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Schedule of Events

Week Date Content Assignment Notes


1 09/3 Introduction
2 16/3 Design Process

Mech 1751: Introduction to 3

4
23/3

30/3
System Modelling and Control

Actuators

Mechatronics 5 6/4 Sensors


Break
Assignment 1 Due

6 20/4 Computer – Hardware


7 27/4 Computer – Software
Actuators 8 4/5 Active Sensing Systems
9 11/5 Digital vs. Power Electronics Assignment 2 Due
10 18/5 Case Study : Formula SAE
11 25/5 Case Study : Unmanned Air/Land/Sea Vehicles

Dr. Stefan B. Williams 12


13
1/6
8/6
Guest Lecture
Review Major Assignment Due
14 15/6 Spare

Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 1 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 2

What is an actuator? Electric Actuators and Drives


• a mechanical device for moving or
controlling something Electrical energy transformed to mechanical energy
• Electric Motors and Drives
• Hydraulic Drives • DC Motors
• Pneumatic Drives • AC Motors
• Internal Combustion hybrids • Linear Motors
• Actuators of the future • Stepper Motors

Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 3 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 4

1
DC-Motors Basic Operating Principle

• Rotary actuators
• Power range: Fractions
of watts to 100s of Kw.
• Power supply by grid,
diesel generator, or
batteries
• Easy to control
accurately

Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 5 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 6

Basic Operating Principle DC-Motors


• Apply a voltage to armature
• Armature rotates in
magnetic field
• Speed control by:
V M – Armature voltage
Ω =K.V
– Field Strength
• Speed proportional to
Voltage
• Torque proportional to
current
• Power=Speed x Torque
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 7 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 8

2
DC Motors: Basic Rules I DC Motors: Basic Rules II

Torque proportional to current Voltage Balance in Armature


Ra
Raia
T = KT ia Va Vb M
Ω Ra ia + Vb = Va
Current flowing
Ra ia + K b Ω = Va
Torque
Constant in Armature
Voltage generated by
Back EMF
motion of armature in
Constant
field (like a Generator)
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 9 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 10

DC Motors: Basic Rules III DC Motors Behaviour I


Torque and Speed Equations of Motion:
T = KT ia No-load Speed
Torque Drives a Load
KT Va K b KT
T= − Ω
Ω B Ra Ra
Ra ia + K b Ω = Va

+
T J
dΩ
T=J + BΩ
dt
Ra 1
Ω=− T+ Va dΩ ⎛ K K ⎞ KT Va
K b KT Kb T J +⎜B+ b T ⎟Ω =
Stall Torque
dt ⎝ Ra ⎠ Ra
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 11 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 12

3
DC Motors: Behaviour II DC Servo Motors

dΩ ⎛ K K ⎞ KT • Power range: few W to few kW: for


J +⎜B+ b T ⎟Ω = Va disc drives, X-Y recorders,
dt ⎝ Ra ⎠ Ra 1

0.9

0.8
instruments, robot arms
0.7

0.6
• Speed: very low to very high 10000
rpm (use gear boxes)

Output
0.5

d Ω(t ) 0.4

+ K1Ω(t ) = K 2V (t ) 0.3 • Time-constants (ms): Electrical,


dt 0.2

0.1
Mechanical and thermal
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Time (s)
3 3.5 4 4.5 5 • Friction: Coulomb, viscous, stiction
Step response of motor speed with varying load • Often in-built encoders or
Ω (t ) = K 2 e − K1tV (t ) tachometers
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 13 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 14

Permanent Magnet DC Motors Digital Control of DC Motors


• Many DC Servos are now brushless PM-DC Pulse-Width-Modulated (PWM)
motors because of advances in: Output
1. High energy ceramic and rare earth magnets Voltage

Sample
2. Development of high power switching Period Output is average
over sample period
semiconductors
• No field windings
Pulse-Rate-Modulated (PRM)
• Result is motors which are smaller and Output
linear Constant pulse Output is average
Voltage

• Motor is inside-out (magnets rotate). length Over all periods

Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 15 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 16

4
When to use a DC Motor Some Examples
• Consumer Products:
– CDs, disk drives
– Fans, drills, etc
• Manufacturing
• Accurate position or velocity control – Robots
• Low noise, high efficiency – CNC machines
• Cost not too critical • Aerospace
– Sensor pointing
• Speed and power payoff (gearing) – Fly-by-wire inputs
• Cars:
– Windscreen wipers
– Fuel management
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 17 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 18

AC-MOTORS: An Introduction AC-MOTORS: An Introduction


• Single or three phase

motors
~V M

• 100 Watts – MW
• High power high torque
applications
• Brushless, durable, easy to
maintain
• Now fully digital vector
controlled
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 19 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 20

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AC-MOTORS: Main Features Multi-phase AC servo motors
• Brush free full digital control • Drive voltages out of
• Requires sophisticated Ω phase
algorithms to control speed vm = Vmcosωt
• Multi-phase induction
(hence recent) ~
• Better control and
• Frequency control via power power density
converter (field control)
• Transfer function is
• Suitable for high speed and/or second order M vc = kVm sinωt
high power applications T
θr k
• Complex structure, heavy =
vc s (τ m s + 1)
weight
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 21 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 22

When to Use an AC Motor Applications of AC Drives


• High power required
• Complex control • Large Cranes or
profiles: material handling
– Point to point systems
– Velocity • Belts or conveyors
• Load Demand • High Speed Trains
– High duty cycle • Electric Drive Haul
– Efficiency Trucks (930E)
– Reliable

Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 23 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 24

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Stepper Motors Stepper Motors
• Motors that cause
angular shift • PM type: permanent
correspondence to a magnets rotor
number of pulses • VR (variable reluctance)
type: salient poles rotor,
– 1st method: providing a
torque is generated from
fixed number of pulses,
difference of magnetic
motion proportional to
resistance
number of pulses
• Applications: Electronic
– 2nd method:
typewriters and printers,
synchronising rotations
magnetic disk drives
with the input pulse
frequency
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 25 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 26

Voice Coil Computer Hard Drive


• Voice coil is an actuator • Hard drive uses 3
based on similar principles phase AC motor to
to a motor – current
appplied to coil induces
turn disk
magnetic field • Originally used
• Uses closed loop feedback stepper motors to
servoing to dynamically position read head
position heads in a • Modern hard
computer hard drive
drives use voice
• Name voice coil comes
from resemblance to coil to position
technology used to drive read head
audio speaker
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 27 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 28

7
Linear Motors: Brief Introduction Linear Motors: Brief Introduction
• Slider (rotor), stationary
part (stator), and gap are • Miniature & simple structure,
extended in a straight line low power factor & efficiency
• Linear DC motors, • Linear DC motors: rare earth
stepping motors, PMs, two yokes, moving coil
induction motors, etc. • Linear induction motors:
• Relatively expensive and eddy current is developed in
large for power output a good electrical conductor
F = iB to obtain thrust
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 29 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 30

Summary of Electric Motors Hydraulic Systems and Actuators


• Hydraulics: Use of fluids Pump or Linear Actuator
to transmit power: Rotary motor (Cylinder)
Servo Motor Advantages Disadvantages Applicable capacity
DC servo motor: Easy to use, Low Brush replacement. Has 0.1 - few 100 Watts – Pumps are power
priced control device restrictions in respect of
operating environment generators
Brushless motor (PM No brush maintenance Control device is from few W to few kW
synchronous) expensive due to its
– Inverse pumps or
complexity cylinders are power drain
Synchronous motor Excellent Detector is necessary
(vector control) environment – Valves used for control
resistivity
Induction motor Durable construction Complicated control More than few W • Traditionally High Power
(vector control) system
Stepping motor Open loop control, Dropped out of step. Below few 10 W applications
large static torque Large weight/capacity
ratio • Now use integrated
electronics and sensing
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 31 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 32

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Hydraulic Circuits Rotary Hydraulic Pumps and
• Hydraulic Power Units:
Motors
– Pumps • General Operating
principles:
– Accumulators (fluid – Fluid is compressed
capacitors) by pump on which
– Check valves to isolate mechanical work is
hydraulic systems done
– Fluid does work in
– Reservoirs motor producing
• Piping and Fittings mechanical power
• Proportional/servo valves • Two Types:
• Hydraulic actuators – Vane/gear pumps
– Piston/swash-plate
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 33 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 34

Piston and Swash-plate


Hydraulic Motor
Pumps/Motors
• Pistons connected to swash plate
• Swash plate is angled
– Swash plate rotates and pumps fluid
– Fluid flow rotates swash plate

Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 35 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 36

9
Hydraulic Cylinder Actuators Hydraulic Valves
• Piston in cylinder acted on
by hydraulic pressure • Three main valve types:
• Force generated by rod: – On/off valves for manual control
– Proportional valves: Control of
– Single acting volume flow rate
– Double acting – Servo valves: Accurate control of
– Double cylinder flow and pressure

– Double rod • Control Mode:


• Efficiency governed by Pressure • Electric over hydraulic
friction, • Hydraulic over hydraulic (pilot)
• Small internal leakage:
Force Fc = λ∆PA c Area
• Manual
hold static load
Friction
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 37 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 38

Digital Flow Control Electro-hydraulic System Example

Integrated Valve

Integrated Manifold

Fully Digital
Controller
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 39 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 40

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When to use Hydraulics Applications of Hydraulic Systems
• Heavy Plant
• Large Force, High Power applications – Steel press
– Large-scale precision
• High power density
motion tables
• Accurate control • Mobile Systems
• Rugged environments (explosive, dusty,etc) – Steering, brakes
• Now use integrated electronics and sensing – Propulsion and transmission
• Wide range of applications: • Aerospace
– www.moog.com – Aerolon actuation in aircraft
– www.rexroth-hydraulics.com – Fin actuation in
missiles/rockets
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 41 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 42

Pneumatic Systems Pneumatic Actuators


• Many of the same principles as hydraulics except working
fluid is compressed air
• Compressed air widely available and environmentally
friendly,
• Piping installation and maintenance is easy
• Explosion proof construction
• Major disadvantage is compressibility of air, leading to
low power densities and poor control properties (usually
on/off)
• Pneumatic systems are suitable for light and medium
loads (30N-20kN) with temperature -40 to 200 degrees Oscillating actuator
Celsius (Rack and pinion type) Air motors
(multi-stroke radial piston type)
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 43 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 44

11
Modern Pneumatic Systems
When to use Pneumatics
Dual
check
valves
• Low cost and easy to install
Linear drive
• Clean and easy to maintain
Angular Toggle • Low power densities
Servovalve Gripper
Twin cylinder piston
offers closed vacuum pump or
• Only on/off or inaccurate control
loop control of
acceleration,
compressor 250 W
motor developing
necessary
velocity, 2.8 bar with flow to
positioning and 8.7 m3/hr
force

Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 45 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 46

Pneumatic Applications Internal Combustion Engine


• Manufacturing
– Robot grippers
– Movement of parts Fuel energy transformed to mechanical energy
– Assembly operations
• Medical Systems • Petrol Engine
– Drills/cutting tools
• Diesel
– Suction and clamping
• Robotics • Hybrid
– Animatronics
– Grippers
– Subsea
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 47 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 48

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Internal Combustion Engine Hybrid Electric Drives - Parallel
• Both gas engine and electric
motor connected to drivetrain
• Improved fuel economy and
reduced emissions
• Regenerative braking
supplements battery charging

Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 49 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 50

Hybrid Electric Drives - Series Future Actuators...


• Charge batteries with • Actuators using functional materials
combustion engine and – Piezoelectric element actuator
generator
• Combustion engine
– Ultrasonic Motors
efficiency increased by – Actuators of shape memory alloys
operating at a single • Plasma motors
optimised speed
• Bio-actuators
• Energy density of fuels
higher than current battery • …..and many more !
technologies
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 51 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 52

13
Piezo Micro Actuators Shape Memory Alloys (SMA)
• SMA=TiNi alloy
• Height 160mm
• Weight 0.06kg
• Changes shape on
(electric) heating

http://www.piezo.com/bendedu.html
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 53 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 54

And finally….MEMs Summary


• There are many types of actuators
available today
• Selecting the right actuators is a critical
part of the design cycle
• Requires an understanding of
– Type of motion
– Precision of motion
– Magnitude of motion
– Operating conditions
Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 55 Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 56

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Questions?

Stefan Williams Mech 1751: Introduction to Mechatronics Slide 57

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