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I like the taste of malt whisky. When we talk about a group of nouns in general, we use the zero article (that is, no article at all). Cats like sleeping. Here we are talking about all cats. When we talk about one example of a group we use the indefinite article. There is a cat in the garden. Here we are talking about one cat from many When we talk about one specific example of the group, we use the definite article. The cat with the grey and black coat is mine. Here we are talking about one special cat Note: The zero article means that we do not use anything; it is useful to help to explain how we use the other articles.
Working with Plurals
When we want to talk about all the nouns in a group, we use the zero article (i.e. nothing): Dogs bark and cats purr. In this example, we are making a general comment about all cats and all dogs. When we talk about a sub-group of nouns, we use the definite article, the: The men from Nagasaki chew tobacco. Compare this with: Men are often paid more than women for the same job. In the first example above - the men - we're talking about a group of men; in the second example - men - we're talking about all men. We often use the when we have adjectives or other qualifications of the noun which restrict it:
we use the definite article. When we use non-countable nouns. In the first example it makes no difference which pen is lent. The water in this river is very polluted. The article we use here depends on the point of view of the speaker.a union.I want the red pen. the important fact is that there is an elephant in the garden. When we talk about a specific example of a group. This is because noncountable nouns have the idea of a large amount: Water is essential for healthy crops. Be careful with words like hour which are spelt with a consonant but start with a vowel sound . Note: We use a before a consonant sound and an before a vowel sound. the speaker does not mind if it is red or blue or old or new. and it does not matter which one. Both of these mean the same thing. we often introduce a new subject with a and then. Also take care with words like union which are spelt with a vowel but start with a consonant sound . Working with Singulars When we want to talk about a single example of a noun.an hour. When we are speaking. The banana has a curious design.Flowers make a house brighter. etc. When we talk about one noun in general. the speaker does not want any pen. the: Which pen do you want? . The people in my town always vote Conservative. please. I prefer the red flowers. we treat them like plural nouns. the speaker is not concerned whether the elephant is old or young. we use the: . We can also use the definite article with a singular noun to mean all nouns: Bananas have a curious design. a bull or a cow. Sometimes we can choose whether to use an article or not. I am impressed with the flowers in your garden. we use the indefinite article a or an: Can you lend me a pen please? I saw an elephant playing in the garden. In this example. we can use the definite or indefinite article. In the second example. Both of these are possible: People in my town always vote Conservative. when we talk about it again. but a special or specific one.
William took the ball and then he kicked it. Did you see two cats in the garden? . We replace nouns that are repeated with pronouns: William took the ball and then William kicked the ball. then about an example of the genre (indefinite article) and finally about the previously mentioned example (definite article). In this example. we do not use one very much and mostly use a or an. the speaker firstly talk s about elephants in general (zero article). We do not use one unless we want to specify exactly how many we want.php?title=Articles" Pronouns From ICALwiki Jump to: navigation. Retrieved from "http://www. This can be mentioned previously (as above) or be obvious from the context: You look upset. .com/wiki/index. I don't need any more.icalweb. what's the problem? One The meaning of a/an is one. Personal Pronouns When we replace proper nouns.Elephants are annoying! I saw an elephant climb into my garden this morning and then the elephant ate all my tomatoes. we use personal pronouns: Alice looked at Alice's reflection in the mirror before washing Alice. Types of Pronouns The type of pronoun we use depends on the type of noun we replace. search Pronouns can be used in place of nouns in a sentence. She looked at her reflection in the mirror before washing herself. I only saw one cat.No. The reason we use pronouns is to make the sentence less clumsy. In general. We use the to talk about a noun we already know about. Can you lend me one pound please.
I have mine. • • • who that which That's the man who owns the Ferrari. Demonstrative Pronouns These are used to talk about a noun or pronoun in space and time: • • • • this that these those Have you seen those over there? Look at this! Interrogative Pronouns These are used to ask questions by asking about a noun. Green is the colour that I like the most. • • • • who which what whose Who did you speak with? What kind of car did you buy? Relative Pronouns These are used to link two phrases or clauses. . Dad has his own fishing rod. She likes hers short.Possessive Pronouns When we want to show ownership we use the following possessive pronouns: • • • • • • • mine yours his hers its ours theirs I like my hair long. Indefinite Pronouns These refer to unspecified people or things.
their my book. boring book The noun in this phrase is book and the adjectives tell us what size it is (big). his. Indefinite Adjectives: some. Types Common types of adjectves are: Possessive Adjectives: my. its.php?title=Pronouns" Adjectives From ICALwiki Jump to: navigation.• • • • • • • • • • • • • any anybody anything some somebody something every everybody everything neither none each either Retrieved from "http://www.icalweb. the adjective order is important and also the position. they are always the same: the ugly woman and the ugly man the ugly football team and the ugly goalkeeper the ugly dog and the ugly scenery However. red. what colour it is (red) and what we think of it (boring). every. Adjectives never change their form. that. our. her. etc. . their party. any. search Adjectives are words we use to describe a noun. too.com/wiki/index. your problem Demonstrative Adjectives: this. They usually come before it: a big. those These apples are wonderful. your. these.
adverbs end in -ly. Ordinal Adjectives: An ordinal adjective indicates the position of a noun in a series. the fourth day Retrieved from "http://www. two fish. he drove badly. and whose Which trapeze artist fell? Cardinal Adjectives: These are adjectives that modify a noun by numbering it (stating how many there are). Usage Adverbs of Degree Adverbs of Degree tell us how much. which. one hundred dollars. They usually come before the adjective or adverb they qualify. Form Many.icalweb. five books.php?title=Adjectives" Adverbs From ICALwiki Jump to: navigation. search We use adverbs to give us more information about: an adjective: The only red bike. . a sentence as a whole: Unfortunately it is raining so I cannot visit the zoo. It is a clear day.Several pedestrians witnessed the event. These adverbs are commonly called Regular Adverbs as they are formed by following the rule of adding -ly to the end of the adjective (spelling rules apply in some cases): He is a bad driver. a verb: She swam beautifully. Adverbs which do not end in -ly are called Irregular Adverbs. The first date. Interrogative Adjectives: what. she can see clearly. but not all.com/wiki/index.
I rarely eat meat. Many of these adverbs do not have any special form.Is there enough wine? She can hardly sing. Common irregular adverbs of manner include: high. Usually they occur before the main verb. Adverbs of Frequency Adverbs of Frequency tell us how often something happened. well Adverbs of Place We use adverbs of manner to tell us where something happened. She sang that song badly. A typical list from always to never: a I saw him last Sunday. Many of these adverbs do not have any special form and they are often prepositional phrases of place. late. Adverb Order . near. They are often a preposition phrases. Many of these adverbs do not have any special form. They usually occur at the end of the sentence. They usually occur at the end of the sentence though sometimes they're placed before the main verb. Sometimes we can put them at the beginning of the sentence for emphasis: In the middle of the road there was a dead cat. I saw him at the cinema. They met me here yesterday. I often go to the cinema. They met me here yesterday. Sometimes we can put them at the beginning for emphasis: Next Thursday is my birthday. Adverbs of Manner We use adverbs of manner to tell us how something happened. You can dance well.
com/wiki/index. The only exception is the verb be: I am. the infinitive is nearly always the same as the present tense.If we have more than one adverb in an adverb phrase.php?title=Adverbs" 1. I have.icalweb. regular verbs add -s to the end. search The Infinitive is the base form of a verb. When we use he. have. These are infinitives: be. she or it in the present tense. we generally use this order: manner place time you must go quickly into the kitchen after lunch Retrieved from "http://www. I walk Note that some grammars regard the infinitive as to + base form. lways Verb Forms From ICALwiki Jump to: navigation. go. I go. This is the third person singular: I have she has I go he goes I walk it walks We make the Present Participle of regular verbs by adding -ing to the end of the infinitive: be have go walk being having going walking . in this grammar guide the infinitive is without the to. walk In English.
I must go. Here are some simple verbs: run. read. She listened to the radio last night. It must rain soon or the crop will die! Some verbs always go with the same preposition: I succeeded in passing my driving test. walk. Both the present participle and the gerund are known as the -ing form. we use a verb. When we talk about the past. en freque . I work. future). (past continuous or progressive) I worked yesterday. we use the past form of the verb (this does not change for the third person singular). present. 2. and some are simple. To make the past form with regular verbs. I worked. we use certain patterns: I want to go. they have the same time reference but have different meanings: I was working yesterday.The gerund has the same form as the present participle. search When we want to talk about what the subject of a sentence does. we add -ed: oft Verbs From ICALwiki Jump to: navigation. Verbs tell us about an action. talk When we use verbs. we use different forms of the verb: I was working. Some verbs are continuous or progressive. 3. we can change their tense and form to change the meaning and tell us when something happens (past. (simple past) We can also use modal verbs to tell us about how we feel about something happening: You should see a doctor. When we join two verbs to make a verb phrase. To make some tense changes.
some 7.4. at the end . seldo 9. rarely time to tell happened. occas 8. norma 6. usual 5.
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