Data Center UPS Batteries: The Final Frontier for Preventing Downtime Sean A.

Blaylock Director –Business Development

Sta ndards
IEEE 450 - Vented LeadAcid Maintenance & Testingn IEEE 484 - Vented LeadAcid Battery Installation IEEE 485 - Vented LeadAcid Battery Sizing IEEE 535 - Nuclear Battery Qualification IEEE 1106 - Ni-Cd Installation, Maintenance & Testing IEEE 1115 - Ni-Cd Battery Sizing IEEE 1184 - UPS Batteries IEEE 1187 - VRLA Installation IEEE 1188 - VRLA Maintenance & Testing IEEE 1189 - VRLA Battery Selection IEEE 1375 - Battery Protection IEEE 1491 - Battery Monitoring

Lead Acid Battery Basics Flooded and Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) technology

Primary Components of Lead‐Acid Batteries

• Positive Grid/Plate/Alloy • Negative Grid/Plate/Alloy • Electrolyte/Sulfuric Acid • Separator • Terminal Posts / Busbar Straps • Plastic Container & Cover

Stationary Flooded Batteries rated in  Watts Per Cell  (WPC) or Amp‐Hours (AH) .





Aluminum Cans: 55% .Recycling 97% of Battery Lead can be Reclaimed Compare to other materials: .Tires: 26% .Glass Bottles: 26% .Newspapers: 45% .

Technology Lead Acid Battery Basics Flooded and Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) technology .

Small VRLA Technology .

Small VRLA Technology .

Lar ge VRLA Technology .




Large VRLA 2 Volt Design Positive Grid: Lead Calcium-Tin-Silver Negative Grid: Lead Calcium .

Large VRLA 2 Volt Design Orange Colored: Positive Grey Colored: Negative .

.Large VRLA 2 Volt Design Plates are stacked and separated by Absorbant Glass Mat (AGM) material.

Large VRLA 2 Volt Design Each plate lug is welded to a lead “strap” – one strap for the positives and one for the negatives. .

Large VRLA 2 Volt Design Jar and Cover are welded and post seal made using industry leading HSPS technology. .



VRLA Reduced Footprint/ High Density Flooded Installation requires rack Modular stacking design for flexibility and ease of installation Acid spill containment system required Does not require special ventilation Requires special ventilation .

VRLA Requires no watering Flooded Water must be added to cells to maintain correct electrolyte level and specific gravity Internal reaction that limits hydrogen evolution to neglible amounts Increased sensitivity to temperature & charge voltage Hydrogen vented to atmosphere Water/Electrolyte acts as a large heat sink and can be replaced if lost by overcharging or temperature variance .

8 Maintain per IEEE Standards Purchase Install . Flooded 20 Year Life Cycle Cost 125 Vdc 1000 Ah / 115 kW UPS Battery Cost ($000's) $45 $40 $35 $30 $25 $20 $15 $10 $5 $0 41.3 26.Sealed vs.0 Flooded VRLA 24.5 1.0 28.4 4.

Stationary Battery Selection – Battery Type • Select Battery Type based on matrix of application factors: • Foot Print/Floor Loading • Maintenance • Initial Cost • Full Cost of Ownership • Discharge/Recharge Capability (Cycles) • Reliability • Anticipated Design Life • Environment (Temperature/HVAC requirements) .

Lead Acid Stationary Battery Comparison Large VRLA 2V Footprint Reliability Initial Cost Design Life Temperature Cycles Maintenance HVAC/Special Containment Better Better Good Better Better Best Better Better Small VRLA Monobloc Best Good Best Good Good Good Best Best Flooded Wet Cell Good Best Better Best Best Better-Calcium Best-Antimony Good Good .

Factors Limiting Life of Lead-Acid Batteries .

Life Limiting Factors • • • • • Voltage ! Temperature! or Temperature! Voltage! .

But SHORTENS LIFE • Lower Temperature Reduces Capacity.Temperature Effects • Effects Both Battery Performance and Life • Lead-Acid Battery Performs Best At 25oC (77oF) • Higher Temperature Increases Capacity. But Has Negligible Effect On Life • Effect On Life (vs Capacity) Is Much More Critical • Specify Temperature Compensation Option .

g. Battery with 10 year “design life” at 25C will only have 5 year design life at 35C .Temperature Effects On Life • Based on Arrhenius  Relationship 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 15 30 45 60 Temperature (C) Death Acceleration Factor 2 {(T‐25)/10} • Doubles for Each 10ºC  Rise Above 25ºC • Acceleration Rises  Severely Above 30ºC • Negligible Reduction  Below 25ºC e.

25 2.0 1.5 0.15 2.0 2.• Float Voltage Is Set To  Maintain Capacity and  Minimize Grid Corrosion • Overcharging Increases  Positive Grid Corrosion and  Reduces Life • Undercharging can Lead to  Plate Sulfation and Loss of  Capacity • Specify Temperature  Compensation Option for  battery charger to help  maintain proper voltage in  environ‐ ments with  seasonal temperatures. Charge Voltage and Battery Life Corrosion Rate 2.0 0.35 2.45 Float/"On-circuit" Voltage Volts Per Cell .5 1.

Battery Storage / Handling / Installation • Storage –Keep batteries clean and dry –Avoid storing batteries at very hot temperatures –Boost charge batteries when in storage for extended  periods (3 to 6 months) • Handling –Avoid damage to cell. terminals and container • Installation –Check electrical connections –Check cell voltages and charger output .

Example Of Improper Storage .

Stationary Battery Sizing Gather five key pieces of information Load profile  list/graph/table of loads battery must carry Run time: how long battery must operate during  outage Minimum system voltage (End voltage) Maximum system voltage (Number of cells) Correction factors Battery type required .

g. Amp-Hours (Watts Per Cell) performance is NON-linear with time. time 100 Discharge Rate (amps) 25 5 1 30 Time (minutes) 479 480 NOTE: Each manufacturer publishes specific and detailed performance curves/tables for each battery type. [e. battery delivering 50 amps at 4 hours (200 AH @ 4 hr rate) will NOTdeliver 100 amps at 2 hours (200 AH @ 2 hr rate] .Stationary Battery Sizing – Load Profile Provide Load Profile ‐‐ graph or table showing  the  discharge current vs.

Examples 1.P.C: Long duration (1‐12 hours)  1.Stationary Battery Sizing ‐‐ (End) Voltage END Voltage ‐‐ Dependent on discharge duration and  minimum voltage the load equipment can tolerate for normal  operation. Super Long duration (> 12 hours) v.p.75 V.C.c = volts per cell .P.C. Short duration (< 1 hour) 1.90 V.P.67 V.

 141 Volts/2. 105 Volts/1. Valve Regulated Lead Acid (VRLA) sealed batteries. Manufacturer will determine optimum amount of battery cells  required to meet application by: ‐ dividing minimum system voltage by end voltage per cell  (e. minimum.35 Volts Per Cell = 60 cells)  NOTE: Each manufacturer publishes specific and detailed ranges for proper float (normal operating) and charging voltages.g. There are different ranges for Flooded vs.g.Stationary Battery Sizing – Number of cells Specify nominal. . and maximum voltages of the load  to be supported.75 Volts Per Cell = 60 cells)  AND ‐ dividing maximum system voltage by charging voltage per  cell  (e.

25 typical Compensates for normal decrease in battery capacity  over time (typically 80% of name plate rating at end of life) Temperature ‐‐ see next page Compensation for decreased capacity at    temperatures below 77 ºF/25°C .10 to 1.20 typical Compensation for future or “missed” loads Aging Factor ‐‐ 1.Stationary Battery Sizing  – Correction Factors Correction Factors Design Margin ‐‐ 1.

064 Temperature 68 ºF 69 ºF 70 ºF 71 ºF 72 ºF 73 ºF 74 ºF 75 ºF 76 ºF 77 ºF Correction Factor 1.072 1.Stationary Battery Sizing  – Correction Factors Temperature Correction Factors .056 1.300 1.040 1.Compensation for decreased capacity at temperatures below 77 ºF/25°C (per IEEE 485) Temperature 25 ºF 30 ºF 35 ºF 40 ºF 45 ºF 50 ºF 55 ºF 60 ºF 65 ºF 66 ºF 67 ºF Correction Factor 1.000 Note: No need to correct for temperatures above 77F/25C due to increased capacity performance at higher temperatures .520 1.048 1.150 1.350 1.017 1.023 1.100 1.080 1.029 1.250 1.034 1.190 1.011 1.006 1.430 1.

F.67 VPC or 1.90) kVA = Kilo volt‐amperes (Always confirm these values with customer) .UPS Battery Sizing Obtain UPS Nameplate information Obtain System End Voltage (typically 1.85) Eff. = Efficiency (estimate 0. = Power Factor (estimate 0.75 VOLTS  PER CELL) Obtain battery back up (run time)  minutes Obtain Number of cells Obtain System Kilowatts (kW) = Kilowatt Battery (kWB)  kWB = (PF)(kVA) Eff P.

Stationary Battery Sizing  – Battery Type Select Battery Type based on matrix of application  factors: Foot Print/Floor Loading Maintenance Initial Cost Full Cost of Ownership Discharge/Recharge Capability (Cycles) Reliability Anticipated Design Life Environment (Temperature/HVAC requirements) .

Questions .

Sean A. Blaylock Director Business Development 3950 Sussex Ave Ph 630 862 2242 . IL 60504 sean.blaylock@exide.

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