inverter. or disconnected conditions.

and switched in when the soft starter output voltage has reached line voltage. It is recommended that capacitors should be at least 50 Meters away from Soft starters to elevate the impedance between the inverter and capacitors and reduce the potential damage caused. The energy is proportional to the amount of capacitance being switched.3.4. will cause voltage transients and these transients can damage the SCRs of Soft Starters if they are in the Off state without an input contactor. Many soft starters provide a "top of ramp" or "bypass contactor control" which can be used to control the power factor correction capacitors. the capacitors must be controlled by a separate contactor. will cause voltage transients and these transients can damage the input circuits of inverters. and the energy behind the impulses is much greater due to the energy storage of the capacitors. The capacitors tend to cause transients to be amplified. Automatic bank correction etc. Automatic bank correction etc. When a solid state soft starter is used. Inverters with input reactors and DC bus reactors will exhibit a higher true power factor than those without. and the energy behind the impulses is much greater due to the energy storage of the capacitors. The connection of capacitors close to the input of the inverter can also result in damage to the inverter. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 28 of 136 . resulting in higher voltage impulses applied to the SCRs of the Soft Starter. resulting in higher voltage impulses applied to the input circuits of the inverter. It is better to switch lots of small amounts of capacitance than few large amounts. 3. The energy is proportional to the amount of capacitance being switched. The capacitors tend to cause transients to be amplified.2 Solid State Soft Starter Static Power Factor correction capacitors must not be connected to the output of a solid state soft starter. It is better to switch lots of small amounts of capacitance than few large amounts. The connection of capacitors close to the input of the soft starter can also result in damage to the soft starter if an isolation contactor is not used.7 depending on the input design of the inverter. It is recommended that capacitors should be at least 75 Meters away from inverter inputs to elevate the impedance between the inverter and capacitors and reduce the potential damage caused. Switching capacitors. Switching capacitors.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT cause a power factor (KW/KVA) of closer to 0.

CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Figure 11: Static correction for soft starter schemes ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 29 of 136 .

4. Capacitors are attractive because they're economical and easy to maintain.0 CAPACITOR BANK SIZING The most common method for improving power factor is to add capacitors banks to the system. it can supply all the reactive power needed by the load. Not only that. they have no moving parts. the capacitor supplies the reactive power needed by the load. and no reactive power is demanded from the utility. the reactive power supplied by the bank will be its rated kVARs (or MVARs). while the rest of the reactive power needed by the load will be supplied by the utility. If you design the capacitor bank to improve the power factor to a quantity less than 1.1 Selecting kVAR for 3-Phase Motors To properly select the amount of kVAR required to correct the lagging power factor of a 3-phase motor you must have three pieces of information: • • • kW (kilowatts) Existing Power Factor in percent Desired Power Factor in percent The formula to calculate the required kVAR is: Factor from Table 1 x kW = kVAR of capacitors required. unlike some other devices used for the same purpose. (9) ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 30 of 136 .CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 4.0. If you size and select the capacitor bank to compensate to a unity power factor. When you add a capacitor bank to your system.

523 0.808 0.106 0.242 0.103 0.481 1.355 0.343 0.963 0.996 0.445 0.16 0.759 0.74 0.937 0.071 0.239 0.58 0.594 0.253 0.966 0.39 0.958 0.887 0.878 0.243 0.657 0.643 1.155 0.308 1.58 0.627 0.149 0.466 0.732 0.157 0.144 1.292 0.345 0.141 0.269 0.509 0.013 0.27 0.242 0.53 0.398 0.718 0.157 0.453 0.079 0.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Table 1 80 0.056 0.604 0.157 0.192 1.512 0.582 0.518 0.907 0.01 0.103 0.62 0.395 1.945 0.174 1.909 0.238 0.98 0.913 0.078 0.032 95 1.452 0.235 0.487 0.053 0.039 1.425 0.192 1.399 0.066 0.4 0.949 0.713 0.329 0.788 0.746 0.564 0.937 0.079 0.733 0.206 0.497 0.687 0.631 0.463 0.935 0.187 1.22 0.372 0.112 1.44 0.913 0.716 0.855 0.692 0.231 1.295 0.578 0.387 0.559 1.743 0.236 0.712 0.317 0.23 0.774 0.512 0.741 0.996 1.078 0.783 0.214 0.654 0.139 1.835 0.596 0.309 0.829 0.053 0.049 1.134 0.289 0.479 0.089 0.607 0.216 0.884 0.047 0 99 1.316 1.262 0.062 1.46 0.156 1.549 0.358 1.08 0.324 1.183 0.997 0.426 0.281 0.346 0.291 0.091 1.593 0.456 0.541 0.263 1.289 0.459 0.088 1.633 0.804 0.721 0.407 0.629 0.567 0.837 0.526 0.189 1.794 0.395 0.573 0.86 0.397 1.893 0.29 0.033 1.847 0.329 0.696 0.051 1.113 1.687 1.796 0.645 0.417 0.031 0 94 1.151 1.672 0.45 0.033 0.407 0.089 0.767 0.262 0.921 0.053 0.474 0.369 0.191 1.265 0.209 0.292 1.283 0.986 0.875 0.396 0.72 0.982 0.399 0.294 0.482 0.873 0.167 0.027 0 87 1.342 0.261 1.371 0.85 0.607 0.296 0.008 0.421 0.076 1.781 0.433 0.06 1.618 0.211 0.5 1.809 0.565 0.043 1.519 1.183 0.108 1.316 0.619 0.466 0.576 0.079 0.549 0.355 0.878 0.334 1.992 0.131 0.06 1.104 0.693 0.028 92 1.351 1.103 1.821 0.277 1.369 0.902 0.395 0.026 0 84 1.725 0.795 0.652 0.105 0.93 0.126 0.263 0.15 0.358 0.838 0.436 0.519 0.321 0.6 0.026 0 83 1.276 1.108 0.618 0.538 0.123 1.027 0.183 0.87 0.989 0.343 0.28 1.131 0.425 0.484 0.145 0.809 0.236 0.347 0.037 97 1.427 0.335 0.108 0.109 0.12 1.54 0.949 0.23 1.809 0.787 0.732 1.19 1.116 1.593 0.861 0.645 0.767 0.356 1.19 0.634 0.7 0.546 0.567 0.403 1.105 0.545 0.392 1.62 0.706 0.843 0.59 1.397 0.997 0.266 0.902 0.308 1.29 0.184 0.473 0.322 0.005 0.571 0.777 0.363 0.03 0.03 93 1.85 0.16 0.536 0.928 0.117 1.086 0.6 1.822 0.655 0.805 0.229 1.132 0.806 0.672 0.265 0.251 0.453 0.067 1.32 0.608 0.117 0.919 0.856 0.451 0.598 0.644 0.268 0.754 0.063 0.539 0.798 0.483 0.319 0.685 0.909 0.67 0.228 1.289 0.058 0.172 0.424 0.971 0.317 0.111 0 0.315 0.343 0.337 1.601 0.828 0.026 0 85 1.23 1.186 0.714 0.821 0.537 0.164 1.887 0.133 1.317 0.316 0.267 1.164 0.369 0.904 0.936 0.698 0.329 0.593 0.84 0.186 0.212 0.662 0.48 1.223 0.684 0.026 0 86 1.284 0.625 0.544 1.398 0.97 0.597 0.62 0.377 1.679 0.515 0.097 0.722 0.486 0.451 0.748 0.456 0.525 0.416 1.364 0.575 0.567 0.73 0.238 0.061 0 100 1.979 1.13 0.052 0.2 1.673 0.209 0.055 0.425 0.709 0.079 0.713 0.294 0.629 0.131 1.507 0.191 0.156 0.682 0.157 1.893 0.716 0.87 0.113 0.865 0.104 0.954 0.679 0.553 0.962 0.251 0.952 0.076 1.502 0.926 0.556 0.681 0.114 0.124 1.509 0.396 0.374 0.657 0.136 0.584 0.37 0.221 0.026 0 81 1.058 1.177 0.942 0.645 0.237 1.024 0.514 0.508 0.61 0.661 0.086 1.158 0.626 0.971 0.753 0.188 0.042 0 0 98 1.079 0.882 0.815 0.165 1.047 1.803 0.164 0.142 O r i g i n a l P o w e r F a c t o r i n % 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 31 of 136 .478 0.769 0.421 0.529 1.381 0.561 0.624 0.265 1.429 0.966 0.303 0.05 1.078 0.452 0.939 0.052 0.887 0.131 0.785 0.447 0.812 0.658 0.48 0.183 0.209 0.157 0.554 0.66 0.442 1.905 0.21 0.437 0.414 0.239 1.84 0.154 1.871 0.028 0.253 0.936 0.423 0.707 0.315 0.395 0.457 1.325 0.554 0.381 0.078 0.672 0.3 1.484 1.857 0.741 0.847 0.436 1.727 0.127 0.005 0.48 0.876 0.301 0.85 0.801 0.236 0.157 0.541 0.314 1.342 0.541 0.105 0.918 0.121 0.084 0.541 0.026 Desired Pow er Factor in % 88 89 90 91 1.905 0.939 0.769 0.047 1.075 1.314 0.485 0.44 1.836 0.974 0.014 0.74 0.973 0.564 0.4 0.936 0.114 1.686 0.052 0.602 0.211 0.75 0.158 0.66 0.347 0.277 0.175 1.453 0.434 0.528 0.162 0.105 0.204 0.878 0.939 0.369 1.811 0.165 1.077 1.37 0.591 0.159 1.225 0.343 0.355 0.237 0.169 1.413 0.213 0.079 1.185 0.007 0.462 0.262 0.775 0.094 1.264 0.008 0.759 0.691 0.271 1.653 0.236 0.534 0.408 0.567 0.338 1.248 1.904 0.44 0.595 0.306 1.052 0.291 0.257 0.388 0.09 1.299 1.268 1.143 0.405 1.023 0.131 0.264 0.508 0.248 1.226 1.052 0.192 0.698 0.104 0.053 0.568 0.349 1.459 0.476 0.587 0.183 0.027 0.912 0.94 0.488 0.238 0.019 1.822 0.131 1.368 1.447 0.849 0.034 96 1.613 0.776 0.159 0.22 1.233 1.32 0.749 0.138 1.196 1.292 0.082 0.081 0.237 0.744 0.299 0.75 0.056 0.217 0.713 0.212 0.507 0.492 0.666 0.688 0.342 0.724 0.492 0.288 0.976 0.701 0.202 1.015 0.21 0.515 0.309 0.343 0.87 0.563 0.198 0.838 0.384 0.061 0.834 0.377 0.374 0.262 0.007 1.134 0.591 0.775 0.535 0.433 0.902 0.782 0.263 0.348 0.779 0.471 0.361 0.028 0.291 0.093 0.083 1.381 0.794 0.512 0.758 0.351 0.899 0.275 0.328 0.65 0.13 0.652 0.426 0.13 0.042 1.192 0.634 0.968 0.248 0.203 0.183 0.623 0.688 0.403 0.295 1.176 0.426 0.21 0.187 0.234 0.771 0.442 1.147 1.499 0.536 0.317 0.5 0.992 0.636 0.369 0.034 0.02 0.151 1.48 0.729 0.876 0.515 0.373 0.756 0.268 0.217 1.096 1.982 0.41 0.504 0.085 1.77 0.041 0.552 0.489 0.117 1.568 0.079 1.828 0.817 0.063 0.966 0.685 0.663 0.24 0.105 0.37 0.132 0.419 0.744 0.026 0 Power Factor Improvement Table 82 1.48 0.184 0.137 0.

(7) (10) (11) (12) ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 32 of 136 . The kVAR of capacitors necessary to raise the power factor to 95% is found by using Table 1. If kW or Present Power Factor are not known you can calculate from the following formulas to get the three basic pieces of information required to calculate kVAR: PF = kW / kVA kVA = 1.732 x I x Volt x PF / 1000 kW = HP x 0.80) HP = rated horsepower of motor eff = rated efficiency of motor as a decimal (83% = .421 as the factor needed to complete the formula referenced above: 0.421 x 100 kW = 42 Kvar The customer may now choose the capacitor catalog number by kVAR and voltage from the complete ratings listed in this catalog. which in this case gives 0.732 x I x Volt / 1000 kW = 1.746 / eff WHERE I = full load current in amps Volt = voltage of motor PF = Present power factor as a decimal (80% = .CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT EXAMPLE: A small machine tool plant used an average of 100 kW with an existing power factor of 80%. 95% is a good economical power factor for calculation purposes.83) If Desired Power Factor is not provided. Their desired power factor is 95%.

Variations to these circuits do exist. M2. Capacitors should be connected on the motor side of the main contacts. Make sure that your circuit exactly matches the circuit shown here before applying capacitors.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 4. Failure to do so may result in damage to the motor. Figure 12: ILSAS/MFF/2007 Capacitor schemes for multi-speed motors Page 33 of 136 .2 Power Factor Correction Capacitors on Reduced Voltage Motors and Multi-Speed Motors The following shows capacitor connections for typical starting circuits for reduced voltage and multi-speed motors. The main contacts. reference the contacts that must be closed to start or run the motor. illustrated in the diagrams below as M1. M3.

3 Selecting kVAR for Bulk Correction 4. Figure 13: Capacitor schemes for bulk correction ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 34 of 136 .CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 4.3.1 Power Factor Improvement Table To properly select the amount of kVAR required to correct the lagging power factor of a total system for Bulk Correction you must have three pieces of information: • • • kW (kilowatts) load profiles (Minimum 1 month) Existing Average Power Factor in percent for 1 month Desired Power Factor in percent The formula to calculate the required kVAR is: Factor from Table 1 x kW = kVAR of capacitors required.

What is the size of capacitor bank to improve power factor from 0.74 to 0.95? Exercise No.4 One customer has maximum load of 8500 kW & average power factor at 0.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Exercise No.74.85 (Based on Tariff).85 (Based on Tariff).3 One customer has maximum load of 3000 kW & average power factor at 0. What is the size of capacitor bank to improve power factor from 0. the customer is charged power factor penalty.54.54 to 0.95? ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 35 of 136 . Due to having power factor less than 0. Due to having power factor less than 0. the customer is charged power factor penalty.

840 Capacitor size (kVAr) = kW x (Tangent φ1 – Tangent φ2) = 2000 x (Tan 49.450 Angle for desired power factor = φ2 = Cos-1(0.90 Angle for existing power factor = φ1 = Cos-1(0.2 Direct calculation Capacitor size (kVAr) = kW x (Tangent φ1 – Tangent φ2) φ1 .90? Calculation Existing power factor = Cos φ1 = 0. What is the size of capacitor bank to improve power factor from 0.65 Maximum load = 2000 kW Desired power factor = Cos φ2 = 0.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 4.Angle for existing power factor φ2 – Angle for desired power factor kW – kW Load EXAMPLE One customer has maximum load of 2000 kW & average power factor at 0.369 kVAr (13) ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 36 of 136 .85 (Based on Tariff).3.65) = 49.450 – Tan 25. the customer is charged power factor penalty.65.90) = 25.840) = 1. Due to having power factor less than 0.65 to 0.

the customer is charged power factor penalty.85 (Based on Tariff). Due to having power factor less than 0.54. What is the size of capacitor bank to improve power factor from 0.95? ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 37 of 136 .54 to 0.5 (Direct calculation) One customer has maximum load of 8500 kW & average power factor at 0.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Exercise No.

2. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 38 of 136 . Bus Bar Connections: From looking at Figure 14. They provide a value of Var. Power Capacitors can be designed to be operational for any voltage range. which raises the operating voltage level.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 5. it should be evident that the ungrounded-wye connection is much simpler in design than either of the two delta connected banks.16 kV and below are normally connected in delta.1 MV CAPACITOR DESIGN Function of a capacitor bank Power capacitors are inexpensive source of reactive power. The reactance of a capacitor bank varies inversely with the frequency: Var ∝ V2 Xc = 1/(2πfC) (14) (15) So for high frequencies.1 Difference between Delta and Wye Connection Figure 14 shows the capacitor bank connections that are the topic of this section.0 5. which is proportional to the square of the voltage applied. 5. 5. A fixed bank of capacitor will furnish a fixed amount of Var at a constant voltage to the load. they provide low impedance. The leading current drawn by the capacitors gives a voltage rise through the inductive reactance of the power system. The crossover connection that connects phase "A" to phase "C" to close the delta is complicated at the medium voltage level due to clearance requirements. The following key points can be made in regard to bank connection under normal and abnormal system conditions. The only other popular connection that is not shown is the grounded-wye and split wye-connected capacitor bank.2 Design of Power Capacitors Capacitor Banks at 4.

the capacitors have a lineto-line voltage rating. The Figure shows that the delta connected bank can be protected by placing the fuses inside or outside of the delta. Capacitor: Except for voltage rating. 2) The internal sections fail (commonly known as a dielectric fault). They consists of a double bushing design. the capacitors in both ungrounded-wye and delta-connected banks are the same and will have the same kvar rating. and on a wye-connected banks. Whether the capacitors are delta or wye-connected. they have a line-to-neutral voltage rating. On delta connected banks. Two fuses per single phase capacitor are required when fusing inside of the delta. Fault Conditions: A capacitor typically fails in two ways: 1) A bushing to case fault occurs. meaning both terminals are fully insulated from their case (ground). The fuses outside of the delta are sized in the same way as the fuses for the ungrounded-wye connected capacitor bank. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 39 of 136 . a bushing fault will have the same impact on the power system. but their rating is decreased to 57% of the outside fuse rating.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Figure 14: Connection and fusing arrangements for ungrounded-wye and delta connected capacitor banks Fusing: Figure 14 also shows common fusing practices for each of the bank arrangements. which basically shorts the capacitor terminals.

On a delta connected bank. which can impose mechanical and thermal stress on components in the fault path.16 kV 5. mechanical and thermal stressing associated with the fault. and case rupture concerns are reduced. internal section faults subject the power system to a fault current that is three times the banks rating (until the capacitor fuse blows). the voltage sag. or dielectric faults appear differently to a power system. This fault will cause a major voltage sag on the facilities power system (until the capacitor fuse(s) blow) and may cause capacitor case rupture if not properly protected. 5.3. an internal section fault subjects the power system to a phase-to-phase bolted fault. Therefore. On a wye-ungrounded capacitor bank. It also subjects the power system to high magnitude fault currents.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Internal section faults.3 Design of Power Capacitor Banks > 4.1 Capacitor unit & Capacitor Bank configuration Capacitor bank Capacitor Unit Capacitor element Figure 15: Power capacitor bank major components ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 40 of 136 .

3. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 41 of 136 .2 Capacitor construction Capacitors are manufactured in individual units that are combined in parallel and series arrangements to give the desired voltage rating and total kVar needed for the application.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Figure 16: Components of a capacitor unit 5.

3. These designs will include racks for mounting and individual unit fuses. The kVar Capacity stars from 300 kVar and can be designed as large as required.3. The selection will depend on the location in the system where they are connected and the kVar capability of the bank. MV capacitor banks of any designated kVar rating and voltage. These are used when where a relatively small bank of capacitors is needed to improve the voltage profile and capacity on a distribution feeder. The types of bank most often applied are the outdoor rack and the pole mount design. The housing is built to enclose the capacitor. This approach is suitable for large.3. 4. The voltage range starts from 11 kV and goes up as high as the application requires.3.3 Basic design of power capacitor 5. 3. The capacitor units are individually fused. The second variety of housed equipment can includes larger rated banks. The voltage level of the system The kVar capacity of the Capacitor Bank The system grounding The desired relay protection Once individual capacitor units are selected to meet the voltage requirements of the system. up to 6. switching device.2 Capacitor connection There are a number of ways in which a capacitor bank may be connected. The second type of equipment available is the enclosed or house construction. and the automatic sensing and control equipment.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 5.1 MV Capacitor banks There are two principal types of capacitor bank construction in MV range. then the number of parallel unit are selected to meet the bank kVar requirements.3. 2. with the choice being dependent on:1. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 42 of 136 . 5.000 kVar or 6 Mvar. Suitable Vacuum switches or Contactors can be utilized and operated by automatic sensing and control.

3. the units in the other phases will not be overloaded if it fails. Industrial systems are often resistance grounded. sufficient fault current should flow to ensure clearing in 300s or less. with paralleled units to make up the total kvar. In the event of a failure of a unit.3 Industrial and commercial capacitor banks are normally connected ungrounded wye. which could also result in false relay tripping. Y-Y Ungrounded Connection 5.3. A grounded wye connection on the capacitor bank would provide a path for zero sequence currents and the possibility of a false operation of ground fault relays.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Two criteria are applied to determine the minimum allowable number of paralleled capacitor units in each phase. the protective relay scheme would be sensitive to system line-to-ground voltage unbalance. If only one unit is needed to make the total kVar. It should be pointed out that the 300s time span is a maximum and 30 s or less is a more desirable time span. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 43 of 136 . In an industrial or commercial power systems the capacitors are not grounded for a variety of reasons. It is recommended that a minimum of 4 paralleled units to be applied to limit the over voltage on the remaining units when one is removed from the circuit. Also. These criteria are as follows: • • The loss of one capacitor unit in a phase should not produce a voltage across the remaining units in that phase exceeding 110 % of rated voltage.

3.4 Y-Y Capacitor Bank design Figure 17: ILSAS/MFF/2007 Typical Medium Voltage Y-Y Capacitor design Page 44 of 136 .3.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 5.

4.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 5.3.1 Y-Y Connection CT REACTOR REACTOR REACTOR BUSBAR 11 KV red 40 uH REACTOR 333 kVar 333 kVar 333 kVar 333 kVar 333 kVar yellow 40 uH REACTOR 333 kVar 333 kVar 333 kVar 333 kVar 333 kVar Blue 40 uH REACTOR 333 kVar 333 kVar 333 kVar 333 kVar 333 kVar BUSBAR 11 KV UNBALANCE RELAY Figure 18: ILSAS/MFF/2007 Typical Medium Voltage Y-Y Capacitor single line diagram Page 45 of 136 .3.

Sizing per Y (First Y = 2 Mvar. Second Y = 3 Mvar) ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 46 of 136 . Number of capacitor units for a 5 MVar capacitor bank = 15 (15 x 333 kVar = 5 MVar) 3.35 kV (VLN) 2. Rated reactive current (Ikvar) = 5 Mvar / (√3 x 11 kV) = 262 Amp 4. Connection of capacitor bank = Ungrounded Y-Y (2Y) 5. Rating per capacitor unit = 333 kVar. 6.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT CT REACTOR REACTOR REACTOR 2 MVar 3 MVar BUSBAR 11 KV Figure 19: Y-Y connection for a 5 Mvar Capacitor Bank 11 kV (1) Description of a typical 5 MVar 11 kV Capacitor Bank 1.

Second Y = 2. Rated reactive current (Ikvar) = 5 Mvar / (√3 x 11 kV) = 262 Amp 4. Number of capacitor units for a 5 MVar capacitor bank = 6 (6 x 833 kVar = 5 MVar) 3.35 kV (VLN) 2. 6. Sizing per Y (First Y = 2. Connection of capacitor bank = Ungrounded Y-Y (2Y) 5.5 Mvar) ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 47 of 136 . Rating per capacitor unit = 833 kVar.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT red 40 uH REACTOR 833 kVar 833 kVar yellow 40 uH REACTOR 833 kVar 833 kVar Blue 40 uH REACTOR 833 kVar 833 kVar BUSBAR 11 KV UNBALANCE RELAY Figure 20: Y-Y connection for a 5 Mvar Capacitor Bank 11 kV (2) Description of a typical 5 MVar 11 kV Capacitor Bank 1.5 Mvar.

6.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 40 uH REACTOR 225 kVar 225 kVar 225 kVar 225 kVar 225 kVar 225 kVar 225 kVar 225 kVar 40 uH REACTOR 225 kVar 225 kVar 225 kVar 225 kVar 225 kVar 225 kVar 225 kVar 225 kVar 40 uH REACTOR 225 kVar 225 kVar 225 kVar 225 kVar 225 kVar 225 kVar 225 kVar 225 kVar BUSBAR 11 KV UNBALANCE RELAY Figure 21: Y-Y connection for a 5 Mvar Capacitor Bank 11 kV (3) Description of a typical 5. Rating per capacitor unit = 225 kVar. Number of capacitor units for a 5. Rated reactive current (Ikvar) = 5.4 MVar 11 kV Capacitor Bank 1.4 MVar capacitor bank = 24 (24 x 225 kVar = 5.4 MVar) 3.35 kV (VLN) 2.4 Mvar / (√3 x 11 kV) = 283 Amp Connection of capacitor bank = Ungrounded Y-Y (2Y) ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 48 of 136 .

35 kV = 11 kV ILSAS/MFF/2007 11 kV Page 49 of 136 .1. 26. 11 kV Capacitor Bank 333 kVar 11 kV 333 kVar 333 kVar Three phase MVar rating = 0.33 MVar = 1.4.33 MVar + 0. 6.3.33 MVar + 0.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 5.3 uF Configuration of 3-phase MV Capacitor: Ungrounded Star (Y) Example 1: Configuration of 1.35 kV.0 MVar.3. VLN (Voltage phase-neutral) Example: 333 kVar.1 Series connection Basic rating of MV capacitor unit: Q kVar.0 MVar Phase to phase voltage rating= √3x6.

11 MVar = 0. 26.3 uF Configuration of 3-phase MV Capacitor: Ungrounded Star (Y) Example 2: Configuration of 0.333 MVar.35 kV) =33 kV ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 50 of 136 . 6.35 kV.11 MVar + 0. 33 kV Capacitor Bank Red Phase 333 kVar 111 kVar 333 kVar 333 kVar 33 kV Yellow Phase Blue Phase Three phase MVar rating = 0.33 MVar Phase to phase voltage rating= √3x(3x6.11 MVar + 0.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Basic rating of MV capacitor unit: Q kVar. VLN (Voltage phase-neutral) Example: 333 kVar.

77 uF Total Q per phase = 6.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 5. C3): Calculation: The equivalent reactance (XT) = XC1 + XC2 + XC3 Formula: Capacitive reactance (XC) = 1/ ωC. 6.35 kV.2 Parallel connection C1 C2 C3 a. Equivalent kVar (Q) per phase Example: Rating of each capacitor unit (C1. 26.114 CT = 8.3.3uF) =0.3 uF ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 51 of 136 .1. ω = 2x3.3uF) + 1/(26.3uF) + 1/(26.35kV2 x ω x CT = 111 kVar Three phase Q = 3 x 111 kVar = 333 kVar = 0.35 kV) = 33 kV Sample calculation: 1/CT = 1/(26.4.333 Mvar 333 kVar. C2.3.14x50 The equivalent reactance (XT) = 1/ ωC1 + 1/ ωC2 +1/ ωC3 = 1/ ωCT ∴ 1/ CT =1/ C1 + 1/ C2 +1/ C3 Equivalent kVar per phase = (VoltageLN)2 x ω x CT Three phase voltage rating = √3x(3x6.

26. 6.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT C1 C2 C3 b.3uF+ 26.14x50 The equivalent reactance (1/XT) = ωC1 + ωC2 +ωC3 = ωCT ∴ CT =C1 + C2 + C3 Equivalent kVar per phase = (VoltageLN)2 x ω x CT Three phase voltage rating = √3x6. Equivalent kVar (Q) per phase Example: Rating of each capacitor unit (C1.35kV2 x ω x CT = 999 kVar Or simply adding up all the capacitor values in parallel = 333 kVar+333kVar+333 kVar = 999 kVar ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 52 of 136 333 kVar.3uF = 78.35 kV. ω = 2x3. C3): Calculation: The equivalent reactance (1/XT) = 1/XC1 + 1/XC2 + 1/XC3 Formula: Capacitive reactance (XC) = 1/ ωC.35 kV = 11 kV Sample calculation: CT = 26.9 uF Total Q per phase = 6.3uF + 26.3 uF . C2.

MEDIUM VOLTAGE CAPACITOR & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Exercise No.6 Y-Y connection for 5 MVAR 11 kV NOTA: ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 53 of 136 .

MEDIUM VOLTAGE CAPACITOR & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Single line diagram for 5 MVAR 11 kV ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 54 of 136 .

MEDIUM VOLTAGE CAPACITOR & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Exercise No.7 Y-Y connection for 4 MVAR. 11 kV Capacitor Unit 333 kVar 6.35 kV ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 55 of 136 .

8 Y-Y connection for 2 MVAR. 22 kV Capacitor Unit 333 kVar 6.35 kV ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 56 of 136 .MEDIUM VOLTAGE CAPACITOR & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Exercise No.

9 Y-Y connection for 1 MVAR. 33 kV Capacitor Unit 333 kVar 6.MEDIUM VOLTAGE CAPACITOR & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Exercise No.35 kV ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 57 of 136 .

MEDIUM VOLTAGE CAPACITOR & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT

Exercise No.10

Current for 5 MVAR, 33 kV

Capacitor Unit 333 kVar 6.35 kV

ILSAS/MFF/2007

Page 58 of 136

MEDIUM VOLTAGE CAPACITOR & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT

Exercise No.11

Current for 3 MVAR, 11 kV

Capacitor Unit 333 kVar 6.35 kV

ILSAS/MFF/2007

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5.3.4 Calculation of Capacitive Current (Ikvar) Power factor = cos φ Ic = kvar /(√3 x VLL) Ic = kvar /(VLN) From equation (13) kVar for PF Correction kVar = kW x (tan φ1-tan φ2) 3-phase 1-phase (16) (17)

Figure 21:

Capacitive current for a 5 Mvar Capacitor Bank 11 kV

ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 60 of 136

5 Capacitor current during failure of capacitor cans Figure 22: Calculation for 1 capacitor can failure ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 61 of 136 .3.MEDIUM VOLTAGE CAPACITOR & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 5.

3. Var = V ωC c. Var= V2ωC g.5.MEDIUM VOLTAGE CAPACITOR & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 5. X= 1/ [ωC] f. I= √ (Var/X) 2 ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 62 of 136 . (IX)2= Var x X i. I2= Var/X j. V2= Var / ωC h. I = V/Z e. V=IxZ d. Ic = kVar /(√3 x VLL) b.1 Technical equations (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) (26) (27) a.

current & impedance Example 5 MVar.6 Relationship between kVar. 11 kV Figure 23: Single line diagram for 5 MVAR 11 kV ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 63 of 136 .3.MEDIUM VOLTAGE CAPACITOR & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 5.

MEDIUM VOLTAGE CAPACITOR & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Figure 24 Connection diagram in uF for 5 MVar 11 kV ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 64 of 136 .

MEDIUM VOLTAGE CAPACITOR & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Figure 25 Connection diagram in ohm for 5 MVar 11 kV ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 65 of 136 .

MEDIUM VOLTAGE CAPACITOR & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Figure 26 Calculation of Amp based on Total Impedance ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 66 of 136 .

ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 67 of 136 .MEDIUM VOLTAGE CAPACITOR & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Exercise No.12 Calculate the current if one capacitor can is damaged.

3.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 5.7 Estimation of neutral current IA IB = = [IR2 + IY2 + IB2] [ (IR x IY ) + ( IYx IB ) + ( IB x IR) ] = √ [IA – IB] (28) (29) (30) I neutral ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 68 of 136 .

On delta connected banks. an internal section fault subjects the power system to a phase-to-phase bolted fault. the capacitors in both ungrounded-wye and delta-connected banks are the same and will have the same kvar rating.16 kV 5.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 5. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 69 of 136 . meaning both terminals are fully insulated from their case (ground). They consists of a double bushing design. On a delta connected bank. which can impose mechanical and thermal stress on components in the fault path.1 Delta connection VCB Fuses Discharge resistors Figure 30: Delta connection Capacitors Capacitor: Except for voltage rating. This fault will cause a major voltage sag on the facilities power system (until the capacitor fuse(s) blow) and may cause capacitor case rupture if not properly protected. they have a line-to-neutral voltage rating. and on a wye-connected banks. It also subjects the power system to high magnitude fault currents.4 Design of Power Capacitor Banks < 4. or dielectric faults appear differently to a power system. the capacitors have a lineto-line voltage rating.4. Internal section faults.

Therefore. and case rupture concerns are reduced. internal section faults subject the power system to a fault current that is three times the banks rating (until the capacitor fuse blows).2 Calculation of Capacitor value (kVar) for Delta Capacitor kVar (3-phase) = 2/3 x (Total 3 phase uF) x ω x Volt2 /1000 ω = 2xπ x f f = 50 Hz (31) Volt= Volt rating at Capacitor Can Example: Voltage rating per Capacitor 415 Volt uF Figure 31: Capacitance measurement for Delta Capacitor using Capacitance meter Capacitance values for phase-phase values R-Y Y-B B-R 375 uF 375 uF 375 uF ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 70 of 136 .4. 5. mechanical and thermal stressing associated with the fault. the voltage sag.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT On a wye-ungrounded capacitor bank.

6 kVar Exercise No.3 kV Voltage rating per Capacitor uF Figure 32: Capacitance measurement for Delta Capacitor using Capacitance meter Capacitance values for phase-phase values R-Y Y-B B-R 146.22 uF 146.14x50 x 4152/1000 = 40.22 uF kVar (3-phase) = ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 71 of 136 .CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT kVar (3-phase) = 2/3 x (375uF + 375uF + 375 uF) x ω x Volt2 /1000 = 2/3 x (375uF + 375uF + 375 uF) x 2x3.13 Calculation of kVar for Delta Capacitor 3.22 uF 146.

3 kV Voltage rating per Capacitor Capacitor values (3-phase delta) 1 MVAR ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 72 of 136 .4.14 Calculation of kVar for Delta Capacitor 3.56 Amp Exercise No.3 Calculation of Capacitive Current (Ikvar) Power factor = cos φ Ic = kvar /(√3 x VLL) 3-phase (32) Example: Capacitor kVar (3-phase delta) Voltage rating = 50 kVar = 415 Volt Ic = kvar /(√3 x VLL) = 50 kVar / (√3 x 415 Volt ) = 69.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 5.

To limit the energy into a faulted unit to help prevent case rupture The requirements for proper fuse selection are as followsa. Fusing is used to remove a failed capacitor unit from the system. c. b. To maintain service continuity 2. The fuse must clear the minimum over current resulting due to a failed unit within 300 seconds maximum and as stated earlier 30 seconds or less is desirable. To provide visual indication of a failed unit 4. This margin allows for temporary over voltage. On grounded wye and delta-connected banks. d. Relays and breakers are applied for overall bank protection and for switching. which has at least 110 % of the capacitor unit rating. The fuse should have a time-current clearing characteristic that lies below the time-current case rupture probability characteristics of the capacitor units to be applied. Both fuses and relays must be employed depending upon the rating of the bank.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 6.1 Capacitor fusing The major purposes of capacitor fusing are: 1. The rated voltage of the fuse should not be less than rated voltage of the capacitor with which it is used. switching surges. This will consist of protecting the individual units as well as the bank. The selected fuse should have sufficient rating to carry 165 % of rated capacitor currents. e. The maximum interrupting rating of the fuse should be greater than the available short circuit current. This may the application of current limiting fuses in place of explosion fuses for large bank rating and for banks connected to buses with high short circuit capacity. 6. and manufacturing tolerance in the capacitor itself. obtaining this ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 73 of 136 . Since capacitors are designed to operate continuously at 110 % rated voltage. the fuse should also have a voltage rating. harmonic currents. which can flow if a capacitor unit is shorted.0 PROTECTION OF Y-Y CAPACITORS Complete protection must be provided for a capacitor installation. To prevent damage to adjacent capacitors and equipment or injury to personnel 3. its location in the system and other factors.

additional relay protection for the whole bank is required. f. In some cases. Instantaneous over current relays are not often utilized since they are likely to trip unnecessarily when the bank is energized. This is permissible because ungrounded banks do not need allowance for zero sequence currents. Relays with an inverse time current characteristics are usually used and settings are selected to override these 2 conditions. The 2 basic type of relay protection used with medium voltage capacitors are. it is more difficult since a failed unit causes about 3 times normal fault current to flow through the fuse protecting the faulted phase. Relaying for the detection of the loss of capacitor units and guarding against excessive operating voltages should be used as protective measure supplement to the periodic visual inspection of individual unit fuses. 6. external faults and unbalance due to the varying capacitance of the individual capacitor units. The fuse must be capable of withstanding the energy contributed to a unit by other capacitors in the same group as the faulted unit.2 Relaying protection In addition to the individual capacitor unit protection through the use of the individual or group fusing. system voltage unbalances. Over-current relaying is needed for removal of the capacitor bank in the event of a fault between the switching device and the bank itself. This is because there will be a compromise between a relaying method of adequate sensitivity which is also immune to undesirable operation due to harmonics. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 74 of 136 . For ungrounded wye connected banks.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT clearing time is not a problem. However. it becomes necessary to reduce the rating of the fuse to minimum current of 150 % of normal. the relay may also have a very inverse or extremely inverse time current characteristics if coordination with other system protective devices required it. Also. The relay should be chosen so that the highest magnitude of inrush current associated with the capacitor switching will not trip the circuit breaker immediately as the bank is energized. if a capacitor unit fault occurs the relay should delay operation until the fuse clears. 1) over-current relaying of major equipment faults and 2) relaying to identify loss of units within a bank.

1 Common scheme for ungrounded bank Figure 33 is an effective arrangement for ungrounded bank. On large banks.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT It is important to note that except for short periods of time. The potential transformer (PT) will detect a change in voltage across the phase if one or more units are removed. This would also protect the bank when an entire parallel group was shorted by a foreign object.2. because of the loss of a portion of the units in the group. the voltage across the capacitors should not exceed 110 % of rated voltage. PT Secondary PT Primary UnGrounded Neutral Voltage Relay Figure 33 Unbalance Phase Voltage ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 75 of 136 . The secondary windings of the PT are connected in broken delta and used in series with the coil of a voltage sensitivity relay. 6. it is recommended that some type of protection be provided which will relay the bank off if the capacitors in a parallel group are subjected to over voltage.

CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT PT Voltage relay Figure 34: Voltage Imbalance between neutrals CT Current relay Figure 35: Current Imbalance between neutrals ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 76 of 136 .

CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT

Potential transformers have an advantage over capacitor potential devices in that they furnish a discharge path for the capacitors, and will discharge the capacitors in a much softer time than the discharge resistors built into the capacitors. Use of the potential transformers as a discharge path will be effective only if the transformers have the thermal capability to pass the current associated with the stored energy in the bank. The kVar rating of the bank will determine the energy storage capability and this should be matched against the energy absorption capability of as transformer as shown in Figure 33. The internal resistors built into each individual capacitor unit will also discharge the bank but this requires about five minutes for high voltage units and one minute for low voltage units. For automatically controlled banks this may be too long a time. If the bank is switched on while still charged from a previous energization higher than normal transient currents may be experienced. The time delay and normal operating sequences of any switching controls should be reviewed to insure that the bank will have a sufficient time to discharge to a safe level before being re energized. The schemes shown in Figure 34 & 35 are known as double-wye schemes and they have considerable merit. They offer protection similar to that of Figure 34 and are less expensive since they require only a single PT or CT. For smaller banks, it may be expensive to split the banks into 2 wye groups, or it may be impossible to do so and still keep the voltage on the remaining units below 110 % of rated in the event of the loss of an individual unit. On larger banks it may be easier to connect the bank into 2 wye configurations. In such case, the protection provide by the relays is equivalent and can be achieved at less cost than Figure 33, making the double wye protection more attractive, particularly on industrial systems where there is no advantage to grounding the neutral connection of the bank.

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6.2.2 Common scheme for single wye capacitor bank When conditions are such that single wye banks must be used, the scheme of Figure 36 & 37 can be used for over voltage protection. This provides a low cost protective arrangement but it requires that the neutral point be grounded. As noted earlier, the ground arrangement is not often used by industrials for several reasons, one of them, being possible interference from ground relaying. Use of a third harmonic filter would permit setting the relay at a fairly low value of pickup.

Voltage relay

PT

Voltage relay

Resistor

Figure 36

Neutral Voltage

Figure 37

Neutral Current

No over voltage protection scheme will provide positive protection against over voltage all cases. The basic theory of all schemes is the detection of current or voltage unbalance. There is some inherent unbalance in capacitor banks, and the relaying must be set above the maximum inherent unbalance which can occur if false trip-outs are to be avoided. The inherent unbalance is due to mainly to harmonic currents and voltages, and varying capacitance of the capacitors. The tolerance of a power capacitor is minus zero to + 15 % with the average being about 4 %. When individual units are placed in racks and stacked for high voltage banks, the capacitance of the racks in each phase leg may vary. This causes normal condition unbalance and makes it more difficult to detect small unbalance due to removal of faulted units if a parallel group. If it is considered necessary to balance the phases closely, it is possible by special arrangement at the factory. The problem of phase unbalance tends to diminish as the bank rating increases. In cases where a large number of capacitor units, say 20 or more, are used in a parallel group, it may not be possible to detect the loss of one unit, since the relays cannot be set to sensitive because of natural unbalances.
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This is not too important, since the loss of one unit in such a large group does not raise the voltage on the remaining units above the allowable 10 % over voltage. In most cases, the relaying can be set to operate because dangerous conditions exist, without serious danger of false operation. On large installation, it is good practice to use 2 relays. One will sound an alarm when one or more units have failed but dangerous voltages are not yet present. The second relay will trip if allowable over voltage is exceeded. Such procedure has the advantage of keeping the bank in service when possible while indicating that capacitors have failed yet still protect the capacitors from serious overvoltages. The summary of the characteristics of the several relay arrangements is shown in Table 2. Table 2: Characteristics of Protective Relaying Methods Figure Sensitive to Switching Transient Yes Yes Sensitive to 3rd harmonic voltage & currents No No Sensitive to system voltage unbalance No No Number of CT required Number of PT required 3 1

Type of protective relaying Unbalance phase voltage Voltage unbalance between neutral Current unbalance between neutrals Neutral voltage Neutral current

33 34

35

Yes

No

No

1

-

36 37

Yes Yes

Yes Yes

Yes Yes

1

1 -

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CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT REACTOR REACTOR REACTOR 11 kV Fuses Unbalance CT 2 MVar 3 MVar CT Description of relays: A.Overcurrent & earthfault relays B-Unbalance relay A B Relays Ammeter Figure 38 Relay configurations for a 5 Mvar 11 kV capacitor ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 80 of 136 .

setting of 90 % of the CT rating. If the amount of neutral current is ≥ 90 %. Different capacitance will give different values of reactive current flows. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 81 of 136 . The overall capacitance for the particular phase the capacitor unit is connected will no longer equal to the other two phases. This will lead to the damage of the other capacitor units. 6-9 Amp.e. The second stage.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 6. The CT is then connected to a specific relay i. its capacitance value will be reduced. The size of the CT is 10/5. then the voltage across the capacitors will exceed 110 % of the rated voltage. setting of 60 % of the CT rating. the circuit breaker will trip off the circuit connected to the capacitor bank. A neutral current will then be introduced in the neutral conductor. is aimed to be as an alarm to inform the user of the possible deterioration process. The monitoring of the neutral current is done in two stages. the value of the reactive currents at the phases are equal. The first stage. If the neutral current exceed the prescribed limits i. Once a capacitor unit deteriorates. to be used to monitor the current flow and for tripping purposes.3 The concept of unbalance current flow If all the capacitor units in the Y-Y configuration are healthy. The flow of the neutral current can be detected by installing a CT across the neutral conductor as shown in the diagram above. thus there will be no current flow in the neutral conductor. is aimed for tripping purposes.e.

A healthy Capacitor bank that’s operational will give neutral current = 0. b.1 Types of protection schemes a. The circuit breaker for the feeder will not be activated if there is no existence of voltage in the capacitor bank more than 110 % of nominal. When one of the capacitor can fail. Stage Two This scheme will be activated when the voltage level inside the capacitor bank exceed 110 %. 6.4.5 ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 82 of 136 .CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 6.4 Basics on relay unbalance & Unbalance CT Description: • • • The unbalance CT & relay monitor the neutral current inside the capacitor bank. Stage One This scheme will be activated when one or more capacitor cans experience failure.2 Example on settings of unbalance relay & OCEF relay Relays O/C.4. E/F Unbalance CT Ratio 300/5 10/5 1st stage 100% 60% 2nd stage 90% Setting 5 Amp 3 Amp TMS 0. the neutral current ≠ 0 6.2 0.

the capacitance values of 4 capacitor units in the red phase have deteriorated from 26.5 Typical settings for a 11 kV 3-5 MVar Y-Y Capacitor Banks In this example.10 0.10 TMS Bank (MVar) 5 11 4 11 3 11 / 5 100% / 5 75% / 5 75% 20% 20% 20% 0.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 6.0 uF. Due to this unbalance between the phases. The first stage of the unbalance relay will then be activated.10 0. Table 2 Capacitor Bank (MVar) 5 4 3 Capacitor Example on relay settings kV Rated Amp 262 210 157 Rated Amp 262 210 157 CT for relay 400 400 400 CT for relay 300 300 300 O/C E/F TMS Un1st balance stage CT 10 / 5 60% 10 / 5 60% 10 / 5 60% 1st Unbalance stage CT 10 / 5 60% 10 / 5 60% 10 / 5 60% 2nd stage 90% 90% 90% 2nd stage 90% 90% 90% 11 11 11 kV /5 /5 /5 75% 75% 50% O/C 20% 20% 20% E/F 0. The overall value of available reactive power for the red phase is thus reduced from 1.7 Mvar to 1.10 ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 83 of 136 .8 Amp is then detected at the neutral conductor by the unbalance CT.3 uF to 24. a neutral current of 7.5 Mvar.10 0.10 0.

of the capacitors themselves. the suggestion is made that surge arresters are unnecessary for capacitor banks which are Y-Connected with grounded neutral. and is not related to the grounding or lack thereof. Here the primary function is protection of the capacitor bank and not the system itself.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 6. However. properly applied surge arresters will help protect the capacitors and other system components by shunting the surge current to ground. The choice between surge arrester rated for grounded neutral service or ungrounded neutral service should be in accordance with established industry practices. Occasionally. this ability is limited by the size of the capacitor bank and the amount of energy to be expected in a given surge or lighting stroke is indeterminate.6 Lightning protection In common with other apparatus connected to a power system. The rating of surge arresters (line-to-ground) is determined by the system grounding. It is true that capacitors so connected do have some ability to slope off the crest front of an incoming wave and to reduce its crest value. capacitors should be protected by surge arresters. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 84 of 136 . In the usual case for an industrial system with an ungrounded capacitor bank.

.

.5 = 54 amps . the single phase capacitors could be connected delta and fused outside the delta (In the line..45 amps x 1. Normally only one of the fuses operates. will require the following fusing: • "In line fusing" Or. The other bushing remains connected to the system via the good fuse. For example. which will be the one nearest the faulted packs. "group fusing" 450 kVAR/(4. However. When the bank has higher kvar ratings and units are placed in parallel. When a capacitor starts to fail and the fuse operates the capacitor is still in the circuit via the second bushing. this should be the method of choice when the neutral of the capacitor bank is not grounded. and may not coordinate with the tank rupture curve of the capacitor and the upstream co-ordination may not be possible. The failure within the capacitor is fed thru this connection and eventually the major insulation of the can will fail and the capacitor tank will rupture. on the smaller banks mentioned above.) On small banks that have only one capacitor per phase. The result is still an eventual major insulation failure if the bank is not removed from service. There are other potential problems in fusing a delta-connected bank with "in branch" fusing. In some cases.5 = 93. using 150 kVAR per phase. It is a normal practice utilized in metal enclosed banks to install two bushing capacitors connected phase to phase with the capacitor tank grounded to the frame.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Three phase capacitors use fuses in the line because they are connected delta Internally.16 KV x √3) = 62.. the user only applies one fuse per phase.68 amps .16 KV = 36 amps x 1. Normally branch fuses are used for single-phase capacitors connected delta. In this case both fuses would have to operate before the failed capacitor can be effectively removed from the system. • In branch fusing 150 kVAR/4. This could be dangerous. one per bushing. i. a 100-amp fuse is required. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 86 of 136 .. a 60-amp fuse can be used. 4160 volts delta connected bank. The other method is to use two fuses. consider both fusing methods for a 450 kVAR.e. the in line fusing becomes large. This gives the user a false sense of security.

This will consist of protecting the individual units as well as the bank. Relays and breakers are applied for overall bank protection and for switching. The current limiting fuse still in the circuit will be getting warm while the capacitor could be boiling. Eventually the major insulation will be breached grounding the faulted capacitor through the tank to frame. its location in the system and other factors. Figure 40: Connection and fusing arrangements for ungrounded-wye and delta connected capacitor banks ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 87 of 136 . Fusing is used to remove a failed capacitor unit from the system. and there will be a race between the capacitor and the fuse to see if the fuse will clear before the capacitor ruptures.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT The burning between packs could possibly continue due to the second bushing still being energized via the second fuse. 7. During this condition a low energy fault could be developed.2 Comparison between fusing arrangement for Delta & Y capacitors Complete protection must be provided for a capacitor installation. Both fuses and relays must be employed depending upon the rating of the bank.

2) The internal sections fail (commonly known as a dielectric fault).CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Fusing: Figure 40 also shows common fusing practices for each of the bank arrangements. Two fuses per single phase capacitor are required when fusing inside of the delta.2. internal section faults subject the power system to a fault current that is three times the banks rating (until the capacitor fuse blows). On a delta connected bank. the voltage sag. which basically shorts the capacitor terminals. an internal section fault subjects the power system to a phase-to-phase bolted fault. The Figure shows that the delta connected bank can be protected by placing the fuses inside or outside of the delta. a bushing fault will have the same impact on the power system. The fuses outside of the delta are sized in the same way as the fuses for the ungrounded-wye connected capacitor bank.1 Capacitor fusing The major purposes of capacitor fusing are: • • • • To maintain service continuity To prevent damage to adjacent capacitors and equipment or injury to personnel To provide visual indication of a failed unit To limit the energy into a faulted unit to help prevent case rupture The requirements for proper fuse selection are as follows• The rated voltage of the fuse should not be less than rated voltage of the capacitor with which it is used. Since capacitors are designed to operate continuously at 110 % rated voltage. which has at least 110 % of the capacitor unit rating. but their rating is decreased to 57% of the outside fuse rating. Therefore. Fault Conditions: A capacitor typically fails in two ways: 1) A bushing to case fault occurs. mechanical and thermal stressing associated with the fault. It also subjects the power system to high magnitude fault currents. This fault will cause a major voltage sag on the facilities power system (until the capacitor fuse(s) blow) and may cause capacitor case rupture if not properly protected. On a wye-ungrounded capacitor bank. Whether the capacitors are delta or wye-connected. Internal section faults. which can impose mechanical and thermal stress on components in the fault path. the fuse should also have a voltage rating. 7. or dielectric faults appear differently to a power system. and case rupture concerns are reduced. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 88 of 136 .

it becomes necessary to reduce the rating of the fuse to minimum current of 150 % of normal.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT • The maximum interrupting rating of the fuse should be greater than the available short circuit current. it is more difficult since a failed unit causes about 3 times normal fault current to flow through the fuse protecting the faulted phase. obtaining this clearing time is not a problem. The selected fuse should have sufficient rating to carry 165 % of rated capacitor currents. The fuse must clear the minimum over current resulting due to a failed unit within 300 seconds maximum and as stated earlier 30 seconds or less is desirable. For ungrounded wye connected banks. switching surges. The fuse must be capable of withstanding the energy contributed to a unit by other capacitors in the same group as the faulted unit. This is permissible because ungrounded banks do not need allowance for zero sequence currents. On grounded wye and delta-connected banks. The fuse should have a time-current clearing characteristic that lies below the time-current case rupture probability characteristics of the capacitor units to be applied. which can flow if a capacitor unit is shorted. This margin allows for temporary over voltage. This may the application of current limiting fuses in place of explosion fuses for large bank rating and for banks connected to buses with high short circuit capacity. In some cases. harmonic currents. • • • • • ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 89 of 136 . and manufacturing tolerance in the capacitor itself.

Relays with an inverse time current characteristics are usually used and settings are selected to override these 2 conditions. Instantaneous over current relays are not often utilized since they are likely to trip unnecessarily when the bank is energized. additional relay protection for the whole bank is required. Also.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 7. The relay should be chosen so that the highest magnitude of inrush current associated with the capacitor switching will not trip the circuit breaker immediately as the bank is energized.3 Relaying protection In addition to the individual capacitor unit protection through the use of the individual or group fusing. the relay may also have a very inverse or extremely inverse time current characteristics if coordination with other system protective devices required it. if a capacitor unit fault occurs the relay should delay operation until the fuse clears. The type of relay protection used with Delta capacitors are. However. • Over-current relaying of major equipment faults and Over-current relaying is needed for removal of the capacitor bank in the event of a fault between the switching device and the bank itself. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 90 of 136 .

Regular Inspection An annual inspection is sufficient unless the capacitor bank is exposed to abnormal conditions of any kind. must be observed: • Do not touch a capacitor bank until it has been completely discharged.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 8.75V within 10 minutes – IEC 871. but it should be checked regularly as described below to ensure trouble-free operation. short circuited and grounded. such as excessive contamination. If fluid gets into your eyes. which reduces the voltage of the unit to: 50 V within 5 minutes . The unbalance current should be measured before disconnection • • ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 91 of 136 . Short circuit the capacitor units individually also. such as a damaged discharge resistor. and avoid breathing in fumes or gases from the impregnation fluid. At each inspection. Check the setting values and operation of the protection relays. Normally capacitors have an internal discharge resistor. Under heavy pollution condition.0 8. the following safety regulations.2 During normal operating conditions. capacitor bank needs no maintenance. as if there is an internal fault. In the event of skin contact. damage to the finish. The insulators and bushings should be wiped clean if necessary. Maintenance Methodology for Y-Y Capacitor Banks • • 8. in particular. there may still be a voltage even though the capacitor bank has been discharged. wash with soap and water. cleaning should be carried out more frequently.AS2897 . rinse with lukewarm water. Avoid skin contact with the impregnation fluid in the event of leakage. proceed as follows• Perform a visual inspection of pollution.1 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES FOR A Y-Y CAPACITOR BANK Safety Regulations When working with capacitor banks. leaking capacitor units etc. To obtain trouble free operation a routine inspection of the following is recommended: a.

The overall maintenance flowcharts are shown in Figure 41 & Figure 42 respectively. it may be due to – • Unbalance neutral current varies more than 20 %. When the capacitor bank is made up of capacitors with internal fuses. If a VCB Trip –When the VCB tripping. Cable Faults Test the main supply cable according to the present process for cable inspection Shorting Phase to phase shorting may be caused by conducting objects or conductors shorted phase to phase. the capacitance difference between the fault and replacement units should not differ by more than ± 1 character. there may be breakdown in one or more of the internal capacitor elements. the current deviation is seldom less than 15 % of the tripping value. If the unbalance current exceeds 50 % of the tripping value. When replacing. The unbalance current is checked after reconnection and should be less than 20 % of the operating value for the protection. a capacitance measurement of all capacitor units in the bank must be performed and faulty units replaced. an unbalance current of up to 50 % of the tripping value of the protection system is acceptable. The change in current due to breakdown in one element depends on the total number of elements in the capacitor unit and on the connection arrangement of the capacitor bank. • • • ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 92 of 136 . And also if the current readings differ from that obtained at the time of commissioning. Failures of singled elements do not affect the service ability of the capacitor bank or significantly reduce its service life. all capacitor bank units should be capacitance measured and fault units replaced. However. Check the Unbalance current in the Y-Y capacitor bank If the unbalance protection has tripped the capacitor bank. The action to take is to measure the capacitor units by Capacitor Bridge and to find out whether the capacitors are in good working conditions or not.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT b.

CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT FLOWCHART A ROUTINE MAINTENANCE START RECORD CURRENT (PHASE+ NEUTRAL) START CAPACITOR BANK HAS TRIPPED OFF DISCONNECT CAPACITOR (Neutral I) > 20% of Unbalance CT size? YES NO DONE WITHDRAW THE VCB TRUCK AND LOCK MAIN BUSBAR SHUTTER WITH A NON STANDARD LOCK AND HANG SAFETY NOTICE APPLY CIRCUIT MAIN EARTH AT VCB WAIT FOR 10 MINUTES TO DISCHARGE OPEN CAPACITOR BANK AND DISCHARGE USING MV DISCHARGE ROD INSPECTION & MAINTENANCE PROGRAM 11 kV CABLE PROTECTION SCHEMES CAPACITOR TOLERANCE REACTOR TOLERANCE SAFETY INTERLOCK REFER TO FLOWCHART B CAPACITOR CAN BE COMMISSIONED YES MEET TECHNICAL REQUIREMENT ? NO RECTIFICATION Figure 41: Work process for maintenance of a Y-Y capacitor bank (1) ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 93 of 136 .

CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT FLOWCHART B FROM FLOWCHART A (CAPACIT OR MAINTEN ANCE) TO FLOWCHART A (CAPACI TOR CAN BE COMMIS SIONED) 11 kV CABLE PROTECTION SCHEMES CAPACITOR TOLERANCE REACTOR TOLERANCE SAFETY INTERLOCK TERMINATION OCEF RELAY CLEANING OF CONTACTS CLEANING OF CONTACTS INSULATION UNBALANCE RELAY CURRENT INJECTION TEST CAPACITANC E TEST CABLE ENTRY UNBALANCE CT RATIO TEST MEET TECHNICAL REQUIREMENT ? RECTIFICAT ION NO Figure 42: Work process for maintenance of a Y-Y capacitor bank (2) ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 94 of 136 .

Wait a minimum of 10 minutes for the capacitor bank to be discharged Short Circuit and earth the Capacitor Bank Short Circuit the terminals of each capacitor unit parallel group Figure 43: Discharge capacitor banks using Discharge Rod ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 95 of 136 .CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 8.3 Maintenance program 8.1 Isolation procedure • • • • • Line voltage with the capacitor bank connected respectively disconnected.3. Disconnect and isolate the Cap-Bank to be checked.

Correct as required.3. replace. Clean and correct as required. Inspect for condensation.1 • Maintenance for the Enclosure Exterior • • • • • Ensure enclosure is receiving adequate ventilation. Clean the insulators and bushings if necessary. louvers. Remove insects. Inspect wire insulation for cuts. Clean all enclosure windows. breakdown. Remove excess surface oxides from aluminum connectors. Tighten as required. Replace filters and remove obstacles as required. Repaint scratched or marred exterior surfaces to closely match original finish. Examine warning signs and placards. Check proper operation of ventilation equipment (fans) and thermostats. enclosure doors.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 8. tighten as required. proceed as follows: 1. nests.3. Ensure enclosure. Replace as required ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 96 of 136 .2. Repaint scratched or marred exterior surfaces to closely match original finish. as required. 2. If not legible. Clean and inspect strip heaters and check thermostats. Wash down the capacitor bank if it is dirty. Examine warning signs and placards.2. Inspect the capacitor bank for dirt build up or leaking capacitor units. Correct deficiencies. 8. Inspect for proper phase to phase and phase to ground clearance.2 Exterior & interior maintenance program At each inspection.2 • • • • • • Remove accumulated dust and dirt. Examine enclosure for corrosion and paint adherence.2. and rodent guards are adequate to prevent entry of liquids. or animal material. Examine enclosure for corrosion and paint adherence. Bus Bar & Wiring 8.3. Maintenance for the Enclosure Interior 8. replace. Check to see if filters are clean and airflow is not restricted. as required.3 • • • • • Inspect for loose bus bar connections and discoloration. If not legible. insects. Inspect operation and adjustment of key interlock systems to determine if security features are working properly.3. Clean all enclosure windows. Inspect control wire connections. and rodents. or burns.

the capacitor unit should be replaced. 8. voltage. or discoloration. Capacitance measurement of the units in a capacitor bank with unbalance protection does not have to be included in the regular inspection. Replace as required. However.3.2 Inspection A leaking capacitor must be normally replaced. If the measured values deviate by more than 10 % from the value stated in the routine test report. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 97 of 136 . Clean capacitor case. By using a capacitance bridge CB-10 the measurement can be performed without making any disconnection within the capacitor bank. Normally.3.The internal connection in the capacitor bank does not need to be opened to perform the measurement.3. Measurement is easily performed using a Capacitance Bridge CB10.3 Maintenance on the capacitor units 8. capacitance measurements do not have to a part of the regular inspection when the bank is equipped with unbalance protection. and any connectors that are dirty or corroded. all capacitor units should be capacitance measured annually. • • • • • Check for physical damage.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 8. Capacitance measurement is only performed at fault indication or when the unbalance protection has tripped the bank. Replace cells as required. insulation bushings. leaks. Verify with specification.3. Check each capacitor for capacitive reactance by applying 120 volts to each phase and measuring corresponding current. Confirm kVar. it should always be performed if the protection indicates a fault or disconnects the capacitor bank.1 To take capacitance measurement If the capacitor bank is not equipped with unbalance protection. It is advisable to perform an annual inspection despite of the regular inspection. It is advisable to refer to the Manufacturer of the product.3. and BIL rating for each capacitor. Verify internal discharge resistors are working properly. Verify with specification. bulges.

3.3 Capacitance Measurement Acceptable capacitance reading • • • -5% to 10 % up to 3 MVAr 0 % to 10 % from 3 MVAr to 30 MVAr 0% to 5 % for capacitor > 30 MVAr CT REACTOR REACTOR REACTOR uF BUSBAR 11 KV CAPACITANCE BRIDGE Figure 44: Capacitance measurement using capacitance bridge CB10 (1) ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 98 of 136 .CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 8.3.

CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT CT REACTOR REACTOR REACTOR uF BUSBAR 11 KV CAPACITANCE BRIDGE Figure 45: Capacitance measurement using capacitance bridge CB10 (2) ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 99 of 136 .

3 26.14x50 26.8 26.4 25.5 23.3 uF Exercise No. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 100 of 136 .CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Calculation of kVar using measurment values of uF kVAR = kVOLT2 x (2πf) x Capacitance (uF) (33) 333 kVar 6.0 % Diff Please indicate the faulty capacitor can.1 27.15 Phase Red Yellow Blue Nameplate uF Measured uF 26.35 kV 2x3.

CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 8.14x 50) uH VOLT METER CURRENT INJECTION TEST SET BUSBAR 11 KV Figure 46: Reactor test ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 101 of 136 .3.4 Reactor Test CT REACTOR REACTOR REACTOR X =VOLT/CURRENT L = X / [2x3.

13 Yellow 63 5 0.0126 40.This test requires a injection test set.0126 40.13 Note. mV Current.14x50) ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 102 of 136 . Amp Z(Impedance) Inductance. uH Red 63 5 0.13 Blue 63 5 0.0126 40. Z = Voltage/ Current = XL XL = ω x L ω = 2 x 3.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Examples on test result Description Volts.14 x 50 L = XL / (2x3.

Amp Z(Impedance) Inductance.16 Description Volts. uH Red 123 10 Yellow 124 10 Blue 126 10 Please calculate the values of the impedances & inductances ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 103 of 136 .CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Exercise No. mV Current.

5 Unbalance CT Ratio Test This test must be done using a current injection test set.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 8.3. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 104 of 136 .

Check functioning of neutral unbalance sensor. tighten as required. 8. Replace as required.7 Fuses • • • • • Check all capacitor fuses.3. and PT fuses for blown fuses. chips. Check all mounting hardware. Confirm proper fuse rating. and signs of arc tracking.6 Insulators • • • Check for cracks.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 8.3. Clean insulators and barriers. Check all mounting hardware. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 105 of 136 . Verify with specification. Clean contact area of fuses and fuse holders. tighten as required. Replace as required. control fuses.

8 Relay maintenance – OCEF & Unbalance Relays O/C.3.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 8. E/F Unbalance CT Ratio 300/5 10/5 1st stage 100% 60% 2nd stage 90% Setting 5 Amp 3 Amp TMS 0.1 Figure 47: OCEF & Unbalance relays ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 106 of 136 .2 0.

3.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 8.9 Trip test for unbalance relay NOTA: ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 107 of 136 .

0 9. in particular. • ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 108 of 136 . such as a damaged discharge resistor.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 9. short circuited and grounded. which reduces the voltage of the unit to: 50 V within 5 minutes . the following safety regulations. If fluid gets into your eyes. rinse with lukewarm water.2 During normal operating conditions. capacitor bank needs no maintenance. leaking capacitor units etc. cleaning should be carried out more frequently. Short circuit the capacitor units individually also. To obtain trouble free operation a routine inspection of the following is recommended: Regular Inspection An annual inspection is sufficient unless the capacitor bank is exposed to abnormal conditions of any kind. and avoid breathing in fumes or gases from the impregnation fluid. proceed as follows• • Record the capacitor current Perform a visual inspection of pollution. In the event of skin contact. Normally capacitors have an internal discharge resistor. Maintenance Methodology for Delta Capacitor Banks • • 9. but it should be checked regularly as described below to ensure trouble-free operation. At each inspection. must be observed: • Do not touch a capacitor bank until it has been completely discharged. The insulators and bushings should be wiped clean if necessary. as if there is an internal fault.75V within 10 minutes – IEC 871. damage to the finish. Check the setting values and operation of the protection relays. wash with soap and water. such as excessive contamination. there may still be a voltage even though the capacitor bank has been discharged.AS2897 . Avoid skin contact with the impregnation fluid in the event of leakage.1 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES FOR A DELTA CAPACITOR BANK Safety Regulations When working with capacitor banks. Under heavy pollution condition.

Maintenance procedure The overall maintenance flowcharts are shown in Figure 48. it may be due to – • • • Cable Faults Test the main supply cable according to the existing process for cable inspection Shorting Phase to phase shorting may be caused by conducting objects or conductors shorted phase to phase. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 109 of 136 .CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT If a VCB Trip – When the VCB tripping.

CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT ROUTINE MAINTENANCE START YES CAPACITOR CURRENT = RATED CURRENT ? DONE RECORD CURRENT (PHASE+ NEUTRAL) NO START CAPACITOR BANK HAS TRIPPED OFF DISCONNECT CAPACITOR WITHDRAW THE VCB TRUCK AND LOCK MAIN BUSBAR SHUTTER WITH A NON STANDARD LOCK AND HANG SAFETY NOTICE APPLY CIRCUIT MAIN EARTH AT VCB WAIT FOR 10 MINUTES TO DISCHARGE OPEN CAPACITOR BANK AND DISCHARGE USING MV DISCHARGE ROD INSPECTION & MAINTENANCE PROGRAM MV CABLE PROTECTION SCHEMES CAPACITOR TOLERANCE REACTOR TOLERANCE SAFETY INTERLOCK CAPACITOR CAN BE COMMISSIONED YES MEET TECHNICAL REQUIREMENT ? NO RECTIFICATION Figure 48: Work process for maintenance of a Delta capacitor bank ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 110 of 136 .

3 Maintenance program 9.1 Isolation procedure • • • • • Line voltage with the capacitor bank connected respectively disconnected.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 9. Wait a minimum of 10 minutes for the capacitor bank to be discharged Short Circuit and earth the Capacitor Bank Short Circuit the terminals of each capacitor unit parallel group Figure 49: Discharge capacitor banks using Discharge Rod ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 111 of 136 .3. Disconnect and isolate the Cap-Bank to be checked.

3. Examine warning signs and placards. as required.3. Clean and inspect strip heaters and check thermostats. Wash down the capacitor bank if it is dirty.2. insects. Examine warning signs and placards. Examine enclosure for corrosion and paint adherence. Maintenance for the Enclosure Exterior 9. Clean all enclosure windows. louvers.2 • • • • • • Remove accumulated dust and dirt. Check to see if filters are clean and airflow is not restricted. replace. If not legible. Replace filters and remove obstacles as required. Inspect for proper phase to phase and phase to ground clearance. or animal material. Ensure enclosure. Inspect operation and adjustment of key interlock systems to determine if security features are working properly. If not legible. and rodent guards are adequate to prevent entry of liquids.2 Exterior & interior maintenance program At each inspection.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 9. Check proper operation of ventilation equipment (fans) and thermostats. and rodents. enclosure doors. Tighten as required. Repaint scratched or marred exterior surfaces to closely match original finish. replace. Repaint scratched or marred exterior surfaces to closely match original finish.3.3 • • • • • Inspect for loose bus bar connections and discoloration. Bus Bar & Wiring 9. Remove insects. Inspect wire insulation for cuts.3.2. proceed as follows: • • Inspect the capacitor bank for dirt build up or leaking capacitor units. or burns. Replace as required ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 112 of 136 . Examine enclosure for corrosion and paint adherence. Remove excess surface oxides from aluminum connectors.1 • • • • • • Ensure enclosure is receiving adequate ventilation. Inspect for condensation. Clean the insulators and bushings if necessary.2. Inspect control wire connections. breakdown. tighten as required. Maintenance for the Enclosure Interior 9. as required. Correct deficiencies. Clean all enclosure windows. nests. Correct as required. Clean and correct as required.

4 Maintenance on the capacitor units 9. If the measured values deviate by more than 10 % from the value stated in the routine test report.3.1 To take capacitance measurement If the capacitor bank is not equipped with unbalance protection. Figure 50: Capacitance measurement for a Delta Capacitor Bank ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 113 of 136 .4.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 9. Capacitance measurement of the units in a capacitor bank with unbalance protection does not have to be included in the regular inspection. all capacitor units should be capacitance measured annually. The internal connection in the capacitor bank need to be opened to perform the measurement. Measurement is easily performed using a Capacitance meter.3. However. it should always be performed if the protection indicates a fault or disconnects the capacitor bank. the capacitor unit should be replaced. It is advisable to perform an annual inspection despite of the regular inspection.

3 kV uF Figure 51: Capacitance measurement for Delta Capacitor using Capacitance meter Capacitance values for phase-phase values R-Y Y-B B-R 146.22 uF 146.22 uF kVar (3-phase) = 2/3 x (146.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Capacitance measurement is only performed at fault indication or when the value of the capacitor current does not equal to the rated capacitor current.22 uF + 146. Acceptable capacitance reading • • • -5% to 10 % up to 3 MVAr 0 % to 10 % from 3 MVAr to 30 MVAr 0% to 5 % for capacitor > 30 MVAr Example: Voltage rating per Capacitor 3.22 uF + 146.22 uF) x ω x Volt2 /1000 = 999 kVar ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 114 of 136 .22 uF 146.

22 146.3 kV line to line.22 146. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 115 of 136 .60 146. Cans Number 1 Number 2 Number 3 Nameplate uF R-Y Y-B B-R 146.22 146.22 kVar % Diff Please indicate the faulty capacitor can.22 146.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Exercise No.C The capacitor cans are rated at 3.22 135.17 P.22 146.22 146.F.

ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 116 of 136 .CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Calculation for Exercise 16.

Replace as required. Fuses 9. insulation bushings. and BIL rating for each capacitor. Check all mounting hardware. Verify with specification.3. Replace as required. Replace cells as required. control fuses. Clean contact area of fuses and fuse holders. Verify internal discharge resistors are working properly. Replace as required. Check all mounting hardware.4.4. Verify with specification. and PT fuses for blown fuses.2 Inspection on capacitor units A leaking capacitor must be normally replaced. voltage. Clean insulators and barriers. tighten as required. and any connectors that are dirty or corroded. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 117 of 136 . leaks. Clean capacitor case. and signs of arc tracking.3 • • • Check for cracks.3. • • • • Check for physical damage. or discoloration. Check functioning of neutral unbalance sensor.4. It is advisable to refer to the Manufacturer of the product. Confirm proper fuse rating. chips. bulges. Confirm kVar. tighten as required.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 9. Insulators 9.4 • • • • • Check all capacitor fuses.3.

4.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 9.3.5 Reactor Test Volt Meter Current Injection Test Set Figure 52: Reactor test ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 118 of 136 .

0126 40. uH Red 63 5 0.13 Yellow 63 5 0.0126 40.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Examples on test result Description Volts.13 Blue 63 5 0.13 Note.14 x 50 L = XL / (2x3. Z = Voltage/ Current = XL XL = ω x L ω = 2 x 3.14x50) ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 119 of 136 .This test requires a injection test set. Amp Z(Impedance) Inductance. mV Current.0126 40.

Sample for commissioning forms are attached as Appendix B. uH Red 25 2 Yellow 25 2 Blue 25 2 Please calculate the values of the impedances & inductances 9. mV Current. Sample for Inspection & Maintenance Forms are attached as Appendix A.18 Description Volts. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 120 of 136 .CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Exercise No.3. Amp Z(Impedance) Inductance.4.6 Relay maintenance – OCEF The inspection of the OCEF relays must be done together with the maintenance of the other circuit breakers.

that the settings of the protection circuits are correct and that the protective relays are operating properly. to ensure all the cable entrance is properly covered.C PFC controls the switching of the VCBs or contactors. check: that the capacitors have been correctly installed. 10.0 10.F. Figure 53: Power Factor Regulator for a Delta Capacitor ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 121 of 136 . It is particularly important to ensure that the electrical connections have been retightened. A power factor regulator is a mini computer that regulates the switching in and out for the capacitor units to the supply networks by controlling the VCBs or contactors.1 • • • • COMMISSIONING PROCEDURES Before energizing the capacitor bank.2 Setting for Power Factor Regulator (Controller) Some capacitor banks are controlled using a power factor regulator. P. to ensure all foreign objects in the capacitors are removed.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 10.

PFC BUSBAR 11 KV Figure 54: Power Factor Regulator for a Y-Y Capacitor ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 122 of 136 .CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT CT REACTOR REACTOR REACTOR PFC controls the switching of the VCBs or contactors.

CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT

The power factor regulator (controller) monitor the input current from only one phase and voltage inputs (phase to phase voltage) for the other two phases.

Figure 55:

Power Factor regulator (controller)

The power factor regulator must be programmed to ensure correct operation of capacitor bank. The general parameters required for the power factor regulator are: • • • • • Target power factor – 0.90, 0.95 or 1.0 C/K - To be calculated Sequence - either 1:1:1:1 or 1:2:2:2 Time delay - 60, 120, 180, 240 seconds Operating modes: Circular or linear mode This is the final power factor value to be achieved by the capacitor bank. Ratio of the capacitor current for the 1st step over the current transformer (CT) size. The ratio of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th etc steps against the 1st capacitor step.
Page 123 of 136

Target Power factor: C/K: Sequence:

ILSAS/MFF/2007

CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT

Time delay:

The delay time for the capacitor to switch in or switch out after receiving signal from the power factor regulator There are two modes – linear or circular modes.

Operating modes:

10.2.1 Calculation of C/K ratio The C/K ratio is the ratio of the capacitor current for the first step and the current transformer (CT) size. C/K = Q (Mvar) x 1000 = Capacitor current for the first step (1.732 x VLLx k) CT Size Capacitor current per step = Q (Mvar) x 1000 (1.732 x VLL)

k

= CT Ratio

VLL = phase to phase voltage i.e. 11 kV

ILSAS/MFF/2007

Page 124 of 136

CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT

Example: Size of Capacitor Bank = 4 Mvar, Y-Y Voltage = 11 kV 2

Number of step =

MVar value for each step = 2 Mvar (1st step), 2 Mvar (2nd Step) Size of CT = Calculation: k = CT Ratio = 300/5 = 60 300/5

VLL = phase to phase voltage i.e. 11 kV Capacitor current per step = 2 MVar x 1000 = 104.9 Amp (1.732 x 11 kV)

C/K = Q (Mvar) x 1000 = Capacitor current for the first step (1.732 x VLLx k) CT Size = 104.9 / 60 = 1.748

ILSAS/MFF/2007

Page 125 of 136

19 Size of Capacitor Bank = 1.2 Mvar.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Exercise No. 600 kVar (2nd Step) Size of CT = 400/5 Please calculate the value for C/K: ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 126 of 136 . Delta Voltage = 3.3 kV 2 Number of step = MVar value for each step = 600 kVar (1st step).

875 0. 937 5.624 3.262 0.328 0. 100 0. 312 0.746 20.656 0.968 2.624 1.131 0.244 13.249 6.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Sample C/K calculations for 11 kV Capacitor Banks C/T ratio 50 /5 100 /5 150 /5 200 /5 300 /5 400 /5 500 /5 600 /5 800 /5 1000 /5 1600 /5 2000 /5 3000 /5 k 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 160 200 320 400 600 1000 5.312 0.050 1. 498 3.525 0.575 2.820 0.656 0.873 10.394 0.262 0.640 1.656 0.175 0.498 15.624 2. 561 4.312 1. 656 0. 525 0.750 2.312 0.262 0.280 2.748 6. 050 0.437 0.249 7.750 1. 995 5.312 1.492 0.499 5.787 1. 624 1.187 1.328 0. 374 3.875 1.624 3. 350 5000 26. 249 1. 499 1.164 0.122 8.525 0.437 ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 127 of 136 .087 Capac it or s t ep rat ing (kVar) 2000 3000 4000 10. 750 0.984 1. 998 2.249 2.

280 2.050 0.498 3.249 6.087 Capacitor s tep rating (k Var) 600 900 1200 10.624 1. 249 1. 312 1.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Sample C/K calculations for 3.624 2.820 0.312 0. 746 20. 750 0.3 kV Capacitor Banks C/T ratio 50 /5 100 /5 150 /5 200 /5 300 /5 400 /5 500 /5 600 /5 800 /5 1000 /5 1600 /5 2000 /5 3000 /5 ILSAS/MFF/2007 k 10 20 30 40 60 80 100 120 160 200 320 400 600 300 5.498 15. 100 0.175 0.312 1.262 0. 998 2.312 0.656 0.328 0. 656 0.995 5.525 0.575 2. 312 0. 499 5. 624 1.131 0.262 0. 050 1. 624 3.624 3.787 1.984 1.656 0.328 0.968 2. 875 1.750 1. 122 8.748 6. 244 13.437 0.499 1.875 0.640 1.656 0. 750 2.394 0.437 .492 0.374 3.187 1. 249 7.873 10.350 Page 128 of 136 1500 26.262 0.525 0.249 2. 525 0.937 5.561 4.164 0.

The calculation of resonance condition is done using Equation (34) h =√ [kVAsc/ kVar] = √ [Xc/ Xsc] =√ [kVA-tx x 100/(kVar-cap x Z-tx %)] h = calculated system harmonic kVAsc = Short circuit power of system kVar = rating of the capacitors (34) kVA-tx = kVA rating of the step down Tx Z-tx = Step-down Tx Impedance If the resonance frequency is between 5th to 13th harmonic number. The capacitor bank will experience high voltage and this will lead to deterioration of the capacitor units.3 Calculation of resonance frequency A capacitor bank must not be exposed to resonance conditions.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 10. it is important to identify potential condition that might lead to such incidences. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 129 of 136 . To prevent the resonance condition. A capacitor bank must not be exposed to resonance condition between 5th harmonic number to 13th harmonic number. the capacitor bank must be protected using detuned reactors with values of 7 %.

CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Example: Capacitor size: Transformer details: 2 Mvar Y-Y. Therefore a 7 % detuned reactor must be installed in series with the capacitor units.78 A serious resonance condition will happen when the 1st capacitor step is switch in.35 Calculation for resonance condition for 1st & 2nd step: h =√ [kVA-tx x 100/(kVar-cap x Z-tx %)] =√ [1500 x 100 /(2000 x 5. 11 kV 1.5 MVA.25)] = 3. 5. 2 step.25 % Calculation for resonance condition for 1st step: h =√ [kVA-tx x 100/(kVar-cap x Z-tx %)] =√ [1500 x 100 /(1000 x 5.25)] = 5. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 130 of 136 . Installing a series reactor will prevent the resonance condition from happening and damaging the capacitors.

3.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Exercise No. 3 step.3 kV 1.20 Capacitor size: Transformer details: 900 kVar Delta.5 MVA. 5. At what step will the resonance condition happen? What is the recommended measure to prevent the resonance conditions? ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 131 of 136 . 2nd & 3rd capacitor steps.25 % Please calculate the resonance condition for 1st.

33/11 kV Volt.4 Calculation for the increase in line voltage Commissioning a capacitor bank will slightly increase the line voltage. However. Its’ important to verify the voltage increase to ensure no potential problem for high voltage incidences.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 10. The equation to estimate the % increase in voltage is as follows: % Voltage rise = Capacitor size (kVAr) x 100 Fault Level kVA(3-phase) (35) Equation (35) requires the value of the fault level. % Z = 10.5 Ifault= MVA/ (VLL x %Z x√3)= 7. The values can be obtained from the Operation & Maintenance Units in a plant. an estimated value can be obtained using this methodology: Assuming the maximum impedance of the network is based on the distribution (incoming) transformer. For example: A TX 15 MVA.498 kA (3-phase) Sfault=Ifault x VLL x √3 = 142 MVA (3-phase) ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 132 of 136 .

21 Capacitor size: Transformer details: 900 kVar Delta.0 MVA. 3.25 % What is the % voltage increase? Exercise No.25 % What is the % voltage increase? ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 133 of 136 . 5.3 kV 1.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT Exercise No. 2 step. 3 step. 5.5 MVA. 11 kV 1.22 Capacitor size: Transformer details: 4 MVar Y-Y.

5 Inspection after commissioning Before commissioning the capacitor bank. power factors and harmonic levels at the incoming supply. Once the capacitor bank has been commissioned. Volt Phase Before commissioning Step 1 2 3 4 R-Y Y-B B-R b. Power Factor Phase Step 1 2 3 4 Step Before commissioning 1 2 3 4 Red Yellow Blue ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 134 of 136 . voltages. a. please record all the currents.Current Phase Before commissioning Red Yellow Blue c. switch in all the steps one by one and record the same parameters for evaluation.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 10.

1 Checking operating data: Make the following measurements to ensure that the capacitors are not subject to excessive stress: 1. 4. Capacitor current: The capacitor bank must not be subjected to a continuous current exceeding 130% of the rated current. Small capacitor banks are sometimes impossible to balance sufficiently to comply with this recommendation if the capacitances of the individual capacitor units differ too widely. If the individual capacitors are at different temperatures. The unbalance current should therefore be measured when the capacitors have reached their normal operating temperature. Ambient temperature: The capacitor bank must not be operated in an ambient temperature outside the stated temperature class. THDV Phase Before commissioning Step 1 2 3 4 R-Y Y-B B-R 10. Voltage before and after switching in the capacitor bank: The capacitor bank must not be subjected to a continuous voltage exceeding 110% of the nominal voltage. the unbalance current immediately after switching in the bank may differ from the value after a few hours in service. for example because of solar radiation. continuous meaning 12 hours in every 24 according to AS 2897-1986 and IEC 871. Large capacitor banks are balanced at the factory to ensure that they do not exceed this value. 2. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 135 of 136 . Unbalance current: (for banks with unbalance protection) The unbalance current should not exceed 10% of the tripping value of the protection system.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT d.5. 3.

When the load is low there is also a risk of resonance between capacitors and transformers. since the voltage may already be high even without the capacitor bank.5. A capacitor bank always causes a small increase in voltage. These margins should not be used under normal service conditions.2 Special precautions: The voltage and current margins stated above are intended to allow operation during temporary peaks. Pay special attention to periods of low load. Voltages and currents should therefore be measured under all the load situations that occur. in order to ensure that the capacitor bank is not overloaded.CAPACITOR BANK & POWER FACTOR MANAGEMENT 10. ILSAS/MFF/2007 Page 136 of 136 . and this may give rise to considerable over voltages. At low loads this can result in problems.