DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY DR.P.D.K.V.

AKOLA

Ph.D. THESIS ABSTRACTS

DEPARTMENT OF PLANT PATHOLOGY, DR.P.D.K.V.AKOLA ABSTRACTS OF Ph.D THESIS

Title of the thesis: Seed borne fungi of sorghum and their control. (1989) Full name of student: Rajendra Nilkanth Deshmukh Advisor: Dr.J.G.Raut Seed samples of sorghum cultivars CSH -9 of Kharif 1986,87 and 88 produce were tested for fungi and results showed that fungi and their counts varied with the year of crop production. Among the eleven fungi detected C.lunata and F.moniliforme were most predominant. Frequent rains and high relative humidity between the seed setting and seed maturity were found to be favour to establishment of fungi more. Pretreatment of seed eliminated the saprophytic fungi but also reduced the count of C.lunata, F.moniliforme E.halodes, Phoma sorghina and Fusarium semitectum. Glumes and seeds both harboured various seed borne fungi and all the three stages of seed development i.e. milk , dough and physiological maturity. Among the seven fungi C.lunata and F. moniliforme were found to colonized ovary and glume or considerabl spikelets even prior to seed development. Histopathological study C.lunata infected seed showed precise distribution of the fungus in pericarp, seed coat aleorone layer endosperm and embryo. Protein , fats carbohydrates and ash contents decrease with increase discolouration of the seed. Culture filtrate of C.lunata , F.moniliforme and E.halodes were found toxic to seed and reduction in germination.one, two and three sprays of Thiram, Carbendazim, captan and dithan M 45 were not effective in minimizing seed borne fungi to desired level and in improving the seed germination to an economical level. Seed treated with Thiram, rovral,captan, rovral + Thiram, Thiram + Carbendazim, dithan M45 + Carbendazim, dithan Z78 + Carbendazim and rovral + Carbendazim @ 0.3% were most effective which eliminated the seed borne fungi to greatest extent and improve the germination by 29% over control. In treated seed germination was best upto seven months from treatment but there after showed decline in storage. Title of the thesis: Investigation on Ramularia areola causing dahiya or gray mildew of cotton in relation to physiological races , crop losses and control. (1989) Full name of student: Sitaram Kashiram Shivankar Advisor: Prof.P.D.Wangikar In the present investigation it was observed that R.areola cause severe infection on both surface of leaves of cotton and affected the buds and bolls. The infected leaves defoliated within 15 days after severe infection. The fungus grew well on modified Kirchhoff’s medium at 270C temperature and

80-100% humidity and pH ranging from 6.5 – 9.4. In nutritional studies sucrose as carbon, asparagin as nitrogen, potassium dihydrogen phosphate as phosphorous and potassium magnesium sluphate as magnesium source were found to be favourable for optimum growth and sporulation of fungus. It was further observed that heavy rainfall in the month of July and August, temperature ranging form 30 to 190C and humidity from 45 to 85% favours the disease incidence and further spread. Libration of spores was more at day time along with direction of wind current, the conidial viability was 20 days under natural field condition and up to 90 days freezing temperature. In the crop loss studies it was observed that there was heavy defoliation, reduction in the number of bolls and size of bolls due to severity of disease. Significant losses in yield of seed cotton and qualitative characters of seed cotton were recorded. In control measure studies, it was observed that all the fungicides were effective in controlling the disease, sulphur fungicide gave highest cost benefit ratio . Title of the thesis: Seed borne fungi of Pearl millet, their transmission and control. (1990) Full name of student: Rajesh Walmikrao Ingle Advisor: Dr. J.G. Raut Seed samples of pearl millet genotypes WCC-75, H-90-4/s, MBH-110, MBH157, MH-179, CMV-87901 and ICTP 8203 were collected from Akola, Amravati and Buldhana districts of Vidarbha from October harvested Kharif crop'of 1988 and 1989.Eight fungi viz. Alternaria tenuis, Crvularia lunata, Drechslera sacchari, D.tetramera. Exserohilum halodes, Fusarium moniliforme, F.semitectum and Phoma sp. showed association with seeds. Fungi and their counts varied with the genotype, location and year of production. Among fungi, .C.lunata was most predominant and showed association with 56.86% seeds (mean of samples of 7 8enotypes tested for two years) and was followed by D.halodes (11.89%) F.moniliforme(8.39%) and Phoma sp. (5.07). Samples of 1988 were more disco1coured because of more rains and rainy days during seed development stages and hence showed heavy association of fungi and poor germination. Comparatively seeds of different genotypes grown at Amravati carried fungi in low percent ages. Under natural field conditions, none of the genotype showed resistant reaction to grain moulds. Same genotype during same year but at different location reacted differently to infection of fungi. Pretreatment of seed with 0.1% HgC12 solution reduced infection counts important fungi like D.lunata, D.halodesa and F.moniliforme by almost 63%,79% and 70% respectively and improved germination by 11%. Antherlobes and corresponding seeds were tested at milk and dough stages of seed development. It was evident that antherlobes in considerable percentage carried fungi like C.lunata, A.tenuius, F.moniliforme, D.sacchari and E.halodes. Antherlobe corresponding seed however showed an50ciation or Fungi in high percentage. Removal of antherlobes qt milk stage decreased the percentage of infected seed by 7.5%.To know role of glume seeds and corresponding glumes were examined for fungal association at grain filling, milk, dough

coleoptile sheath and first true leaves whereas F.rovral + thiram (1: 1) and di thane M-45 + bavistin.sacchari and E. These fungi were further screened for cellulolsic producing ability and twenty promising cultures were selected for lignolytic activity . The inoculum potential of four promising . among the seven fungi.lunata. endosperm.e.halodes produced brown spots on the coleoptile. Among various fungicides. scutellum and embryo in the form of septate. seed coat. But 12 months after storage rovral + thiram and rovral + bavistin though reduced seed-borne fungi by 98% and 96%. C. spray of fungicide(s) at seed development stages failed to check the establishment of grain moulds and improve the seed germination to a desired level. Treating seeds with thiram. The fungi utilized and sporgulated well on filter paper were considered to be utilizing filter paper as sole carbon source. Chitomium globosum.and physiological maturity stages of seed development.halodes and F. C. E. peri carp . rachilla and glume but ovary showed least fungi. Trichoderma viride. Maximum amount of CO2 evolved in first week. in general. 25 followed by that of bavistin reduced the total seedborne fungi to some extent. loss in weight and reduction in C:N ratio.B.lunata.moniliforme parts except anther.moniliforme caused purple discoloration of coleoptiles sheath and stem below it. These isolates were grown on filter paper strips and on plain agar media. Title of the thesis: Use of Cellulolytic fungi in degradation of agricultural wastes (1990) Full name of student: Subhash Ramkrishnrao Potdukhe Advisor: Dr. All the isolates utilized for degradation of agricultural wastes and was studies in laboratory by measuring quantum of CO2 evolved. D. Ground nut shell degrade fast followed by cotton stalk and sorghum stubbles. Microtome section of infected seed showed invesion C. rovral + bavistin (1:1 proportion). bavistin. spikelets and their parts when examined showed association of 6 fungi with one or other C.or intra-cellular mycelium.Somani Fifty six isolates representing 39 species of twenty genera were obtained from various sources.lunata. sprays of thiram + bavistin @ O.lunata was most predominant followed by F. captan. D. Among spikelet parts stigma carried more fungi followed by blister.R.sacchari and E.moniliforme at all stages of seed development.halodes in all the parts of seed i.3%by seed weight. brown inter. At anthesis. increase in germination was only by 25% and 29% respectively. alerurone layer. (1: 1) all @ O. With glumes. Penicillium funiculosum and Aspergillum terreus were observed to be promising. D. Under field conditions. and testing immediately after treatment (in December) and thereafter every three months up to next December showed that after 6 months effective treatment like rovral + thiram and rovral + bavistin had minimised total seed-borne fungi by 93% and 91% and improved germination by 40% and 39% respectively over 6 months old untreated seeds. Infected sprouted seeds when grown in pot soil caused seed to plant transmission of diseases. rovral.sacchari.

5% + diazinon 0.05 diazinon well before the onset of mansoon appreciably reduces the incidence of wilt complex.moniliforme. root rot caused by F. are the limiting factors in reducing the yield and quality of crop.Bhombe Betelvine is highly labour intensive cash crop grown commercially for the leaves. hence in removal or organic debries from the environment and improve soil fertility there by increasing yield of wheat. Free aeration improve the micro environment by increasing the C:N ration and phosynthetic activities which ultimately leads to the improvement in quality and quantity of betelvine leaves. Its leaves used mainly for chewing purpose. variation in pH was negligible.Bhombe . This crop suffers for number of diseases i. The total uptake of nutrients and microbial population in the soil increase considerably resulting in increase in residual nitrogen and organic carbon.B.05% at monthly interval since July to January was effective in controlling the betelvine soil borne diseases.bataticola.B. Title of the thesis: Studies on betelvine disease in Vidarbha (1991) Full name of student: Shukadeo Vithobaji Waghe Advisor: Dr.e basal rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii root and stem rot caused by R.isolates in quick degradation of agricultural waste used for growth and yield of wheat.B. Drenching of soil with copper oxychloride 0. The present study indicated that these lignocellulolytic fungi can be used for decomposition of agricultural wastes under aerobic condition and non pathogenic to the important crop grown in this area.B. Earhing up of sandy loam soil once or twice in a year with drenching of Bordeaux mixture 1% + 0. The incorporation of wheat straw along with fungal starter . The supporting of betelvine with nylon string is responsible for reducing the wilt complex. Title of the thesis: Investigation of major foliar diseases of sunflower in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra (1991) Full name of student: Sheshrao Srawanji Wadibhasms Advisor: Dr.05% or Bordeaux mixture 1% + diazinon 0.

Fusarial infection takes place mostly at flowering stage and curvularia infection takes at any time . and pectinolytic activity. Under artificial condition the rust was found to be caused losses 13. The pathogens is seed borne and survive in plant debris for above four months in lab conditions and up to three months in open filed and serves as primary source of infection. Artificial inoculation revealed that the crop is susceptible to Alternaria to all stages of crop growth. Leteuforal . But dithane M-45 @ 0.25% in grain yield.25% and vitavax @ 0. C.D.1% proved highly effective in filed condition in checking the infection and also in giving higher grain yield.3% in seed weight and 1. There were no correlation in severity of rust and losses caused.lunata is fast grain deteriorating fungus since possess more Cellulolytic . Curvularia lunata and Fusarium moniliforme are predominant. tannin but higher free phenolic compound were noticed in resistant white grain sorghum. 8. water imbibitions . Alternaria blight first appeared on cotyledonary leaves and subsequently spread older leaves and all other aerial parts of the plant including seeds.Alternaria blight and rust are the severe diseases of sunflower specially involved. mostly form dough stage onwards. Forty six genotypes screened for four season out of which eight were promising form clean grain type sorghums. Host range studies revealed that Alternaria helianthi besides sunflower cloud infect eleven other hosts. Surface wax. RH 75% or more and maximum temperature in between 28 -350C favours disease development. temperate and semi arid tropic during the year of high rainfall. The fungus was effectively controlled by all the nine fungicides tested in vitro. Pretreatment eliminates saprophytic fungi which are restricted to pericarp. Occurrence of rust is evident first on lower leaves as small pin head circular rust pustules. The disease development was favoured by temperature ranged 25 -300C and 100% RH.6 – 4% in oil content of seed in different variety. stem and floral parts. however rain is the only important factor for disease development. Brassicol and Thiram @ 3 g/kg proved to be best for controlling seed borne infection.P. petioles.6 – 15. corneousess of endospore. Hardness . less electrical conductivity in seed litches among the physical characteristics contribute towards resistance. amylolytic. Fusarium mostly entre through hylar and curvularia form styler end and pericarp. Fusarium moniliforme produces more toxic metabolites which reduced germination and seedling vigour.Wangikar Grain mold of sorghum is a number one problem of sorghum in Vidarbha. non pigmented and aleurone layer . Minimum four days incubation period is required for positive infection. Title of the thesis: Studies on Biochemical status of resistant and susceptible Sorghum bicolor cultivars against grain mold (1992) Full name of student: Radheshyam Bhagwandas Somani Advisor: Prof. floaters density and porosity differences do not separate resistant and susceptible types. . scattered over entire surface of leaf lamina on the dorsal sides. of this 23 fungi belonging to 14 genera.

IX and X from high rainfall zone were more virulent than isolates from assured and moderate rainfall zones in pathogenicity and contained high nitrogen. Survey of Vidarbha region revealed that the intensity of die back and fruit rot diseases varied from 13.5 per cent. Peptone and potassium nitrate as anitrogen source for growth and sporulation. Differences in growth rate was observed in the isolates collected from different agroecological zones of Vidarbha region.8 to 36. which increased the infectivity. Title of the thesis: Studies on fruit rot and dieback of chilli caused by Colletotrichum capsici. S. The disease is characterized by diverse symptoms. ) Butler and Bisby are most and cause considerable reduction In marketable fruit yield and quality. RH 70-100% and pH 3-9 but optimum 28-300C and 90 per cent RH and pH 6-7. Both the isolates grew better on a wide range of temperature 20-350C. Respectively in the farmer' fields irrespective of s chemical disease management. Both the isolate grew optimum on Richard' agar. Vidarbha region Occupies nearly 50 per cent chilli growing area but production was only 42. Both the isolates preferred asparagine.4 to 21. II .Umred.in the mycelium. Green chilli is also consumed as vegetable in daily diet. In Maharashtra. AKL(Akola) from assured rainfall zone and BWR (Bhiwapur) from high rainfall zone. among them . The crop is attacked by this disease at all the stages of crop growth and it continued upto maturity.Indicated that BWR isolate recorded high rate of growth on all the solid media tried than isolate AKL. Differences in s sporulation qid not occur in case of both the isolates. less reduction in protein and increase in crud fiber content. The maximum mycelium yield and abundant sporulation was recorded in sucrose and glucose by isolates BWR and AKL respectively.83 per cent during 1988-89. die back and fruit rot incited By Colletotrichum capsici ( Syd. Bhiwapur and Malkapur have imbibed the art of chilli growing. From study Be that II I II I II the pathogen.2 and 9.Chilli crop suffers from many diseases. Grain mold results more reduction in starch and crud fat contains .Kolte Chi1li or red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. For other carbon sources both isolates have shown similar preference but the growth differences existed between them. Carbendazim along with captan or Thiram and pre harvest sprays reduce seed mycoflora and improved germination. Capsici .Amino acids spectra did not very much however leucine / isoseucine ratio was high in resistant genotypes.O. Dried Chilli forms an essential commodity in the day to day preparation of spicy and tasty food. Isolates VIII. Host extract agar and PDA. The twig dieing or wither tip and fruit rot were noticed prominently in the field. The cultivation Especially areas Around Achalpur. (1992) Full name of student: Krishnrao Narayanrao Sapkal Advisor: Dr. ) Butler and Bisby are most and cause considerable reduction In marketable fruit yield and By Colletotrichum capsici ( Syd. It was maximum in isolate IX from Bhiwapur and least in isolate VII from Yavatmal. Study of two isolates viz.) is an important cash crop among the spices and grown extensively in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra State.

Under field test carried over for two years. tyrosine and phenylalanine were reduced and arginine.qleosporioides. K. The treatment or Bavistin with Thiram seed 0. glycine and ammonia were increased in in-fected fruits. Curvularia lunata Exserohilum rostratum.B. All three fungi produced typical lesions on semiripe and ripe fruits but the lesions are not conspecuous on green fruits. threonine. Cladosporium oxysporum. valin. bataticola. Host resistance is available which can utilized for breeding programme. bataticola failed to show any visible symptoms on infected parts of plant.dematium and R. circular to irregular spots of varying sizes. C. bataticola increased crude protein content of chilli fruits. Cuman L was most effective and gave highest benefit ratio 1:19. dematium produced brown discolouration on epicotyl but A. leucine and isoleucine were increased due to infection of A. prolin. alternata showed oily depressed black. bataticola while reduced by C. alternata and . alternata and R.dematium and R. The fruits infected with a. In case of am i no ac i d. C. The nitrogen content in C. dematium infect stem and fruits but failed to infect leave whereas A. alternata and R. dematium caused more damage to the fruits. C.dematium infection. lysine. black circular spots with black pin point acervuli allover the infected parts in concentric rings. Fruits infected with R. cystin. alternata and R.alternata + C.alternata and R. dematium infected fruits showed small. among fungi. Cuman L.alternata did not show any relationship with nitrogen content and the virulence.dematium was most predominant followed by A.85 as assessed on two years performance. glutamic acid. All the three fruit rotting fungi were found to survive in all the parts of chilli fruits upto 12 months and caused seed to plant transmission.Gahukar Collected infected from chilli fruits of different varieties showed Alternaria alternata. As regards combinations.70 and Dithane M-45 1:6. culturally physiologically. bataticola culture was found to reflect on the degree of virulence but A. Phoma sp.bataticola showed increase in aspartic acid content but reduction was found in A.semitectum.49 followed by Bavistin 1:7.probably exists in the racial form as the it concluded the can isolates differed morphologically. different locations C. Bavistin and Dithane M-45 were and debris source I I @borne found 2-78 effective in completely inhibiting the growth and sporulation least of the isolates in vitro but Dithane was both effective.alternata. methionine.3 per cent by seed weight can eliminate seed the infection to a great extent and increases seed germination and seedling survival. C. bataticola infected fruits showed black minute sclerotia scattered allover the infected parts of fruits. Fusarium moni1iforme association of F. Dreschlera tetramera. C. hence can be recommended for adoption. C. A. significantly the Dithane proved 2-78 fungicides except superior over control in reducing infection intensity of back and fruit rot in chilli with significant higher yields.dematium. The pathogen can survive in seed and plant for more than 8 to 17 months which becomes a primary of infection for next season. bataticola infect only fruits. and Rhizoctonia bataticola with various parts. Title of the thesis: Studies on fruit rotting fungi of chilli (1992) Full name of student: Shrikant Wamarao Khodke Advisor: Dr. R. Alanine. A.

respectively. Fungicides which were effective in laboratory were tested under field conditions against all the three fungi.1%) ranked first and mancozeb <0. Spraying at . Guntur and BLC 86-2 against R. X235. dematium infected leaves.dematium whereas it was reduced in R.dematium infected fruits. LCA-235. amount of copper was increased by C. alternata and C. alternata but reduced in C.dematium and improved seed germination. and in increasing the yield.2%) second.. Zinc and manganese content were increased due to a. thiophanate methyl and mancozeb were found superior in the control of fruit rot caused by A. Histidine content was reduced in A. bataticola. alternata.L. Amount of phosphorus was increased in fruits infected with A.citri (Hasse) Dowson. the variety IHR-1 showed resistant reaction against the pathogens whereas in artificial inoculation. (1992) Full name of student: Kishore Bhagwan Kale Advisor: Dr. 8-green.1% were selected and used for regulating the disease in field experiments during different kagzilime flushes for two years.C. yield and economic returns.Peshney Kagzilime [Citrus aurantifolia Swingle] in Vidarbha suffers heavily from canker caused Xanthomonas campestris pv. Pant C-l. All the three fungi showed a drastic reduction in ascorbic acid and sugar (total. Considering the disease control. alternata Capsaicin content of the fruits infected with all the three fungi was reduced to almost half. bataticola. bataticola. Bharni. Under natural field conditions. 8 helgano. Khurasni against C. Carbendazim. The fruits infected with A.dematium infected fruits. bataticola infected fruits. Evaluation of certain Chemicals was through field feeler experiment at by The and to of done Horticulture Department Orchard P. Hence. Amount of potash was reduced by all the three fungi. bataticola showed increase in iron content but it did not increase in C. carbendazim <0. reducing and non reducing) content of chilli fruits.bataticola 10 infected fruits.dematium and R. The per cent leaf infection was more during monsoon flush (Mrig bahar) followed by summer flush (Ambia bahar) and winter flush (Hasta bahar).bataticola but increased in C.bataticola infection but not by A. Out of 7 seed dressing fungicides tested thiram @0. alternata and R.K.. Infection mostly observed as endemic throughout the year many a time assuming epiphytotic situations. But captan proved more effective against ft. Akola from which Streptocycline 100 ppm+ copper oxychloride 0.dematium and R. Title of the thesis: Scheduling of time interval for control and estimation of losses cuased by citrus canker of acid lime. alternata. alternata and C.3% by seed weight gave better elimination of A. Jawahar and Chibhali No. N. C. 74-4. X-197.4 showed resistant reaction against A. dematium and R. study standardizes the optimum time interval for application effective chemicals for control and their effect on quantity and quality of fruit yield was undertaken. alternata and R.dematium and X-206. V. Khurasni.

The spraying at 7 days interval was best giving lowest disease index (8. (2 ) Application of these chemicals at an interval of 7 days or 15 days is more useful compared to 21 days or more. in both the years. moderately and severely diseased fruits of summer and monsoon flushe Ambia andMrig bahar).11%) than 15 days and 21 days interval. it is concluded that (1) Application of Streptocycline 100 ppm +copper oxychloride 0. The loss due to one per cent Leaf infection was 1. The per cent loss of fruit yield in different flushes with An unit increase in per cent leaf infection/intensity and fruit infection was maximum in summer flush (Ambia bahar) . Thus from results of present studies.47%. due to one per cent disease intensity on leaves loss was 3.37% and due to fruit infection it was 1.7days interval was better.90%) . control in reducing the fruit infection in three flushes in both the years.69%) in winter flush (Hasta bahar) amongst all treatments showing disease control by 35. The praying at 7 days interval Has given lowest fruit infection (24.1% is better for control of kagzilime canker in Vidarbha conditions. However. The fruit yield differences due to different treatments were non-significant in all the three flushes in both the years.300 kg fruits/tree in summer flush (Ambia bahar) followed by 15 days and 21 days interval. The per cent disease intensity on leaves was maximum on monsoon flush (Mrig bahar) followed by summer flush (Ambia bahar) and winter flush (Hasta bahar) . Even though the cost benefit ratio with 7 days spray interval is marginally less compared to 15 days spray interval to reduce the disease pressure particularly during monsoon season. (3) Application at 7days interval should be preferred over 15 days interval . The highest fruit yield was obtained from summer tlusn (Ambia bahar) followed by monsoon flush (Mrig bahar) and winter flush (Hasta bahar). having lowest leaf infection (16.73%) with maximum infection control (45. So also per cent yield increase was maximum with this treatment. fruit indicated non-significant differences between healthy. In winter and monsoon flushes (Hasta and Mrig bahar) losses were comparatively less. This illustrated that the canker infection on fruit did not affect the quality of kagzilime fruit juice. Fruit infection studies revealed that maximum infection was in mons90n flush (mrig bahar) followed by winter flush (Hasta bahar) and summer flush (Ambia bahar) . No infection was observed in sacs. Physico-chemical character studies of canker infected kagzi 1ime. All treatments were superior to . The infection control was more In 7 days interval (43. (4 ) Kagzilime canker pathogen does not penetrate beyond albedo and as such .87% during summer flush (Ambia bahar). Infection penetration studies of kagzi 1ime canker pathogen in different parts of infected fruits. Results Qf cross infecti_ity of kagzilime and kinnow mandarin canker revealed that inoculum from both the hosts was one and the same strain of the bacterium and there exist no strain variation. the spraying at 7days interval was found best resulting highest yield/ha 20. indicated that pathogen could penetrate rind and rarely upto albedo only.58 %.07%) as compared to 15 days and 21 days interval during all the three flushes in both the years.

) caused by A. the primary infection cycle upto 28 days after incubation (log phase) was also analyzed which revealed high infection rates and fast multiplication during July to October months. The prediction of incubation period by prevailing temperatures was thus possible and a prediction equation using multiple regression analysis was derived based on 91 observations. The disease severity and incidence were very high during rainy season followed by post-rainy season and summer season.helianthi is a potentially destructive disease in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra. The conidia of the fungus germinated efficiently between 10 to 40oC with optimum temperatures of 2SoC. severity and intensity for each plots under natural and artificially inoculated situations was obtained. The disease levels were governed by weather. modest and low were determined. an important component of epidemic. In the comparative epidemiology. With increase or decrease in temperatures from 24 to 26oC. seedling being least and flowering plants .D. confirmed that blight is the most prevalent diseases. blight epidemics of high. It was modest during September to December and June sown crops. The inoculum of A. rather than crop coverage of the area. the blight incidence.Mayee Alternaria blight of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. An epidemic analysis using periodical infection rates. Prediction of primary infection level was also possible. was greatly influenced by prevailing temp. Incubation period of blight.(5) Kagzilime canker does not affect the "juice quality of the infected fruit. raptures when inoculations were performed 91 times at different periods of the year. The pointed survey in four districts of Western Vidarbha which account for 98 % of the total sunflower area of Vidarbha. Blight growth was much faster on crops sown in July and August months. Host age highly influenced growth during August to February months. Using the monthly sown nurseries for 12months of the year. (6)Citrus canker pathogen in Vidarbha does not have strain variation. The holistic approach using A-values of epidemic could be accounted by average weather conditions. Similarly.helianthi from in vitro cultures or from field collected samples when brought into contact with susceptible host produced typical pinhead spots leading subsequently to blight symptoms on all aerial parts. Title of the thesis: Epidemiological studies and influence of integrated disease management factors on Alternaria blight of sunflower (1995) Full name of student: Pankaj Babarao Wankhade Advisor: Dr. average infection rates (r values)are under disease progress curve (Avalues)and comparative curve analysis (plotted curves) were made for the progress data. Blight epidemic growth was negligible on crops sown in December to May months. incubation period prolonged from 8 to 17 days.In field highest germination occurred in July-August months. C.

The sclerotia of S. s The optimum range of temperature was 25 to 30 °c for growth and sclerotial production. ammonium nitrate.3 and 5. phosphorus application. The wilted plants on close examination showed association of Sclerotium rolfsil Sacco Considering the importance of vetiver contour lines in watershed management it was decided to investigate the problem in details. Vetiver contour lines in field under Watershed Management Programme were showing gaps due to wilting of plants in lines.B.6 to 8. The fungus preferred starch as carbon source followed by sucrose.5 pH. with relative humidity of 60 to 100 percent. September and October sown sunflower. They individually slowed the epidemic as evidenced by r and A-values of epidemic. Epidemic of blight was interrupted when the integrated management factors (IDM)viz. plants of all age available during February to July did not influence blight intensity indicating clearly that the weather conditions determined the epidemic growth rather than the host age. The IDM factors had profound effect during rainy season than Post rainy season. Title of the thesis: Studies on Foot Rot Disease of Vitever Grass caused by Sclerotium rolfsii (1995) Full name of student: Madhukar Rajaramji Patil Advisor: Dr. Gahukar The vetiver [Vetiverla zizanloldes (L) Nash].exhibiting high intensity. On June. seed treatment with thiram and two sprays of mancozeb were incorporated into cultivation. Richard' host tract and Czapek' medium in agar as well as in liquid form. potassium nitrate as nitrogen source for profuse growth and Sclerotial production. Continuous light favored maximum Sclerotial production. dextrose and glucose and peptone. The fungus grew well and produced abundant sclerotia on potato dextrose. The optimum pH for Growth and Sclerotial production appeared to be 5. Simultaneously. The epidemic growth of blight was not at damaging level in crop sown from January to May months. How ever. the yield of sunflower increased by 100 to 125 kg/ha by various IDM treatments. a perennial grass has lately Assumed great importance being largely grown on contour bunds for Soil and moisture conservation. K. Alternaria blight multiplied'fairly modestly and responded to management practices. The disease is characterized by yellowing of leaves followed by drooping and ultimately drying.similar Type symptoms. Alternaria blight epidemics are nearly ensured on July August sown crop and management becomes necessary.. s. The results of present investigation brought out the fact that in viddarbha. The viability of Sclerotia was reduced Either by soil solarization or by soil drenching with formaldehyde or carboxin or soil application of . resulting into gaps in contour bunds. On artificial inoculation the fungus induced .5 with range of 2. rollsii remained viable in field and laboratory conditions in soil for more than 9months. Survey in Akola district revealed the association of fungus varied from 0 to 100 per cent.

Fruits dipped in hot water at 50 and 60°C for 10min and then treated with acetylene showed spotting on peel (within 5 days) and early day of fruits (within 9 days) compared to hot water treatment of 32°C and 48oC Fruit bunches were dipped separately. Title of Thesis : Fungus diseases of banana fruits and their management for promotion of export. variety ' Basrai' were isolated on potato dextrose agar (PDA).. monili{otTrie. Cylindrocarpon radicicola. For minimum Disease incidence growth and tillering 10 cm.0. Fusarium camptoceras.2 per cent Carboxin solution or planting slips in 0. Prunning And burning operations 45 days after planting reduction of disease growth and tillering.'ilera tetramera. F. Alternaria tenuissima.5. Fusarium moniliforme and Penicillium sp.0 and then one lot of each pH treatment was treated with acetylene and the other was allowed to ripe as such. F. 5. 3. banan1green and yellow peel extract agar.0. Formaldehyde. PDA appeared better substrate for isolation of fungi.0.. Planting of vetiver in infested soil is not advisable unless it is freed from the pathogen. 7. Aspergillus flavus. 8.Raut Peel tissues of mature green unspotted and yellow ripe spotted fruits of banana (Musa paaradisiaca ). Drech. Penicillum sp. The fungus was polyphagous and infected large number of plants in different unrelated families.0. 9. for artificial ripening of green mature fruits. The culture filtrate of the fungus was found injurious to the foliage.J. Four fungi viz. Acetylene treated fruits ripened within 2 days compared to 9days required for self ripening. oxysporum. After planting resulted in and improvement in plant For getting abundant green produce. calcium carbide which releases acetylene gas and ethepon.2 per cent carboxin solution or planting slips in 0.vitro. thiram.0 and 10.2 per cent Carboxin solution or After planting resulted in and improvement in plant For getting abundant green produce. Cereals were less susceptible compared with legumes and other field crops. All there fungi proved pathogenic when inoculated on peel tissues of green mature fruits. inducing tillering and reducing foot rot incidence in vetiver_ soil solarization and dipping of planting slips in 0. Full name of student : YUSUF KHAN DILNASHINUR REHMAN KHAN Name advisor : Dr. flavus.2 per cent carboxin solution or T. 6. carboxin and penconazol were most effective in Inhibiting the complete growth of pathogen in . Acetylene treatment . commercially available as ethrel were used. 8. Thielaviopsis paradoxa and Verticillium alboa/rum were obtained. niger. A. plant to plant distance was Ideal in infested light and heavy soil.0. In the present study. in pH solutions 1. harzianum suspension or soil solarization alone were proved effective and can be recommended.. inducing tillering and reducing foot rot incidence in vetiver_ soil solarization and dipping of planting slips in 0.0. A.G. Aspergillus niger. were isolated from green peel tissues whereas from spotted peel of yellow ripe fruits 11 fungi viz.Trichoderma harzianum.

1973b). of acetylene treated fruits to complete darkness showed ripening 2 to 4 days earlier and delayed the spotting by a day or two than exposure to alternate cycle of 12 h light and 12 h darkness.4-D. The objectives of the present investigations were to determine infection sites and colonization by major mold fungi (Fusarium moniliforme.4-D (200ppm) or 2. 2.4-D(200ppm)+sulphur (lOOOppm). Bavistin. Exposure. 1996. fungal species and their interactions. . progenies of partial diallel. spotting and decay of fruits. Somani Grain mold of sorghum is a complex problem involving several fungal species. NAA prolonged decay of fruits from 2 to 9 days depending upon variety. Dithane M-45.4-D (200ppm)+Bavistin (lOOoppm).4-D (200ppm)+Bavistin (1OOOppm) was found to delay the spots on the fruits. Experiments were conducted at two locations. Acetylene treated and untreated fruits of ' Basrai' variety were treated with additional chemicals/fungicides. 2. determine physical. malic acid and Thiram. salicylic acid. citric acid.4-D (200ppm). Acetylene treated ' Basrai'variety. sulphur.4-D and NAA solutions did not shtw spots on peel of any of the 3 varieties. F.4-D (200ppm)+Bavistin (1OOOppm) appeared best. 2. Resistance to grain mold in sorghum is known to be imparted by various factors associated with host genotypes. fruits ripened faster than Shrimanti'and Lokhandi' Dipping of acetylene treated fruits in 200ppm 2. NAA (200ppm)+ Dithane M-45 (1000ppm) and IAA(200ppm)+Dithane M-45 (1 OOOppm) were free of spots and prolonged decay of fruits. pH failed to show any effect on ripening. method 20f Griffings (1956b) further extended by Singh (1973a. physiological and biochemical mechanism of resistance and determine genetics and heretability of various host factors contributing to grain mold resistance in selected sorghum lines. Acetylene treated and untreated fruits of banana varieties Basrai'' Shrimanti' and ' Lokhandi' were further treated with solution/suspension of 2. Fungicidal treatment delayed spotting on fruits under complete darkness and among fungicidals/chemicals. Title of the thesis: Mechanism and genetics of grain mould resistance in sorghum" (1999) Full name of student: Gulab Daulatrao Agarkar Advisor: Dr. Dipping of fruits in 2. was evident from the results that acetylene treated fruits dipped for 30min in 2. NAA. Akola under natural condition during 1995 and 1996 and at Patancheru under controlled condition during. Data were analyzed using model I. palIidoroseum and ClIrvlIlaria lunata). Acetylene treatment showed earlier ripening of fruits than ethrel. R.B.irrespective of pH (1 to 10) ripened the fruit within 2 days copare to 7-11 days required for non acetylene treated fruits. The experimental comprised of 10 divergent parents and their 45 F I crosses _d 45 F2.

Prolamin and cross-link prolamin had showed positive correlation with grain hardness. In general more fungal load was recorded at Akola during 1996 than in 1995. tannins and flavan-4ols. Parental lines IS-9471. gene action changed for grain hardness and electrical I conductivity. pathological and biochemical parameters. physical. while C. pallidoroseum remained a minor mold fungi at Akola. ICSB-1O1B x IS-2284. SPV-1201. C. As regards to gene action governing inheritance. mani/ifarme. mesocarp thickness. F. F. C. Ungerminated seed exhibited positive with fungal load of all fungi and score. lunata at Patancheru. TGMR. endosperm texture showed negative association with electrical conductivity. Germinated seed (treated with HgCh) showed significant negative association with fungal load of all fungi at Akola. ICSB-I0IB x IS9471 and SPV-1201 x IS 2284. while it was positive at Patancheru. it was noticed that in F I diallel the gene action was non-additive for electrical conductivity. tannins and flavan-4-ols were important biochemical parameters conferring resistance to grain mold singles or in combination. hilar and stylar or directly through pericarp. TGMR. lunata and fungal load. moniliformae. Mesocarp thickness exhibited positive correlation with F. F. in F2 diallel. Pre-treatment with HgCh reduced fungal load of grain deteriorating fungi and improved seed germination. Considering the above results it is concluded that 1. Prolamin and cross-link prolamin were more in white grain thus contribute for mold resistance. Over all there was decrease in 100-grain weight. F. and F.e. Fusarial infection (both species) takes place through hilar areas. lunata and TGMR. manilafanne. and increase in electrical conductivity. germination. Prolamin and cross-link prolamin were recorded low in colored grain pa1-ents and crosses. four crosses viz. however. mesocarp thickness. Superior combination showing significant sea effects for germination with their desirable sea effects were observed in crosses AkIns 14B x IS-6335. and it was additive for grain hardness.Data were recorded on agronomic. thresh grain mold rating (TGMR). However. mesocarp thickness. Curvularial infection takes place from both ends i. C. C. pallidoroseum were important mold fungi at Patancheru. grain hardness. However. F. The results revealed that electrical conductivity.. IS-6335. however it was negative with endosperm texture and germination. have resistance to grain mold in colored grain could be attributed to tannins and flavan-4-ols. GJ-35-35-15 and IS-2284 with high gca effect for most of the characters contributing towards . lunata. moniliformae and F. Akms 14B x IS-9471 and SPV-1201 x SRT 2680 On the basis of superior mean performance in germination. C. ICSB-1O1B x IS-6335. glume covering. lunata and F. lunata and'TGMR.and negative with germination. were selected to understand significant heterosis for component characters. pallidoroseum load at Patancheru compared with Akola location. Soluble sugars could not show any effect on grain mold resistance. negative with germination and positive with TGMR. fungal load of all fungi was reduced at Akola in both seasons. lunata. proteins. tannins and flavan-4-ols are the major components imparting resistance. germination. except C. whereas. Grain hardness had significantly negative correlation with endosperm texture. glume covering. moniliforme. moniloforme were important at Akola. however.

leaf spot(blight). SPV-104 x IS-6335. more flavan-4-ols. Among the 36 varieties screened for disease resistance reaction. In seedling stage under artificial inoculation. Therefore it is suggested that these crosses and their progenies may be utilized to generate better tolerance to grain mold infection.M.Asalmol Phomopsis blight of brinjal incited by Phomopsis vexan Syd) Harter is a serious disease of brinjal around. more tannins.65 per cent during 1996 and 1997. Simple as well as multiple linear regression equation (models) were workedout. physical and biochemical) related to grain mold resistance. ICSB-1O1B x IS2284.resistance to grain mold may be utilized in hybrid breeding program. only KS202-9 and Nurki showed resistance. Phomopsis ve. desirable heterosis for most of the characters and additive gene action for important traits (agronomic. ICSB-1O1B x IS-9471. Validation of predicted and observed values explained the models that fitted wel1 with the field data collected during two consecutive years. GJ-35-35-15 x IS-335 and SPV-1201 x SRT-26B exhibited high effects.Important traits imparting resistance to grain mold fungi are : low electrical conductivity.emergence mortality due to P. Akola having percentage into and 58. Seeds from fruits showing 25.2%) treatment with Carbendazim was most effective in keeping seed-borne Phomopsis in . while inoculum on leaves survived only for 2 months in field and 8 months in laboratory. The cross AKMS 14B x IS-6335. thin mesocarp. PDA. Inoculation on injured .0 per clot infection resulted in 40 per cent pre-emergence mortality and 15 per cent post. Title of Thesis: Studies on Phomopsis vexans blight of brinjal and its control (1999) Full name of student: Chandrakant Uttamrao Patil Name and Address of major advisor: Dr. Soil extract and oat meal agar favoured growth while oat meal agar and host decoction agar was favourable for pycnidia production. The pathogen was internally as well as externally seed borne and was transmitted to the seedlings. The inoculum on stem and fruits survived for 24 months.00 to 9.e. damping-off and collar rots were produced. low TGMR. Similarly seed (0. on lower surface of leaf developed the disease more readily. Seeds having 12 per cent initial infection P. fruit rot and stem blight were developed. respectively. grain hardness.xans was predominantly isolated from the infected plant parts during pathogenicity three distinct types of symptoms on plant i.00 and exposure to yel1ow light during incubation favoured growth and pycnidial formation.N. 3.25%) were most effectively resulting in disease control and increased in yield. 2. Temperature of 250C pH 4. In field experiments for control of disease 4 sprays of Carbendazim (50 WP) (0. In comparison to this Neem oil or Neemark was less effective but in comparison with other plant products was most effective.vaxans during germination. vexans when stored in polyethylene bag (700 gauge) was found as better container than gada cloth bags. safe and economic for used in the control of the disease. more prolamin and cross-link prolamin. more glume covering.

bataticola on PDA. at all doses tried. M. harzianum @ 100g per 8kg soil was equally effective to a dose of 208 g or 300 g. harzianum was found most effective in reducing the adverse effect of R. Sunil Tulshiram Ingle Name of Advisor: Dr. AKS. harzianum @ 8g per kg seed. Asalmol Root-rot of safflower caused by Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub. bataticola indicating it' highest antagonists s potential as compared to other test antagonists. The pathogen was invariably isolated from 60 per cent samples of diseased safflower plants. T.31 under natural infection. growth parameters of plant and also yield. Intensity of early blight of tomato (Alternaria solani) was 35. Among the five different carriers evaluated. Application of T.40 to 52. Among the isolated rhizosphere organisms. A dose of antagonist @ 2g per kg seed. harzianum. The higher dose of antagonists i.) Butler (1999) Full Name of the student: Shri. however. Title of Thesis: "ROLE OF ANTAGONISTS IN CONTROL OF ROOT ROT OF SAFFLOWER CAUSED BY Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub. Samridhi and Vaishali varieties were moderately resistant. B. T. Ex-Professor of plant Pathology. G. Naturally 22% infected seed transmitted 3% disease.12% during 1996 and 1998. Mate Name of Adviser Dr.) Butler is a serious disease in Maharashtra state. shredding of barks and sudden drying of plant. viride @ 8g per kg seed appeared better in reducing the disease. Four spray of dithane M-45 (0. Survival of inoculum on fruit was 28 months and leaves 6 months in field. Title of thesis Studies on tomato blight caused by Alternaria solani (2000) Name of student Mr. FYM and talc powder were found better for growth and viability of T. None of the eight varieties tested was immune to R. bacterial isolate 81 and'commercially available formulation of Trichoderma. Thiram @ 3 g per kg seed was most effective but at par with T. 10 g per kg seed gave complete protection of disease and had no any adverse effect on plant health. rotting of roots. Patil.viride and Aspergillus niger exhibited good antagonists against R . For control of disease by soil application of antagonists. improving seed germination. G. Seed .e. talc based formulation of T. D. bataticola while. During pathogenicity test pre-emergence mortality was observed 7th day whereas post-emergence mortality was evident 14th days after sowing. N. were not so effective. ATH 2.check and preserving seed quality for longer time while plant products were less effective. T. harzianum. harzianum and T. The pathogen produced typical symptoms on safflower plant as drooping of apical growth. ATH-l.152 and AKS-68 were found as resistant when tested by vial test method.25%) at an interval of 15 days were effective with high CBR 1 :8.

g the pathogens compared to their mother isolates & hence mutants which had shown stability over generation for their ability can be commercially exploited. Title of Thesis Comparative antagonistic studies of Trichoderma spp and some mutant against Rhizoctonia bataticola.3% of 4D and recorded (132 kda molecular weight and resistance' against Kanamycin. and Fusarium. 5BN. R.033 ug/ml.59 times and 54. Somani Biological control offered an effective & probably cheaper and safer method for the control of soil dwelling plant pathogenic facultative parasitic fungi like Rhizoctonia. Hence reported to be highly effective against.1 DC. Some of the Trichoderma mutants were highly effective ill suppressip. Twenty two isolates of Bt. supported maximum CFU (22. Electrical conductivity and temperatures ofthe media ranged in between 1. were isolated from different geographical areas. H. Serologically. are more toxic possessing LC50 of206. Somani. Growing antagonist on various substrates and then incorporating into the _oil or along with seed had showed varied response hence selection of substrate and shelf life for the products is necessary.46x 1 07 )and the reduction in CFU was noticed after 30 days of packing under storage.2. The culture can effectively stored in three layered laminated aluminum foil for seven months in talc as carrier.V.87xl07 ) .071 and 324. armigera and needs further exploitation.94 x 1O7)followed by ground nut shell (16. Sclerotium. & Wackman' media s supported excellent growth. Bacillus thuringiensis was found to be very effective against Helicoverpa armigera. Seven isolates produced more biomass compared to standard 4D. D. Luria and modified G. saw dust (14.21 x 1 07 ) and neem cake (11. .9ug/l crude protein Le. Total phenol and phenolic acids were higher in healthy leaves. Chlorophyll was decreased and total sugar was higher in infected leaves. Thakur Name of Adviser Dr.treatment @ 4 glkg of Trichoderma viride was found effective and improved the germination. B. Twenty-four Trichoderma isolates were obtained & another 52 mutants were tested against pathogenic fungi in-vitro. Title of thesis : Evaluation of Bacillus thuringiensis (2000) Name of student K. 5AM} and 51. reduction in disease intensity and enhanced plant growth parameter over soil .TOTAWAR Name of Adviser Dr. Isolate .8 to 3"1. B. It is known that local isolates are well adapted to rhizosphere. media supports maximum growth.0 to 102 dSm-'and 28. 2001 Name Of the Student M. is related to 4D. Application @ 4-6 glkg of seed has shown better plant stand. button mushroom spent compost (13. Potato glucose broth. potato carrot dextrose broth. in solid state fermentation cornmeal. These two isolates were isolated from soils of Amravati and from dead insect respectively. R.06xl07 ) . Isolate 5 AMj produced 465.

over agar plate.application.sesami) were predominant.5 % seed in upper part of capsule due to M. Mixed strain inoculation and even mixed species formulation had shown superiority and hence the mixing of two or more strains may be preferred & can be recommended. sixteen were 0 btained from APDRC04 using c o1chicine as m utagene and twenty seven from APDRC-04 & 19 by exposing to N-methyl-n-nitro-N nitrosoguanidine.5 % infected seeds while only 15. antagonistic potential. Seed from none of the locations were free of fungi. All biotypes were different from the mother cultures in growth rate. phaseolina.2 % available ch lorine solution reduced counts of M.33 %). Fusarium spp. The maximum cfu were obtained at 60 DAP folJowed by 30 DAP and subsequently cfu were decreased as the period advances.1 % HgCl2 and NaOCI .0 kg rod. phaseD/ilIa in seed coat an d em bryo-was detected. . Oil content was reduced in seeds treated with fungi and stored between 2 to 8 months. iodine value. Maximum propagules 16. Among pathogenic Macrnphomina phaseD/ilIa. Trichoderma isolates APDRC-19 had shown highest CFU (16. Penicillium and Acremonium strictum. Tini S. Pretreatment of 0. fatty acid valuc. Mutants were generated by Physical and chemical treatment.60 X 107) Title of Thesis Seed mycoflora of sesame and their significance. The lowest propagules were recorded at 210 DAP. and A/ternaria spp. Blotter method proved superior. Nine stable biotypes were obtained by exposing local isolates to 60 cobalt gamma radiation of doses 0. . carbohydrate content. Carbendizim. Protein. bataticola were observed with different isolates of Trichoderma. 04. tenuis and A.69 X 107. Mutual intermingling growth over growth of antagonist on pathogen. antibiosis. B. specific gravity and refractive index was decreased.55 X 10 7 were obtained in the talc carrier based culture followed by fly ash 14. Chlorothalonil and Benomyl fungicide and among antagonist Trichoderma viride were effective in reducing seed borne fungi and increases the germination.41 X 107) followed by APDRC-14. Scsamum AKT175 showed least infection (4. mycoparasitism and lysis were observed. phaseolina. (A. in potato glucose broth & cfu increase after 60 days of packing in talc based carrier. antimetabolities production and enzymic activities. but failed to eliminate Aspergillus. 13.5 and 2. sporulation. Completely infected capsule exhibited 33.saponification value. Pillai Name of advisor Dr.60 reductions in germination.(2001) Name of student Ms. Antifungal activity of Trichoderma culture filtrate was assessed against Fusarium udum and recorded 34 to 78. Presence of M. Aluminum foil proved to retained the maximum propagules (16.96 X 10 7) while the lowest in HMHDPE . ( 13. Thiram. Varying modes of interaction and degree of inhibition in growth of R. Raut Among 28 and 35 sesame seed samples of 1998 and 1999 collected from various sources were found associated with eight and eleven fungi respectively. T. Captan.03.

In pea highest disease severity occurred 90-95 DAS. incorporation of FYM and sawdust were effective in reducing the wilt incidence.) Wilczek] and black gram [Vigna mungo (L. Among the plant extracts Ricinus communis and Leucena lucifo/ia were effective in inhibition of fungal growth. green gram and black gram 50. the disease appeared on all the aerial parts as powdery coating. Leaf chopping 10 % (w/w) + seed treatment with T.Bobde Name of advisor Dr. harzianum recorded 942 and 933 kg/ha grain yield respectively. stem and inflorescence. Rhizosphere of diseased plant associated with maximum number of fungi. In pea. Raut Powdery mildew in pea (Pisum sativum L. in green gram. positive significant correlations between disease severity and maximum temperature and wind . harzianum @ 10 1111 and 4 gm/kg respectively reduced 26 per cent wilt as against 51 % in control. containing spores (conidia) of the fungus.P. In pea. Seed treatment with neem oil followed with T. cleistothecia were noticed on leaf and stems of pea cultivar HFP-9510. J. pea powdery mildew conidia were available in the field 50 days after sowing (DAS) and in kharif. Epidemiology (disease development) study revealed initiation of powdery mildew in pea. Late in the season. v. north and west.G. polygoni was highest from south direction followed by east. Neem leaf chopping and [. bacteria and actinomycetes compared to healthy. Ricinus plant extract presoaking of seed + addition of FYM 5 t/ha + seed treatment with T.B.anllll1 and T."(2001) Name of student Vinod Ramniwas Gupta Name Major Advisor Dr.). R. The data indicated nonsignificant influence of weather factors on number of spore trapped in rabi and kharif seasons. green gram [Vigna radiata (L. Chikpea wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum is a serious disease.de as seed dresser had potential to reduce the chickpea wilt and increase the grain yield. spore trap of E. respectively.) Hepper] was caused by Erysiphe polygoni DC.r. In green gram and black gram the fungus was noticed only in conidial form as white powdery coating on leaves. Neem oil or eucalyptus oil @ 10 mJ/kg as seed treatment.sp.harzianum. Title of The Thesis"Studies on Powdery Mildew of Green gram. 30 DAS. in green gram 40-60 DAS and in black gram 50 DAS.Somani.Title of Thesis integrated management of chickpea wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. Aerobiological studies showed that in rabi season. Black gram and Pea Caused by Erysiphe polygoni DC. ciceri(2001) Name of student Mr.ellcacno leaf chapping incorporation And a antagonist Trichoderma harz. During both seasons. K. 30 and 40 DAS. The disease affected first green gram and then black gram during kharif.

01 %) and Bavistin (0. Fungicides proved most effective over culture filtrates of Trichoderma (T. total sugars and protein were in higher quantity in lower leaves. po/ygoni. None of the 61 cultivars/entries of pea. Calixin (0. conidia of none ofthe crop survived even for a fortnight. total sugars and proteins were higher in infected leaves of all the crops. However. tapioca (Manihot escu/entum) and . Of the 7 fungicides under test. Fungicide sprays were better than plant extracts for the control of powdery mildew of pea. 14 entries of pea and 6 of green gram were resistant to the disease but none of black gram.05%). polygoni of pea was infectious to green gram and black gram and vice versa. Early sowing of pea (15 October) reduced disease severity significantly and increased the yield.05%). 1000 grain weight and grain yield in highly susceptible cultivars of pea. sprays of a bioagent Ampe/omyces quisqualis were encouraging and better than leaf extract of neem (Azadiracta indica). In pea. and leaf extract of neem. E.05%) gave maximum control of disease and highest yield followed by _lt (0. pea powdery mildew conidia retained viability for 105 days at 15°C and for 90 days at room temperature (14-31°C) but green gram and black gram conidia only for 90 days at 15°C and 75 days at room temperature (22-33OC). Compared to 0 grade.velocity were observed but in green gram and black gram negative significant correlation between disease severity and weather factors were evident.1%) proved inferior. b and total) content but total pht:nols were increased. Pea and green gram leaves showed higher chlorophyll content at flowering than before. However. total phenols and phenolic acids were more in upper than middle and lower leaves of all the three crops. In green gram and black gram also significant decrease in disease severity and increase in yields were obtained in early sowing on 3 July than late sowings upto 25 July. At 35°C. 67 of green gram and 40 of black gram were totally resistant to powdery mildew under natural conditions in the field. Sulphur (0. green gram and black gram. Score (0. particularly on 30 November. However. Phenolic acid did not show much variation in healthy and infected leaves. Inoculum from resistant cultivars of a crop on inoculation to susceptible cultivars showed increased size of conidia and reverse was true when inoculum from susceptible cultivar was inoculated on resistant. Resistant varieties in all the crops contained more total phenol compared to susceptible. powdery mildew infected leaves of pea. harzianum). leachates of sunflower and sorghum leaf. over late sowings. but in black gram chlorophyll was lowered at flowering but total sugars and protein were increased at flowering compared to before flowering. in all the three crops. viride and T. 5th grade severity of powdery mildew caused significant reduction in number of pods/plant. conidial size was found to vary in cross infection. extract of ginger. However. green gram and black gram.1 %). green gram and black gram showed reduced chlorophyll (a. sprays of Top as (0. tapioca and ghaneri in vitro to inhibit conidial germination of E. b and total chlorophyll. Compared to healthy. Topas gave 100% inhibition of spore germination. seed diameter. On dry leaf samples. pod length. Among fungicides. Chlorophyll a. onion and garlic.3%) and Topsin M (0.

81 per cent. A total of 22 isolates were tested for pathogenicity.. oxysporum. Peroxidase. ICP 8863 seed soaked in -filtrate of HPI exhibited 76 percent The varied electrophoretic banding pattern of protein and isozymes viz. TAT -10.75 per cent followed by Fusarium sp. Fusarium udum shows a great deal of variation in cultural. incidence of wilt was recorded when population of Rhizoctonia bataticola was maximum and that of Trichoderma sp. Phytophthora parasitica var piperina. The variation in pathogenic ability among the different 40 isolates was observed. Antagonistic effect of pre inoculated non pathogenic isolates against highly pathogenic chalIenge inoculation revealed considerable reduction in wilt. Fusarium moniliformae. 19. (2002) Name of student: Mr. :“Investigation into the status. moderately. The rhizosphere study reveals that . Percent germination differs with the soaking period and the varieties. Raut. However . Suppression of highly pathogenic isolates of F. T.L) wilt / foot rot in Vidarbha. f. (2003) Full Name of student : Shrikant Balasaheb Bramhankar Name and Address : Dr. was minimum. found pathogenic on betel vine. udum colIected from different geographical areas of the country. . morphological and pathological characters. B. 0.Rhizoctonia bataticola with disease sample was 68. Botrydiplodia theobromae 7. Culture filtrates of HPI consisting metabolites and fusaric acid had shown adverse effect on germination of susceptible varieties compared to resistant ones. Among leaf extracts. sp. Pythium spp. polyphenol oxidase and esterase was observed among the isolates of F.0.53 per cent. Among the various fungi. Ten isolates were found highly virulent and nine isolates proved to be non pathogenic. strongly. germination. Pythium sp. udum.Asalmol The fungi like Rhizoctonia bataticola. The isolates were tentatively divided into five groups as highly. Rhizoctonia bataticola.ghaneri (Lantana camera).N. cieeri non pathogenic to pigeonpea which may induce resistance in pigeonpea seedlings against the infection of F. udum was also observed by pre inoculation of F. weakly and non pathogenic. G. Pre inoculation of non pathogenic 12 (J OOg) with (25g) of HPI 116 resulted in reduction of wilt by 24 to 56% and also wilt progress very slowly. Fusarium moniliformae. Botrydiplodia theobromae and nematode Meloidogyne incognita var. Phytophthora parasitica var piperina. causes and Management of Betel vine (Piper betel.78 per cent and Phytophthora sp. M. Giri Name of advisor: Dr. Out of 40 isolates 31 proved to be pathogenic on susceptible cv.” . Title of Thesis .39 per cent. acrita were found to be associated with diseased wilted samples. Title of thesis: Pathogenic Variability in Fusarium udum Butler. K. tapioca leaf extract proved better.

The fungicides and antibiotics screened for their efficacy against the test pathogen.36 resistant and 1 moderately resistant. Mancozeb (0. Set and soil application of Trichoderma @ 10kg/ha (3 split applications – June/ September / December) iii. and management". Benkate. T. Thiram.Shivankar In the study revealed that out of 17 isolates tested only one isolate showed non pathogenic reaction four each highly pathogenic and strongly pathogenic and remaining eight moderately pathogenic isolates .triticina were trapped maximum from South-North direction than rest of other direction and spore intensity was maximum during 04 to 09 meteorological weeks. In vivo study. Higher concentration of total phenols.39 and 50. Soil solarization ii. Drip system of irrigation. Module – III which consist of i.Trichoderma viride.triticina and also proved its superiority in hanging drop method.R. Mancozeb (0. During management study of in vitro food poisoned technique.harzianum and Paecilomyces lilacinus showed 89.By PAGE study more than 90 % of feedidity value has been observed in the differentiation of pathogenic and non pathogenic isolates.) v.K. Metalaxyl. Dithane M-45. number of grains earhead-l and WOO-grain weight with higher grain yield followed by Lantana camera plant leaf extracts.72. Carbendazim. Growth of fungus was found significantly maximum on potato dextrose agar medium and optimum growth 250 temperatures and 100 % relative humidity required. earhead length. Among the four different IDM modules . (2004) Name of the student: Mr.1%) was found most effective for controlling growth of A. Where as Bacillus subtilis was found to inhibit the growth of test fungus upto 70. reducing sugar and protein content recorded susceptibility.R. Addition of neem cake @ 2000kg/ha (3 split applications – June/ September / December) iv. supper phosphate and potash (as NPK) 100:50:50 kg/ha (Three split application of ammonium sulphate and single application of super phosphate and potash.40 %. Application of ammonium sulphate . respectively.triticina showed 81 highly resistant. Title: " Investigation leaf blight of wheat in relation to resistant .25%) and Carbendazim (0. triticina Where as total sugar. During management study of in Vitro food poisoned technique. Kasugamycine and Validamycine wer found promising as they have totally inhibited the test isolate.triticina and also proved its susceptibility. Mancozeb and carbendazim showed less disease intensity.83 per cent inhibition of Rhizoctonia bataticola. Dithomyl. Spores of A. They were also increases plant height. 86.1% ) was found most effective for controlling growth of A.Rathod Name of advisor: Dr. Ridomil. phenolic acid and chlorophyll content in leaves showed its resistance against A. DithaneZ-78. The fungus had proved pathogenicity test and found that it was host specific in nature. Screening of 120 wheat strains against A.losses. .25%) and Carbendazim (0.S.

95% RH and alternate cycle of 12 hours light and 12 hour darkness favours maximum growth and sporulation. anisopliae . quinolphos. Fungicides and insecticides against N. Mutant (Nrmutant) has not expressed any additive effect in respect with virulence and enzymatic activities. Nr. Higher larval H. Shelf life studies indicted that N. Physical presence of mycelium and pathological changes in hoemolymph was major cause of insect death. Leaf dip method noted high LC 50 and LT50 values for each instar where as leaf + larval dip method recorded maximum LC50 and LT50 value for attaining higher mortality of H. (2005) Name of Student: Mr.rileyi had a wide host range.armigera.e spinosad with N.rileyi oil formulation under field condition.rileyi followed by lignite and charcoal.armigera. Sabouraud’s maltose agar with yeast extract (SMAY) was found to be the best medium for growth and supported high sporulation followed by SDA and BCY medium. Page analysis in respect to protein profile as molecular marker can be efficiently used for differentiating the variability as well as virulence. Soybean and sunflower oil retained high conidial viability and virulence under both temperature regimes. Pathogenic ability against different insect species was also proved other than H armigera and inferred that N.PDKV local isolate was highly virulent as recorded maximum mortality with least LT50 value. Endosulphon. Positive virulence was existed with expression of chitinases. proteases and lipase activities of individual isolates.armigera reduction on chickpea was obtained due to foliar application of N.T. Cumulative . highest mortality was achieved with HaNPV and M.B.Yogesh V. The LC50 value of N. Copper oxychloride + Streptomycin and Sulphur as a fungicide and among insecticide cypermethrin . A temperature 25oC. 250C and room temperature storage retained the conidial viability and virulence till six months and later decline much compared to low temperature storage.armigera . Carbendazim . However. Increase in storage period decreases the longevity and virulence of N.rileyi under invitro were assayed by poisoned food technique.rileyi for early instar was low and required more spore concentration for aged larva. and carbaryl were found safer where as Thiram .Title: Studies on application of Numoraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson as a biopesticide. LT50 value were higher at lower doses while lower for higher concentration. Spores harvested from sorghum substrates were more virulent followed by maize . Kaoline powder supported high conidial viability and persisted the virulence of N.rileyi. where as among the microbial insecticide . mancozeb. Maltose as a carbon and sodium nitrate as a nitrogen sources resulted in higher spore germination. rileyi recorded highest mortality of H.rileyi could retained the viability and virulence at low temperature storage (4 & 100C) compared to 250C and room temperature.Raut Among the seven isolates including mutant. The characteristics symptoms on larvae were noted as a mummified covered with dense white mycelium mate later turned green due to sporulation. Combination of insecticides i. chloropyriphos and spinosad were found detrimental to N.Ingle Chairman: Dr.rileyi . diamethoate. SMAY media to H.

e. 4. Coleoptera.19 and 196. Esterase isozyme efficiently used in determining variability among isolates. anisopliae had a wide host range. but among the oil formulation with N. In Ma-BNG isolate the LC50 and LT50 value was minimum in comparison to Ma-TNAU and MaNDL isolates. Soybean and sunflower oil formulation caused reduction in pod damage and increase in grain yield of chickpea. An increase in spore concentration corresponds to increase in mortality.93 x 106 and 2. Compatibility of M.38) proved efficient in reduction of pod damage.83 x 108 spores/ml respectively. 7.rileyi soybean oil (1:18. Sabouraud’s dextrose agar and its broth media supported maximum growth and sporulation of three tested M.20 and 6. anisopliae isolates was tested with commonly used pesticides in laboratory condition by adopting poison food technique copper oxychloride + streptomycin and cypermethrin found compatibly as least per cent inhibition recorded at three levels of concentration.50% mortality with a least LT50 value of 155. Title of Thesis :“Evaluation of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. yielded highest spore production i.) Sorokin as a Bioinsecticide against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)” (2005) Full Name of student : Eshwar Ballaiah Burgoni Name of Advisor : Dr. M. DC-Tron (1:16.60 hr. The principal environmental factor supported for the development of M. virulent isolate Ma-BNG expressed higher chitinase.5 x 2. infect several economically important crop pests.04 hr against IInd. incremental coat benefit ration was higher in endosulphoan (1:21:14).60.30 x 105. Extra cellular enzymes show positive relation of virulence.90 x 107 spores/ml and the LT50 value of 155. later turn dark herbage to pink green due to heavy sporulation conidia rod in shape and dimension ranges 6. protease and lipase .57) and sunflower (1:16.3 – 7.82.larval reduction was found in increase with an increase in duration after spraying DC-tron. The LC50 value were 3. Bioassay study revealed that susceptibility of insects positively associated with the spore concentration. 7. Host range study revealed that M. 182. belonging to different orders. anisopliae isolates as temperature 20-30oC. anisopliae isolate produced initially white mycelial growth. Localized concentration of hyphal bodies observed in haemocoel and subsequently invades muscles and after organs of larval bodies.5 – 3. anisopliae isolates. G. maize and pigeonpea along with 1% yeast found to be the best grain media. Though. Orthoptera and Hemiptera. increase in larval mortality and higher grain yield.4). Rice. Pathogenicity test of six isolates carried out against IInd instar larvae of H. D. 80-95% RH and 24 hr darkness during incubation favoured maximum growth and sporulation. IIIrd and IVth instar larvae respectively.2 µm. armigera and Ma-BNG isolate found highly virulent recorded 82. Protein molecular marker can be exploited for identification of virulent and avirulent isolates. Agarkar The entomopathogenic fungi Metarihizium anisopliae have long been known to be highly pathogenic to various insects and has been identified from about 300 species of Lepidoptera.

activity.T.graminicola were isolated on the basis of pathogenicity to their original host. seedling blight etc. C. C.truncatum and C. cotton (Cg2) sorghum (Cg3). endosulfan (1616 Kg/ha) and control (674 Kg/ha).capsici. anthracnose fruit rot.capsici isolates developed after 3 days except Cc6. Appressoria possessing varied type of shape and size borne in all isolates within 3 to 5 days of incubation.46 mm growth was achieved on 9th day. when stored at 4 and 10oC upto 180 days of storage. a teleomorph Glomerella.capsici Cc10 has 78. B. classified under Phylum Ascomycota.capsici causing diseases in soybean and chilli respectively and six each highly pathogenic isolates were selected among ten and nine belongs to diverse geographical areas and designated as Ct and Cc. horticultural. The detailed studies were directed towards the pathogen C. The isolates were categorized on pathogenic basis. Cc6. C.e. Cc10 had white to ash dark black grayish yellow colonies with saffron colour conidial mass. Ct6 took 4 days and C. The ICBR was highest in groundnut oil 1:29. C. Class-Filamentous Ascomycetes. armigera in chickpea crop under field condition.gloeosporioides isolated from soybean (Cg1). vegetables and fruit crop by initiating the diseases namely dieback. anamorph Colletotrichum. (Cg5) orange. The viability and virulence of the infective unit conidia during storage and application were more in kaoline carrier. Title of Thesis:“ Pathogenic diversity in isolates of Colletotrichum spp. groundnut oil and sunflower oil formulation. Ct1 were compatible with Ct2.86 mm).gloeosporioides. acervuli and setae.” were carried out for ascertaining the variability among different species of Colletotrichum. Guldekar Name of Advisor : Dr. The result were compared with untreated control and endosulfan (0. armigera population.Among nine isolates of C.3.truncatum Ct5.truncatum Ct7 was initially slow grower but 76.03 mm followed by Cc2 76. Setae were not observed in C. Ct5. C.capsici i.gossypii and C. Ct5. The grain yield in groundnut oil (1462 Kg/ha) sunflower oil (1369 Kg/ha). C. Among C. A genus Colletotrichum has an wide host range causing wide spread damage in field. Cc8 and Cc10. Cc8. while C.73 mm radial mycelial growth while Cg2 recorded maximum growth (84.Micrometrical observations also revealed large variation in dimension of conidia.truncatum and C.” Full Name of student : Damaynti D.capsici. order Phyllachorales. during the course of .truncatum. Ct7 and Ct8 formed the selerotia. Ct7. anisopliae were evaluated against H. Compatibility studies indicated the development of sterile perithecia in the form of black dot like structure among same and different species C. However there was no development of asci and ascospores. The groundnut oil and sunflower oil formulation were found to most effective in reducing H.dematium. The effectiveness of carrier and oil based formulation of M. C. Whereas conidia stored at 25oC and room temperature in carrier and oil based formulation lost viability after only 60 days of storage.06%).truncatum Ct1 and Ct4 exhibited black colonies. (Cg4) mango.Raut The investigation entitled “Pathogenic diversity in isolates of Colletotrichum spp. pod blight. Among thirty one.

Maximum spore inhibition was recorded in carrot grass extract followed by golden duranta. Sensitivity of isolates against carbendazim and cymoxanil + mancozeb also revealed the variation. mass multiplication. mancozeb (0..27 per cent in chilli. Isozymes esterase and peroxidase also revealed the variation among set of both the isolates.capsici was found in parenchymatous tissue of seed coat proving that Colletotrichum is internally seed borne.25%) or carbendazim (0.Colletotrichum truncatum and Colletotrichum capsici was able to infect the non host crops viz..W.25%). Cc10 (Rahuri) comprised under pathotype I.25%) and carboxin (0. Soybean isolates Ct1 (Akola).truncatum and C. longivity/ shelf life and their degrading abilities. turmeric and mango under cross inoculation studies while Ct4 and Ct6 infect only seven different hosts.Three sprays of fungicides viz.05%) and as under ecofriendly management ajwain seed extract (5%) or behada leaf extract (5%) while among bioagents culture filtrate (5%) of Trichoderma viride or Trichoderma harzianum were effective in reducing the disease intensity in soybean and chilli.67 and 7. Large quantities of CO2 is essential for photosynthesis released into atmosphere and an very important soil constituent the humus is formed and added to the soil which ultimately improves the soil structure and soil productivity. orange.Six fungicides.1%) had 100 per cent spore inhibition. Botanicals or bioagents could be used as ecofriendly management trial for incorporating in the module of integrated disease management Enrichment of Compost Through Microbial Inoculants and Chemical Amendments Full Name of student : Deepti S.investigation. Isolate of Colletotrichum truncatum Ct6 and Ct7 showed close similarity. cotton. seven botanicals and three bioagents were tested under management studies in vitro and vivo Chlorothalonil (0.Ingle Degradation of organic material through microbial activities is beneficial as organic debris are continously removed from environment. Hyphae of C. Twenty fungal and bacterial cultures were isolated and collected from different substrates and sources and tested their enzymic activities. pathotype II Ct5 (Mangrulpir) and Ct7 (Bhaurad) while pathotype III Ct6 (Anand) as they produced different type of reaction against seventeen soybean differentials (varieties). while Cc9 (Guntur) represent pathotype II on the basis of seventeen chilli differentials (varieties) response under epiphytotic condition. Bhagat Name of Advisor : Dr. cymoxanil + mancozeb (0.Among C. Cc6 (Anand). R.Transmission of pathogen in soybean seed was 27. tomato. The isolates were collected from limited diverse geographical areas but exhibited the diversity in pathogenic ability. Cc8 (Yavatmal). Cluster analysis of proteins banding pattern exhibited four major clusters.1%) or propiconazole (0. papaya.e. mung beans.capsici five isolates i. Ct2 (Amravati) and Ct4 (Nashik) as pathotype I. Ct7 (Hyderabad). These treatments increased the yield and also reduced the infected pods. Title of Thesis:“ . Cc1 (Akola).Host differential response is an indicative for tentatively grouping of pathotype in both the pathogen.

harzianum. viride and C. grisea and C. T. viride followed by T. harzianum. globosum. cotton stalk. globosum. A. A. Therefore. bibula. C. C.. A niger. lignin and filter paper degrading activity compared to their mother cultures. niger. however. T. The carrier used were talc. T. spiralis. All these cultures showed good growth on lignin and tannic acid medium. harzianum. Sixteen fungal and four bacterial cultures were tested for their cellulolytic activity. The efficient cultures viz. grisea and C. and thirty two stable mutants were obtained by exposing ultraviolet radiation and using PEG and Colchicine. pigeonpea stalk. bibula also showed good starch hydrolyzing activity. C. pectin. globosum. clear zone around the colonies followed by T. charcoal and fly ash. globosum. viride. spiralis. T. T. sorghum stalk. globosum. spiralis. Among bacterial cultures Cellulomonas bibula showed maximum depth of clearance zone.Among twenty cultures of fungi and bacteria. wheat straw. The best substrate for all the cultures was sorghum grain as maximum number of propagules were retained after 180 days of inocubation. viride and C. globosum. cellulose. lignite. globosum. T. sugarcane trash. further study of these mutants were not continued. C.e. Good pectin degrading activity on Hankin’s medium and good cellulose degrading activity using Czapek’s mineral salt agar medium was also asseyed. bibula and four promising cultures namely T. Shelf life was undertaken to assess the suitability of different carrier materials. viride recorded maximum radial growth and also showed positive reaction i. niger. The mutants expressed less activity of starch. bibula which were selected on the basis of preliminary studies were used for decomposition of agricultural crop wastes viz. spiralis. sorghum grain. Chaetomium globosum and Trichurus spiralis had shown good to very good growth on filter paper strips and also maximum per cent loss in weight of filter paper strips after 15 days of incubation which indicated the cellulolytic nature of cultures. Cellulose degrading activities of the cultures were also assessed by measuring amount of reducing sugar and maximum released by T. Efforts have been made to generate stable mutants of T. viride followed by C.e. C. parthenium and weeds. H. bataticola. pectin. viride exhibited more radial growth followed by T. T. C.. spiralis. bibula were undertaken to evaluate the suitability of locally available substrates i. H. bibula by physical and chemical mutation. H. T. niger. spiralis. grisea and R. Maximum utilization of cellulose was exhibited by maximum depth of clearance zone and it was found with T. The rate of decomposition of different substrates by selected cultures . Trichoderma viride. T. spiralis. bibula were selected further investigations. spiralis. A. cellulose and lignin hydrolysis activities. T. T. peat and FYM. grisea and C. harzianum. and Aspergillus niger.globosum. viride and C. wheat grain. H.. These cultures were tested for their starch. C. T. C. Mass multiplication of different cultures viz. Talc was found as best carrier among all the carrier materials as it support maximum colony forming units up to 180 days of storage while fly ash recorded minimum number of propagules. T. Eight cultures could utilized lignin.

Rhizobium. globosum + T. T. C. globosum + T. which was inoculated with the combination of cultures i. C.96:1) etc.38 to 13. After enrichment. globosum. spiralis + C.73:1). globosum and T. Higher amount of CO2 evolution was recorded within first week of incubation but it was declined to the extent of 50 per cent during second week and later it was drastically reduced till VIIIth week of degradation. which was inoculated with the T. globosum. the weight loss of substrates also increased. viride gave highest per cent loss in weight of wheat straw and it was followed by parthenium. Initial C:N ratio of organic substrates was lowered down by all the treatments after decomposition. 2 per cent nitrogenous and 1 per cent phophatic chemical fertilizer. (Rhizobium and Azotobacter) phosphate solubilizing (PSB) biofertilizer.e. For decomposition of agricultural wastes viz. The degraded substrates were enriched by addition of nitrogen fixing. while maximum weight loss was found with T. Wheat straw released maximum amount of CO2 followed by sorghum stalk. sorghum stalk and pigeonpea stalk etc.60 to 13. As the decomposition period increased. The efficiency of degradation of different substrates were also measured by its per cent weight loss of substrates. viride was found more effective as maximum phosphorus content was obtained in wheat straw. Among all the treatments. viride. cotton stalk (58. sorghum stalk. pigeonpea stalk.e. viride. T. . viride was highly effective to brought down the initial C:N ratio of wheat straw (71. wheat straw. pigeonpea stalk (55. pigeonpea stalk. sorghum stalk. C. parthenium and weeds were treated with four efficient cultures. T. spiralis + C.98 to 13. etc. T. Total phosphorus content was found to be increased after decomposition process. viride.27 to 13. weeds. cotton stalk. spiralis. etc. globosum + T.combinations were evaluated by CO2 evolution. bibula separately. It was followed by T. cotton stalk. within 30 days. sugarcane trash. However. spiralis + C. The number of propagules decreased slightly at 150 and continued till 180 days. globosum + T.51:1). spiralis. The effect of all treatment on rate of degradation was studied by measuring the colony forming units after 180 days of decomposition. pigeonpea stalk etc. i. The combination of T. there was steep increase in the number of propagules. globosum + T. Similar trend was noticed up to 90 days while maximum found at 120 days of decomposition. Maximum viable propagules were obtained in wheat straw followed by sorghum stalk. globosum + T. T. spiralis + C. bibula was also found effective in reducing the initial C:N ratio of different substrates.18:1). etc. T spiralis + C. spiralis + C. per cent loss in weight and C:N ratio. spiralis + T. viride alone and in combination and C. viride. sorghum stalk. viride in parthenium and it was followed by wheat straw. sorghum stalk (43. the maximum population of Azotobacter. T. spiralis + C. pigeonpea stalk. PSB and fungi found with the combination of micro organisms + cowdung + urea + SSP + treatment in wheat straw while other treatments were also found effective and showed maximum viable propagules in different substrates after 30 days of incubation.

it enhanced the effect.Addition of the amendments. microorganism + cowdung + urea + SSP was found more effective in reducing the C:N ratio of decomposed wheat straw (from 13. initially it was less with fresh substrates and it increased after decomposition but after enrichment with biofertilizers and chemical amendments. Microorganisms + cowdung + urea + SSP gave more phosphorus content in wheat straw. initial C:N ratio of decomposed substrates was brought down and treatment. compared to other substrates.10:1) and it was followed by microorganism + cowdung and microorganism were also found effective in lowering the C:N ratio in all the substrates. The extent of decomposition of agricultural wastes was determined by its total phosphorus content.18 to 9. .

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