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Low Resonant

frequency rise
High
Gain roll-off frequency
roll-off
Flat
resp
onse

fr Frequency

Frequency response of Transformer coupled amplifier


EE-305.72 to 73 5
Reactance of the coil w.r.t. Frequency

jXL

XL=2 π f L

0 Frequency

Frequency XL=2 π f L
EE-305.72 to 73 6
At Low Frequencies

• The output voltage of a TC amplifier is equal to the


product of the collector current and the reactance of
the primary winding of the coupling transformer.

• Voltage gain rolls off (decreases)

• Why?

• Reactance of primary begins to fall, resulting in

decreased gain. EE-305.72 to 73 7


At High Frequencies

• Voltage gain rolls off


(decreases)
• Why

• The capacitance
between turns of
windings acts as a
bypass capacitor
Distributed
• Reduces the output capacitance
voltage and hence gain
EE-305.72 to 73 8
Peak gain and Flat Response

• Peak gain
–It results due to the resonance effect of inductance
and distributed capacitance

• Resonant frequency
- The frequency at which the resonant occurs is called

resonant frequency fr
• Flat response
-Small as compared to that of RC coupled amplifier

EE-305.72 to 73 9
Transformer Impedance matching

I1 I2
V1 n1 I1 n1
V2
= =
V1 V2 n 2 I2 n 2
n1 n2
V1 = V 2 I1 = I2
2
n2 n1
V 1  n1  V 2
=  2
I 1  n2  I 2  n1 
RL ′ =   RL = n 2 RL
 n2 
V1/I1=RL‘=Effective input impedance
V2/I2=RL=Effective output impedance
EE-305.72 to 73 10
• If we want to match a 20 Ω speaker load to a amplifier
so that the effective load may be 8K,then the turns ratio
should be

2
 n1 
RL ′ =   R L = n 2 R L
 n2 
Given
n=20
R L=8000 Ω,
'

RL=20 Ω

EE-305.72 to 73 11
Advantages Of Transformer Coupled Amplifier

• No signal power is lost in the collector or base resistors

• Excellent impedance matching

• Higher gain

• D.C. isolation between first and second stages

EE-305.72 to 73 12
Impedance matching

CE
Amplifier

Out put Reflected Input impedance


impedance is impedance of speaker is
several only a few ohms
hundred ohms high

impedance
matching
EE-305.72 to 73 13
Disadvantages

• Poor frequency response

• The coupling transformer is bulky and costly

• Introduces hum in the circuit

• Not used for amplifying audio frequencies

EE-305.72 to 73 14
Applications

• Used for amplifying radio frequency signals

• Final stage of a multistage amplifier

• For amplifying the power level of the input signal

EE-305.72 to 73 15
Summary
• We have discussed about the

• Frequency response of transformer coupled amplifier

• Factors affecting the frequency response

• Advantages

• Disadvantages

• Applications

EE-305.72 to 73 16
QUIZ

1. The frequency response of transformer


coupling is

(a) Good

(b) Very good

(c) Excellent

(d) Poor

EE-305.72 to 73 17
2. The final stage of a multistage amplifier uses

(a) RC coupling

(b) Transformer coupling

(c) Direct coupling

(d) Any of the above

EE-305.72 to 73 18
1. In Transistor amplifiers ,the type of transformer
used for impedance matching is

(a) Step-Up

(b) Step-Down

(c) Same turns ratio

(d) None of the above

EE-305.72 to 73 19
2. Transformer coupling is generally employed
when the load impedance is

(a) Large

(b) Very large

(c) small

(d) None of the above

EE-305.72 to 73 20
Frequently Asked Questions

1. Draw the frequency response of Transformer coupled


amplifier and Explain.

3. Explain why the gain falls at high frequencies as well


as at low frequencies?

5. List the advantages and disadvantages of Transformer


coupled amplifier

7. List the applications of transformer coupled amplifier?

EE-305.72 to 73 21
Recap

• Already we discussed about the

• Multistage amplifiers and

• Their necessity

EE-305.75 2
Objectives
After the completion of the period student will be
able to know

• Gain and band width of an amplifier.

• Decibel gain

• Why the gain is expressed in decibels.

• Gain of a multistage amplifier

• Frequency response of an amplifier.


EE305.75 3
GAIN

• Def: The ratio of the output electrical quantity to the


input of the amplifier is called gain Electrical quantities
are voltage, current and power accordingly gain can be
voltage gain, current gain or power gain.

Voltage gain Current gain Power gain

Vout Iout Pout


AV = AI = AP =
Vin Iin Pin
EE305.75 4
Block diagram of 2- Stage CE cascade amplifier

FIRST V2 SECOND V3
V1
STAGE STAGE

EE305.75 5
Voltage Gain of a Multi Stage Amplifier

• voltage gain of the first stage V2


AV 1 = Eq no.1
is V1

V3 Eq no.2
• voltage gain of the second AV 2 =
stage V2

• voltage gain of the multi stage V3 V3 V2


AV = = X
amplifier is V1 V 2 V1

• From equation 1 & 2


AV = AV 1 XAV 2 From Eqno.1&2

EE305.75 6
Voltage gain continued

• Voltage gain of the multi stage amplifier is equal to the

product of the voltage gains of the individual stages.

• For n stage cascaded amplifier.


• Magnitude of the total voltage gain.
AV=AV1XAV2X……AVn

• Total phase shift


θ= θ1 + θ2 +------------- θn

• Due to loading effect above condition is not satisfied


EE305.75 7
Decibel Gain

• Def: Ten times the common logarithm of the ratio of output


power to the input power is known as decibel gain

Pout
Powergain =10 log10
Pin
Vout
VolatgegainindB = 20 log 10
Vin
Iout
CurrentgainindB = 20 log 10
Iin
1 bel =10 Decibels
EE305.75 8
Properties of power gain and voltage gain

Factor Power gain in Voltage gain in


decibels decibels
X1 0 dB 0 dB

X2 +3 +6

X 10 +10 +20

X 0.5 -3 -6

X 0.1 -10 -20


EE305.75 9
Gain of multi stage amplifier in dB

• Gain of multi stage (n stage) amplifier is the product of


the gains of the individual stages
A = A1 X A2 X A3-----An
• Taking logarithm on both sides
10log10A = 10log10 (A = A1 X A2 X A3----An )
= 10log10 (A1) + 10log10 (A2) ----+ 10log10 (An)

• AdB = AdB1 +AdB2 + AdB3 +----+AdBn

• The over all gain in dB of a multi stage amplifier is the


sum of the decibel voltage gains of the individual stages.10
EE305.75
Why dB is used?
• It permits gains to be directly added when a number of

stages are cascaded


• Use of logarithms changes multiplication in to an
addition
• It permits us to denote, both very small as well as very
• large quantities of linear scale by conveniently small
figures
Ex: Voltage Gain = 0.000001 = -120dB
Voltage Gain = 456000 = 56dB

• It tallies with the natural response of our ears


EE305.75 11
Frequency Response

• The curve between Gain and signal frequency of an


amplifier is known as frequency response.
Voltage gain

Maximum gain

fr Frequency
EE305.75 12
Band Width
• The range of frequencies over which the gain is equal to or
greater than 70.7% of the maximum gain is known as band
width
Voltage gain

Am

0.707 Am
f1-lower cut-off
frequency

f2-upper cut-off
frequency
The gain bandwidth f1 fr f2
Frequency
product is consant BAND WIDTH=f2-f1
EE305.75 13
3 dB frequencies

• Lower cut off frequency:


f1 – Frequency at which the magnitude of the low
frequency range falls to 0.707 times of the maximum

gain .
• Upper cut off frequency
f2 – Frequency at which the magnitude of the voltage
gain in the high frequency range falls to 0.707 times
of the maximum gain .

• f1 and f2 are also known as 3dB frequencies or half

power frequencies. EE305.75 14


QUIZ

1. A gain of 1,000,000 of times in power is


expressed by

(a) 30dB

(b) 60dB

(c) 20dB

(d) 600dB

EE305.75 15
1. 1dB corresponds to -----------change in power
level

(a) 50%

(b) 35%

(c) 26%

(d) 22%

EE305.75 16
1. The band width of a single stage amplifier is
--------that of a multi stage amplifier

(a) more than

(b) the same as

(c) less than

(d) data

EE305.75 17
1. The upper or lower cut off frequency is also
called--------- frequency

(a) Resonant

(b) Side Band

(c) 3dB

(d) none of the above

EE305.75 18
Assignment Problems

1. The input power to an amplifier is 15mW while output


power is 2W. Find the decibel gain of the amplifier

3. A multi stage amplifier consists of three stages. The


voltage gains of the stages are 30, 50, and 60. calculate
the over all gain in dB.

EE305.75 19
EE305.75
Frequently asked questions

1. Define gain and bandwidth of an amplifier ?

3. Define decibel gain and frequency response of an


amplifier?

5. Define lower and upper cutoff frequencies?

EE305.75 20
EE305.75
Objectives

Upon completion of this period , you would


be able to

• Know what is parallel resonance.

• Derive the expression for resonant frequency.

• Understand the condition for resonance in

parallel LC circuit.

EC – 303 . 61 2
Parallel Resonance

•The Resonance Phenomenon Occurs in


Parallel LC circuits also as in the case of Series LC
circuits
•The parallel resonance occurs at a frequency when
the imaginary part of circuit impedance becomes
Zero

EC – 303 . 61 3
Resonant Frequency

Step1 : Find the expression for admittance of the circuit.

Step2 : Equate the susceptance part of it to zero.

Step3 : Solve for resonant frequency

EC – 303 . 61 4
Analysis
It is convenient use admittance method when solving
parallel Networks
i
Capacitive admittance
y = C
j ω C
Inductive admittance

1
y L
=

L
Y(admittance)
Total admittance
1
y =y C
+ y = jωC +
L jωL
EC – 303 . 61 5
Analysis

The above expression can be reduced to.

 1 
y = j ωC − ωL  (1)

• imaginary part of the admittance is known as the susceptance (B).

• Real part of the admittance is called as conductance (G).

EC – 303 . 61 6
• Conductance G =0

 1 
• Susceptance B = ωC − 
 ωL 

Since Imaginary part is zero under Resonance conditions


Equate succeptance to 0 to find resonant frequency

 1 
ω
 0 C − 
= 0
 ω0 L  (2)
EC – 303 . 61 7
By solving Equation (2) for ω0’

1
ω= 0
LC

As ω = 2πf

1
f 0
=
2π LC
(3)

EC – 303 . 61 8
Impedance at resonance

• Admittance of parallel LC circuit


 1 
y = j ωC − ωL 
• At resonant frequency f0
 1 
ωC −  = 0
 ωL 
• Y=0

• Impedance is reciprocal of admittance.

EC – 303 . 61 9
Impedance at resonance

• Impedance of parallel LC circuit at

resonance is infinite ( ∞).

• If frequency increase above f0 or decrease

below f0 impedance will decrease.

EC – 303 . 61 10
Frequency versus admittance

f0
Resonant frequency

EC – 303 . 61 11
Current at resonant frequency

• Impedance at resonant frequency Z = 0.


v
• Current entering into the circuit = .
z

At resonant frequency the Net current drawn by


parallel LC circuit is equal to zero .

EC – 303 . 61 12
Example1

Q) Find the value of ‘L’ at which the circuit shown resonates at

frequency of 1000 rad/sec ?


1
ω 0
=
LC
(1)
1000rad/sec
-12j
1 = 12 (2)
ω 0
C

1 1
⇒C = = = 83.3µF
12ω0 12 *1000

EC – 303 . 61 13
1
(1) ⇒ LC =
ω0
1
⇒ LC = 2
ω0
1 1
⇒L= 2 = = 0.012 H
ω0 C 1000 * 83.3 *10
2 −6

Therefore the value of ‘L’ required for the circuit


to be resonant = 0.012H .
EC – 303 . 61 14
Summary

• Parallel LC circuit resonates when its succeptance is 0.


1
• Resonant frequency f 0
=
2π LC.

• Impedance at resonant frequency

Z0 =infinite.

• At resonant frequency circuit will act as open circuit.

EC – 303 . 61 15
Summary

• Impedance of circuit decrease as frequency


deviates from resonant frequency.

• current entering into the circuit at resonant


frequency is zero .

• current entering into the circuit increases as


frequency deviates from resonant frequency.

EC – 303 . 61 16
QUIZ
1. Parallel LC circuit resonates when its ___ is zero

a) impedance

b) reactance
c) susceptance

d) none of the above

Ans : ( c )

EC – 303 . 61 17
1) At resonant frequency impedance of parallel
resonant circuit is

a) zero

b) infinite

c) low

d) none of the above

Ans : ( b )

EC – 303 . 61 18
3. Factors that determine the resonant frequency of
parallel LC circuit are

a) L,C values

b) coil resistance

c) only ‘C’ value

d) only ‘L’ value

Ans : ( a )

EC – 303 . 61 19
4 ) At resonant frequency current entering into the
parallel LC circuit is

a) Zero

b) medium

c) Infinite

d) none of the above

Ans : ( a)

EC – 303 . 61 20
Frequently asked questions

1. Define resonant frequency of parallel LC circuit ?

3. Derive the expression for resonant frequency of a parallel


LC circuit ?

5. Explain about variation of impedance with respect to


frequency in parallel resonant circuit ?
EC – 303 . 61 21
Objectives

On completion of this period , you would be


able to
•Understand the condition for resonance in parallel
RL-C circuit.
•Derive the expression for resonant frequency .
•Know the current in parallel RL-C circuit under
resonance.
•Know the impedance of parallel RL-C circuit under
resonance.
EC – 303 . 62 2
Resonance in parallel RL-C circuit

EC – 303 . 62 3
A) When do you say parallel RL-C circuit is in
resonance ?

• When the susceptance part of its admittance


is zero.

• The frequency of excitation at which the


susceptance part of admittance is 0 is known
as resonant frequency f0.

EC – 303 . 62 4
Steps to find the resonant frequency

Step1 : Find the expression for admittance of the circuit

Step2 :Equate the susceptance part of it to zero

Step3 :Solve for frequency which is nothing but resonant


frequency

EC – 303 . 62 5
Now execute these steps to find resonant
frequency

Admittance of coil
i
1
Y L = R + j ωL v
R
C

Admittance of C L

Y C
= j ωC
Y

EC – 303 . 62 6
Simplify YL by multiplying numerator
and denominator with (R- j L)

1 ( R − j ωL ) ( R − jωL )
Y L = ( R + jωL) X ( R − jωL) = R 2 + (ωL) 2

R jωL
= 2 − 2 (1)
R + (ωL) 2
R + (ωL) 2

EC – 303 . 62 7
Now the total admittance ‘y’

Y = YL + YC
R  ωL 
= 2 + j ωC − 2 2 (2)
R + (ωL) 2
 R + (ωL) 

• Real part in the above eq. is the conductance.

• Imaginary part is the susceptance.

EC – 303 . 62 8
Equate susceptance part to zero to
find the resonant frequency

⇒ (3)

EC – 303 . 62 9
Replace with ω0 and solve for ω0

L
⇒ R + (ω0 L) =
2 2
(4)
C
2
1 R
⇒ ω0 = − 2
LC L

ω 0 = 2π f 0

EC – 303 . 62 10
2
1 R
⇒ 2πf 0 = − 2
LC L
Therefore resonant frequency parallel RL-C
circuit is

1 1 R2
f0 = − 2 (5)
2π LC L

EC – 303 . 62 11
Expression for f0 can also be written as

1  R 2C  (6)
f0 = 1 − 
2π LC  L 

• What will happen when >1 ?

• Resonant frequency will become imaginary.


• But frequency must be real and positive.

EC – 303 . 62 12
Therefore the circuit to have a resonant
frequency
Q) how should be the component values ?
• component values should be such that.

>1

• Otherwise f0 will become imaginary.

EC – 303 . 62 13
IMPEDANCE AT RESONANT FREQUENCY

Admittance of the circuit from Eq.1


R  ωL 
Y = 2 + j ωC − 2 2
R + (ωL) 2
 R + (ωL) 

• At resonant frequency susceptance part is zero


R
∴Y = 2
R + (ω0 L) 2

EC – 303 . 62 14
From Eq. (4)

• Impedance is CR
reciprocal of admittance
∴Y =
L
Impedance of parallel LR-C circuit at resonant

frequency
L
Z0 =
CR
EC – 303 . 62 15
CURRENT IN THE CIRCUIT UNDER
RESONANCE

• Applied voltage =v
L
• Impedance at f0 Z0 =
CR
Q)Now what is the current at resonant frequency ?

v v vCR
I0 = = =
Z0 L L
CR

EC – 303 . 62 16
Power factor of parallel LC circuit under
resonance

• Impedance /admittance of parallel resonant circuit


Under resonance is pure resistive/conductive.

• So the voltage and current are in phase.

• Cosine of angle between voltage and current is


known as power factor.

EC – 303 . 62 17
A) Now what is the power factor of an
parallel LC circuit ?

Power factor = cos ϕ = cos(0) = 1

EC – 303 . 62 18
VARIATION OF IMPEDANCE WITH FREQUENCY

Impedance

Z0
• Impedance decreases
as frequency deviates

from f0

R
XC>XL
fo XL>XC frequency

EC – 303 . 62 19
Differences between series and
parallel resonant circuits

Parameter series parallel


1 R 2C
Resonant frequency f 0
=
2π LC f =
1
1−
0
2π LC L
At f0
Impedance(Z0) R(minimum) L/CR(maximum)
Current V/R(very large) (VCR)/L(minimum)
Acts as short circuit Open circuit
power factor unity unity

EC – 303 . 62 20
A) For RL-c circuit shown in fig.find the
resonant frequency ?

Resonant frequency
10v
1  R C
2
10µF 10Ώ
f0 = 1 − 
2π LC  L 
0.1H
On substitution of R,L and C
values in the above equation

f 0 =158.35Hz

EC – 303 . 62 21
summary

• LR-C circuit formed by connecting an RL branch and


a capacitor in parallel.

1  R 2C 
• Resonant frequency of the circuit is f0 = 1 − 
2π LC  L 

• Impedance at f0 ,Z0=L/CR.

• Impedance is maximum at f0.


EC – 303 . 62 22
• Impedance decreases as frequency deviates from f0.

• Current in the circuit is minimum at f0.

• Current increases as frequency deviates from f0.

• power factor under resonance is unity.

EC – 303 . 62 23
Quiz
1)What will happen to impedance of an RL-C circuit
as frequency increases beyond f0?

a) Increases

b) decreases

c) Unchanged

d)none

Ans : ( b )

EC – 303 . 62 24
2) what is the phase difference between
voltage and current in parallel RL-C circuit
under resonance ?

a) 00

b) 900

c) 1350

d) 1800

Ans : ( a)

EC – 303 . 62 25
3) To get minimum current in parallel RL-C circuit
fequency of excitation must be

a) very high

b) very low

c) equal to f0

d) None

Ans : ( c )

EC – 303 . 62 26
4) What will be the impedance of parallel RL-C
circuit when R=0 ?

a) Zero

b) Infinite

c) Low

d) None

Ans : ( b )

EC – 303 . 62 27
Frequently asked questions

1. Draw the parallel RL-C circuit and derive the


expression for its resonant frequency ?
2. With neat graph explain how impedance of
parallel RL-C circuit vary with frequency ?
3. Derive the expressions for impedance and current
of parallel RL-C circuit under resonance ?
4. Prove that the power factor of tank circuit under
resonance is unity.

EC – 303 . 62 28
OBJECTIVES

On completion of this period ,you would able to


solve :

• problems on series resonance

• problems on parallel resonance

EC 303.65 to 66 2
RECAP

• Define resonance ?

• Give formula of quality factor ?

• What is the relation between Q, Bw, fo ?

• What is formula for resonant frequency ?

EC 303.65 to 66 3
1.Determine the resonant frequency of
series resonant circuit shown in Fig.

• What is the expression for resonant 0.5mH

frequency of series RLC circuit ?


Vs
• Resonant frequency of series 10 Ω
1
RLC circuit f 0 =
2π LC 10 µF

Fig 1

EC 303.65 to 66 4
• On Substitution of L and C values in the above Eq.

1
f0 = = 2251Hz
2π 0.5 ×10 ×10 ×10
−3 −6

• Therefore resonant frequency = 2251 Hz

EC 303.65 to 66 5
2.Determine the value of inductive reactance
of the circuit shown at resonance ?

• What will be the net reactance of

RLC series circuit under resonance ? jXL

VS
50 Ω
• Net reactance of RLC series
circuit under resonance X=0
-j25 Ω

Fig 2

EC 303.65 to 66 6
Net reactance X = X L −X C
⇒ X L − 25 = 0
⇒ X L = 25Ω

Therefore the inductive reactance of the circuit under


resonance = 25 ohms

What is the impedance of the circuit at resonance ?

As reactance is zero impedance of the circuit at


resonance Z0 = R= 50 ohms

EC 303.65 to 66 7
3.For the circuit shown in fig3 .Find the
frequency at which maximum voltage
appears across capacitor and also find the
maximum voltage across capacitor

• When will the voltage across


0.1 H
the capacitor be maximum ?
50V
10 Ω
1 R2
• At ω= − 2
LC 2 L 50 µF
Fig 3

EC 303.65 to 66 8
On substitution of L,C,R values in the above Eq.

1 100
∴ω = −6
− = 441.58rad / sec
0.1× 50 × 10 2 × 0.12

Current flowing through the circuit at this frequency

V 50
I= =
R 2 + (ω L − ω C ) 2 100 + (441.58 × 0.1 −
1
)
441.58 × 50 × 10− 6
= 4.968 A

EC 303.65 to 66 9
• Therefore maximum voltage across the capacitor

1
VC max = I × X C = 4 .1 × −6
= 225.1volts
447.17 × 50 × 10

EC 303.65 to 66 10
4.In the circuit shown,the maximum current flows
through the circuit is 0.5ma.determine the
resonant frequency,the bandwidth,and the
quality factor ‘Q’ at resonance ?

• When maximum current flows through RLC series circuit ?

0.1 H

R
5v

5 µF

EC 303.65 to 66 11
Continued…

At resonant frequency maximum current


flows through the RLC series circuit

What is the impedance of RLC at resonant frequency ?

It is Z0 = R

EC 303.65 to 66 12
Determination of ‘R’ value

Maximum current

V 5
I0    0.1mA
Z0 R

5
R 3
 50
0.110

 R  50

EC 303.65 to 66 13
• Determination of resonant frequency

• What is the expression for resonant frequency of series


RLC circuit ?

1
• It is f 0 =
2π LC
1
 f0   225 Hz
2 0.1 5  106

 resonant frequency f 0  225 Hz


and 0  2 f 0  2  225  14142rad / sec

EC 303.65 to 66 14
• Determination of quality factor ‘Q’

• What is the expression for quality factor ‘Q’ of series RLC


resonant circuit ?
ω0 L
• It is Q0 =
R
14142  0.1
 Quality factor Q0   28
50

 Q0  28

EC 303.65 to 66 15
• Determination of bandwidth

• What is the expression for bandwidth of a series RLC


resonant circuit ?

f0
• It is BW =
Q

225
⇒ BW = = 80.36 Hz
28

Therefore the bandwidth BW=80.36 Hz

EC 303.65 to 66 16
5.Determine the lower and upper half-power
frequencies, bandwidth and then quality
factor ‘Q’ of circuit shown in Fig 5.

• Maximum current I0 flows


through the circuit at resonant
0.1 H
frequency

R=10 Ω
v
• current falls to 0.707I0 at half

power frequencies f1 and f2 10 µF


FIG 5

• At resonant frequency
impedance Z0 = R EC 303.65 to 66 17
• So what is the impedance of circuit at half power
frequencies ?

• At half power frequencies

V I V Z0 V R V
Ih = = 0 = = =
Zh 2 2 2 2R

∴ Z h = 2R

• Therefore at half power frequencies


f1/f2 impedance of the circuit Zh= 2R

EC 303.65 to 66 18
DETERMINATION OF LOWER HALF POWER
FREQUENCY ‘f1’

• At lower half power frequency XC>XL

 impedance at lower half power frequency f1

2

1 
Z h1  R  
2
 2 f1 L   2 R
 2 f1C 
2
 1 
 R2    2 f1 L   2 R 2
 2 f1C 
1
  2 f1 L  R (1)
2 f1C

EC 303.65 to 66 19
On Solving equation(1) for f1

4L
R  R 2

f1  C
4 L

4  0.1
10  100  6
 10  10  151.39 Hz
4    0.1

 lower half power frequency f1  151.39 Hz


EC 303.65 to 66 20
DETERMINATION OF UPPER HALF POWER
FREQUENCY ‘ f2’

• At upper half power frequency XL>XC

 impedance at f 2
2
 1 
Zh2  R   2 f 2 L 
2
  2R
 2 f 2C 

2
 1 
 R 2   2 f 2 L    2 R 2

 2 f 2 C 

1
 2 f 2 L  R
2 f 2C
EC 303.65 to 66 21
On Solving equation(2) for f2

4L
R R  2

f2  C
4 L
4  0.1
10  100 
 10  106  167.11Hz
4    0.1

 upper half power frequency f 2  167.11Hz

EC 303.65 to 66 22
DETERMINATION OF RESONANT
FREQUENCY

1
resonant frequency f 0 =
2π LC
1
⇒ f0 = = 159.2 Hz
2π 0.1× 10 ×10 −6

Therefore the resonant frequency of the


circuit f0 = 159.2 Hz

EC 303.65 to 66 23
DETERMINATION OF QUALITY FACTOR ‘Q’

• What is the expression for bandwidth ?

• Bandwidth BW = f2-f1

• Therefore BW = 167.11- 151.39 = 15.72

• What is the expression for ‘Q’ in terms of f0 and BW ?

Q=f0/BW

Therefore quality factor Q=159.2/15.72=10.13

EC 303.65 to 66 24
6.For an RLC series circuit shown in fig. instantaneous
excitation v=70.7sin(600t) and current i=1.5sin(600t+

450) Find R and C values.Also find the frequency at


which the circuit is resonant

0.1 H

v R

EC 303.65 to 66 25
Continued…

• After studying the problem what is your comment on

phase introduced by the circuit

• At the given frequency a leading phase of 450 is

introduced by the circuit

∴ If v = 70.7∠00
then i = 1.5∠450

EC 303.65 to 66 26
The instantaneous impedance at given frequency

v 70.7
z   47.13  450

i 1.5450

 33.33  j 33.33

 z  R  jX  33.33  j 33.33 (1)

EC 303.65 to 66 27
On comparison of real and imaginary parts
in the above equation

R  33.33
X  X C  X L  33.33

X L   L  600  0.1  60

 X C  33.33  X L  33.33  60  93.33


1
 XC   93.33
C
1
C   17.85 F
600  93.33

EC 303.65 to 66 28
DTERMINATION OF RESONANT
FREQUENCY

1
resonant frequency f 0 =
2π LC

1
⇒ f0 = = 119.12 Hz
2π 0.1× 17.85 ×10 −6

Therefore the frequency at which the circuit


resonates =119.12 Hz

EC 303.65 to 66 29
7.Find the resonant frequency of the
parallel circuit shown in fig.

• Given data
v
20 µF 7Ω
R= 7 Ω
L= 1mH
C= 20µ F 1mH
Fig 7

• What is the expression for Resonant frequency ?


1 1 R2
f0 = − 2
2π LC L
EC 303.65 to 66 30
• On substitution of R,L, and C values in the above
equation

1 1 49
f0 = − −6 = 159 Hz
2π −3
10 × 20 × 10 −6
10

Resonant frequency = 159Hz

EC 303.65 to 66 31
8.Find the resonant frequency of an ideal
parallel tank circuit with L=50mH and
C=0.01µF ?

• Given data
L=50mH

C=0.01µF

What is the expression for resonant frequency ?

1
f 0
=
2π LC
EC 303.65 to 66 32
• On substitution of L and C values

1 1
f =
2π LC
=
0
2π 50 ×10 −3 ×0.01×10 −6

= 7117.6 Hz

Therefore resonant frequency = 7117.6Hz

EC 303.65 to 66 33
9.The circuit shown in fig. is under resonance at
frequency 500Hz. Q factor of L is 5.find the coil
resistance and capacitance values ?

• Given data
i
f0 = 500Hz
QL = 5 v
RL
C
L = 0.1H
L=0.1H
• What is the expression for Q
factor of a coil ? Fig 8
ω0 L
2πf 0 L
Q= =
R R
EC 303.65 to 66 34
• On substitution f0 and L values

2 f 0 L 2  500  0.1
R   62.83
Q 5

we know that
1
0 
LC

1 1
 C   0.101 F
L02 0.1  2  500  2

Therefore
R=62.83Ω and C ≈ 0.101µF
EC 303.65 to 66 35
it is resonant at frequency 5000 rad/ sec .xL=6

Ω RL=8Ω and RC=7Ω


• Given data
XL = 6Ω
RL=8Ω RC

RC=7Ω RL
ω0 = 5000 rad/sec
What will happen to susceptance of the circuit at
resonant frequency ?
It will become zero
EC 303.65 to 66 36
Find the susceptance of the circuit and equate it to zero
and then solve it for XC

admittance of R-L branch


1 8  j6 8  j6
YL   2 
8  j6 8  6 2
100

admittance of R-C branch


1 7  jX C
YC   2
7  jX C 7  X C2

EC 303.65 to 66 37
Total admittance of the circuit
8 6 7 XC
Y  YL  YC  j  2 j 2
100 100 7  X C
2
7  X C2

 8 7   XC 6 
  2 2 
 j 2  
 100 7  X C   7  X 2
C 100 

Real part is conductance and the imaginary part is known


as susceptance

EC 303.65 to 66 38
• Equate the susceptance part to zero to find XC

XC 6
 2  0
7  X C 100
2

XC 6
 2 
7  X C 100
2

 100 X C  6 X C2  294

 6 X  100 X C  294  0
2
C (1)

EC 303.65 to 66 39
On Solving equation (1)

6 X C2  100 X C  294  0
100  1002  4  6  294
XC   12.85
2 6
1
 XC   12.85
0C
1 1
C    15.56  F
0 12.85 5000 12.85

Therefore the value of C for resonance = 15.56µF

EC 303.65 to 66 40
11.Determine the value of RL for which the
parallel circuit shown in fig is resonant.given
RC=4Ω XC=5Ω and XL=10 Ω.
• Given data

RC=4Ω
XC=5Ω RC
RL
XL=10 Ω.
Fig 10

• Find the admittance of the circuit and then


equate the susceptance part to zero to find the
RL value
EC 303.65 to 66 41
FIND THE TOTAL ADMITTANCE

1 1 1 1
Y  YL  YC    
RL  jX L RC  jX C RL  j10 4  j 5

RL  j10 4  j 5  RL 4  5 10 
 2   2    j  2 
RL  100 41 R
 L  100 41   41 RL  100 

Total admittance of the circuitx

Real part is conductance and the imaginary part is known


as susceptance
EC 303.65 to 66 42
EQUATE THE SUSCEPTANCE TO ZERO

Equating imaginary part in the above eq. To zero

5 10
 2 0
41 RL  100

10 5
 2 
RL  100 41

 5 RL2  500  410


 RL2  18

 RL  j 18 (imaginary value)

EC 303.65 to 66 43
What is your comment on resistance value ?

• A resistor can not posses an imaginary value

• As you can not have a resistor with an


imaginary value we can conclude that no
value of RL can make the circuit resonant

EC 303.65 to 66 44
Summary

We have solved problems dealing with

• The resonant frequency,bandwidth,and Q-factor of series


resonant circuits.

• The resonant frequency Q-factor,and bandwidth of


different parallel resonant circuits

EC 303.65 to 66 45
QUIZ

EC 303.65 to 66 46
1.An RLC series circuit has fixed values of R L and

C values what should we do make the circuit


resonant ?

a. Increase input voltage

c. Decrease input voltage

e. Adjust the input frequency

g. None of the above

Ans : c
EC 303.65 to 66 47
2.Quality factor of coil depends upon ___

a. Its inductance

c. Coil resistance

e. Operating frequency

g. All the above

Ans : d

EC 303.65 to 66 48
3.Quality factor of a capacitor depends upon___

a. Capacitance value

c. Resistance value

e. Operating frequency

g. All the above

Ans : d

EC 303.65 to 66 49
4.which one of the following does not
effect the resonant frequency of the tank
circuit ?
a. R value

c. L value

e. Magnitude of input excitation

g. C value

Ans : c

EC 303.65 to 66 50
5. A fixed frequency series RLC circuit
introducing a leading phase. To make
that resonant we have to __
a. Reduce the capacitive reactance

c. Increase the inductive reactance

e. Either (a) or (b)

g. None of the above

Ans : c

EC 303.65 to 66 51
6. Input voltage to series RLC circuit under
resonance is v=Vmsin(5000t+300).its
current i=____
 (Vm/R )sin(5000t+30°)

 (Vm/R )sin(5000t+45°)

 Zero amps

 (Vm*R )sin(5000t+30°)

Ans : a
EC 303.65 to 66 52
7. Resonant frequency of a tank circuit is
150kHz and Q0=10.Bandwidth of tuned
circuit is___
a. 5 kHz

c. 10 kHz

e. 15 kHz

g. None of the above

Ans : c

EC 303.65 to 66 53
8. Current passing through a series
resonant circuit at f0 is 1A.current at
lower half power frequency=___
a. 0.5A

c. 0.707A

e. 1A

g. 0A

Ans : b

EC 303.65 to 66 54