# von Mises Material Properties

von Mises material models are available for 2-D, beam, shell, brick and tetrahedral elements. These material models are used when an elastic material is going to be loaded past the yield strength of the material. When this happens, plastic deformation will occur. The "von Mises with - Hardening" material model will use a bilinear curve to calculate the stress values. The elastic region of the stress versus strain has a slope equal to the modulus of elasticity, and the plastic region of the stress versus strain has a slope equal to the strain hardening modulus.

There are two types of hardening material models available. The isotropic hardening model involves yielding the entire yield surface uniformly. The kinematic hardening involves a shifting of the yield surface (primarily due to a reversal of loading). See Figures 1 and 2. The kinematic hardening model is preferred for analyses involving cyclical loading (Bauschinger effect), but the stress-strain behavior of the actual material should be used to decide between isotropic and kinematic hardening.

Uniaxial stress-strain curve. If the part is taken beyond the yield stress, it begins to deform plastically. If taken to a maximum stress (point A) and the load is released, it unloads along the dashed line. If the part is loaded again, no additional plastic deformation occurs until the stress reaches point A.

If the part is put into compression, it compresses elastically along the dashed line until it reaches point B, and then it yields in compression.

With isotropic hardening, the change in stress from point A to point B is twice the maximum stress obtained.

If the part is put into compression. If the part is taken beyond the yield stress. no additional plastic deformation occurs until the stress reaches point A. If the part is loaded again. In the biaxial case. the part experiences plastic deformation. Figure 1: Isotropic Hardening Uniaxial stress-strain curve. it begins to deform plastically. With kinematic hardening. With isotropic hardening. If taken to a maximum stress (point A) and the load is released. Any stress state inside the new yield surface (surface B) will experience elastic deformation. any combination of stress inside the initial yield surface (surface A) is in the elastic region. the change in stress from point A to point B is twice the yield stress. it unloads along the dashed line. Once the part is taken beyond the initial yield surface. and then it yields in compression. it compresses elastically along the dashed line until it reaches point B. . the center of the yield surface remains fixed but the size of the surface increases.Biaxial stress-strain curve. new plastic deformation occurs when the stress state reaches surface B.

In the biaxial case. After yielding once. any combination of stress inside the initial yield surface (surface A) is in the elastic region. When the material properties for a part are loaded from a material library. namely. new plastic deformation occurs when the stress state reaches surface B. the center of the yield surface moves but the size of the surface remains constant. and a third point identified in the library manager as the ultimate strength and elongation at 2 in. the new yield stress depends on the type of hardening and the loading history. In addition it may be necessary to define some isotropic material properties. The von Mises material properties are identical for both models.0). (0. Yield Strength The yield strength of a material is the point on the stress versus strain curve where the material initially starts to go into plastic strain. Figure 2: Kinematic Hardening The von Mises material properties are listed below. Strain Hardening Modulus The strain hardening modulus is the slope of the stress versus strain curve after the point of yield of a material. Once the part is taken beyond the initial yield surface.Biaxial stress-strain curve. Any stress state inside the new yield surface (surface B) will experience elastic deformation. the strain hardening modulus is based on the three points that define the bilinear stress-strain curve. With kinematic hardening. the yield point. The strain hardening modulus is then calculated as follows: . the part experiences plastic deformation.

Yield Strength.strain hardening modulus = Ultimate Strength .yield strain where yield strain is the strain corresponding to the yield strength. . Elongation at 2 in. The Ultimate Strength. and Modulus of Elasticity are stored in the material library. or yield strain = (Yield Strength) / (Modulus of Elasticity).Yield Strength (Elongation at 2 in)/100 .

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