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A RKADIUSZ JADCZYK, MARCO M ODUGNO
Seminar of the Department of Applied Mathematics University of Florence 1994
Reprinted on 27.05.2002
Galilei general relativistic quantum mechanics
Arkadiusz Jadczyk (1), Marco Modugno (2)
Institute of Theoretical Physics pl. Maksa Borna 9, 50204 Wrocaw, Poland l
(2) (1)
Department of Applied Mathematics “G. Sansone” Via S. Marta 3, 50139 Florence, Italy
Abstract We present a general relativistic approach to quantum mechanics of a spinless charged particle, subject to external classical gravitational and electromagnetic fields in a curved spacetime with absolute time. The scheme is also extended in order to treat the nbody quantum mechanics. First, we study the Galilei general relativistic spacetime, as classical background; then, we develop the quantum theory. The formulation is fully based on geometrical ideas and methods and is explicitly covariant. In the special relativistic case, our theory agrees with the standard one referred to a given frame of reference. Our approach takes into account several classical ideas and results of Galilei general relativity and geometric quantisation (see E. Cartan, C. Duval, K. Kucha®, H. P. Künzle, E. Prugovecki, A. Trautman, N. Woodhouse and several others). However, we present original ideas and results as well.
Key words: Galilei general relativity, curved spacetime, classical field theory, classical mechanics, quantum mechanics on a curved background; fibred manifolds, jets, connections; tangent valued forms, systems. 1991 MSC: 83D05, 81P05, 81S10, 81S40, 81T20, 70G50; 53B05, 55R05, 55R10, 58A20.
Preface
The book is addressed to a double audience: to mathematicians who at some point were attracted by the subject of quantum mechanics, but soon were repelled because they could not find a geometrical door to this magic palace. It is also addressed to those physicists who knowing all kinds of culinary recipes of how to compute quantum mechanical effects are still unsatisfied and thirsty of knowing some solid and primary mathematical principles that can be used to derive or to justify some of their successful formulae. In fact the book is more than just a compendium building from scratch geometrical foundation for Galileian relativity, wave functions, quantisation and Schrödinger equation. It is also an invitation to a further research. The greatest unsolved problem of the XXth century physics is as old as the famous EinsteinBohr debate. There were two main revolutions in physics witnessed by this century: relativity and quantum theory. Both were radical enough to change not only physics but also our entire Weltanschauung. After the great drama of Einstein's failure to reduce quantum theory to a unified nonlinear classical field theory, after so many and so spectacular successes both of relativity and quantum theory, we are tempted to believe that what we need is a union of the two opposites rather than a reduction of one to the other. It is with this in mind that we have undertaken the research whose fruits we want to share in this book. We hope that perhaps our way of approaching quantum mechanics geometrically will trigger new ideas in some readers, and clearly new ideas are necessary to catalyse the fruitful chemical reaction between so different components. We would like to point out the difference between our approach and that of geometric quantisation. Geometrical quantisation method is a powerful machine feeding itself on symplectic manifolds and their polarisations. So, it has a different scope than our approach because we are concerned with structures related to spacetime. On the other hand "time" is merely a parameter in geometrical quantisation; it is never treated fully geometrically. Thus it is difficult or impossible to discuss in that framework changes of
states corresponding to accelerated observers. Our approach stresses the full covariance from the very beginning, and covariance proves to be a powerful guiding principle. We thank our colleagues for their interest, questions, comments and criticism; they allowed us to shape our research domain. Thanks are due to Daniel Canarutto, Antonio Cassa, Christian Duval, Riccardo Giachetti, Josef Janyska, Jerzy Kijowski, Ivan Kolá®, Luca Lusanna, Peter Michor, Michele Modugno, Zbignew Oziewicz, Antonio PérezRendón, Cesare Reina and Andrzej Trautman for stimulating discussions. Thanks are also due to Raffaele Vitolo for careful reading and commenting through the manuscript. The book came out as a result of several years of collaboration that was supported by Italian MURST (by national and local funds) and GNFM of Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche and by Polish KBN. We acknowledge their kind support with gratitude. Florence, 31 December 1993
Arkadiusz Jadczyk, Marco Modugno
Table of contents
0  Introduction
0.1. Aims 0.2. Summary 0.3. Main features 0.4. Units of measurement 0.5. Further developments
I  The classical theory
4 6 19 23 24
I.1  SPACETIME I.1.1. Spacetime fibred manifold I.1.2. Vertical metric I.1.3. Units of measurement I.2  SPACETIME CONNECTIONS I.2.1. Spacetime connections I.2.2. Spacetime connections and observers I.2.3. Metrical spacetime connections I.2.4. Divergence and codifferential operators I.2.5. Second order connection and contact 2form I.2.6. Spacetime connection I.3  GRAVITATIONAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS I.3.1. The fields I.3.2. Gravitational and electromagnetic coupling I.4  FIELD EQUATIONS I.4.1. First field equation
25 25 29 31 33 33 36 38 40 42 46 48 48 49 55 55
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A. JADCZYK, M. MODUGNO
I.4.2. Geometrical interpretation of the first field equation I.4.3. First field equation interpreted through an observer I.4.4. First field equation interpreted through the fields I.4.5. Second gravitational equation I.4.6. Second electromagnetic equation I.4.7. Second field equation I.5  PARTICLE MECHANICS I.5.1. The equation of motion I.5.2. Observer dependent formulations of the Newton law of motion I.6  SPECIAL RELATIVISTIC CASE I.6.1. Affine structure of spacetime I.6.2. Newtonian connections and the Newton law of gravitation I.6.3. The special relativistic spacetime I.7  CLASSICAL TWOBODY MECHANICS I.7.1. Two body spacetime and equations I.7.2. The standard twobody solution
II  The quantum theory
55 61 64 66 69 71 73 73 74 78 78 80 85 87 88 92
II.1  THE QUANTUM FRAMEWORK II.1.1. The quantum bundle II.1.2. Quantum densities II.1.3. Systems of connections II.1.4. The quantum connection II.1.5. Quantum covariant differentials II.1.6. The principle of projectability II.2  THE GENERALISED SCHRöDINGER EQUATION II.2.1. The quantum Lagrangian II.2.2. The quantum momentum II.2.3. The generalised Schrödinger equation II.2.4. The quantum probability current
100 100 102 103 106 113 115 117 117 121 123 127
GALILEI GENERAL RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS
3
II.3  QUANTUM VECTOR FIELDS II.3.1. The Lie algebra of quantisable functions II.3.2. The Lie algebra of quantum vector fields II.4  QUANTUM LIE OPERATORS II.4.1. Lie operators II.4.2. The general Lie algebras isomorphism II.4.3. Main examples II.5  SYSTEMS OF DOUBLE FIBRED MANIFOLDS II.5.1. The system II.5.2. The tangent prolongation of the system II.5.3. Connections on the system II.6  THE INFINITE DIMENSIONAL QUANTUM SYSTEM II.6.1. The quantum system II.6.2. The Schrödinger connection on the quantum system II.6.3. Quantum operators on the quantum system II.6.4. Commutators of quantum operators II.6.5. The Feynmann path integral II.6  QUANTUM TWOBODY MECHANICS II.6.1. The quantum bundle and connection over the multispacetime II.6.2. The twobody solution for the quantum bundle and connection
III  Appendix
130 130 136 143 143 146 148 150 150 154 157 161 161 162 164 168 170 173 173 174 177 184 188 191 195 200 208 211
III.1. Fibred manifolds and bundles III.2. Tangent prolongation of fibred manifolds III.3. Jet prolongation of fibred manifolds III.4. Tangent valued forms III.5. General connections
IV  Indexes
IV.1  Main symbols IV.2  Analytic index IV.3  References
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A. JADCZYK, M. MODUGNO
La filosofia è scritta in questo grandissimo libro che continuamente ci sta aperto innanzi agli occhi (io dico l'universo), ma non si puó intendere se prima non si impara a intender la lingua, e conoscer i caratteri, ne quali è scritto. Egli è scritto in lingua matematica, e i caratteri son triangoli, cerchi ed altre figure geometriche, senza i quali mezzi è impossibile intenderne umanamente parola; senza questi è un aggirarsi vanamente per un oscuro labirinto. G. Galilei, VI, 232, Il Saggiatore, 1623.
0  INTRODUCTION
0.1. Aims
The standard quantum mechanics (see, for instance, [Me], [Sk], [Sc]) is quite well established and tested, so that it must be taken as touchstone for any further development. The supporting framework of this theory is the standard flat Galilei spacetime. Moreover, an inertial frame of reference is usually assumed and the implicit covariance of the theory is achieved by imposing a suitable transformation under the action of the Galilei group. As it is well known, the standard quantum mechanics conflicts with the classical theory of curved spacetime and gravitational field. This great problem is still open, in spite of several important attempts. We share the opinion that the first step aimed at approaching the solution should be a general relativistic formulation of quantum mechanics interacting with a given classical gravitational field in a curved spacetime. In the physical literature, the principle of covariance is mostly formulated in terms of representations. This viewpoint is very powerful and has been largely successful. Moreover, it is related to the view of geometry based on the famous Klein's programme, hence to the theories of representation of
GALILEI GENERAL RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS
5
groups and Lie algebras. However, we think that the modern developments of geometry cannot be exhausted by this approach. Indeed, we think that a direct approach to geometrical structures in terms of intrinsic algebraic structures, operators and functors is quite interesting and might deserve a primitive consideration. Then, the groups of automorphisms of such structures arise subsequently. Moreover, if the developments of the primitive structures are derived intrinsically, through functorial methods, then the invariance of the theory under the action of the automorphism groups is automatic. So, we think that, when we know the basic structures of our physical model, it is worthwhile following an intrinsic, i.e. manifestly covariant, approach. Indeed, in the cases when we know both an intrinsic formulation of a physical theory and a formulation via representations, the first one appears to be simpler and neater. Just to fix the ideas, consider a very simple example and refer to the formulations of electromagnetic field through the modern intrinsic language of exterior differential calculus and the older language based on components and the action of the Lorentz group. Actually, it is a pity that an intrinsic geometrical language has not yet been achieved for all domains that occur in physics. On the other hand, the method of representations remains essential for the study of classifications. So, the goal of our paper is a general relativistic quantum mechanics. As usual, by 'general relativistic' we mean 'covariant' with respect to the change of frames of reference (observers and units of measurement) and charts. Even more, we look for an explicitly covariant formulation based on intrinsic structures. The reader will judge if such an approach is neat and heuristically valuable. A general relativistic quantum mechanics demands a general relativistic classical spacetime as necessary support. Certainly, the most natural and interesting programme would be to study quantum mechanics on an Einstein general relativistic background, hence on a curved spacetime equipped with a Lorentz metric. On the other hand, it is possible to develop a general relativistic classical theory, based on a spacetime fibred over absolute time and equipped with a vertical Riemannian metric. This theory  which will be referred to as Galileian  is mathematically rigorous and selfcontained and provides a description of physical phenomena with a good approximation (with respect to the corresponding Einstein theory) in presence of low velocities and weak gravitational field. The Galilei classical mechanics has been studied by several authors (for instance, see [Ca], [Dv1], [Dv2], [DBKP], [DGH],
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A. JADCZYK, M. MODUGNO
[DH], [Eh], [Ha], [Ku], [Ke1], [Ke2], [Ku], [Kü1], [Kü2], [Kü3], [Kü4], [KD], [LBL], [Le], [Ma], [Mo1], [Pl], [Pr1], [Pr2], [SP], [Tr1], [Tr2], [Tu]); nevertheless, it is not common belief that many features, which are usually attached exclusively to Einstein general relativity, are also present in the Galilei theory. Then, in order to avoid confusion, we stress the difference between the general validity of notions such as general relativity, curved spacetime manifold, accelerated observers, equivalence principle and so on and their possible specifications into an Einstein or a Galilei theory. In spite of its weaker physical validity, the Galilei theory has some advantages due to its simplicity. Hence, we found worth starting our approach to quantum mechanics from the Galilei case. Later we shall apply to the Einstein case what we have learned in the Galilei case. On the other hand, this study can be considered not only as an useful exercise in view of further developments, but also physically interesting by itself.
0.2. Summary
In order to help the reader to get a quick synthesis of our approach, we sketch the main ideas and steps.
0.2.1. Classical theory We assume the classical spacetime to be a 4dimensional oriented fibred manifold (see § III.1) E T t:E éT over a 1dimensional oriented affine space associated with the vector space T. The typical spacetime chart is denoted by (x0, yi) and the corresponding time unit of measurement by u0$T or u0$T*. We obtain the scaled time form E dt:EéTÆT*E, with coordinate expression dt = u0æd0.
We deal with the jet space (see § III.3)
GALILEI GENERAL RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS
7
and the natural complementary contact maps E E d:J E éT*ÆTE ª:J1EéT*EÆVE , 1 E with coordinate expressions 0 0 i d = u æd = u æ(Ù _ y Ù ) 0 0 0 i
i ª = ªiæÙi = (di  y0 d0)æÙi.
E J1E éE
with coordinate expression j1s = u0æ⁄(Ù0©s _ Ù0si (Ùi©s)^. An observer is defined to be a section E o : E é J1E ç T*ÆTE
A classical (absolute) motion is defined to be a section T E s:T éE and its (absolute) velocity is the jet prolongation T E j1s:TéJ1E ç T*ÆTE,
and the observed velocity of the motion s is the vertical section E ıos ˆ j1s  o©s : T é T*ÆVE, with coordinate expression in an adapted chart ıos = Ù0si u0æ(Ùi©s).
with coordinate expression
Vertical restrictions are denoted by “ê”. We assume spacetime to be equipped with a scaled vertical Riemannian metric E g:EéAÆ(V*EÆV*E), E ê ê g = gij diædj E gij $ M(E,AÆ·).
The metric and the time form, along with a choice of the orientation, yield
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the scaled spacetime and spacelike volume forms 4 3 E E ¨:Eé(TÆA3/2)ÆLT*E ∆:EéA3/2ÆLV*E, with coordinate expressions ∆ = ÊÕ d1◊d2◊d3. ¡g¡ ê ê ê ¨ = ÊÕ u0æd0◊d1◊d2◊d3 ¡g¡
on the fibres of space time.
Moreover, the metric yields the vertical Riemannian connection E E º:VEéV*EÆEVVE VE
E E on the vector bundle TEéE and the torsion free affine connections Í:J1EéT*EJÆ TJ1E E
1
There is a natural bijection between the dtpreserving torsion free linear connections E K:TEéT*ETETTE Æ E E
E on the affine bundle J1EéE, with coordinate expressions h î î K = d¬æ(Ù¬ _ (K¬ih yh _ K¬i0 x0) Ùîi) Í = d¬æ(Ù¬ _ (Í¬ih y0 _ Í¬i©) Ù0) i Then, each of such equivalent connections, will be called a spacetime connection. A spacetime connection K yields, by vertical restriction, the spacetime vertical connection ê E E K:VEéV*EÆEVVE VE on the fibres of spacetime, with coordinate expression ê ê î K = djæ(Ùj _ Kjih yh Ùîi). Kµi¬ = K¬iµ = Í¬iµ = Íµi¬.
If Í is a spacetime connection and o an observer, then we obtain the co
GALILEI GENERAL RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS
9
variant differential
Then, the vertical metric and the observer itself yield the splitting of ıo into its symmetrical and antisymmetrical components 2 E E Á:Eé(T*ÆA)ÆÓT*E È:Eé(T*ÆA)ÆLT*E, È ˆ  2 u0æ(Í0j© d0◊dj _ Íij© di◊dj) ê ê The connection Í is characterised by K, Á and È. A spacetime connection K is said to be metrical if it preserves the contravariant vertical metric, i.e. if ıKg = 0. ã with coordinate expressions Á ˆ  2 u0æ(Í0j© d0√dj _ Íij© di√dj)
2
E E ıo:EéT*Æ(T*EÆVE). E
We cannot fully apply the methods of Riemannian geometry, because the metric g is degenerate. A spacetime connection Í yields the connection ˙ ˆ dœÍ : J1E é T*ÆTJ1E T on the fibred manifold J1EéT and the scaled 2form
2
on the manifold J1E, with coordinate expressions
Ò ˆ ~Í◊ª : J1E é (T*ÆA)ÆLT*J1E
k h ˙ = u0æ⁄Ù0 _ y0i Ùi _ (Íhik yh y0 _ 2 Íhi© y0 _ Í0i©) Ù0^ i 0 i Ò = gij u0æ(d0  ˙i d0  Íhi ªh)◊ªj.
They are said to be, respectively, the second order connection and the contact 2form associated with Í. These objects fulfill the equality ˙œÒ = 0; moreover
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is a scaled volume form on J1E; furthermore, for each observer o, we obtain È = 2 o*Ò, hence, we say that È is the observed contact 2form. On the other hand, ˙ and Ò characterise Í itself. We assume spacetime to be equipped with a spacetime connection ÍŸ:J1EéT*EJÆ TJ1E E
1
dt◊Ò◊Ò◊Ò:J1Eé(T*2ÆA3)ÆLT*J1E
7
and a scaled 2form
2 E F:EéBÆLT*E, representing the gravitational connection and the electromagnetic field. The gravitational connection and the electromagnetic field can be coupled in a natural way through a constant c , which can be either the square root ¢Ã of the gravitational constant, or the ratio q /m of a mass m$ M and a k charge q $Q of a given particle: the coupled objects will be called total. In practice, we are concerned with c = ¢Ã only in the context of the second k gravitational field equation and in all other cases we consider c = q /m. So, we obtain the total contact 2form
Ò ˆ ÒŸ _ Òe ˆ ÒŸ _ 1 c F, 2 the total second order connection ˙ ˆ ˙Ÿ _ ˙e and the total spacetime connection Í ˆ ÍŸ _ Íe, where E ˙e:J1EéT*Æ(T*ÆVE) turns out to be the Lorentz force and
GALILEI GENERAL RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS
11
a certain soldering form associated canonically with F, with coordinate expressions ˙e =  c (F0i _ Fhi yh) u0æÙ0 0 i
h Íe = 1 c ⁄(Fih y0 _ 2 Fi0) d0 _ Fij dj^æÙ0. 2 i
E Íe:J1EéT*EÆ(T*ÆVE) E
This splitting will be reflected in all other objects derived from the total connection. In order to couple the total connection with the vertical metric, we postulate the first field equation : for each charge and mass, the total contact 2form is closed, i.e. dÒ = 0. This equation expresses, in a compact way, a large number of important conditions. Namely, the first field equation is equivalent to the fact that the total connection is metrical and the total curvature tensor fulfills the standard symmetry properties. Moreover, the first field equation is equivalent to ê the fact that the vertical total connection K coincides with the vertical ê Riemannian connection º and, for each observer o, Á is given by the time derivative of the metric and È is closed. Moreover, in virtue of the arbitrariness of the mass and the charge, the first field equation implies the first Maxwell equation. In order to couple the total connection with the matter source, we postulate the second gravitational and electromagnetic field equations : rŸ = tŸ divŸ F = j. We restrict ourselves to consider a charged incoherent fluid, just as an example; these equations yield an Einstein type equation for the total connection r = t. The only observer independent way of expressing the generalised Newton law of motion of a classical particle, under the action of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields, is to assume that the covariant differential of the motion with respect to the second order total connection ˙ vanishes
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We stress that the standard Hamiltonian and Lagrangian approaches to classical dynamics depend on the choice of an observer in an essential way. Hence, they are not suitable for a general relativistic formulation of classical mechanics. Under reasonable hypothesis, there exist background affine structures on spacetime, which allow us to reinterpret the second field equation as the Newton law of gravitation. In particular, the special relativistic case is obtained by considering an affine spacetime with vanishing energy tensor of matter. By means of a slight modification of the above scheme we can formulate the nbody field theory and mechanics on a curved Galilei spacetime. In particular, the standard results for the twobody classical mechanics can be recovered as a special solution of our equations.
ı˙j1s = 0.
0.2.2. Quantum theory We assume the quantum bundle to be a linebundle Q E π:Q éE over spacetime. The quantum histories are described by the quantum sections E Q „:E éQ . In some respects, it is useful to regard a quantum section „ as a quantum density „∆ ˆ „æ¢Ã : E é Q∆. ∆ The typical normal chart of Q will be denoted by (z) and the corresponding base by (b); accordingly, we write „ = ¥ b, ¥ ˆ z©„. Then, we assume the quantum connection to be a Hermitian universal connection Q c:Q ŸéT*J E Æ TQ Ÿ 1 JE Q
1
GALILEI GENERAL RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS
13
on the pullback quantum bundle πŸ : QŸ ˆ J1E˚Q é J1E, E
whose curvature is proportional to the classical total contact 2form, according to the formula 2 Rc = i m Òæi : QŸ é LT*J1E Æ Q Ÿ. h
c
The universal connection Hermitian connections
can be naturally regarded as a system of
J1E
Q E on the bundle π:Q éE , whose curvature is proportional to the observed total contact 2form È, for each observer o, according to the formula 2 R≈ = 1 i m Èæi : Q é LT*EÆQ 2 h The quantum connection is essentially our unique structure postulated for quantum mechanics; all other structures and objects will be derived from this in a natural way. We prove that the coordinate expression of the quantum connection, is of the type 0 c =  H/h c = p /h c = 0, j 0 j j
o E
Q ≈:J1E˚Q éT*E ÆTQ E E
where H and p are the classical Hamiltonian and momentum associated with the frame of reference attached to the chosen chart, with a suitable gauge of the total potential E a:Eé(T*ÆA)ÆT*E of the closed 2form È, which refers both to the gravitational and electromagnetic fields. The composition Q Q ˙œc:QŸéT*ÆTQŸ T turns out to be a connection on the fibred manifold QŸéT , whose coordinate expression is of the type
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where L is the classical Lagrangian associated with the frame of reference attached to the chosen chart. E Q If „:E éQ is a quantum section, then we obtain the quantum covariant differential ıc„:J1EéT*EÆQ , E with coordinate expression ı„ = ⁄(Ù0¥ _ i H/h ¥) d0 _ (Ùj¥  i pj/h ¥) dj^æb.
i ˙œc = u0æ(Ù0 _ y0 Ùi _ ˙i Ù0 _ i L/h i), i
The quantum connection lives on the pullback quantum bundle QŸéJ1E (i.e. is parametrised by all observers), but we wish to derive further physical obE jects living on the quantum bundle Q éE (i.e. observer independent objects). We shall achieve them by means of a principle of projectability, which turns out to be our way to implement the principle of general relativity in the framework of quantum mechanics. By means of the principle of projectability, we can exhibit a distinguished quantum Lagrangian 4 L:J1QéA3/2ÆLT*E, with coordinate expression
h L„ = 1 ⁄ m gij Ùi¥ Ùj¥  i (Ù0.ã ¥  ¥ Ù0.¥) _ i ai (Ùi¥ ¥  ¥ Ùi¥) _ ã ¥ ã ã ã 2
ã _ m (2 a0  ai ai) ¥ ¥^ u0æ¨. h The quantum Lagrangian yields the quantum 4momentum E p:J1QéT*ÆTEÆQ , E
h p„ = u0æ⁄¥ Ù0  i m gij (Ùj¥  i m aj ¥) Ùi^æb. h
with coordinate expression
GALILEI GENERAL RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS
15
This can also be obtained directly from the contact structure of spacetime and the vertical quantum covariant differential, by means of the principle of projectability. Then, the EulerLagrange equation associated with the quantum Lagrangian turns out to be the generalised Schrödinger equation ê Q *E#:J2QéT*ÆQ, with coordinate expression Ù0ÊÕ ¡g¡ ê *E#„ = 2 ⁄i Ù0¥ _ m a0 ¥ _ 1 i ÊÕ ¥ _ h 2 ¡g¡
h _ 2m (gij (Ùij¥  2 i m ai Ùj¥  (i m Ùiaj _ m2 ai aj) ¥) _ h h h
2
with coordinate expression
¡g¡ Ùi(gij ÊÕ) _ ÊÕ (Ùj¥  i m aj ¥))^ b. h ¡g¡ This can also be obtained directly from the timelike quantum covariant differential of the quantum section and the quantum covariant codifferential of the quantum 4momentum, by means of the principle of projectability. The invariance of the quantum Lagrangian with respect to the group U(1) yields a conserved probability 4current 3 j:J1QéA3/2ÆLT*E,
j„ = ÊÕ ⁄ã ¥ d1◊d2◊d3 _ ¡g¡ ¥
h â _ (1)h ( i 2m ghk (ã Ùk¥  Ùk¥ ¥)  ah ¥ ¥) d0◊d1…◊dh…◊d3^. ¥ ã ã
In view of quantum operators, we need further preliminary results on classical mechanics. The contact 2form 2 m Ò:J1EéLT*J1E h
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yields a natural Hamiltonian lift of the classical functions f:J1E é· into vector fields f#:J1EéTJ1E † with a given timecomponent †:J1EéT. We have the coordinate expression
h i f# = † (Ù0 _ y0 Ùi _ ˙i Ù0) _ m gij ⁄ Ù0f Ùi _ (Ùjf _ (Íjk  Íkj) Ù0f) Ù0^. † j k i i
Moreover, such a vector field is projectable over a vector field E E fH:E éTE E if and only if the function f is quadratic with respect to the fibre of J1E éE and its second fibre derivative is proportional to the metric g through the coefficient †. The coordinate expression of such a function is of the type
i j i f = f» 2m gij y0 y0 _ fi y0 _ f©, h
E f»,f©,fi$F(E).
These functions are called quantisable functions and we prove that they constitute naturally a Lie algebra. The coordinate expression of the bracket is quite long. The classical time, position, momentum, Hamiltonian and Lagrangian functions are quantisable functions. Then, we consider the vector fields Q Q XŸ:QŸéTQŸ on the pullback quantum bundle, with a given timecomponent † :J1EéT, which preserve the quantum structures. We prove that they are of the type XŸf,† ˆ c(f#) _ i i f, † †
where f:J1Eé· is a function. Then, we prove that the vector field XŸf,† is projectable over a vector field † if and only if the corresponding function f is a quantisable function and the timecomponent of the vector field coincides with the timecomponent of the quantisable function. The coordinate expression of such a vector field is Q Q Xf:QéTQ
GALILEI GENERAL RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS
17
given by the important formula
h Xf = f» Ù0  m fi Ùi _ i (m f» a0  fi ai _ f©) i. h
is a Lie algebra isomorphism. The quantum vector fields act naturally on the quantum densities „ ∆ as quantum Lie operators Yf ˆ i Xf., according to the coordinate expression Yf(„∆) =
These projected vector fields X f are called quantum vector fields. Moreover, we prove that they constitute a Lie algebra and that the map f ´ Xf
h h ê ê ê = i ⁄f» ıo0¥∆  m fi ıoi¥∆  i f© ¥∆ _ 1 (Ù0f»  m Ùifi) ¥∆^ bæÊd1◊d2◊d3. 2
between the quantisable functions and the quantum Lie operators. In particular, in the special Galilei case, the classical Hamiltonian corresponds to the timederivative and the affine quantisable functions correspond to the standard quantum operators. So far, the quantum theory has been developed on the finite dimensional E bundle QéE over spacetime. Next, in order to achieve the Hilbert structure in the quantum framework, we derive in a natural way an infinite dimensional Q T Hilbert bundle HQ∆éT over time. Namely, we consider the infinite dimensional fibred set Q T ß:SQ∆éT E T constituted by the tube sections of the double fibred manifold Q ∆éE éT and obtain a natural bijection
Therefore, we obtain a Lie algebra isomorphism f ´ Yf
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A. JADCZYK, M. MODUGNO
â „´„ â T Q E Q between the sections „∆:EéQ∆ and „∆:TéSQ∆. Q T Then, we define a smooth structure on SQ∆éT, according to the Frölicher's definition of smoothness; hence, we are able to construct the tangent space Q T and define the connections on the fibred set SQ∆éT. The above constructions are compatible with any subsheaf of tube sections E T of the double fibred manifold Q ∆éE éT ; in particular, we are interested to the tube sections with spacelike compact support. They yield the fibred set T ßc:ScQ∆éT. Moreover, we prove that the Schrödinger equation can be regarded as the equation ık„∆ = 0, ââ â k:ScQ∆éT*ÆTScQ∆ T is a symmetric connection on the infinite dimensional bundle ScQ∆éT , which is called the Schrödinger connection, and has the coordinate expression h ê ê ê ê k0(„∆) = i (2m Ëo¥∆ _ m a0 ¥∆) u0æbæÊd1◊d2◊d3. h There is a unique natural way to obtain a fibred morphism ScQ∆éScQ∆ over â T Q T (and not only a differential operator acting on the sections „∆:TéQ∆) from any quantisable function. Namely, the quantum operator associated with the quantisable function f is defined to be the symmetric fibred morphism â Úf:ScQ∆éScQ∆ where
induced by the sheaf morphism â â Úf ˆ Yf  i f»œık, â with coordinate expression Úf(„∆) =
GALILEI GENERAL RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS
19
h h h ê ê ê ê = ⁄fo ¥∆ _ i 1 (Ù0f»  m Ùifi) ¥∆  i m fi ıoi¥∆  f» 2m Ëo¥∆^ bæÊd1◊d2◊d3. 2
Thus, the above formula is our implementation of the principle of correspondence, achieved in a pure geometrical way. In particular, in the special Galilei case, these operators and their commutators correspond to the standard ones. T Eventually, the fibred set ScQ∆éT yields the quantum Hilbert bundle Q T HQ∆éT, by the completion procedure. This bundle will carry the standard probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics. We stress that we do not have a unique Hilbert space, but a Hilbert bundle over time. Indeed, a unique Hilbert space would be in conflict with the principle of relativity. On the other hand, a global observer yields an isometry between the fibres of the quantum Hilbert bundle. The Feynmann amplitudes arise in a natural and nice way in our framework. By means of a slight modification of the above scheme we can formulate the nbody quantum mechanics on a curved Galilei spacetime. In particular, the standard results for the twobody quantum mechanics can be recovered as a special solution of our equations.
0.3. Main features
The literature concerning classical Galilei general relativity and geometric approaches to quantum mechanics is very extended. We have been mainly influenced by the ideas due to E. Cartan (see [Ca]), C. Duval (see [DBKP]), H. P. Künzle (see [DBKP], [Kü1], [Kü2], [Kü3]), E. Prugovecki (see [Pr]) and A. Trautman (see [Tr1], [Tr2]) and by the scheme of geometrical quantisation due to B. Kostant and J. M. Souriau (see [St], [Wo]). Also the papers by F. Bayen, M. Flato, C. Fronsdal, A. Lichnerowicz and D. Sternheimer (see BFFLS]), W. Pauli (see [Pl]), H. D. Dombrowski and K. Horneffer (see [DH]), P. Havas (see [Ha]), X. Kepes (see [Ke1], [Ke2]), C. Kiefer and T.P. Singh (see [KS]), K. Kucha® (see [Ku]), M. Le Bellac (see [LBL]), J. M. LevyLeblond (see [LBL], [Le]), L. Mangiarotti (see [Ma]), M.
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A. JADCZYK, M. MODUGNO
Modugno (see [Mo1]), E. Schmutzer and J. Plebanski (see [SP]) and W. M. Tulczyjew (see [Tu]) have been considered. We omit a detailed comparison between the above literature and our paper, because it would take too much space. Indeed, sometimes, such a comparison turns out to be very hard because it is not possible to recover our intrinsic and well defined spaces in other papers. We just say that our approach and results seem to be original in several respects. Our touchstone for quantum mechanics is the standard theory. Actually, even if our scheme is quite far from the usual one, we stress that we do not touch the standard probabilistic interpretation and, eventually, our concrete results agree with the standard ones in the special Galilei case. So, our theory can be regarded both as a generalisation of the standard theory (in order to fulfill the principle of general relativity and to include the interaction with a gravitational field on a curved spacetime) and as a new heuristic language (in view of further interpretations and developments). All ideas and developments are achieved in a fully geometrical way. All formulas are expressed intrinsically and their coordinate or observer dependent expressions are given as well. As we have already largely discussed, groups have no direct role. On the other hand we define carefully the geometrical structures of the fundamental spaces and derive the physical theory from them. Of course, the transformation laws of the derived objects can also be checked directly. We stress that the representations arising from our intrinsic methods are not trivial and could not be guessed as consequence of standard procedures. In particular, our implementation of the covariant principle of correspondence seems to be a miracle due to these specific geometrical structures. The principle of relativity is basically implemented by the fact that spacetime is a fibred manifold, without any distinguished trivialisation. Each splitting of spacetime is associated with an observer and no distinguished observers are assumed. All subsequent structures must respect this original feature. So, time cannot be just a trivial parameter, but the fibring over time yields structures playing an important role in the theory. The most usual (mostly Lagrangian or Hamiltonian) formulations of classi
GALILEI GENERAL RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS
21
cal mechanics are based on the vertical tangent or cotangent spaces, or on the cotangent space of spacetime. These approaches are related to a philosophy, which is very far from ours; in fact, the final physical interpretation of these theories cannot be expressed in an observer independent way; so, we disregard this viewpoint. Conversely, the approach based on the tangent space of spacetime is manifestly observer independent, but it depends on the choice of a time unit of measurement. Our approach is based on the jet space, because this is the only way to obtain a formulation which is independent of observers and units of measurement of time. Our choice yields important consequences both for the classical and quantum theories. Another, typical feature of our formulation depends on the fundamental role played by connections both in the classical and quantum theories. So, the classical field theory and mechanics is based on the spacetime connection; moreover, we derive the quantum dynamics and operators from the quantum connection. We mostly deal with linear or affine connections, but we are also concerned with notions and methods related to general connections (see [ MM], [Mo2], [Mo3]). As it is well known, a general connection on a fibred manifold is defined as a section of the jet bundle; such a section can also be regarded, equivalently, as a horizontal valued 1form on the base space, or a vertical valued 1form on the total space. The first viewpoint is more suitable for its relation with jets and the FrölicherNijenhuis bracket, while the second one is more directly related to the covariant differential of forms. We refer to the first viewpoint as the primitive one; for this reason, our coefficients of the connections turn out to be the negatives of the standard ones. It is well known that the differential calculus associated with a general connection can be derived from the FrölicherNijenhuis graded Lie algebra of tangent valued forms (see [ MM], [Mo2], [Mo3]); this calculus is simple and more powerful than the standard one, even in the case of linear connections. Therefore, we find it convenient to refer always to this general method. Indeed, some steps of our theory require specifically notions of this general calculus (see, for instance, the upper quantum vector fields, § II.3.2). Classical mechanics cannot be formulated by Hamiltonian or Lagrangian approaches in an observer independent way. On the other hand, a classical Hamiltonian (contact) formalism can be developed; however, it has no co
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variant role in classical mechanics, but yields a fundamental link between classical and quantum structures, with respect to the quantum connection and quantum operators. Some analogies between our approach and the geometrical quantisation (see, for instance, [St], [Wo]) are evident; but also several important differences arise. The main source of differences is again due to our requirement of general relativistic covariance, hence to the role of time. In particular, we are led to base the quantisation procedure on a contact 2form; indeed the symplectic structure of geometric quantisation is essentially vertical, hence cannot have a relativistically covariant total role. As the vertical metric is degenerate, the standard methods of Riemannian geometry cannot be applied fully. However, the first field equation, based on the closure of the contact 2form, provides a compact way of expressing the coupling between the vertical metric and the spacetime connection, and several other important equations as well. The gravitational and electromagnetic coupling works well and consistently in all respect, in the classical and quantum theories. This seems to be an original aspect of our theory. The Lie algebra of quantisable functions is new, as far as we know. It is one of the key points of the covariant principle of correspondence. The coordinate expression of the generalised Schrödinger equation is similar to the standard one in the flat case. For short, it replaces the wave function with a wave density; but the difference is more subtle than it could seem at a first insight. We stress that, in the quantum theory, the total potential associated with an observer cannot be split into its gravitational and electromagnetic components. The reader is only requested to have a standard knowledge of differential geometry, general relativity and quantum mechanics. Besides that, the work is rather selfcontained. An appendix provides a quick outline of the basic notions on fibred manifolds, tangent and jet spaces, general connections and tangent valued forms, which are traceable only in a specialised literature. These notions are neces
GALILEI GENERAL RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS
23
sary for a full understanding of all details of our treatment. However, we stress that the reader, who does not like to spend too much time on an abstract geometrical language, does not need to go thoroughly through this subject: a glance will be sufficient for understanding the greatest part of the paper.
0.4. Units of measurement
A further original feature of our formulation concerns the way we treat the units of measurement, in order to emphasise, in a clear and rigorous way, the independence of the theory from any choice of scales. In fact, some physical objects (mass, charge, and so on) can be described by elements of one dimensional vector spaces. Moreover, some other physical objects (metric, electromagnetic field, and so on) can be described by sections of vector bundles, which can be identified with geometrical bundles up to a scale factor. Furthermore, each frame of reference involves a time scale. Only ratios of two vectors of such a 1 dimensional vector space or of two scale factors are numbers. Then, we are led to consider “semivector” spaces over the “semifield” ·_ ˆ {x$· ¡ x>0} and define the dual of a semivector space and the tensor products over ·_ of semivector spaces. In particular, a vector space is also a semivector space and the tensor product of a semivector space with a vector space turns out to be a vector space. A positive semivector space is defined to be a semivector space whose scalar multiplication cannot be extended neither to ·_‰{0} nor to ·. When we are concerned with a 1dimensional positive semivector space, we often denote the duals of its elements as inverses and the tensor products of its elements with vectors as scalar products; in this way, we can treat elements of 1dimensional positive semivector spaces as they were numbers. So, our practical formulas look like the standard ones in the physical literature. We can also define the roots of 1dimensional positive semivector spaces. The halfdensities can be obtained as a byproduct of the above algebraic scheme. Thus, in our theory we obtain vector fields, forms, tensors and so on, which are tensorialised with some scale factor belonging to a 1dimensional vector or positive semivector space. We stress that the usual differential
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operations, such as Lie derivative, exterior differential, covariant differential, and so on, can be naturally extended to the above scaled objects. We shall perform these operations without any further warning.
0.5. Further developments
In the special relativistic Galilei case, our practical results agree with the corresponding ones of standard quantum mechanics. For example, in this case, the concrete computations concerning harmonic oscillator, hydrogen atom and so on agree with the standard ones. Thus, unlike some other geometrical approaches to quantum mechanics, nothing needs to be checked in this direction. Nevertheless, a possible theoretical interest of our scheme might be maintained also in the special relativistic case. Therefore, in order to provide some new concrete quantum examples on an effectively curved spacetime, one has first to find nontrivial solutions of the classical fields. Eventually, we observe that our theory can be also considered from an experimental viewpoint. In fact, some results could be checked in principle by experiments. But a detailed analysis of this aspect is beyond the purpose of the present work. In a forthcoming paper we shall extend our approach, preserving the spirit of the present work, in order to include spin. Moreover, we expect that our methods be suitable for further extension to Einstein general relativistic spacetime.
GALILEI GENERAL RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS
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I  THE CLASSICAL THEORY
The general relativistic quantum theory requires a general relativistic classical spacetime as support. Therefore, the first part of the paper is devoted to a model of Galilei curved spacetime with absolute time. In this framework, we formulate the dynamics of classical gravitational and electromagnetic fields and of a classical test particle.
I.1  Spacetime
First, we introduce the spacetime fibred manifold and its spacelike metrical structure.
I.1.1. Spacetime fibred manifold
In this section, we introduce the spacetime fibred manifold and study its tangent and jet prolongations. Moreover, we state our conventions about coordinates. A S S U M P T I O N C1. We assume spacetime to be a 4dimensional orientable fibred manifold (see § III.1) E T t:E éT over a 1dimensional oriented affine space T , associated with the vector space T. ò
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R EMARK I . 1 . 1 . 1 . Thus, we assume the absolute time T and the absolute time function t. But we do not mention any “absolute space”, as we do not assume any distinguished splitting of the spacetime fibred manifold into a product of time and space. Later, any choice of such a local splitting will be associated with an observer; no distinguished observer is assumed. ò R EMARK I . 1 . 1 . 2 . The differential of the time function is the T valued form E dt:EéTÆT*E. E We shall be involved with the tangent space TE and the vertical subspace E VE; we recall the exact sequence of vector bundles over E (see § III.2) 0 ä äV E ä T E The 1jet space J1E (see § III.3) plays an important role in the classical E and quantum theories. We recall that J1E éE is an affine bundle associated E E with the vector bundle T*ÆVEéE. We shall be involved with the canonical fibred morphisms over E (see [Mo2])1 E E d:J E éT*ÆTE ª:J1EéT*EÆVE , 1 E which provide a natural splitting of the above exact sequence over J1E (they ò are quoted as the contact structure of jets). D EFINITION I. 1. 1. 1. An (absolute) motion is defined to be a section T E s:T éE and its (absolute) velocity is defined to be its first jet prolongation T j1s:TéJ1E. D EFINITION I . 1 . 1 . 2 . An observer is defined to be a section E o:EéJ1E.
1 d is the Cyrillic character corresponding to “d”.
¡
¡
GALILEI GENERAL RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS
27
Thus, J1E can be considered as the target space both of the velocity of particles and of observers. R EMARK I . 1 . 1 . 3 . Global observers exist, because of the affine structure E of J1E éE . E T Each observer o is nothing but a connection on the fibred manifold t:E éT (see § III.5). Hence, an observer o yields a splitting of the exact tangent sequence o ~o E E 0 T Tä ˚ äVE ä ä ,0 where E E ~o : TE é VE : X ´ X  dt(X)œo.
In other words, an observer o yields a splitting of the tangent bundle of spacetime into its “observed” timelike and spacelike components E E E E TE ≠ (E˚T)˚VE , given by the two linear fibred projections over E E E E E dt:TEéE˚T ~o:TEéVE.
and we obtain
T E So, if s:TéE is a motion and o is an observer, then we define the observed velocity to be the fibred morphism over s E ıos ˆ ıo©j1s : T é T*ÆVE j1s = ıos _ o©s. ò
Moreover, an observer o yields the translation fibred morphism over E E ıo : J1E é T*ÆVE : ß1  o©ß.
A time unit of measurement is defined to be an oriented basis or its dual (see § III.1) u0$T_ u0$T_*.
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A frame of reference is defined to be a pair (u0, o), where u0 is a time unit of measurement and o an observer. We denote the typical chart of E , adapted to the fibring, to a time unit of measurement u0$T_ and to the spacetime orientation, by (x0,yi). E The induced charts of TE, J1E and TJ1E are denoted by Moreover, the corresponding local bases of vector fields and 1forms of E, E TE and J1E are denoted by (Ù0,Ùi), (Ù0,Ùi,Ùî ,Ùîi), (Ù0,Ùi,Ù0) 0 i Thus, by construction, we have dt©Ù0 = u0 Moreover, we can write
i (d0,di), (d0,di,d0,diî), (d0,di,d0), î i i î î îi (x0,yi;x0,yi), (x0,yi;y0), (x0,yi,y0;x0,yi,y0). î î
t*u0 = dx0.
In general, vertical restrictions will be denoted by “ê”. In particular, the ê local base of vertical 1forms of E will be denoted by (di). Greek indices ¬, µ, … run from 0 to 3, Latin indices i,j,h,k, … run from 1 to 3 and capital Latin indices A, B, … span the values 0,1,2,3,1,2,3. 000 The coordinate expressions of dt, d and ª are dt = u0ædx0
d
Ù0 = u0æÙi. i
with
d
= u0æd0
ª = ªiæÙi,
i ªi ˆ di  y0 d0.
The coordinate expression of the absolute velocity of a motion s is
i 0 ˆ Ù0 _ y0 Ùi
GALILEI GENERAL RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS
29
j1s = u0æ⁄(Ù0©s _ Ù0si (Ùi©s)^. Each chart (x0,yi) determines the local observer E o ˆ u0æÙ0 : E é T*ÆTE,
i with coordinate expression (in the same chart) o0 = 0. This chart is said to be adapted to o. Conversely, each observer admits many adapted charts. Let o be an observer and let us refer to adapted coordinates. Then, we obtain the following coordinate expressions i ~o = diæÙi ıo = y0 u0æÙi;
T E moreover if s:T éE is a motion, then the coordinate expression of the observed velocity is ıos = Ù0si u0æÙi.
I.1.2. Vertical metric
In this section, we introduce the spacetime metric and study the main related structures. A S S U M P T I O N C 2 . We assume spacetime to be equipped with a scaled 2vertical Riemannian metric E g:EéAÆ(V*EÆV*E), E
ò
where A is a 1dimensional positive semivector space (see § III.1.3). Thus, A represents the space of area units.
We can also regard g as a degenerate 4dimensional metric of signature (0,3) by considering the associated contravariant tensor E E E E g ã : E é A*Æ(VEÆVE) ç A*Æ(TEÆTE). E E The metrical linear fibred isomorphism and its inverse will be denoted by
2 Here and later, “scaled” means “defined up to a scale factor”.
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with
E E g@:VEéAÆV*E g#:V*EéA*ÆVE. The coordinate expressions of g and ã are g ê ê g = gij ÙiæÙj ã g = gij diædj E gij $ M(E,AÆ·) E gij $ M(E,A*Æ·).
R EMARK I . 1 . 2 . 1 . The metric, the timefibring and the choice of an orientation of the manifold E yield a spacetime and a spacelike scaled volume form 4 3 E E ¨:Eé(TÆA3/2)ÆLT*E ∆:EéA3/2ÆLV*E. Then, we obtain the dual elements 4 3 E E ã :Eé(T*ÆA*3/2)ÆLTE ¨E ∆:EéA*3/2ÆLVE . ãE We have the coordinate expressions ∆ = ÊÕ d1◊d2◊d3 ¡g¡ ê ê ê ¨ = ÊÕ u0æd0◊d1◊d2◊d3 ¡g¡ ¨ 1 ã = ÊÕ u0æÙ0◊Ù1◊Ù2◊Ù3 ¡g¡ where E ¡g¡ ˆ det (gij) $ M(E,A3). ò R EMARK I . 1 . 2 . 2 . The metric g yields the Riemannian connection on the fiE T bres of t:EéT, which can be regarded as the section E E º:VEéV*EÆEVVE, VE with coordinate expression where ê î º = djæ(Ùj _ ºjih yh Ùîi), 1 ∆ = ÊÕ Ù1◊Ù2◊Ù3, ã ¡g¡
GALILEI GENERAL RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS
31
ºhik =  1 gij (Ùhgjk _ Ùkgjh  Ùjghk). 2
ò
Thus, the differences between the Einstein and Galilei general relativistic spacetimes can be summarised as follows:  in the Einstein case, we have a Lorentz metric and no fibring over absolute time;  in the Galilei case, we have a “spacelike” metric ã and a “timelike” 1g E form dt:EéTÆT*E, which determines the fibring over absolute time. In brief words, we can say that the essential difference between the two theories consists in the replacement of the light cones with the vertical subspaces.
I.1.3. Units of measurement
We have already introduced the 1dimensional oriented vector space of units of measurement of time T (Ass. C1 in I.1.1) and 1dimensional positive vector space of units of measurement of area (Ass.C2 in I.1.2). Now, we complete our assumptions of fundamental spaces of units of measurement by introducing the 1dimensional positive vector space of masses. These three spaces generate all other spaces of units of measurement. In the classical theory we assume a distinguished element in one of these spaces, namely the universal gravitational coupling constant. In the quantum theory we shall assume another distinguished element in one of these spaces, namely the Plank constant (see Ass. Q2 in § II.1.4). A SSUMPTION C 3 . We assume the space of masses to be a 1dimensional positive semivector space (see § III.1.3) M. ò The mass of a classical or quantum particle is defined to be an element m $ M. The mass plays the role of coupling constants for the metric. The three fundamental 1dimensional semivector spaces (see § III.1.3) T, A and M generate all spaces of units of measurement. D E F I N I T I O N I.1.3.1. A space of units of measurement is defined to be a
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1dimensional semivector space of the type U ˆ TpÆAqÆMr, where p, q, and r are rational numbers (see § III.1.3). We say that U has dimensions (p,q,r).
¡
In the classical theory we assume just one universal unit of measurement. A SSUMPTION C 4 . We assume the gravitational coupling constant to be an element 2 3/2 k $ T* ÆA ÆM*. ò
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33
I.2  Spacetime connections
In view of further development of our model, we need a preliminary study of connections which preserve the fibred and metrical structure of spacetime.
I.2.1. Spacetime connections
In this section, we introduce the notion of spacetime connection by referring to the tangent or to the jet space, equivalently. E E R EMARK I . 2 . 1 . 1 . Let K be a linear connection on the vector bundle TE éE (see § III.5). The following conditions are equivalent: i) K is dtpreserving, i.e. ıdt = 0; E ii) the coefficients K¬0µ$F(E) of K with timelike superscript vanish, i.e. Moreover, the following conditions are equivalent: E T iii) the fibres of t:EéT are auto parallel with respect to K, i.e. E E E E ıXY $ S(VEéE) ÅX,Y$S(VEéE): E T iv) K can be restricted to the fibres of t:EéT; 0 $F(E) of K with timelike superscript vanish, i.e. v) the coefficients Ki j E Ki0j = 0. K¬0µ = 0.
Furthermore, i) implies iii).
ò
Let us consider a dtpreserving torsion free linear connection E K:TEéT*ETETTE Æ E E
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E E on the vector bundle TEéE and a torsion free3 affine connection Í:J1EéT*EJÆ TJ1E, E E on the affine bundle J1E éE . Their coordinate expressions are of the type Í = d¬æ(Ù¬ _ Í¬i Ù0) K = d¬æ(Ù¬ _ K¬i Ùîi) i î î K¬i ˆ K¬ih yh _ K¬i0 x0 Í¬iµ = Íµi¬
h Í¬i ˆ Í¬ih y0 _ Í¬i©
1
where
with
K¬iµ = Kµi¬,
E Í¬iµ, K¬iµ $ F(E). P ROPOSITION I . 2 . 1 . 1 . There is a natural bijection K´Í between such connections; its coordinate expression is given by Í¬iµ = K¬iµ.
PROOF. It follows by considering the following commutative diagram Í E T*EÆTJ E á á J
1
d
¸
T * Æ T *Eä T Æ(T*E Æ K
E
¸ EÆT() E T ≠ T T*EäT*ÆTE) E TE
E
1
á ò
D EFINITION I . 2 . 1 . 1 . A spacetime connection is defined to be, equivalently, a connection K, or Í, of the above type. ¡
3
The torsion for such an affine connection is defined through the Tvalued soldering form ª, via the FrölicherNijenhuis bracket (see § III.4, § III.5).
GALILEI GENERAL RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS
35
The first viewpoint is more suitable for field theory (where we have to take covariant derivatives of spacetime tensors), the second one for classical and quantum particle mechanics (where the jet space plays the role of kinematical space). We shall be involved with the vertical valued 1forms associated with the spacetime connection (see § III.5) E EÆ E E ~K:TEéT*TETETE ~Í:J1EéT*Æ(T*J1E JÆ VE ) E E
1
with coordinate expressions i .æÙ ~K = d0 0 _ (d.  K¬i d¬)æÙi
i ~Í = (d0  Í¬i d¬)æÙ0. i
E E of the vertical bundle VEéE, with coordinate expression î K' = d¬æ(Ùj _ K¬ih yh Ùîi).
R E M A R K I . 2 . 1 . 2 . The spacetime connection K restricts to the linear connection E E K':VEéT*EÆETVE VE ò
which can be regarded as a smooth family of linear connections on the fibres E T of t:EéT, and has coordinate expression ê ê î K = djæ(Ùj _ Kjih yh Ùîi). ò R E M A R K I . 2 . 1 . 4 . Given a spacetime connection K, we can define, as usual, its curvature4 (see § III.5)
4
R EMARK I . 2 . 1 . 3 . The natural linear fibred epimorphism T*E éV *E over E yields the further restriction ê E E K:VEéV*EÆEVVE, VE
[ , ] is the Frölicher Nijenhuis bracket.
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A. JADCZYK, M. MODUGNO
its Ricci tensor and its scalar curvature
E E R ˆ 1 [K,K] : TE é LT*EÆVE 2 E r ˆ 2 C1R : E é T*EÆT*E 1 E s ˆ Çã , r¶ : E é ·, g
2
with coordinate expressions R ˆ R¬µi~ d¬◊dµæÙiæd~ = (Ù¬Kµi~ _ K¬j~ Kµij) d¬◊dµæÙiæd~ r = (ÙiK¬iµ  Ù¬Kiiµ _ Kijµ K¬ij  K¬jµ Kiij) d¬ædµ ê Then, the scalar curvature of K coincides with the scalar curvature of K ê s = s. ò
I.2.2. Spacetime connections and observers
s = ghk (ÙiKhik  ÙhKiik _ Kijh Kkij  Khjk Kiij).
In this section, we consider a spacetime connection Í, an observer o along with an adapted spacetime chart (x0,yi) and describe the connection through the observer. REMARK I.2.2.1. The covariant differential of the observer is the section E E ıo:EéT*Æ(T*EÆVE), E ò
with coordinate expression in adapted coordinates ıo =  u0æ(Í0i© d0 _ Íji© dj)æÙi.
R EMARK I . 2 . 2 . 2 . The metric g and the inclusion V*E ç T*E induced by the observer allow us to regard ıo as a section
GALILEI GENERAL RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS
37
We can split the above tensor into its symmetrical and anti symmetrical components (ıo)@ = 1 Á _ 1 È, 2 2 where Then, we obtain the coordinate expressions Á ˆ u0æ⁄2 Á0j d0√dj _ Áij di√dj^ =  2 u0æ(Í0j© d0√dj _ Íij© di√dj) where with È ˆ u0æ⁄2 È0j d0◊dj _ Èij di◊dj) =  2 u0æ(Í0j© d0◊dj _ Íij© di◊dj), Áij =  (Íij© _ Íji©) Á0j =  Í0j© = È0j E Á¬j, È¬j $ M(E,AÆ·). Èij =  (Íij©  Íji©), ò E Á:Eé(T*ÆA)ÆÓT*E 2 E È:Eé(T*ÆA)ÆLT*E.
2
whose expression in adapted coordinates is (ıo)@ =  u0æ(Í0i© d0 _ Íij© di)ædj.
E (ıo)@:Eé(T*ÆA)Æ(T*EÆT*E), E
P R O P O S I T I O N I . 2 . 2 . 1 . The maps ê ê ê K ´ (K, ıo) ´ (K, Á, È) are bijections. ò ê ê In other words, K and ıo carry independent information on K; Á and È ê carry independent information on o; moreover, Á and È characterise ıo and ê the pair (K, ıo) characterises K itself. An observer o is said to be inertial with respect to the spacetime connection K if ıo = 0.
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Of course, inertial observers on a curved spacetime might not exist at all.
I.2.3. Metrical spacetime connections
This section is devoted to study spacetime connections which preserve the metric. This subject needs a little care because of the degeneracy of the metric. P R O P O S I T I O N I . 2 . 3 . 1 . Let K be a spacetime connection. Then, the following four conditions i), ii), iii), iv) are equivalent: i) ıã = 0; g ii) in a spacetime chart Ù¬gij  K¬ih ghj  K¬jh gih = 0; ê iii) iii)' K = º, E E iii)" for an observer o:EéT*ÆTE ê ã Á = g@ Log; iv)' iv)" Kihj =  1 (Ùighj _ Ùjghi  Ùhgij), 2 K0ij _ K0ji =  Ù0gij.
iv) in a spacetime chart
PROOF. We can easily see that i) ∞ ii) ∞ iv) and iii)' ∞ iv)'. Moreover, we can easily see that, with reference to an observer o and any adapted chart, iii)' ∞ iv)". Then, we can conclude the proof by closing the circle of equivalencies (recalling that each spacetime chart is adapted to an observer). ò Then, we give the following definition. D EFINITION I.2.3.1. A spacetime connection K is said to be metrical if ıã = 0. g ¡
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C OROLLARY I . 2 . 3 . 1 . Let K be a metrical spacetime connection and let o be a global observer. Then, the following conditions are equivalent: T  for each †,†'$T the diffeomorphism E E†éE†' induced by o is an isometry; ê Á = 0. ò
PROOF. It follows immediately from iii)" of Prop. I.2.3.1. R EMARK I.2.3.1. If K is a metrical spacetime connection, then *) Kjii =  1 gih Ùjgih. 2 PROOF. Formula *) follows immediately from iv)'. C OROLLARY I . 2 . 3 . 2 . If K is a metrical spacetime connection, then **) ı¨ = O;
**)' ***) Ù¬ÊÕ ¡g¡ K¬ii =  ÊÕ ; ¡g¡
ij ¡g¡ hk K i = Ùj(g ÊÕ). g hk ÊÕ ¡g¡
ò
PROOF. Formula **)' follows from *) of Rem. I.2.3.1 and from the algebraic identity ÇA1,DA¶ = D(detA) , detA which holds for any map A : · é Auto (V) ç V*ÆV,
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where V is a vector space5. Moreover, formula **)' is the coordinate expression of **). Furthermore, we have, in virtue of iv)' of Prop. I.2.3.1, ghk Khik = Ùjgij _ 1 gij ghk Ùjghk, 2 hence, in virtue of *), hence, in virtue of **)', which yields ***). ghk Khik = Ùjgij  gij Kjhh, ÙjÊÕ ¡g¡ ghk Khik = Ùjgji _ gij ÊÕ , ¡g¡ ò C OROLLARY I . 2 . 3 . 4 . If K is a metrical spacetime connection, then ı∆ = O, where the covariant differential is performed through the induced linear E E connection K' on the vector bundle VEéE (see Rem. I.2.1.2). ò
I.2.4. Divergence and codifferential operators
This section is devoted to the study of different kinds of divergence operators. This subject needs a little care because of the degeneracy of the metric. Let us start by considering just the vertical metric g. If E E X:EéTE is a vector field, then we define the codifferential of X to be the function In a (pseudo)Riemannian manifold, we can define the volume form ¨ by means of the condition g(¨,¨) = — 1; then, the identity ı¨ = 0 can be deduced directly from the metricity of the connection. But this direct argument does not hold for our degenerate metric.
5
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with coordinate expression
∂ X ˆ Çã , diX¨¶ = Çã , LX¨¶ : E é ·, ¨ ¨
Ù¬(X¬ ÊÕ) ¡g¡ ∂ X = ÊÕ . ¡g¡ We have no corresponding codifferential for forms, because the metric g is degenerate. However, we can define the vertical codifferential of the vertical restrictions of forms, as usual. Next, let us assume a spacetime connection K. If E E X:EéTE is a vector field, then we define the divergence of X to be the function div X ˆ tr ıX : E é ·, with coordinate expression div X = Ù¬X¬  K¬ii X¬. E ∑:EéT*E is a 1form, then we define the divergence of ∑ to be the function div ∑ ˆ Çã ,ı∑¶ : E é A*Æ·, g with coordinate expression div ∑ = gij (Ùi∑j _ Kihj ∑h). If
We remark that this divergence depends only on the vertical restrictions of ∑ and K, i.e. we can write ê ê div ∑ = div ∑ ˆ Çã ,ı∑¶. g êê The above two divergence operators can be extended to the tensor algebra by means of the Leibnitz rule. Eventually, let us assume that the spacetime connection K be metrical.
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Then we obtain the following results. If E E X:EéTE is a vector field, then ∂X = div X, because the coordinate expressions of the two hand sides coincide. If 2 E ∑:EéLT*E is a 2form, then we obtain div2∑ = 0; ê ê in fact div2∑ = div2∑ and we can apply the classical Riemannian identity.
I.2.5. Second order connection and contact 2form
Next, we associate two further objects with a spacetime connection: a second order connection and a contact 2form. These objects will play a fundamental role in the classical and quantum theories. First, let us show how a spacetime connection yields naturally these two objects. P ROPOSITION I . 2 . 5 . 1 . If Í is a spacetime connection, then we obtain the T connection on the fibred manifold J1E éT ˙ ˆ dœÍ : J1E é T*ÆTJ1E,
with coordinate expression ˙ = u0æ(Ù0 _ y0i Ùi _ ˙i Ù0), i where
h k h ˙i = Íhik y0 y0 _ 2 Íhi© y0 _ Í0i©.
ò
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P ROPOSITION I . 2 . 5 . 2 . If Í is a spacetime connection, then we obtain the scaled 2form on the manifold J1E6 with coordinate expression i Ò = gij u0æ(d0  ˙i d0  Íhi ªh)◊ªj. Ò ˆ ~Í◊ª : J1E é (T*ÆA)ÆLT*J1E, ò
2
It can be proved that Ò is the unique scaled 2form on J1E naturally induced by g and Í (see [Ja]). Next, let us study the main properties of these two objects. E B Let us recall that a second order connection on the fibred manifold t:EéB is defined to be a section (see § III.3, [MM1]) c:J1EéJ2E. Moreover, we have natural fibred monomorphisms over J1E J1J1E à T*ÆTJ1E J2E à J1J1E. Actually, J2E turns out to be the fibred submanifold J2E à T*ÆTJ1E
T of the fibred manifold J1E éT is a second order connection of the fibred E T E manifold t:EéT if and only if c is projectable over ª:J1E éT*ÆTE , i.e. if and only if the coordinate expression of c is of the type ci$F(J1E). ˙ = u0æ⁄Ù0 _ y0i Ùi _ ci Ù0^ i
6
E over J1E, which projects over ª:J1EéT*ÆTE. Hence, a (first order) connection c:J1EéT*ÆTJ1E
The symbol “◊” denotes wedge product ◊ followed by scalar product g.
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E Moreover, by considering the algebraic structure of the bundle J2E éE , we can define the homogeneous second order connections: they are characterised in coordinates by the fact that the coefficients ci are second order j polynomials in the coordinates y0. R EMARK I . 2. 5. 1. If Í is a spacetime connection, then ˙ is a homogeneous second order connection7. ò P R O P O S I T I O N I . 2 . 5 . 1 . If Í is a spacetime connection and o is an observer, then we obtain the following important equality (see § I.2.2) È ˆ 2 o*Ò. ò P ROPOSITION I . 2 . 5 . 2 . If Í is a spacetime connection, then the 2form Ò is nondegenerate in the sense that it yields the non singular scaled volume form8 on the manifold J1E dt◊Ò◊Ò◊Ò:J1Eé(T*2ÆA3)ÆLT*J1E.
7
ò
with coordinate expression i˙'Ò = gij (˙'i ˙i) u0æªj.
7 If we choose a time unit of measurement u0
P ROPOSITION I . 2 . 5 . 3 . If Í is a spacetime connection, then the 2form Ò is characterised by the following property:  for each second order connection ˙', we obtain the formula i˙'Ò = ªœ(˙'  ˙),
and replace T with ·, then the theory of second order connections on the jet space reduces to the more usual theory of second order differential equations on the tangent space. Our approach based on jets is required by the explicit independence from time units of measurements of our theory. 8 This form can be taken as the “Liouville volume form” of our model and can be used for developing a Galilei general relativistic statistics.
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PROOF. It follows from a computation in coordinates, by considering the i base of forms ⁄d0, ªi, (d0  ˙i d0)^. ò
C OROLLARY I . 2 . 5 . 1 . If Í is a spacetime connection, then ˙ and Ò fulfill the property ˙œÒ = 0. ò So, we introduce the following definition. D EFINITION I . 2 . 5 . 1 . If Í is a spacetime connection, then ˙ ˆ dœÍ Ò ˆ ~Í◊ª Eventually, let us see how ˙ and Ò characterise Í. P ROPOSITION I . 2 . 5 . 4 . If ˙ is a homogeneous second order connection on T E EéT , then there is a unique torsion free affine connection Í on J1E éE , such that ˙ = dœÍ.
are said to be, respectively, the second order connection and the scaled contact 2form 9 associated with Í. ¡
PROOF. It follows from a comparison of the coordinate expressions of ˙ and Í. ò C O R O L L A R Y I . 2 . 5 . 2 . If Ò is the contact 2form associated with the spacetime connection Í, then there is a unique connection ˙' on the fibred T manifold J1EéT, such that i˙'Ò = 0. Namely, we have
In the literature, the term “contact form” is devoted to a 1form of class 2n_1 on a manifold of dimension 2n_1. So, there is no conflict between the usual terminology and ours.
9
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˙' = ˙.
PROOF. It follows from Prop. I.2.5.3. ò C O R O L L A R Y I . 2 . 5 . 3 . If Ò is the contact 2form associated with the spacetime connection Í, then there is a unique spacetime connection Í' such that Ò = ~Í'◊ª. Namely, we have Í' = Í. PROOF. It follows from Prop. I.2.5.4 and Cor. I.2.5.2. ò We observe that, if the spacetime connection is metrical, then the vertical restriction of the contact 2form Ò turns out to be the vertical symplectic 2form 2 ê E E Ò = ~º◊VπE : VE é AÆLV*VE
ê associated with the vertical metric g. But Ò cannot have a total role in our ê theory, as a consequence of the principle of relativity. The replacement of Ò with Ò makes an essential difference between our approach and the viewpoint of geometrical quantisation.
I.2.6. Spacetime connections and acceleration
We conclude this section with the study of the acceleration of a motion with respect to a given spacetime connection. This subject is necessary for a full understanding of the meaning of the spacetime second order connections. The results below will be used in the expression of the law of motion of classical particles (see § I.5.1). Let us consider the second jet space J2E (see § III.3). We recall that the natural map J2EéJ1E :ß2´ß 1 is an affine bundle associated with the vector E bundle (T*ÆT*)ÆVE.
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T E Then, let us consider a motion s:TéE. We define the (absolute) acceleration of s to be the second order covariant differential of s, i.e. the section E ı˙ j1s ˆ j2s  ˙©j1s : T é (T*ÆT*)ÆVE, with coordinate expression ı˙ j1s = (Ù00si  ˙i©j1s) u0æu0æ(Ùi©s) =
Now, let us consider a spacetime connection Í and the associated second order connection ˙ (see § I.2.5). E We obtain the translation fibred morphism over J1E éE E ı˙ : J2E é (T*ÆT*)ÆVE : ß2 ´ ß2  ˙(ß1).
= (Ù00si  Íhik©s Ù0sh Ù0sk  2 Íhi©©s Ù0sh  Í0i©©s) u0æu0æ(Ùi©s).
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I.3  Gravitational and electromagnetic fields
So far, the spacetime fibred manifold has been equipped only with the vertical metric. Now, we complete the structure of spacetime by adding the gravitational and electromagnetic fields.
I.3.1. The fields
In this section, we introduce the gravitational and electromagnetic fields. A SSUMPTION C 5 . We assume spacetime to be equipped with a spacetime connection (see § I.2.1) ÍŸ:J1EéT*EJÆ TJ1E, E
1
and a scaled 2form E F:EéBÆLT*E, where B is the 1dimensional vector space B = A1/4ÆM1/2.
2
ò
We say that ÍŸ is the gravitational field and F the electromagnetic field . The superscript “Ÿ” will label objects related to the gravitational connection ÍŸ. In particular, we have (see § I.2.1, § I.2.5): ıŸ ˆ ıÍŸ ˙Ÿ ˆ dœÍŸ ÒŸ ˆ ~ÍŸ◊ª.
We stress that, as the metric is degenerate, it cannot determine fully the gravitational connection. Hence, we must assume that the gravitational field is described just by the gravitational connection ÍŸ. T E The sections s:TéE, which fulfill the equality ı˙Ÿ j1s = 0
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will be interpreted as free falling motions, according to the Newton law of motion (see § I.5.1). The coordinate expression of F is F = 2 F0j d0◊dj _ Fij di◊dj, E F¬j$M(E,BÆ·).
The (observer independent) magnetic field and electric field related to an observer o are defined to be the vertical 1forms êê ê B ˆ 1 * F : E é (BÆA1/2*)ÆV*E E ˆ  (oœF) : E é (T*ÆB)ÆV*E 2 with coordinate expressions ê ê ê B = ÊÕ (F12 d3 _ F31 d2 _ F23 d1) ¡g¡ and we can write ê F = 2 dt◊o*(E) _ 2 o*(* B). ê E = Fi0 di
I.3.2. Gravitational and electromagnetic coupling
Next, we exhibit a natural way to incorporate the electromagnetic field and the gravitational connection into the geometric structures of spacetime. This coupling is parametrised either by the ratio of a charge and a mass or by the square root of the gravitational constant. Such a procedure works very well both in classical and quantum theories. D EFI N I TI O N I.3.2.1. We define the space of charges to be the oriented 1dimensional vector space Q = T*ÆA3/4ÆM1/2. ò The charge of a classical or quantum particle is defined to be an element q $ Q. Moreover, given u0$T_, we set q ˆ q(u0) $ A3/4ÆM1/2.
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The charge plays the role of coupling constants for the electromagnetic field. R E M A R K I . 3 . 2 . 1 . The square root of the gravitational coupling constant (see Ass. C4 in §I.1.3) and the ratio q /m of any charge q and mass m have the same dimensions: q * 3/4 *1/2. ¢Ã $ T*ÆA3/4ÆM*1/2 k m $ T ÆA ÆM Hence, the following objects have the same dimensions 2 ÒŸ:J1Eé(T*ÆA)ÆLT*J1E ¢Ã F:Eé(T*ÆA)ÆLT*E k E
2 2 q E * * m F:Eé(T ÆA)ÆLT E .
Therefore, there are two distinguished ways to couple the gravitational contact 2form ÒŸ and the electromagnetic field F in a way independent of the choice of any unit of measurement. Namely, we can use as coupling constant both the square root of the universal gravitational coupling constant ¢Ã and the ratio q/m of a given charge q and a mass m. In the first case we k obtain a universal coupling, in the second case the coupling depends on the choice of a particular particle. ò In practice, we are concerned with c = ¢Ã only in the context of the k second gravitational field equation (see § I.4.5, § I.4.7) and in all other cases we consider c = q/m. Thus, let us consider an element c $ T*ÆA3/4ÆM*1/2,
q which might be either ¢Ã, or m (for a certain given charge q and mass m). k Moreover, given u0$T_, we set c ˆ c(u0) $ A3/4ÆM*1/2.
We shall exhibit a natural way to deform the gravitational spacetime connection ÍŸ, the related second order connection ˙Ÿ and contact 2form Ò Ÿ
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into corresponding “total objects ” Í, ˙ and Ò, through the electromagnetic field F. Let us start with ÒŸ. In fact, it is natural to consider the deformed “total” 2form Ò ˆ ÒŸ _ Òe ˆ ÒŸ _ 1 c F, 2 obtained by adding the electromagnetic 2form to the gravitational contact 2form. Here, the coupling constant c is necessary for the equality of the left and right hand sides (i.e. the correct dimensionality of the above formula). On the other hand, we remark that we could have multiplied F by any other nonzero scalar factor; the factor 1/2 has been chosen just in order to obtain the standard normalisation in the classical and quantum equations. Then, we can prove the following result. T HEOREM I . 3 . 2 . 1 . Let us consider the total contact 2form Ò ˆ ÒŸ _ Òe ˆ ÒŸ _ 1 c F. 2 Then, there exist a unique torsion free affine connection Í on the bundle E T J1EéE and a unique connection ˙ on the fibred manifold J1E éT Í = ÍŸ _ Íe such that10 ˙ ˆ dœÍ Ò ˆ ~Í◊ª ˙œÒ = 0. Namely, ˙e turns out to be the Lorentz force ê E ˙e ˆ  c g#(dœF) : J1E é T*Æ(T*ÆVE) and Íe the electromagnetic soldering form ê E Íe ˆ 1 c g#⁄(ª _ 3 d)◊F^ : J1E é T*EÆ(T*ÆVE). 4
E
˙ = ˙Ÿ _ ˙e
These are just the same equalities valid for the corresponding pure gravitational objects (see § I.2.5).
10
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Moreover, the above objects fulfill the following equalities  Íe◊ª = Òe. ˙e = dœÍe We have the coordinate expressions ˙e =  c (F0i _ Fhi yh) u0æÙ0 0 i hence Íhik = ÍŸhik Í0ik = ÍŸ0ik _ 1 c Fik 2 Í0i© = ÍŸ0i© _ c Fi0.
h Íe = 1 c ⁄(Fih y0 _ 2 Fi0) d0 _ Fij dj^æÙ0, 2 i
PROOF. The proof can be obtained by a computation in coordinates. ò C OROLLARY I . 3 . 2 . 1 . If o is an observer, then the gravitational and electromagnetic coupling can be read in the following way ê ê ê ê K = KŸ Á = ÁŸ È = ÈŸ _ c F. PROOF. It follows from the Theor. I.3.2.1 and Prop. I.2.2.1. ò We stress that the Lorentz force has been derived and not postulated. The coupling of the gravitational connection and the electromagnetic field does not affect the torsion: both KŸ and K = KŸ _ Ke are torsion free. This coupling of the gravitational connection with the electromagnetic field seems to be a non standard result. R EMARK I . 3 . 2 . 1 . Suppose that the forms È, ÈŸ and F be closed and a be a local potential of È. Then, the above splitting of È into its gravitational and electromagnetic components does not yield an analogous distinguished splitting of a. In fact, the potentials of È, ÈŸ and F are defined up to a gauge and it is not possible to split naturally the gauge of a into gravitational and electromagnetic components. ò C OROLLARY I . 3 . 2 . 2 . The curvature R of the total connection K splits as follows R = RŸ _ RŸe_ Re, where
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RŸ ˆ 1 [KŸ,KŸ] 2 is the standard gravitational curvature and the other two terms are given by Re ˆ [Ke,Ke]. RŸe ˆ dŸKe ˆ [KŸ,Ke] We have the following coordinate expressions RŸ ˆ RŸ¬µi~ d¬◊dµæÙiæd~ = (Ù¬KŸµi~ _ KŸ¬j~ KŸµij) d¬◊dµæÙiæd~ RŸe = 1 c ⁄⁄(ıŸ0Fkj  2 ıŸjFk0) x0  ıŸjFkh yh^ d0◊dj _ ıŸiFkj x0 di◊dj^æÙk î î î 2 Re = 1 c2 Fhj Fih dj◊d0æÙiæd0. 4
PROOF. We have (see § III.5 and § III.4) R = 1 [K,K] = 1 [KŸ,KŸ] _ 1 [KŸ,Ke] _ 1 [Ke,KŸ] _ 1 [Ke,Ke]. 2 2 2 2 2
Moreover, we can write (see § III.4) [KŸ,Ke] = [Ke,KŸ]. ò
is the standard gravitational Ricci tensor and the other two terms are given by ê rŸe ˆ 1 c (dtædivŸ F _ divŸ Fædt) re ˆ  1 F2 c2 dtædt, 2 4 where ê ê ê F2 ˆ (g#æg#)©F œ F : EéA*3/2ÆM. We have the following coordinate expressions
C OROLLARY I . 3 . 2 . 4 . The Ricci tensor r of the total connection K splits as follows r = rŸ _ rŸe_ re, where rŸ ˆ 2 C1RŸ 1
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rŸe = 1 c ıkFk¬(d0æd¬ _ d¬æd0) 2
re =  1 c2 Fij Fij d0æd0. 4
ò
C OROLLARY I . 3 . 2 . 5 . The scalar curvature s of the total connection K is just the scalar curvature of the gravitational connection ê s = sŸ = sŸ. ò
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I.4  Field equations
Now, we introduce the gravitational and electromagnetic field equations. We consider two equations: the first one couples just the gravitational and electromagnetic fields, while the second one couples the gravitational and electromagnetic fields with the charged matter sources.
I.4.1. First field equation
The first field equation is expressed through the closure of the total contact 2form. This equation turns out to be a compact way to express several important conditions involving the classical fields. Moreover, it could be used to formulate the inverse Lagrangian problem of dynamics (for the trivial case, see, for instance, [Cr], [CPT]). Furthermore, it will occur as an essential integrability condition in the quantum theory (see § II.1.4). A SSUMPTION C 6 . (First field equation) We assume that, for any coupling constant c, the total contact 2form Ò is closed, i.e. dÒ = 0 Å c $ T*ÆA3/4ÆM*1/2. ò We stress that there is no canonical local potential of Ò even in the case when the spacetime connection is flat11. We can interpret the above equation in several interesting ways.
I.4.2. Geometrical interpretation of the first field equation
The first field equation says that, for each coupling constant c, the to11
In a sense, in the quantum framework, we shall postulate a distinguished potential of Ò, after adding a complex dimension to spacetime through the E quantum bundle QéE.
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tal connection is metrical and the standard algebraic Riemannian identities for the total curvature hold. We stress that we cannot apply fully the standard procedures of Riemannian geometry in our context, because the metric is degenerate. First, we prove a technical lemma. L EMMA I . 4 . 2 . 1 . The equation i) dÒ = 0 is locally equivalent to the system Ù¬gij =  Í¬ij  Í¬ji ii)I ii)II ii)III Ù¬Íµji  Ù¬Íµij _ ÙµÍ¬ji  ÙµÍ¬ij = 2 ÙiÍ¬jµ  2 ÙjÍ¬iµ ÙiÍjh¬ _ ÙhÍij¬ _ ÙjÍhi¬  ÙjÍih¬  ÙiÍhj¬  ÙhÍji¬ = 0.
PROOF. The coordinate expression of dÒ is dÒ =  (d0.gij _ Íji _ Íij) d0◊ªi◊dj _ ( d0.Íij _ Ùi˙j) d0◊ªi◊ªj 0
Therefore, i) is equivalent to the following system d .g =  Í  Í 0 ij ji ij
d
 Ùi Íjh ªi◊ªj◊ªh  (Ùighj _ Íijh) dh◊ªi◊ªj. 0
0.(Íij  Íji) = Ùi˙j  Ùj˙i
ÙiÍjh _ ÙhÍij _ ÙjÍhi  ÙiÍhj  ÙhÍji  ÙjÍih = 0 which is equivalent to the following system Ù0gij =  Í0ij  Í0ji Ùighj  Ùjghi = Íjih  Íijh,
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Ùhgij =  Íhij  Íhji ÙkÍijh  ÙkÍjih _ ÙhÍkji  ÙhÍkij = 2 ÙiÍhjk  2 ÙjÍhik Ù0Íijh  Ù0Íjih _ ÙhÍ0ji  ÙhÍ0ij = 2 ÙiÍ0jh  2 ÙjÍ0ih Ù0Í0ji  Ù0Í0ij = ÙiÍ0j©  ÙjÍ0i© ÙiÍjhk _ ÙhÍijk _ ÙjÍhik  ÙjÍihk  ÙiÍhjk  ÙhÍjik = 0 which is equivalent to ii). ÙiÍjh© _ ÙhÍij© _ ÙjÍhi©  ÙjÍih©  ÙiÍhj©  ÙhÍji© = 0, ò
Then, we can state a first result. P ROPOSITION I . 4 . 2 . 1 . The first field equation implies that the spacetime connection is metrical, i.e. ıã = 0. g
PROOF. It follows from i) £ ii)I. ò In order to complete the geometrical interpretation of the first field equation in terms of the curvature R of K, we need further technical lemmas. Let K be any metrical spacetime connection. L EMMA I . 4 . 2 . 2 . The coordinate expression of ê R@ ˆ g@(R) = R¬µi~ d¬◊dµædi◊d~ can be written as a) 2 R¬µi~ = Ù¬Íµi~  ÙµÍ¬i~ _ Í¬hi Íµh~  Íµhi Í¬h~. PROOF. We have 2 R¬µi~ = Ù¬Íµi~  ÙµÍ¬i~  Ù¬gij Íµj~ _ Ùµgij Í¬j~ _ Í¬h~ Íµih  Íµh~ Í¬ih.
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Then, the condition ıã = 0 yields the result. g
ò
R EMARK I . 4 . 2 . 1 . The fact that K is torsion free yields the standard first Bianchi identity b) R¬µi~ _ R~¬iµ _ Rµ~i¬ = 0. ò L EMMA I.4.2.3. The following algebraic identity holds c) R¬µij =  R¬µji.
PROOF. Formula a) gives 2 (R¬µij _ R¬µji) = Ù¬Íµij  ÙµÍ¬ij _ Ù¬Íµji  ÙµÍ¬ji. Hence, the condition ıã = 0 implies g 2 (R¬µij _ R¬µji) =  Ù¬µgij _ Ù¬µgji = 0.
L EMMA I.4.2.4. The following conditions are equivalent: Ù¬Íijµ  Ù¬Íjiµ _ ÙµÍ¬ji  ÙµÍ¬ij = 2 ÙiÍµj¬  2 ÙjÍµi¬ ii)II iii)I (Ri¬jµ  Rjµi¬) _ (Riµj¬  Rj¬iµ) = 0.
ò
PROOF. The result follows from the above expression a) of R¬µi~.
ò
We observe that the vertical restriction (for ¬ = h, µ = k) of condition iii)I, turns out to be a consequence of the metricity condition only, according to a standard argument of Riemannian geometry. L EMMA I.4.2.5. The following conditions are equivalent: ÙiÍjh¬ _ ÙhÍij¬ _ ÙjÍhi¬  ÙiÍhj¬  ÙhÍji¬  ÙjÍih¬ = 0 ii)III iii)II Rijh¬ _ Rhij¬ _ Rjhi¬ = 0. ò
PROOF. The result follows from the above expression a) of R¬µi~.
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We observe that the vertical restriction (for ¬ = h) of condition iii)II, turns out to be a consequence of the metricity condition only, according to a standard argument of Riemannian geometry. The above conditions iii)I and iii)II on the curvature tensor can be expressed together in the following compact way. For this purpose we need some preliminary results. R EMARK I . 4 . 2 . 2 . The condition Rijh¬ _ Rhij¬ _ Rjhi¬ = 0 iii)II R¬ijh _ R¬hij _ R¬jhi = 0.
implies the condition iii)II'
PROOF. Condition iii)II yields d) Rijh¬ =  Rhij¬  Rjhi¬.
Then, d), c) and iii)I, respectively, yield Rijh¬ _ R¬ihj _ R¬jih =  Rhij¬  Rjhi¬ _ R¬ihj _ R¬jih =  Rhij¬  Rjhi¬ _ Ri¬jh _ Rj¬hi = 0.
Eventually, by adding term by term the circular permutation of the spacelike indices in the above result Rijh¬ _ R¬ihj _ R¬jih = 0 Rhij¬ _ R¬jih _ R¬hji = 0 Rjhi¬ _ R¬hji _ R¬ihj = 0 we obtain, in virtue of iii)II, 2 (R¬ihj _ R¬jih _ R¬hji) = 0. L EMMA I . 4 . 2 . 6 . The conditions Rijhk _ Rikhj  Rhjik  Rhkij = 0 iii)I iii)II are equivalent to Rijh¬ _ Rhij¬ _ Rjhi¬ = 0 ò
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iii)R
Ri¬jµ = Rjµi¬.
PROOF. Let us prove that iii)I, iii)II £ iii)R. Identities iii)II', c) and b), respectively, yield Ri¬jh =  R¬ijh = R¬hij _ R¬jhi = R¬hij _ Rj¬ih =  Rhji¬ = Rjhi¬, hence Ri¬jh = Rjhi¬.
Moreover, iii)I implies Ri0j0 = Rj0i0. Now, let us prove that iii)R £ iii)I, iii)II. We can see immediately that iii)R £ iii)I. Next, condition iii)R and identities c) and b), respectively, yield Rijh¬ _ Rhij¬ _ Rjhi¬ = Rh¬ij _ Rj¬hi _ Rjhi¬ =  R¬hij  Rj¬ih _ Rhji¬ = 0. ò Then, we can state a second result. P ROPOSITION I . 4 . 2 . 2 . The first field equation implies the identity R i¬jµ = R jµi¬.
PROOF. It follows from i) £ iii)II, iii)III. ò The two above results can be joined to provide a first geometrical interpretation of the first field equation. T HEOREM I.4.2.1. The first field equation is equivalent to the system ıã = 0 g R i¬jµ = R jµi¬. PROOF. It follows from i) ∞ ii)II, ii)III.
ò
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I.4.3. First field equation interpreted through an observer
We can exhibit another interesting interpretation of the first field equation in terms of the vertical restriction of the total connection and the total symmetric 2tensor and 2form associated with an observer. We have a first immediate result. P R O P O S I T I O N I . 4 . 3 . 1 . The first field equation implies that the vertical restriction of K is just the vertical Riemannian connection (see Rem. I.1.2.2) ê K=º.
PROOF. The condition ii)I yields ê iv)I Khik ˆ Khik =  1 (Ùhgik _ Ùkgih  Ùighk) = ºhik. 2
ò
Now, we refer to the tensors Á and È related to a given observer o and to adapted coordinates (see § I.2.2). Then, we have a second immediate result. P R O P O S I T I O N I . 4 . 3 . 2 . The first field equation implies that the vertical restriction of the tensor Á is determined by the metric, according to the equation (see formula iii)" in Prop. I.2.3.1) ê Á = g@ Log, ã where L0 is the Lie derivative with respect to the observer o, i.e. in adapted coordinates Áij = Ù0gij. iv)II
PROOF. It follows from ii)I. ò In order to complete our interpretation, we need some technical lemmas.
LEMMA I.4.3.1. If iv)I and iv)II hold, then, the two following conditions are equivalent:
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iii)IV iv)III
Ù0Íijh  Ù0Íjih _ ÙhÍ0ji  ÙhÍ0ij = 2 ÙiÍ0jh  2 ÙjÍ0ih ÙhÈij _ ÙjÈhi _ ÙiÈjh = 0. ò
L E M M A I . 4 . 3 . 2 . If iv)II holds, then the two following conditions are equivalent: iii)VII ÙiÍ0jh _ ÙhÍ0ij _ ÙjÍ0hi  ÙiÍ0hj  ÙhÍ0ji  ÙjÍ0ih = 0 iv)III ÙhÈij _ ÙjÈhi _ ÙiÈjh = 0. ò
L E M M A I . 4 . 3 . 3 . If iv)II holds, then the two following conditions are equivalent: iii)V Ù0Í0ji  Ù0Í0ij = ÙiÍ0j©  ÙjÍ0i© iv)IV Ù0Èij = ÙiÈ0j  ÙjÈ0i. ò
Then we have a third result. P ROPOSITION I . 4 . 3 . 3 . The first field equation implies that the form È is closed dÈ = 0.
PROOF. It follows from i) £ iv)I, iv)III, iv)IV. ò The three above results can be joined to provide a second geometrical interpretation of the first field equation. T HEOREM I . 4 . 3 . 1 . Given an observer o, the first field equation is equivalent to the following conditions:  the (observer independent) vertical restriction of K coincides with the vertical Riemannian connection ê K = º,
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63
i.e. in coordinates Khik =  1 (Ùhgik _ Ùkgih  Ùighk); 2  the vertical restriction of the tensor Á is determined by the metric, according to the equation (see formula iii)" in Prop. I.2.3.1) ê ã Á = g@ Log, where L0 is the Lie derivative with respect to the observer, i.e. in adapted coordinates K0ij _ K0ji =  Ù0gij;  the form È is closed dÈ = 0, i.e. in adapted coordinates (Ù0Èij  2 ÙiÈ0j) d0◊di◊dj _ ÙhÈij dh◊di◊dj = = 2 ⁄(Ù0Í0ij _ ÙiÍ0j0) d0◊di◊dj _ ÙhÈij dh◊di◊dj^ = 0.
PROOF. It follows from i) ∞ iv)I, iv)II, iv)III, iv)IV. ò Of course, we might have deduced immediately dÈ = 0 from dÒ = 0 because the pullback o* commutes with d; but in order to prove the rest, it is necessary to consider the above lemmas dealing with coordinate formulas. We recall that any spacetime connection K is characterised by its vertical ê ê restriction K and the tensors Á and È related to a given observer (see Prop. I.2.2.1). Hence, we have proved that K is determined by the first jet of the metric g and by an observer dependent closed 2form È. The above result can be reformulated as follows. T H E O R E M I . 4 . 3 . 2 . Let E a:Eé(T*ÆA)ÆT*E
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be a local potential of the closed 2form È, i.e. a local solution of the equation È = 2 da, with coordinate expression È¬µ = Ù¬aµ  Ùµa¬, where a ˆ a¬ u0æd¬.
Then, the coordinate expression of the total connection can be written as K¬iµ =  1 (Ù¬giµ _ Ùµgi¬  Ùig¬µ), 2 where we have set gi0 ˆ g0i ˆ ai g00 ˆ 2 a0. ò Thus, as in the Einstein theory, the spacetime connection is obtained locally from 10 scalar potentials; in the Galilei theory, only 6 potentials are the components of the metric g and we have 4 additional potentials. This difference between the Galilei and the Einstein theories is related to the fact that, in the Galilei case, g is degenerate. We stress that the total potential a involves both the gravitational and electromagnetic fields.
I.4.4. First field equation interpreted through the fields
On the other hand, in virtue of the arbitrariness of the coupling constant c, the above results split into their gravitational and electromagnetic components, respectively. P ROPOSITION I . 4 . 4 . 1 . The first field equation is equivalent to the system dÒŸ = 0 dF = 0.
PROOF. It follows from the arbitrariness of the coupling constant c.
ò
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R E M A R K I . 4 . 4 . 1 . The equation dF = 0 is nothing but the first Maxwell equation. If o is an observer, then, the first Maxwell equation reads ê ê dB = 0 curl E = Ù0B, where Ù0 denotes the time derivative with respect to the observer. ò P ROPOSITION I . 4 . 4 . 2 . The first field equation is equivalent to the system ıŸg = 0 ã RŸi¬jµ  RŸj¬iµ = 0 Fij _ Fji = 0 where RŸ is the curvature of KŸ. dF = 0,
PROOF. It follows from Theor. I.4.2.1, in virtue of the arbitrariness of the mass and the charge. ò P R O P O S I T I O N I . 4 . 4 . 3 . Given an observer o, the first field equation is equivalent to the following conditions:  the (observer independent) vertical restriction of KŸ is just the vertical Riemannian connection (see Rem. I.1.2.2) ê ê KŸ = K = º, i.e. in coordinates KŸhik = Khik =  1 (Ùhgik _ Ùkgih  Ùighk); 2
 the vertical restriction of the tensor ÁŸ is determined by the metric, according to the equation (see formula iii)" in Prop. I.2.3.1) ê ê ã ÁŸ = Á = g@ Log, where L0 is the Lie derivative with respect to the observer, i.e. in adapted coordinates KŸ0ij _ KŸ0ji = K0ij _ K0ji =  Ù0gij;  the forms ÈŸ and F are closed
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dÈŸ = 0
dF = 0.
PROOF. It follows from Theor. I.4.3.1, in virtue of the arbitrariness of the coupling constant c. ò ê ê Thus, K and Á are completely determined by the first jet of the metric, while the closed 2form È splits into a gravitational component, which is not related to the metric, and an electromagnetic component, which is just the electromagnetic field F.
I.4.5. Second gravitational equation
The second gravitational equation expresses the coupling of the gravitational field with the matter and electromagnetic sources, by comparing the gravitational Ricci tensor with the energy tensor of the matter and the electromagnetic field. We restrict our study to the case of the matter source constituted by an incoherent fluid, just as an example. We define the energy tensor of the electromagnetic field F to be the section12 eE t :E éT*E ÆT*E , E
t
given by
e ˆ 1 k F2 dtædt. ê 4
We have the coordinate expression
t
e = 1 k F Fij d0æd0. 4 ij
We define a mass density to be a section E µ:EéA*3/2ÆM. We define the energy tensor of the mass density µ to be the section
12 t is the Cyrillic character corresponding to “t”.
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t
given by
µ:EéT*EÆT*E , E E µ ˆ k µ dtædt.
t
We have the coordinate expression µ 0 0 t ˆ k µ d æd . D EFINITION I.4.5.1. The energy tensor of the electromagnetic field F and of the mass density µ is defined to be the section e µ tŸ ˆ t _ t : EéT*EÆT*E . ¡ E Just as example, we assume the source of the gravitational field to be constituted by the electromagnetic field F and a mass density µ. Accordingly, we make the following assumption. A SSUMPTION C7. We assume the gravitational field KŸ to fulfill the second gravitational equation rŸ = tŸ. ò P R O P O S I T I O N I . 4 . 5 . 1 . The coordinate expression of the second gravitational equation is rŸ00 = k µ rŸ0h = rŸh0 = 0 rŸhk = 0; i.e. ÙiKŸ0i0  Ù0KŸii0 _ KŸij0 KŸ0ij  KŸ0j0 KŸiij = k µ ÙiKŸ0ih  Ù0KŸiih _ KŸijh KŸ0ij  KŸ0jh KŸiij = 0 ÙiKŸhik  ÙhKŸiik _ KŸijk KŸhij  KŸhjk KŸiij = 0. ò
The particular form of the source of the gravitational field implies that the E T fibres of t:EéT are flat.
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P R O P O S I T I O N I.4.5.2. We have (see § I.2.4) ê RŸ = 0. ê E T PROOF. The fibres of t:EéT are Ricci flat because tŸ = 0. Hence they are flat, because they are 3dimensional (see [GHL]). ò R E M A R K I.4.5.1. If we take into account the Bianchi identities and try to obtain a compatibility condition for the second gravitational equation, by repeating a standard procedure in a way appropriate to our Galileian case, we obtain just a trivial identity. So, in this way, we do not obtain any information of the state equation of the source. ò R E M A R K I . 4 . 5 . 2 . As far as we know, our second gravitational equation seems to be the most reasonable equation appropriate to the Galileian framework and inspired by the Einstein equation. The problem of finding the appropriate coupling between the gravitational field and the matter source has been investigated by several authors, but we do not know a really definite answer. In fact, we are not able to derive such an equation from a fully satisfactory unifying principle (for instance a variational principle). On the other hand, we could guess several further proposals of stress tensors associated with the source, but we cannot couple them appropriately with the Ricci tensor because we do not dispose of a non degenerate metric and of appropriate coupling constants. ò R E M A R K I.4.5.3. Our second gravitational equation does not imply any direct effect of the electric field and of the movement of masses on the gravitational field. This is a weaker feature of the Galilei theory with respect to the Einstein one. In principle, we could partially overcome this deficiency of the above Galilei theory, by introducing an energymomentum tensor, with nonvanishing vertical component and coupling it with the Ricci tensor. However, such an energymomentum tensor would be a primitive object, which could not be related to the movement of matter. We do not develop such a theory in detail. ò
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I.4.6. Second electromagnetic equation
The second electromagnetic equation expresses the coupling of the electromagnetic field with the charge source. We define a charge density to be a section E ®:EéT*ÆA*3/4ÆM1/2. Moreover, given u0$T_, we set ® ˆ ®(u0) $ A*3/4ÆM1/2.
We define the timelike current of the charge density ® to be the section E j:Eé(A*3/4ÆM1/2)ÆT*E, given by j ˆ ® dt. We have the coordinate expression j = ® d0. Just as example, we assume the source of the electromagnetic field to be constituted by the charge density ®. Accordingly, we make the following assumption. A SSUMPTION C8. We assume the electromagnetic field F to fulfill the second electromagnetic equation divŸ F = j. ò P R O P O S I T I O N I . 4 . 6 . 1 . The coordinate expression of the second electromagnetic equation is gij (ÙiFj0 _ KŸihj Fh0) = ® gij (ÙiFjk _ KŸihj Fhk) = 0. ò P R O P O S I T I O N I . 4 . 6 . 2 . We have ê divŸ F = 0. ò
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R E M A R K I.4.6.1. Both hand sides of the second electromagnetic equation are identically divergence free. So, application of the divergence operator does not yield any information of the state equation of the source. ò R E M A R K I.4.5.2. We can assume that the mass and charge densities are carried by the same charged incoherent fluid, which can be described in the following way. We assume the charge density to be proportional to the mass density ®=™µ with ™ $ QÆM*. We assume a velocity field v in the domain where µ is non vanishing and define the contravariant momentum, current and stress tensors and the Lorentz force density pˆµv cˆ®v e ˆ µ væv ê f ˆ  ® g#(vœF). Then, we assume the equation divŸ e = f, which splits into the mass continuity equation and the Newton's equation of motion divŸ p = 0 µ ıŸv v = f;
as a consequence of the proportionality between mass and charge densities, we obtain also the charge continuity equation divŸ c = 0 ò
R EMARK I.4.5.3. As far as we know, our second electromagnetic equation seems to be the most reasonable equation appropriate to the Galileian framework and inspired by the Maxwell equation. We can define the contravariant current involving the charge density and velocity, but we cannot couple it with the divergence of the electromagnetic field because we do not dispose of a non degenerate metric. ò R E M A R K I.4.5.4. Our second electromagnetic equation does not imply any direct effect of the spacelike current on the electromagnetic field. This is a
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weaker feature of the Galilei theory with respect to the Maxwell one. In principle, we could partially overcome this deficiency of the above Galilei theory, by introducing a current, with nonvanishing vertical component and coupling it with the divergence of the electromagnetic field. However, such a current would be a primitive object, which could not be related to the movement of charges. We do not develop such a theory in detail.ò
I.4.7. Second field equation
The second gravitational and electromagnetic equations can be coupled in a natural way through the gravitational coupling constant. In this way we obtain the second field equation for the total spacetime connection associated with the gravitational coupling constant. The corresponding matter source turns out to be constituted just by the mass and charge densities, as the contribution of the electromagnetic field is incorporated in the total Ricci tensor. We define the energy tensor of the charge density ® to be the section ®E t :E éT*E ÆT*E , E
t
given by
® ˆ ¢Ã k
® dtædt.
We have the coordinate expression ® 0 0 k t ˆ ¢Ã ® d æd . D E F I N I T I O N I.4.7.1. The energy tensor of the mass density µ and charge density ® is defined to be the section ® µ t ˆ t _ t : EéT*EÆT*E . ¡ E T HEOREM I.4.7.1. The second gravitational and electromagnetic equations imply the following second field equation r = t, where r is the Ricci tensor of the total spacetime connection K induced by
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the coupling of the gravitational connection KŸ and the electromagnetic field F, through the coupling constant ¢Ã (see § I.3.2). k
PROOF. In fact, we have (see Cor. I.3.2.4, Ass. C7, Ass. C8) ê r = rŸ _ rŸe_ re = rŸ _ 1 ¢Ã (dtædivŸ F _ divŸ Fædt)  1 F2 k dtædt = 2 k 4
ê ê k = 1 k F2 dtædt _ k µ dtædt _ ¢Ã ® dtædt  1 F2 k dtædt = 4 4 = t. ò
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I.5  Particle mechanics
Now, we study the dynamics of classical charged particles in the given gravitational and electromagnetic field.
I.5.1. The equation of motion
The only observer independent approach to classical mechanics can be achieved in terms of the total connection ˙. Then, we introduce the fundamental law of particle dynamics. A SSUMPTION C 9 . (Generalised Newton law of motion) We assume the law of motion for a particle, with mass m$M and charge q $Q, whose motion is T E s:TéE, to be the equation ı˙ j1s = 0. ò R E M A R K I.5.1.1. We obtain ı˙ j1s = ı˙Ÿ j1s  ˙e©j1s.
i.e., in coordinates, Ù00si  (ÍŸhik©s) Ù0sh Ù0sk  2 (ÍŸ0ih©s) Ù0sh  (ÍŸ0i©©s) =
q = m (Fi0©s _ Fih©s Ù0sh).
Hence, the Newton law of motion can be written as ı˙Ÿ j1s = ˙e©j1s,
ò
The Newton law of motion can be expressed in a dual way, in terms of the differential of functions.
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R EMARK I . 5 . 1 . 2 . If f$ F (J1E), then, for each solution of the Newton law of E T motion s$S(EéT), we can write d(f©j1s) = (˙.f)©j1s. In particular, f turns out to be a constant of motion if and only if ˙.f = 0.
PROOF. We have d(f©j1s) = Ç(df)©j1s, Tj1s¶ = Ç(df)©j1s, j2s¶ = Ç(df)©j1s, ˙©j1s¶ =
= (˙.f)©j1s. ò
R E M A R K I.5.1.3. In a sense, the Newton law of motion can be expressed by a Hamiltonian approach (in terms of a contact structure). In fact, we recall (see Cor. I.2.5.2) that ˙ is the unique second order connection which fulfills the equation i˙Ò = 0. Hence, the flow of solutions of the Newton law of motion preserves the total contact 2form and the induced volume form, i.e. L˙Ò = 0 L˙(dt◊Ò◊Ò◊Ò) = 0. ò
I.5.2. Observer dependent formulations of the Newton law of motion
By choosing an observer, we can reformulate the Newton law of motion in terms of EulerLagrange, or Hamilton, or Poisson equations. However, the choice of the observer turns out to be essential. So, explicitly general relativistic Lagrangian, Hamiltonian and Poissonian formulations of classical mechanics do not exist. The basic maps of classical particle mechanics related to an observer will be extensively used in quantum mechanics (see Theor. II.1.4.1 and Cor. II.1.4.1). First, we recall the following maps.
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and a local potential (which is defined up to a gauge) E a:EéT*ÆAÆT*E of the 2form È ˆ 2 o*Ò (see Rem. I.2.2.2 and Prop. I.2.5.1).
Let o be an observer and consider the induced translation fibred morphisms over E (see Rem. I.1.1.3) E ıo:J1EéT*ÆVE
Then, we define the following classical objects in a coordinate free way. D E F I N I T I O N I . 5 . 2 . 1 . We define the kinetic energy, kinetic momentum, Lagrangian, momentum and Hamiltonian to be, respectively, the maps G ˆ 1 m g©(ıo, ıo) : J1E é T*ÆT*ÆAÆM 2 ê P ˆ m g@©ıo : J1E é T*ÆAÆMÆV*E L ˆ G _ m dœa : J1E é T*ÆT*ÆAÆM p ˆ m g@©ıo _ m dœa : J1E é T*ÆAÆMÆV*E ê H ˆ Çıo, p¶  L : J1E é T*ÆT*ÆAÆM. ê We can write ê P = VE G p = VE L . ê
¡
R E M A R K I.5.2.1. By considering the natural inclusion E ˚T* ç T*E , we can regard the kinetic energy, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian maps as timelike forms G :J1EéT*ÆAÆMÆT*E L:J1EéT*ÆAÆMÆT*E H:J1EéT*ÆAÆMÆT*E. By considering the natural fibred inclusion ª*:J1E˚V * E ç T* E (see Rem. E I.1.1.2), we obtain the forms
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which will be said to be the kinetic momentum form and momentum form , respectively. ò Moreover, if u0$T_, then we set G ˆ G(u0,u0) : J1E é AÆMÆ· ê ê P ˆ P(u0) : J1E é AÆMÆV*E P ˆ P(u0) : J1E é AÆMÆT*E L ˆ L(u0,u0) : J1E é AÆMÆ· ê ê p ˆ p(u0) : J1E é AÆMÆV*E p ˆ p(u0) : J1E é AÆMÆT*E.
ê P ˆ ª*œP : J1E é T*ÆAÆMÆT*E
ê p ˆ ª*œp : J1E é T*ÆAÆMÆT*E,
H ˆ H(u0,u0) : J1E é AÆMÆ·
R E M A R K I . 5 . 2 . 2 . With reference to a spacetime chart adapted to the frame of reference (u0, o), we have the following coordinate expressions
i j G = 1 m gij y0 y0 2 i j i L = 1 m gij y0 y0 _ m (ai y0 _ a0) 2 i j H = 1 m gij y0 y0  m a0 2 jê ê P = m gij y0 di i j j P =  m gij y0 y0 d0 _ m gij y0 di j ê ê p = (m gij y0 _ m ai) di i j j p =  m gij y0 y0 d0 _ (m gij y0 _ m ai) di.
R EMARK I.5.2.3. Let o and o' be two observers and set E v ˆ o'  o : E é T*ÆVE. Then, we obtain the following relation between the respective kinetic forms G' = G _ 1 m g©(v,v)  m ıoœv@ P' = P  m ª*œv@, 2 hence (see Remark I.1.1.3)
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G' _ P' = G _ P _ 1 m g©(v,v)  m ~0*œv@, 2 where v@ ˆ g@©v : EéT*ÆAÆV*E. ıo _ ª* = ~o. ò
PROOF. It follows from ıo' = ıo  v
R E M A R K I.5.2.4. We can achieve a Hamiltonian formulation of the Newton law of motion in three different ways, by considering the symplectic structures naturally induced by the total contact 2form Ò on the even dimensional vector bundles E E VJ1EéJ1E VVEéVE VV*EéV*E
and the observer dependent Hamiltonian and momentum functions. Moreover, the Newton law of motion, in the version quoted in Rem. I.5.1.2, can be expressed in terms of the Poisson bracket (see, later, Prop. II.3.2.1) between the function f$ F (J1E ) and the observer dependent Hamiltonian function. Furthermore, the Newton law of motion turns out to be the EulerLagrange equation associated with the observer dependent Lagrangian function. We omit here the details. ò
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I.6  Special relativistic case
Under reasonable hypothesis, there exist distinguished metrical spacetime connections, which yield an affine structure on spacetime. In such a case, we avail of this structure to simplify several formulas; in particular, we prove that the Einstein equation turns out to be just the Newton law of gravitation. In the special case when the energy tensor vanishes, possibly the same gravitational connection yields an affine structure on spacetime. Such a distinguished solution of the field equations is referred to as special relativistic and constitutes the background for the standard classical Newtonian mechanics.
I.6.1. Affine structure of spacetime
Let us start with preliminary observations on a possible background connection inducing an affine structure on spacetime. R E M A R K I . 6 . 1 . 1 . Let A be an affine space associated with the vector space A and the translation map f:A˚Ã éA. Ã A Then, the affine structure yields a linear connection on A ~K» : TTA = (A˚Ã )˚(Ã ˚Ã ) é VTA = (A˚Ã )˚(0˚Ã ) : (a,u;v,w) ´ (a,u;0,w), A AA A A
which is geodesically complete and whose curvature vanishes. Conversely, the above connection K» characterises naturally the affine structure (Ã , f) on A in a unique way. A ò D E F I N I T I O N I . 6 . 1 . 1 . A background connection is defined to be a spacetime connection K», such that  K» is metrical (see § I.2.3), i.e. ı»ã = 0; g  K» induces an affine structure on the spacetime manifold E , such that the time function t is an affine map. ¡ L EMMA I.6.1.1. Let K» be a background connection. E T Then, t:E éT turns out to be an affine bundle associated with a trivial
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vector bundle
ã : E = T ˚S é T , S t Ã E T where S is a three dimensional vector space. Thus, t:E éT turns out to be a principal bundle. Moreover, the vertical metric can be regarded as a constant element S S g $ AÆS*ÆS*.
S ˆ ker Dt ç DE, where DE denotes the vector space associated with the affine space E. T Then, for each †$T, we obtain D(t1(†)) = S, in virtue of the fact that t is affine.
PROOF. Set
ò
E T R EMARK I.6.1.2. Not all spacetimes t:E éT admit background connections K». E T If the spacetime t:E éT admits a background connection K», then we can easily see that it admits many background connections. ò R EMARK I . 6 . 1 . 3 . Let K» be a background connection. If o and o' are global observers such that ıK»o = 0 = ıK»o', o' = o _ v S v $ T*ÆS. ò
then we have
R EMARK I . 6 . 1 . 4 . Let K» be a background connection. Then, each global spacetime chart (x0,yi) adapted to the induced affine structure of spacetime yields K»¬iµ = 0 gij $ A. Of course, the observer o associated with such a chart is of the above type. ò
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I.6.2. Newtonian connections and the Newton law of gravitation
Next, we consider the interesting case of a background connection which is “tangent” to the gravitational connections on the fibres of spacetime. By considering such a connection, we can write the first and second gravitational equations in an interesting way. If the source of the gravitational connection KŸ is an incoherent fluid, then the gravitational Einstein equation implies that the vertical gravitational ê connection KŸ is flat (see Prop. I.4.5.2). Then, under further reasonable hyê pothesis, KŸ may induce an affine structure on the fibres of spacetime. Of course, if the mass density of the source does not vanish, KŸ cannot induce an affine structure on the whole spacetime. However, under further reasonê able hypothesis, KŸ may be extended to a background connection K» (in a non unique way). So, we introduce the following notion. D E F I N I T I O N I . 6 . 2 . 1 . A Newtonian connection is defined to be a spacetime connection K» which fulfills the following properties: i) the restrictions of K» and KŸ to the vertical subspace coincide E E K»¡VE = KŸ¡VE : VE é T*E Æ TVE ; E E E ii) K» induces an affine structure on the spacetime manifold E, such that the time function t is an affine map. ¡
TE
If K» is a Newtonian connection, then a Newtonian observer is defined to be a global observer o such that ıK»o = 0 and a Newtonian chart is defined to be a global spacetime chart (x0,yi) adapted to the induced affine structure of spacetime. Now on, in this section, we assume that a Newtonian connection K» exist and we refer to such a connection K» and to Newtonian observers and charts. Accordingly, some formulas of the classical field theory and particle mechanics assume a simplified expression. R EMARK I . 6 . 2 . 1 . Condition i) implies ê ê K» = KŸ. But we stress that condition i) is stronger than the above equality.
ò
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L EMMA I . 6 . 2 . 1 . The connection K» is metrical, hence it is a background connection.
PROOF. Condition i) and the first gravitational equation (see Prop. I.4.4.2) yield ı»ã = ıŸã = 0. g g ò
L EMMA I.6.2.2. Condition i) reads in coordinates as KŸ¬ij = 0. ò
LEMMA I.6.2.3. The gravitational connection can be uniquely written as KŸ = K» _ dtædtæNŸ where N is a section E E NŸ:Eé(T*ÆT*)ÆVE whose coordinate expression is of the type E NŸ0i0$F(E).ò NŸ = NŸ0i0 u0æu0æÙi, We say that NŸ is the Newton vector field associated with the Newtonian connection K». Let us discuss at which extent the Newtonian connection is uniquely determined by the gravitational connection (provided at least one Newtonian connection exists). P R O P O S I T I O N I . 6 . 2 . 1 . Let us suppose that K» and K»' be two Newtonian connections. Then, the two affine structures induced by K» and K»' on the spacetime E T manifold E yield the same affine structure on the bundle t:E éT . Hence, we obtain the same vector bundle ã : E = T ˚S é T , S t Ã with respect to the two Newtonian connections. Moreover, the Newtonian vector fields associated with K» and K»' differ by
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a timedependent vector field: S (*) NŸ'  NŸ : T é (T*ÆT*)ÆS. Furthermore, let o and o' be two Newtonian observers with respect to K» and K»', respectively. Then, the two observers perform mutually a rigid translation13: S (**) o'  o : T é T*ÆS.
PROOF. The affine structures induced on the fibres of spacetime by K» and K»' coincide because ê ê ê K» = KŸ = K»'. In other words, K» and K»' induce on the spacetime fibred manifold the same structure of affine bundle, associated with the vector bundle T V éT . Hence, K» and K»' induce the same vertical parallelisation E B VE = E ˚V . Moreover, we have ıŸ(o'  o) = ıŸo'  ıŸo = (ı»'o'  dtædtæNŸ')  (ı»o  dtædtæNŸ) =
= dtædtæ(NŸ  NŸ'), which yields (i) ıŸ(o'  o) = dtædtæ(NŸ  NŸ'). The vertical restriction of (i) gives ê ıŸ(o'  o) = 0, i.e. o'  o can be regarded as a section V (**) o'  o : T é T*ÆV. As usual, the difference o'  o is taken with respect to the affine E structure of the bundle J1E éE .
13
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Furthermore, formula (*) implies that ıŸ(o'  o) can be regarded as a section V (ii) ıŸ(o'  o) : T é T*ÆT*ÆV. Then, formulas (i) and (ii) yield (*). Additionally, formula (**) implies that o and o' yield the same linear splitting over T T S V éT ˚S . ò Next, let us show that the first and second gravitational equation imply that N fulfills the Newton law of gravitation. R EMARK I . 6 . 2 . 2 . The 2form ÒŸ becomes ÒŸ = Ò»  Çdt,NŸ¶◊ª. Let o be a Newtonian observer. Then the 2form ÈŸ becomes ÈŸ = 2 NŸ@◊dt. P ROPOSITION I . 6 . 2 . 2 . The first gravitational field equation reduces to ê dNŸ@ = 0.
ò
PROOF. Let o be a Newtonian observer. Then, we obtain ê ê ê ê ê KŸ = K» = º ÁŸ = Á» = 0 È» = 0. ê Hence, the first field equation (see Theorem I.4.3.1) reduces to dNŸ@ = 0. ò C OROLLARY I . 6 . 2 . 1 . The first gravitational field equation reduces to ê NŸ = grad U, where U is a map E UŸ:EéT*ÆT*ÆA. ò
L EMMA I . 6 . 2 . 4 . The Ricci tensor of the gravitational connection turns out to be
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ê rŸ = divŸ NŸ dtædt : E é T*EÆT*E. E
ò
Next, let us assume that the source of the gravitational connection KŸ is an incoherent fluid with density mass µ, as in § I.4.5. This hypothesis does not conflict with the above lemma, as both rŸ and tŸ turn out to be timelike tensors. Then, we can reinterpret the second gravitational field equation as follows. T HEOREM I.6.2.1. The second gravitational field equation reduces to ê divŸ NŸ = kæµ, i.e. to ê Ë» U = kæµ.
ò
R EMARK I . 6 . 2 . 2 . Let o be a Newtonian observer. The potential of È Ÿ becomes aŸ = Uædt. ò We can express the curvature through the gravitational potential. R EMARK I . 6 . 2 . 3 . Let us regard dtædtæN Ÿ as a vertical valued 1form on E E the vector bundle TEéE E E dtædtæNŸ:TEéT*EÆVE . E
Then, the gravitational curvature turns out to be the covariant exterior differential (see § III.5) of NŸ, with respect to the background connection K», RŸ = dK»(dtædtæNŸ), with coordinate expression RŸ = u0æu0ægih ÙhjU dj◊d0æÙiæd0.
PROOF. We have (see Rem. I.1.1.3)
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RŸ = 1 [KŸ, KŸ] = 1 [K» _ dtædtæNŸ, K» _ dtædtæNŸ] = [K», dtædtæNŸ] ˆ 2 2 ˆ dK»(dtædtæNŸ) . ò
Finally, we study the law of motion of a classical test particle in the and show that it reduces exactly to the classical Newton law of gravitation. L EMMA I . 6 . 2 . 5 . The gravitational second order connection can be written as ˙Ÿ = ˙» _ NŸ, where ˙» is the second order connection associated with Í». ò P ROPOSITION I . 6 . 2 . 3 . The Newton law of motion reads as ı˙»s = NŸ©js. ò
Therefore, NŸ can be interpreted as the gravitational force with respect to the background connection K». R EMARK I . 6 . 2 . 4 . Two different Newtonian connections K» and K»' yield two different accelerations and gravitational forces ı˙»s ı˙»'s NŸ©js NŸ'©js. ò R EMARK I . 6 . 2 . 5 . Neither the two fields equations, nor the law of motion yield any distinguished choice among Newtonian connections admitted by KŸ (if they exist). ò
I.6.3. The special relativistic spacetime
Eventually, we consider the case when the source of the gravitational field vanishes. In this case, the gravitational connection is Ricci flat; hence it is possibly flat and, under reasonable hypothesis, the gravitational connection itself is a Newtonian connection. So, in this case, we have a distinguished choice of the Newtonian background connection. Therefore, we are led to introduce the following notion.
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D EFINITION I.6.3.1. A spacetime is said to be special if the gravitational connection KŸ induces an affine structure on the spacetime manifold E, such that the time function t is an affine map. ¡ Of course, if the spacetime is special, then we can apply all above results with the identifications K» = KŸ NŸ = 0. This case will be referred to as the special relativistic Galilei case. The corresponding field theory and mechanics are just the standard classical theories.
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I.7  Classical twobody mechanics
So far, spacetime has been regarded as the manifold of possible events “touched” by a classical particle. Moreover, the source of gravitational and electromagnetic fields has been a given external incoherent charged fluid (as an example). Furthermore, we have described the mechanics of a classical particle. Now, we modify slightly our model in order to describe a closed system constituted by n classical particles interacting through the gravitational and electromagnetic fields. Thus, we no longer consider an external source of the fields, but the source is constituted by the particles themselves. Then, we are led to consider the fibred product over time of n identical copies of the “pattern” spacetime as the framework of the system; each component is referred to one of the n particles. In order to describe the singularities corresponding to the possible collisions, we could describe the fields in terms of distributions. However, we follow a simpler way: we just cut the multievents corresponding to possible collisions and consider smooth fields. It is a striking fact that the fields and the mechanics of particles can be formulated in terms of this multispacetime in strong analogy with the case of a single particle. Actually, in the one particle theory, the dimension 3 of the spacetime fibre has never played an essential role. So, the basic change from the case n = 1 to the case n > 1 consists in the increase of the dimension of the fibre of spacetime (along with the addition of n projections on the components). This scheme can be developed for any n ≥ 1. However, we do it explicitly only for the case n = 2. The reader can generalise it without any difficulty. We do not find the most general solution of field equations, but we just exhibit the simplest solution whose symmetries and boundary conditions are physically sensible. Then, the classical dynamics follows easily. This solution is nothing but a Galilei general relativistic formulation of the well known standard classical two body problem. We stress that the field equations and solutions can be formulated independently of the explicit motion of the particles. Many concepts and results of this chapter are quite simple and standard.
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However, it is necessary to spend some words for fixing the notation and showing how standard notions arise very well in our general formalism.
I.7.1. Two body spacetime and equations
We start by introducing the multispacetime associated with two classical particles. We consider the associated basic multiobjects such as the metric, gravitational and electromagnetic fields and we write the multifield equations. We label the objects related to the two particles by the indices 1 and 2, respectively. A SSUMPTION CTB1. We assume a spacetime fibred manifold E T t:E éT as in Assumption C1, which will be referred to as the pattern spacetime.
ò
More generally, the adjective pattern will be used for all objects associated with the pattern spacetime. Then, we define the multispacetime to be the fibred manifold E TE t : E ˆ (E1)˚(E2) é T E 1 + E + E 2.
where E1 and E2 are two identical copies of the pattern spacetime E: We denote the projections on the two components by E E E E p1:E éE1 p2:E éE2. Of course, we can write E E ˚T E TE = (TE1)TT(TE2) E E T E VE = (VE1)˚(VE2) J1E = (J1E1)˚(J1E2). T
Moreover, we consider the reduced multispacetime obtained by subtracting the diagonal from the multispacetime: t ' : E ' ˆ {(y1,y2) $ E ¡ y1 = y2} é T.
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Then, we can define multiobjects related to multispacetime analogously to the one body theory. Let us analyse a few concepts as an example. A multimotion is defined to be a section T E s :T àE and its velocity is defined to be its first jet prolongation T j1s :TéJ1E . Of course, we can write s s s = (s1,s2) ˆ (s ©pr1,s ©pr2) T E s1:TéE1 T E s2:TéE2 s s j1s = (j1s1,j1s2) ˆ ⁄j1(s ©pr1),j1(s ©pr2)^, T j1s1:TéJ1E1 T j1s2:TéJ1E2.
where
where
Of course, we can write o o o = (o1,o2) ˆ (o ©J1pr1,o ©J1pr2), E o1:E éJ1E1 E o2:E éJ1E2,
A multiobserver is defined to be a section E o :E éJ1E .
be a pattern observer and let o1 and o2 be two identical copies of o on E1 and E2, respectively; then, o yields the multiobserver o ˆ (o1,o2). A pattern spacetime chart (x0,yi) yields the multispacetime chart
need not to be pattern observers in the standard sense because they may depend on the twobody events. In particular, let E o:EéJ1E
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(x0, y1i, y2i) ˆ (x0, yi©pr1, yi©pr1). Next, we pursue by assuming further structures on the multispacetime analogously to the one body case. A S S U M P T I O N T B 2 . We assume the reduced multispacetime to be equipped with a multimetric g :E 'éAÆ(V*E ÆV*E ), E E a multigravitational connection E E K Ÿ:TE 'éT*E 'ÆTTE ' E' and a multielectromagnetic field
2 E F :E 'éBÆLT*E '.
ò
Analogously to the one body case, the above fields yield several objects, which fulfill several relations. In particular, we obtain the multigravitational connection (see Prop. I.2.1.1) Í Ÿ:J1E 'éT*E ' Æ TJ 1E ', J E' the multisecond order gravitational connection (see Prop. I.2.5.1) ˙ Ÿ:J1E 'éT*JÆ 'TJ 1E ', E the multigravitational contact 2form (see Prop. I.2.5.2) 2 Ò Ÿ:J1E 'é(T*ÆA)ÆLT*J1E '
E'
1 1
the multigravitational curvature tensor (see Rem. I.2.1.4) R Ÿ:E 'é LT*E 'ÆV * E '. E 2 and the multigravitational Ricci tensor (see Rem. I.2.1.4) E r Ÿ:E 'éT*E 'ÆT * E '. E'
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A S S U MPTI O N TB3. We assume two masses and charges m 1, m 2 $ M q1, q2 $ Q. We set µ1 ˆ
m1 m
ò
m ˆ m1 _ m2 q ˆ q1 _ q2
µ2 ˆ
m2 m
q1 ¯1 ˆ q
q2 ¯2 ˆ q
.
Then, we obtain the multitotal objects by coupling the gravitational and electromagnetic fields (see § I.3.2), analogously to the case of one particle, both with reference to the above mass m$ M and charge q $ Q and to the square root of the universal gravitational constant k. In particular, we have the following total objects (with respect to both couplings) Í = ÍŸ _ Íe ˙ = ˙Ÿ _ ˙e Ò = Ò Ÿ _ Ò e. Moreover, we obtain the following splittings R = R Ÿ _ R Ÿe _ R e r = r Ÿ _ r Ÿ e _ r e. The one body field theory suggests the following field equations. A S S U M P T I O N TB4. We assume the metric, gravitational and electromagnetic field to fulfill the following field equations on the reduced multispacetime F d ÒŸ = 0 dF = 0 rŸ = 0 divŸF = 0
ò
The one body mechanics suggests the following dynamical equation. A S S U M P T I O N TB5. (Generalised Newton law of motion) We assume the law of motion for two particles, with masses m 1, m 2$ M and charges q 1,
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T E q2$Q, whose multimotion is s :TéE , to be the equation ı˙ j1s = 0.
ò
Later, in the two body quantum mechanics (see § II.7.2), we shall be involved with the following classical objects. Let us consider a multiobserver o and the associated map E ıo :J1E éT*ÆVE . Then, we define the multikinetic energy and multikinetic momentum to be the maps (see Def. I.5.2.1) G ˆ 1 m g ©(ıo , ıo ) : J1E é T*ÆT*ÆAÆM 2 ê P ˆ m g @©ıo : J1E é T*ÆAÆMÆV*E . Moreover, we obtain the kinetic energy form and kinetic momentum form (see Rem. I.5.2.1) G :J1E éT*ÆAÆMÆT*E ê P ˆ ª *œP : J1E é T*ÆAÆMÆT*E .
I.7.2. The standard twobody solution
Next, we exhibit a distinguished solution of the field equations whose symmetries and boundary values are physically appropriate.
and a background connection (see Def. I.6.1.1)
The background spacetime structure First, we introduce a multimetric and a background affine structure of the multispacetime in the following way. We consider a vertical metric (see § I.1.2) E g:EéAÆ(V*EÆV*E) E
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on the pattern spacetime. Then, we denote by g1 and g2 two identical copies of g on E 1 and E 2, respectively, and consider the multimetric g :E éAÆ(V*E ÆV*E ) E E given by g : VE ÆVE é A : (X,Y) ´ µ1g1(X1,Y1) _ µ2g2(X2,Y2). E E E
E E K»:TEéT*EÆTTE E
Analogously, we denote by K»1 and K»2 two identical copies of K» on E1 and E2, respectively, and consider the multibackground connection E E K » ˆ K»1˚K»2 : TE éT*E ÆTTE .
E
Hence, the background affine structure on the multispacetime yields the splittings (see Lemma I.6.1.1) Ã S E S E = T ˚S VE = E ˚S , where S is the 6dimensional vector space S = S 1˚S 2, S where S 1 and S 2 denote two identical copies of S related to E 1 and E 2, respectively. We consider also the reduced subset S' ˆ S  {0}. Moreover, the multimetric turns out to be an element g $ AÆ⁄(S1*ÆS1*)˚(S2*ÆS2*)^. S S S S
Before pursuing with the construction of the standard solution of the field equations, we analyse some important consequences of the above structures on the multispacetime.
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and the centre of mass projection to be the fibred morphism over T prc : E é E c : e + (e1,e2) ´ e c + (ec,ec), where ec $ E is the unique element such that t(e1) = t(ec) = t(e2) µ1 (e1  ec) _ µ2 (e2  ec) = 0.
We define the space of the centre of mass to be the diagonal fibred submanifold over T E c ˆ {(e1,e2) $ E ¡ e1 = e2} ç E é T
and the crelative projection to be the map s s prs : E é S s : e + (e1,e2) ´ s + (s1,s2) ˆ (e1  ec, e2  ec). Furthermore, we define the relative projections to be the map14 S r r prr : E éS : e + (e1,e2) ´ (r1,r2) ˆ (e1  e2, e2  e1). We set also ® : S é A1/2Æ· : v ´ ˜v˜ ˆ ÊÕÕ g(v,v) r r r ˆ ®©r1 = ®©r2 : E é A1/2Æ· s g (s ,s ) ss s ˆ ˜s ˜ ˆ ÊÕÕô. Hence, we can write r1 = µ1 s1
2
Moreover, we define the relative space to be the vector subspace S s ˆ {(X1,X2) $ S ¡ µ1 X1 _ µ2 X2 = 0} ç S
r2 = µ 1µ s2
1 2
r2 = µ1 s2.
1
Therefore, besides the natural fibred splitting over T
14 Of course, these maps should not be confused with the Ricci tensor.
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we obtain the further splittings induced by the affine background structure S s s (prc,prs) : E é E c˚S s : e ´ ⁄ec, (s1,s2)^ ˆ (ec, (e1  ec, e2  ec)^ S (prc,prr ) : E é E c˚S : e ´ (ec, r1) ˆ (ec, e1  e2)
1
(pr1,pr2) : E é E1 ˚ E2 : e ´ (e1, e2), T
S (prc,prr ) : E é E c˚S : e ´ (ec, r2) ˆ (ec, e2  e1).
2
The above splitting is naturally prolonged by the tangent and jet functors, hence it yields analogous splittings of structures and equations. If o is a pattern Newtonian observer and (x 0,y i) an adapted Cartesian chart, then we obtain the two distinguished multicharts (x0, y1i, y1i) ˆ (x0, yi©pr1, yi©pr2) (x0, yci, yri) ˆ (x0, yi©prc, y2i  y1i).
The gravitational and electromagnetic fields Next, we exhibit the multigravitational connection. We consider the map k m m UŸ ˆ  m 1® 2 : S' é T*ÆT*ÆAÆM, which yields U Ÿ ˆ UŸ©r1 = UŸ©r2 : E 'éT*ÆT*ÆA. r r Then, we obtain the section ê N Ÿ ˆ grad U Ÿ : E 'é(T*ÆT*)ÆVE , E which can be expressed as k m m N Ÿ = (NŸ1,NŸ2) =  m 1 3 2 (µ1 r1, µ1 r2). r 1 2
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Eventually, we exhibit the multielectromagnetic field. We consider the map qq Ue ˆ 1 1® 2 : S' é T*ÆA1/4ÆM1/2 q which yields U e ˆ Ue©r1 = Ue©r2 : E 'éT*ÆA1/4ÆM1/2. r r Then, we obtain the section
2 F ˆ  2 dt◊d U e : E ' é BÆLT*E ', which can be expressed as 2 2 2 F ˆ (¯1 F1, ¯2 F2) : E ' é BÆ(LT*E1)˚(LT*E2) ç BÆLT*E '. T
Moreover, we obtain the section q ê E N e ˆ m grad U e : E 'é(T*ÆT*)ÆVE ',
1 N e = (Ne1,Ne2) = m
which can be expressed as
q1 q2 1 1 3 (µ r 1, µ r 2). r 1 2
P R O P O S I T I O N I . 7 . 2 . 1 . The sections E N E K Ÿ = K » _ dtædtæN Ÿ : TE ' é T*E 'ÆTTE ' E' and
2 F ˆ  2 dt◊d U e : E ' é BÆLT*E ' are a multigravitational connection and a multielectromagnetic field and fulfill the twobody field equations (see Ass. TB4). ò
R E M A R K I.7.2.1. The Newtonian vector field and the potential factorise through the following commutative diagrams
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E N (T * Æ T * ) Æ S ä ï À S r ä (T * Æ T * ) Æ S r R E M A R K I.7.2.2. We obtain Ò Ÿ = Ò »  2 dt◊d U
U
ö
Ö
T* Eä
Sr ò
q Ò e =  2 m dt◊d U e
N N ˙ Ÿ = ˙ » _ dtædtæN Ÿ ˙ e = dtædtæN e. Hence, with reference to any Newtonian multiobserver (see § I.6.2), the form (see Theor. I.4.3.2)) q 1 k m m2 q q U q a = U dt ˆ (U Ÿ _ m U e) dt =  m 1 r 1 2 dt is a potential of the 2form È ˆ 2 o *Ò . ò R E M A R K I.7.2.3. With reference to any multispacetime chart, we have the following coordinate expression 1 k m m2 q q a ˆ a 0 u0æd0 =  m 1 r 1 2 u0æd0. ò
The two body mechanics The dynamics of the two classical particles follows from the above solution of the field equations analogously to the one body dynamics, without any problem, in full accordance with well known standard results. We just give explicitly a few further details about objects we shall be involved with later in the quantum theory (see § II.7.2). R E M A R K I.7.2.4. Let us consider a multiobserver o of the standard type E o = (o,o), where o:EéJ1E is a pattern observer. Then, we obtain the standard formulas G = G1 _ G2 ˆ 1 m1 g©(ıo, ıo)©J1pr1 _ 1 m2 g©(ıo, ıo)©J1pr2 2 2
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= Gc _ Gr ˆ 1 m g©(ıo, ıo)©J1prc _ 1 m µ1 µ2 g©(ıo, ıo)©J1prr 2 2 ê ê ê P = P1 _ P2 ˆ (m1 g@©ıo)©J1pr1 _ (m2 g@©ıo)©J1pr2 ê ê = Pc _ Pr ˆ (m g@©ıo)©J1prc _ (m µ1 µ2 g@©ıo)©J1prr ê ê P = P 1 _ P 2 ˆ ª * œ P 1 _ ª* œ P 2 ê ê = P c _ P r ˆ ª * œ P c _ ª* œ P r . With reference to a Cartesian chart (x0,yi) adapted to o, we obtain the following coordinate expressions i j i j G = 1 ∂ij (m1 y10 y10 _ m2 y20 y20) 2
i j i j = 1 ∂ij m (yc0 yc0 _ µ1 µ2 yr0 yr0) 2 i j i j j j P =  ∂ij ⁄(m1 y10 y10 _ m2 y20 y20) d0 _ (m1 y10 d1i _ m2 y20 d2i)^ i j i j j j =  ∂ij m ⁄(yc0 yc0 _ µ1 µ2 yr0 yr0) d0 _ (yc0 dci _ µ1 µ2 yr0 dri)^.
ò
We conclude this chapter with the observation that, in most respects, the q q system of two particles with masses (m 1,m 2) and charges (q 1,q 2) can be treated just as a system consisting of one particle with mass m and charge q moving in the multispacetime.
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II  THE QUANTUM THEORY
The second part of the paper is devoted to a model of general relativistic quantum mechanics for a spinless charged particle, interacting with given classical gravitational and electromagnetic fields in a given classical Galilei general relativistic curved spacetime with absolute time. E T So, we consider a classical curved spacetime t:EéT (§ I.1.1) equipped with a vertical metric g (§ I.1.2), a gravitational connection Í Ÿ and an electromagnetic field F (§ I.3.1) fulfilling the field equations (§ I.4.1, § I.4.5). Moreover, we consider a mass m$M, a charge q $Q and the related total objects, which involve both the gravitational and electromagnetic fields (§ I.3.2); in particular, we are involved with the total contact 2form Ò (§ I.2.5). Next, we introduce the quantum framework: it is constituted by a line bundle, over the classical spacetime, equipped with a system of connections, parametrised by the observers, whose universal curvature is proportional (through the Planck constant) to the classical contact 2form. Then, a criterion of projectability expressing the principle of general relativity, yields the dynamics for the sections of the quantum bundle. Moreover, pure geometrical constructions produce the quantum operators. The above theory is referred to the quantum bundle, which is based on spacetime. We can reformulate this theory, in terms of infinite dimensional systems, by taking time as base space. In this context, we achieve the Hilbert bundle and related quantum operators. The standard probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics is assumed without any essential change.
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II.1  The quantum framework
This chapter is devoted to the study of the quantum bundle and the quantum connection.
II.1.1. The quantum bundle
We start by introducing the quantum bundle, which is the fundamental space of the quantum theory. A S S U M P T I O N Q 1 . We assume the quantum bundle to be a Hermitian line bundle over spacetime Q E π:Q éE . ò Thus, we assume the quantum bundle to be a 2dimensional (real) vector Q E bundle π:QéE equipped with a linear fibred morphism over E Q Q ˘:Q éQ such that ˘2 =  1 and a Hermitian fibred product QE h:Q ˚Q éÛ.
Q E As usual, π:QéE becomes a 1dimensional complex vector bundle, by setting Q i q ˆ ˘(q), Åq$Q. We shall be involved with the real and imaginary Liouville vector fields15 Q E Q E i : Q é VQ = Q ˚Q : q ´ (q, q) i i : Q é VQ = Q˚Q : q ´ (q, i q)
and we shall often make the identifications Q E Q E 1 = idQ ≠ i : E é (Q*ÆQ) i = i idQ ≠ i i : E é (Q*ÆQ ).
We denote the tubelike (real) linear charts and dual bases, respectively,
15 i is the Cyrillic character corresponding to “i”.
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by Q (wa):Qé·2 Moreover, we denote the associated (real) linear bundle trivialisation and (real) linear complex valued coordinate, respectively, by E ƒ ˆ (π, w1 _ i w2) : QéE˚Û z ˆ w1 _ i w2 : Q é Û. The above four objects (wa), (ba), ƒ and z characterise each other in an obvious way. Of course, the tubelike vector field Q b ˆ b1 : EéQ turns out to be a complex basis. The above four objects (wa), (ba), ƒ and z are said to be normal if b2 = i b1 h(b1,b1) = 1. E QE (ba):EéQ˚Q 1≤a≤2.
Normality is characterised by each of the following equivalent conditions: Q i) z:QéÛ is a complex linear coordinate, E Q b:E éQ is the complex dual basis and h(b,b) = 1; ii) ˘ = w1æb2  w2æb1 iii) h = (w1æw1 _ w2æw2) _ i (w1æw2  w2æw1); i ≠ i zæb ≠ i z Ùz ≠ i i
1 = zæb ≠ z Ùz = i
h = ãæz; z iv) ƒ is a tubelike Hermitian complex fibred isomorphism. The normal bases and trivialisations will be refereed to as quantum gauges. Q E It can be proved that the bundle π:Q éE admits a bundle atlas constituted
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by normal charts. The associated cocycle takes its values in the group U(1). Now on, we will always refer to such an atlas, without any explicit mention. Q E If (x0,yi,wa) is a fibred chart π:Q éE, then the induced linear fibred chart E of the vector bundle J1QéE will be denoted by (x0,yi,wa,wa). ¬ E Q The sections „:E éQ are interpreted physically as the possible quantum histories. Q E For each „$S(QéE), we shall write locally E „ = ¥ b, ¥ ˆ z©„ $ M(E,Û).
II.1.2. Quantum densities
The sections of the quantum bundle are sufficient for our starting purposes. However, in several contexts it is useful or necessary to multiply them by the spacetime or spacelike halfvolume forms. For this reason, we introduce the notion of quantum halfdensities. We have a natural bijection between quantum sections and quantum halfdensities. Let us consider the bundles where Ê denotes the square root of the 1dimensional positive semivector bundle induced by the positive orientation (see § III.1.3). Thus, we have the sections (see § I.1.2) 4 3 ¢Ã :EéT1/2ÆA3/4ÆÊLT*E ¨E ¢Ã :EéA3/4ÆÊLV*E ∆E and, by definition, we obtain ¢Ã æ¢Ã = ¨ ¨ ¨ ¢Ã æ ¢Ã = ∆. ∆ ∆ The spacetime halfdensities quantum bundle and the spacelike halfdensities quantum bundle are defined to be, respectively, the bundles 4 Q π¨ : Q¨ ˆ T1/2ÆA3/4Æ(QÆÊLT*E) é E
E 4 E T1/2ÆA3/4ÆÊLT*EéE
E A3/4ÆÊLV*EéE,
3
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The above bundles turn out to be 2dimensional real vector bundles and inherit the complex and Hermitian structures from the Hermitian complex bunE dle Q éE. Q If „$S(Q), then we obtain the local sections „¨ ˆ „æ¢Ã : E é Q¨ ¨ „∆ ˆ „æ¢Ã : E é Q∆ ∆ with coordinate expressions ê ê ê „∆ = ¥∆ bæÊ(d1◊d2◊d3), „¨ = ¥∆ bæÊ(u0æd0◊d1◊d2◊d3) where we have set
4 ¥∆ + ÊÕ ¥. ¡g¡ Of course, we have the natural linear sheaf isomorphisms Q Q Q Q S(Q) é S(Q∆) : „ ´ „∆. S(Q) é S(Q¨) : „ ´ „¨
QE π∆ : Q∆ ˆ A3/4Æ(QÆÊLV*E) é E,
3
II.1.3. Systems of connections
In view of the introduction of the quantum connection, we need a few recalls on systems of connections (see [ MM], [Mo1]). F B Let p:FéB be a fibred manifold. A system of connections is defined to be a fibred morphism over F F ≈ : C˚F é J1F ç T*BÆTF , B F
C B where q:CéB is a fibred manifold. C B The system ≈ maps in a natural way sections of q:CéB into connections of F B p:F éB ≈ : c ´ ≈c ˆ ≈©cŸ,
where cŸ denotes the pullback of c (see § III.1). In other words, a system of connections is a smooth family of connections parametrised by the sections of the bundle C . The connections of the fibred
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F B manifold p:FéB , which are of the type ≈c, are the distinguished connections of the system. Let (x¬,zi) and (x¬,au) be fibred charts of F and C , whose domains project over the same open subset of B . Then, the coordinate expression of ≈ is of the type C˚ ≈ = d¬æÙ¬ _ ≈¬i d¬æÙi ≈¬i$F(CB F ). Given a system of connections ≈, we obtain the “universal connection” in the following way. Let us consider the pullback bundle over C pŸ : FŸ ˆ C˚F é C . B R EMARK I I . 1 . 3 . 1 . We can easily exhibit a natural inclusion F ˘ : (J1F)Ÿ ˆ C˚J1F à J1(FŸ). B
with coordinate expression (x¬,au,zi;z¬i,zui)©˘ = (x¬,au,zi;z¬i,0). Next, we can easily see that the map F Ó≈ ˆ ˘©≈Ÿ : FŸ é J1(FŸ)
The connection Ó≈ is said to be the universal connection of the system ≈ because every connection ≈c of the system can be obtained from Ó≈ by pullback: ò ≈c = c*Ó≈. We can characterise the universal connection in the following way.
F C is a section. Thus, Ó≈ is a connection of the fibred manifold pŸ:F ŸéC , with coordinate expression Ó≈ = d¬æÙ¬ _ duæÙu _ ≈¬i d¬æÙi.
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B C vanishes, i. e., for each vertical vector field X:BéVC, X œ Ó≈ = X. In coordinates, this condition reads Óui = 0.
R EMARK II.1.3.2. i) Let ≈ be a system of connections. Then the coordinate expression of the universal connection Ó ≈ of the system ≈ shows that the F linear fibred morphism over FŸéF Ó C ≈ F CC Ÿ F ä Ÿ) ä TF T(F VC ˚ F Ÿ‹TC ˚ C
whose universal connection is Ó.
a connection, which fulfills the above condition. Then, we can prove that there is a unique system of connections CB ≈Ó:C˚FéJ1F, ò Next, let us go back to the system ≈. The curvature of the connection Ó≈ is the vertical valued 2form (see § III.5 and [MM2], [Mo2]) 2 F Ò≈ ˆ 1 [Ó≈,Ó≈] : FŸ é LT*CÆVF , 2
C B ii) Conversely, let q:CéB be a fibred manifold and F F Ó:FŸéT*CÆ T(FŸ) FŸ
The curvature Ò≈ is said to be the universal curvature of the system ≈, because the curvature 2 F R≈ ˆ 1 [≈c,≈c] : F é LT*BÆVF 2 of every connection ≈c of the system can be obtained from Ò≈ by pullback:
c F
with coordinate expression Ò≈ = ⁄(Ù¬≈µi _ ≈¬j Ùj≈µi) d¬◊dµ _ Ùu≈µi du◊dµ^æÙi.
F
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R≈c = c*Ò≈. F B Next, let p:FéB be a Hermitian line bundle. Then, a connection16 F F c:F éT*B ÆTF B
The curvature of a Hermitian connection c can be regarded as an imaginary 2form 2 Rc: B éLT*BÆÛ with coordinate expression Rc = i Ù¬cµ d¬◊dµæi.
is said to be Hermitian if it is (real) linear and preserves the Hermitian product h. A Hermitian connection turns out to be also complex linear. The coordinate expression of a Hermitian connection c is of the type ¬ B c = d æ(Ù _ i c i) c $F(B). ¬ ¬ ¬
F B R EMARK I I . 1 . 3 . 3 . Let p:F éB be a Hermitian complex vector bundle and ≈ a F C system of connections. Then also pŸ:FŸéC turns out to be a Hermitian complex vector bundle. Moreover, ≈ is a system of Hermitian connections if an only if Ó ≈ is a Hermitian connection. ò
II.1.4. The quantum connection
Now, we are in the position to introduce the quantum connection, which constitutes our basically unique assumption of the quantum theory. We observe that the quantum bundle lives on the spacetime E. However, E does not carry sufficient information of the classical structure; for instance, Í, ˙ and Ò live on J1E . Therefore, we are led to consider the pullback bundle
16 c is the Cyrillic character corresponding to “ch”.
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E E of the quantum bundle Q éE , with respect to J1E éE . In the present context, E this bundle J1E éE has to be interpreted as the target space of classical observers (see § I.1.1). Then, we make the following main assumptions. A SSUMPTION Q 2 . We assume the Planck constant to be an element h $ T_*ÆAÆM. Moreover, given u0$T_, we set
h ˆ h(u0) $ AÆM. ò
πŸ : QŸ ˆ J1E˚Q é J1E E
A SSUMPTION Q 3 . We assume the quantum connection to be a connection on the bundle QŸéJ1E Q Q c:Q ŸéT*J E Æ TQ Ÿ, 1
J1E
with the following properties: i) c is Hermitian ii) c is universal, iii) the curvature Q Rc:J1EéLT*J1E JÆ (Q *Æ Q ) E E
1
2
of c is given by (Rc) Rc = i m Òæi. h
ò
We stress that our assumption on the closure of the classical contact 2form Ò turns out to be an essential integrability condition for the existence of the quantum connection. In fact, the equality dÒ = 0 can be regarded as the Bianchi identity for the connection c.
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P ROPOSITION I I . 1 . 4 . 1 . Our assumption Q3) on the quantum connection can be reformulated by saying that we assume a system of Hermitian connecE tions, parametrised by the observers o:EéJ1E, Q ≈:J1E˚Q éT*E ÆTQ , E whose curvature is given, for each observer o, by R≈o = 1 i m Èæi. 2 h
E
PROOF. It follows immediately from the properties of universal connection and curvature of a system of connections (see § II.1.3). ò C OROLLARY I I . 1 . 4 . 1 . For each observer o, we obtain the connection Q Q ≈o:QéT*EÆTQ E
whose coordinate expression, in adapted coordinates, is ≈o = d¬æÙ¬ _ i a¬ d¬æi,
where a is a distinguished (see, later, Rem II.1.4.1) choice of the potential of È.
PROOF. It follows immediately from the coordinate expression of the curvature of a Hermitian connection and the definition of a. ò
L EMMA I I . 1 . 4 . 1 . Let b be a quantum gauge. Then, in the tube of the trivialisation, there is a unique flat Hermitian and universal connection Q c»:Q ŸéT*J E Æ TQ Ÿ, 1 JE Q E Q such that for each section „:E éQ , which is constant with respect to ƒ, we have ı»„ = 0. ò We say that c» is the background connection associated with b. We stress that c» is not a quantum connection because its curvature vanishes (and it is local). T HEOREM I I . 1 . 4 . 1 . Let b be a quantum gauge and o an observer. Then, in
1
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the tube of the trivialisation, the quantum connection can be uniquely written as (QC)
c
1 G = c» _ i h (G _ P _ m a) i,
where G and P are the classical kinetic energy and momentum forms associated with the observer o (see Rem. I.5.2.1) and a is a potential of the 2form È ˆ 2 o*Ò (see Prop. I.2.5.1 and Theor. I.4.3.2), which depends on b and, obviously, on o. Thus, with reference to the normal chart associated with b and to any spacetime chart adapted to o, we obtain the following coordinate expression (QC)'
c
i i j i = d¬æÙ¬ _ d0æÙ0 _ i m ( 1 gij y0 y0 d0 _ gij y0 dj _ a¬ d¬)æi, h 2 i
c
hence (see Rem. I.5.2.2) c =  H/h 0
j = pj/h
c
0 = 0. j
P ROOF . Let us refer to the normal chart associated with b and to any spacetime chart adapted to o. Condition ii) reads in coordinates as 0 c = 0. j Moreover, in virtue of condition i), the coordinate expression of the connection c can be written (without loosing in generality) as m ¬ i 0 i j i c = d æÙ _ d æÙ _ i ( 1 gij y0 y0 d0 _ gij y0 dj _ a¬ d¬)æi, h 2 0 i ¬
where a ˆ a¬ u0æd¬ : J1E é T*ÆT*E
is a suitable fibred morphism over E, which depends on ƒ and the spacetime chart. Eventually, a computation in coordinates shows that condition iii) implies that a depends on J1E only through E and that it is a potential of È. Moreover, we can easily see that a change of spacetime chart adapted to the same observer o leaves the term
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i i j i d¬æÙ¬ _ d0æÙ0 _ i m ( 1 gij y0 y0 d0 _ gij y0 dj)æi h 2 i
unchanged. Hence, a depends on the spacetime chart only through the observer o. ò C OROLLARY I I . 1 . 4 . 1 . The composition of the connections ˙ and c Q Q ˙œc:QŸéT*ÆTQŸ T is a connection on the fibred manifold QŸéT. Let b be a quantum gauge and o an observer. Then, in the tube of the trivialisation, we can write
1 ˙œc = ˙œc» _ i h L i,
where L is the classical Lagrangian form associated with the observer o (see Rem. I.5.2.1) and with the potential a of È fixed by the above theorem. Thus, with reference to the normal chart associated with b and to any spacetime chart adapted to o, we obtain the following coordinate expression i ˙œc = u0æ(Ù0 _ y0 Ùi _ ˙i Ù0 _ i L/h i), i hence (˙œc)0 = L/h. ò
P ROPOSITION I I . 1 . 4 . 2 . Let o be an observer. Let b and b' be two quantum gauges and set E ei ª ˆ b'/b $ M(E,Û). Let a and a' be the potentials of the form È ˆ 2o*Ò which appear in the expressions of the quantum connection c related to the quantum gauges b and b', respectively, according to formula (QC). Then, we obtain
h a' = a  m dª.
PROOF. Let (x0,yi,z) and (x0',yi',z') be charts of Q associated with (o,b) and (o,b'), respectively. Then, we can write
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Hence, the comparison of formula (QC) in the two charts yields the result.ò P ROPOSITION I I . 1 . 4 . 3 . Let b be a quantum gauge. Let o and o' be two observers and set E v ˆ o'  o : E é T*ÆVE. Let a and a' be the potentials of the forms È ˆ 2o*Ò and È' ˆ 2o'*Ò which appear in the expressions of the quantum connection c related to the quantum gauge b and the two observers o and o', respectively, according to formula (QC). Then, we obtain (*) a' = a  1 g©(v,v) _ ~o*œv@, 2 where v@ ˆ g@©v, ~o*:V*EéT*E is the transpose of ~o (see Rem. I.1.1.3) and g©(v,v) is regarded as a form g©(v,v) : E é T*ÆAÆT*E. In particular, by vertical restriction, we obtain a' = a _ v@. ê ê Hence, if (x0,yi) and (x0,y'i) are spacetime charts17 adapted to o and o', respectively, then we can write a'0' = a0 _ ( 1 vi _ ai) vi 2 where we have set a' = a'¬' u0æd¬' with a'i' = Ùiy'j (aj _ vj), a' = a'¬ u0æd¬ a = a¬ u0æd¬ v = vi u0æÙi,
i' i d¬'æÙ¬' _ d0'æÙ0' = d¬æÙ¬ _ d0æÙ0  i dªæi. i' i
17 For the sake of simplicity, we take x'0 = x0.
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E a¬ , a'¬' , a'¬ $ M(E,A)
E vi $ F(E).
PROOF. Formula (*) follows from formula (QC) and Rem. I.5.2.3. Then, we can write a'0 = a0  1 gij vi vj 2
a'i = ai _ gij vj in the spacetime chart (x0,yi). On the other hand, we have a'i' = Ùi'yj aj. a'0' = a'0 _ Ù0'yi a'i Moreover, by taking the composition of the transition map i j' y0 = Ùj'yi y0' _ Ù0'yi
i vi ˆ y0©v = Ù0'yi.
with o' = o _ v, we obtain
ò
The above results have delicate aspects which deserve an explanation. R EMARK I I . 1 . 4 . 1 . In the above expressions of the quantum connection we deal with two different kinds of observers. First, in order to write an explicit expression of c , we have chosen an observer o. Then, in order to parametrise the connections of the system ≈, we deal with all observers i (including o itself). These observers are spanned by the coordinates y0; in i particular, the observer o itself is characterised by y0©o = 0. We stress that a does not depend on the family of observers of the system, but it depends only on the chosen observer o. ò R EMARK I I . 1 . 4 . 2 . In the classical context, we can refer to any local potential a of the observer dependent form È. Conversely, in the quantum context, c is a global and intrinsic object. Hence, formula (QC) determines, for each quantum gauge, the choice of the local potential a related to the observer o. Now on, we shall refer to the above choice of a and we say that it is quantistically gauged . ò
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R EMARK I I . 1 . 4 . 3 . We stress that locally a quantum connection always exists; on the other hand, our assumption of a global existence of a quantum connection may imply global conditions on the quantum bundle. We do not discuss here these conditions and just assume, as a postulate, that the compatibility of our assumptions is fulfilled. The special relativistic spacetime (see § I.6.3) and the twobody spacetime provide important examples. ò The requirement of universality of the quantum connection is very important, because it allows us to skip the well known problem of the choice of polarisations.
II.1.5. Quantum covariant differentials
Next, we study the covariant differentials of the quantum sections, with respect to the quantum connection. Q E Q Let us consider a section „$S(QéE) and its pullback „Ÿ$S(QŸéJ1E). P R O P O S I T I O N I I . 1 . 5 . 1 . The quantum covariant differential of „Ÿ is a 1form ıc„Ÿ:J1EéT*J1E JÆ Q Ÿ. E Q E Q However, as the section „Ÿ:J1E éQ Ÿ is the pullback of a section „:E éQ and the connection c is universal, we can write ıc„Ÿ:J1EéT*EÆQ . E E Moreover, for each observer o:EéJ1E, we have (see § II.1.3) ıc„Ÿ©o = ı≈(o)„ : E é T*EÆQ .
E
1
ò
Then, we introduce the following notions. D E F I N I T I O N I I . 1 . 5 . 1 . We define the covariant differential of „ as the fibred morphism over E
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and the timelike and spacelike covariant differentials of „ as the fibred morphisms over E ô ê Q ı„ ˆ dœı„ : J1E é T*ÆQ ı„ : J1E é V*EÆQ . ¡ E R EMARK I I . 1 . 5 . 1 . We have the coordinate expressions ı„ = ı¬¥ d¬æb = ⁄(Ù0¥ _ i H/h ¥) d0 _ (Ùj¥  i pj/h ¥) dj^æb ô ı„ = (d0.¥  i (L/h) ¥) u0æb ê ê ı„ = ⁄Ùi¥  i (pi/h) ¥^ diæb. ò
ı„ ˆ ıc„Ÿ : J1E é T*EÆQ , E
D EFINITION I I . 1 . 5 . 2 . If o is an observer, then we define the observed covariant differential of „ as the section Q ıo„ ˆ ı„©o : E é T*EÆQ, the observed timelike and observed spacelike differentials as the sections ô ê ê ô Q ıo„ ˆ ı„©o : E é V*EÆQ . ¡ ıo„ ˆ ı„©o = oœıo„ : E é T*ÆQ E R EMARK I I . 1 . 5 . 2 . In any spacetime chart adapted to the observer o, we have the coordinate expressions ıo„ = ıo¬¥ d¬æb = (Ù¬¥  i m a¬ ¥) d¬æb h ıo„ = ıo0¥ u0æb ê ê ı„ = ıoi¥ diæb. ò
With reference to a quantum chart (z), we shall use the standard notation for the local complex conjugation of the covariant differential and write Õiô = ıoi¥ Ã ıo ¥ Ã ã ıoi ˆ Ùi _ i m ai. h ê P ROPOSITION I I . 1 . 5 . 2 . The classical connection K (see Rem. I.2.1.3) and ê ê the quantum connection c yield the covariant differentials of ı„ and ıo„
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where
with coordinate expressions ê Ë„ = gij ⁄ıiıj¥ _ Kihj ıh¥^ b
Hence, we obtain the Laplacian and the observed Laplacian ê ê Q Q Ë„ ˆ Çã , ıı„¶ : J1E é A*ÆQ g êê Ëo„ ˆ Çã , ıoıo„¶ : E é A*ÆQ, g ê ê ê Ëo„ = gij ⁄ıoiıoj¥ _ Kihj ıoh¥^ b,
2
êê ıı„:J1EéV*EÆV*EÆQ E E
ê ê E ıoıo„:EéV*EÆV*EÆQ . E E
gij ıoiıoj¥ = gij (Ùij¥  2 i m ai Ùj¥  (i m Ùiaj _ m2 ai aj) ¥). h h h
ò
Analogously, we can define the covariant differential of the spacetime halfdensity „¨ and the vertical covariant differential of the spacelike halfdensity „∆. Moreover, we obtain the vertical covariant Laplacians. In particular, we shall be involved (see Cor. II.2.3.1) with the equality ê ê (Ëo„)∆ = Ëo(„∆). Therefore, we shall write locally, without ambiguity, ê ê ê (Ëo¥)∆ = Ëo¥∆ = Ëo(¥∆).
II.1.6. The principle of projectability
We conclude this chapter with a criterion, which will be our heuristic guideline for the following developments. Our only essential assumption for quantum mechanics is the quantum connection. This will be the source of all other quantum structures, including the quantum Lagrangian, total equation and operators. But, the quantum connection lives on the bundle QŸ over J1E , while we require that the physically significant objects live on the bundle Q over E . In fact, in a sense, QŸ involves all observers, while our quantum theory must be explicitly independent of any observer. We shall solve this problem by means of a projectability criterion. Namely, each time we are looking for a physical object on Q , we shall meet two
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canonical analogous objects on Q Ÿ and we shall prove that there is a unique (up to a scalar factor) combination of them, which projects on Q . Then, we shall assume such a combination as the searched physical object. This procedure works pretty well in all cases and yields an effective heuristic method. Thus, it can be regarded as a new way for implementing the principle of general relativity.
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II.2  The generalised Schrödinger equation
This chapter is devoted to the study of the quantum total equation and related objects. The main observer independent objects will be achieved by means of the projectability criterion. We shall follow two independent ways: the Lagrangian approach and a geometrical approach based on the quantum covariant differential.
II.2.1. The quantum Lagrangian
First, we look for the quantum Lagrangian by means of the projectability criterion. The timelike and spacelike differentials of a quantum section yield naturally two real valued functions. Q L EMMA I I . 2 . 1 . 1 . If „$ S (Q ), then we obtain the following natural fibred morphisms over E 4 ° ô ô L„ ˆ 1 ⁄h(„, i ı„) _ h(i ı„, „)^ ¨ : J1E é A3/2ÆLT*E 2
4 h ê ê ê L„ ˆ 1 m ⁄(ã æh)(ı„, ı„)^ ¨ : J1E é A3/2ÆLT*E, g 2
with coordinate expressions ° 2 ¥ L„ = 1 ⁄i (ã d0.¥  d0.ã ¥) _ 2 (L/h) ¥ ¥^ u0æ¨ ¥ ã
h ê ã ã ã ã L„ = 2m gij ⁄Ùi¥ Ùj¥  i (pi/h) (Ùj¥ ¥  ¥ Ùj¥) _ (pi/h) (pj/h) ¥ ¥^ u0æ¨. ò
Q T HEOREM I I . 2 . 1 . 1 . If „$S(Q ), then, there is a unique combination L„ (up ° ê to a scalar factor) of L„ and L„, which projects on E; namely
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with coordinate expression
° ê L„ = L„  L„ : E é A3/2ÆLT*E,
4
h L„ = 1 ⁄ m gij Ùi¥ Ùj¥  i (Ù0¥ ¥  ¥ Ù0¥) _ i ai (Ùi¥ ¥  ¥ Ùi¥) _ ã ã ã ã ã 2
ã _ m (2 a0  ai ai) ¥ ¥^ u0æ¨. h
i PROOF. This is the unique combination which makes the coordinates y0 disappear in its coordinate expression. ò
Thus, we denote by18 the fibred morphism over E, which is characterised by L„ = L©j1„, Q for each section „$S(Q). Its coordinate expression is
h L = 1 ⁄ m gij z i zj  i (ã0 z  z z0) _ ã z ã 2
L:J1QéA3/2ÆLT*E,
4
z z ã ¡g¡ _ i ai (ãi z  ã zi) _ m (2 a0  ai ai) z z^ ÊÕ d0◊d1◊d2◊d3, h i.e.
h L = ⁄ 2m gij (wi1 wj1 _ wi2 wj2) _ (w01 w2  w1 w02) _
¡g¡  ai (wi1 w2  w1 wi2) _ m (a0  1 ai ai) (w1 w1 _ w2 w2)^ ÊÕ d0◊d1◊d2◊d3. h 2 Moreover, we set
L = l d0◊d1◊d2◊d3
18
l $ M(J1Q,A3/2).
Here and later, we denote the jet space of order r of the fibred manifold Q E π:Q éE by JrQ .
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We stress that L is a real map. A SSUMPTION Q 4 . We assume L to be the quantum Lagrangian responsible of the quantum total equation. ò Before analysing the consequences of this assumptions, we conclude this section with a digression. We prefer to develop the Lagrangian formalism directly on the quantum bundle. However, the reader may wish to develop an equivalent theory on the quantum principal bundle. Here, we just give a hint to find a distinguished Lagrangian on the quantum principal bundle. E Let P éE be the quantum principal bundle, i.e. the principal bundle with E structure group U(1), whose associated bundle is the quantum bundle Q éE . P Let ª:Pé· be the normal chart associated with the quantum gauge b. L EMMA I I . 2 . 1 . 2 . The form associated with the quantum connection on the quantum principal bundle is the fibred morphism ~c:J1E˚P éT *P E
i j i ~c = dª  i m ( 1 gij y0 y0 d0 _ gij y0 dj _ a¬ d¬). h 2
with coordinate expression
defined as
Then, we obtain the fibred morphism over E Gc:J1E˚P éTÆ(T*P ÆT*P) E E Gc ˆ ~cædt _ dtæ~c,
with coordinate expression Gc = u0æ⁄dªæd0 _ d0ædª _
i j i  i m ( gij y0 y0 d0æd0 _ gij y0 (djæd0 _ d0ædj) _ a¬ (d¬æd0 _ d0æd¬)^. h
ò
L EMMA I I . 2 . 1 . 3 . The pullback of the vertical metric is the fibred mor
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phisms over E
with coordinate expression i j ª*g = m gij (di  y0 d0)æ(dj  y0 d0). Then, we obtain the fibred morphism over E GŸ:J1EéTÆ(T*EÆT*E) E GŸ ˆ m ª*g, h with coordinate expression GŸ =
m
h
ª*g:J1EéAÆMÆ(T*EÆT*E) E
defined as
i j gij u0æ(di  y0 d0)æ(dj  y0 d0).
ò
The two above objects live on J1E, i.e. they are observer dependent. Next, we show that there is a unique minimal coupling of them, which is projectable on P, i.e. observer independent. T HEOREM I I . 2 . 1 . 2 . There is a unique combination of Gc and G&, which projects on P; namely G ˆ Gc  i GŸ : PéTÆ(T*PÆT*P), E G = u0æ⁄dªæd0 _ d0ædª  i m (gij diædj _ 2 a0 d0æd0 _ ai (diæd0 _ d0ædi)^. h
with coordinate expression
Thus, G is a nondegenerate T valued metric on the quantum principal bundle. ò The above metric G yields naturally a Lagrangian on the quantum principal bundle, which is equivalent to the above Lagrangian L.
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II.2.2. The quantum momentum
Next, we study the (observer independent) four dimensional quantum momentum. We follow two independent ways: we deduce it from the Lagrangian formalism and from another geometrical construction based on the differential of the quantum section. D EFINITION II.2.2.1. The quantum momentum is defined to be the vertical derivative of L 4 E VQL :J1QéA3/2ÆTEÆLT*EÆQ *. ¡
E E
P ROPOSITION I I . 2 . 2 . 1 . The quantum momentum can be naturally regarded as a fibred morphism over E E p:J1QéT*ÆTEÆQ . E Q Then, for each „$S(Q), we obtain the observer independent section EE p„ ˆ p©j1„ : E é T*ÆTEÆQ ,
h p„ = u0æ⁄¥ Ù0  i m gij (Ùj¥  i m aj ¥) Ùi^æb. h
with coordinate expression
PROOF. It follows by using the natural fibred isomorphisms19 4 Q Q E i re(h):Q*éQ Ç ,ã ¶:LT*EéT*ÆA*3/2ÆTE. ¨
ò
We can recover geometrically the quantum momentum in the following way. Q L EMMA I I . 2 . 2 . 1 . If „$ S (Q ), then we have the following natural fibred morphisms over E
19
Q The conventional multiplicative factor i in the isomorphism Q*éQ has been chosen in such a way to obtain an expression of momentum in agreement with Prop. II.4.2.1.
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ô „ ˆ dæ„ : J1E é T*ÆTEÆQ E p with coordinate expressions i ô p„ ˆ ¥ u0æ(Ù0 _ y0 Ùi)æb
E
h ê ê E p„ ˆ m ı#„ : J1E é T*ÆTEÆQ , E h ê p„ ˆ m gij ⁄Ùj¥  i (pj/h) ¥^ Ùiæb.
Q T HEOREM I I . 2 . 2 . 1 . If „$S(Q ), then p„ is the unique combination (up to a ê scalar factor) of ô „ and p„, which projects over E; namely, p ô ê E p„ = p„  i p„ : E é T*ÆTEÆQ .
E i PROOF. This is the unique combination which makes the coordinates y0 disappear in its coordinate expression. ò We stress that the quantum momentum is an observer independent four dimensional object. The time component of the quantum momentum is defined without reference to any observer; actually, it coincides with the quantum section itself. On the other hand, the choice of an observer allows us to define the spacelike component of the quantum momentum. C OROLLARY I I . 2 . 2 . 1 . For each „$ S (Q ), we obtain the observer indepenQ dent section E v„ ˆ re h(„,p„) : E é T*ÆTE. Moreover, in the domain where „ does not vanish, the section E o„ ˆ v„/h(„,„) : E é T*ÆTE projects over 1T, hence it is an observer, with coordinate expression
¥ (Ùj¥  i m aj ¥) ã h h o„ = u0æ⁄Ù0  re i m gij Ùi^. h(„,„)
ò
Thus, we have obtained a distinguished observer associated with „. It is possible to interpret the physical meaning of this observer in agreement with
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the uncertainty principle; in fact, we can assume that o„ is determined experimentally only by means of a statistical procedure which involves many particles (see [Me]).
II.2.3. The generalised Schrödinger equation
Next, we study the (observer independent) quantum total equation. We follow two independent ways: we deduce it from the Lagrangian formalism and from another geometrical construction based on the differentials of the quantum section and momentum. For this purpose, we need an intrinsic construction of the EulerLagrange operator. We shall follow the procedure of [Co]. R EMARK I I . 2 . 3 . 1 . The quantum momentum can be regarded as a fibred morphism over E 4 P:J1QéLT*Q.
PROOF. It follows by applying to VQL the natural linear fibred morphisms
Q over E and J1EéQ, respectively. EE Ç , ¶:TEÆLT*EéL3T*E
4
ªQ*:J1Q˚Q *éT*Q E ò
where d is the exterior differential and dh the contact horizontal exterior differential (see [Co]). ò R EMARK I I . 2 . 3 . 3 . By considering the linear epimorphism T *Q éV *Q over Q, E can be characterised by a fibred morphism over E 4 ê E:J2Q é A3/2ÆLT*EÆQ *. Moreover, by taking into account the real component of the Hermitian metE
R EMARK I I . 2 . 3 . 2 . We obtain the fibred morphism over E 5 E ˆ dL _ dhP : J2Q é A3/2ÆLT*Q,
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with coordinate expression 1 ê (EL) *E# = ÊÕ ⁄Ùal  (Ù¬ _ w¬b Ùb _ w¬b Ùµ).Ù¬l^ u0æba. µ b a ¡g¡
ê ric and the spacetime volume form ¨, E is characterised by the fibred morphism over E ê Q *E# : J2Q é T*ÆQ, ò
ê Eventually, we can prove (see [Co]) that *E# is nothing but the intrinsic expression of the standard EulerLagrange operator associated with the Lagrangian L. So, we obtain the following important result. T HEOREM I I . 2 . 3 . 1 . (Generalised Schrödinger equation) The coordinate Q expression of the EulerLagrange equation, in the unknown „$S(Q), is Ù0ÊÕ ¡g¡ ê 0 = *E#©j2„ = 2 ⁄i Ù0¥ _ m a0 ¥ _ 1 i ÊÕ ¥ _ h 2 ¡g¡
h _ 2m (gij (Ùij¥  2 i m ai Ùj¥  (i m Ùiaj _ m2 ai aj) ¥) _ h h h
2
¡g¡ Ùi(gij ÊÕ) _ ÊÕ (Ùj¥  i m aj ¥))^ u0æb. h ¡g¡
PROOF. Formula (EL) yields ij ¡g¡ ¡g¡ 2  1 Ù0ÊÕ w2 _ h gij w 1 _ ai w 2 _ h Ùi(g ÊÕ) w 1 _ ê *E# = 2 ⁄ w0 2 ÊÕ 2m ij i 2m j ¡g¡ ÊÕ ¡g¡
_h
m i ¡g¡ 1 i) w1 _ 1 Ùi(a ÊÕ) w2^ u0æb _ (a0 2 ai a 2 ÊÕ 1 ¡g¡
ij ¡g¡ ¡g¡ 1 _ 1 Ù0ÊÕ w1 _ h gij w 2  ai w 1 _ h Ùi(g ÊÕ) w 2 _ _ 2 ⁄w0 2 ÊÕ 2m ij i 2m j ¡g¡ ÊÕ ¡g¡
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_h
m
i ¡g¡ 1 i) w2  1 Ùi(a ÊÕ) w1^ u0æb . (a0 2 ai a 2 ÊÕ 2 ¡g¡
ò
Thus, the above formula expresses the total equation for a spinless quantum particle with a given mass and charge, in a curved spacetime, with absolute time, under the action of a given gravitational and electromagnetic field. In order to interpret the above equation correctly, we must take into account that here a includes both the gravitational and electromagnetic potentials (see Theor. I.4.3.2). In the special relativistic Galilei case, the above equation reduces exactly to the standard Schrödinger equation referred to a given quantum gauge. We can write the Schrödinger equation in a more compact way. For this purpose, we introduce the following natural derivation. E E R EMARK I I . 2 . 3 . 4 . Let o:E éT*ÆTE be an observer. Then, by functorial prolongation (see § III.3 and [MM2]), we obtain the section o' ˆ r1©J1o : J1E é T*ÆTJ1E, with coordinate expression in adapted coordinates o' = u0æÙ0.
Next, the quantum connection yields the vector field Q Q ≈(o'):QéT*ÆTQ, with coordinate expression in adapted coordinates Q Hence, for each „$S(Q), we set (see Rem. I.1.2.1) Q ¨ ã ¨ Do„ ˆ Ç¢Ã , L≈(o')(„æ¢Ã )¶ : E é T*ÆQ ≈(o') = u0æ(Ù0 _ i m a0 i). h
and we obtain the coordinate expression
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Ù0ÊÕ ¡g¡ Do„ = (Ù0¥  m i a0 ¥ _ 1 ÊÕ ¥) u0æb. h 2 ¡g¡
ò
We could achieve Do„, in a simpler but less elegant way, by means of the observed covariant differential of „ and the Lie derivative of ¢Ã . ¨ C OROLLARY I I . 2 . 3 . 1 . If o is an observer, then the EulerLagrange equaQ tion, in the unknown „$S(Q), can be written as (see Prop. II.1.5.2) h ê 2 (i Do„ _ 2m Ëo„) = 0.
PROOF. We have 2 ê Ëo„ = ⁄gij (Ùij¥  2 i m ai Ùj¥  (i m Ùiaj _ m2 ai aj) ¥) _ Kihj (Ùh¥  i m ah¥)^ b h h h
h
and (see formula ***) in Cor. I.2.3.2) hj ¡g¡ ij K h = Ùj(g ÊÕ) . g ij ÊÕ ¡g¡
ò
We stress that both terms of the left hand side of the above equation depend essentially on the observer o; however, their sum turns out to be observer independent. Warning: we might be tempted to write the coordinate expression of the Schrödinger equation as
h 2 (i ıo¥∆ _ 2m gij ıiıj¥∆) = 0; 0
but, unfortunately, we cannot find a serious and consistent interpretation of the symbols yielding the above formula. We can recover geometrically the generalised Schrödinger equation in the following way. Q L EMMA I I . 2 . 3 . 1 . If „$ S (Q ), then we have the following natural fibred morphisms over E
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where d and ∂ are the covariant differential and codifferentials induced by c.ò ê Q T HEOREM I I . 2 . 3 . 2 . If „$ S (Q ), then *E#„ is the unique combination (up to ° a scalar factor) of ı„ and ∂p , which projects over E; namely, ° ê Q *E#„ = ı„ _ ∂ p„ : E é T*ÆQ.
i PROOF. This is the unique combination which makes the coordinates y0 disappear in its coordinate expression. ò In view of later developments, it is convenient to rescale the EulerLagrange fibred morphism in such a way that it can be interpreted as a connection in the infinite dimensional setting of the quantum theory (see, later, § II.6.2). D EFINITION I I . 2 . 3 . 1 . The Schrödinger operator is defined to be the sheaf morphism 1 ê Q E Q E S∆ : S(Q∆éE) é S(T*ÆQ∆éE) : „∆ ´  i 2 (*E#„)æ¢Ã . ∆ ¡ „
° Q ı„ ˆ dœı„: J1E é T*ÆQ
Q ∂ p„ ˆ Çã , dÇ¨,p„¶¶ : J1E é T*ÆQ, ¨
We obtain the coordinate expression h ê ê ê ê S∆(„∆) = (Ù0¥∆  i 2m Ëo¥∆  i m a0 ¥∆) u0æbæÊd1◊d2◊d3, h where (see § II.1.5) Ù0¥∆ ˆ Ù0(¥∆) ê ê ê (Ëo¥)∆ = Ëo¥∆ = Ëo(¥∆).
II.2.4. The quantum probability current
We conclude this chapter by studying the quantum probability current. As usual, its conservation is an essential requirement of the probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics. First we introduce the PoincaréCartan form associated with the quantum
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Lagrangian (see [GS], [Ga], [Co]). R EMARK I I . 2 . 4 . 1 . According to the general Lagrangian theory, the PoincaréCartan form associated with L is the form 4 Ï:J1QéA3/2ÆLT*Q defined as Ï ˆ L _ ª◊ V Q L ,
¬ Ï = L _ Ùa l ªQa◊∑¬, a ªQa ˆ (dwa  w¬ d¬)
with coordinate expression where
∑¬ ˆ Ù¬œ(d0◊d1◊d2◊d3).
4
Q So, if „$S(Q), then we obtain the section defined as with coordinate expression E Ï„:EéA3/2ÆLT*Q Ï„ ˆ Ï©j1„.
Ï„ = ÊÕ 1 ⁄⁄m gij Ùi¥ Ùj¥ _ m (a0  1 a2) ¥ ¥^ d0◊d1◊d2◊d3 _ ¡g¡ 2 h ã ã h 2 _ i (ã dz  ¥ dã)◊d1◊d2◊d3 _ ¥ z
h â  (1)i m gij ⁄(Ùj¥ _ i m aj ¥) dz _ (Ùj¥  i m aj ¥) dã)^◊d0◊d1…◊di…◊d3^. ã h ã z h
ò
Then, by considering the invariance of the Lagrangian under the action of the group U(1), the Nöther theorem yields a conserved current (see [GS], [Ga], [Co]), which will be interpreted as probability current. R EMARK I I . 2 . 4 . 2 . The quantum Lagrangian L is invariant under the action
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with coordinate expression 2 1  J1(i i) = w2 Ùw1  w1 Ùw2 _ w¬ Ùw¬  w¬ Ùw¬. 1 2
of the group U(1), hence it is invariant with respect to its infinitesimal generator, namely with respect to the vertical vector field20  J1(i i):J1QéVJ1Q,
PROOF. The complex coordinate expression of L is invariant with respect to the jet prolongation of a constant change of phase of Q . The infinitesimal generator of constant changes of phase is i i. So, L is invariant with respect to the jet prolongation of i i. On the other hand, this last fact can be checked directly by means of the real coordinate expression of L. ò P ROPOSITION I I . 2 . 4 . 1 . The Nöther theorem yields the following conserved current 3 j:J1QéA3/2ÆLT*E
defined as Q If „$S(Q) is a solution of the Schrödinger equation, then the form
3 j„ ˆ 1 Ç¨, h(„,p„)  h(p„,„)¶ : E é A3/2ÆLT*E, 2
j ˆ  i iœÏ.
with coordinate expression ¡g¡ ¥ j„ = ÊÕ ⁄ã ¥ d1◊d2◊d3 _
h â _ (1)h ( i 2m ghk (ã Ùk¥  Ùk¥ ¥)  ah ¥ ¥) d0◊d1…◊dh…◊d3^, ¥ ã ã
is closed
20
dj„ = 0.
ò
Q We recall the canonical fibred isomorphism VJ1QéJ1 VQ over J1Q˚VQ , Q Q where V is taken with respect to the base space E.
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II.3  Quantum vector fields
Now, we introduce the quantum vector fields, in view of quantum operators (see, later, § II.4.2 and § II.6.3).
II.3.1. The Lie algebra of quantisable functions
Quantum vector fields require some preliminary facts. Accordingly, we present a few further important results of classical mechanics. Let us consider the sheaves of local functions, of local vector fields and of local forms of J1E, respectively,
F(J1E) ˆ {f:J1Eé·}
Moreover, let
T(J1E) ˆ {X:J1EéTJ1E} T†(J1E) ç T(J1E)
T*(J1E) ˆ {ƒ:J1EéT*J1E}. T*(J1E) ç T*(J1E) ˙
be the subsheaves of local vector fields whose time component is a given map †:J1EéT (which will be referred to as a time scale ) and of local forms which vanish on ˙, respectively. The coordinate expressions of X$T†(J1E) and ƒ$T*(J1E) are of the type ˙ with
i i X = X0 (Ù0 _ y0 Ùi _ ˙i Ù0) _ Xi Ùi _ X0 Ù0 i i i ƒ = ƒi ªi _ ƒ0 (d0  ˙i d0), i
† X0 = † ˆ Çu0,†¶ $ F(J1E). L EMMA I I . 3 . 1 . 1 . The contact 2form
h
m
Ò:J1EéLT*J1E
2
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131
maps each vector field of J1E into a 1form orthogonal to ˙.
PROOF. It follows immediately from ˙œÒ = 0 (see Cor. I.2.5.1). ò P ROPOSITION I I . 3 . 1 . 1 . For each time scale † :J1E éT, we obtain the sheaf isomorphism Ò† : T†(J1E) é T*(J1E) : X ´ m iXÒ @ h ˙
with coordinate expression Ò† = @(X)
m
h
j i ⁄(gij X0 _ (Íij  Íji) Xj) ªi  gij Xj (d0  ˙i d0)^.
The inverse isomorphism Ò# has coordinate expression †
h i Ò#(ƒ) = † (Ù0 _ y0 Ùi _ ˙i Ù0) _ m gij ⁄ ƒ0 Ùi _ (ƒj _ ghk (Íjh  Íhj) ƒ0) Ù0^. ò † j k i i
We recall that (see Theor. I.4.3.2) l Íjh  Íhj =  (Ùjghl  Ùhgjl) y0  Èjh. Then, we obtain the following Hamiltonian lift of functions. L EMMA I I . 3 . 1 . 2 . For each f$F(J1E), we obtain naturally the form d˙f ˆ df  ˙œdf $ T*(J1E) ˙ ò
with coordinate expression i d˙f = Ùif ªi _ Ù0f (d0  ˙i d0). i
with coordinate expression
C OROLLARY I I . 3 . 1 . 1 . For each time scale † :J1EéT, we obtain the following sheaf morphism F(J1E) é T†(J1E) : f ´ f# ˆ Ò#(d˙f). † †
h i f# = † (Ù0 _ y0 Ùi _ ˙i Ù0) _ m gij ⁄ Ù0f Ùi _ (Ùjf _ (Íjk  Íkj) Ù0f) Ù0^. † j k i i
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We have the following properties † f# = ˙(†) _ f# † 0 (f' _ f")# = f'# _ f"# 0 0 0 (f' f")# = f' f"# _ f'# f". 0 0 0 ò
The Hamiltonian lift yields the generalised Poisson Lie bracket. P ROPOSITION I I . 3 . 1 . 1 . The sheaf morphism
F(J1E)˚F(J1E) é F(J1E) : (f', f") ´ {f', f"} ˆ m if'# if"#Ò h
is a Lie bracket. Its coordinate expression is
0 0
h {f',f"} = m gij ⁄Ùif' Ù0f"  Ù0f' Ùjf" _ ghk (Íjh  Íhj) Ù0f' Ù0f"^. j k i i
PROOF. The proof can be achieved analogously to the standard case, but with more difficulties, because we have to replace the standard d with d˙. ò
This bracket has some interesting properties. In particular, we have {f',f"}# = [f'#,f"#]. 0 0 0
However, this bracket has no relativistically covariant role in classical mechanics. On the other hand, we can prove the following important result based on a criterion of projectability for classical Hamiltonian lift, which later will play an essential role in quantum mechanics. Let us consider the subsheaf of tubelike functions with respect to the E fibring J1E éE
Ft(J1E) ç F(J1E).
P R O P O S I T I O N I I . 3 . 1 . 2 . If f$ F t (J1E ), then the following conditions are equivalent:
GALILEI GENERAL RELATIVISTIC QUANTUM MECHANICS
133
i) the vector field f# is projectable over E; † E ii) the function f is, with respect to the fibres of J1E éE , a polynomial of degree 2, whose second derivative is of the form f » m g : E é (TÆT)ÆV*EÆV*E, h where
E
f» = †; iii) the coordinate expression of f is of the following type
i j i f = f» 2m gij y0 y0 _ fi y0 _ f© h
E f»,f©,fi$F(E),
where f» = †.
PROOF. The vector field f# is projectable if and only if †
Ù0† = 0 h i.e., if and only if Ù0† = 0 h i.e. if and only if E †:Eé·
i j i f = † 2m gij y0 y0 _ fi y0 _ f©. h i h † Ù0y0  m gij Ù00f = 0 h hj
Ù00f = † m gij h ij ò
Then, we introduce the following definition, for a reason which will be clear soon. D EFINITION I I . 3 . 1 . 1 . We define the quantisable functions to be the functions of the above type. ¡ If f is a quantisable function, then the associated time scale † ˆ f» : E é T is said to be its time component.
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If f is a quantisable function, then the corresponding projectable Hamiltonian lift and the associated projection are denoted by E f# ˆ f# $ T†(J1E) fH $ T†(E). † Thus, given u0$T_*, we have implicitly set f f» ˆ Çu0,f»¶. We stress that we have assumed no relation between f» ˆ † and f©.
R EMARK I I . 3 . 1 . 2 . If f is a quantisable function, then we obtain the coordinate expression
h f# = f» Ù0  m fi Ùi _ h h h k h _ gij ⁄1 Ùjf» ghk y0 y0 _ (m Ùjfh _ m (Ùkgjh  Ùjghk) fk  f» Ù0gjh) y0 _ 2 h h _ m Ùjf© _ m Èhj fh _ f» Èj0^ Ù0, i
hence
h fH = f» Ù0  m fi Ùi.
ò
Moreover, we shall be concerned with the subsheaves of quantisable functions whose time component is constant and of quantisable functions whose time component vanishes Qc(J1E) ç Q(J1E) Q0(J1E) ç Qc(J1E). E R EMARK I I . 3 . 1 . 1 . All functions f$F(E ), which depend only on spacetime (for instance, the spacetime coordinates), are quantisable functions. Moreover, all functions f$A(J1E),which are affine with respect to the fibring E J1EéE (for instance, the components of the classical momentum), are quan
The quantisable functions constitute a sheaf, which is denoted by Q(J1E) ç Ft(J1E).
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135
tisable functions. The remaining quantisable functions (for instance, the classical kinetic energy, Hamiltonian and Lagrangian) have a quadratic term E with respect to the fibring J1E éE , which is proportional to the metric, through an arbitrary coefficient dependent only on spacetime. Thus, we have the sheaf monomorphisms E F(E) ç A(J1E) ç Q(J1E). ò T HEOREM I I . 3 . 1 . 2 . The sheaf Q (J1E ) is a sheaf of Lie algebras with respect to the bracket f f [f', f"] ˆ {f', f"} _ ˙(f'»).f"  ˙(f"»).f'. Moreover, the sheaves Qc(J1E) and Q0(J1E) are subsheaves of Lie algebras. The coordinate expression of the above Lie bracket is given by
h h k [f', f"] = ⁄f'» Ù0f"»  f"» Ù0f'»  m (f'i Ùif"»  f"i Ùif'»)^ 2m ghk y0 y0 _ h h h _ ghk ⁄f'» Ù0f"k  f"» Ù0f'k  m (f'i Ùif"k  f"i Ùif'k)^ y0 _ h _ f'» Ù0f"©  f"» Ù0f'©  m (f'h Ùhf"©  f"h Ùhf'©) _ h _ (f'» f"h  f"» f'h) Èh0 _ m f'h f"k Èhk.
PROOF. The explicit expression of the bracket follows from a long computation in coordinates. Then, this expression shows that Q(J1E ) is closed under the above bracket. The Jacobi property could be checked by a very long direct computation in coordinates. However, in the next section we can obtain an intrinsic proof as a corollary of an important result of the quantum theory (Cor. II.3.2.2). ò C O R O L L A R Y I I . 3 . 1 . 2 . The subsheaf A (J1E ) ç Q(J1E ) is a subsheaf of Lie algebras. ò C OROLLARY I I . 3 . 1 . 3 . The sheaf morphism
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is a morphsim of Lie algebras, i.e. [f', f"]H = [f'H, f"H].
E H : Q(J1E)éT(E) : f´fH ò
E XAMPLE I I . 3 . 1 . 1 . We have the following Hamiltonian lifts (yl)H = 0 (x0)H = 0 (pi/h)H =  Ùi (H/h)H = Ù0 (L/h)H = Ù0  ai Ùi.
h [yi, f] = m fi
ò
E XAMPLE I I . 3 . 1 . 2 . We have the following brackets [x0, f] =  f» [pi/h, pj/h] = 0 [H/h, pi/h] = m È0i. h ò
II.3.2. The Lie algebra of quantum vector fields
In this section, we show how the geometrical structure of the quantum bundle yields naturally a distinguished Lie algebra of vector fields, which will be called quantum vector fields. Moreover, we exhibit a natural Lie algebra isomorphism between quantisable functions and quantum vector fields. Later, the quantum vector fields will be the source of quantum operators (see, later, § II.4.2 and § II.6.3). We start by considering the vector fields of Q Ÿ, which preserve the basic quantum structures. We need to start from this bundle, because the quantum connection lives on it. We need the covariant differential of a vector field, which is a particular case of the differential of tangent valued forms defined in [Mo2], [Mo3] (see also § III.5). We stress that this differential cannot be understood neither in the sense of linear connections on a manifold, nor in the sense of derivation laws.
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where [ , ] is the FrölicherNijenhuis bracket, given by (dcX)(u) = [c(u), X]  c([u, X]),
F F B B a connection. If X:F éTF is a vector field projectable on X:B éTB , then its covariant differential is defined to be the vertical valued 1form F dcX ˆ [c,X] : F é T*BÆVF , F B Åu$T(B),
F B R EMARK I I . 3 . 2 . 1 . Let p:F éB be a fibred manifold and F F c:FéT*BÆTF F
and with coordinate expression dcX = ( Ù¬Xµ cµi  Ùµc¬i Xµ _ Ù¬Xi _ c¬j ÙjXi  Ùjc¬i Xj) d¬æÙi . Moreover, we recall the formula (R) dc(c(X)) =  2 XœRc,
F F where Rc:FéLT*BÆVF is the curvature of c. F
2
ò
F B Next, let p:FéB be a line bundle. Then, a projectable vector field X is said to be Hermitian if it is (real) linear over its projection X and preserves the Hermitian product. A Hermitian vector field turns out to be also complex linear. The coordinate expression of a Hermitian vector field X is of the type B X = X¬ Ù¬ _ i f i f, X¬$F(B). Then, we introduce the following concept. D E F I N I T I O N I I . 3 . 2 . 1 . An upper quantum vector field is defined to be a (tubelike) vector field21 Q Q XŸ:QŸéTQŸ which
21
Here, the arrow “Ÿ” in XŸ does not refer to any pullback of a possible section X, but just reminds the pullback bundle QŸ.
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ii) is Hermitian complex linear over XŸ, iii) has a Thorizontal covariant differential, i.e. Q dcXŸ : QŸ é J1E˚(T*ÆQ) ç T*J1E JÆ Q Ÿ. E E
1
i) projects onto a (local) vector field XŸ:J1EéTJ1E,
¡ ¡
dcXŸ = ˙œdcXŸ. Condition iii) can be reformulated in a useful way through ˙. R EMARK I I . 3 . 2 . 2 . Condition iii) is clearly equivalent to pr©dcXŸ = 0, where pr:T*J1EéV*J1E is the canonical linear epimorphism over J1E. Thus, condition iii) reads in coordinates as dc0XŸ = 0. dc iXŸ = 0 i Moreover, condition iii) is equivalent to iii)' dcXŸ = ˙œdcXŸ.
ò
The upper quantum vector fields constitute a sheaf and the upper quantum vector fields, with a given time component † :J1EéT, constitute a subsheaf, which are denoted by Q Q Q Q Q(QŸ) ç T(QŸ) Q†(QŸ) ç Q(QŸ). The above sheaves are not closed with respect to the Lie bracket. On the other hand, the upper quantum vector fields can be classified, up to the choice of an arbitrary time scale, by the functions of the classical jet space, through the following formula. T H E O R E M I I . 3 . 2 . 1 . For each time scale † :J1E é T , we have an ·linear sheaf isomorphism
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given by (U)
Q qŸ† : F(J1E) é Q†(QŸ) : f ´ XŸf,† † XŸf,† ˆ c(f#) _ i f i. † †
PROOF. 1) Let XŸ be an upper quantum vector field whose timecomponent is † and let us prove that it is of the type XŸ ˆ c(f#) _ i f i, † for some function f$F(J1E). Let us decompose XŸ into its horizontal and vertical components (c) XŸ = c(XŸ) _ ~c(XŸ). Conditions i) and ii) imply that ~c(XŸ) is of the type (v) ~c(XŸ) = i f i, f$F(J1E). Therefore, condition iii)' can be written as iii)" i (df  ˙.f)æi = ˙œdc(c(XŸ))  dc(c(XŸ)). Moreover, formulas (R) and (Rc) (see Rem. II.3.2.1) yield
dc(c(XŸ)) =  2 i m XŸœÒæi. h Hence, condition iii)" can be written as (df  ˙.f) = Ò@ (XŸ) † XŸ = f#. †
i.e. h)
2) Conversely, if f$F(J1E ), then analogous computations prove that formula (U) yields an upper quantum vector field, whose timecomponent is †. ò
Thus, formulas (c), (v) and (h) yield XŸ = c(f#) _ i f i †
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P ROPOSITION I I . 3 . 2 . 1 . The coordinate expression of XŸf,† is †
i XŸf,† = † (Ù0 _ y0 Ùi _ ˙i Ù0) _ † i
h _ m gij ⁄ Ù0f Ùi _ (Ùjf _ ghk (Íjh  Íhj) Ù0f) Ù0^ _ j k i h _ i ⁄f _ † L/h  m gij (pj/h) Ù0f^ i. i
ò
Formula (U) clearly recalls a well known formula of geometric quantisation (see, for instance, [St], [Wo]). However, there are important differences between our approach and geometric quantisation; they are basically related to the general covariance and the role of time. In particular, we shall see that an important difference will arise later in the construction of the quantum operator associated with energy. Indeed, we stress that our upper quantum vector fields need not to be timevertical. The above formula looks nice, but we have got two problems. In fact, we have been forced to search for distinguished vector fields on QŸ and not on Q, just because the quantum connection lives on Q Ÿ. But, these vector fields map sections of Q into sections of Q Ÿ. This problem can be solved if, additionally, the above vector fields are projectable over E. Moreover, the above isomorphism depends on the choice of a time scale and we need a reasonable criterion to make this choice. Luckily, the two problems can be solved together. In fact, we can prove the following result. Q Q If XŸ:Q ŸéTQ Ÿ is any vector field, then the canonical fibred epimorphism Q Q pr:TQŸéTQ yields the fibred morphism over Q Q X ˆ pr©XŸ : J1E˚Q é TQ . E The vector field XŸ is said to be projectable over E if X can be written as Q Q X:Q éTQ .
T HEOREM I I . 3 . 2 . 2 . If XŸf,† is an upper quantum vector field, then the fol† lowing conditions are equivalent: i) XŸf,† is projectable over E; †
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ii) f is a quantisable function and its time component is †.
PROOF. i) £ ii). We can prove the assertion directly. If XŸf,† is projectable over E, then †
Ù0† = 0 h i.e. Ù0† = 0 h i.e. E †:Eé·
i j i f = † 2m gij y0 y0 _ fi y0 _ f©. h i h † Ù0y0  m gij Ù00f = 0 h hj
Ù00f = † m gij h ij
On the other hand we obtain the same result as a consequence of the theorem concerning the projectability of the Hamiltonian lift of functions (see Prop. II.3.1.2). ii) £ i). We can easily see that all components of Xf,†, including the imagi† i. nary component, do not depend on the coordinates y0 ò D EFINITION I I . 3 . 2 . 2 . A quantum vector field is defined to be the vector field Q Q X:Q éTQ associated with a projectable upper quantum vector field XŸ. ¡ The quantum vector fields constitute a sheaf, which is denoted by Q Q Q(Q) ç T(Q). Moreover, we shall be concerned with the subsheaves of quantum vector fields with constant and vanishing time component Q Q Q Q Qc(Q) ç Q(Q) Q0(Q) ç Qc(Q). So, we are in the position to achieve the following important formula. C O R O L L A R Y I I . 3 . 2 . 1 . The coordinate expression of the quantum vector
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field associated with the quantisable function
i j i f = f» 2m gij y0 y0 _ fi y0 _ f© h
is
h Xf = f» Ù0  m fi Ùi _ i (m f» a0  fi ai _ f©) i. h
PROOF. It follows from the coordinate expression of XŸ and f. ò C O R O L L A R Y I I . 3 . 2 . 2 . The map Q q : Q(J1E) é Q(Q) : f ´ Xf is a sheaf linear isomorphism. In particular, Qc(J1E ) and Q0(J1E) are isomorQ Q ò phic, respectively, to Qc(Q) and Q0(Q).
Eventually, we can prove the following important result. Q L E M M A I I . 3 . 2 . 1 . The sheaf Q (Q ) of quantum vector fields and the subQ Q sheaves Qc(Q) and Q0(Q) of quantum vector fields with constant and vanishing time component are closed under the Lie bracket.
PROOF. It follows from a long computation in coordinates. T HEOREM I I . 3 . 2 . 3 . The map (see Theor. II.3.1.2) Q Q(J1E) é Q(Q) : f ´ Xf is an isomorphism of sheaves of Lie algebras. Namely, for each k$·, f,f',f"$Q(J1E), we have Xkf = k Xf Xf'_f" = Xf' _ Xf"
[Xf', Xf"] = X[f', f"].
ò
ò
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II.4  Quantum Lie operators
In this chapter, we show how the quantum vector fields act naturally on the quantum sections and yield a Lie algebra of operators, which will be called quantum Lie operators. Moreover, we exhibit a natural Lie algebra isomorphism between quantisable functions and quantum Lie operators. This is our first approach to the subject of quantum operators and to the principle of correspondence; in this step, the classical Hamiltonian corresponds to the time derivative. A further development of the theory will be achieved later in the framework of the quantum Hilbert bundle (see § II.6.3); in this context, the classical Hamiltonian will correspond to the standard operator, naturally generalised to our curved spacetime. The quantum vector fields act naturally on the quantum sections as Lie derivatives; so, we might introduce the quantum operators directly in this way. The result would be quite interesting; but, in order to obtain symmetric (possibly selfadjoint) operators (see § II.6.3), we need a little more complicated approach. Namely, we have to consider quantum halfdensities. More precisely, in the spacelike integration procedure (see § II.6.1), we shall be involved with spacelike halfdensities. On the other hand, in the construction of operators, we need to consider spacetime halfdensities.
II.4.1. Lie operators
This section is devoted to a preliminary discussion about the action of linear projectable vector fields on quantum densities. First, we introduce the notion of Lie derivative of sections of a vector bundle. F B Let p:FéB be a vector bundle. F F FB R EMARK I I . 4 . 1 . 1 . A vertical vector field Y:F éVF ˆF ˚F is said to be basic B F if it projects over a section s:B éF through the following commutative diagram
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B F Conversely each section s:B éF can be regarded as a basic vertical vector F F field Y:F éVF , which is projectable over the section itself. This correspondence between sections and basic vector fields is a bijection. ò F F L EMMA II.4.1.1. Let X:FéTF be a linear projectable vector field and let us B B denote its projection by X:BéTB. B F For each section s:BéF, the Lie bracket F F [X,s]:FéVF is a basic vector field, hence determines the section X.s ˆ [X,s] : B é F, with coordinate expression X.s = (X¬ Ù¬si  Xij sj) bi. ò F F So, if X:F éTF is a linear projectable vector field, then we define the associated Lie operator as the sheaf morphism F F X. : S(F) é S(F) : s ´ X.s. L E M M A II.4.1.2. The map X ´ X. is injective. Moreover, the map (X,s) ´ X.s has the following properties X.(s_s') = X.s _ X.s' (X _ X').s = X.s _ X'.s X.(fs) = f (X.s) _ X.f s (fX).s = f (X.s)
F ä F Y VF ˆ F˚F B pï ï pr2 F s
Bä á
[X., X'.](s) ˆ X.X'.s  X'.X.s = [X,X'].s
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F F B F for each linear projectable vector field X,X':F éTF , section s,s':B éF and B function f:Bé·. ò We can reinterpret the above results in terms of connections. If we assume a linear connection F F c:FéT*BÆTF B
F B on the vector bundle p:FéB, then we have the following result.
B B L EMMA I I . 4 . 1 . 3 . Let X:B éTB be a vector field and consider its horizontal prolongation F X ˆ Xœc : F é TF, which is linear over its projection X. B F Then, for each section s:BéF, we obtain the formula X.s = ıXs, with coordinate expression X.s = (X¬ Ù¬si  Xij sj) bi = X¬ (Ù¬si  c¬ij sj) bi = ıXs. ò
Now, let us apply the above results to our quantum framework. Q Q P R O P O S I T I O N I I . 4 . 1 . 1 . Let X:Q éTQ be a linear projectable vector field E E and let us denote its projection by X:E éTE . Then, we obtain, via the above Lie derivative, the sheaf morphism Q Q X. : S(Q) é S(Q) : „ ´ [X, „]. Moreover, we obtain, via a standard Lie derivative, the sheaf morphism 4 4 X. : S(ÊLT*E) é S(ÊLT*E) : ¢Ã ´ L(X)¢Ã , ¨ ¨ which depends only on X. Hence, we can extend, via the Leibnitz rule, the Lie derivative to the spacetime densities and obtain the sheaf morphism Q Q X. : S(Q¨) é S(Q¨) : „ ´ X.„¨ ˆ [X, „]æ¢Ã _ „æL(X)¢Ã . ¨ ¨ Q Q Furthermore, let X:Q éVQ be a linear vertical vector field. Then, in an
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analogous way, we obtain, via a vertical Lie derivative, the sheaf morphism Q Q ∆ ∆ ò X. : S(Q∆) é S(Q∆) : „ ´ X.„∆ ˆ [X, „]æ¢Ã _ „æL(X)¢Ã . Q Q P ROPOSITION I I . 4 . 1 . 2 . If X,X':Q éTQ are linear projectable vector fields, Q Q and we consider their action both on S (Q ¨) and S (Q ∆), then the standard identity for the commutator of Lie derivatives yields [X., X'.] = [X, X']. . ò
II.4.2. The general Lie algebras isomorphism
So, we are in the position to introduce the quantum Lie operators and the Lie algebra isomorphism between quantisable functions and quantum Lie operators. D EFINITION I I . 4 . 2 . 1 . Let f$ Q (J1E ) be a quantisable function and Xf$Q(Q ) Q the corresponding quantum vector field. Then, the quantum Lie operator associated with f is defined to be the sheaf morphism
1 Q Q Yf ˆ i Xf. : S(Q∆) é S(Q∆) : „∆ ´ i (Xf.„¨)æ¢Ã æ¢Ã . ¨ ∆
¡
Q We have already explained why we apply Xf to S(Q ∆) and not directly to Q S(Q): we consider „∆ in view of the integration on the fibres of spacetime and of the symmetry of the quantum Lie operator (see § II.6.3). Moreover, we are forced to pass through „¨ because, in the general case, the action of Xf on ¢Ã is not defined. Furthermore, the reason of the multiplication by the ∆ imaginary unit will appear later (see § II.6.3), when we prove the symmetry of the quantum operators. R EMARK II.4.2.1. In the particular case when the quantisable function f is E affine with respect to the fibres of J1E éE , hence the quantum vector field Xf is vertical, we obtain, more directly, Q Q Yf = i Xf. : S(Q∆) é S(Q∆) : „∆ ´ i Xf.„∆. ò
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The quantum Lie operators constitute a sheaf, which is denoted by Q L(Q∆). Moreover, we shall be concerned with the subsheaves of quantum Lie operators corresponding to quantisable functions with constant and vanishing time component Q Q Q Q Lc(Q∆) ç L(Q∆) L0(Q∆) ç Lc(Q∆). L E M M A II.4.2.1. The map Q Q(J1E) é L(Q∆) : f ´ Yf
is a sheaf isomorphism.
ò
Q L EMMA I I . 4 . 2 . 2 . The sheaf L(Q ∆) is a sheaf of Lie algebras with respect to the bracket Q Q Q L(Q∆)˚L(Q∆) é L(Q∆) : (Yf', Yf") ´ [Yf', Yf"] ˆ  i (Yf'©Yf"  Yf"©Yf'). Q Q Moreover, Lc(Q∆) and L0(Q∆) are subsheaves of Lie algebras. So, we are in the position to state the following important result. T H E O R E M I I . 4 . 2 . 1 . The map Q Q(J1E) é L(Q∆) : f ´ Yf Ykf = k Yf Yf'_f" = Yf' _ Yf" ò ò
is an isomorphism of sheaves of Lie algebras. Namely, for each k$·, f,f',f"$Q(J1E), we have [Yf', Yf"] = Y[f', f"].
P ROPOSITION I I . 4 . 2 . 1 . For each observer o, the action of the quantum Lie operator Yf on „∆ is given by Yf(„∆) = i (fHœıo„)∆ _ ⁄f©o _ i 1 (div fH)^ „∆, 2
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E E where fH:EéTE is the projection of the Hamiltonian lift of f (see § II.3.1). In other words, we have the following coordinate expression Yf(„∆) =
h h ê ê ê = i ⁄f» ıo0¥∆  m fi ıoi¥∆  i f© ¥∆ _ 1 (Ù0f»  m Ùifi) ¥∆^ bæÊd1◊d2◊d3, 2
where ıo¬¥∆ ˆ Ù¬¥∆  i m a¬ ¥∆. h
II.4.3. Main examples
ò
We conclude this chapter by computing the main examples of quantum Lie operators. Let us choose a frame of reference (u0, o) and a related fibred spacetime chart (x0,yi). As usual, we denote by ıo the quantum covariant differential associated with o (see Def. II.1.5.2). L EMMA II.4.3.1. The quantum Lie operator associated with every quantisable function of the type E f $ F(E) ç Q(J1E) is Yf(„∆) = f „∆. E XAMPLE II.4.3.1. We have the following quantum Lie operators Yyi(„∆) = yi „∆ Yx0(„∆) = x0 „∆ ê ê ê Yp /h(„∆) =  i Ùi¥∆ bæÊd1◊d2◊d3 i ê ê ê YH/h(„∆) = i Ù0¥∆ bæÊd1◊d2◊d3. ò ò
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E XAMPLE I I . 4. 3. 2. For each quantisable function f, we have Moreover, we have [Yp /h, Yx0] = 0
i
[Yx0, Yf] =  f»
h [Yyi, Yf] = m fi.
[Yp /h, Yyj] =  ∂ij i
[Yp /h, YH/h] = 0. i
ò
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II.5  Systems of double fibred manifolds
In view of further developments of the quantum theory, we need some preliminary notions and results concerning the system associated with a double fibred manifold. The theory of finite dimensional systems has been extensively studied in [ MM], [Mo2 ] and has been already used in this paper (see § II.1.3). In this chapter, we introduce the infinite dimensional system of all smooth sections by means of a functorial construction.
II.5.1. The system
We start by introducing the notion of system of sections associated with a double fibred manifold and studying its basic properties. First we need a few preliminaries about the concept of smoothness due to Frölicher and the notion of fibred set. We shall be concerned with some sets constructed geometrically from some functional spaces. We could define a topology in order to achieve a structure of infinite dimensional manifold on such sets; but great difficulties would arise. On the other hand the concept of smoothness due to Frölicher ([Fr]) is very suitable for our purposes, as it allows us to achieve the geometrical constructions that we need, avoiding all troubles related to infinite dimensionality. D E F I N I T I O N I I . 5 . 1 . 1 . A smooth space in the sense of Frölicher (see [Fr], [Sl]), can be defined as a pair S (S,C), where S is a set and S C ˆ {c:·éS} is a set of curves which will be called smooth. S S S S If (S ,C) and (S ',C') are smooth spaces, then a map f:S éS ' is said to be S smooth if, for each smooth curve c:·éS, the curve
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c' ˆ f©c : · é S' is smooth.
¡
In particular, each classical manifold M becomes a smooth space by assuming as smooth curves, in the sense of Frölicher, just the smooth curves in the classical sense. Then, it can be proved (see [CCKM], [Bo]) that a map between classical manifolds is smooth in the classical sense if and only if it is smooth in the sense of Frölicher. S If (S ,C) is a smooth space, then by abuse of language we shall also say that S is a smooth space. S If S and S ' are smooth spaces, then S ˚S ' becomes a smooth space in a natural way. A fibred set is defined to be a set S together with a surjective map S B ß:S éB of S onto a set B. When B is a manifold, we denote by S B S€(SéB) S B the sheaf of local sections of the fibred set ß:S éB . Moreover, if S is a smooth space, then we denote by S B S B S(SéB) ç S€(SéB) S B the subsheaf of smooth local sections of the fibred set ß:SéB. Now, let us consider a (smooth) double fibred manifold p B F qE ä ä
and denote the typical double fibred charts of F by (x¬, yi, za) 1≤¬≤m, 1≤i≤l, 1≤a≤n. We denote by F E B F E B St€(FéEéB) and St(FéEéB)
the sheaf of tubesections which are smooth along the fibres but possibly nonsmooth with respect to the base space B and the subsheaf of smooth tubesections.
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where
D E F I N I T I O N I I . 5 . 1 . 2 . The system associated with the double fibred E B manifold FéEéB is defined to be the pair F B (ß:SFéB, ™), where F i) SF is the set F SF ˆ ø SxF, B x$B E F SxF ˆ {„x:ExéFx}
B denotes the set of smooth fibresections related to x$B; ii) ß is the natural surjective map F ß : SF é B : „x ´ x; iii) ™ is the evaluation fibred morphism over E FB ™ : SF˚E é F : („x, y) ´ „x(y).
¡
R E M A R K I I . 5 . 1 . 1 . The evaluation fibred morphism ™ yields the natural sheaf isomorphism â â F B F E B â ™ : S€(SF éB ) é St€(F éE éB ) : „ ´ „ ˆ ™(„) ˆ ™©„Ÿ, where “Ÿ” denotes the pullback. The inverse natural sheaf isomorphism is â F E B F B ™1 : St€(FéEéB) é S€(SFéB) : „ ´ „, where â „ : x ´ „x ˆ „¡E . E
x
ò
Next, we introduce a smooth structure in the sense of Frölicher on the set F SF by the following definition (see also [Ko]). D E F I N I T I O N I I . 5 . 1 . 3 . A curve c:·éSF is said to be smooth, in the sense F â of Frölicher, if the induced maps
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ß©â :·éB c B
are smooth in the classical sense.
F c c : (ß©â )*EéF : y¬´â (¬)(y¬) c
¡
R EMARK I I . 5 . 1 . 2 . If M is a manifold, then we can easily prove that a map c:MéSF is smooth in the sense of Frölicher if and only if the induced maps âM F F ß©â :MéB cM B c:(ß©â )*E éF c are smooth in the classical sense. Moreover, if S ' is a further smooth space, then we can easily prove that F S the map f:SF éS ' is smooth in the sense of Frölicher if and only if, for each smooth map c:MéSF, the map âM F âM S f©c:M éS ' is smooth in the sense of Frölicher. ò P ROPOSITION I I . 5 . 1 . 1 . The maps ß and ™ turn out to be smooth. Moreover, a local section â B F „:B éSF F B of the fibred set SF éB turns out to be smooth if and only if the associated tubesection â „ ˆ ™(„) : E é F is smooth. Thus, the sheaf isomorphism ™ restricts to a sheaf isomorphism F B F E B ™ :S(SF éB )éSt(F éE éB ). ò The following remark has an important role in the following (see § II.6.1). F B F B R EMARK I I . 5 . 1 . 3 . Let (ß':S'F éB , ™') be the subsystem of (ß:SF éB , ™) constituted by any subset of smoothfibre sections of the double fibred E B manifold F éE éB . Then, all above constructions can be easily repeated for F F this subsystem. Moreover, the inclusion S'F àSF turns out to be a smooth map in the sense of Frölicher. ò
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II.5.2. The tangent prolongation of the system
We pursue our presentation of systems by studying the tangent space of the system and the tangent prolongation of sections. We refer to the double fibred manifold and the associated system as in the previous section. F In order to define the tangent space of the smooth space SF let us study F the tangent map of smooth curves ·éSF. F c:·éSF â be a smooth curve defined in a neighbourhood of 0$·. Let us consider the induced curves F ß©â :·éB c B c:(ß©â )*E éF c and set (see § III.2) â „x ˆ c(0). â x ˆ (ß©â )(0) $ B c u ˆ Ù(ß©â ) ˆ T(ß©â )(0,1) $ TxB c c Then, the restriction of the tangent map Tc:T(ß©â )*TE éTF to the fibre c E F â over (0,1)$·˚· turns out to be an affine fibred morphism over „x â whose fibre derivative is the linear fibred morphism over „x â E F DÈu = T(„x) : (VE)x é (VF)x. E In other words, if v$(TE)u, then we can write â E F Èu : (TE)u é (TF)u : (v _ w) ´ Èu(v) _ T(„x)(w) E Åw$(VE)x. E F Èu ˆ Ùc ˆ Tc¡(0,1) : (TE)u é (TF)u, L E M M A I I . 5 . 2 . 1 . i) Let
with
We have the coordinate expression (yi, za; x¬, yi, za)©Èu = (yi, „xa; u¬, yi, Èua _ Ùi„xa yi), î î î î î u¬ = Ùc¬ $ · Èua = Ùca : Ex é ·.
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ii) Conversely, let x$B and u $ TxB E F Èu:(TE)ué(TF)u
â „x $ SxF
be a map of the above type. Then, we can prove (see [CK]) that there is a F smooth curve c:·éSF, such that â Ùc = Èu. ò Then, we are led to the following definition. D EFINITION I I . 5 . 2 . 1 . The tangent space of the smooth space SF is deF fined to be the set F TSF ˆ âø T„xSF, â F
F „x$SF
where
T„xSF ˆ {Èu} â F â B u$TxB, xˆß(„x)$B,
â such that Èu is an affine fibred morphism over „x and its fibre derivative is â the linear fibred morphism over „x â E F DÈu = T(„x) : (VE)x é (VF)x. ¡
is the set of smooth sections of the type E F Èu:(TE)ué(TF)u,
The basic geometrical constructions which hold for the tangent space of the standard finite dimensional manifolds can be repeated in our “infinite dimensional” case. P ROPOSITION I I . 5 . 2 . 1 . We have the natural surjective maps â F F πSF : TSF é SF : Èu ´ „x, F x ˆ πB(u),
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and
F B Tß : TSF é TB : Èu ´ u.
â F F â For each „x$SF , the tangent space T„x SF of SF at „ x turns out to be a â F vector space in a natural way. Namely, if Èu, È'u', È"u" $ T¥xSF ¬ $ ·, â F
then
¬ È'u' $ (T¥xSF)¬u' â F
È'u' _ È"u" $ (T¥xSF )u'_u" â F
are well defined by â E F (¬ Èu) : (TE)¬u é (TF)¬u : (¬ v _ ¬ w) ´ ¬ Èu(v) _ T(„x)(¬ w) E F (È'u' _ È"u") : (TE )u'_u" é (TF )u'_u" : E E E where v$(TE)u, v'$(TE)u', v"$(TE)u". Hence, the map Tß turns out to be a linear fibred morphism over ß. â : (v' _ v" _ w) ´ È'u'(v') _ È"u"(v") _ T(„x)(w) E Åw$(VE)x ò
F B Thus, (Tß:TSFéTB, T™) turns out to be a subsystem of the system assoF E B ciated with the double fibred manifold TFéTEéTB. Therefore, all results of the above section apply to this subsystem. ò F F R EMARK I I . 5 . 2 . 2 . The vector structure of the fibred set TSF éSF turns F out to be smooth in the sense that the fibred morphisms over SF F F F F F ÷:·˚TSFéTSF _:TSF˚TSFéTSF are smooth. ò We can define the tangent map of sections of the space of fibred sections in the following way.
E R EMARK II.5.2.1. We have the natural evaluation fibred morphism over TE F ˚B E F T™ : TSFTBTE é TF : (Èu, v) ´ Èu(v).
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â F B R EMARK I I . 5 . 2 . 3 . If „$S(SFéB), then E F T„:TEéTF yields the smooth tubesection â B F ™ T„ ˆ (T™)1(T„) : TB é TSF.
ò
â F B D EFINITION I I . 5 . 2 . 2 . The tangent prolongation of the section „$S(SFéB) â F B is defined to be the section T„$S(TSFéTB) given by â â T„ ˆ T„. ¡
II.5.3. Connections on the system
We conclude this chapter by introducing the notion of a connection on our system. We still refer to the double fibred manifold and the associated system as in the first section. Analogously to the finite dimensional case (see § III.2), we have the exact F sequence over SF B ˚ 0 ä VSF FS T ä .ä TF 0 Bä S D EFINITION I I . 5 . 3 . 1 . A connection of the fibred set SF éB is defined to F B 22 k of the above sequence, i.e. a smooth section be a smooth splitting â â FB B F k:SF˚TBéTSF,
¡
F B B which is linear over SF and is projectable over 1B:TBéTB.
â We can interpret a connection k as an operator which acts on the tubeE B sections of the double fibred manifold FéEéB, in the following way. â P R O P O S I T I O N I I . 5 . 3 . 1 . Let k be a connection. â F B If „$S(SFéB), then, we obtain the section
22 k is a Chinese character, whose romanization in Pinyin is “kE”.
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E F k(„):TEéTF, given by the composition â â FT F B FB ä ˚ E T E„Ÿ SF˚T kŸ TSFä T™ TF, ä T
with coordinate expression (x¬, yi, za; x¬, yi, za)©k(„) = (x¬, yi, „a; x¬, yi, kµa(„) xµ _ Ùj„a yj), î î î î î î î where E kµa(„) $ F(E).
Moreover, we obtain the smooth section â â â B F k(„) = k(„) : TB é TSF. Therefore, the sheaf morphism F E B F E B k : St(FéEéB) é St(TFéTEéTB) : „ ´ k(„) â characterises k itself. â A connection k induces the covariant differential in the standard way. â â F B L EMMA I I . 5 . 3 . 1 . Let k be a connection and „$S(SFéB). Then, the map
ò
â â â B F T„  k©„Ÿ : TB é TSF â F takes its values in VSF, is projectable over „ and is a linear fibred morphism â over „. Hence, it can be can regard as a smooth section â â â â Æ F ık„ ˆ T„  k©„Ÿ : B é T*BSF VSF , â F â which is projectable over „.
ò
â D E F I N I T I O N I I . 5 . 3 . 2 . Let k be a connection. Then, the covariant differenâ F B tial of „$S(SFéB) is defined to be the smooth local section â â â â Æ F ¡ ık„ ˆ T„  k©„Ÿ : B é T*BSF VSF . â F
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â We can interpret the covariant differential ık„ in terms of the tubesecâ tion „, in the following way. â F B P R O P O S I TI O N I I . 5 . 3 . 2 . Let k be a connection and „$S(SFéB ). Then, the map E F T„  k(„) : TE é TF is a smooth linear tubefibred morphism over „, which factorizes through a smooth linear tubefibred morphism over „ EB B F ık„:E˚TB éVF;
conversely, the map ık„ characterises T„  k(„). Moreover, we have â â F ık„ = T„k(„) : B é T*B ÆVSF . â The coordinate expression of ık„ is
F SF
ık„ = ⁄Ù¬„a  kµa(„)^ dµæ(Ùa©„).
ò
â A connection k is said to be of order k if, for each smooth tubesection E F „:EéF, the map k(„) depends on „ through its vertical jet up to order k. E F B Now, let us consider the case when F éE is a vector bundle, hence SF éB F B and TSF éTB turn out to be smoothly equipped with a vector structure on their fibres. The connection k is said to be linear if it is linear as a fibred morphism over B. In other words, the connection k is linear if the operator F E B F E B k : St(FéEéB) é St(TFéTEéTB) : „ ´ k(„) is linear. â P R O P O S I T I O N I I . 5 . 3 . 3 . Let k be a connection of order k. Then, the coordinate expression of the linear operator k:„´k(„) is of the type kµa(„) = kµab „b _ kµajb Ùj„b _ … _ kµaj1 …jk b Ùj …j „b,
1 k
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where (c)
Thus, in the linear case, the coordinate expression of ık„ is of the type ık„ = (Ùµ„a  kµab „b  kµajb Ùj„b  …  kµaj1 …jk b Ùj …j „b) dµæÙa .
1 k
E kµab, kµajb, … , kµaj1 …jk b $ F(E).
Thus, the equation F E B in the unknown section „$St(F éE éB ), turns out to be a linear differential equation of order k in the fibre derivatives and of order 1 in the base derivatives of „. ò We observe that for any arbitrary choice of the above coefficients (c), we obtain a local connection. Hence global connections can be obtained by means of the partition of unity. We finish this chapter by observing that all above geometrical constructions are compatible, in a natural way, with restrictions to the subsystem associated with a subsheaf of the sheaf of smooth tubesections (see Rem. II.5.1.3). In particular, we shall be concerned with the subsystem of compact support tubesections, on a vector double fibred manifold. ık„ = 0,
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II.6  The infinite dimensional quantum system
So far, the quantum theory has been developed on the quantum bundle Q, which is based over the spacetime E (except for a temporary extension of the base space to J1E) and has one dimensional complex fibres. On the other hand, the theory of systems suggests to translate the main concepts and results of the above quantum theory in terms of a new bundle Q SQ ∆ which is based over the time T and has infinite dimensional complex fibres. Such a geometrical development of our quantum theory yields interesting physical results and interpretations. In particular, it yields the Hilbert bundle and the generalisation to a curved spacetime of the standard Hamiltonian quantum operator and commutators.
II.6.1. The quantum system
We start by introducing the system associated with the double fibred manifold of quantum spacelike densities (see § II.1.2), according to the ideas of the previous chapter. So, we consider the system Q T (ß:SQ∆éT, ™) associated with the double fibring ∆ t T ∆ Q πE ä. ä Q T In order to be able to perform integrations over the fibres of SQ ∆éT , we need to consider the subsystem of sections with compact support. So doing, we miss sections of physical interest, but they can be recovered later by means of a completion procedure. So, we introduce the following definition. D EFINITION I I . 6 . 1 . 1 . The prequantum system is defined to be the subsystem
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T (ßc:ScQ∆éT, ™c) where and Q ScQ∆ ˆ ø Sc†Q∆ ç SQ∆, T †$T E Q Sc†Q∆ ç S†Q∆ ˆ {„∆†:E†éQ∆†}
¡
is the subset of sections with compact support.
E T Let f:E éÛ is a tubefunction such that, for each †$T , its restriction E f†:E†éÛ, has compact support; then we define the “spacelike partial integral” of f as
f ∆ : T é Û : † ´ (f ∆)(†) ˆ E†f† ∆†. †
T P R O P O S I T I O N I I . 6 . 1 . 1 . On the fibres of ß c:ScQ ∆éT , we obtain the A 3/2valued Hermitian structure, given by â h : ScQ∆B ScQ∆ é ÛÆA3/2 : (È∆†, „∆†) ´ ÇÈ∆† ¡ „∆†¶ ˆ E h (È†, „†) ∆†. ò ˚ T Hence, ßc:ScQ ∆éT turns out to be a preHilbert fibred set. Moreover, by completion (fibre by fibre), we obtain a Hilbert fibred set Q T HQ∆éT. T By abuse of language, we say that ScQ∆éT is the preHilbert quantum bunQ T dle and HQ∆éT the Hilbert quantum bundle.
II.6.2. The Schrödinger connection on the quantum system
Next, we reinterpret the Schrödinger operator in the present framework (see Def. II.2.3.1) and study its basic properties. T HEOREM I I . 6 . 2 . 1 . There is a unique linear connection
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â Q Q k:SQ∆éT*ÆTSQ∆ Q T on the vector fibred set ß:SQ∆éT, such that the Schrödinger operator S∆ can be written as ık = S∆. The coordinate expression of k is given by h ê k0(„∆) = i (2m Ëo¥∆ _ m a0 ¥∆). h
PROOF. It follows immediately from a comparison of coordinate expressions of ık and S∆. ò
We can easily see that the connection k restricts to the subsystem T ßc:ScQ∆éT. R E M A R K I I . 6 . 2 . 1 . Let o be an observer. Then, the observed vertical Laplacian can be regarded as a fibred morphism over T ê Q Q Ëo:SQ∆éSQ∆. ê Moreover, we can easily see that Ëo restricts to the subsystem T ò ßc:ScQ∆éT. L E M M A I I . 6 . 2 . 1 . Let o be an observer. Then, the observed vertical â â T Laplacian is Hermitian. Namely, for each È∆, „∆$S(ScQ∆éT), we have â ê â ê â â ÇËoÈ∆ ¡ „∆¶ = ÇÈ∆ ¡ Ëo„∆¶.
PROOF. We have Ã Ã ã Ã ã ã ã gij (ıoiıojƒ ¥ _ Kihj ıohƒ ¥  ƒ ıoiıoj¥  ƒ Kihj ıoh¥) =
Ã Ã ã Ã ã Ã ã = gij ⁄ıoi(ıojƒ ¥) _ Kihj ıohƒ ¥  ıojƒ Ùi¥ _ ƒ ã ã  ıoi(ã ıoj¥)  ƒ Kihj ıoh¥ _ Ùiƒ ıoj¥^ =
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Ã ã Ã ã Ã ã Ã ã = gij ⁄Ùi(ıojƒ ¥) _ Kihj ıohƒ ¥  ıojƒ Ùi¥ _ i m ai (ıojƒ ¥) h ƒ ã ã ƒ  Ùi(ã ıoj¥)  ƒ Kihj ıoh¥ _ Ùiƒ ıoj¥ _ i m ai (ã ıoj¥)^ = h Ã ã Ã ã = gij ⁄Ùi(ıojƒ ¥) _ Kihj ıohƒ ¥  Ùi(ã ıoj¥)  ƒ Kihj ıoh¥^ = ƒ ã ÊÕ ¡g¡ ÊÕ ¡g¡ Moreover, the integral on E †, through a partition of the unity, of each of the above terms vanishes, in virtue of the Gauss theorem. ò â T HEOREM I I . 6 . 2 . 2 . The connection k is Hermitian. Namely, for each È∆, â T „∆$S(ScQ∆éT), we have â â â â dÇÈ∆ ¡ „∆¶ = ÇıkÈ∆ ¡ „∆¶ _ ÇÈ∆ ¡ ık„∆¶. ââ ââ Ão ã ¡g¡ ij Ùi(ı jƒ ¥ ÊÕ) =g ƒ o ¡g¡ ij Ùi(ã ı j¥ÊÕ). g
PROOF. We have
ƒ ã ã Ù0(ã ∆ ¥∆) = Ù0ƒ∆ ¥∆ _ ƒ∆ Ù0¥∆ =
h Ã ã ê Ã ã ã ã ê = ık0ƒ∆ ¥∆ _ ƒ∆ ık0¥∆  i 2m (Ëoƒ∆ ¥∆  ƒ∆ Ëo¥∆).
Hence, the Lemma II.6.2.1 yields the result.
II.6.3. Quantum operators on the quantum system
ò
Now we are in a position to translate our quantum Lie operators (see § II.4.2) into quantum operators, in the infinite dimensional context of systems. R EMARK I I . 6 . 3 . 1 . A fibred morphism over T â Q Q Ú:SQ∆éSQ∆ can be regarded as a sheaf morphism
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â â â â â Q T â Q T Ú. : S(SQ∆éT) é S(SQ∆éT) : „∆ ´ Ú.„∆ ˆ Ú©„∆. â Moreover, Ú yields the sheaf morphism Q E Q E Ú:S(Q∆éE)éS(Q∆éE), characterised by â â â Ú(„∆) = Ú.„∆. The map â Ú´Ú is a bijection.
ò
Henceforth, in order to deal with objects globally defined on the fibres of E T t:EéT, we need to restrict our attention to quantisable functions, which are T tubelike with respect to the fibring J1E éT . We shall denote the corresponding sheaves by Qtc(J1E) ç Qc(J1E) Qt0(J1E) ç Q0(J1E) Qt(J1E) ç Q(J1E) Q Q Lt(Q∆) ç L(Q∆) Q Q Ltc(Q∆) ç Lc(Q∆) Q Q Lt0(Q∆) ç L0(Q∆).
Q P R O P O S I TI O N I I . 6 . 3 . 1 . Let f$ Q t(J1E) and consider Yf$Lt(Q∆). Then, we obtain the sheaf morphism â Q T Q T â Yf : S(SQ∆éT) é S(SQ∆éT) : „∆ ´ Yâ ∆. f„
ò
â C O R O L L A R Y I I . 6 . 3 . 1 . In the particular case when f$ Q t0 (J1 E ), Y f acts Q T pointwisely on the sections of SQ ∆éT , hence it can be regarded as a local fibred morphism over T â Q Q Yf:SQ∆éSQ∆. ò â If f" = 0, then Yf is a differential operator of first order on the sections of Q T SQ∆éT. However, we are looking for a pointwise operator for all quantisable func
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tions. We shall solve the problem again by means of a criterion of projectability, according to the following important result. T HEOREM I I . 6 . 3 . 1 . For any f$Q t(J1E), the sheaf morphism â â Q T Q T Úf ˆ Yf  i f»œık : S(SQ∆éT) é S(SQ∆éT) â Q T acts pointwisely on the sections of SQ∆éT, hence it can be regarded as a local fibred morphism over T â â Q Q Úf ˆ Yf  i f»œık : SQ∆ é SQ∆. â Its coordinate expression is Úf(„∆) = In the particular case when f$Qt0(J1E), we recover â â Úf ˆ Yf.
h h h ê ê ê ê = ⁄fo ¥∆ _ i 1 (Ù0f»  m Ùifi) ¥∆  i m fi ıoi¥∆  f» 2m Ëo¥∆^ bæÊd1◊d2◊d3. 2
ò
Of course, the above operator Úf is intrinsic, by construction. However, we stress that its coordinate expression cannot be easily guessed by means of standard arguments of differential geometry. Actually, this result is a “miracle” produced by the specific structure of the quantum bundle and its quantum connection. Then, we are led to introduce the following definition. D EFINITION I I . 6 . 3 . 1 . A quantum operator is defined to be the local fibred morphism over T â â â Q Q Úf ˆ Yf  i f»œık : SQ∆ é SQ∆,
¡
associated with a quantisable function f$Qt(J1E).
The quantum operators constitute a sheaf (with respect to the tubetopolQ T ogy of the fibred set SQ∆éT), which is denoted by
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Moreover, we shall be concerned with the subsheaves of quantum operators corresponding to quantisable functions with constant and vanishing time component Q Q Q Q Qc(SQ∆) ç Q(SQ∆) Q0(SQ∆) ç Qc(SQ∆). T H E O R E M I I . 6 . 3 . 2 . The map â Q Q(J1E) é Q(SQ∆) : f ´ Úf
Q Q(SQ∆).
is a sheaf isomorphism.
PROOF. It follows from the coordinate expression of Úf(„∆).
Thus, this is our implementation of the correspondence principle.
ò
Now, let us compute the main examples of quantum Lie operators. Let us choose a frame of reference (u0, o) and a related fibred spacetime chart (x0,yi). We observe that, the definition of the quantum operators associated with the functions yi and pi/h requires that these functions be tubeT like of the fibred manifold EéT; hence the spacetime chart must be defined on a spacetime tube. E X A M P L E I I . 6 . 3 . 1 . We have â â â Úx0( „∆) = x0 „∆ â â â Úyi(„∆) = yi „∆
ê ê ê Úp /h(„∆) ˆ  i Ùi¥∆ bæÊd1◊d2◊d3 i
h ê ê ê ê ÚH/h(„∆) ˆ  ⁄ 2m Ëo¥∆ _ m a0 ¥∆^ bæÊd1◊d2◊d3. h
ò
In the special relativistic Galilei case, the above operators coincide with the corresponding operators of standard quantum mechanics.
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II.6.4. Commutators of quantum operators
Next, we study the commutators of quantum operators. If f,f'$Q(J1E) are quantisable functions, then we define the bracket of the associated quantum operators to be the sheaf morphism â â â â â â Q Q [Úf , Úf'] ˆ  i (Úf©Úf'  Úf'©Úf) : SQ∆ é SQ∆.
However, we stress that, in general, the bracket of two quantum operators needs not to be a quantum operator. L EMMA I I . 6 . 4 . 1 . Let f,f'$Q t(J1E ) be quantisable functions. Then, we obtain â â [Úf , Úf'] = â f â â f â â f â â f â â = Y[f,f']  ⁄Yf©(f'»œık)  Yf'©(f »œık)^  ⁄(f»œık)©Yf'  (f '»œık)©Yf^ _ f â f â f â f â _ i ⁄(f»œık)©(f'»œık)  (f'»œık)©(f»œık)^. ò
Henceforth, we shall restrict our attention to quantisable functions with constant time component. In fact, this hypothesis will yield important results. On the other hand, this is a reasonable restriction from the viewpoint of physics, because all functions which are relevant for physics are of the above type. T HEOREM I I . 6 . 4 . 1 . Let f,f'$ Q tc(J1E ) be quantisable functions with constant time component. Then, the above commutator reduces to â â [Úf , Úf'] = â f â â f â â f â â f â â = Y[f,f'] _ ⁄Yf'©(f »œık)  Yf©(f'»œık)^  ⁄(f»œık)©Yf'  (f '»œık)©Yf^. ò
C OROLLARY I I . 6 . 4 . 1 . Let f,f'$Q t0(J1E) be quantisable functions with vanishing time component. Then, we obtain
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â â â â â [Úf , Úf'] ˆ [Yf , Yf'] = Y[f,f'].
ò
C O R O L L A R Y I I . 6 . 4 . 2 . Let f$ Q tc(J1E ) be a quantisable function with constant time component and f'$Qt0(J1E) a quantisable functions with vanishing time component. Then, we obtain â â f â â â f â â ò [Úf , Úf'] = Y[f,f'] _ ⁄Yf'©(f »œık)  (f»œık)©Yf'^. E XAMPLE I I . 6 . 4 . 1 . For each quantisable function f$Qt(J1E), we have â â [Úx0, Úf] = 0. For each quantisable function f$Qtc(J1E), we have In particular, we obtain
h ê ê ê â â [Úyi, Úf](„∆) = m ⁄fi ¥∆_ f» (gij ıoj¥∆ _ 1 Ùjgij ¥∆)^ bæÊd1◊d2◊d3. 2
i â â [Úyi, Úp /h] = ∂j. j
ò
Eventually, we can state the following important result. L EMMA I I . 6 . 4 . 2 . For each quantisable function f$Qt(J1E), the corresponding quantum operator restricts to the system of tubesections with constant support â ò Úf : ScQ∆ é ScQ∆. T HEOREM I I . 6 . 4 . 2 . Let f$Q tc(J1E) be a quantisable function with constant â time component. Then, the corresponding quantum operator Úf is symmetric, â â T i.e., for each È∆, „'∆$S(ScQ∆éT), â â â â â â ÇÚfÈ∆ ¡ „∆¶ = ÇÈ∆ ¡ Úf„∆¶.
PROOF. We have
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â â â ÇÚfÈ∆ ¡ „∆¶ = =

=
Ùi(fi ÊÕ) ¡g¡ h ê ⁄i 2m ÊÕ ƒ _ i m fi Ùiƒ _ (f©  fi ai) ƒ  f» 2m Ëoƒ^ ¥ ∆ = ã h ã ã ã ¡g¡
h

Ùi(fi ƒ ¥ ÊÕ) ã ¡g¡ ⁄i m i ÊÕ ¡g¡
h
Ùi(fi ÊÕ) ¡g¡ h ƒ ¥  i m ƒ fi Ùi¥ _ ã ã 2m ÊÕ ¡g¡
h
h Ã ê ã _ (f©  fi ai) ƒ ¥  f» 2m Ëoƒ ¥^ ∆. ã
In an analogous way, we obtain â â â ÇÈ∆ ¡ Úf„∆¶ = Ùi(fi ÊÕ) ¡g¡ h h ã ã ã ã ê ã = ⁄ i 2m ÊÕ ƒ ¥  i m ƒ fi Ùi¥ _ (f©  fi ai) ƒ ¥  f» 2m ƒ Ëo¥^ ∆. ¡g¡ Hence, the proof follows from the Gauss theorem, Lemma II.6.4.2 and Lemma II.6.2.1. ò
h

Hence, under reasonable hypothesis on the quantisable function f, the asâ sociated quantum operator Úf can be extended to a selfadjoint operator on Q T T the quantum Hilbert HQéT bundle obtained by completion of ScQéT. In this way, we can apply the standard probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics to our approach. The only caution to be taken concerns the fact that we do not deal with a unique Hilbert space, but with a fibred set of Hilbert spaces equipped with a connection.
II.6.5. The Feynmann path integral
Eventually, we show how the Feynmann path integral principle can be formulated in the present framework. Of course, we are aware of the serious problems dealing with the existence of an appropriate measure and we do not offer any help to overcome these difficulties. However, we can exhibit a nice geometrical interpretation of the Feynmann amplitudes.
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T Q in the unknown section „©s:TéQ, projectable on s; its coordinate expression is Ù0(¥©s)  i (L/h)©j1s (¥©s) = 0. T Equation (*) can be integrated in any finite interval23 IçT . Its solution is of the type (**)
i q(†) ˆ (¥©s)(†) = q0 exp ⁄h [†0,†]
associated with the quantum connection c (see § II.1.4). T E Namely, let s:TéE be a (smooth) motion. Then, consider the equation (*) (Tj1s)œıc„Ÿ = 0
Let us consider the parallel transport on the fibred manifold Q πŸ:QŸéJ1E
L  (L©j1s)^,
q0$Û,
T E for each †0,†$T such that s([†0,†])çE belongs to the domain of a quantum E Q base b:E éQ . For greater times, the solution will be obtained by adding the gauged analogous contributions of the different quantum charts. T E Hence, the section s:TéE yields the complex linear isometry ∏(s,†0, †) : Qs(† ) é Qs(†) : q0 b(†0) ´ q(†) b(†), T for any †0,†$T. T The above map can be easily extended to the case when s:T é E is “broken”, i.e. continuous and almost everywhere smooth. Each map ∏(s,†0, †) as above is said to be a Feynmann amplitude. The Feynmann integral can be expressed heuristically as follows. E For e0,e$E, one might wish to define the complex linear isometry ∏(e0, e) ˆ
23
0
‚ ∏(s,† †) : Qe é Qe,
0, 0
According to our assumptions (smooth fields and motions), the integral L (L©j1 s) exists on any finite time interval.
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with
†0 ˆ t(e0) $ T
t(e) ˆ † $ T,
where the “sum” (taken with respect to a suitable measure24) is extended to all broken motions such that s(†0) = e0 s(†) = e. We set E QQ ∏ : E˚E é L(Q,Q) : (e0,e) ´ ∏(e0, e).
T Then, for †0,†$T, one might wish to define the complex linear map â Q Q â K(† , †) : HQ∆† é HQ∆† : „∆† ´ „∆†,
0 0 0
where â „† : E† é Q† : e ´
â E† ∏( ÷ e)©„† ∆.
0
,
0
E We remark that, if ∏ exists and is not too singular, then, for each e$E †, the above integral makes sense because the integrand is a map on E †0 with values into the fixed vector space Q†. Moreover, suppose that the Schrödinger equation on the Hilbert bundle can be integrated locally. According to the interpretation of this equation as a T T connection, it yields, for †$T sufficiently close to †0$T, a parallel transport Q Q S(†0, †):HQ∆†0éHQ∆†. Then, the Feynmann guess can be expressed by saying that S(†0, †) = K(†0, †).
24 Unfortunately, such a measure is known not to exist at all!
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II.6  Quantum twobody mechanics
So far, we have been dealing with the quantum mechanics of a charged particle; accordingly, the quantum bundle has been based on the classical spacetime associated with a classical particle. Now, we modify slightly our model in order to describe a closed system constituted by two quantum particles interacting through the classical gravitational and electromagnetic fields. Thus, we no longer consider an external source of the classical fields, but the source is constituted by the particles themselves. For this purpose, it suffices to substitute the pattern spacetime with the multispacetime as base of the quantum bundle. This scheme can be developed for any n ≥ 1. However, we do it explicitly only for the case n = 2. The reader can generalise it without any difficulty. We do not find the most general solution of field equations, but we just exhibit the simplest solution whose symmetries and boundary conditions are physically sensible. Then, the quantum dynamics follows easily. This solution is nothing but a Galilei general relativistic formulation of the well known standard quantum two body problem.
II.6.1. The quantum bundle and connection over the multispacetime
We start by introducing the quantum bundle and connection over the multispacetime associated with two classical particles. A S S U MP TI O N QTB1. We assume the quantum bundle to be a Hermitian line bundle over reduced multispacetime (see § I.7.1 and § II.1.1) Q E π:Q éE '. ò A S S U M P T I O N QTB2. We assume the quantum connection to be a connection on the bundle QŸéJ1E ' (see § II.1.4) Q Q c :Q ŸéT*J E ' Æ TQ Ÿ 1
J1E '
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with the following properties: i) c is Hermitian ii) c is universal, iii) the curvature Q E Rc :J1E 'éLT*J1E ''JÆ '(Q * Æ'Q ) c E
1
2
of c is given by (Rc ) c Rc = i m Ò æi. c h
ò
II.6.2. The twobody solution for the quantum bundle and connection
Next, we exhibit a distinguished realisation of quantum bundle and quantum connection whose symmetries and boundary values are physically appropriate. Q E We consider a quantum bundle π:Q éE , which is trivial (but without any distinguished trivialisation). P R O P O S I T I O N I I . 6 . 2 . 1 . Let b be a global quantum gauge and o a pattern Newtonian observer (see § I.7.1, I.7.2). Then, the connection 1 G c = c » _ i h (G _ P _ m a ) i, where c » is the flat connection associated with the quantum gauge, G and P are the classical kinetic energy and momentum forms associated with the observer o (see § I.7.2) and a is the potential described in Rem. I.7.2.2., is a quantum connection. ò C OROLLARY I I . 6 . 2 . 1 . With reference to the normal chart associated with b and to a Cartesian spacetime chart adapted to o, we obtain the following coordinate expression (see Rem. I.7.2.3) 0 i i i 0 i 0 c = d æÙ _ d æÙ _ d æÙ _ d æÙ _ d æÙ 0 1 1i 2 2i 10 1i 20 2i
i j i j j j _ i m ⁄ 1 gij (µ1 y10 y10 _ µ2 y20 y20) d0 _ gij (µ1 y10 d1i _ µ2 y20 d2i) h 2
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1 m
km
1 m2 q1 q2
r
d0^æi =
i 0 i 0 = d0æÙ0 _ dciæÙci _ driæÙri _ dc0æÙci _ dr0æÙri i j i j j j _ i m gij ⁄ 1 (yc0 yc0 _ µ1 µ2 yr0 yr0) d0 _ (yc0 dci _ µ1 µ2 yr0 dri) h 2 1 m
km
1 m2 q1 q2
r
d0^æi.
ò
Then, the two body quantum theory can be developed in full analogy to the one body case and our results fit completely the standard ones. In particular, just as an example, we get the quantum Hamiltonian operator. T E R E M A R K I I . 6 . 2 . 1 . Let o be a pattern Newtonian observer and s:T éE any motion such that j 1 s = o©s. Moreover, let us consider the affine fibred morphisms over T te te ˘1 : E é E : e ´ ⁄e1,s(t (e ))^ ˘2 : E é E : e ´ ⁄s(t (e )),e2^ ˘c : E é E : e ´ (ec,ec) Then, we obtain the following “Laplacian” operators ê ê ê ê E E E E Ë1 ˆ Ë©˘1 : M(E ,Û)éM(E ,Û) Ë1 ˆ Ë©˘1 : M(E ,Û)éM(E ,Û) ê ê E E Ëc ˆ Ë©˘c : M(E ,Û)éM(E ,Û) te te ˘r : E é E : e ´ ⁄s(t (e )) _ µ2 r1, s(t (e )) _ µ1 r2^.
which turn out to be independent of the choice of s. With reference to any Cartesian spacetime chart (x0,yi) adapted to o, we have the following coordinate expressions ê ê Ë1¥ = gi1j1 Ùi j ¥ Ë2¥ = gi2j2 Ùi j ¥
11 22
ê ê E E Ër ˆ Ë©˘r : M(E ,Û)éM(E ,Û)
ê Ëc¥ = gicjc Ùi j ¥
cc
ê Ër¥ = girjr Ùi j ¥,
rr
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where, by abuse of language, the indices i1, i2, ic, ir refer to the induced coordinates y1i, y2i, yci, yri (see § I.7.2). ò C OROLLARY I I . 6 . 2 . 2 . With reference to the normal chart associated with b and to a Cartesian spacetime chart adapted to o, we obtain the standard operator (see Rem. I.7.2.3) k m m q q h 2 ê ê ÚH /h(„∆ ) =  ⁄ 2m (µ1 Ë1¥ _ µ1 Ë2¥) _ 1 1 r 1 2 ¥^ bæ¢Ã ∆ h 1 2
k m m q q h 2 ê ê ∆ =  ⁄ 2m (Ëc¥ _ µ 1µ Ër¥) _ 1 1 r 1 2 ¥^ bæ¢Ã . h
1 2
ò
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III  APPENDIX
This appendix is aimed at recalling a few fundamental notions on manifolds, fibred manifolds, jets, tangent valued forms and general connections, in order to fix our basic terminology and notation. Some of these ideas and results can be found in any standard book of differential geometry. However, we are concerned with some further geometrical techniques, which can be traced only in a more specialised literature. Then, we think that the reader will appreciate a brief sketch; further details can be found, for instance, in [CCKM], [MM1], [MM2], [Mo2], [Mo3]. The non standard techniques are required by some specific subjects of our theory, hence cannot be avoided. On the other hand, these techniques are part of a general approach to differential geometry, which is able to recover in a very compact scheme many standard notions and results. For this reason the quick summary below has a certain systematic character.
III.1. Fibred manifolds and bundles
In this section we recall a few basic notions on fibred manifolds. For further details, the reader could refer to [CCKM], [ MM1], [MM2], [Mo2]. Throughout the paper, we deal with smooth manifolds and maps, unless a different statement is explicitly mentioned.
III.1.1. Fibred manifolds Let us start with fibred manifolds and bundles without any additional structure. Let M and N be manifolds. M A local map defined on the open subset UçM, is often denoted (by abuse of
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language) by
M N f:M éN . M N The local maps f:MéN constitute a sheaf MN M N M(M,N) ˆ {f:MéN}. In particular, the sheaf of local real valued functions on M is denoted by M M M F(M) ˆ M(M,·) ˆ {f:Mé·}. We denote the typical manifold chart of M and N by (x¬) and (yi).
A fibred manifold is defined to be a manifold F together with a surjective map of maximum rank F B p:F éB . F B Let p:FéB be a fibred manifold, with n ˆ dim B l ˆ dim F  dim B. The fibre over x is denoted by Fx ˆ p1(x) ç F. By the rank theorem, F admits a local fibred splitting in a neighbourhood F F F of any y$F . Namely, there is an open neighbourhood V çF of y$F , a manifold FV and a diffeomorphism such that V V F È:Vép(V)˚FV, pr1©È = p.
We identify the real functions of F , which are constant along the fibres with the corresponding functions of B; hence, we have the natural inclusion B F F(B) ç F(F). A fibred chart is defined to be a chart 1≤¬≤n, 1≤i≤l (x¬,yi) of F, adapted to a local fibred splitting.
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F B A section of p:FéB is defined to be a local map B F s:B éF , such that p©s = idB.
F B We denote the sheaf of sections of p:FéB by F F B B F S(F) ˆ S(FéB) ˆ {s:BéF}. We stress that a section s is assumed to be local, i.e. it is defined on an open subset of the base space; in the particular case when s is defined on the whole base space, we say that it is global. p B be a double fibred manifold. L ät E e q F ä A tubesection is defined to be a section of the type U s : p1(U) ç E é F where U ç B is an open subset. The tube sections constitute a sheaf (with respect to the tubetopology) F E B F E St(FéEéB) ç S(FéE). F B G B Let p:FéB and q:GéB be fibred manifolds over the same base space. Their fibred product over B is defined to be the fibred manifold G F ˚G ˆ ø Fx˚Gx é B. B B x$B G B If s$S(GéB), then we denote the pullback of s by sŸ : F é F˚G : f ´ ⁄f, s(p(f))^. B
F B G C Let p:FéB and q:GéC be fibred manifolds. A fibred morphism is defined to be a pair of local maps F G B C È:FéG È:BéC, such that q©È = È©p.
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Briefly, we say that È is a fibred morphism over È. In particular, if C = B and È = idB, then we say that È is a fibred morphism over B. F B Let p:FéB be a fibred manifold. We say that a local fibred splitting È is a local bundle splitting if it is of the type U F È : V = p1(U ) é U ˚F U,
V where U = p(V) ç B is an open subset. F B Then, we say that the fibred manifold p:FéB is a bundle if there exists a trivialising bundle atlas, i.e. a family of local bundle splittings U U F {Èå:p1(Uå)éUå˚F0}å$A, U where {Uå}å$A is an open covering of B. We are concerned with several bundles, whose fibres are smoothly endowed with algebraic structures; moreover, we need to prolong this bundles and their algebraic structures via the tangent and jet functors. This subject can be treated in several ways; the most standard approach is based on the technique of principal and associated bundles. However, in this report, we prefer to follow a more direct and intrinsic way, which is very suitable for our goals and fits the intrinsic spirit of our viewpoint. Here and in the following sections, we just sketch the main ideas and results; for a more general and detailed treatment the reader can refer to [CCKM].
III.1.2. Structured bundles Next, we consider bundles whose fibres are equipped with an algebraic structure. F B A vector bundle is defined to be a bundle p:FéB smoothly equipped with a vector structure on its fibres. Thus, by definition, each fibre F x is a vector space; moreover, there exists a trivialising bundle atlas, whose typefibre F0 F F U is a vector space, such that the maps Èåx:FxéF0, with x$Uå, å$A, are linear. A fibred morphism between vector bundles is said to be linear if it yields linear maps between the fibres. F B If p:F éB is a vector bundle, then we obtain the global section and the fi
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bred morphisms over B B F 0:BéF
which fulfill the standard algebraic properties and characterise the vector structure of the bundle. F B An affine bundle is defined to be a bundle p:F éB smoothly equipped with an affine structure on its fibres. Thus, by definition, each fibre F x is an affine space associated with a vector space Ã x; moreover, there exists a F trivialising bundle atlas, whose typefibre F 0 is an affine space associated F F U with a vector space Ã 0, such that the maps Èåx:F xéF 0, with x$U å, å$A, are F affine. It can be proved that Ã ˆ ø Ãx é B F x$B F B
FB F _:F˚FéF
F F ÷:·˚FéF,
has a natural structure of vector bundle; this is said to be the vector bundle associated with the affine bundle. A fibred morphism between affine bundles is said to be affine if it yields affine maps between the fibres. F B If p:FéB is an affine bundle, then we obtain the fibred morphism over B FB F F _:F˚Ã éF ,
which fulfills the standard algebraic properties and characterises the affine structure of the bundle. Other algebraic structures on bundles can be defined in this way. For instance, the complex structure can be defined by considering a linear endomorphism ˘, such that ˘2 = 1.
III.1.3. Positive semivector bundles Furthermore, in order to describe rigorously the units of measurement and to introduce the bundles of densities, we need the notions of a positive semivector space and a positive semivector bundle.
Let us consider ·_ ˆ {x$· ¡ x>0} as a semifield, i.e. as an abelian semigroup with respect to the addition and a group with respect to the multipli
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cation. Then, we define a semivector space to be an abelian semigroup U with a scalar multiplication by ·_, which fulfills the standard properties (r _ s) u = r u _ s u (r s) u = r (s u) r (u _ v) = r u _ r v 1u=u U År,s$·_, u,v$U. A vector space V and a basis B yield a semivector space in a natural way. In fact, the subset finitely generated by B over ·_ turns out to be a semivector space. In particular, ·_n, with n≥1, is a semivector space. Moreover, any vector space V can be regarded as a semivector space in a natural way. On the other hand, a semivector space U is said to be a positive semivector space if the scalar multiplication cannot be extended neither to ·_‰{0}, nor to ·. Hence, a positive semivector space contains neither the zero element, nor the negative of any element. Thus, a semivector space is a vector space, or a positive semivector space, or a positive semivector space extended by the zero element. Several concepts and results of standard linear and multilinear algebra related to vector spaces (including linear and multilinear maps, bases, dimension, tensor products and duality) can be easily repeated for semi vector spaces and positive semivector spaces. The main caution to be taken is to avoid the formulations which involve the zero element. We shall use for semivector spaces the standard terminology used for vector spaces. Let U be a semivector space and V a vector space. By regarding V as a semivector space, we can consider the tensor product over ·_ U ÆV . V V We observe that the semivector space UÆV turns out to be also a vector space, according to the formula U V V ·˚(UÆV) é UÆV : (r, uæv) ´ uæ(rv). So, any positive semivector space U can be extended to the vector space UÆ·, through the natural inclusion U ç UÆ·. In particular, we are concerned with 1dimensional positive semivector
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spaces. If V is an oriented 1dimensional vector space, then the positively oriented subset V_ ç V is a positive space. Moreover, if W is a further vector space, then we obtain the following useful canonical isomorphisms25 W W V _ÆW ≠ V ÆW and, in particular, V _Æ· ≠ V Æ· ≠ V . Let U and V be 1dimensional positive semivector spaces. In order to write formulas in a way apparently equal to the standard one used by physicists, it is convenient to treat the elements of 1dimensional positive spaces as they were numbers and introduce some conventions. U U So, we can treat the dual element ¨$U* of u$U as its “inverse” and write U1 ˆ U* ¨=1. u U V Moreover, if u$U and v$V , then we often omit the tensor product æ and just write u v ˆ uæv. Furthermore, we make the canonical identification U ÆU * ≠ ·_. U Let U be a 1dimensional positive semivector space. A square root of U is defined to be a 1dimensional positive semivector U U U space ¢ÃÃ together with a quadratic map q:¢ÃÃéU , such that, for each 1U dimensional positive semivector space ¢ÃÃ' and each quadratic map U U U U q':¢ÃÃ'éU, there is a unique linear map l:¢ÃÃé¢ÃÃ', which yields q'©l = q. By a standard argument related to universal properties, the square root is unique up to a canonical isomorphism. Moreover, we can easily prove the ex25 The first tensor product is taken over ·_ and the second one over ·.
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istence of a square root. So, in the following, we shall refer to “the” square U root ¢ÃÃ of U. The universal property implies that the quadratic map q is a bijection. So, U U we obtain the inverse bijection ¢:Ué¢ÃÃ:u´¢Ã. u Moreover, the universal property of the tensor product implies that there U U U is a unique linear isomorphism i:¢ÃÃÆ¢ÃÃéU , which yields i©∂ = q, where U U U ∂:¢ÃÃé¢ÃÃÆ¢ÃÃ is the canonical map. In an analogous way, for every natural number q, we can define the qroot 1/q of U. U Therefore, for every pair of natural numbers p and q, we write Up/q ˆ U1/qÆ … ÆU1/q U U0 ˆ · U p/q ˆ U*1/qÆ … ÆU*1/q. U p times p times If V is an oriented 1dimensional vector space, then we set ¢ÃÃ ˆ ÊÕ. V V_ In particular, if W is an oriented ndimensional vector space, then we obtain the square root positive semivector space ÊÓÕ . ô nW The above algebraic constructions on positive semivector spaces can be easily extended to bundles. So, a semivector bundle and a positive semivector bundle can be deF B fined analogously to a vector bundle. Moreover, if p:F éB is a 1dimensional oriented vector bundle, then we obtain in a natural way the positive semivector bundle p:¢ÃÃéB and the canonical fibred isomorphism ¢ÃÃÆ¢ÃÃ ≠ F _ F B FB F over B. We observe that these constructions lead naturally to a generalisation of the halfdensities due to de Rham (see [dR]).
III.2. Tangent prolongation of fibred manifolds
In this section we recall a few basic notions on the tangent prolongation of fibred manifolds. For further details, the reader could refer to [CCKM], [ MM1], [MM2], [Mo2].
III.2.1 Tangent prolongation of manifolds We start by considering just simple manifolds. We denote the tangent functor from the category of manifolds to the cat
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MN and if f$M(M,N), then we have the linear fibred morphism over f M N Tf:TMéTN, or, equivalently, the section N df : M é T*MMÆNTN : x ´ Txf. ˚N We set M M M T(M) ˆ S(TMéM) M M T*(M) ˆ S(T*MéM).
egory of vector bundles by T. So, if M is a manifold, then we have the vector bundle M M πM:TM éM
M We denote the induced linear fibred charts of TM and T*M by î (x¬, x¬) î (x¬, x¬) M M and the induced bases of T(M) and T*(M) by (Ù¬) ˆ (Ùx¬) (d¬) ˆ (dx¬).
Then, we obtain the coordinate expressions (yi, yi)©Tf = (fi, Ù¬fi x¬) î î df = Ù¬fi d¬æ(Ùi©f). M If c:·éM is a local map, then we set M dc : · é TM : ¬ ´ Tc(¬,1). M N M M If c:·˚M éN is a map defined in a neighbourhood of {0}˚M ç ·˚M , then we set N Ùc : M é TN : x ´ d(cx)(0).
III.2.1 Tangent prolongation of fibred manifolds Next, we consider fibred manifolds. F B Let p:FéB be a fibred manifold. We have the vector bundle
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F B Tp:TFéTB. F B F B If p:FéB is a bundle, then also Tp:TFéTB is a bundle. F The induced fibred chart of TF is (x¬, yi, x¬, yi). î î F A vector field X$T(F) is said to be projectable if it projects over a vector B field X$T(B ). The coordinate expression of a projectable vector field is of the type B F X = Xµ Ùµ _ Xi Ùi Xµ$F(B), Xi$F(F). The projectable vector fields constitute the subsheaf F F P(F) ç T(F).
and the fibred manifold
F F πF:TF éF
We denote the vertical functor from the category of fibred manifolds to the category of vector bundles by V. F B So, if p:FéB is a fibred manifold, then we have the vertical subbundle over F F F VF ˆ kerFTp ç TF, and the exact sequence of vector bundles over F 0 ä äF B T V B T. ä F 0 ä
F The induced fibred chart of VF is (x¬, yi, yi). î F A vector field X$T(F ) is said to be vertical if it is vertical valued, i.e. if B it projects over a zero vector field X$T(B ). The coordinate expression of a vertical vector field is of the type F X = Xi Ùi Xi$F(F). The vertical vector fields constitute the subsheaf
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F F F V(F) ç P(F) ç T(F). F B If p:F éB is a vector bundle, then the tangent prolongation of the distinguished section and fibred morphisms B F F ˚B F F F F T0:TBéTF T_:TFTBTFéTF T÷:·˚TFéTF F B Tp:TFéTB
makes
a vector bundle. F B If p:F éB is an affine bundle associated with the vector bundle, ã:Ã éB , pF B then the tangent prolongation of the distinguished fibred morphism F ˚B F F T_:TFTBTÃ éTF
makes
F B Tp:TFéTB an affine bundle associated with the vector bundle Tã:TÃ éTB . p F B The tangent prolongation of other algebraic structures on bundles can be obtained in this way. For instance, the complex structure can be prolonged by considering the linear endomorphism T˘, which fulfills (T˘)2 = 1. In fact, the algebraic constructions of previous sections concerning positive semivector spaces and positive spaces can be easily extended in a smooth way to any vector bundle (see [CCKM]). The tangent prolongation and the related differential operators extend to semivector and positive bundles in a natural way. Here, we add a few observations, which are useful for a clear understanding of our procedures. U U The tangent space of a positive space U turns out to be TU = U˚(·æU). B Hence, the vertical bundle of a positive bundle U éB turns out to be the U B U vector bundle VU = U˚(·æU). The differential operations such as exterior differential, covariant differential, Lie derivative and so on, commute with the tensor product with a
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vector space or a positive semivector space. So, in our differential calculus, we extend the standard notation, such as d, ı, LX and so on, to the corresponding operators acting on the appropriate objects tensorialised with a scale factor.
III.3. Jet prolongation of fibred manifolds
In this section we recall a few basic notions on the tangent prolongation of fibred manifolds. For further details, the reader could refer to [CCKM], [ MM1], [MM2], [Mo2]. F B Let p:FéB be a fibred manifold. The kjet space is defined to be the fibred manifold pk : JkF ˆ ø Jk xF é B, B x$B Jk xF ˆ {[s]k x}s$S(F) F
where
for all multiindices of length between 0 and k å ˆ (å1, … , åm)
is the set of equivalence classes of sections whose partial derivatives at x coincide up to order k, in any chart, according to the formula s kx s' – ∞ Ùåsi(x) = Ùås'i(x), 0 ≤ ¡å¡ ˆ å1 _ … _ åm ≤ k.
F If s:S(F), then we obtain the section jks : B é JkF : x ´ [s]k x. F Jk
k ph
We have the following natural fibred epimorphisms ää F
1 1 p0
J
Accordingly, we obtain the following sequence of natural linear fibred monomorphisms over JkF V
k  1
ä p B. ˆ J0 F J äF
J
k
F ‹k V
 2
J
k
F ‹ … V0 J
k
F ‹V
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where VhJkF , 0≤h≤k1, and VJkF denote the vertical bundles of the fibrings B JkFéJhF and JkFéB, respectively. Moreover, the fibring JkFéJk1F turns out to be naturally an affine bundle associated with the pullback over Jk1F of the vector bundle E SkT*BÆVE ,
E
where Sk denotes the symmetrised tensor product. F B G B Let p:F éB and q:G éB be fibred manifolds over the same base space and F G f:FéG a fibred morphism over B. F G There exists a unique fibred morphism over f:FéG Jkf:JkFéJkG, F which makes the following diagram commutative, for each section s$S(F), Jkf F Jk JkG ä jks Ü Ö jk(f©s) B Thus, Jk is a contravariant functor from the category of fibred manifolds over a given base space into itself. There is a unique fibred monomorphism over F d :J F ˚TB éTJ F , k k B B k1 F which makes commutative the following diagram for each section s$S(F), B
d
k J kF ˚T TJk1F ä B (jks)Ÿ Ü Ö Tjk1s B TB Moreover, dk is a linear fibred monomorphism over JkFéJk1F, projectable
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B B over 1B:TBéTB and a fibred monomorphism over Jk1F ˚TB . B B Hence, in virtue of the rank theorem, JkFéJk1F turns out to be an affine subbundle over Jk1F of the affine bundle associated with the vector subbundle F SkT*BJ ÆFVF é T*B J ÆF VJk1F .
k1 k1
J1Jk1FéJk1F
Furthermore, we obtain the complementary surjective linear fibred morphism over JkFéJk1F ªk:JkF J ˚ F TJk1FéVJk1F .
k1
Thus, dk and ªk yield a splitting over JkF of the exact sequence 0 ä k

B Additionally, there is a natural fibred morphism over JkF˚JkTBéJkF˚TB B B B F F which yields the prolongation of a vector field X:FéTF into the vector field rk©JkX:JkFéTJkF. F B If f$F(Jk1F), then we can write, for each s$S(FéB), d(f©jk1s) = (dk.f)©jk1f : B é T*B. We denote the induced fibred chart of JkF by Then, we obtain the coordinate expressions ¬ ¬ ¬ i å i i µ d ˆ d æd = d æ(Ù _ y k k¬ ¬ å_¬ Ùi )0≤¡å¡≤k1 = d æ(Ù¬ _ y¬ Ùi _ y¬µ Ùi _ …)1≤¬≤µ≤m, … (x¬, yåi)0≤¡å¡≤k = (x¬, yi, y¬i, y¬µ, … )1≤¬≤µ≤…≤m, … . F rk:JkTFéTJkF,
V J F k äJ 1  T
k1F ˚T 1 B
F J
B ä
.ä 0
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ªk ˆ ªk åæÙiå = (di  y¬i d¬)æÙi _ (dµi  y¬µi d¬)æÙiµ _ …. (x¬, yåi)©jks = (x¬, yi, y¬i, y¬µi, …)©jks = (x¬, Ùåsi) = (x¬, si, Ù¬si, Ù¬µsi, …) (x¬, zi, z¬i, … )©Jkf = (x¬, fi, Ù¬fi _ y¬h Ùhfi, … ) = (x¬, fi, d¬.fi, … ). F B If p:F éB is a vector bundle, then the kjet prolongation of the distinguished section and fibred morphisms B Jk0:BéJkF Jk_:JkF˚JkFéJkF Jk÷:·˚JkFéJkF B makes B pk:JkF éB
a vector bundle.
makes
F B If p:F éB is an affine bundle associated with the vector bundle, ã:Ã éB , pF B then the kjet prolongation of the distinguished fibred morphism Jk_:JkF˚JkFéJkF B Ã B pk:JkF éB
an affine bundle associated with the vector bundle pk:JkF éB . Ã B The kjet prolongation of other algebraic structures on bundles can be obtained in this way. For instance, the complex structure can be prolonged by considering the linear endomorphism Jk˘, which fulfills (Jk˘)2 = 1.
III.4. Tangent valued forms
In this section we recall a few basic notions on the graded Lie algebra of
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tangent valued forms. For further details, the reader could refer to [ MM]. First, let us consider just a manifold, M. A tangent valued form of M is defined to be a section M M ƒ:MéLT*MÆTM . M M ƒ¬1…¬rµ$F(M).
In particular, the vector fields are tangent valued forms of degree 0. The Lie bracket of vector fields can be naturally extended to a graded Lie bracket of tangent valued forms, which is called the FrölicherNijenhuis bracket . Namely, there is a unique sheaf morphism r s r_s M M M M M M [,] : LT*(M) Æ T(M ) ˚ LT*(M) Æ T(M ) é L T*(M ) Æ T(M ) which on decomposable forms is given by [åæu, ∫æv] = å◊∫æ[u, v] _
M F(M ) M F(M ) M F(M )
We have the coordinate expression ƒ = ƒ¬1…¬rµ d¬1◊…◊d¬ræÙµ
We have the coordinate expression [ƒ, ¥] = (ƒ®¬1…¬r Ù®¥µ¬r_1…¬r_s  (1)rs ¥®¬1…¬s Ù®ƒµ¬s_1…¬r_s _
_å◊Lu∫æv  (1)¡å¡¡∫¡∫◊Lvåæu _ (1)rivå◊d∫æu  (1)¡å¡¡∫¡_¡∫¡ iu∫◊dåæv.
M M M Thus, LT*(M )FÆ )T (M ), together with the FN bracket, is a sheaf of (M graded Lie algebras, namely we have [ƒ _ ƒ', ¥] = [ƒ, ¥] _ [ƒ', ¥] [ƒ, ¥ _ ¥'] = [ƒ, ¥] _ [ƒ, ¥'] [k ƒ, ¥] = k [ƒ, ¥] = [ƒ, k ¥] [ƒ, ¥] =  (1)¡ƒ¡¡¥¡ [¥, ƒ]
 r ƒµ¬1…¬r1® Ù¬r¥®¬r_1…¬r_s _ (1)rs s ¥µ¬1…¬s1® Ù¬sƒ®¬s_1…¬r_s)÷d¬1◊…◊d¬r_sæÙµ.
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[ª, [ƒ, ¥]] = [[ª, ƒ], ¥] _ (1)¡ª¡¡ƒ¡ [ƒ, [ª, ¥]] M Æ M ƒ, ¥, ª$LT*(M)F(M)T(M ); k$·. M F B Now, let us replace the manifold M with the fibred manifold p:F éB and consider the sheaf of tangent valued forms of F F F F LT*(F ) Æ T (F ). F(F ) A tangent valued form F F ƒ:FéLT*BÆTF , F
is said to be projectable if it projects over a tangent valued form of B B B ƒ:BéLT*BÆTB . B The projectable tangent valued forms constitute the subsheaf B B F B B F LT*(B ) Æ P(F ) ç LT*(B ) Æ T(F ). F(B) F(B )
with
Their coordinate expression is of the type ƒ = (ƒ¬1…¬rµ Ùµ _ ƒ¬1…¬ri Ùi^æd¬1◊…◊d¬r B ƒ¬1…¬rµ $ F(B) F ƒ¬1…¬ri $ F(F).
which project over the zero tangent valued form of B B ƒ = 0 : B é LT*BÆTB . B
As a special case, we have the vertical valued forms F F ƒ:FéLT*BÆVF , F
The vertical valued forms constitute the subsheaf B B F B B F LT*(B ) Æ V(F ) ç LT*(B ) Æ P(F ). F(B) F(B )
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The projectable tangent valued forms constitute a subalgebra of the algebra of tangent valued forms. Moreover, we have B B F = á [ƒ,¥] [ƒ , ¥ ] ƒ, ¥$LT*(B)FÆ )P(F ). (B F B Let p:FéB be a vector bundle. A projectable tangent valued form F F ƒ:FéLT*BÆTF F
Their coordinate expression is of the type ƒ = ƒ¬1…¬ri Ùiæd¬1◊…◊d¬r.
is said to be linear if it is a linear fibred morphism over ƒ. The coordinate expression of a linear projectable tangent valued form is of the type ƒ = (ƒ¬1…¬rµ Ùµ _ ƒ¬1…¬rij yj Ùi^æd¬1◊…◊d¬r with B ƒ¬1…¬rµ, ƒ¬1…¬rij $ F(B).
The linear projectable tangent valued forms constitute a subalgebra of the algebra of projectable tangent valued forms. F B Let p:FéB be an affine bundle. A projectable tangent valued form F F ƒ:FéLT*BÆTF F
is said to be affine if it is an affine fibred morphism over ƒ. The coordinate expression of an affine projectable tangent valued form is of the type ƒ = ⁄ƒ¬1…¬rµ Ùµ _ (ƒ¬1…¬rij yj _ ƒ¬1…¬ri©) Ùi^æd¬1◊…◊d¬r with B ƒ¬1…¬rµ, ƒ¬1…¬rij, ƒ¬1…¬ri© $ F(B).
The affine projectable tangent valued forms constitute a subalgebra of the
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algebra of projectable tangent valued forms.
III.5. General connections
In this section we recall a few basic notions on general connections. For further details, the reader can refer to [ MM]. F B Let p:FéB be a fibred manifold. A connection is defined to be a section F c:FéJ1F, F F c:FéT*BÆTF , F B B cˆ1B:BéT*BÆTB , B
i.e. a tangent valued 1form which projects onto
which projects onto
i.e. a linear fibred morphism over F FF B F c:F˚TB éTF ,
i.e.
Its coordinate expression is of the type (x¬, yi, y¬i)©c = (x¬, yi, c¬i), c = d¬æ(Ù¬ _ c¬iæÙi) F c¬i$F(F).
B B cˆ1B:TBéTB.
with coordinate expressions
A connection c yields the linear fibred epimorphism over F F F ~c:TFéVF, ~c = (di  c¬i d¬)æÙi,
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with coordinate expression
and the translation fibred isomorphism over F F ıc :J1FéT*BÆVF , F ıc = (y¬i  c¬i) d¬æÙi.
The maps ~c and ıc characterise the connection c itself. F The covariant differential of a section s$S(F) is defined to be the section F ıcs ˆ ıc©j1s : B é T*BÆVF , F
with coordinate expression ıcs = (Ù¬si  c¬i©s) d¬æ(Ùi©s).
F F F The covariant differential of a tangent valued form ƒ$LT*(F)FÆ )T (F ) is (F defined to be the tangent valued form r_1 F dcƒ ˆ [c,ƒ] : Fé L T*F ÆTF . In particular, if ƒ is projectable, then its covariant differential turns out to be vertical valued r_1 F dcƒ ˆ [c,ƒ] : Fé L T*B ÆVF and its coordinate expression is dcƒ = ( Ù¬1ƒ¬2…¬r_1µ cµi  Ùµc¬1i ƒ¬2…¬r_1µ _ _ Ù¬1ƒ¬2…¬r_1i _ c¬1j Ùjƒ¬2…¬r_1i  Ùjc¬1i ƒ¬2…¬r_1j) d¬1◊…◊d¬r_1æÙi . F F F For each ƒ,¥$LT*(F)FÆ)T(F), we have the following properties (F dc(ƒ _ ¥) = dcƒ _ dc¥ dc[ƒ, ¥] = [dcƒ, ¥] _ (1)¡ƒ¡ [ƒ, dc¥]
r F F
r
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and, if ƒ is a projectable vector field ⁄dc(ƒ)^(u) = [c(u), ƒ]  c([u,ƒ]),
dc(∑◊ƒ) = d∑◊~c(ƒ) _ (1)¡∑¡ ∑◊dcƒ
B ∑$T*(B) B Åu$T(B).
The curvature of c is defined to be the vertical valued 2form 2 F Rc ˆ 1 dcc : F é LT*BÆVF , 2 with coordinate expression Rc = (Ù¬cµi _ c¬j Ùjcµi) d¬◊dµæÙi .
F
We have the Bianchi identity In particular, we obtain in virtue of Moreover, if
The curvature is characterised by the following property 2 Rc(X,Y) = [c(X),c(Y)]  c([X,Y]) dc2ƒ = [Rc,ƒ] dcRc = 0, [c,Rc] = dcRc ˆ 1 dc2c = 1 [Rc,c]. 2 2 F ƒ ˆ c(ƒ) : B é LT*BÆTF F
B X,Y$T(B).
F F F ƒ$LT*(F)FÆ )T (F ). (F
is a horizontal tangent valued form, then we obtain the formula26 dcƒ =  Rc◊ƒ, with coordinate expression
26 Here ◊ denotes the exterior product combined with an interior product.
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F F Given a section ß:FéT*BÆVF, the torsion of c is defined to be the 2form F We have the Bianchi identity F †c ˆ dcß : F é LT*BÆVF . F dc†c = [Rc, ß]. B Let FéB be a vector bundle. A connection c is said to be linear if, as a fiF bred morphism c:FéJ1F over B, it is linear. A connection is linear if and only if, in a linear fibred chart, its coordinate expression is of the following type B c¬ij$F(B). c¬i = c¬ij yj
2
dcƒ =  2 Rc µ¬1i ƒ¬2…¬r_1µ Ùiæd¬1◊…◊d¬r_1.
The covariant differential of a linear projectable tangent valued form with respect to a linear connection turns out to be a linear vertical valued form. B Let F éB be an affine bundle. A connection c is said to be affine if, as a F fibred morphism c:FéJ1F over B , it is affine. A connection is affine if and only if, in an affine fibred chart, its coordinate expression is of the following type B c¬ij, c¬i©$F(B). c¬i = c¬ij yj _ c¬i© The covariant differential of an affine projectable tangent valued form with respect to an affine connection turns out to be an affine vertical valued form. Connections adapted to other algebraic structures on bundles can be obtained in a similar way. For instance, a complex connection can be defined as F a real linear fibred morphism c:FéJ1F over B, which makes the following diagram commute
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F ˘ï F
c JF ä 1 ï J1˘ c J1F ä
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IV  INDEXES
IV.1  Main symbols
Tangent and jet functors M M πM:TM éM tangent bundle of the manifold M M N M N Tf:TMéTN tangent prolongation of the map f:MéN M M df:M éT*M differential of the function f:Mé· M M M df:M éTM differential of the curve f:·éM X.f ˆ Çdf,X¶ + Xœdf action of the vector field X on the function f E E E B vertical bundle of the fibred manifold p:EéB πE:VE éE E F E F Vf:VEéVF vertical prolongation of the fibred morphism f:EéF over B B E B pk:JkEéB kjet fibred manifold of the sections of the fibred manifold p:EéB bundle projection between jet spaces, with 0≤h<k pkh:JkEéJhE B B E jks:BéJ1E kjet prolongation of the section s:BéE E F Jkf:JkEéJkF kjet prolongation of the fibred morphism f:EéF over B d :J E ˚TB éTJ E contact fibred morphism of order 1≤k k k B B k1 ªk:JkE˚TJk1EéVJk1E contact fibred morphism of order 1≤k B E rk:JkTEéTJkE exchange fibred morphism between jet and tangent functors
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Sheaves MN M N M(M,N) ˆ {f:MéN} sheaf of local maps between the manifolds M and N M M F(M) ˆ {f:Mé·} sheaf of local functions of the manifold M F F B B F B S(F) + S(FéB) ˆ {s:BéF} sheaf of local sections of the fibred manifold FéB M M M T(M) ˆ {X:MéTM} sheaf of local vector fields of the manifold M M M T*(M) ˆ {ƒ:MéT*M} sheaf of local 1forms of the manifold M FG F G sheaf of local fibred morphisms over B FB(F,G) ˆ {f:FéG} F(J1E) ˆ {f:J1Eé·} sheaf of local functions of J1E T(J1E) ˆ {X:J1EéTJ1E} sheaf of local vector fields of J1E sheaf of local 1forms of J1E T*(J1E) ˆ {ƒ:J1EéT*J1E} T†(J1E) ç T(J1E) subsheaf of local vector fields with time component † subsheaf of local forms which vanish on ˙ T*(J1E) ç T*(J1E) ˙ E Ft(J1E) ç F(J1E) subsheaf of tubelike functions with respect to J1E éE Q(J1E) ç Ft(J1E) subsheaf of quantisable functions Qc(J1E) ç Q(J1E) subsheaf of q. f. with constant timecomponent Q0(J1E) ç Qc(J1E) subsheaf of q. f. with vanishing timecomponent T Qt(J1E) ç Q(J1E)subsheaf of q. f., which are tubelike with respect to J1EéT Qtc(J1E) ç Qc(J1E) subsheaf of q. f. with constant timecomponent Qt0(J1E) ç Q0(J1E) subsheaf of q. f. with vanishing timecomponent Q Q Q(QŸ) ç T(QŸ) subsheaf of upper quantum vector fields Q Q subsheaf of upper q. v. f. with timecomponent † Q†(QŸ) ç Q(QŸ) Q Q Q(Q) ç T(Q) subsheaf of quantum vector fields Q Q subsheaf of q. v. f. with constant timecomponent Qc(Q) ç Q(Q) Q Q Q0(Q) ç Qc(Q) subsheaf of q. v. f. with vanishing timecomponent Q sheaf of quantum Lie operators L(Q∆) Q L(SQ∆) sheaf of quantum operators
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Q Q Qc(SQ∆) ç Q(SQ∆) subsheaf of quantum operators corresponding to Qc(J1E) Q Q Q0(SQ∆) ç Qc(SQ∆) subsheaf of quantum operators corresponding to Q0(J1E) F E B F St€(FéEéB) sheaf of tubesections EéF (nonsmooth with respect to B) F E B F St(FéEéB) sheaf of smooth tubesections EéF A B A S€(AéB) sheaf of (nonsmooth) local sections BéA
T A M Q ˆ T*ÆA3/4ÆM1/2
Units of measurement
vector space associated with the affine space T 1dimensional positive semispace of area units 1dimensional positive semivector space of masses 1dimensional vector space of charges time unit of measurement mass charge charge (related to u0) Plank constant Plank constant (related to u0) gravitational coupling constant classical spacetime fibred over time first jet space of the spacetime fibred manifold tangent bundle of the spacetime manifold vertical bundle of the spacetime fibred manifold spacetime 1form contact tangent valued form contact vertical valued form
u0$T_, u0$T_* m$M q$Q q ˆ q(u0) $ A3/4ÆM1/2 h $ T_*ÆAÆM h ˆ h(u0) $ AÆM 2 3/2 k $ T* ÆA ÆM*
Spacetime E T t:E éT E T J1E éE éT E E πE:TE éE E E πE:VE éE E dt:EéTÆT*E E d:J E éT*ÆTE 1 E ª:J1EéT*EÆVE
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T E s:T éE T j1s:TéJ1E E o:EéJ1E (u0, o) E g:EéAÆV*EÆV*E E E E gE ã :EéA*ÆVEÆVE
4
classical motion velocity of the classical motion observer frame of reference vertical metric contravariant scaled vertical metric spacetime volume form spacelike volume form spacetime halfdensity spacelike halfdensity E E spacetime connection on the bundle TEéE E spacetime connection on the bundle J1E éE vertical valued form associated with Í T connection on the fibred manifold J1E éT contact 2form 2form associated with an observer gravitational connection electromagnetic field total contact 2form total spacetime connection
E ∆:EéA3/2ÆLV*E 4 ¢Ã :EéT1/2ÆA3/4ÆÊLT*E ¨E 3 ¢Ã :EéA3/4ÆÊLV*E ∆E
E 4 E ¨:Eé(TÆA3/2)ÆLT*E
E ~Í:J1EéT*ÆT*J1E JÆ VE E
1
Spacetime connection E K:TEéT*ETETTE Æ E E Í:J1EéT*E Æ TJ1E
J1E
2 E È:Eé(T*ÆA)ÆLT*E ÍŸ:J1EéT*EJÆ TJ1E E
1
˙:J1EéT*ÆTJ1E 2 Ò:J1Eé(T*ÆA)ÆLT*J1E
Total objects 2 E F:EéBÆLT*E q Ò ˆ ÒŸ _ Òe ˆ ÒŸ _ 1 m F 2 Í = ÍŸ _ Íe
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˙ = ˙Ÿ _ ˙e E ˙e:J1EéT*Æ(T*ÆVE) E Íe:J1EéT*EÆ(T*ÆVE) E E a:Eé(T*ÆA)ÆT*E e t ˆ tŸ _ t r = rŸ _ rŸe _ re T E ı˙j1s:TéT*ÆT*ÆVE
total second order spacetime connection Lorentz force electromagnetic soldering form potential of È total energy tensor total Ricci tensor covariant differential of the velocity classical kinetic energy (related to u0) classical Hamiltonian (related to u0) classical Lagrangian (related to u0) classical momentum (related to u0) quantum bundle Hermitian product quantum section local expression of a quantum section space of spacetime quantum halfdensities space of spacelike quantum densities spacetime quantum halfdensity spacelike quantum halfdensity Liouville vertical vector field pullback of the quantum bundle quantum connection
Classical kinematical functions G:J1EéAÆMÆ· H:J1EéAÆMÆ· L:J1EéAÆMÆ· p:J1EéAÆM ÆV*E Quantum bundle Q E π:Q éE QE h:Q ˚Q éÛ E Q „:E éQ „=¥b 4 Q Q¨ ˆ T1/2ÆA3/4Æ(QÆÊLT*E) E
3
Q∆ ˆ A3/4Æ(QÆÊLV*E) QE ¨ „¨ ˆ „æ¢Ã „∆ ˆ „æ¢Ã ∆ Q E i : Q é VQ = Q ˚Q QŸ ˆ J1E˚Q é J1E E Q c:Q ŸéT*J E Æ TQ Ÿ 1 JE Q
1
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Rc = i m Òæi curvature of the quantum connection h ı„ covariant differential of a quantum section ê E ı#„:J1EéA*ÆVEÆQ spacelike covariant differential of a quantum section E ô Q timelike covariant differential of a quantum section ı„:J1EéT*ÆQ
Quantum dynamics 4 E L„:EéA3/2ÆLT*E 4 L:J1QéA3/2ÆLT*E
3 E
quantum Lagrangian along a quantum section quantum Lagrangian quantum momentum quantum momentum quantum momentum EulerLagrange form EulerLagrange fibred morphism Schrödinger equation probability current
VQL :J1QéA3/2ÆLT*EÆQ * E E p:J1QéT*ÆTEÆQ ∏:J1QéLT*Q
4 5
E:J2QéA3/2ÆLT*Q ê Q *E#:J2Q é T*ÆQ ê *E#©j2„ = 0 3 E j„:EéA3/2ÆLT*E
Quantum operators Ò† T†(J1E)é T*(J1E) @: Hamiltonian isomorphism ˙ F(J1E)éT†(J1E):f´f# Hamiltonian lift † {f',f"} Poisson bracket [f', f"] Lie bracket of quantisable functions Hamiltonian lift of the function f$F(J1E) f#:J1EéTJ1E † E E Hamiltonian lift of the quantisable function f$Q(J1E) fH:E éTE Q Q XŸ:QŸéTQŸ upper quantum vector field Q upper q. v. f. associated with f and † XŸf,†:QŸéTQŸ †Q
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Q Q Xf:QéTQ [Xf', Xf"] B F X.s:B éF Yf ˆ i Xf. [Yf', Yf"]
q. v. f. associated with the quantisable function f$Q(J1E) Lie bracket of quantum vector fields Lie derivative of the section s with respect to the vector field X quantum Lie operator associated with the quantisable function f bracket of quantum Lie operators
Quantum system p B F qE ä ä double fibred manifold F B E B (ß:SFéB, ™) system of the double fibred manifold FéEéB FB F evaluation fibred morphism ™:SF˚E éF â B F E F „:B éSF section associated with „:EéF F F TSF tangent space of the set SF â B F E F T„:TBéTSF section associated with T„:TEéTF â F F F B k:SFéT*BÆTSF connection on the fibred set SFéB E F k(„):TEéTF fibred morphism associated with k and „ E kµa(„):Eé· components of the connection k â â F covariant differential of „ with respect to k ık„:BéT*BÆVSF â B Q T system of spacelike quantum halfdensities (ß:SQ∆éT, ™) â h : ScQ∆B ScQ∆ é A3/2ÆÛ ˚ Hermitian product Q T Hilbert quantum bundle HQ∆éT Q Q S:S(Q)éS(T*ÆQ) Schrödinger operator Q Q S∆:S(Q∆)éS(T*ÆQ∆) Schrödinger operator â Q Q k:SQ∆éT*ÆTSQ∆ Schrödinger connection â Q Q Q Q Yf:SQ∆éSQ∆SQ∆éSQ∆ operator associated with the q. f. f$Q(J1E) â Q Q quantum operator associated with the q. f. f$Q(J1E) Úf:SQ∆éSQ∆
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Coordinates (x0,yi) (x0,yi,x0,yi) î î i (x0,yi,y0) i î î îi (x0,yi,y0,x0,yi,y0) (Ù0,Ùi) (Ù0,Ùi,Ùî ,Ùîi) 0 (Ù0,Ùi,Ù0) i (d0,di) (d0,di,d0,diî) î
i (d0,di,d0)
d
fibred chart of E E fibred chart of TE fibred chart of J1E fibred chart of TJ1E E local base of TE E local base of TTE local base of J1E local base of T*E E local base of T*TE local base of T*J1E component of the contact form component of the contact form components of the spacetime connection Í components of the spacetime connection K components of the connection ˙ components of the quantum connection components of the quantum connection components of the quantum connection
i 0 ˆ Ù0 _ y0 Ùi i ªi ˆ di  y0 d0 h Í È i ˆ Í È i h y 0 _ ÍÈ i © î î KÈi ˆ KÈih yh _ KÈi0 x0 h k h ˙i ˆ Íhik y0 y0 _ 2 Íhi© y0 _ Í0i© c =  H/h 0
c
j = pj/h 0 c =0 j
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IV.2  Analytic index
(absolute) acceleration: § I.2.6 (absolute) motion: § I.1.1 (absolute) velocity: § I.1.1 absolute time: § I.1.1 absolute time function: § I.1.1 adapted chart: § I.1.1 background connection: § I.6.1 charge: § I.3.1 charge density: § I.4.5 classical constant of motion: § I.5.1 classical total objects: § I.3.2 classical total energy tensor: § I.4.5 classical functions quantistically gauged: § II.1.4 classical Lagrangian function: § I.5.2 classical Hamiltonian function: § I.5.2 classical momentum form: § I.5.2 codifferential: § I.2.4 connection on a system: § II.5.3 connection of order k on a system: § II.5.3 contact 2form: § I.2.5 contact structure of jets: § I.1.1 Einstein equation: § I.4.7 electric field: § I.3.1 electromagnetic field: § I.3.1 electromagnetic soldering form: § I.3.2 Feynmann amplitude: § II.6.5 fibred set: § II.5.1 first field equation: § I.4.1 frame of reference: § I.1.1 generalised Newton law of motion: § I.5.1 generalised Schrödinger equation: § II.2.3 gravitational connection: § I.3.1 gravitational coupling constant: § I.1.3 Hamiltonian lift: § II.3.1 Hermitian connection: § II.1.3
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Hermitian vector field: § II.3.2 Hilbert quantum bundle: § II.6.1 inertial observer: § I.2.2 kinetic energy function: § I.5.2 Lie operator: § II.4.1 linear connection on a system: § II.5.3 Liouville vector fields: § II.1.1 Lorentz force: § I.3.2 mass: § I.3.1 mass density: § I.4.5 metrical spacetime connection: § I.2.3 momentum density: § I.4.5 multiobjects: § I.7.1 Newton law of gravitation: § I.6.2 Newtonian chart: § I.6.2 Newtonian connection: § I.6.2 Newtonian observer: § I.6.2 observed velocity: § I.1.1 observer: § I.1.1 Planck constant: § II.1.4 Poisson Lie bracket: § II.3.1 positive semivector bundle: § III.1.3 positive semivector space: § III.1.3 preHilbert quantum bundle: § II.6.1 prequantum system: § II.6.1 projectability criterion: § II.1.6 quantisable functions: § II.3.1 quantum bundle: § II.1.1 quantum connection: § II.1.4 quantum covariant differential: § II.1.5 quantum gauge: § II.1.1 quantum Lagrangian: § II.2.1 quantum Laplacian: § II.1.5 quantum Lie operator: § II.4.2 quantum momentum: § II.2.2 quantum observed covariant differential: § II.1.5 quantum observed Laplacian: § II.1.5 quantum observed spacelike differential: § II.1.5
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quantum observed timelike differential: § II.1.5 quantum operator: § II.6.3 quantum probability current: § II.2.4 quantum vector field: § II.3.2 Schrödinger operator: § II.2.3 second field equation: § I.4.5 second order connection: § I.2.5 semivector bundle: § III.1.3 semivector space: § III.1.3 smooth space in the sense of Frölicher: § II.5.1 space of charges: § I.3.1 space of masses: § I.3.1 spacelike volume form: § I.1.2 spacelike quantum covariant differentials: § II.1.5 spacelike halfdensities quantum bundle: § II.1.2 spacetime: § I.1.1 spacetime volume form: § I.1.2 spacetime connection: § I.2.1 spacetime halfdensities quantum bundle: § II.1.2 special spacetime: § I.6.3 special relativistic Galilei case: § I.6.3 system: § II.5.1 system of connections: § II.1.3 tangent prolongation of a section: § II.5.2 tangent space of a system: § II.5.2 time component of a quantisable function: § II.3.1 time unit of measurement: § I.1.1 timelike quantum covariant differential: § II.1.5 universal connection: § II.1.3 universal curvature: § II.1.3 upper quantum vector field: § II.3.2 vertical Riemannian metric: § I.1.2
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IV.3  References
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