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Defining Bees Bees of all kinds belong to the order of insects known as Hymenoptera, literally "membrane wings". This order, comprising some 100,000 species, also includes wasps, ants, ichneumons and sawflies. Of the 25,000 or more known species of bees (more are discovered every year) the majority are solitary bees - most of which excavate and lay their eggs in tunnels. It is thought that bees originally evolved from hunting wasps that acquired a taste for nectar and decided to become vegetarians! Honeybees belong to the family of social bees that includes bumble bees and the tropical stingless bees of the genus Meliponinae. Social bees nest in colonies headed by a single fertile female, the Queen, usually the only egg layer in the colony. Foraging for nectar, feeding the queen and the larvae, cleaning brood cells and removing debris are carried out by a caste of females, the Workers. Besides the honeybee, Britain has more than 250 species of native bee, many which help gardens by pollinating flowers. But these bees are becoming scarce, as modern agriculture has produced a landscape that is rarely bee-friendly. With fewer wild flowers and suitable nest sites, about 25% of our native bees are now endangered species.
Anatomy of a honey bee
The Apis Genus The sub-family Apinae or honeybees, comprises a single genus, Apis, that is characterised by the building of vertical combs of hexagonal cells constructed bilaterally from a midrib, using only the wax secreted by the worker bees. The cells are multifunctional, being used repeatedly for rearing the larvae and for the storage of honey and pollen. Young bees carry out progressive feeding of the larvae with food produced by glands in the head of the bee from honey and pollen. Two attributes of honeybees that have been essential to their evolution and biology are their clustering behaviour and, particularly in the case of the cavity-nesting species, their ability to cool the nest by evaporation of water collected outside. These attributes enable the colonies to achieve specific control over temperature regulation within the nest, irrespective of the external temperature. Because of this capability, the genus Apis has been able to colonise a wide variety of environments, ranging from tropical to cool temperate. Another behavioural characteristic of honeybees is the communication of information about food sources and the recruitment of foragers by dance language (known as the waggle dance). The accurate dissemination of information concerning direction and distance of forage areas leads to efficient exploitation of food sources. The genus Apis comprises four species: Apis dorsata - the Giant Honeybee Apis mellifera - the Western Honeybee. Apis cerana - the Eastern Honeybee Apis florea - the Little Honeybee Apis florea and dorsata build single comb nests in the open and are prone to migrations. The lifestyle of Apis cerana is similar to that of Apis mellifera and both are used in apiculture with modern moveable comb hives. The numerical strength of cerana colonies is usually much less, and honey yields are smaller than mellifera. Some species of Meliponinae form very large colonies and store sufficient honey to make their exploitation worthwhile. It should not be assumed that “stingless” bees are necessarily gentle and easy to handle; they may carry out mass attacks on large intruders such as humans, inflicting painful bites with their powerful mandibles, and some species inject a caustic venom that causes severe burns to the skin. The effect of transferring bees to environments where they are not adapted was graphically illustrated by one event in South America last century. European honeybees had been kept in Brazil for centuries, yet failed to establish a feral population in the country. When a few queens of a tropical race from Africa were released into the wilds by human error in 1957, in only a few years’ feral colonies of hybrid, africanised “killer” bees Apis mellifera scutellata (AHB) spread across the Amazon rain forest, moving North and South and completely eliminating the European bees. AHB’s success reflected superior adaptation to
the tropical environment compared to the european bee.
following the Isle of Wight disease epidemic (attributed to acarine – see last module’s notes). The other race that has been exported world-wide is the Carniolan (A. the Buckfast bee would seem to be the wisest choice to set up a colony if the weather pattern next winter is to repeat itself. On 1 September 1919 he became the Master beekeeper of the abbey's apiary. First Hive examination of the year . especially where beekeeping is practiced on a commercial scale.In most parts of the world. they do not form such tight winter clusters so more food has to be consumed to compensate for the greater heat loss from the loose cluster. he installed his famous breeding station in Dartmoor National Park. crossing of any of the four apis species is likely to result in hybrids that often inherit the worst traits of each species.6 °Fahrenheit consistently your first duty is to open and inspect each of your hives. such as excessive aggressiveness and propensity to sting and swarm easily. The tendency to raise brood late in autumn also increases food consumption. the Italian bee (A. Moreover. although in recent years an increasing interest has been shown in re-establishing the North European Dark Bee (A. So. In 1925. Important Blooms At the same time you are recording the weather data you can get a good idea what type of flora your bees are likely to feed on by noting if there are a lot of trees or flowers growing within a three mile radius of your hives. The Italian bee has performed well in warm summers. the Near East and the north of Africa. and its ability to rear brood continuously until late in the season when food is available. you still have a greater chance of this species surviving whatever the weather throws at it. An excellent documentary on Brother Adam and beekeeping in general is available on DVD from Amazon called: The Monk And The Honeybee. with only possibly lower honey yields as a downside if there is a lack of suitable forage. but succeeding generations have been observed to seldom repeat this performance.carnica). but as long as they are moving about they have survived.m. but heavy losses usually occur during hard winters as it tends to forage over shorter distances compared to Carnica or Mellifera. It is seen as suitable for countries where long. Brother Columban. at the beginning of March it is wise to keep a temperature/rainfall record at the beginning and end of each week using either a weather forecast logging monitor (£20) or keeping track via BBC weather online. Brother Adam then traveled to Turkey to find substitutes for the native bees and in 1917 he created the first Buckfast strain. after the retirement of his teacher. killing 30 of the 46 bee colonies. It can also be hired from Lovefilm. Germany. his mother sent him at age 11 to Buckfast Abbey. There may be as little as 2000 bees left in the colony and they will certainly all be weak and in poor condition due to the lack of forage during the winter. and after some studies on the progress of the colonies. Karl Kehrle was born in 1898 in Mittlebiberach. continuous nectar flows occur from late spring onwards. where he joined the order (becoming Brother Adam) and in 1915 started his beekeeping training.70s Adam continued his gradual improvement of the Buckfast bee by analysing and crossing bees from places all over Europe. Once the temperature rises above 12 °C / 53. Having been a beekeeper for 82 years. Even if it doesn’t. Italian bees were imported into the UK in bulk from 1920 onwards. owing to its docility. In most North European countries there has been a tendency to move over to Carniolan bees. its rapid build-up. In 1916 the Isle of Wight disease reached the abbey. Due to health problems.mellifera).m.ligustica) has proved the most popular. The isolated location was chosen to obtain selected crossings free of contamination from other bee species. it now presents urban London beekeepers with the question of whether to change breeds and stock a much hardier bee more adapted to such conditions? It was originally thought that first or second cross breeds would produce colonies that gave exceptional yields. with the winter of 2209-2010 being one of the coldest and longest on record. and may therefore be less effective in poorer nectar flows. particularly in the South of England. and are much less prone to drifting (and presumably to robbing) and are sparing in the use of propolis. which still operates today.m. with only the Apis mellifera carnica and Apis mellifera ligustica colonies surviving. What is the best caste to use as a colony now? Bearing in mind that the UK weather has seen drastic changes over the last three years. However. It is now widely accepted that the best way to get improvement in bee stocks is by selective breeding within a single subspecies. Highly recommended. a prolific honey producing bee resistant to the IOW disease.March In keeping with the seasonal calendar. particularly in Eastern Europe. A study of the area using . From 1950 . At this point it is pertinent to mention the legendary Brother Adam. They are reputed to have better homing ability than any of the other major races. he retired aged 93 and during his long and distinguished career received several honorary doctorates and an OBE for his contributions to beekeeping research.
The flowers of several cruciferous plants (cauliflower. This would be expected. If its mainly trees then the largest nectar flow will be early. beans. However cross-pollination generally produces better results than self-pollination. shape or behaviour. broccoli etc. it is essential that mankind respects the environment and the species and maintains conditions that are favourable to its development. As bees are very sensitive to pollution. UK honey bees also produce about £50 million in honey annually. Pollinators transfer pollen and seeds from one flower to another. using bees for pollination or for honey production requires different management techniques. In March you should check the progress of flowers that should be blooming by then. rapeseed and many varieties of trees. none of these flowers will bloom and this deprives the bees of gathering pollen . Forgotten Pollinators. Hence. For pollination.including food crops . bats. whereas more flowers will indicate later (and possibly multiple) nectar flows following the flower blooming cycles.7 billion per year. more than 25% of the managed honey bee population has disappeared since 1990. Keeping bee populations safe is critical for keeping our tables stocked with high-quality produce and our agriculture sector running smoothly. The flowers produce nectar as well as pollen. Cross-pollination helps at least 30% of the world’s crops and 90% of our wild plants to thrive. Brussels sprouts. including apples. snowdrops followed shortly after by tulip and primrose. Obviously for the flowers to bloom there needs to be sufficient sunlight and a rise in temperature. Without bees to spread seeds. by avoiding chemical treatments in fruit growing. in the multiplication of floral species and in the development of fruit growing. including lower crop yields and increased production costs. This can be achieved if the colonies have a lot of unsealed brood at the same time as the crop requiring pollination is in flower. has been estimated at as high as $5. If there is constant rain and too cold temperatures.would die off.E. “Every third bite of food you take. cucumbers. For honey. The main ones are crocus. The nurse bees feeding the larvae consume a lot of pollen and stimulate the foragers to go out and collect more. called pollinators. berries.the most important constituent of their diet. thank a bee or other pollinator” . the bees should be intent on collecting pollen. or the abandonment of crops such as lucerne or clover that are great nectar producers. Bees of different species pollinate different plants and some bees are especially adapted to specific plant species by body size. Each frame should be inspected to see if the bees have depleted the honey stores in the outer parts of the frame. bees play an essential role in pollination. Brassica oleracea) are hermaphroditic and self-pollinating. If no blooms are noted by the middle of March then it will be necessary to take emergency measures to keep the colonies alive.Google Satellite permits you to see the amount of green space and how many trees are in the area. including birds. and butterflies. as they clearly do not have the strength to even feed themselves at close proximity. In the United States alone. But fewer bees means the economy takes a hit: The global economic cost of bee decline. They require pollen for nutrients and conditioning and building up stamina for their upcoming foraging flights. For example. the beekeeper wants to ensure that there is a large population of foraging bees with the priority of collecting nectar. . Bees Keep Our Economy Humming More than £900 million a year in UK crops are pollinated by bees. By gathering pollen. tomatoes. 1996 Pollination . daffodils. but if there are still reserves then it is not likely that particular colony will survive. Wilson. beetles. chives.O. Contract pollination can actually be more profitable for beekeepers than honey production but this is not relevant to the urban beekeeper (yet). fertilising the plant so it can grow and produce food. many plants .An essential role in nature Bees are one of a myriad of other creatures. the destruction of hedgerows rich in melliferous plants.
Good management practices are the key to your success as a beekeeper. this would only usually be done in early Autumn when only the bees will eat the remaining honey in the hive over winter time. We have not found this design to be effective as many bees still get drowned in the syrup and the plastic can go brittle in very cold conditions. Hazel. however in more rural areas hives are fitted with travel screens and straps and taken to higher altitude moorland areas where hundreds of acres of Ling purple heather are just beginning to bloom. They can be refilled with your own syrup after the purchased one is depleted. Simply stir the sugar into room temperature water until all the sugar has dissolved to produce the desired quantity. The ideal area around the hives would have a good spring build up of early flowers such as Snowdrops. are the basis of productive beekeeping. Colonies should be at peak strength by the last week of June for maximum production. In urban settings this will be a last greatly reduced flow. Crocus. Plastic ones have ridges on the insides for bees to cling to whilst drinking the liquid. It is unlikely most beekeepers will have hives in such ideal conditions. Ingredients: 1 part (by weight) cane sugar / 1 part (by weight) water. This is followed by a visit to Borage Fields at the end of June. Rose Bay Willow Herb. the bees may need two separate types of feeds. checked or manipulated one to four times each month from March to October. Honeybee colonies should be opened. Colonies should be developed to maximum strength by April 25 for maximum production. Late Summer Flow: When the main honey flow is nearly over towards the end of July. They can be bought in various weights then the protective strip is removed and the bees have access to a liquid feed. but this can act as a guide to what to expect when. particularly in an urban setting. This honey is extracted and the bees continue to fill the replacement empty honey supers with the summer honey of Clover. Erratic weather conditions will often affect the exact timings of these dates. Honey stored in sealed caps provides carbohydrates and energy for the bees for without it they will not have the strength to gather anything else or perform basic duties in the hive. Feeding bees for energy purposes Depending on prevailing weather and environmental conditions. Dandelion. Complete your work and close the hive as quickly as possible. . Bucket Feeders are the quick & ready solution. Spring Flow: The major spring flow occurs between April 25 and June 15 in the UK. applied when the colonies are opened.5 volumes of syrup. The older wooden frame feeder has a superior sinking bridge design that limits exposure of the bees to small “wells” of honey. This takes a lot of effort but ling honey usually fetches the highest prices in the UK. Avoid overexposure of the brood to cold winds during these inspections. Although checks should be made throughout the season to clarify. Colonies may be opened for checking on warm days during the winter months when the bees are flying freely.producing high yields. Soft Fruit Blossom. Various anti bug and health tonic ingredients can also be added to the feed so that the colony is treated in an unobtrusive way. One volume of water plus one volume of sugar when prepared equals roughly 1. if it's light. Timely management practices. Field Bean. Summer Flow: The major summer flow occurs between June 25 and August 15.Honey Flows Described below is an ideal set of flora conditions that would maximise any beekeeper’s yields. feeding must be done. Sycamore. to name just a few of the suitable plants. The easiest substitute for honey is to make a sugar syrup feed. If you have a strong hive and you have not taken any honey it would be fairly safe to say the bees have stored enough honey to get them through the winter. so they should only be taken as a rough guide and adjustments made according to what is blooming and when. This is generally done by lifting the hive to determine weight. Horse Chestnut and Tree Fruit Blossom.which honeybees love . the strong colonies with plenty of young foraging bees are cleared down to empty honey supers once more. Heather honey has to be pressed out because it will not extract in the usual way due to its high level of thixotropy (the viscosity is very thick). Willow. When country fields turn yellow towards the end of April there is a good flow of Oil Seed Rape . The dissolving process is sped up by heating the water using a gas stove. Lime. As the liquid volume is consumed the bridge gradually drops down in depth. Frame feeders come in two varieties. just be sure not to boil the sugar solution as the bees will not drink it! What does a Feeder do? These are used to deliver either liquid or semi-solid feed to the bees. One-to-One syrup This is commonly used throughout the season when there are barren bloom periods to keep the activity of the hive high such as drawing comb and feeding the queen and workers. Because it is illegal to sell honey where such ingredients have been added. Bramble.
An Adams Top Feeder is geared towards periods when you are not going to be able to tend your hives and there is a barren period of blooms between nectar flows. The major essential nutrient provided by patties is protein. and often results in temporary success.Circular feeders perform much the same function but have a raised cone inside so the bees crawl up inside to the top and then perch down to feed on the river of liquid feed. Stored pollen should be kept in an airtight container until required. Particularly during the long winter period. Long periods (more than several weeks) of feeding these patties without natural pollen being available will most likely result in stress on a colony and its decline.fresh pollen coming in and stored in the combs .and for that purpose they work very well. The fondant should be placed on top of the brood frames (if the super is to remain on with honey you could place the fondant on top of these). It is apparently possible to make patties that entirely replace natural pollen for periods of time. it is much more malleable and will actually absorb a little moisture when placed in the hive. The fondant can be made up at home or can be purchased from somewhere like Thornes. Patties After energy requirements have been taken care of you need to attend to the condition of the bees.5kg = £4. although other essential nutrients are also in the mix. Other Feeding Techniques Patties (see below) are spread over the top middle set of brood frames resting on greaseproof paper so the bees can access them. Dry Pollen Substitute Dry pollen substitute can be placed directly into the hive or used in bird feeders to attract local bees. The intent of these patties is to supplement natural pollen . so make sure you have your suit fully buttoned up to prevent stings.uk Using fondant or feed paste is another feeding strategy for keeping your bees in food when they cannot leave the hive at the worst of winter. spread it out and push it down between the frames slightly. What you will notice about this fondant mixture is that it is not as hard as ordinary cake fondant. When fresh it is 100% effective. fondant will be added to the brood chamber so that the bees have access to a solid icing style sweet energy source. but eventual dwindling of the colony. Attempts at total replacement of natural pollen with artificial diets are not reliable. but that is not the goal here.thorne.75) and it contains extra sugars like fructose and glucose. This feeder covers the whole roof surface area of the hive and is therefore able to contain the largest volume of store feed out of any of the feeder designs. at 1 year old it is 75% effective and by 2 years old it has no effect! With that knowledge you can begin to remove small amounts of pollen at a time during the season for your patties in the spring.co. They supply fondant called Ambrosia Fondant (2. this is to ensure the safety of their stores. 3 parts (by weight) Soy Flour (expeller-processed soybean flour) . Note: When adding the fondant to the hive you will notice the bees’ heightened aggression. Three empty frames should be taken out of the brood chamber and replaced by the fondant package. A pack of Apifonda combined with their honey stores should tide them through until Spring but remember to do the weight check just in case. Fondants: www. It uses much the same concept as the circular feeder except everything is boxy rather than round. so the bees don’t need to move far to get it. Natural Pollen The shelf life affects the efficacy of natural pollen.
1 part (by weight) Brewers Yeast 1 part (by weight) Nonfat Dry Milk (Not instant milk) Simply mix the powders together and use. not chemical extraction.thorne. it is good to add vegetable oil. and to minimise waste. then you can fortunately buy direct Patty placed over frames from a supplier such as www. the paper sometimes gets stuck to the patty. For any noticeable effect.mannlakeltd. If you use fat free soya.co. grease patties with essential oils should not be used during the time of honey collection for human consumption. If that’s the case.the second figure goes under supplement. Protein Feeds BeePro . This material makes a tough dough which can be rolled out to about 5/8" thick (using soy flour to prevent sticking) and cut into 1 pound patties which are then folded into 8" X 11" pieces of wax paper.com A product of Mann Lake. preferably from an expeller process. a grease patty of some form should be used at all times. Place the patty on top of the brood frames for the bees to eat. and must be toasted after processing. These effects can be seen when brood is present. However. If the natural pollen % in the supplement is below 20% then the bees are liable to disregard it. Feed between 250g and 500g per colony by splitting the plastic sleeve and slicing patty with a sharp knife. if the mixture is a little sticky when making the patties and enough soy flour is not dusted onto the paper. A true substitute is a balanced bee diet with more nutrients than simple yeast/soy patties and which can be fed at length in place of pollen.The patties must be within several inches of the brood Either a high sugar content (50%+) or a high natural pollen content (15%+) is necessary to ensure the bees consume the mixture. Soya flour with fat is better than nonfat. Ingredients: 1 part (by volume) solid vegetable shorting / 2 parts (by volume) white sugar Mix sugar and shortening until well combined.63 .www. Pollen Patty To make a pollen patty. In that case. simply slit the paper in several places to give the bees access and place the patty with the slits down immediately over the brood area.thorne. this claims to be a pollen substitute. The yeast should have been spray dried and have a protein content of 40% or more. However the expeller process is seldom used anymore. Split into approximately quarter cup (~6 centiliters) portions and store excess in the freezer sandwiched between sheets of wax paper. If a powdered form is not available. Difference between substitute and supplement? Ingredients: Pollen substitute patties / Pollen supplement patties Fat free soya flour % 75 60 Brewer's yeast 25 20 Natural pollen % 0 20 totals by weight % 100 100 The first figure goes under substitute . Also replace any consumed patties. not meal. It is however possible to trick bees to take the substitute when necessary by integrating a small amount of Vitamin C into the mixture. and has a devastating effect on mites when brood is not present. several factors are important for acceptance by the bees and minimum wastage: 1 . Use dry yeast as it will keep the patty soft.uk a ready-to-feed pollen substitute/fructose syrup patty. At feeding time. Occasionally bees may refuse to eat pollen substitute. When feeding supplement patties. most often when fresh pollen is available. and which will sustain brood rearing without significant increased adult mortality. Use this from early March to stimulate your bees if there is a shortage of pollen. bind the Dry Pollen Substitute with enough 2:1 Syrup to make a putty of dough like consistency When making patties using yeast and soy the soy should be flour.www. Grease Patties These patties containing both wintergreen oil or tea tree oil and mineral salt appear to have an effect on varroa mites and tracheal mites. However the exact detailed nutritional composition of BeePro is not . Some yeasts sold for cattle feed are low in protein and contain a great deal of the growth medium (corn) and are not suitable. it is possible to crush a Vitamin C tablet for integration. grease patties without essential oils can be used to a lesser effect. Often 1 teaspoon per 5 cups can be added. Nektapoll 1kg patty £6. not supplement.uk Sourcing and mixing all those ingredients may seem like too much hard work if you are pressed for time.The hive must be queenright 2 . and solvent processed flour may be the only product available and is acceptable. During this time.co.
colony growth rate. The wafer release device allows workers to surround the slow release pheromone membrane and contact minute amounts of the brood pheromone. providing there are not too many bees! . It leaves no residues and contains no antibiotics. many gardens attached to rental property are left completely neglected. Haringey has only a couple of clusters so there is great opportunity for expansion. It is particularly effective when applied to colonies infected with nosema. egg laying rate. There is no easy way to determine this unless you hear about people keeping hives by word of mouth.uk This is only applicable if the bees can access pollen in the first place. If they are few gardens growing flowers then your bees will have to rely on tree blossoms and shrubs – which thankfully there are still a surprising amount of in London. Vitafeed Gold: 1litre = £46 . have been destroyed. In an urban setting the problems are confronting honey bees are quite different. It’s more likely to work well as a supplement rather than a substitute. being unaware of their disastrous effects on honey bees. As a good half of the population in London is transient.thorne. If your area is primarily covered with trees and shrubs then you should select a hardy bee like the Buckfast or the Carniolan. Hackney has three man clusters but far more green space.co. All three places are renowned throughout London as the “leafy boroughs” – known for their plethora of flowers. All three areas have a much higher than average amount of beekeepers and hence the largest amount of colonies.revealed. Islington contains about 4 clusters of bees throughout the borough that we are aware of. These bees are better equipped to survive longer periods of a dearth of blooms and trees will provide a large honey flow earlier on in the season. but the more hives that are concentrated in one area then the less honey each colony will be able to gather.www. Hampstead and certain areas of Richmond. Another aspect you need to be aware of is the presence of other colonies in your area. Any honey gathered after the first nectar flow should be left for the bees to over-winter on after the first extraction. As fields have gotten larger many hedgerows and small copses. The places we would say are the hardest to site new colonies would be Highgate. One device works for over 30 days. Therefore a place where there are a wide variety of flowers throughout the season is imperative if these colonies are to get through the winter. It is very simple to use and apply and is safe for bees and the beekeeper.thorne. shrubs and trees. Generally it is lack of a green space that is the enemy of the urban beekeeper.co. if this was to double in number then we doubt if most hives would bring in much honey and pollen as the borough has the least green space of any in London. The downside to rural beekeeping is that farmers also use a cocktail of pesticides to ensure they get good crop yields and some of these chemicals have been proven to be fatal for many colonies and are cited as one of the main contributors to Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). There are no current independent tests that prove superiority of BeePro over the yeast/soy patties many beekeepers are making using the simple and inexpensive combination of soy flour and a high protein brewers yeast. Of course there is no pesticide spraying in our large green spaces. nor guaranteed as far as we know. Many other gardens have been paved over to eliminate the need for gardening activities or to provide additional space to park vehicles to avoid permit parking costs. One extra colony will compete for some very precious resources. it strongly stimulates the development of colony population. particularly if weak.uk A biostimulant. honey production and it inhibits swarming! SuperBoost is a 10-component brood pheromone device that is easily hung between the frames of a beehive. One device placed in the hive works for over 30 days. although many household gardeners do use them. Claimed tests have shown huge increases in: pollen loads. young worker bees. This has limited the places bees can over-winter and has seen drastic reductions in the feral bee population in the UK this decade. What to look for in the locality of your hives In the countryside certain locations lend themselves to siting bee hives. enhanced liquid feed that is based on beef extract and molasses. If you walk in a three mile radius around the area where your hive(s) will be sited you will get an idea of how much useful forage is going to be available to your bees. It is a pheromone device that is easily hung between brood frames. If you have Italian bees.www. often the native habitat of honey bees. they rely on a continuous series of nectar flows to keep their colonies prolific. Colonies there often experience three nectar flows and hence Italian bees are very well suited for such an environment. so there is capacity to expand there. Obviously farmers requiring specific crop pollination will actually pay for a beekeeper to bring hives to the fields to ensure that a good yield is to be harvested and the beekeeper will receive copious crops of pollen and honey in return for this activity. It is available in 250ml (5 colony) and 1 litre (20 colony) treatments and must be applied every other day for nine days. SuperBoost £10 .
Flower Annuals Alyssum Annual scabiosa Asters Azaleas Calendula (pot marigold) Calliopsis (Coreopsis tinctoria) Ceanothus (California lilac) Chamomile Clover Cornflower Dahlia coltness Dandelion Elaeagnus Goldenrod Hebe Marigolds Poppies Sunflowers Teasel (teazel) Tobacco Plant (nicotiniana alata) Winter Jasmine Zinnia Flower Perennials PLANTS FOR HONEYBEES Food Plants Herbs Alfalfa Blackberries Beans Cantaloupe Chives Clover Corn Cotton Courgette Cucumbers Egg plant Gourds Melon Peas Peppers Pumpkins Quince Raspberry Red currant Soybeans Squash Strawberry Tomato Vetch Watermelons Wild Garlic Bee Balm Borage Catnip (catmint) Comfrey Coreopsis (tickseed or calliopsis) Coriander/Cilantro Fennel Field Woundwort Lavender Lesser snapdragon (weasel's snout) Lungwort Marjoram Mint Oregano Rosemary Sage Thyme Shrubs Blueberry Blackberry Black currant Broom(bissom) Buddleia Butterfly Bush Button Bush Cranberry Escallonia Gooseberry Heather (ling) Honeysuckle Hollies Indigo Japonica Kiwi Mahonia Privet Hedge Pyracantha Weigelia (firethorn) Wisteria Trees Almond Apple Apricot Alder American Holly Apple blossom Basswood Black Gum Black Locust Buckeyes Catalpa Cherry Eastern Redbud Elm Fruit Tree Bloosoms (esp.crabapples) Golden Rain Tree Hawthorn Hazel Horse Chesnut Linden Magnolia Maples Mountain Ash Peach Blossom Pear Persimmon Plum Sycamore Tulip Poplar Willow Achillea Bee sage (agastache foeniculum) Blue sea holly (blue distel) Buttercups Candytuft (iberis) Clematis Corncockle Corn/Red/Flanders Poppy(papaver rhoeas) Cosmos Crocuses Dahlias Deadnettle (lamium) Devil's bit scabious Echinacea English Ivy Foxglove Geraniums Germander Globe Thistle Greater knapweed Hollyhocks Hyacinth Larkspur Lilacs Meadow clary (meadow sage) Mexican hat (ratibida columnifera) Nasturtium Primrose (cowslips) Rock Cress Roses Sedum Snowdrops Spiked speedwell Squills Sweet William Tansy Thistle Valerian Viper's bugloss Whorled clary Wild clary (wild sage) Yarrow Yellow Hyssop .
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