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unknown Geography 11 Arts unknown
Table of Content
Introduction Acknowledgement i ii
Aim of Study Statement of Problem 2 Location of Study Area 3 Map of Jamaica 4 Map of Hanover 5 Map showing location of study area 6 Method of Data Collection 7
Processes of Erosion by Waves 9 Destructive Waves 10 Features formed by Destructive Waves Headland 11 Arch 12 Cave 13 Blowhole 14 Stack 15 Inlet 16 Wave-cut Platform 17 Cliff 18 Constructive Wave 19 Feature formed by Constructive Waves Beach 20 Presentation and Interpretation of Data 21 Conclusion 22
Appendix 23 Questionnaire 24 Glossary 25 Bibliography 26 Check List 27 .
The waves of the ocean change the shape of the land.Wind and water changes the shoreline. Relevant information is presented along with the use of photographs to give the reader a visual illustration of features formed along the coastline. . It is the researcher’s intention that readers will find the project informative and easy to grasp. This project highlights the numerous land forms created by wave action along the Rusea’s coastline.
B. Thanks to Ms.A. Doneka Campbell and most of all god who gave me the strength to complete this project and making it a success. Veronica Buchanan. unknown my geography teacher who shared her knowledge and helping me to complete this project. .The successful completion of this study would not have been possible without the assistance and cooperation of a number of persons. Nicholas Brown.. Alisha Whitmore. my cousin Wendolyn who was generous to type my S.
.The aim of the researcher is to find and highlight the effects of wave action along the Rusea’s coastline.
To investigate the effects wave action has on the Rusea’s coastline. .
It is between the town of Lucea and the community of Copper Wood.The area chosen for field study was conducted along the Rusea’s coastline Campus 1. . It is situated on Watson Taylor Drive west of the parish capital Lucea. It is located in the parish of Hanover (See map 2).
During the month of November questionnaires were distributed to ten persons living in the range of the Rusea’s coastline who were randomly selected. The questionnaire is consisted of three closed ended questions.The researcher used the questionnaire and observation method to collect relevant data which was used in the S. Photographs of the coastline features were taken during the month of November by schoolmates of the researcher which was also used in the S.A. Secondary sources were also consulted for relevant data. Observation was done using a check list and sketch diagrams. . example: internet and textbook.A.B.B.
There are two types of waves: • • Destructive Waves Constructive Waves .What is a wave? A wave is a circular movement of water caused by the energy of the wind along the surface of the water. Various features are formed due to the erosion and deposition.
Attrition This is the process by which rock fragments are broken up along the coast by impact or by sticking along each other. .There are four main processes by which waves can erode the land. Corrasion This results from large waves hurling beach materials against the cliff. These are: Hydraulic Action This is the mechanical loosening and removal of materials by the force of the waves. Corrosion This is the removal of minerals such as chalk and limestone from the coastline.
at the rate of about ten to fifteen per minute.A destructive wave is one of a series of waves which follow each other in very rapid succession. The backwash is much stronger than the swash. Features formed by destructive waves: • • • • • • • • Headland Arch Cave Blowhole Stack Inlet Cliff Wave-cut Platform .
The destructive waves erode the less resistant part of the rock leaving the more resistant rock which remains as headland as shown in the photograph below. .This is an area of highland jotting out into the sea.
. It has a tunnel.Arches are relatively temporary features formed by the erosion of a headland which eventually meet and break through.like shape as shown in the picture below.
. The alternate compression and expansion of the air in the cracks enlarges them resulting into caves.Cave develops along a line of weakness at the base of a cliff which has been subjected to prolong wave action. A cave is a cylindrical tunnel which extends into the cliff as shown in the photograph below.
This is a coastal feature formed by the erosive processes of corrasion and hydraulic action. . as shown in the photograph below. which air and water is forced up through. The roof of a cave is eroded.
.A stack is a residual feature formed when marine erosion attacks a headland. When there is further erosion to an arc this cause the arch to collapse. This is an isolated pillow of rock standing up from the seabed close to the shore as shown in the photograph below. the end of the headland stand up as a stack.
Destructive waves erode the weaker or less resistant parts of a rock forming an inlet.shape where water flows through as shown in the photograph below. . It forms a U.
A Cliff is a high and steep rock face locateed along the sea coast. as shown in the photograph below. The lower section of the rock is eroded forming an overhanging cliff. Cliff . This is a highland area that is undercut by erosive waves.
Wave cut platforms are subjected to salt weathering and process of erosion such as hydraulic action and abrasion. This is a very gentle sloping platform extending seawards from the base of a cliff. . Platforms widen as the cliff retreat as shown in the photograph below.
Due to this material is deposited on the beach helping it to build up. Feature formed by constructive waves: • Beach .A constructive wave is one of a series of waves which moves gently inwards the coast at the rate of six to eight a minute. Constructive waves have a powerful swash but a much weaker backwash.
as shown in the photograph below.The action of construction wave deposits pebbles. The material of which a beach is composed is transported along a coast by long -shore drift. when deposited along a coast form a gently sloping land form called a beach. Sandy beaches are produced from soft sandstone which has been deposited. . which. sand and mud.
. This is due to the fact that the Hurricane Season is normally expected during this time of year. 30% stated during December to January and the remaining 10% responded that during February to May the sea was the roughest. 60% of the individuals questioned stated that the sea was roughest during June to November.Presentation and interpretation Chart Showing Responses of Questionnaire Figure one is a pie chart illustrating the percentages gained from question two of the questionnaire(see appendix).
stacks. arcs. cliffs.The researcher has concluded that the Rusea’s coastline is changing and has been eroded mainly by destructive waves. wave-cut platforms. . caves and beaches. After an entensive observation the researcher discovered that the action of waves on the coast results in various land forms. The erosion and deposition caused by waves form: headlands. inlets.
1. Have you noticed ant changes along the coast? Yes No . How often do you visit the coastline? Once per week Twice per week Three times per week 2. What time during the year the sea gets the roughest? Jun-Nov Dec-Jan Feb-May 3.Questionnaire Instuction: Please answer the following questions appropriately and give a small tick where applicable in the boxes to indicate your response.
Swash.The receding of waves from the shore after a swash. Backwash.A zone or strip of land extending from the coastline. Long-shore drift-The deposition of materials along a beach. which borders the sea to where the land and rises inland.The movement of the wave towards the shore.Coast. .
Rahil.M.Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 2003.B. Garrett Nagle Advancd Geography 2000. Vohn A. R.Bc. New Caribbean Georaphy 1984.Oxford . Bunett. General Geography in Diagram 2003. S.Longman. Caribbean Educational Publisher.
Features Headland Arch Cliff Cave Stack Wave-cut platform Yes No .
Inlet Beach Stump Bay Blow hole Cove .
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