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NAME: unknown

SUBJECT: Geography

CLASS: 11 Arts

TEACHER: unknown
Table of Content

Introduction i

Acknowledgement ii

Aim of Study 1

Statement of Problem

Location of Study Area


Map of Jamaica

Map of Hanover

Map showing location of study area


Method of Data Collection


Processes of Erosion by Waves

Destructive Waves

Features formed by Destructive Waves







Wave-cut Platform


Constructive Wave

Feature formed by Constructive Waves


Presentation and Interpretation of Data






Check List
Wind and water changes the shoreline. The waves of the ocean change the shape of

the land. This project highlights the numerous land forms created by wave action along the

Rusea’s coastline. Relevant information is presented along with the use of photographs to

give the reader a visual illustration of features formed along the coastline. It is the

researcher’s intention that readers will find the project informative and easy to grasp.
The successful completion of this study would not have been possible without the

assistance and cooperation of a number of persons. Thanks to Ms. unknown my geography

teacher who shared her knowledge and helping me to complete this project, my cousin

Wendolyn who was generous to type my S.B.A., Nicholas Brown, Alisha Whitmore,

Veronica Buchanan, Doneka Campbell and most of all god who gave me the strength to

complete this project and making it a success.

The aim of the researcher is to find and highlight the effects of wave action along

the Rusea’s coastline.

To investigate the effects wave action has on the Rusea’s coastline.
The area chosen for field study was conducted along the Rusea’s coastline Campus

1. It is located in the parish of Hanover (See map 2). It is situated on Watson Taylor Drive

west of the parish capital Lucea. It is between the town of Lucea and the community of

Copper Wood.
The researcher used the questionnaire and observation method to collect relevant

data which was used in the S.B.A. Photographs of the coastline features were taken

during the month of November by schoolmates of the researcher which was also

used in the S.B.A. The questionnaire is consisted of three closed ended questions.

During the month of November questionnaires were distributed to ten persons living

in the range of the Rusea’s coastline who were randomly selected. Observation was

done using a check list and sketch diagrams. Secondary sources were also consulted

for relevant data, example: internet and textbook.

What is a wave?

A wave is a circular movement of water caused by the energy of the wind along the

surface of the water. Various features are formed due to the erosion and deposition.

There are two types of waves:

• Destructive Waves

• Constructive Waves
There are four main processes by which waves can erode the land. These are:

 Hydraulic Action

This is the mechanical loosening and removal of materials by the force of the


 Corrasion

This results from large waves hurling beach materials against the cliff.

 Attrition

This is the process by which rock fragments are broken up along the coast by

impact or by sticking along each other.

 Corrosion

This is the removal of minerals such as chalk and limestone from the

A destructive wave is one of a series of waves which follow each other in very rapid

succession, at the rate of about ten to fifteen per minute. The backwash is much stronger

than the swash.

Features formed by destructive waves:

• Headland

• Arch

• Cave

• Blowhole

• Stack

• Inlet

• Cliff

• Wave-cut Platform
This is an area of highland jotting out into the sea. The destructive waves erode the

less resistant part of the rock leaving the more resistant rock which remains as headland as

shown in the photograph below.

Arches are relatively temporary features formed by the erosion of a headland which

eventually meet and break through. It has a tunnel- like shape as shown in the picture

Cave develops along a line of weakness at the base of a cliff which has been

subjected to prolong wave action. The alternate compression and expansion of the air in the

cracks enlarges them resulting into caves. A cave is a cylindrical tunnel which extends into

the cliff as shown in the photograph below.

This is a coastal feature formed by the erosive processes of corrasion and hydraulic

action. The roof of a cave is eroded, which air and water is forced up through, as shown in

the photograph below.

A stack is a residual feature formed when marine erosion attacks a headland. When

there is further erosion to an arc this cause the arch to collapse, the end of the

headland stand up as a stack. This is an isolated pillow of rock standing up from the seabed

close to the shore as shown in the photograph below.

Destructive waves erode the weaker or less resistant parts of a rock forming an inlet.

It forms a U- shape where water flows through as shown in the photograph below.
A Cliff is a high and steep rock face locateed along the sea coast. This is a highland


that is undercut by erosive waves. The lower section of the rock is eroded forming


overhanging cliff, as shown in the photograph below.

Wave cut platforms are subjected to salt weathering and process of erosion such as

hydraulic action and abrasion. This is a very gentle sloping platform extending seawards

from the base of a cliff. Platforms widen as the cliff retreat as shown in the photograph

A constructive wave is one of a series of waves which moves gently inwards the

coast at the rate of six to eight a minute. Constructive waves have a powerful swash but a

much weaker backwash. Due to this material is deposited on the beach helping it to build


Feature formed by constructive waves:

• Beach
The action of construction wave deposits pebbles, sand and mud, which, when


along a coast form a gently sloping land form called a beach.

The material of which a beach is composed is transported along a coast by

long -shore drift.

Sandy beaches are produced from soft sandstone which has been deposited, as

shown in the photograph below.

Presentation and interpretation

Chart Showing Responses of Questionnaire

Figure one is a pie chart illustrating the percentages gained from question two of the

questionnaire(see appendix). 60% of the individuals questioned stated that the sea was

roughest during June to November. This is due to the fact that the Hurricane Season is

normally expected during this time of year. 30% stated during December to January and the

remaining 10% responded that during February to May the sea was the roughest.
The researcher has concluded that the Rusea’s coastline is changing and has been

eroded mainly by destructive waves. After an entensive observation the researcher

discovered that the action of waves on the coast results in various land forms. The erosion

and deposition caused by waves form: headlands, arcs, inlets, cliffs, stacks, wave-cut

platforms, caves and beaches.


Instuction: Please answer the following questions appropriately and give a small tick

where applicable in the boxes to indicate your response.

1. How often do you visit the coastline?

Once per week

Twice per week
Three times per week

2. What time during the year the sea gets the roughest?


3. Have you noticed ant changes along the coast?

Coast- A zone or strip of land extending from the coastline, which borders the sea to

where the land and rises inland.

Backwash- The receding of waves from the shore after a swash.

Swash- The movement of the wave towards the shore.

Long-shore drift-The deposition of materials along a beach.

Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 2003.

Rahil, Vohn A.M. New Caribbean Georaphy 1984. Caribbean Educational Publisher.

R.B. Bunett, S.Bc. General Geography in Diagram 2003.Longman.

Garrett Nagle Advancd Geography 2000.Oxford

Features Yes No






Wave-cut platform




Blow hole