THE THERMALHYDRAULICS OF A BOILING WATER NUCLEAR REACTOR
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York and
R. T.
Lahey,
Jr.
General Electric Company, San Jose, California
F.
J.
Moody
Second Edition
American Nuclear Society La Grange Park, Illinois USA
Library of Congress CataloginginPublication Data
Lahey, Richard T. The thennalhydraulics of a boiling water nuclear reactor Lahey, Jr. and p. ISBN 0894480375 1. Boiling water reactors. cm.
F. J.
I R. T.
Moody.  2nd ed.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
II. Title.
TI<9203.B6L33 1993 621.48'34dc20
reactorsFluid dynamics.
I. Moody, F. J. (Frederick J.)
2. HeatTransmission. 3. Nuclear 9312785 eIP
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 9312785 ANS Order Number: 300026 Copyrig ht © 1977 and 1993 American Nuclear Society 555 N. Kensington Avenue
ISBN: 0894480375
La Grange Park, Illinois 60525 USA
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without the written permission of the publisher. Second Printing, 1979 First Printing, 1977 Second Edition, 1993
Printed in the United States of America
CONTENTS
Preface
Part One Description of BWR Systems
ix
Chapter 1 Reactor and Containment Configurations
1.1 1.2
1.3
Boiling Water Reactor Cycles The Evolution of the Boiling Water Reactor Nuclear Steam Supply Systems The Evolution of BWR Containment Systems 1 . 3 . 1 Dry Containment 1 .3.2 Pressure Suppression Containment Systems 1 .3.3 Pressure Suppression Tests
5 9 14 15 16 19 27 29 29 32 33 36 36 38 42 42 43 43 45 47 50 50 50 55 56
Chapter 2
The Nuclear Boiler Assembly
Reactor Assembly 2. 1 . 1 Reactor Vessel 2.1.2 Core Shroud 2. 1 .3 Shroud Head and Steam Separator Assembly 2. 1 .4 Steam Dryer Assembly Reactor Water Recirculation System 2.2. 1 Jet Pump Recirculation System 2.2.2 Jet Pump Operating Principles and Features Main Steam Lines and Valves 2.3 . 1 Safety/Relief Valves 2.3.2 Isolation Valves Control Rod Drive System 2.4. 1 Control Rod Drive Hydraulic Supply System 2.4.2 Control Rod Positioning 2.4.3 Description of Control Rods Nuclear Fuel and Instrumentation 2.5. 1 Nuclear Fuel 2.5.2 Core Power Distribution 2.5.3 InCore Neutron Monitoring System
Basic ThermalHydrau lic Analyses
2. 1
2.2 2.3 2.4
2.5
Part Two
Chapter 3 Applied Thermodynamics
3.1
The First Law 3. 1 . 1 System Blowdown Analysis
3. 1 . 2
Useful Property Differentials
63 65 66
3. 2
3. 1.3 Boiling Water Reactor System Heat Balance The Second Law 3.2. 1 Entropy and the Second Law 3.2.2 Available Power Loss 3.2.3 Design to Minimize Available Power Loss
Boiling Heat Transfer
Introduction to Boiling Multirod Pool Boiling 4.2. 1 Countercurrent Flow Limiting (Flooding) Considerations Multirod Flow Boiling 4.3. 1 Convective Heat Transfer in Rod Bundles Boiling Transition 4.4. 1 Phenomenological Discussion 4.4.2 Boiling Water Reactor Design Application PostBoilingTransition Convective Heat Transfer Subchannel Analysis 4.6. 1 FluidtoFluid Modeling
69 71 73 76 86 89 103 108 1 15 117 124 125 145 155 168 184 195 195 202 224 226 242 242 251 266 266 275 284
Chapter 4
4.1 4.2
4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6
Chapter 5
TwoPhase Flow
Basic Principles and Definitions 5. 1 . 1 Concepts and Notations 5. 1 . 2 Conservation Equations Flow Regimes 5.2. 1 Flow Regime Analysis VoidQuality Analysis 5.3. 1 Bulk Boiling 5.3.2 Subcooled Boiling Pressure Drop 5.4. 1 Frictional Pressure Drop 5.4.2 Local Pressure Drop 5.4.3 Alternate Schemes
Performance of the Nuclear Steam Supply System
5. 1
5.2 5.3 5.4
Part Three
Chapter 6
ThermalHydraulic Performance
Heat Conduction in Nuclear Fuel Elements 6. 1 . 1 SteadyState Temperature Distributions 6. 1 . 2 Gap ConductanceThe Thermal Contact Problem 6. 1 . 3 Transient Conduction Analysis Core Convection Heat Transfer 6.2.1 Core Hydraulics 6.2.2 Core Enthalpy Rise
6. 1
291 297 309 310 320 320 322
6.2
Chapter
7. 1 7.2
7
Boiling Water Reactor Stability Analysis
Classification of ThermalHydraulic Instabilities Analysis of ThermalHydraulic Instabilities 7.2.1 The Analysis of Excursive (Ledinegg) Instability 7.2.2 The Analysis of DensityWave Oscillations Analysis of VoidReactivity Feedback
Performance of BWR Safety Systems
325 327 327 328 352
7.3
Part Four
Chapter 8 Postulated Abnormal Operating Conditions, Accidents, and Engineered Safeguards
8.1 8.2 8.3
8.4 8.5
8.6
Single Operator Error or Equipment Malfunction Design Basis LossofCoolant Accident Emergency Core Cooling Systems 8.3. 1 Important Emergency Core Cooling System Design Considerations 8.3.2 Design Bases for Boiling Water Reactor Emergency Core Cooling Systems Anticipated Transients Without Scram Core Heatup 8.5. 1 Radiation Heat Transfer in Rod Bundles 8.5.2 Falling Film Rewetting 8.5.3 Heat Generation Effects 8.5.4 Analytical Modeling Severe Accidents 8.6. 1 Severe Accident Sequence Analysis 8.6.2 Degraded Core Cooling Phenomena 8.6.3 The Source Term Transient Boiling Transition Evaluations LossofCoolant Accident Evaluation 9.2. 1 Critical Flow 9.2.2 Vessel Blowdown
364 365 365 366 367 373 376 376 382 387 388 388 391 392 398 417 436 436 473 483 484 488 489 490 491 496
Chapter 9 Boiling Water Reactor Accident Evaluations
9. 1 9.2
Chapter 10
Valve and Piping Transients
10. 1 10.2 10.3 10.4
Background Pipe Reaction Forces Fluid Impingement Forces Unsteady Pipe Flow 10.4.1 Basic Equations for Pipe Flow 10.4.2 The Method of Characteristics 10.4.3 Isentropic Flows and Simple Waves
10.5
10.6 10.7
10.8 11 . 1
Evaluation of Reaction and Impingement Forces 10.5. 1 Effect of Area Changes 10.5.2 Comparison with Data 10.5.3 Example Problems Shock in Pipes Safety/Relief Valves 10.7. 1 Safety/Relief Valve Forces, Gas Charging 10.7.2 Safety/Relief Valves, Instant (Step) Discharge 10.7.3 Safety/Relief Valve Flooding Stop Valve Closure
498 513 515 518 523 525 529 530 536 542 551 554 563 565 565 566 568 575 575 577 580 580 581 581 598 599 599 610 610 613 623
Chapter 11
Pressure Suppression Containment Systems
General Pressure Suppression System 1 1 . 1 . 1 Models of the Individual Subsystems 11.2 LossofCoolant Scenarios 11.3 Water Expulsion and Air Discharge Loads 1 1 .3.1 Wetwell Loads at Vent Water Clearing 11 .3.2 Submerged Water Jets 11 .3.3 Submerged Air Discharge 11 .3.4 Pool Wall Pressures 11 .3.5 Submerged Structure Loads 11 .3.6 Pool Swell 11 .3.7 Wetwell Air Space Compression 1 1 .3.8 Pool Swell Structure Impact 11 .3.9 Air Bubble Breakthrough 1 1 .3.10 Condensation Loads 1 1 .4 Scale Modeling Procedures 1 1 .4. 1 Segment Scaling 11 .4.2 Geometric Scaling 11.5 Containment Response to Degraded Core Conditions 11 .5.1 Hydrogen Production During Postulated Core Degradation Accidents 1 1 .5.2 Fission Product Scrubbing in the Suppression Pool Index
PREFACE
The purpose of the second edition of this monograph is to present an up todate overview of the thermalhydraulic technology that underlies the design, operation, and safety assessment of boiling water nuclear reactors (BWRs). Significantly, BWRs represent a large fraction of the world's in stalled nuclear power capacity. Some important new material on pressure suppression containment technology has been added in order to provide the reader with a more comprehensive understanding of BWR power plants. This monograph is not intended to be a reactor design manual . Rather, emphasis is placed on the physical understanding of thermalhydraulic phenomena, as opposed to tabulating correlations and design methods. Our strong conviction is that once the basic physical principles involved are understood, the synthesis of design techniques is rather straightforward . This monograph has been divided into four main parts: I. II.
Description of BWR Systems
• •
The evolution of BWR technology A description of BWR systems and hardware Applied thermodynamics Boiling heat transfer and twophase flow technology
Basic ThermalHydraulic Analyses
• •
III . Performance of the Nuclear Steam Supply System Thermalhydraulic performance of reactor components and systems Stability analysis IV Performance of BWR Safety Systems Accident analysis Critical flow Piping loads Pressure suppression system performance
• • • • • •
We sincerely hope that the information contained herein will be of use to our colleagues and to students of nuclear engineering. Indeed, it is intended to be both a reference book and a text. The revision of this monograph was a maj or undertaking that required a great amount of time and effort. We appreciate the help and advice we
were given by our colleagues and students and gratefully acknowledge the excellent secretarial work done by Ms. Elaine Verrastro and the continued patience and understanding of our wives, Ellee and Phyllis . Dr. R. T. Lahey, Jr. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, New York Dr. F. J. Moody General Electric Company San Jose, California
February 1993
NOTATION
a. =
AHT A._. Ai
Ul = = = =
vapor absorption coefficient liquid absorption coefficient heat transfer area crosssectional flow area occupied by phase, i crosssectional flow area radiosity of surface, i Biot number
Ei
B
CI
Cp =
= = = = =
specific heat at constant pressure Fanning fraction factor void concentration parameter sonic speed
DH Db E
I
Co Ca
=
C
=
okjiJ(a).ve 4A._.IPI
e =
=
=
=
bubble diameter total stored energy of a system total specific convected energy of a system crosssection average of a function, I force, or Tong F factor leakage flow fraction leakage power fraction radiation view factor mass flux Ibmft Ibrsec2 the average of a function, I, across the flow area of phase i DarcyWeisbach friction factor
=
=
coreaverage void reactivity coefficient hydraulic diameter
(f) (f)i
F FL FQL Fii
=
= = =
gc
G
= = =
=
=
G(8) h
Gr
g
32.17
=
=
gravity, or
h H H0 .lh.ub H. H(8) Hi
ho
= e = =
= p.
Grashoff number
forward loop transfer function
+ pv
hTs
1.0
=
Gibb's free energy function
N
kg  m

sec!

=
density weighted enthalpy convective heat transfer coefficient condensation parameter gap conductance radiant energy flux incident on surface, i
gJ
gZ  =
=
specific enthalpy 'fi . speCl c stagnatIOn enthaIpy
i. if i
K
J
=
=
=
=
=
=
hi

hi
=
inlet subcooling
=
=
778 ftIbdBtu +
feedback loop transfer function
=
volumetric flux of vapor phase
1.0 mniJ
=
if
volumetric flux of liquid phase local loss coefficient, or
i.
=
volumetric flux (Homogenous velocity) of twophase mixture
cp/c.
=
specific heat ratio
= " me = " meo =
Ki LB LI{ L, Lm 111
k
=
=
=
reactivity parameters used in transient analysis boiling length heated length flow length of segment, i
=
=
=
mean beam length mass
mi'
Nu
PI{
po
P
=
liquid entrainment mass flux liquid carryover mass flux liquid deposition mass flux Nusselt number static pressure stagnation pressure heated perimeter Prandtl number friction perimeter interfacial perimeter impingement pressure Peclet number heat rate linear heat generation rate heat flux axialaverage heat flux volumetric heat generation rate active core power volumetric flow rate of phase, i
P, Pi PI
Pr
= = = =
=
=
=
Q
ij" '" q
••
q ' q " q
P
= = = =
,,,.• =
R.
R;
Qi
=
=
r = = =
=
=
thermodynamic gas constant radial distance jet reaction force entropy, or Slip ratio, or Laplace transform variable specific entropy time time for a particle to cross the boiling boundary temperature temperature difference rewetting temperature transfer functions for coreaverage void fraction perturbations saturation temperature
= =
S to
s = =
=
M8
T tiT
T;(S) T.ot
U. U",
Up
To
=
=
Ui U
=
=
11. =
=
=
=
velocity of a falling film, or J.lM relativc velocity
velocity of phase, i, or location,
total internal energy
U, U, Ii
V
V.;
av(t)
17B
v = = =
=
=
=
=
=
onedimensionalaveraged relative velocity onedimensionalaveraged velocity of the centerofmass onedimensionalaveraged velocity of the centerofmomentum onedimensionalaveraged velocity of the centcrofenergy terminal rise velocity volume V / AI
=
=
=
specific volume
drift velocity volumetric rate of vapor formation Laplace transform of the variable, perturbation of variable,
=
v(t)
v(t)
k mechanical efficiency viscosity of phase i = phasetophase momentum transfer parameter specific internal energy = T. w = flow rate x.10 . = p.T t)/(To . = . surface tension.. i = density = = = contact angle volumetric expansivity twophase density homogeneous (noslip) density momentum density temporal energy density r. = a transfer function for boiling boundary dynamics = = = k 'Y' = P PH ' p " p '" p 'I p angle. = = v(t) (j(S) XII a aT ak {j Xs x = = static quality = thermodynamic equilibrium quality work rate (mechanical power) = = = liquid phase evaporation rate per unit axial length flow quality = Martinelli parameter void fraction coefficient of thermal expansion absorptivity of body. or StefanBoltzmann constant thickness of metal plate Tong's memory parameter characteristic frequency of phase change a transfer function for boiling boundary dynamics twophase friction loss multiplier twophase local loss multiplier thermal conductivity.ow' Wk ov = Laplace transformation of the perturbation of variable.T •• •• t). '1m = efficiency '10 = actual efficiency 'I.(S) 7r'(S) Ai(S) M. or angle of inclination " = = = = = = 1 . = = Ph = = = spatial energy density reflectivity of body. T. Tk = = transfer functions for twophase hydrodynamics = transfer functions for boiling boundary dynamics = = = U/M transfer functions for singlephase hydrodynamics interfacial shear stress wall shear stress 8 8(S) <1>'02 Om nT n Ek = IT = = E = e E = transmissivity of body.pv = total specific stored energy k = = = k 4> = A '" r T K = = (T . or kinematic viscosity nonboiling length (boiling boundary) twophase dissipation function slope of the pump headflow curve boiling time. or Armand's void parameter time for a particle to lose its subcooling. ratio of pumping to evaporation heat flux emissivity of body. volumetric flow fraction (j. {j.
or wave jet pump drive flow jet pump suction flow Section II of duct Section I of duct cond cont crit cr eq D d It = = = = = = = = = = = eff evap exp ext fg g F f = = = = = gap HT i h in m = n o = I Ie = = = = = = = = ox = out pump QL T t Rw sat R = = = S = = = = 141 241 I II 1 2 w = v = = = = = = = = = singlephase twophase .SUBSCRIPTS av ave c b B = = = = = average axial average boiling blowdown critical condensation coni. or recover rewet saturation shear tot. or riser.al throat vapor phase wall. or ideal inflow liquid phase entrained liquid metal nucleation point initial conditions oxide layer outflow liquid agitation (pumping) power loss due to leakage radiation.raction thermodynamic critical point center line crud layer discharge departure point equilibrium point effective evaporative expansion external saturated liquid the difference between saturated vapor and liquid properties feedback saturated vapor pelletclad gap heater heat transfer inlet. or interfacial.
PART ONE Description of BWR Systems .
.
The com mercial PWR systems largely grew out of the technology developed for naval nuclear submarine reactors. Extensive analytical and experimental studies were performed to help understand the unsteady phenomena and to verify the prediction of the associated forces. is contained by a surrounding drywell shell that discharges through vents to a large water pool. The first and earliest type was dry containment. better reliability. in which the reactor coolant energy.CHAPTER ONE Reactor and Containment Configurations In the late 1950s. Various steps in the pressure suppression containment design evolution. Two reactor containment concepts were also developed during the 1950s. The pressure suppression containment concept is the one that has been adopted for modern BWRs. The pressure suppression containment concept soon followed. and lower capital cost than other competing light water reactor (LWR) systems. two distinct lightwatercooled nuclear reactor steam supply systems became commercially available: the pressurized water re actor (PWR) system and the boiling water reactor (BWR) system. passive. The BWR steam supply system is attractive due to its basic simplicity and potential for greater thermal efficiency. released from a postulated pipe rupture. also introduced hydrodynamic phenomena associated with submerged air discharge and steam condensation. Recent efforts have focused . which surrounded the re actor with a large. leakproof shell. capable of withstanding the pressures caused from a pipe break and complete discharge of the reactor coolant. while incorporating significant economic and functional improvements. while early BWR technology was de veloped mainly at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Nuclear Energy Division (NED) of General Electric Company (GE) .
Both separate and integral su perheating concepts were evaluated during the early 1960s. confirmed the effectiveness of pressure suppression. this monograph is primarily concerned with BWRs of the GE design. It is recognized that many organizations have made substantial contributions to early BWR technology. In addition. and the Dresden Nuclear Power Station (01). con sisting of a pressure vessel with steam discharged into a simulated drywell and vented to a water pool. GE's Vallecitos Boiling Water Reactor (VBWR). The purpose of this chapter is to give a concise overview of the evolution of BWRs and containment from the early experimental stage to current modern BWR power plants. Although some of the salient features of VBWR and 01 are discussed in subsequent sections of this chapter. In accordance with the original action plan. and steam discharge rates. Kramer has presented an excellent treat ment of the SPERT experiments. natural and forced circulation BWRs have been designed and are currently in operation. submer gence. Kramer (1958) previously documented the pioneering work done at ANL.4 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L IC S OF A B W R on refining predictive models for the analysis of postulated severe accidents involving core melting and fission product retention in the containment. 1958) . whereas the nuclear superheat concept is not currently being pursued . since all domestic and most foreign BWRs are currently manufactured by either General Electric (GE) or are manufactured under a GE license agreement. In addition. and the Argonne LowPower Reactor (ALPR) features and op erating experiences. Extensive fuel develop ment work was done in VBWR and the Esada Vallecitos Experimental Superheat Reactor (EVESR). Pioneering work in pressure suppression containment technology moved forward through a cooperative effort by GE and Pacific Gas and Electric in the late 1950s. the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR). including the BORAX experiments. the reader interested in the details of these plants and the earlier work done in the development of BWR technology is referred to Kramer's excellent book (Kramer. many outofcore heat transfer experiments were performed to quantify the thermalhydraulic perfor mance of typical superheat fuel bundles. The program was finally discontinued due to problems with fuel integrity. Condensing tests with vertical vents in water pools showed that condensation was effective for a broad range of vent sizes. This plan involved the parallel development of natural and forced circu lation plant concepts and nuclear superheat technology. However. The increased efficiency and re duced plant size theoretically possible with superheat steam were evaluated through several major developmental programs. Scaleddown transient flow tests. 1959). the relatively low power density achievable. and the marginal economic advantages to be gained through nuclear superheat. The initial strategic plan followed by GE in the development of BWR technology was known as Operation Sunrise (Cohen and Zebroski. .
including bro ken pipe discharge of steam/water mixtures. and condensation in water pools.1 Boiling Water Reactor Cycles . The final cycle of interest is the socalled "dualcycle BWR. Figure 11 is a simplified schematic of several possible BWR cycles." in which part of the steam going through the turbine is produced directly in the core and part is produced in a steam generator. depending on whether the coolant is pumped through the core (forced circulation) or whether it flows through the core due to density differences between the fluid in the downcomer and the core region (natural circulation). the basic difference is that bulk boiling is allowed in the core of a BWR. BWRs can be further characterized by whether the steam generated in the core passes directly to the turbine or is used to make steam for the turbine in a primary/secondary heat exchanger.REACTO R A N D CONTA I N ME N T CON F I G U RAT I O N S 5 Additional foreign and domestic tests were performed to further un derstand phenomena associated with pressure suppression.g.. a steam generator. • • • • • • • • • • • The BWR is characterized by the fact that bulk boiling takes place in the core. Thus. BWRs are normally classified as either forced circulation or natural circulation plants. 52in. When the steam generated in the core passes directly to the turbine. such that the steam going to the turbine is produced on the secondary side of the steam generator. the plant is classified as an indirectcycle BWR. the indirectcycle BWR is quite similar to a PWR. based on stateoftheart components and concepts.. When the steam/water mixture generated in the core passes through a steam generator. However. 1 . In addition to cycle classification. system pressurization. These concepts for the ABWR include: internal recirculation pumps fine motion control rod drives digital control and instrumentation multiplexed fiber optic cabling networks cylindrically reinforced pressure suppression containments horizontal vents structural integration of the containment/reactor building severe accident mitigation capability stateoftheart fuel advanced turbine/generators (e. i.e. Joint design efforts between GE and the Japanese have furthered the technology for an advanced BWR (ABWR) and a simplified BWR (SBWR). the plant is classified as a directcycle BWR. laststage buckets) advanced radwaste technology.
Only one plant of this type. since it involves the increased cost and maintenance associated with large steam generators and requires relatively high operating pressures on the primary side.6 T H E RMA L HYD RA U L I C S OF A B W R NATURAL CIRCULATION. 1 1 Various boiling water reactor cycles. there are numerous operating plants of the dual and directcycle types that have been designed and built by GE. has ever been built by GE. the KAHL Reactor in West Germany. In contrast. The indirectcycle BWR is not a very attractive concept. . INDIRECT CYCLE FORCED CIRCULATION. DIRECT CYCLE STEAM GENERATOR FORCED CIRCULATION. DUAL CYCLE Fig.
Big Rock Point. A s shown i n Fig. however. direct cycle natural circulation (through the core).g. stable. in a dualcycle plant. The control concept is basically one of the turbine being slaved to the reactor. 12. dual cycle. thus only limited inlet orificing of the core could be accomplished. These and other experi mental observations aided in improving the BWR designs of all subsequent plants. if the load on the turbine increases. it was found that the method of steam separation in the VBWR was not very efficient since the steam carryunder criterion limited the downcomer velocity during the various modes of operation. dual cycle forced circulation. and Gundremmingen (KRB). In addition.S. such that current BWRs are quite reliable. Although VBWR demonstrates stable operation in all modes. The unique fea tures of a dualcycle BWR can best be described with reference to some operational transients.. Basically. Referring to Fig. the turbine responds to reactor conditions. it tends to slow down. These dualcycle plants have been designated as the BWR/1type design. Garigliano (Senn). demonstrating key improvement features. although a small amount of power (5 MW) was supplied to the Pacific Gas and Electric Company grid.e. it was observed that the natural circulation mode of operation was less stable than forced circulation. a signal is sent to the secondary . This was primarily due to the fact that the natural circulation driving head was relatively small in the VBWR. This was an important step in the evolution of modern BWRs since earlier lowpressure experiments conducted by ANL had indicated that nuclear coupled instability and radioactive contamination of the turbine were po tential problems. • • • • The operating experience gained with the VBWR showed that BWRs have lowturbine radiation levels and are stable in the various operating modes. The first BWR specifically constructed as a commercial reactor was 01 . 12. i. BWRl1type plants were a series of prototypes of both dual and early directcycle (e. and fairly high power density with a wellcontrolled reactor response to load changes. indicating that they were in the first "product line" marketed by NED. direct cycle forced circulation. The dualcycle design was chosen as the basis for the first commercial BWR since it combined reliability. Atomic Energy Commission (USAEC) was the VBWR.. 01 was a dualcycle plant and was the prototype for several other dualcycle plants including Tarapur. It was basically an experimental reactor used to develop BWR nuclear fuel technology and to demonstrate various BWR cycle concepts. stability. Hum boldt Bay) plants. The VBWR was constructed so that it could be operated in the fol lowing modes: natural circulation.REACTOR A N D C O N TA I N ME N T CON F I G U RATI O N S The first commercial nuclear power plant to be licensed by the U. and efficient.
in fact. thereby increasing the reactor power level to meet the new load requirements. all subsequent plant offerings were exclusively of the directcycle type. However. r ____ _ _ ____ __ . steam generator's control valve. Dualcycle power plants proved that the basic BWR concept was sound. As the steaming rate in the steam generator in creases. the inherent simplicity and thermodynamic po tential of the BWR concept can be realized fully only in a directcycle plant. starting in 1963. Thus. 1 CONDENSER REACTOR DEMINERALIZER Fig. which in turn causes some of the incore voids to collapse.8 T H E RMAL HYDRAULICS OF A B W R EMERGENCY RELIEF VAL VE PRIMARY STEAM DRUM I 1. in most cases the load change is taken up by the secondary steam generator such that the primary pressure and steaming rate from the reactor are essentially unchanged. Significantly. the dualcycle plant could handle many operational transients with minimum perturbation to the primary system and a minimum of control rod action. In this manner. it causes the reactor inlet coolant to become more subcooled. Thus._______ _ __ _ _ _ __ L """ V ALVE. . The opposite occurs for turbine load rejections. 1 2 Dresden} circulation system. It did. which causes sufficient steam to be ad mitted to a lower stage of the turbine to carry the increased load. BYPASS RELIEF VALVE.. with the secondary steam generator again han dling the load change. these plants required the additional capital cost and maintenance expense associated with large steam generators and large containment buildings. with GE's BWRl2 product line. provide a very convenient means for an essentially baseloaded plant to "load follow" using the principle of subcooling control.
LaSalle 1. Limerick 1. 3. KRB. 'Steam separators are located entirely inside the pressure vessel rather than in highrise steam drums as on earlier BWRll plants. WNP 2. Fitzpatrick 1. Fermi 2. Hatch 1. Quad Cities 1. 2. Duane Arnold. Nine Mile Point 2 Improved safeguards Valve flow control Grand Gulf 1. Senn. Basically. increased power output Improved ECCS performance Reduced fuel duty (lower kW/ft) BWRl2 1963 BWRl3 1965 BWRl4 1966 BWRl5 1 969 BWRl6 1971 1. These BWRl2 productline plants featured the internala steam separation system proven previously on KRB. Susquehanna. Cooper. Hope Creek 1. 2 Increased power density Zimmer. Humboldt Bay. 3. 2. Perry 1. the BWRlI Vintage plants were demonstration plants and were custommade to the individual utility's specifications. Pilgrim Turnkey plants Internal jet pumps Improved emergency core cooling system (ECCS) Browns Ferry (TVA) 1. Monticello. Skagit 1 8 x 8 fuel bundle Added fuel bundles. River Bend 1. Vermont Yankee. Nine Mile Point First domestic turnkey plant Direct cycle MIG flow control 7 x 7 fuel bundle 02.REACTOR A N D C O N TA I N M E N T CO N F I G U RATI O N S 9 TABLE 1 .2 The Evolution o f B W R Nuclear Steam Supply Systems (NSSS) Table II summarizes the various GE/BWR product line plants from BWRlI through the current BWRl6 plants. . 2.1 GE/BWR Product Lines Product Line Number BWRll Year of Introduction 1955 Characteristic Plants and Salient Features 01. Clinton 1. 2. Tarapur. Big Rock Point. 03. Oyster Creek was the first real attempt to establish a standard BWR product line. 2. Peach Bottom 2. Some of the site names commonly associated with a given product line and some of the salient plant char acteristics are also tabulated for convenient reference. Millstone. 2. LaCrosse Initial commercial BWRs Dual cycle Directcycle prototype Natural circulation (Humboldt Bay) Pressure suppression containment First internal steam separation (KRB) Oyster Creek. Brunswick 1.
The recirculation pumps had variable speed capability through motorgenerator (MIG) sets to accomplish load following through flow control. They had squarepitch 7 x 7 fuel rod bundles and were of a forced circu lation type design in which all the core flow was pumped through five external recirculation loops. These plants were quite similar to BWRl3 plants except the . GE introduced the BWRl3 product line. which was similar to the BWRl2 design in many respects. the rest was entrained as suction flow. The use of highefficiency jet pumps reduced the size and number of external recirculation loops. the Brown's Ferry design was introduced by GE as the BWRl4 product line.10 TH ERMAL H Y DRA U L I C S OF A BWR DRIVING FLOW Fig. 1 3 Jet pump recirculation system. This concept of flow control is described more fully later. The principles of jet pump operation and more detail on the actual system are given in Chapter 2. but featured internal jet pumps in place of the external recirculation pumps used in BWRl2type plants. since only about one third of the core flow was needed as the driving flow. since it is common to all directcycle BWR plants. Figure 13 shows this type of recirculation system. In 1965. Oresden2 (02) typifies this design class. In 1966.
Nevertheless. with their fixed price but everchanging con struction and licensing requirements. and furnishing the nuclear steam supply system and the balance of plant equip ment. i.5 kW/ft. the last year that GE was the prime contractor and thus was responsible for the construction of site buildings. nuclear energy was not a profit making venture. NED has marketed only the nuclear steam supply system. The last year GE marketed the socalled "turnkey" plants was 1966. This latter innovation allows BWR/5 TABLE 12 Turnkey Plants Domestic Plants: Station Size [MW(e)] 650 809 809 652 545 809 809 Type BWRl2 BWRl3 BWRl3 BWRl3 BWRl3 BWRl3 BWRl3 BWRl1 BWRl1 BWRl2 BWRl3 BWRl3 Order Oate 1963 1965 1966 1965 1966 1966 1966 1962 1962 1965 1966 1965 Year of Commercial Operation 1969 1970 1971 1971 1971 1972 1972 1969 1969 1970 1971 1971 Oyster Creek 02 03 Millstone1 Foreign Plants: Monticello Quad Cities1 Quad Cities2 Tarapurl Tarapur2 Tsuruga Fukushima1 Nuclenor 210 210 342 440 440 . The ECCS and recirculation system were redesigned to improve reactor safeguards to any hypothetical accident conditions. and flow control was accomplished by valve control rather than controlling the speed of the recirculation pumps. the Zimmer class of plant was marketed by GE as BWR/5. these plants demonstrated successful per formance and essentially "turned the key" toward putting the BWR on a solid commercial basis. thus improving the overall economic evaluation. This increase in power density enabled a given size reactor to produce more usable energy. this rating gave a peak fuel duty of 18. Table 12 tabulates some of the salient information on the twelve turnkey plants that were sold during the period from 1962 through 1966.REACTOR A N D CONTA I N M E N T CON F I G U RATI O N S power density of the core was increased by 20% . Since 1966. In the standard 7 x 7 fuel bundle. The balance of plant and site construction is now being done by various architect/engineering (A/E) firms or by the utilities making the purchase. In 1969. they have several unique features. to 51 kW/liter. During the era of turnkey projects. Although these plants were quite similar to BWR/4 plants..e. obtaining USAEC licensing.
due to the increased heat transfer surface area. the peak fuel duty was reduced to 13. z 40 � :s 0. Any major in novations are invariably given thorough developmental and proof testing before they are put into commercial power plants. This lattice change allowed the power density to be increased to 56 kW/liter while. however. 20 a: w III ::.. 1 4 Year of commercial operation versus number of plants in operation and gross size in me gawatts.. In this way. plants to follow more rapid load variations and reduced the capital cost of the overall control system. 100 1400 r 1200 80 000 w N iii (fJ (fJ 0 a: to � 1 z o � 800 60 a: w 0. higher efficiency multihole jet pumps. This discussion of the design evolution of BWRs from VBWR through BWRJ6 clearly indicates that the overall design philosophy has been a fairly conservative approach of building on proven technology.4 kWIft. The current product line marketed by GE is BWRJ6. As in previous design changes. The most sig nificant change from BWRJ5 is that a squarelattice 8 x 8 fuel rod bundle is used in BWRJ6 rather than the previous standard 7 x 7 lattice. BWRJ6 is similar in many respects to the previous product line (BWRJ5). o � 600 400 GARGLIANO WRI ) 1 BIG Roc PT 1 IBWRI1I KAHL (BWRI1) DRESDEN 1 (BWRi1) VBWR '5 8 '62 200 � : \ '66 '70 '74 '78 YEAR OF COMMERCIAL OPERATION � (/) ...12 T H ERMA L H Y DRA U L I CS O F A BWR . and enhanced power flattening through better coolant distribution and zone loading of burnable gadolinia poison. it employs improved steam separators. Figure 14 shows how plant ratings and numbers evolved with time. significant . :::> z 0 ' 54 '82 Fig. This increase in power density coupled with loading more subassemblies into a given size pressure vessel enables BWRJ6 to deliver 20% more power than BWRJ5 for a given pressure vessel size..
The generic classification of BWRs into productline types serves to focus attention on the concept of design standardization used by GE in the BWRl2 through BWRl6 power plants. To obtain an increase in reactor power level. As in the description of dualcycle plants. 1 5 Directcycle reactor s ystem. b All large nuclear power plants are designed for baseloaded service. \ l RfCIRCUl"'TI� 'UMf'$ oJ I 1 I HEAURS Fig. technological improvements can be made in each new product line with a high degree of certainty for successful operation. these product lines all have been of the directcycle type as opposed to earlier BWRl1 dualcycle plants. . more reactor power is required. Figure 15 shows a typical BWRl6 power plant. for an increase in generator load. the unique operational features of directcycle plants can best be described in terms of operational tran sients. To follow load changes. Hence. and thus core power. which in turn causes the neutron moderation. the core flow is increased causing the coreaverage void fraction to decrease. An equilibrium condition is achieved at a higher power and flow rate in which b Eariier plants are quite similar but may use pump speed control rather than valve flow control. For instance. In particular.R EACTO R A N D C O N TAI N M E N T C O N F I G U RAT I O N S IIIOISTURE IIPARA TOIl AND fIIEH!A"" \. a directcycle BWR uses the inherent feature of varying the reactor power level by reactor coolant flow control. to increase. the overall control concept of a BWR is that the reactor pressure is maintained approximately constant by slaving the turbine to the reactor.
This increase in steam content reduces the moderating ability of the coolant and. thus tending to increase the coreaverage void fraction.. such as those contained in BWRl4. This method of load following assures that the primary system pressure is es sentially constant and minimizes the need for control rod action. This classification and short historical review of the development of GE BWRs was meant to give the reader an overview of the evolution of do mestic BWR technology. the reactor power level is lowered to a new operating condition consistent with the reduced load. a: � � o .. thus. The increased throttling of the flow control valves lowers the recirculation flow through the reactor core.. The bulk of these discussions is concerned with features of mod ern BWRs. The basic containment design provides a barrier that prevents fission product release to the atmosphere. BWRl5. the coreaverage void fraction is approximately the same as for the previous condition... the turbine tends to speed up sending a signal to the flow control valves to close to a new position..3 The Evolution of BWR Containment Systems The major function of a containment system is to protect the public from injury resulting from a designbasis lossofcoolant accident (LOeA). 80 60 u . .14 TH E R M A L H Y D RA U L I C S OF A B W R 100 . 1 6 CORE FLOW(%) Typical BWR flow control line. for most operational transients. 1 .. .. Therefore. 16. Subsequent chapters discuss the details of a par ticular productline reactor so that more indepth understanding can be achieved. and BWRl6type plants. II: o � 40 20 °O�����3�0�40��5�06�0��70��80��9�0�100 Fig.. A typical BWR flow control line is shown in Fig. for a partial load rejection. In contrast... the principle of flow control is used to follow load changes..
. 1 Dry Containment LEAKPROOF SHELL DISCHA RGIN G FLUID FROM POSTULATED PIPE RUPTURE \ REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL CORE PRESSURE o 5 Fig. which could withstand the pressure increase resulting if all reactor fluid mass and energy were released through a rupture of the largest pipe. The pressure rises to a maximum 1 .3 . surrounding the primary system. 17 Dry TIME Isecondsl 10 15 20 containment. 17 Also shown is a typical containment pressuretime curve resulting from a large pipe break accident and complete loss of reactor coolant. This design was followed in the mid1950s by pressure suppression containment system development. in which the reactor was surrounded by a large vessel that was vented to a water pool capable of condensing all steam released during a LOCA. The dry containment design employed in the Dresden I. and LaCrosse reactors is illustrated in Fig.REACTOR A N D C O N TA I N M E N T C O N F I G U RATI O N S 15 The containment designs of the early 1950s featured a large dry shell structure. Consumers Power.
which can occur from the reactor under postulated inadequate cooling conditions. 1 . Comparison with Fig. The suppression pool is a large. core cooling by invessel sprays transports additional decay heat energy to the containment. Subsequent steam discharge con denses and is retained by the pool. and other occasional steam releases to control reactor pressure. The drywell surrounds the reactor and provides a primary barrier to steam/water release during a LOCA and to subsequent fission product releases.16 THERMAL H YD RA U L I C S OF A B W R value. which decreases rap idly after the vent water is expelled and steam/air discharge to the pool begins.3. The basic design components of a pressure suppression containment are shown in Fig. passive heat sink.2 Pressure Suppression Containment Systems . the air purge from the drywell during a LOCA causes the pool surface to move upward until the air reaches the rising surface and break through occurs to the wetwell air space. The pool also absorbs steam releases from the safety/relief valves (SRVs) during operation of the automatic depressuri zation system (ADS). Pressure suppression in the wetwell region then takes the steam and rap idly condenses it in the water pool. The drywell region of the containment system must allow adequate room for the steam and water released froon the reactor during a LOCA. Discharge of drywell air and LOCA steam/water components occurs through a vent system. The pressure suppression pool also provides a large source of primary coolant makeup or emergency core coolant (ECC). Moreover. which is sized to limit the maximum drywell pres sure. Since the vents are submerged in the pool. and other equipment surfaces. 17 shows that the drywell pressure quickly reaches a maximum value. from which it decreases slowly as thermal energy is removed by heat transfer to the shell. Another passive feature of the water pool is its absorption and retention capability for filtering radioactive material released during a se vere core accident when insufficient core cooling water is available. It is desirable to maintain the lowest possible containment pressure after a LOCA to minimize leakage of radioactive contaminated products to the environment. concrete. which can absorb all the steam released during a LOCA plus an additional amount that is gen erated by decay heat in the core and is transferred to the containment with the emergency core coolant. Figure 18 also shows typical containment pressure transients for the drywell and wetwell resulting from a large break LOCA and complete discharge of the reactor coolant. Further pressure reduction is obtained by containment sprays that con dense steam and cool surfaces for continued heat transfer. 18. Pressure suppression containment designs have substantially smaller vol umes than dry containments because of the high energy absorption capacity of the water pool. which must be accommodated.
1 8 Pressure suppression containment. The vacuum breakers permit air flow back from the wetwell to the dry well if the drywell pressure is reduced by spray cooling and steam condensation. WATER POOL QUENCHER PRESSURE 5 TIME (seconds) 10 15 20 Fig. . . The wetwell is a large volume that contains the pool and an air space large enough to receive all drywell air plus additional heating and evap orative mass transfer from the pool without exceeding a specific maximum pre ssure. Safety/relief valves are discharged into the pool when it is necessary to reduce pressure in the reactor during accident and nonaccident conditions.REACTOR A N D CONTAI N M E N T CO N F I G U RATIO N S LEAKPROOF SHELL DRYWELL WETWELL V EN T • VACUUM BREAKER • PIPE RUPTURE o o I • 0 • • • I .
Also. 111 is similar to a MARKII system with the vents and pool surrounding the reactor. A large fraction of airborne radioactive aerosols. Early testing of the pressure suppression concept confirmed the capa bility both for absorbing the energy of the steam released and for quickly lowering the containment pressure resulting from a LOCA. which are discharged through the vents or relief valve system. It was judged that the experiments were sufficiently broad to embrace all pertinent loads and could be used in the specification of the pressure suppression design requirements. The residual heat removal (RHR) system provides cooling of the pool when its temperature has been increased by a LOCA or a long period of SRV discharge. which has a much larger drywell. The fission product removal capability of a pressure suppression system is enhanced by the water pool. Although these shortterm phenomena were not predicted by analytical models in use at the time. which were attributed to submerged air discharge and expansion and to unsteady steam condensation. 112 also incor porates a modified MARKII design. these aerosol particles may be deposited on containment and structural surfaces. The third containment is called the MARKIII design. Typical Japanese containment designs.18 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I CS O F A BWR Steam quenchers are pipes with many small holes. shown in Fig. 19. with accommodation for external and internal recirculation pumps. Other tests also exhibited shortterm vibrations and impulsive pressures. which is an effective filter of radioactive aerosols released from a postulated severe accident. they resulted in pressure loads that were bounded and were lower than the dominant pressure transient load. The ASEAATOM pressure suppression system in Fig. connected by a weir and a hor izontal submerged vent arrangement to an annular pool of water. are scrubbed as the bubbles rise through the water pool. The larger volumes also reduce the magnitude of LOCA pressure loads. . incorporate modifications to the MARKI and II systems to give more working space in the drywell and wetwell. Three commercial pressure suppression designs were developed by GE and are shown in Fig. The German design shown in Fig. The second is called the MARKII design or overunder containment system. which are attached to the submerged ends of SRV discharge lines for the purpose of improving overall steam condensation. The first is called the MARKJ design. and reducing condensation forces exerted on pool structures. which consists of an inverted lightbulbshaped steel drywell surrounding the reactor and vented to a horizontal torroidal vessel encircling the drywell and containing a water pool. Table 13 gives a list of GE BWR plants and their respective containment types. pool mixing. respectively. 110. largely to simplify con struction and reduce costs.
19 G E pressure suppression system designs. 113. discharged through vents into rectangular water pools in the facility shown in Fig. 114. relative to the time of pressure rise in the drywell. Early testing of the pressure suppression containment concept was per· formed for the Humboldt Bay Power Plant in a cooperative effort by GE and Pacific Gas and Electric in the late 1950s. 3 Pressure Suppression Tests . and having submergences from 1 . Another test at approximately the same time was constructed to simulate transient operation of a complete pressure suppression system in a small· scale facility. The condensing tests were performed by discharging 100·psi saturated steam at flow rates up to 100. A LOCA was simulated by a rupture disk.REACTOR A N D C O N TA I N M E N T CON F I G U RA T I O N S 1 2 19 3 4 5 = = = PRIMARY CONTAINMENT DRYWELL WETWELL SUPPRESSION POOL VENT SYST EM MARK I 03 05 MARK II MARK III 5· Fig.3 . This behavior confirmed the pressure suppression 1 . One test involved the full· scale condensation of steam. into water at temperatures of 50 to 150°F. 0 in.000 lbm/h through pipes ranging from 4 to 14 in. The simulated reactor pressure is seen to decay slowly. which decays rapidly when the vent water is fully expelled. Condensation in all these tests was rapid and complete. in diameter. The simulated reactor pressure vessel contained saturated water up to 1000 psig that was discharged through orifices to simulate various break sizes. to 6 ft. Figure 115 gives an example of typical pressures recorded during one of these tests. after which the simulated wetwell pressure rises. which allowed a discharge of saturated steam and water into the simulated drywell for venting into the pool. shown in Fig.
Zimmer 1 Chinshan 1 Chinshan 2 Caorso Design Dry Wet Dry Dry Dry Wet Wet Wet MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKIIC MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKJ MARKJC MARKJC MARKJ MARKJ MARKIIC MARKIIC MARKJ MARKJ MARKIIC MARKJ MARKJ MARKIIC 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 Pla nt Jdenti� Bailly" La Salle 1 La Salle 2 Susquehanna 1 Susquehanna 2 Fukushima 6 Tokai 2 Hanford 2 Nine Mile Point 2 Grand Gulf 1 Grand Gulf 2 Perry 1 Perry 2 River Bend 1 River Bend 2" Laguna Verde 1 Laguna Verde 2 Clinton 1 Clinton 2 Hartsville Ala Hartsville A2" Hartsville Bl" Hartsville B2" Phipps Bend I" Phipps Bend 2" Kuo Sheng 1 Kuo Sheng 2 Cofrentes Leibstad t Skagit/Hanford" Skagit 2" Black Fox 1 (Can) Black Fox 2 (Can) Alto Lazio 1 Alto Lazio 2 CNV 1 CNV 2 Graben b Kaiseraugst b Aliens Creek 1" Santillan b Design MARKIIC MARKIIC MARKIIC MARKIIC MARKIIC MARKII MARKII MARKII MARKIIC MARKIIIC MARKIIIC MARKIII MARKIII MARKIII MARKIII MARKII MARKII MARKIIIC MARKIIIC MARKIII MARKIII MARKIII MARKIII MARKIII MARKIII MARKII1C MARKII1C MARKIII MARKIII MARKIII MARKIII MARKIII MARKIII MARKIII MARKIII MARKIII MARKIII MARKIII MARKIIC MARKIII MARKIII 45 "Cancelled bSuspended .20 THERMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A B W R TABLE 1 3 GE BWR Plants and Containment Types 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 34 Plant Jdentity Dresden 1 (JNOP) Humboldt Bay 3 (JNOP) Garigliano (JNOP) Big Rock Point KRBA (INOP) Tarapur 1 Tarapur 2 Dodewaarde Nine Mile Point 1 Oyster Creek 1 Dresden 2 Dresden 3 Millstone 1 Tsuruga Nuclenor Monticello Quad Cities 1 Quad Cities 2 Fukushima 1 Brown's Ferry 1 Brown's Ferry 2 Brown's Ferry 3 Vermont Yankee Peach Bottom 2 Peach Bottom 3 KKM Fitzpatrick 1 Shoreham Cooper Pilgrim Fukushima 2 Hatch 1 Hatch 2 Brunswick 2 Brunswick 1 Duane Arnold Enrico Fermi 2 Limerick 1 Limerick 2 Hope Creek 1 Hope Creek 2 (Can) Wm . H .
" PRIMARY CONTAI NMENT DRYWELL " WETWELL SUPPRESSION POOL VENT PIPE SPARGER BAULINIE 8 9 CKWUI Fig. .REACTOR A N D CO N TA I N M E N T C O N F I G U RATI O N S 21 PRESSURE VESSI MARKI TYPE MARKIi TYPE Fig. 1 1 0 Japanese modified MARKI and II pressure suppression system designs . 1 1 1 German pressure suppression system designs.
and orifice and vent sizes were found to have only minor effects on the pressure suppression behavior.2 2 m Fig.:K$�::::��z:tf:t::�i. with venting to a water pool. which may create impact loads on various wetwell structures. Both tests included simulated reactor vessels with pressure up to 1250 psig.:� :'::":�:JQ1. I. ::' = 1 ASEAATOM pressure suppression system designs. 25 m . Variations in pool water level. temperature.1 :n(�·:. Continued study and testing of pressure suppression designs made it possible to identify and quantify shortterm containment loads. These shortterm loads are associated with several dynamic phenomena. Pool swell: When the drywell air is discharged through the vents. design concept for limiting maximum containment pressure.:·. 1 1 2 .22 T H E RMAL H Y DRAU L ICS OF A B W R CONTAINMENT FOR EXTERNAL RECIRCULATION PUMP REACTOR (ASEAIATOMI CONTAINMENT FOR INTERNAL RECIRCULATION PUMP REACTOR (ASEAIATOMI REACTOR HANDLING POOL FUEL STORAGE POOL a It) E DRAIN POOL VENT r 1 ::'' E g CONTAINMENT POOL f. a double rupturedisk/orifice assem bly to simulate a pipe rupture and discharge to the drywell. a pool swell occurs.�·:�:·: ·�]Ur. while ab sorbing large amounts of energy from steam condensation. Additional confirmatory pressure suppression tests were performed in a fullscale 1148 segment of the Humboldt Bay and a 111 12 segment of the Bodega Bay containment designs. . The ranges of parameters tested provided data for the verification of analytical models. reactor water subcooling. including the following: 1 . which may occur during a LOCA or after vessel depressurization is almost complete. and during SRV discharge.
This bubble undergoes large amplitude oscillations and creates dynamic loads on wetwell structures. 5. Fig. Chugging: This occurs at low steam flow. 1 .1 3 Condensing test facility showing test compartment with vents . where they collapse and produce dynamic loads on wetwell structures. 1 . causing the introduction of a compressed air bubble into the pool. phenomenon occurs during early steam discharge from the vents. delaying steam condensation until bubbles move into regions of cold water. SRV air clearing: Steam discharges into the submerged relief pipes and compresses the initial air prior to water seal expulsion. 2. re sulting in dynamic loads on submerged structures. which imposes unsteady loads on submerged structures. and results in the cyclic rise and expulsion of pool water in the vents like a large percolator.REACTO R A N D C O N TAI N M E N T C O N F I G U RATI O N S PT= Pressure cransducer TC= Thermocouple T = Thermometer 23 Fig. Hightem perature condensation instability: This phenomenon can occur if an SRV steam discharge warms local regions of the pool water. Condensation oscillations: This . 4.1 4 Arra nge m e n t of transient test fa cility . and resembles a flickering flame of steam as the condensation boundary oscillates and creates acceleration of the surrounding water. 3.
pool impact with structures.24 TH E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A B W R c:: ::::> en en LlJ LlJ 'Cii c. c:: a.. pool swell.I �l I �� �:. and provided a sub stantial data base for containment design and the verification of analytical models.::. 2 inches 2 0 . Theoretical models have not yet been refined to a degree that .1 I � i .:::�:: ���.I . 111000 volume segment of the MARKIII containment was studied by GE to provide a comprehensive data base for vent clearing. defined the various loads. 3 ft3 0 . four to seven vent pipe tests of a 20deg sector of a fullsize plant were conducted at the JAERI laboratory in Japan.1 5 Pressures recorded during a transient test. Other single vent tests were focused on a study of condensation oscillation and chugging phenomena. 1 .. condensation.::�:�I::. The multitude of tests performed have confirmed the pressure suppres sion containment concept. The test facility had four large vents for the study of both dynamic response and overall containment behavior. 5 ft 4 5 Fig. A fullscale. Research programs were conducted for MARKIItype pressure suppres sion designs in Europe at the Marviken Laboratory in Sweden. I ::fi � I� ::: [ ::. Multivent steam blowdown tests were also conducted at the GKSS and KWU plants in Germany to study condensation and vent pipe loads. An eight vent test for the MARKI contain ment was also performed at GE's FullScale Test Facility to obtain a better understanding of multivent condensation phenomena. Also. 9 ft2 1 .� f����I�I�I�� ' o O R I F I C E D I A M Elf E R D RYWELL VO L U M E VENT AREA V E N T S U B M E R G E NI C E 2 TI M E (seconds) 3 1 .1 ��:. and dynamic loads on the pool and vent boundaries.
Barton. Voight. "Consequences Drawn from a Stuck Open Relief Valve Incident at the Wurgassen Power Plant. . Japan Atomic Energy Research Insti tute (1980) . Appendix I. Kramer. Robbins. . et al. Massachusetts (1958) . (Aug. GKSS 811E/27 (198 1 ) . Cohen. pressure suppression designs are currently based on experimental results with wellaccepted design factors. c . "Final Hazards Summary Report: Humboldt Bay Power Plant Unit 3. Preliminary Hazards Summary Report: Bodega Bay Atomic Park Unit 1 . While stateofthe art modeling of unsteady condensation continues to improve the overall understanding of this unsteady phenomena. K. KWUFrankfurt. "Pressure SuppreSSion Containment DesignCurrent State of the Art. D. C. Power. 2 1 . C. "Pressure Suppression Approved for Humboldt Bay. ." Bereicht Kernreactoren. 1974. "Pressure Suppression Containment for Nu clear Power Plants. et al." General Electric Company and Pacific Gas and Electric Company (Dec. . Zebroski. and C. et al . C." JAERIM 8780. Robbins. H. 91(A: l ) Gan. Miller. I. "Pressure Suppression Test Program. Eng. References Ashworth. and E. "Operation Sunrise. P . and C ." Pacific Gas and Electric (Sep ." AS ME P a p e r 61WA222 (1961 ) . 0 . Ashworth. 17 (Mar. B. Boiling Water Reactors. Read ing. Studsvik Energiteknik AB. ." J. 1961 ) . Sweden (Dec. D. "FullScale MARK II Containment Response Test Program : Test Facility Description. Eng. 1959) . c . McIntyre. Germany.REACTO R A N D C O N TA I N M E N T CO N F I G U RAT I O N S 25 describes all aspects of unsteady steam condensation. MxB402. H . P D. and C. Welchel. Mar. . Robbins. . K . R. Welchel. C. T . B WR Pressure Suppression Con tainment Technology. 1969) . Namatame. AddisonWesley Publishing Company." Nucl. Janssen." Summary Reports MxA301 ." Nucleonics. 1977) . Specialty Mtg. MxB302. "Predicting Max i m u m P re s s u re in P re s s u re S u p p r e s s i o n C o n ta i n m e n t . H ." Electrical World (Nov. 1 960) . 1962) . "Pressure Suppression. . Barton. . "The MARK III Confirmatory Test Program. MxA402." ASME Paper 59A215 (1959) . ." Proc. W . In t. 1962) . "Marviken Full Scale Containment Experiment. . B . A. E.
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jet pumps for reactor water recirculation. • • • • • The reactor assembly (Fig. shroud. and the CROs. The principal components of a BWRl6 nuclear boiler are (BWRl6. they are considered separately in later sections. 2. dryer assemblies. contain. and piping used in providing and controlling core flow Main steam lines: main steam line valves. However. steam separators. CRO mechanisms. top guide assembly. and jet pumps. core plate assembly. and control the steam flow required by the turbinegenerator. steam dryers.C HAPTER TWO The N uc l ear Boi l er Assem b l y The nuclear boiler assembly consists of the equipment and instrumentation necessary to produce. valves. and incore neu tron flux monitors. CRO housings.1 Reactor Assembl y . and core support structure Reactor water recirculation system: pumps. due to the importance of these components. piping. 21) consists of the reactor vessel. channels. and hydraulic system for insertion and withdrawal of the control rods Nuclear fuel and instrumentation: fuel rods. 1975) : Reactor vessel and internals: reactor pressure vessel. internal com ponents of the core. control rods. Also in cluded in the reactor assembly are the incore neutron flux monitors. and pipe supports from reactor pressure vessel up to and including the isolation valves outside the primary containment barrier Control rod drive (CRD) system: control rods. steam separator. shroud head.
..vE HTDIIAU LIC L .. ES INCORE FLUX MONITOR Fig.28 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S O F A BWR VENT AND H EAD SI' .. 2 ...1 BWRl6 reactor assembly.....T Sl'ARGU COlE SPlAT LINE TO P GUIDE J ET PUMP ASSEMBlT CORE SH ROUD CONTROL BlADE FUEL ASSEMBliES CORE PlATE JET PUMP/REC IRCULATION WATER I N LET R EC I RC U LATION WATER OUTln CONTROL ROD GU IDE TUBE VESSEL SUPl'ORT SKIRT SHIELD WALL CONTROL ROD DRIVES CONTROL ROD D. ...T S TE AM D I TE R LIfTING LUG STEAM DRYEI ASSEMBlT STEAM ounn STEAM SEPA ..T INLET FHDWATEI SPARGER LOWPRESSURE COOLANT INJECTION INLET CORE SP ...TO R ASSEMILT FEEDWATU INLn CORE SP ..
23. and pipe break reaction thrusts. Details of the incore neutron detectors are shown in Fig. The jet pump diffusers penetrate the peripheral shelf 2. Figures 21 and 22 show that there are many penetrations in the lower head to accommodate the control rod drive housings and the incore in strument housings. control rod drive housings.5. The rods are coupled to CRDs mounted within housings that are welded to the bottom head of the reactor vessel. All of these pene trations involve members with a tube wall thickness that is significantly less than that of the lower head. such as those discussed in Sec. The reactor vessel is a pressure vessel with a single fulldiameter removable head. In particular. The core plate provides lateral guidance at the top of each control rod guide tube. The vessel head closure seal consists of two concentric metal Orings. are supported by orificed fuel supports that are welded to the core plate to provide both vertical and lateral support at the lower end of the fuel. and a drain plug (in the center of the lower head). The vessel is mounted on a supporting skirt that is bolted to a concrete and steel cylin drical vessel pedestal. with stainlesssteel weld overlay to provide corrosion resistance. and adjacent shell sections are designed to take maximum combined loads.N U C L E A R B O I L E R ASSEM B LY 29 Most of the fuel assemblies that make up the core rest on orificed fuel supports mounted on top of the control rod guide tubes. Vessel supports. with its fuel support piece. internal supports. including CRD reactions. The remaining fuel assemblies. a leak detection system is provided. in turn. 8. except for the top head and nozzles. The base material of the vessel is lowalloy steel that is clad on the interior. stainlesssteel structure that surrounds the core and provides a barrier to separate the upward flow through the core from the downward flow in the annulus. these members may preferentially fail during severe accidents.1 Reactor Vessel . Each guide tube.1 . The core shroud is a cylindrical. The top guide provides lateral support for the top of each fuel assembly. there are instrument tubes. To monitor seal integrity. mates with a flange on the shroud head and steam separator assembly to form the core outlet plenum. A flange at the top of the shroud mates with a flange on the top guide which. As a consequence.1 . which is integral with the reactor building foundation. bears the weight of four assemblies and is supported by a CRD penetration nozzle in the bottom head of the reactor vessel. earthquake loads. Control rods occupy alternate spaces between fuel assemblies and can be withdrawn into the guide tubes below the core during plant operation.2 Core Shroud 2. their attachments. located at the periphery of the core.
the steam separators. 22 Reactor pressure vessel lower plenum. The peripheral shelf of the shroud support is welded to the vessel wall to prevent the jet pump outlet flow from bypassing the core and to form a chamber around the core that can be reflooded in the event of a lossofcoolant accident (LOCA). . the jet pump system. of the shroud support below the core elevation to introduce the coolant into the inlet plenum.30 T H E RM A L H Y D RA U L I C S OF A B W R D I F F E R E N T I A L P R ESSU R E L I N E SHROUD STA N D B Y L I QU I D CONT R O L I NJ ECT I O N L I N E J ET PUMP D I F F USE R CORE PLATE I NCO R E I NST R U M E N T HO�"GS /. and the seismic and pressure loads both in normal and abnormal conditions of operation. t % �.l . The shroud support is designed to carry the weight of the shroud. j � I II I Fig.
. CORE SUPPORT REACTOR VESSEL IN·CORE HOUSING GUIDE TUBE FLANGE REACTOR SUPPORT STRUCTURE SLEEVE FOR TIP T UBE Fig. POWER RANGE DETECTOR DETECTOR CHAMBERS 36 IN.N UC L E A R B O I L E R ASSEM B L Y 31 BOTTOM O F TOP GUIDE DETECTOR CHAMBERS 0  A  LENGTH O F ACTIVE FUEL 36 IN. 23(a) Incore neutron detector assembly.
In each separator. on top of which is welded an array of standpipes with a threestage steam separator located at the top of each standpipe. The separated water exits from the lower end of each stage of the separator and enters the pool that surrounds the 2. The shroud head and steam separator assembly rests on the top flange of the top guide grid and forms the cover of the core outlet plenum region. As can be seen in Fig. Two ring spargers. 24. The fixed axialflowtype steam separators have no moving parts and are made of stainless steel.3 Shroud H ead and Steam Separator Assembly . The core spray ring spargers are provided with spray nozzles for the injection of cooling water. The core spray spargers and nozzles have been designed not to interfere with the installation or removal of fuel from the core. 23(b) o CHAMBER TIP Cross section of a typical incore neutron detector. one for lowpressure core spray and the other for highpressure core spray. the steamwater mixture rising through the standpipe impinges on vanes that give the mixture a spin to establish a vortex such that the centrifugal forces separate the water from the steam in each of three stages. are mounted inside the core shroud in the space between the top of the core and the steam separator base. Steam leaves the separator at the top and passes into the wet steam plenum below the dryer.1 . the shroud head and steam separator assembly consists of a domed base.32 T H ERMAL H Y D RA U L I C S O F A B W R Fig.
25. Steam from 2. The steam dryer assembly is mounted in the reactor vessel above the shroud head and steam separator assembly and forms the top and sides of the wet steam plenum. The dryer assembly is supported by brackets extending inward from the vessel wall.J...N U C L E A R B O I L E R ASSEM B L Y 33 REACTOR VESSEL WALL AXIAL STEAM SEPARATORS CROSS I NG BRAC ING STI F F E N E R S STAND PIPES INSTA LLATION GUIDE BRACKET HOLD DOWN SOL TS FLOOR SUPPORT LEGS J . 24 Shroud head and steam separator assembl y .1 . Vertical guides on the inside of the vessel provide alignment for the dryer assembly during installation.. standpipes to join the downcomer annulus flow. DETA I L A 1. There are brackets attached to the vessel head.4 Steam Dryer Assembly .. An internal steam separator is shown schematically in Fig. which would limit upward motion of the dryer assembly during seismic or pipe break conditions..j Fig...
25 Internal steam separator.34 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S O F A B W R fIII E TURNINQ WATE III � II""T WAnR U V E l OH:RATING RANOE TURNING VANES WIT ITEAM CORE OIlCHARGE 'LEN". . Fig.
N UC L EA R B O I L E R ASSEM B L Y 35 Fig. integral unit. Moisture is removed and carried by a system of troughs and drains to the pool surrounding the separators and then into the recirculation downcomer annulus between the core shroud and reactor ve ssel wall. Figure 26 shows a typical steam dryer panel. 2·6 Steam dryer. the separators flows upward and outward through the chevrontype drying vanes. These vanes are attached to a top and bottom supporting member forming a rigid. .
The coolant water passes along the individual fuel rods inside the fuel channel where it boils and becomes a twophase steam/ water mixture. due to momentum exchange. The steam/water mixture enters a plenum located directly above the core and bounded by the shroud head. into the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel. As discussed previously. The flow of water from the jet pumps enters the lower plenum. The saturated steam leaves the vessel through steam line nozzles located near the top of the vessel body and is piped to the turbine. As shown in Fig. distributed through a manifold to which a number of riser pipes are connected. The jet pumps. the recirculation pumps take suction from the downward flow in the annulus between the core shroud and the vessel wall. Highperformance jet pumps located within the reactor vessel are used in the BWRl6 recirculation system. it is pumped to a higher pressure. This flow is discharged from jet pump nozzles into the initial stage of the jet pump throats where. The jet pump diffusers are welded into openings in the core shroud support shelf. Feed water is added to the system through spargers located above the annulus 2. which forms a barrier between the lower plenum and the annular downcomer region where the jet pumps are located. 27. which have no moving parts.1 Jet Pump Reci rcu lation System 2. two shutoff valves. Approximately onethird of the core flow is taken from the vessel through two recirculation suction nozzles.2.36 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S O F A BWR The function of the reactor water recirculation system is to circulate the required coolant through the reactor core. The system consists of two loops external to the reactor vessel. each containing a pump with a directly coupled watercooled motor. and returned to the vessel inlet nozzles. The jet pump recirculation system provides forced circulation flow through BWR cores. flows between the CRD guide tubes. and flows down ward in the annulus between the core shroud and the vessel wall. it induces the surrounding water in the downcomer region to be drawn into the jet pump throats where these two flows mix and flow through the diffuser. joins the water leaving the separators. and enters into the fuel support where the flow is in dividually directed to each fuel bundle through the nose piece. There. Orifices in each fuel support piece provide the desired flow distribution among the fuel assemblies. Water collected in the support tray of the dryer is routed through drain lines. the steam is separated from the water and passes through a dryer where any remaining water is removed. which opens to the separator array of fixed steam separators. a flow control valve. and a bypass valve.2 Reactor Water Rec i rculation System . provide a continuous internal circulation path for a major portion of the core coolant flow.
The jet pump diffuser is a gradual conical section terminating in a straight cylindrical section at the lower end... a nozzle assembly with five discharge nozzles.....:::� SUCTIO N L I N E SH UTOFF VALVE .:: .. Each pair of jet pumps is supplied driving flow from a single riser pipe...... and a diffuser. The overall length of the jet pumps is about 19 ft.:.RECIRCULATION OUTLET MANI FOLD (ONE OF TWO) D I SCHARG E LINE SHUTOFF VALVE BYPASS CONTROL VALVE F LOW _+!_.�L. �""L. and joins the downward flow of water.�+. 27 BWR vessel arrangement for jet pump recirculation system . The inlet mixer assembly is a constantdiameter section of pipe with a diffu ser entrance section at the lower end and the drive nozzle at the up per end. which is welded into the shroud support.. Fig.. A portion (about twothirds) of this downward flow enters the jet pumps and the remainder exits from the vessel as recirculation flow. . Each BWRJ6 jet pump consists of an inlet mixer.. Figure 28 shows that each jet pump assembly is composed of two jet pumps and contains no moving parts...RECIRCU LATION ( O N E O F TWO) PUMP VALVE . +:.N U C L E A R B O I L E R ASSEM B L Y RECI JET P'UMPS INLET ' ���IL. These risers have indi ...
28 Jet pump assembly .••S SUPPORT S 1_11\A!+ CORE SHROUD MIXER ••• RESTRAINERS SUPPORTS . The recirculation system includes 20 to 24 jet pumps..2 Jet Pump Operating Princi ples and Features . vidual vessel penetrations and receive flow from one of two external man ifolds..38 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I CS OF A BWR HOlODOWN ASSEMBLY JET PUMP NOZZLE ASSEMBLY .rTrt41 REACTOR VESSEL WALL CORE SUPPORT l:tt DIFfUSER AND TAil PIPE RECIRCULATION INLET NOZZLE1 PEA JET PUMP RISER Fig. Driving flow to each distribution manifold is furnished by its as sociated centrifugal pump..2.__ RESTRAINERS . depending on the size of the nuclear boiler system. The jet pump drive flow enters the nozzle section at a high pressure and is accelerated to a high velocity because of the constriction at the nozzle 2. Instrumentation monitors jet pump flow to determine individual and collective flow rates under varying operating conditions...
is: . It is instructive to perform a simple analysis of a jet pump. outlet. The suction flow enters at a low pressure. 29. V t . These two streams merge in the mixing section where a pressure rise occurs because of velocity profile rearrangement and the momentum transfer caused by mixing. which is reduced further as the flow is accelerated through the converging suction inlet nozzle. This diffuser converts the dynamic head into static head. The rate of pressure rise decreases near the end of the mixing section because mixing essentially is completed. These processes are illustrated in Fig. . W.N UCLEAR B O I L E R ASS E M B LY DR'V''''G IIIOZ lLE 39 SUCTION FLOW DRIVING FLOW. P. 29 Jet pump principle. The steady onedimensional mass conservation equation shows that the velocity at the exit of the throat section. Fig. A diffuser is located down stream from the mixing section to slow the relatively highvelocity mixed streams.
(2 .AIV� . of the throat section is given by: (2. the steady one dimensional momentum conservation equation shows that the difference in the static pressures between the inlet.2) yields. and the exit. we have assumed that at the discharge of the drive nozzle both the suction and driving flow fluid pressures are equal to Pi . � TI = MN 100 (2. Eq. Thus.3) To obtain the static pressure at the exit of the diffuser. Pd .4) we can calculate the pressure rise in the suction flow due to the jet pump.Pd . Pt . 3) and (2.A2�) (2. ( ( u� PI / Pl + ) ( ) ( 2gc l  u� Pd + /Pl ) ) 2gc l . 7) and the N ratio is defined as the specific energy increase of the suction flow divided by the specific energy decrease of the driving flow. pi .5) P I . (2.P2. neglecting all irreversible hydraulic losses. u� u� P2 Pd /Pl + 2gc l /Pl + 2gc l N � (2. we may use the ideal Bernoulli equation. Pd .6) where the M ratio is defined as the ratio of the suction flow divided by the driving flow.ptAt = ff (Atvf .40 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U LICS OF A B W R (2. (2. The operating efficiency. 1 ) Similarly. and the pressure loss in the drive flow.AIV� . (2. 26. + P t = pi(AI + A2)IAt P t [Atvf .A2V� ] A tgc pi (AI A2) . as can be noted in Fig.2) gc where.8)  Using Eqs. TI. Vd = Pt At Vt Pf Ad (2.4) where. of a jet pump is normally defined as the ratio of the energy increase of the suction flow to the energy decrease of the driving flow.
5%) not uncommon. can be defined (Kudirka and Gluntz.. (2. :. 210.e.. as shown in Fig. .. 1974). 6) is frequently used in jet pump technology. with values of TJ = 45% (TJa 41. TJ e . This efficiency is related to the classical mechanical efficiency... the longterm core flooding capability of a jet pump design is = NORMAL . the maximum pipe break area is reduced. i... An important safety feature inherent in a jet pump system is that the sizes of the recirculation lines do not need to be large enough to pass the total core flow.. TJa.. Thus. ::.. :. the N ratio is normally modified to account for nozzle (inlet) and diffuser (exit) losses and. Note that modem BWR jet pumps are quite efficient. thus. .9) ( M + TJa/100) although Eq. ::::: : :::::: :: :: :: : : :: :: : : : : : : : ::: : : : : : STEAM SEPARATION DISTRIBUTION PLENUM "COLLA PS ED"" WATER LEVa AFTER BREAK LOWER PLENUM � ACTIVE CORE ... only about onethird of the flow is used as drive flow....N UC L E A R BOI L E R ASSEM B L Y 41 In actual reactor applications.4 WATER . a net efficiency for reactor application... in the following way: ( M + 1) TJe = TJ a (2..: LEVEL • • • • • • • • • • • • • : : STEAM SEPARATORS . In addition.
downward to the elevation.3 M a i n Steam Lines and Valves Steam exits from the vessel several feet below the reactor vessel flange through four nozzles. A flow restricting nozzle is included in each steam line as an additional engineered safeguard to protect against rapid uncovering of the core in case of a main steam line break. failure of direct scram based on valve position switches. 2. 1980. For the safety function.42 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S O F A BWR quite good. Carbonsteel steam lines are welded to the vessel nozzles and run parallel to the vertical axis of the vessel. which swells in the core due to boiling. Each valve is supplied by separate power circuits.3. This design allows a "collapsed" water level to be maintained at twothirds of the core height. Fakory and Lahey. failure of direct scram on turbine stopvalve closure. The safety function includes protection against overpressure of the reactor primary system. the valves open at springset point pressure and close when inlet pressure falls to 96% of springset point pressure. such that the core can be kept covered to accomplish longterm cooling (Kamath and Lahey. the valves are power actuated manually from the control room or power actuated automatically on high pressure (70 to 90 psi above the rated operating pressure). and reactor scrams from an indirect scram. closure of all main steam line isolation valves. Two airoperated isolation valves are installed on each steam line. 1985).1 Safety/Relief Valves The safety/relief valves are dualfunction valves discharging directly to the pressure suppression pool. 2. where they emerge from the containment. The relief function provides poweractuated valve opening to relieve steam during transients resulting in high system pressure or during pos tulated accident conditions to depressurize the reactor primary system. failure of the steam bypass system. The valves are sized to accommodate the most severe pressurization transients: 1 . and reactor scrams from an indirect scram 2. turbine trip from turbine design power. one inboard and one outboard of the primary containment penetration. Valves that are power actuated automatically on high pressure are closed when pressure falls to a preset pressure of 35 to 55 psi below the pressure switch setpoint. Selected valves are associated with the automatic depressurization system (ADS) and. in addition to the . For the pressure relief function. The combination safety/ relief valves are flange connected to the main steam line for ease of removal for test and maintenance.
4 2. These control rods control the overall reactor power level and provide the principal means of quickly and safely shutting down the reactor. fuel economy for a BWR. The lockingpistontype CRD mechanism is a doubleacting hydraulic piston that uses condensate water as the operating fluid . (Typical flow rates are given in Fig.3. acts to cool the CRD mechanisms. a hydraulic power supply for the entire system. These selected valves also can be manually power actuated to open at any pressure. which overrides any other signal. and failure of the loaded spring. control rod entry from below provides the best power shaping and. consists of a number of locking piston CRD mechanisms. are power actuated automatically on coinci dent LOCA signals of high drywell pressure and low reactor water level. Each valve has an independent position switch initiating a signal into the reactor protection system scram trip circuit when the valve closes. which comes from the con densate storage tank. The isolation valves for the main steam line are springloaded pneumatic pistonoperated globe valves designed to fail closed should loss of pneu matic pressure or loss of power to the pilot valves occur. Each valve has an air accumulator to assist in the closure of the valve on loss of the air supply. a hydraulic control unit for each drive mecha nism. The signal for automatic de pressurization is from redundant channels. Positive core reactivity control is maintained by using movable control rods interspersed throughout the core. upward scramming drives that are mounted on a flanged housing on the reactor vessel bottom head. In addition.2 Isolation Valves Control Rod D rive System . and instrumentation and controls with necessary interconnections. The signal for closure comes from two independent channels. shown in Fig. electrical power to the pilot valves. The CRD system. The signal for manual power actuation is from redundant control room switches from different power sources. each chan nel has two independent tripping sensors for each measured variable. The drive mechanisms perform both a positioning and latching function and a scram function. Once isolation is initiated. Lights in the control room also indicate the position of the valves. Moreover. this water. powered from different power sources. The rods are vertically moved by hydraulically actuated lockingpistontype drive mechanisms. 33.) 2 . thus. Here they cause no interference during re fueling and are readily accessible for inspection and servicing. the valves continue to close and cannot be opened except by manual means.N UC L E A R BOI L E R ASS E M B L Y 43 capabilities discussed above. 21 1. The drive mechanisms are bottom entry.
I CRD CHARGING WAT E R H E A D E R C R D COOLING WATER HEADER D I R E C T IONAL CONTROL VALVES CRD DRIVE WATER HEADER TO R E AC TOR . 21 1 Basic CRD system.44 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A B W R CONDENSATE STORAGE TANK TO OTH E R DRIIIES 1450 psig SCR"'" DISCHARGE HEADER 10 _' 1400 psig . ."" " R E ACTOR 'R(SSURE Fig.
are located outside the primary containment. and cooling water for the drive mechanisms. The drive mechanism can position the rods at intermediate increments over the entire core length. adequate flow is provided for cooling each of the drives by way of the cooling water header. one of which is used as a standby spare. Th e cooling water pressure regulator valves are manually adjusted to give the desired pressure at the cooling water header to maintain proper tem peratures within the drive mechanisms. the water charges accumulators that store the highpressure water for the scram function. thus main taining the pressure balance of the system. The number of drives supplied with a particular reactor is selected to optimize the power distribution in the core and to give the operator the maximum degree of control flexibility during startup. The pumps take suction from the condensate storage tank and discharge excess water (not used for CRD operation or cooling) directly into the reactor vessel. without removing the drive mechanism. the control rods can be uncoupled and removed. The collet fingers engage notches in the index tube to prevent unintentional withdrawal of the control rod. for operation of the CROs. and instrumentation. and flux shaping. After filtering at . The flow regulator automatically maintains a constant flow to the system. DUring periods when a drive mechanism is in motion. During normal operation periods.4. are locked at fixed increments by a collet mechanism. shown in Fig. The system is made up of highhead lowflow pumps and the necessary piping. stabilizing valves are a utomatically closed to reduce the flow bypassing the drive water pres Sure regulator valve by the amount required to move a drive.1 Control Rod Drive Hydraulic Supply System The CRO hydraulic system pump and filters. The remaining major elements of the CRO system are located within the primary containment. During multiple drive operation . Two pumps are provided. when rod drive movement is not required. This system sup plies pressurized demineralized water. with the remainder of the flow going to the reactor vessel through the cooling water pressure regulator valve. on demand. The CRDs can be uncoupled and removed from below the vessel without removing the re actor vessel head. Also.N U C L E A R B O I L E R ASS E M B L Y 45 An index tube and piston. with the vessel head removed for refueling. 2. filters. The manually adjustable drive pressure regulator valve maintains the Correct pressure on the drive water header for control rod positioning. coupled to the control rod. but without restricting insertion.1400 psig. control valves. 21 1. Water from the condensate storage tank is pumped to a nominal pressure of 1450 psig by a multistage centrifugal pump. maneuvering.
When a scram signal is initiated.46 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S O F A BWR (ganged rods) an appropriate additional number of stabilizing valves are closed to accommodate the increased flow requirements. When the reactor protection system calls for a reactor scram. Opening of the exhaust scram valve vents the pressure above the drive piston to the scram dis charge volume. 2 · 1 2 Locking piston drive system . and opening of the inlet scram valve applies the accumulator pressure to the bottom of the piston. allowing the CRD CHARGING WATER HEADER WATeR HEADER CAD DRIVE ==�� WATER HEADER EXHAUSTHEADER Fig. and the control rod coupled to the index tube. The basic components of the hydraulic system for controlling the drive mechanism during rod positioning and scram operation are shown in Fig. all control rods are driven into the core at the maximum rate of speed. which is maintained at atmospheric pressure prior to scram. 212. control air is vented from the scram valves allowing them to open by spring action. Gravity holds the tube notch against the latch since the entire mechanism is essentially at reactor pres sure. All components shown are typical for each rod drive. the latch is forced open by cam action. The movable element is held in any chosen position by a collet that engages one of several notches in the index tube. Since the notches in the index tube are tapered on the lower edge. the index tube. The control rod is moved by applying a pressure greater than reactor pressure to either the top or bottom of the main drive piston. . The main movable element of the system consists of the main drive piston.
A timing . To move one notch only. 3. As described under scram operation. To unlatch the rod. actuates the two insert valves. The inside of the stationary piston tube is connected to the scram discharge volume when the exhaust scram valve opens. Actuating the control for the insert direction. the accu mulator fully inserts the rod in the required time without assistance from reactor pressure. The moving piston is hollow and moves in an annulus between the stationary cylinder and the stationary piston tube. the operator selects one rod to be positioned. to the bottom of the main piston. by means of a control switch. These orifices are cut off progressively by the main piston seals at the end of the scram stroke to decelerate the control rod. the latch is cammed out of the way as the index tube moves upward. free of the index tube. As the drive moves up ward and the accumulator pressure reduces to the reactor pressure. for example. 2. such as during startup. 213. move) the rod in the selected di rection.4. The spring action of the fingers holds them against the index tube. The actual mechanical arrangement of the drive mechanism is illustrated in Fig. note the following: 1 . It also is connected to the area above the drive piston by orifices in the piston tube. pressure must be applied to the collet piston. The area above the main piston is inside the index tube. 2 Control Rod Position ing For normal manual positioning of the control rods. The latch mechanism is made of six collet fingers attached to an annular collet piston operating in an annular cylinder surrounding the index tube.N UC L E A R B O I L E R ASSEM B LY 47 index tube to move upward without restriction under the influence of the highpressure differential across the drive piston.e. 4. 2. appropriate relays and valves are activated to "jog" (i. This construction ensures that the reactor pressure is always available to the lower end of the piston for a scram and that the drive can be actuated in the withdraw direction only by a pressure higher than reactor pressure. permitting reactor water to complete the scram action. The annular passage between the drive and housing is the hydraulic passage that connects reactor pressure to the bottom of the ball check valve and. 212. Then. hence. the ball check valve changes position. which drives the fingers up against the guide cap and cams them outward. In comparing this with Fig. This connects the drive water header to the chamber below the piston and the exhaust header to the chamber above the piston. the index tube moves slightly above the new latching position. then is allowed to settle downward until the latch engages the notch in the index tube. which shows the important elements in the drive unit. If reactor pressure is low.
48 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S O F A BWR COUPLINC SPUo 1f"I""'Ti'lllt�fI. T H E I I T H D RAIAl IQD£ O f OPERA TlOI .F I X E D P I S T O N (STOP P I S T O N ) COLLET '111'0' ++_0{ PISTO" T U B E Oli V E I I U R T l I l E . D R I V E I I T H ORAI lUIE T N E D R I V E I S . ... BALL CHECK VALVE REACTOR PRESSURE Fig. 21 3 Locking piston hydraulic drive ..._____.
The rod withdrawal sequence occurs automatically through use of timing relays after a rod is selected and the control switch is turned to the withdraw position. The position indicator system indicates the numerical position of the drive at each notch position.N UC L E A R B O I L E R ASSEM B L Y 49 relay automatically interrupts the "insert" signal and actuates a "settle" signal. Midway positions between notches are indicated nonnumerically. the withdraw valve connected to the top of the drive piston is automatically closed. The entire switch assembly can be removed from the drive mechanisms without removing the drive from the reactor. The positions of all drives not se lected for movement are monitored continuously for motion. The status of all scram valves. Control rods cannot be withdrawn when any input from redundant sources indicates a block condition. the insert valves are closed and the withdraw valves are opened. The switches are actuated by a magnet located in the drive piston. drive drifting) initiates an audible alarm and an indi cation of which drive mechanism is drifting. thus holding the latch in the retracted position. The switches located between latching positions energize an alarm in the event that the drive moves from any latched position when not selected for operation. drive water pressure is also applied to the collet piston. and are contained within a tube inside the drive mechanism. Rod position is sensed by a series of sealed glassreedtype switches. The two insert valves open. At the same time. Control circuitry prevents the simul taneous withdrawal of multiple control rods unless the ganged rod mode has been selected. connecting the drive water header to the area below the piston and the exhaust water header to the area above the piston. The settle signal opens a "withdraw" valve. To withdraw a rod by several notches continuously. A change in drive position (i. The position of all control rods can be displayed on a digital readout in dicator (one for each control rod) located on the main operating console in the control room. and CRD "full in" and "full out" limit positions is indicated by panel lights in the control room. The piston and tube move upward far enough to free the latch. which maintains both withdraw valves open. When sufficient time has elapsed for the piston to move past the previous latch point. interlocks prevent more than one control rod from being withdrawn from its fully inserted position at any time during refueling. This connects the drive water header to the area above the piston and the exhaust header to the area below the piston.e. venting the chamber below the piston to the exhaust header. Next. the index tube latches at the next notch. accumulators. When the override switch is released. allowing the piston and rod to lower to the latch position without delay. This also removes the pressure from the collet piston and the drive settles to the next notch where latch engagement occurs. the notch override switch. The piston and rod move downward. . which holds the latch in the retracted position. They are spaced every 3 in. is operated.
The rod is designed to withstand the applied loads. and incore neutron flux monitors. A fission gas plenum spring. The tubes are seal welded with end plugs on either end. and is located within the reactor vessel. A top casting and handle. 1 Nuclear Fuel 2 . shown in Fig. control rods. Typical BWRl6 fuel bundles contain 62 active fuel rods and two hollow "water" rods. The control rods can be positioned at 6in. A fuel rod is made by stacking pellets into a Zircaloy2 cladding tube.3 Description of Control Rods 2. backfilled with helium to atmosphere pressure. aligns the tubes. this plenum spring keeps the pellets in place during the preirradiation handling of the fuel bundle. is provided in the plenum space to exert a downward force on the pellets.5 Nuclear Fuel a n d I nstrumentation . which is evacuated.4 .50 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S O F A BWR The cruciform control rods contain stainlesssteel tubes filled with boron carbide (B4C) powder compacted to 70% of theoretical density.5 . The castings are welded into a single structure by a small cruciform post located in the center of the control rod. provides structural rigidity. and contains positioning rollers and a parachuteshaped velocity limiter to mitigate roddrop or ejectiontype accidents. The stainless steel balls are held in position by a slight double crimp above and below each ball in the tube. The reactor core of a BWR is arranged as an upright cylinder containing a large number of fuel assemblies. The U02 pellets are manufactured by compacting and sintering U0 2 powder into cylindrical pellets and grinding to size. The nominal density of the pellets is 95% of the theoretical U 02 density. The fuel pellet is sized to provide sufficient volume within the fuel tube to accom modate differential expansion between fuel and cladding. which are spaced and supported in a square (8 x 8) array by 2 . A typical core arrangement of a large BWR and the lattice configuration are shown in Figs. both externally and internally. The BWR fuel rod is designed as a pressure vessel. The individual tubes act as pressure vessels to contain the helium gas released by the boronneutron capture reaction.!sec. It is seen that the BWR core is comprised essentially of only three components: fuel assemblies. steps and have a nominal withdrawal and insertion speed of 3 in. The coolant flows upward through the core. A fuel rod consists of U 02 pellets in a Zircaloy2 cladding tube. Stainlesssteel balls are used to separate the tubes into individual longitudinal compartments. and sealed by welding Zircaloy end plugs in each end of the tube. 215 and 216. 217. 214. The tubes are held in cruciform array by a stainlesssteel sheath extend ing the full length of the tubes. shown in Fig.
COUP L I NG R E L E ASE HANOLE VE LOCITY LIMITER COUPLING SOCKET ROLLERS Fig.N UC L E A R B O I L E R ASSEM B L Y HANDLE 51 ROLLERS NEUTRON ABSORBER RODS SHEATH . 21 4 Control rod . �_. . BLADE . .
52
T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A BWR
CORE LATTICE CEll (SHOWN IN FIG . 21 6)
+.+ +.+ +. + +++ ++ + + +.f + + + + + + + + + + + +.+ +.+ +.+ +.+ +.+ +.+ +.+ +.+ +.+ +.+ + + + + +++++ + ++ + + +.+ +.+ +.+ +.+ +.+ +.+ + + + + + ++ ++ + ++ + + +.+ + + +.+ +.+ +.+ + + +.+ + + +.+ + +.+ + + +.+ +.+ + + + + +. + t + + + +++ + +
Fig. 21 5 Typical core arrangement.
I N CORE MON I T O R
L.W'_
a lower and upper tie plate. The lower tie plate has a nosepiece that fits into the fuel support piece and distributes coolant flow to the fuel rods. The upper tie plate has a handle for transferring the fuel bundle. Three types of rods are used in a fuel bundle: tie rods, water rods, and standard fuel rods. The third and sixth fuel rods along each outer edge of a bundle are tie rods. The eight tie rods in each bundle have threaded end plugs that screw into the lower tie plate casting and extend through the upper tie plate casting. A stainlesssteel hexagonal nut and locking tab are installed on the upper end plug to hold the assembly together. These tie rods support the weight of the assembly only during fuel handling oper ations when the assembly hangs by the handle; during operation, the fuel rods are supported by the lower tie plate. Two rods in the interior of typical bundles are water rods; i.e., hollow Zircaloy2 tubes. Small holes are pro vided at both the lower and upper ends allowing water to flow through these rods, thus introducing moderating material within the bundle inte rior. The water rods also serve as spacercapture rods, mechanically locked to each of the seven grid spacers, thereby fixing the axial position of each
N UC L E A R B O I L E R ASS E M B L Y
53
(1 ) ( 2)
TOP F U E L G U I D E CHAN N E L FAST E N E R UPPER TI E P L AT E E X PA N S I O N SPR I N G LO C K I N G T A B CHAN N E L CONTR O L R O D FUEL ROD SPAC E R C O R E P L AT E ASS E M B LY LOW E R T I E P LA T E F U E L SU PPORT PI EC E F U E L P E L L E TS END PLUG C H AN N E L SPAC E R PLENUM SPR I N G
(3 )
(4 )
(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) ( 1 0) (1 1 ) ( 1 2)
(1 3) ( 1 4) ( 1 5)
( 1 6)
Fig. 21 6
Typical BWRl6 core lattice cell .
54
T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR
CHANNEl fASTENER ASSEMBl Y 8AIL HANDLE
UPPER TIE PlATE
fUEL BUNDLE
EXPANSION SPR ING
FUEL ROO INTER IM SPACER
PLENUM SPRING
FINGER Sfi'flING {TYPICAL OF 4J FUEl P£LlET
.'
FUEL ROO
Fig. 21 7
Fuel assembly.
spacer. The fuel rod spacers are equipped with InconelX springs to main tain rodtorod spacing. The remaining 54 fuel rods in a bundle are standard rods and thus contain many fuel pellets. The end plugs of both the spacer capture rods and the standard rods have pins that fit into anchor holes in the tie plates. An InconelX expansion spring located over the top end plug pin of each fuel rod keeps the fuel rods seated in the lower tie plate, while allowing them to expand axially by sliding within the holes in the upper tie plate to accommodate differential axial thermal expansion. Different 235U enrichments are used in fuel assemblies to reduce the local power peaking. In addition, selected rods in each assembly are blended with gadolinium, a burnable poison, to achieve optimum power flattening. Lowenrichment uranium rods are used in the corner rods and in the rods nearer the water gaps, while rods with higher enrichment are used in the
N UC L E A R BOI L E R ASS E M B L Y
55
central part of the fuel bundle. The fuel rods are designed with characteristic mechanical end fittings, one for each enrichment. End fittings are designed so that it is not mechanically possible to complete assembly of a fuel bundle with any highenrichment rods in a position specified to receive a lower enrichment. The structural design of the BWR fuel bundle permits the removal and replacement, if required, of individual fuel rods, and ensures that each fuel rod is free to expand in the axial direction, thus minimizing external forces on the rods. A square Zircaloy4 fuel channel encloses the fuel bundle. The combi nation of a fuel bundle and a fuel channel is called a fuel assembly. A typical BWRl6 fuel assembly is shown in Fig. 21 7 These reusable channels make a sliding seal fit on the lower tie plate surface. They are attached to the upper tie plate by the channel fastener assembly, consisting of a spring, guard, and capscrew secured by a lock washer. Spacer buttons are located on two sides of the channel to space properly the four assemblies within a core cell. The fuel channels direct the core coolant flow through each fuel bundle and also serve to guide the control rods. The use of individual fuel channels greatly increases operating flexibility because the fuel bundles can be orificed separately and, thus, the reload fuel design can be changed to meet the newest requirements and tech nology. The channels also permit fast incore sampling of the bundles to locate possible leaking fuel rods. The design power distribution is divided for convenience into several com ponents: the relative assembly power, the local peaking factor, and the axial peaking factor. The relative assembly power (i. e., radial peaking fac tor, FR) is the maximum fuel assembly average power divided by the reactor coreaverage assembly power. It is a direct measure of the gross radial peaking. The local power peaking factor, h , is the maximum fuel rod average heat flux in an assembly at a particular axial position divided by the assembly average fuel rod heat flux at the same axial position. The axial power peaking factor, FA , is the maximum heat flux of a fuel rod divided by the axial average heat flux of that rod. Peaking factors vary throughout an operating cycle, even at steadystate fullpower operation, since they are affected by withdrawal of control rods to compensate for fuel burnup. The design peaking factors represent the values of the most limiting power distribution that exists in the core throughout its life such that the peak linear power generation of 13.4 kW/ft is not exceeded. The design peaking factors of a BWRl6 are approximately: 1 . relative assembly (L e., radial) peaking, FR 1 . 40 2. axial peaking, FA = 1 . 40
=
2.5.2
Core Power Distribution
56
T H E RMAL H Y D RA U LICS OF A B W R
local peaking, h = 1 . 13 4. total maximumtoaverage peaking, FT = FRFA h = 2. 22. These design peaking factors have been selected on the basis of analysis and performance data from large operating BWRs. Operation within these limits is assured by design and prescribed operating procedures. Because of the presence of relatively high steam voids in the upper part of the core, there is a natural characteristic for a BWR to have the axial power peak in the lower part of the core. During the early part of an operating cycle, bottom entry control rods permit a partial reduction of this axial peaking by locating a larger fraction of the control rods in the lower part of the core. At the end of an operating cycle, the higher accumulated exposure and greater depletion of the fuel in the lower part of the core reduce the axial peaking. The basic operating procedure is to locate control rods so that the reactor operates with approximately the same axial power shape throughout an operating cycle (Haling strategy) . In addition to con trol rods, the initial core of BWRl6 uses gadolinia in some fuel rods for temporary reactivity control. The magnitudes of gadolinia concentrations are adjusted according to the enrichment requirements of initial core fuel. Axial variation of the gadolinia is by zone, with the concentration held constant within each zone. Typically there are three zones for each gadoliniumbearing rod; the result is to lower the axial power peaking factor. The relative assembly power distribution (i. e. , radial distribution) is nor mally fairly flat in a BWR because of greater steam voids in the center bundles of the core. A control rod operating procedure is also used to maintain approximately the same radial power shape throughout an op erating cycle.
3.
2.5.3
InCore Neutron Monitoring System
Reactor power is monitored from the source range up through the power operating range by suitable neutron monitoring channels. All detectors are located inside the reactor core. This location of detectors provides maximum sensitivity to control rod movement during the startup period and provides effective monitoring in the intermediate and power ranges. As shown in Fig. 218, three types of neutron monitoring are provided: source range (SRM), intermediate range (IRM), and local power range (LPRM). A travers ing incore probe system provides for periodic calibration of these neutron detectors. In the SRM, the neutron flux is monitored by fission counters which, as shown in Fig. 219, are inserted to about the midplane of the core by the drive mechanisms that move each chamber into the core through in verted thimbles. A range from below the source level to 1 09 nlcm2sec is covered.
N U C L E A R BO I L E R ASS E M B L Y
57
f
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a::
i= '"
u
 
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 '
� N E
c
U
101 2
(;l �
a: w
a: w I: � w
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Z 0 a: � � w Z ...J
x· � ...J U.
"
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T
.... U '" a: .... ... a:
Q
Z

T
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1 00 10
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�
.... '" ... %
10 10 10

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�
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0 ... � a: ... V!
_ ....
L � .... a: « .... V!


1 01 l oS
�
�
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1
�
> ..J ..J

1 0 5 1 0 8
1 0 "
I RM
LPRM
APRM
OP E R A T I ON
SO U R C E
Fig. 21 8
Ranges of neutron monitoring system .
As startup progresses and the count rate approaches the top of the meter range (106 cps), the counters are withdrawn to give a drop in apparent Count rate. Criticality normally occurs before movement of the counters is necessary. The counters can be motor driven to any position within their limits of travel; however, two or three selected positions provide the nec es sa ry range to achieve criticality and provide overlap with the intermediate range monitors. When the reactor reaches the power range, the counters are moved to a p o sition 2 ft below the core. This places the counters in a low neutron
58
T H E RMAL H Y D RAU LICS OF A BWR
POS I T I ON SW I T C H E. S
MON I T OR C I
F L E X IBLE CABLE
Fig. 21 9
Detector drive system.
flux region so that unnecessary burnup and activation of the counters are minimized. The intermediate range is considered to be from 108 to 1 . 5 X 10 1 3 nlcm2sec. In this range, the neutron flux is monitored by a system using a voltage variance method (also known as MSV or the Campbell method). This method makes use of the ac component of voltage, which is due to the random nature of neutron pulses generated in a detection chamber. With small chambers located in the hightemperature environment of the reactor core, the ac component is used to measure neutron flux at lower power levels because cable leakage and gamma radiation have relatively little effect on the Signal. These fission chambers also are withdrawn during fullpower operation to maintain their expected life and to reduce activation. They are positioned with drive mechanisms similar to those used for the source range fission counters. In the power range, neutron flux is monitored by fixed incore ion cham bers that are arranged in a uniform pattern throughout the core. These chambers cover a range of 1 to 125% of rated power on a linear scale. Detector assemblies each contain four fission chambers and a calibration guide tube for a traversing ion chamber. The chambers are spaced uni
N UC L EAR B O I L E R ASS E M B L Y
59
formly in an axial direction and lie in four horizontal planes. Each ion chamber is connected to a dc amplifier with a linear output. Internal con trols permit adjustment of the amplifier gain to compensate for the reduc tion of chamber sensitivity caused by burnup of its fissionable material. These detectors are individually replaced as necessary through the bot tom of the reactor vessel. The design lifetime of the ion chambers in the average core flux is 3 yr or a fluence of 1 . 1 x 1022 nlcm2 before the neutron togamma current ratio drops to 5:1 . The average power level is measured by four average power range mon itors (APRMs) . Each monitor measures bulk power in the core by averaging signals from as many as 24 LPRMs distributed throughout the core . The output signals from these monitors are displayed and also are used to operate trips in the reactor protection system . The calibration guide tube included in each fixed incore assembly per mits the insertion of a traversing ion chamber to obtain axial flux profiles and to calibrate the ion chambers . Each calibration guide tube extends nearly to the top of the active portion of the core and is sealed at the upper end . The tubes pass through the nozzles and seals beneath the reactor vessel and connect to an indexing mechanism located inside the contain ment. The indexing mechanism permits the traversing ion chamber to be directed to many different detector assemblies . Flux readings along the axial length of the core are obtained by fully inserting the traversing ion chamber into one of the calibration guide tubes, then taking data as the chamber is withdrawn . The data go directly to the reactor's process computer. One traversing chamber and its associated drive mechanism is provided for each group of seven to ten fixed incore assemblies (depending on reactor size) . Now that the BWR nuclear boiler assembly has been described, we are ready to consider the thermalhydraulic analyses of these systems.
References
"BWRl6General Description of a Boiling Water Reactor," NED Document, Gen eral Electric Company (1975) . Fakory, M. R . , and R. T. Lahey, Jr. , "An Analytical Model for the Analysis of BWRl4 Long Term Cooling with Either Intact or Broken Jet Pump Seals," , . Nucl . Eng. Des . , 85 (1985) . I<amath, P. 5 . , and R. T. Lahey, Jr. , "The Analysis of Boiling Water Reactor Long Term Cooling ," Nucl . Technol. , 49 (1980) . Ku dirka, A. A . , and D. M. Gluntz, "Development of Jet Pumps for Boiling Water Reactor Recirculation Systems," J. Eng. Power ( 1974) .
PART TWO
B as i c Therm a l H yd rau l i c An a l yses
CHAPTER TH REE
A p p l i ed Thermod y nam i cs
The basic principle of energy conservation is called the First Law of Ther modynamics. The first law simply states that "energy is neither created nor destroyed ." For thermalhydraulic considerations, it is not necessary to include massenergy equivalence as must be done for energy analyses of nuclear processes. The first law can be expressed as follows with regard to an imaginary system contained by a welldefined control volume: "Total outflow rate of energy less total inflow rate of energy plus total storage rate of energy is zero." Before this statement can be expressed in a convenient operational form, it is necessary to define some basic concepts:
3.1
The Fi rst Law
1. 2. 3.
given reference frame. Work is energy in transit by means of a force acting through a distance. Heat is energy in transit by means of a temperature difference .
Energy is the capacity of matter to do work or to supply heat in a
Work and heat are not storable quantities, but their effect is to increase or decrease the total energy of a system. Several of the most important storable energy forms, which normally must be considered in thermalhydraulic analyses, are :
1. 2. 3.
kinetic energy (KE) potential energy (PE) internal thermal energy.
where M is the system mass and E is the total stored energy per unit mass. the total convected energy is. 1 ) (3 . work. (3 . 2) Energy flow across a system boundary occurs by mass flow. C�. m ( E + pv) = m or per unit mass. the transfer of a mass. and heat transfer. and the specific enthalpy (Btu/lb) has been defined as.c + . heat.64 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A BWR These storable forms of energy are additive and the summation is desig nated by. Il 'v' 'v' 'v' (internal) E = EKE+ EpE + = (KE) (PE) gZ E=. SYSTE M E =fM Fig.+ . m.+ IL 2/gc gel (KE) (PE) u 2 (internal) U EM (3. . 31 The first law system. 4) where is the socalled specific stagnation enthalpy. 5) The foregoing definitions lead to an operational formulation of the first law. 3) ho =h + . but also provides energy transfer by flow work. Figure 31 shows a system contained by a control volume across which energy flows in the form of work. it not only carries its stored energy forms.+ gcZ/ 2Jgc gho h = IL + pv (3 . When matter crosses a system boundary. also causes an associated energy transfer given by. or mass transfer.� + IL+ PV) u 2 Il (3. That is.
(�. 7) are used for the mass and energy "bookkeeping" required for system state and blowdown analyses. �Wout . interconnected by moving boundaries.fL ) . Reactor internal pressure and external containment pressure depend on blowdown mass and energy rates. 2) lead to the approximation. the internal thermal energy dominates the total energy of a subsystem that is near saturation. �) (3.1 . Eqs . It follows that kinetic and potential energy terms are normally negligible . 32 with different subsystems defined for studying various hypothetical accidents . 8) can be differentiated with respect to time and combined with Eqs . (3. + �( who)out + �qout . 1) and (3 .�Win + dM dt = 0 (3 . 8) 1 ddtp (aafLp ) M = v [�win( ho. dE (3.fL ) .APPL I E D T H E RMODYNAMICS 65 The summations in Fig. (3 . Since kinetic and potential energies in a subsystem are usually negligible.1 System B lowdown Analysis The term "blowdown" refers to a relatively rapid loss of coolant mass and energy from the reactor system. 31 indicate numerous energy flows. mass flow paths.in .�qin + Tt = O . 9) It follows that Eq. 6). 6) and (3 . (3.out .�( Who)in . the first law can be written as.�wout( ho. v ) = p It is often desirable to determine the rate of pressure change of a subsystem . The overall primary system can be viewed as a collection of subsystems.�Wkin . or specifically. its pressure and enthalpy . and (3. its static pressure can be expressed functionally as. Although a subsystem can contain liquid. 6) Similarly. A reactor vessel is shown in Fig. 9) to give the subsystem pressure rate in the form. 7) Equations (3 . or a twophase equi librium mixture. A proper accounting of the mass and energy contained and the subsystem volume is adequate to determine its thermodynamic state. (3. 7). vapor. 3. which must be predicted to ensure an adequate safeguard design . Generally. (3. and heat flow boundaries . �Wkout . mass conservation is given by. Opera tionally. p = p ( fL.
(3 . M . whose differential at constant pressure can be combined with Eq.L. 10) Enthalpy.. h .v(� w'In . rather than internal energy.66 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A BWR S T E A M DOM E STEAM L INES SE PA R A TION ZONE FEE D W A T E R REC I RC U L A T I ON LOOP NO . 10) can be used for any simple compressible substance (SCS) . p p(j. 2 DOW NCOM E R CORE R EC I RC U L AT ION L O O P NO.2 Useful Property Differentials ( ) [dV dt ap 1 av . j... it is con venient to employ the state form..L .� wou t ) ] (3. 1 LO W E R PLENUM Fig. 1 1 ) . 5) to give = (3. + Equation (3 . 1 . 32 Schematic diagram of typical BWR pressure vessel subsystems. is readily available in tabulated form or in computational state property subroutines . Therefore. 3 . v )..
or the rate of change of volume of a liquid subsystem. heat rate. it follows from Eq. (3. and (3.2.1 ..)v . 12). These two derivatives have large magnitudes and.. 13) to yield.1 �vc = (3. thus. (3. are (Zeman sky. useful in computation with Eqs .P�vc(ap) . (3.gcv2 + gccpv = gcCp ) av . 13) (sonic or acoustic speed) 3.APPL I E D T H E RMODYNAMICS 67 Other thermodynamic relationships.v] (3. 1955). 12) (3.. 14) dp/dt v (.1 Subcoo/ed Liquid Subsystem For a subsystem containing subcooled liquid only. ap) �vc ( alL gcvcp v= p) c.= gc (app) _� 5 [ (�)p p] [ (:. av �v ��v (aT)p as cp � T (aT)p (av) � T�cpvv as p a (h) = v + 2 ap v �vC (aavh) � v p v a c. unless a rather tight error criterion is employed. Eqs. (3. 1 1) (volumetric expansivity) (specific heat at constant pressure) 8. can be combined with Eq.££i!!. power.1 0) that is extremely sensitive to slight changes in flow rate. 12) (3. This feature can lead to computational instabilities during numerical in tegration of pressure. 15) .(� . 11) and (3.
(3. is expressed in terms of the static quality. (3. it may be preferable to use Eq.2. the derivatives If the specific volume.68 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A BWR Instead.21) (3 22) . (3. 12 to provide . and superheated vapor subsystems. 18)dpldt (iJ 3 . 3 . (3 19) (iJpliJfJ. 10) for computing the unknown flow rate in a liquid subsystem with pressure rate considered an indepen dent variable .)v (3. saturated mixture.2 Saturated Equilibrium TwoPhase Mixtures It is convenient to use the following state equation for a subsystem that contains an equilibrium mixture of saturated liquid and vapor: Moreover. 1 . They can be .. and = (3. The blowdown relationships presented here are general for subcooled liq uid. 11) and 3 .vf ( P )] P Vf (iJhliJv )p (iJhliJp)v (iJiJhv) hfg ((P)) p = Vfg P (iJiJh) ddhf _ d� (hfgVf) + V � (hfg ) p v p p Vfg dp Vfg v.3 then Eqs.2. 18) as.2. 17) xs.2 for saturated water systems. 16) are readily found to be (3.. (3. it is convenient to express its specific enthalpy by the ideal gas approximation. h=hf ( P) + hfgg(( P)) [v . and can be used in Eqs . for various pressures and static qualities.20) from which. 17)plav ) (3. 1 . 9. and A n alternate form for is given in Sec. (iJiJhv) = ( k 1l p k and. (3. Superhea ted Vapor or Ideal Gas ( ) If a subsystem contains superheated vapor or gas. .
34. which include pumping power and heat losses." The load demand at the turbine implies a given steam flow rate and cor responding enthalpy of water leaving the feedwater heaters. Generally. Core and recirculation flow rates finally must be determined. usually <1 % of the core thermal power. a reasonably accurate qcore can be obtained in terms of turbine load demand. (3. Boiling occurs at reactor pressure and provides the required turbine steam flow.6) provides the basis for an overall system heat balance. Control rod drive flow and reactor heat loss energy rates are relatively small. The tu. vapor. which is based on a turbine "heat balance. A discussion of core thermal hydraulics is given in Chapter 6. A qcore = ( wh )main steam + (wh )recirculation suction . condenser. that part of the system. the core thermal hydraulics must be considered. and core temperature all are interrelated and must be considered together. Therefore. Thermal energy is extracted by the condenser at a rate of qcond . It follows from the steady form of Eq. for example. core and recirculation flow rates. A nuclear reactor core.3 Boi ling Water Reactor System Heat Balance heat balance is a systematic accounting of all the important energy flows that occur in a system or subsystem.( wh )recirculation discharge .APPL I E D T H E RMODYNAMICS 69 combined with the critical flow rate expressions given in Chapter 9 to estimate timedependent system pressures during liquid. There are numerous other energy transfers in a BWR nuclear steam supply system. 1 .( wh )control rod drive . and sat urated mixture blowdowns. including the turbine.6) that since the kinetic and potential energy terms are relatively small.rbine extracts energy for turning the generator armature at the rate of Wkturb . A steadystate heat balance is obtained by first choosing values for some of the system parameters and then solving for the others. adds thermal energy to the working fluid at a rate of qcore . the local void fraction. for which thermalhydraulic performance specifications are satisfied. (3. Before a reactor heat balance is completed. 33.6) is used for tracking energy flows from one subsystem to another. pressure loss characteristics.qlosses . However. An example of a simplified BWR system heat balance is shown in Fig. is described by a main feed enthalpysteam flow characteristic curve similar to that shown in Fig. the reactor core can be viewed as numerous heated parallel passages through which coolant flows. core reactivity. Briefly. (3. 3 .23) Energy rates associated with recirculation suction and discharge approxi mately cancel.( wh ) main feed (3. . which is considered next. core heat can be estimated from the equation. The steady form of Eq. and feedwater heat ers. The steadystate form of Eq.
c � x x x x x x X X X MASS F LOW RATE. 33 Simplified BWR system heat balance ..86 1 4 1 65 000 111911 " o q LOSS ES = 2 . . 8tullbm § § :. N I'l l!! I 13601 TAVG HOT � o n tAl 39 000 1601 Q o IE: ... i �L C O L O ' = � 406°F PCOL D II 54.. �i . . N IlI CD . r MAIN CON D E N S E R § en w > 1 4 1 26 000 1601 C r R Vl F 'rCON D ' 9 � :c < o » � � CD " .28 MW 7 668 000 18831 1 4 259 000 13981 CD = is !..> IE: 1 4 1 26 000 1 4 1 26 000 5 !C �  I� 874 442 T AVG COLO = = :II IE: w . � � I 397 ° F R  o w w ..c I � 13981 1 3501 IE: t.6 Ibm/tt3 I ii. Ibm'" I X X X I STATIC E N T H A LPY.... o » 8 "I 50 .. � BAN K O F H EA T E R S F E E DWAT E R ...:: N l!! S E R V I C E WATER I n I Fig...M A I N STEAM T U R B I N E ·G E N E R ATOR E F F IC I E N C Y 0.! � :c m ..
34 Typical steam flow. and pressure losses. which transform part of the total energy to forms in which it becomes unavailable for power production.0 r. Unfortunately. main feed enthalpy operating curve. 0. heat. no real processes exist where 100% energy conversion is realized. feedwater lines. steam lines. turbine wind age.8 0.r.. including the reactor. 4 1 .APPL I E D T H E RMODYNAMICS 1 .I [TF E E D WATER R AT ED .. mixing. evaporation. and condensation. and recirculation loops. 2 ° �=:������� O 0 . turbine..2 0. Although energy is conserved by each subsystem.8 0 0• 6 '" � « cr 0. A BWRlturbinegenerator power system receives heat through the process of nuclear fission and converts it into electrical energy. These irreversibilities are identified and quantified by a Second Law analysis.. Steadystate heat balances are satisfied for every interconnected sub system in a BWR power plant.2 The Second Law . condenser. The most ideal machine for energy conversion would provide a useful energy outflow exactly equal to the energy input. and other irreversible processes associated with heat transfer.0 0.IOOO F ) Fig.. various irreversible mechanisms exist... Bearing friction. all act to reduce 3 .6 T OO O F ) [ FEE DWAT E R .
Some authors have tried to minimize its abstractness by reversing the classical presen tation to show that losses of available energy can be quantified with some thing defined as entropy (Hatsopoulos and Keenan. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is often expressed in terms of entropy. a reactor efficiency could be obtained from Eq. � useful power output (3. expressed in terms of electrical power output and thermal power input. this section is included to present the essential ideas required in performing a second law analysis of reactor systems. The Second Law of Thermodynamics can be used to identify power losses and to suggest ways to improve the overall thermal performance. quantifying. which is a property that cannot be physically sensed. Rey nolds.24) 11 power input An overall power plant efficiency. The concept of useful power output from the reactor system requires proper definition to help identify possible design improvements.72 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BW R the useful power output. The reason entropy is not more widely used is that it is an abstract property which is not measurable like force. 1965. Sonntag and VanWylen. Since this mono graph pertains to BWR thermalhydraulic design. length. most thermo . the concept of an ideal machine is employed. Since there is much emphasis today on conservation. the macroscopic definition of entropy is still abstract. turbine. efficient use of resources. or equivalently. The concept of available power requires second law considerations. Entropy has been presented in a classical scientific framework as a defined property of matter from both macroscopic and statistical viewpoints (Zemansky. and generator. Ideas involving entropy. Regardless of how entropy and related ideas are introduced. 1965). and partially controlling losses of available energy in various processes. Never theless. 1976) . of an energy conversion process is defined as. (3. only the reactor system efficiency is considered.24). and optimizing performance. Huang. If the useful power of the reactor system and total power input of the core are known. the reciprocal of the plant heat rate (Btu/kWh). can be obtained from the product of efficiencies associated with the reactor system. Conse quently. It is economically desirable to minimize these power losses in energy conversion. The efficiency. temperature. relatively few practicing engineers use second law ideas during the analysis of a process or the design of an apparatus. and the Second Law of Thermodynamics provide a means of identifying. To determine the power output available for use. 1965. 1955. This ideal machine makes use of all available power and rejects heat to a sink at some appropriate temperature. which are summarized next. It is then used in formulating the second law and shown to be related to available energy losses. and other common quantities that are easily perceived. velOcity. 11. reversible processes.
(3.out Tout (3.2.E ) dQ . 5. in Tin _ dQR .25) to give. at least as an abstract property. where E is a small quantity. Since entropy is an extensive property. An application of the second law is included for determining the loss of available power. dQ. But its change can be used to determine the loss of available power from a system. and this clouds their view of its usefulness.27) .+ T T( l . can be demonstrated by a simple analysis of the isolated system shown in Fig. . work ers in fluid mechanics are not bothered by an abstract velocity potential because they can use it in solving velocity fields. The velocity potential itself is an abstract mathematical quantity that exists only for ideal flow and has no meaningful physical interpretation. (3. the total system entropy is. with heat inflow and outflow at similarly identified temperatures. and the other region is at T( l . its gradient is equal to the velocity vector. can be combined with Eq. which shows how entropy is used to obtain an operational formulation of the second law. Similarly. T. entropy alone does not convey macroscopic meaning.E ) . It is assumed that readers already accept the definition of entropy. ) T � 0 .26) Its differential. A brief discussion follows. However. Entropy is an abstract property much like the velocity potential q.1 Entropy and the Second Law Figure 35 shows a fixed mass system. Let us assume that one region of the system is at uniform temperature. which is readily understood.. dS.(E + E2 . . for an isolated system. or principle of entropy increase. which contains an amount of en tropy. followed by analysis of several processes found in boiling water nuclear reactor systems. dQ dQ dS = dSl + dS2 = . The second law. Therefore. dS = dQR . used to predict velocity V = Vq. It should be noted that dQR is an inexact differential which depends on the state process path of the system during heat transfer.APPL I E D T H E RMODYNAMICS 73 science workers view entropy as something fictional. This temperature difference causes a differential amount of heat transfer. thus pointing the way for economic and design improvements. 36. The differential change of entropy is given from its definition as. to occur from the region at higher temperature to the lower one over an unspecified period of time. in irrotational fluid flow. (3. 3.25) where dQR designates idealized reversible heat transfer without temper ature gradients.
which shows that the system's total entropy increases. causing the system's entropy to increase. qin and qout. are also shown between regions at temperatures Tin. 0 dt (3. which lies inside the solid boundary of an isolated system having entropy Soo. such as the falling of an object from a shelf or the rattling of contained components. if any macroscopic disturbance occurred. An isolated system with uniform temperature has no change of entropy. This is one simple demonstration of the second law. 37 with contained entropy S.?. which basically depends on the fact that heat transfer occurs from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature. when mass flows across a boundary at a rate w. = d( S + Soo) . Thus. Fig. Equation (3. Entropy storage rates dSldt and dS""ldt are expressed in terms of entropy production rates associated with heat transfer and mass transfer. slight temperature changes would occur with associated in ternal heat transfer. If a system of mass M has total entropy 5.28) Inflow and outflow mass rates are shown crossing the dashed boundary. Reversible heat transfer rates.74 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B W R T 51 \ aQ � \ \ \ \ T(1  \ 52 \ \ Fig. its specific entropy is s SIM . and Too . the entropy flow rate is ws . 36 Isolated systems and the second law . However. 37 in terms of the entropy rate as. 35 Definition sketch for entropy. Consider the system enclosed by a dashed line in Fig. the system becomes more disorderly as entropy increases. Tout. It will be shown that entropy also provides a way to quantify the loss of available power in a system. which gives for the system enclosed by the dashed lines. When viewed from the microscopic standpoint. .27) can be employed to write the second law for the entire system of Fig.
30) Equations (3. \ / / " I " / "" \ Tin I To u t A I / \ �/ L � I I \ Too qin I \ " \ / \ qout / " / \.. / \ _ _ _ _ " """  " / Fig. 29) Heat and entropy inflows and outflows across the dashed boundary have the opposite meaning when considering the outer system. That is. 30) as:  (3. ". 32) It foll ows from Eg.r:: .". / T oo . (3... j (3 .... I / ".Tx dSx qout qin + ( SW )ou t .29).. Tt .. ...A P PL I E D T H E RMO D Y N A M I C S 75 (WS)in / '� �\ I S = sM \ \ .( SW)in + dt Tout Tin (3... .. 28) that = dS ) q ou t ( SW out .( SW)out (3... . 28). dSx qout qin � ( sw )ou t .( SW) in (3. and (3.( SW) in + . dS dt =· _ + Tout T qin q out on ( SW)in .. (3. 37 Operation at formulation of the second law. 30) _ qout Tx qin >0 q out Tout T x � yield: _ qin Tin (3 . (CS) ( ws ) out "� "" _ _ _  ..31) which can be used to write Eq.· dt Tin Tout (� ) �O . 33) .. .. y""\  " " .
However. and it is shown that its readout of power loss. Consider the general steadystate system of Fig.76 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A BWR where i is called the irreversibility rate (London. � out. compression. 34) If it were possible to provide an electronic computer that displayed a read out of the available power loss when it was connected to the inputs and outputs of a system. Equation (3. 38a. which performs all internal processes reversibly.2 Avai lable Power Loss (3. various increments of reversible heating. It will be shown next that the loss of available power is given by. W. The actual system is replaced by an ideal system in Fig. Mechanical energy and heat transfer rates also cross the system boundary. cooling. � iT where T is an appropriate temperature. � Ioss 3. are equal to those of the actual system. and expansion must be per Pout Pout ( a ) ACTUAL ( b ) IDEAL Fig. or other systems that may lack one or more of the mechanical energy and heat transfer rates shown by setting them equal to zero in Fig. � Ioss . more engineers would probably be motivated to reduce irreversibilities. as well as � in .2.33) is an operational form of the second law which can be employed to assess the overall efficiency of a process. 38a. enters and leaves with the properties indicated. Its mass inflow and outflow properties. 38 Steadystate thermodynamic system. is equivalent to the loss of available power expressed by Eq. A mass flow rate. 34). (3. The idea of an available power loss computer is discussed next. 1982). and qin . 38b. . to perform all internal processes reversibly. Note that this general system can be used to describe either a nonflow system by setting W = 0.
( a in .'2J> out . To quantify ?Jl loss .'2J> in + w( ho. the term '2J>outl'2J>in in Eq. (3. is a fluid flow efficiency that quan tifie s the loss of available energy from a fluid stream by flow irreversibilities. The result is that heat rejection from the ideal system would not necessarily be equal to qout of the actual system.out .out . '2J> loss . The thermal power loss is that which could be extracted by a Carnot engine running between Tq. Finally.T loss :S:.37) .Tq.in . If the system has no thermal energy inflow rate.::. there may be an additional reversible power outflow from the ideal system. Eq.in .38) ain . (1 .out and Tq.aout = [ ( ho. energy conservation and the second law are writ ten for the ideal steadystate system of Fig.37) . (ill . .out + wh o. is imagined to be displayed as an electronic readout on the available power loss computer.Tq.out (3. The term (1 .36) Eliminating q6ut yields. (3.'2J>outl '2J>in) is the fraction of mechanical power that is dissipated. in the absence of thermal and mechanical pOwer terms. Internal thermal power losses would be diminished if the system temp erature was more uniform.35) ?Jl loss + '2J> out .37) applies to a system where both inflow and outflow rates of mechanical. defined by: � (3.Tin (ill where ain .37) is a mechanical efficiency like that associated with the input and output drive shafts of a gear box.Sin) .ho. in ) + Q6 u t . 1965) for thermal energy transfer. = (1  '2J>ou t + qin '2J> in ) (1  Tq.aout) . Furthermore. which would be left over if the internal processes were performed reversibly. and convected energy exist. the first term on the right side of Eq. When a system has both inflow and outflow of mechanical power.o u t/Tq. with Tq.m  y q6ut q.i n .in ( a in .in ) can be recognized as the Carnot efficiency (Reynolds. The extra power that could be ideally extracted.outSin ) .37) characterizes a nonflow system when w = o .Tq. identified as '2J>loss. (3. 38b as.outSout ) ] lho. (3.37) becomes . and recognizing that internal processes can never equal reversible performance. A reduction of bearing gear and fluid friction would make '2J>out approach '2J> in .aout ) Tq. Therefore.out approaching Tq.in The form of Eq. Furthermore.A P P L I E D T H E RM O D Y N A M I C S formed on the fluid inside the system.aout is the change in a normalized steady flow availability func tion. If the system is a turbine for which '2J> in 0.( ho. (3. Tq.in ) (3. and the as sociated power loss would be reduced. the quantity. which include frictional and geometrical pressure losses. q�u t qin w( Sou t . qin is zero in Eq. (3. thermal.q in = 0 and.
(3 . = = Tds = dh . Tl ( S 2 . t!Ploss can be (3 . 39). 4 1 ) so that the available power loss is. 42) t!Ploss � wv( P1 . 34) and (3 .2. Several simple examples follow that give estimates of the available power loss from selected thermodynamic processes found in nuclear reactor and containment technology.78 T H E RM A L H Y D RA U L ICS OF A B W R Generally when two or more energy transfer processes occur simulta neously in a system. of 1 000 liter/sec (35 .In . less orificing or an additional pipe to carry a given total flow rate would reduce this power loss considerably.P2 ) giving . This analysis shows that the available power loss given by Eq. (3 . their overall effects on property changes are inter dependent.P2) = Q LlP loss A pressure loss of 1 00 kPa (14 . 3 ft3/sec) give a power loss of as much as 100 kW Since pressure loss is proportional to the square of fluid velocity. the challenge still remains. Incompressible liquid flow is char acterized by equal inflow and outflow values of h. Nevertheless.out . SIn ) + � . (3 .q. . which should encourage more second law thinking. a larger pipe. 38a. The power loss of Eq.T . can be written as. thermal.2. 34) is an expression of power losses associated with mechanical. the total available power loss is the sum indicated by Eq. 3. 39 .c::: lf loss "'" Tq.qin = 0 (3 . The available power loss is to be estimated for the orifice pressure loss of Fig. The entropy change is obtained from Gibbs equation. q = 0 and Tq. and flow processes.in ) + t!P out .out .1 Geometric or Frictional Press u re Loss ] (3 . Energy conservation for the actual system. w ( ho. 40) Fluid flow in an adiabatic pipe may undergo a pressure loss from pipe geometry effects and friction. 37) . Q . Since the pipe is adiabatic.t!Pin + qout . 5 psi) and a volumetric flow rate. If t!Ploss was visibly displayed on an electronic computer connected to a given system.out Tq.ho. Al though no such computer exists yet.out W Sout (3 . and v.S I) = v ( P I . Tq. J. 40) is TI W( S 2 .out Tl T2 .vdp = dJ. shown in Fig. ho.t!Pout) is eliminated between Eqs.S I ) .L + pdv (3 . 37) and [( _ qin . 40) are the same if the tem perature T is the system's heat rejection temperature. (3 . (3 . it probably would attract attention and issue a silent chal lenge to identify irreversibilities and reduce them by careful design. 39) If ( t!Pin . A comparison shows that Eqs. expressed as: rill .out / Tq.L.
0.t T This quadratic equation has a positive and a negative solution for T2ITl. 43) P The ratio T21Tl can be obtained for a known P21pl from the mass and energy conservation laws..[(PP2l )2 ( Tl2)2 . 39 Orifice pressure loss .T2) . � hoI == ( k _k lll VJ + 2ut == ho2 == ( k _k 1)P2V2 + 2ugcl gcl S2 .1 )Mt (�) ( l + �Mt) J I} (3. 40) (3... (k .. ilPloss == PI P2. crease is obtained by integrating Eq. (3.Sl  If perfect gas undergoes an adiabatic pressure loss the is again Tq. 2 Pl )2 ( Tl )2 + 21)M ( T2l ) _ [ (k1)Mt + l J . . The stagnation enthalpies first are expanded.S I ) . 4 1). with the help of Eq. (3. Only the positive solution has physical meaning. 44) (k.l J 2. k _ v 2gcl _ T gcl _ll Vl ( l . 20). the last equation can be put into the form.O (P2 T2 (k. Now. giving Mass conservation yields.1 )Mr (�:y TJ '12 . and is written as: 2 T2 {[ 1 + 2( k.A P PL I E D T H E RM O D Y N A M I C S 79 • <. to give.1 But since kgcplVl == ct and Ul/cl == Ml .0.(vt�_ l ) . Pl Vl == RTI and P2V2 == RT2 are employed next to obtain. The entropy in available power loss of Eq. T P ==cp InT2I R In2I (3.outW ( S2 ._ w CD Fig.
is governed by the heat transfer coefficient. the orifice imposes an available power loss equal to 1 .... MI k= u I/MI ( kgcRTI(2 PI T2/TI �loss/wcpTI The available power loss is to be expressed for a fin like that shown in Fig. 310. dqh dqh Tq. 31 0 Fin heat transfer.42) is other words. (3.2 Hea t Transmiss ion from a Fin TH.'711I I I I I dz T + dT I I I I I q + dq q I I I I \ \ d Q h I\ I ( T 00 \ ' I ) / 7 \ l==. T dT T.55 MPa (950 psia).2 . 310 shows heat outflows + and at temperatures + and whereas heat inflow is at temperature The film actually is in contact with the fin.. Heat inflow to the film is at T. (3. 0..4 and = 0.�::'\ T dQh / . In and the normalized power loss from Eq.2. (3.999.44) is = 0. and heat outflow is at Tx . . .9 MPa (1000 psia) and = 6.2. q q dq dqhT dq dqh.. If the upstream and downstream pressures across an orifice are = 6. which conducts heat from a boundary at temperature Con vection to the surrounding fluid at temperature T". The differential control volume of Fig. 014.4% of the stream's energy flow rate. [ T'" qT dT + ( 1 . _  / I / ( F I LM ) Fig.. (3.45) d�loss .. H.out Too.x) dq ] dz T dz T dz  T T rr.40) yields the following expression for differential power = loss: 3.:..:. Consider a stream flow with 1 . but is shown removed for this analysis. Recognizing that = and setting Eq. the temperature ratio of Eq.. .80 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A BWR P2 where is the entrance Mach number.
mz]z2]dz Integra tion of this expression along the fin from z = 0 to z = and in tro ducing the heat transfer rate at the base of the fin.46a) (3.45) can be written as. aT . dq = . Ne= T2 + aT P2 .. 1973) is. is 810 K (lOOO°F) and the surrounding fluid temperature is 558 K (545°F). loss 00.�: ) q{O) Equation (3.A P PL I E D T H E RMODYNAM I C S 81 This example is simplified by choosing a long fin temperature distribution (Krieth.mz dz dz the available power loss differential of Eq.3 Heat Transfer to a Flowing Liquid liquid enters a nuclear fuel channel at temperature and pressure as shown in Fig.46b) T{z)Tx={THT".ITH) times the heat transfer rate from the hot reservoir at For example. Employing. 2Y (TH T m dllJ> � KAm2{TH _ Yx)2e .KAm2( THT". 311 . TH.)e . 3. if the temperature at the base of the fin.2mA[Yxx++(THTx):x:e)e. the avail able power loss of q(O) is 31 % . z T{z).)e .47) � ( 1 .T".KAd2T2= . and. 2.mz m=KA HPh where and Ph is the heated perimeter.47) shows that the available power loss from fins is the Carnot efficiency (1 . q'(z) TI PI. q(O) = KAm( TH yields. ( L_oo) for which the (3. It is heated by a known over length L to temper atu re where the pressure is The liquid temperature at is altho ugh its temperature at the heating surface is the slightly higher value TH T where is a relatively constant temperature difference. (3.2 . L) IlJ>loss TH . (3.
( 3 49) are seen to be caused from an elevated temperature increment at the heating surface. heated a temperature excess of LlT = K (18°F) T2 = K (545°F) If the pressure loss is negligible.l = dq q ' dz T +I ' L _ _ _ _ . dq = wdh = wCpdT Also. 3 . i2Ploss (3. and the pres sure loss. Tds = dhvdp and the differential heat transfer is given by.T..:. (. 48) The entropy change is expressed from Gibbs equation. . 4177 (1.. I w T + dT s + ds p + dp Fig. which can be integrated over the channel length to give. the available power loss of Eq. the available power loss from Eq..J 1. 4 ) becomes ( 8 dv i'Joss � W ( T �:T cpdTVdP) ..toenters558 channel at. of 50 kg/sec (110 Ibm/sec). 3 4 ) can be written for the incremental control volume as..49 ) is 321 kW.L� T2 P2 s2 w T s P '. 31 1 Liquid heating..82 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A B W R q ' (z) w w �.0 di2Ploss � T (wds ��J (3. glecting heat conduction in the flow direction.49 ) � CpWLlT In ( ��: ��) +WV(pIP2) The two components of power loss in Eq.. employing Eq.. It is a K flow TI = 477with(400°F) with cpa =mass ]/kgKrate 010Btu/IbmF). (3. Suppose that water.
(3.. The fluid is superheated to + temperature at the heating surface (McAdams. homogeneous flow is assumed for simplicity in this example.. The control volume of Fig.J 1 d q � q ' dz w 5 + h o + d ho + ds p + dp v + dv Fig...T1 whfgdx:s. Ts Tf aTs = dcg>loss :S. The remaining term is integrated with an average hfg to give the power loss from boiling as.20. the available power loss is 266 kW Heat transfer irreversibilities can be reduced by roughening the heating deJl loss :S. although this procedure increases pressure loss irreversibilities. .APPL I E D T H E R M O D Y N A M I C S 83 3 . .vdp Tfwds.� _ r . Al though the boiling mixture will have vaporliquid slip under most condi tions. 312 can be employed to write the differential power loss as.51) 106 J/kg (650.. 1954) ..l� 5 p Tf 11L___ 1 I. yields Tf (wds . 31 2 Channel boiling.53) whfg ( Tf aTs ) X2 aT If a 50 kg/sec (110 Ibm/sec) mass flow rate of saturated water at 6. 2 .��) (3. dq=q' dz=whfgdx. (wdh . 50) becomes. X + s = surfa ce.. 2 . Tf aTs whfgdx wvdp (3..51) and Gibbs equation to express The mixture kinetic and potential energies are usually negligible. so that energy conservation The power loss of Eq.4 The Boiling Process Bulk boiling occurs when saturated liquid flows through a heated fuel channel of a boiling water nuclear reactor. Equation (3.50) h = hf xhfg v = vf XVfg Tds = dh .9 MPa (1000 psia) with hfg = (1 .4 Btu/Ibm) and Tf = 557 K (544°F) is boiled with a wall superheat of aTs 10 K (18°F) and leaves the channel at a quality of x = 0. + cg>loss :S.34) is used with the saturated state equations + + and (3. w q ' (z) w w ho r.wvdp) .!� . (3.52) Ts aTs The pressure loss term can be treated separately.
1977. 3. is used to heat returning feedwater flow.5 Available Power Loss from Hea t Exchange Figure 33 indicates a number of feed water heaters where steam.54) Fig.2. with hot and cold side average temperatures TH and Te .2. This arrangement increases overall plant efficiency.84 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A BWR Procedures have been formulated for evaluating the effectiveness of surface roughness and other design changes on the second law performance of heat transfer apparatus (Bejan. the total loss is: (3. which is extracted from various turbine stages. The loss of avail able power association with heat exchange will now be considered to assist the BWR system designer. It is assumed that the external boundary of the heat exchanger is adiabatic and that pressure losses of both the hot and cold side flows are negligible.40) is applied to the hot and cold sides. (3. 31 3 Heat exchanger. 1980) . and the available power losses of each side are added. If Eg. . Inlet and outlet temperatures are indicated for each side. Figure 313 shows the hot and cold sides of a heat exchanger.
J (3. (3. �Ioss � Tsat Energy conservation for both sides gives. and the average cold side temperature is Te . Cooling water enters at TI and leaves at T2. for which saturated steam enters and satu rated water leaves the hot side. Steam condenser proper ties are indicated in Fig. which is at uniform temperature Tsa t .60a) that the first bracketed term on the right side of Eq. �Ioss � � In T2 + � In T4 + T2 _ T3 q TI .55) The Gibbs equation for approximately constant pressure on each side can be integrated to yield: (3. (3. use of the Gibbs equation for the hot and cold sides results in.TI) p Also. A first law analysis on each side yields.60a) T2 52 . Available Power Loss from Steam Condensa tion .T3 T3 TH Te (3. 314. (3.APPL I E D T H ERMODYNAMICS 85 where T2 and T3 are the lowest temperatures on the hot and cold sides. (3.60b) We note from Eqs. Application of Eq.59) q = whfg = WeC ( T2 .T2 TI T4 . which leads to the available power loss fraction.58) (3.56) It follows that.59) and (3.57) An example case with the following parameters.51 ) . (3. TI = 887 R TH = 866 R Te = 857 R T2 = 845 R q = 200 MW T3 = 837 R T4 = 877 R has a maximum available power loss of 179 kW. (3.40) to both the hot and cold sides yields. respectively. .58) is zero.SI = cp InTI [  w( sf 5g ) + Ta �J + TI [ We (52 .
.. �loss . The problem often results in an optimization exercise. Sometimes the available power loss reduction in a heat transfer process is counterbalanced by an increase from pressure drop. 3 . If the associated available power losses are dis played in terms of system parameters and operating properties. Although there are notable differences in available power losses from cosine. Some parameters are beyond design control. �loss/q . � ln T2 _ �I (3. such as the axial power distribution in fuel channel..TI TI Te where Te ( TI + T2 )/2. uniform.2.61) q T2 ... A case with TI = 500 R and T2 = 520 R gives a max imum available power loss fraction of.. and skewed distributions.1 4 Steam condensation.86 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A B W R Tsat Fig.3 Design to M i n i m ize Available Power Loss The procedure for achieving the minimum loss of available power in the reactor's thermalhydraulic systems involves a careful examination of each component and process. the requirements of uni form burnup and optimum control rod patterns do not permit arbitrary shifting of power profiles.00013 = 3. a . 0. design or operational changes often can be interpreted relative to their effect on system performance.
c . F . These savings directly benefit the utility operating the plant. Huang. "The Concept of Irreversibility in Heat Exchanger Design: Counterflow Heat Exchangers for GastoGas Applications. New York (1954) . Heat Mass Transfer. New York (1973) . New York (1955) . W . J. Macmillan Publishing Company. McGrawHill Book Company. . A . . It follows that second law analyses can yield economic improvements. 743751 (1982) . . "Evaluation of Heat Transfer Augmentation Techniques Based on Their Impact on Entropy Generation. 7. John Wiley & Sons." Trans. . London. "Let Us Demystify the Concept of Entropy.APPL I E D T H E RM O D Y N A M I C S 87 Even fractions of a percent decrease of available power loss can result in huge energy savings over the life of a plant. Heat Transmission. Krieth. Thermodynamics. ." Int . 25(6). F . John Wiley & Sons. M. Keenan. . New York (1965) . Bejan. Heat and Thermodynamics. . F . ASEE 87th Annual Conference (1979) . New York (1976) . H. Statistical Thermodynamics. References Bejan." Heat Mass Transfer. L . and J. . 99. W . F. ASME. New York (1965) . Huang. "Economics and the Second Law: An Engineering View and Methodology. Harper & Row. Zemansky. McGrawHill Book Company. McAdams. Reynolds. . G . A . 374 (1 977) . N . Principles of General Thermodynamics. New York (1965) . F. 97106 (1980) . W. Engineering Thermodynamics: Fu ndamen tals and Applications. ." Paper 3257. Sonntag and VanWylen. . McGrawHill Book Company. Hatsopoulos. A. Principles of Heat Transfer.
.
However. Boiling heat transfer has a rather vast literature. This change in phase can occur within the fluid. Here. Those readers interested in a more general treatment of the subject should consult other works. a brief introduction to some of the jargon. 1973). and books by Hsu and Graham (1976). as . such as the reviews and/or references given in the Handbook of Heat Transfer (Rohsenow and Hartnett. bubble dynamics. or on heated surfaces. The boiling process is a very efficient method for cooling heated surfaces since the enhanced agitation of the surrounding liquid. The Handbook of Multiphase Systems (Hetsroni.g. or more commonly. 4. 1982). before discussing productoriented applications.1 I ntroduction to Boiling This characteristic that distinguishes the boiling heat transfer process from other mechanisms is the change of phase that occurs in the coolant. and forced convection boiling. due to a process known as homogeneous nucleation.CHAPT E R FOU R Boi l i ng H eat Transfer This chapter deals with the heat transfer mechanisms and processes that occur due to boiling. and Hahne and Grigull (1977). thermodynamics. Van Stralen and Cole (1979). and mechanistic considerations is given. caused by boiling. which includes such things as classical pool boiling. we try to restrict ourselves to those aspects of boiling heat transfer that are directly related to BWR technology.. apparently creates a "pumping" action leading to more effective convective cooling. This mechanism is known in the literature as microconvection. suspended foreign material in the fluid). it can occur at nucleation sites within the fluid (e.
J3c. This is the energy per unit area ( F LlL2) required to maintain the interface.2b) and dT = O (4. it is always drawn through the liquid phase. the remainder is due to microconvection and evaporation of the microlayer of liquid that is trapped beneath a growing bubble (Judd and Hwang.dp . or chemical potential. However. is defined as the angle between the solid surface and the gasliquid interface (see Fig.2a) Thus. Before going into the theories and mathematical modeling of boiling phenomena. is given in Fig.2c) (4.Ts (4. for all practical purposes. The contact angle. 1) If we differentiate Eq. it can be considered a property of the liquid phase. The next property of interest. (4.3) thus. It is defined as. Strictly speaking. By convention. a g = h . we find that. dg = . For boiling of lowpressure water at a low heat flux. A plot of the surface tension of water.2b) yields. Eq. . showing its dependence on temperature. let us review some of the thermodynamic and physical prop erties of water and the concepts of phase equilibrium that are necessary to describe the behavior of phase change. I t i s not a true property of the substance alone. 1) we obtain: dg = dh . 41 . but describes the wetting character istics of a liquid in relation to a given solid surface and gas environment. CJ' . Another important property i s the socalled contact angle. is a true thermodynamic property.Tds . An important property of the vaporliquid interface is the surface ten sion. 1976).sdT For saturated equilibrium. 42). using the socalled Gibbs equation. dg = O Hence.90 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A B W R opposed to the normal convective heat transfer mode due to turbulence. dp = O p 1 (4. only a few percent of the total energy transferred during boiling is due to latent heat flux.sdT (4. the Gibbs freeenergy function. (4. surface tension is a property of the interface and is dependent on the nature of the gas as well as the liquid.
00 1 O �����__� 800 o 200 400 Fig.. 41 The surface tension of water versus Tsat .oos 1 950) BOI L I N G H EAT TRA N S F E R 91 SU R F ACE T E N S I O N O F WAT E R ( V O LY A K . . o. z w Iw (.006 .:�1.:) Ii) ft Cii 0 z . a nonwetting solid and. left. a. o f 17��. T E M P E R ATU R E . right. .7' SOL I D I VAPOR Fig.003 .J <t . 42 Liquidsolid contact angles.. 0..002 0...0.004 0. a wet ting solid . I3c.:: 0.
In addition to phase equilibrium. and equilibrium across a curved interface. the Gibbs function must be the same for the liquid and vapor phase (Hatso poulos and Keenan. . for equilibrium between two phases of the same substance. the net sum of the forces on the system must be zero and the temperature of each phase must be the same. 43 Curved and plane interface configurations . 1965). � g� /" I NTER FACE PLAN E I NT E R FACE L I QU I D PHASE P T � � g� b . A system is said to be in phase equilibrium if. There are two cases of interest: equilibrium across a plane (flat) interface. For the first case (see Fig.92 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S O F A B W R That is.4a) pv = PI For thermal equilibrium. These two cases are shown in Fig. we must also have me chanical and thermal equilibrium. GAS P v PHASE T L I QU I D p PHASE � � T a. the condition of mechanical equilibrium requires that. 43. C U R V E D I N T E R F AC E ( S P H E R I C A L I ( 2 1T r l o F i g . when isolated from the surroundings. the temperature in both phases must be equal. That is. it does not go through any further change of state. (4. 43a).
For the case of a stationary bubble (Fig.e. no condensation or evaporation. i.B O I L I N G H EAT T RA N S F E R 93 P LIQU ID . the appropriate thermodynamic and mechanical con ditions require the conditions given in Eqs..4c) frequently is replaced by the equivalent condition.. This curve is defined graphically in Fig. 44.gv= C . there is an additional requirement that they follow a saturation curve. (4. 43b). .4) . That is.9v= 2  C2) Fig. . pV ('ITr 2) = PI ('ITr 2 ) + (21T r )<T . for equilibrium of two phases separated by a plane interface. (4. where it is seen to be the intersection of lines of constant gl and gv . (4. (4. 44 Graphic interpretation of relationship between Gibbs function and satu· ration curve.. Thus. (4. = C 2 I I I _ l C . the pressure and tem perature are uniquely related. the condition of mechanical equ ilibrium is obtained by a force balance. In summary.5) The conditions across a curved interface are somewhat more complex. T _ _ _ VAPOR SAT U RAT I O N C URVE (C1 > I I 9 1.4c) is the wellknown fact that for two phases of the same substance to be in equilibrium.4c) The physical significance of Eq. the condition given by Eq. besides the requirement that the temperature and pressure in the phases be equal.4b) Finally. for phase equilibrium. However. (4.
Ts = u + plp . measured. If the interface separating the phases were flat. points ®. It is evident that these equilibrium states are found at a temperature.sdT Along an isotherm. we may assume that the equilibrium temperature is the saturation tem perature at the pressure of the gas phase. In this figure. In accordance with Fig. which falls on the normal saturation line at temperature. TJ = Tsat ( pI) . associated with the liquid pressure. dp Tds = du . Eq. (9. An example of this procedure is shown in Fig. the necessary condition for thermal equilibrium is. and (4 .p "2 p Combining these equations. it is assumed that PI is known. 8) . 7) can be written as. an iso lated bubble of radius. gv = gl Here again. 8) by an appropriate relation between the saturation pressures and temperatures. = Tv = TI = T3 "From the definition of the Gibbs function. and the saturation temperature. PI.PI = r ( 4 . 45. . which is higher than the saturation temperature. the condition for phase equilibrium again implies. 45 . it is interesting to replace the condition for equilibrium given in Eq. T2 Tsat ( pv ).P "2 . For the curved interface under consideration.. dg = dplp . as sociated with the gas pressure.e. 6) As before.Ts dp dg = du + dp/p . 20' pv . To a good first approximation. 8) Finally. (4. dT = O and thus.6). that is. the equilibrium conditions are satisfied by states G) and ®. 7) (4 . (4.Tds . In practice. r. (4 . 7). Thus. T3 . the three equilibrium conditions would be satisfied by state @.94 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S O F A B W R which yields the wellknown Laplace equation. g � h . (4 . since the slope of the iso therms in the �uid phase is much largera than in the vapor phase.sdT p recalling the classic Gibbs equation. (aplag )T = p . and � are very close together. i. This can be done best in the pg plane by drawing isotherms. Tv = TI (4 . T} . pv . the conditions for equi librium across a curved interface are given by Eqs.
The equality expressed by Eq. but u nstable to large ones. The infinite radius case becomes the plane interface where no superheat is required for equilibrium.9) T3 Tsat( pv ) = T2 It is emphasized that for equilibrium across a curved interface. This subject is best discussed in terms of the appropriate equationofstate of the mixture.B O I L I N G H EAT T RA N S F E R 95 P SATU R A T I O N C U R V E V APOR P H A S E 9 � = h  Ts Fig. that is. (4. (4.8) is approximately. the liquid phase is superheated and the amount of superheat increases as the radius of the bubble. For our purposes. decreases. r. = . Now we turn our attention to considerations of metastability in two pha se mixtures. conditions that are stable to small disturbances. The equationofstate is the rela tion that allows us to evaluate any property of a pure substance once two independent properties of that substance are given. 45 Equilibrium diagram for an isolated bubble .
Nevertheless. 46. respectively. even though it does not represent all observed trends with quantitative precision. 46 The van der Waals equation .P H A S E M I X T U R E T = CONSTANT v Fig. RT (4. the plot of an isotherm that satisfies the van der Waals equation is shown in Fig. This equation is given by. Branches a to b and e to f are the isotherms in the liquid and vapor regions. In the familiar plane. for our pur poses it can be used to help us understand metastability effects in two phase mixtures. 10) p= 2 3PcritV�rit [v ( vcrit/3)] V  It is well known (Hatsopoulos and Keenan. 1965) that this equation predicts the qualitative characteristics of water. .96 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS O F A B W R we consider the van der Waals equation as the appropriate equationof state. In the twophase pv CRIT P VAPOR PHASE L I QU I D PHASE TWO.
a plane interface. 1 1) . A great deal of work has been done on this problem and we do not attempt to review it in detail. However. Homogeneous nucleation is an explosive type of nucleation process that results when the liquid phase becomes superheated before vapor formation. point d is also a spinoidal point. a change of state can be achieved at constant pressure and temperature between state points b and e . First we discuss homogeneous nucleation.BOI L I N G H EAT TRA N S F E R 97 region. This condition can be achieved experi mentally if sufficient care is taken to avoid mucleation. this condition can be demonstrated ex perimentally if sufficient care is taken to avoid condensation. the latent energy of evaporation. Furthermore. The energy required to form a vapor bubble is composed of the surface energy. i. The remaining branch. The bc branch represents a condition of metastability in which the liquid phase is superheated.e. 1939). As before. it is worthwhile to discuss briefly the salient physical mechanisms involved in homogeneous and surface (cavity) nucleation.. since the two phases can be present in any proportion. No discussion of boiling is complete without some reference to the nu cleation processes involved. thus. when a wellcontrolled experiment was performed with ether in a smooth glass test section. Point c is called a spinoidal point and represents the point at which (iJpliJV )T = O. Considerations of metastable two phase flow conditions are of interest in BWR technology. which implies no surface tension and. at a temperature lower than the saturation temperature of the vapor. it is also thermodynamically possible to follow a constant temperature path. bcde. Although the trends are right. For the case of a pure substance. The de branch represents another condition of metastability in which the vapor phase is supersaturated. particularly with respect to explaining bubble nucleation and transient accident phenomena such as pressure undershoot during system blowdown and the critical flow of flashing liquid. This type of bulk process rarely occurs in practice because surface nucleation occurs at much lower superheats. Nevertheless. liquid and vapor can coexist in equilibrium. cd. Also shown are typical data trends observed by Wismer (Volmer. in accordance with our assumed equationofstate. and the thermodynamic pdV work term: (4. metastability is somewhat overpredicted by the spinoidals of the van der Waals equationofstate. this condition of equilibrium must occur at the same pressure. Again. In this metastable condition. the liquid phase is subject to rapid phase change once the superheat has exceeded the rupture char acteristics of the fluid. is clearly unstable since (iJpliJV )T > O in this region. Figure 47 indicates the situation in terms of the saturation curve and the spinoidals of the van der Waals equationofstate.
/ / VAN D E R WAALS EQUATION TYPICAL DATA T R E N DS 1 9 39 1 I / . . or it can be imparted to the fluid through a process such as radiation attenuation or neutron thermalization. which in turn act as nucleation sites for the vapor bubbles. 47 Graphic representation of superheat required for homogeneous nuclea tion . we must consider the rela tionship between equilibrium bubble size and liquid superheat. 1979). Briefly. the process by which nucleate boiling occurs in fuel rod bundles.98 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I CS OF A B W R C R I T I C A L PO I N T . This energy can be obtained from the liquid superheat. . T Fig. as described above. . in fact. A key feature of this process is that these minute cavities entrap noncondensible gases. To understand the process involved. In contrast. surface or cavity nucleation is a mechanism of considerable prac tical importance. It is.SA T U R A T I O N CURVE /'/ f. Note that if a surface is present spontaneous nucleation can occur on it at lower liquid superheats than for homogeneous nucleation (Van Stralen and Cole. Although homogeneous and spontaneous nucleation is of some aca demic interest. the mechanism of surface nucleation can be considered a process of nucleation in the cavities that exist in all commercial surfaces. SUPE R H E AT PREDICTED AT N U C L E A T I O N (VOLMER. it is of limited practical concern in BWR technology. " / / .
1Ir decreases and the excess superheat increases. . In Fig. R v Tsat Vfg = Vg = pv  ) (4. the condition for the mechanical equilib rium of a spherical bubble that contains a noncondensible gas of partial pressure pc is. It is seen that the entrapped gas in the bottom of the cavity forms the nucleation site for the vapor bubble . 48a.. From this point on. d T TVfg dp = Ih fg (4. 15) i s frequently written as.15) yields the minimum superheat required for a bubble of radius.Tsat = ( . That is. rt . yielding. for a liquid superheat larger than that given by Eq. r. it is assumed that the existing superheat exceeds the initial requirement and. At position 2. 12). 12) To relate the vaporliquid pressure differential to liquid superheat. the . 15). Rv T�at 2<J T/ . (4. to remain in equilibrium . thus. the bubble will grow. e . 17) Now we are in a position to discuss the process of cavity nucleation . 13) This can be integrated along the saturation curve assuming that the quan tity. Equation (4. the bubble interface has reached the mouth of the cavity. 15) in which the perfect gas law has been used to eliminate Vfg. (4. it will condense . In the hypothetical case shown. (4 . Tsat Vfg Tv . 14). for a smaller superheat. 14) By combining Eqs . This requirement is shown in Fig. 16) pg Ipv hfg r _ )  (4.B O I L I N G H EAT T RA N S F E R 99 In accordance with Fig. Note that the required superheat varies as 1Ir and is reduced by the partial pressure of an inert gas .Tsat . and (4.pc Ihfg r which is the liquid superheat required for the spherical vapor bubble of radius. 48b.( (4. (4. is constant. the bubble grows. 43b. TsatVfg lhfg .Tsat = ( pv . This growth is rather fast since as the bubble grows. we must employ the ClausiusClapeyron equation. i . Tsat Vfg 2<J T/ . 7) we obtain.Pl ) Ihfg (4. Equation (4. several parts of the nucleation and initial growth phase of a typical vapor bubble are shown.
the center of curvature of the bubble has now shifted to the top of the cavity and lIr (and thus the required superheat) is a maximum. Fig. bubble growth is somewhat slower. 48. 48 Surface (cavity) nucleation considerations. As seen in Fig. l /r VAPOR VOLUME b.. 48b. Thus. 48b) .1 00 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A BWR . since the center of curvature begins to shift upward . Thus. 15) with r = r3 . . (4. as shown in Fig . If the local liquid superheat exceeds that required by Eq. then the bubble continues to grow rapidly (see Fig. lIr (and thus the required superheat) increases with bubble size . The critical point of bubble growth is position 3.
1 5) and (4. which produce large contact angles. Although the physical description given above has been highly simpli fied. some may nucleate while others remain dormant. 19) Thus.Tsat . aT " q = . 22) By combining Eqs . 18) and (4.21) then.Tv . nucleation was effectively suppressed . 48b. In addition. q " = . we obtain. tend to capture more inert gas in the surface cavities and. = 2KfO' TsatVfg Ihfg r/ ( ) 1j2 (4. there is a whole spectrum of cavity sizes present. "r _ Tw . such as that shown in Fig. special surfaces have been prepared with a given cavity size to verify nucleation models. thus. 15). we assume that the condition for bubble growth is when the local liquid temperature is tangent to the required vapor temperature given by Eq. For instance. 19) as.Tv . By combining Eqs . 20) (4. (4. (4 . 42a. the radius of the first cavity to nucleate is given by Eq.Kf aT ay I y = r. I3c. . Fi nally. (4. (4. other experiments have been performed in which the entrapped inert gases have been removed. (4. _ 20' TsatVfg Kf r Ihfg q " * If we assume a linear temperature gradient through the liquid in the laminar sublayer. in accordance with Fig. which is the radius of the cavity. and by neglecting the partial pressure of any non condensible gases. 1 8) Now. Various stud ies have been performed to support the phenomenological explanation we have presented here . Fourier' s law gives. we derive a nucleation criterion for heated commercial surfaces. depending on the local liquid superheat. it does capture the essence of the phenomena involved . Hence. require less superheat to nucleate . In these cases.Kf ay (4. 22). 15) . Using this observation. In practice.B O I L I N G H EAT TRA N S F E R 1 01 we find that the superheat required for bubble growth is uniquely deter mined by r3 . Assuming liquid phase in the laminar sublayer.q * Kf "r _ Tw . it has been shown experimentally that fluidsurface combinations.Tsat + q * Kf ( ) (4.
20) and (4 . and may not occur even for higher conditions (heat flux. TB .1 02 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L ICS OF A BWR Tw _ Tsat _ " 2(1 TsatVfg q . three cavity sizes and three temperature profiles are shown. 24b) should be considered a lower bound for nucleation . Eqs .Tsat ) " q . let us consider an overview of the ebullition (L e .Kf '0 (4. In practice. TB = To + Te Mechanistic models for boiling heat transfer (Hetsroni. while bubbles for smaller and larger cavities do not grow . This criterion assumes that cavities of all sizes are present. (4. In this figure. nucleation and bubble growth do not occur for conditions below the values given in Eq. bubbles forming in cavities of radius. surface boiling) process . 24a) In contrast. 23) If only one cavity size is present (L e . In this case. and c. Case c. microconvection will occur where an equal vol ume of liquid will replace the departing bubble and begin to heat up. if a distribution of cavity sizes is present. That is. . is obviously given by. . b. (4. (4.* + '* Jhfg Kf 2(1 T v g Kf sat f 2 J'o hfg (4. After some dwell time. 24b) Equation (4. all three cavity sizes are active. Te .Tsa tl 8(1 TsatVfg (4. The situation represented by the above analysis is shown in Fig. large cavities rarely occur and. Finally. Cases a. To. Subsequently. the liquid adjacent to a cavity on a heated surface reaches the conditions given by Eqs . 1 5). thus. 1966) . At this point nucleation and bubble growth may occur. energy will be extracted from the heated surface at a high rate due to microlayer evaporation . During the bubble growth and departure period. To. (4 . the liquid temperature is less than the required vapor phase temperature given by Eq . 49. '2 . (4 . (4. 24b) is a simplified version of a more general result previously obtained (Davis and Anderson. In the final situation. wall temperature) if the necessary cavity sizes are not present. During this period the heat transfer from the heated surface to the liquid will fall off as the liquid superheats. 24b). thus. the wall temperature has increased such that the liquid temperature is just tangent to the required vapor temperature. The ebullition period. Eq. and the bubble . 23) yields. 1982) attempt to quantify the wall heat transfer during the dwell period. . In Case a. ' * = '0) then Eq. ( Tu. none of the bubbles grow s . 23) yield the following nucleation criterion : " q = Jhf f gK ( T w . This starts the dwell period again . In Case b. grow. when the bubble departs from the surface. 24) .
Natural convection... � T .'Ibl TYPICAL LAMI N AR � BU F F ER U B LAY ER� ZON E 4 .. � .. 49 Initiation of bubble growth in forced convection surface boiling. The general shape of the socalled boiling curve for poolboiling .. . a situation in which boiling takes place in a stagnant pool of liquid . � �.. 4.... .. ..  Tv' E a .1 BULK v Fig. microconvection (i.. we are concerned with poolboiling mechanisms as they apply to nuclear fuel rod bundles. Unfortunately.. In Sec.. . there are no mechanistic models that can be used to predict boiling heat transfer accurately .... pumping). 4... 14. This problem has been thoroughly investigated over the years and is rather well under stood .. and microlayer evaporation are the important heat transfer mechanisms that occur when a heated surface experiences nucleate boiling. .. T 2 .. Classical pool boiling is characterized by the fact that the heated surface can freely communicate with the surrounding pool of liquid . .2 Multi rod Pool Boi l i ng Pool boiling is...B O I L I N G H E AT TRA N S F E R 1 03 T ::"' 'rr.. .. as its name implies.. empirical correlations are widely used ...JCI � / ___ SAT "' ..2. As a consequence...... . 1. This brief introduction to boiling has prepared uS for consideration of the boiling phenomena that occur in BWRs . growth period. e ... Te . 1 51 T .:...
thus. This curve is normally divided into four regions: natural convection. 410. has a slope of % on a loglog plot. heat transfer is shown in Fig. 006 b Nu = 0. 55( G.Tsat) and. in the nucleate boiling region. In the natural convection region. .Lf gc CI { 2 3 [ ]V2} (4.Pg ) h2 2 CSf fg J.1 04 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR c"' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ / CON V E C T ION NATURA L NUC L EAT E BOI L I N G FILM BO I L ING Fig.Tsat ) Kf g ( Pf .P. the slope ranges from 2 to 4 de pending on the conditions of the heated surface. nucleate boiling. 014 0. 25) where representative values of the fluid/surface parameter are (Hetsroni. transition boiling.) 1/4 : . q" oc oc  Hlof> ( Tw Tsat)V4 ( Tw Tsat)5/4. and film boiling. 1982): Csf Fluids water/stainless steel water/copper water/nickel 0. In contrast. the heat flux is normally pro 5/4 portionalb to ( Tw . A typical pool boiling heat transfer coefficient for water is given by (Rohsenow. 1952) : � H24>  ( Tw q"  Tsat ) 2. 013 0.. 41 0 Typical poolboiling curve . 3 ( Tw .
. 2 .B O I L I N G H EAT TRAN S F E R 1 05 As we continue to increase the power to the heated surface. thus. . 30) . 'I:! UggC ( Pf . 13.pg ) . In a saturated poolboiling situation. 27) Hence. 29) . 26a) and (4. Pf » Pg and. . Not all successful poolboiling CHF correlations are formulated in terms of p henomenological localized flooding mechanisms. Finally. 29). respectively. (4. (4. 1 8 for Eq. If. 29) ( � ) (:J Pf pg 0. More recently. is the saturated poolboiling CHF correlation recommended by Kutateladze (1951 ) . 27) and (4. Equation (4. Eqs. 'h ( ) . at CHF. Once the critical vapor volumetric flux is known. 26) yield. Zuber (1959) showed that the Taylor and Helmholtz hydrodynamic instability modes imply that for countercurrent vapor and liquid jets. the vapor produced at the heated surface is given by. q� = 143hfg pg [ ]( ) (4. the CHF can be readily determined . 1973) has recom mended a value of K = 0 . ( jg ) c = K where K==0. the critical vapor volumetric flux is given by. localized flooding occurs when the ve locity of the vapor phase is sufficient to prevent an adequate amount of liquid from reaching the heated surface. This phenomenon is basically hydrodynamic in nature and is frequently modeled as a localized flooding phenomenon . 16. Kutateladze (1951) found that the critical vapor volumetric flux was given by. 28). A widely used cor re lation. (4. Basically. 26a) with K==0 .pg (4.. with K = 'll'/24 == 0 . 26b) become essentially equivalent. 'h c q " = KhfgPg [ uggc ( Pf . If. a condition known as critical heat flux (CHF) is experienced . (4. in an important analytical study on poolboiling CHF. (4. was for mulated by Rohsenow and Griffith (1 956) as. Wallis (1969) found that the critical vapor volumetric flux for liquid droplet fluidization also was given by Eq.6 If.JL ' = uggC Pf . with K = 0 . (4. 16. Eqs . In an independent experiment. q" Jg =  pg hfg [ ]( ) (4. Rohsenow (Rohsenow and Hartnett.pg ) 'I . 26a) For many cases of interest. is the saturated poolboiling CHF correlation recommended by Zuber (1959).JL � = Khfg Pg q Pf + Pg p� Equation (4.Pg )] If. 26b) ( Jg ) c K Pf + Pg pi [ :i ] Uggc ( . synthesized from a completely different point of view. 28) (4.
68 L=R C A nuclear reactor fuel element is heat flux controlled . It is seen that the trends with system pressure are similar. we can trace out the transition boiling branch of the curve. C this branch is unstable and. from point a ' to point a . thus. . 5 L _  Tsat)/hfg] ]'1' (4. For the interesting case of heat flux control. the latter is a situation in which the heated surface is blanketed with vapor. 410. This branch is characterized by unstable regions of both nucleate boiling and film boiling. the socalled rewetting temperature . classical poolboiling CHF is frequently referred to as the burnout heat flux. 1973) : C1 = 0. ( Tw . 4 C2 = 0. is experienced . in dicating a peak in CHF for saturated pool boiling around 1000 psia . Now we turn our attention to the regions of the boiling curve beyond the CHF point in Fig. once CHF is experienced. If the heater can withstand the elevated temperature at point b'. 41 1 . 1961): [ gcCJ' ( Pf . 30) are compared in Fig. a ' A typical filmboiling heat transfer coefficient is of the form: Hfil m � where. Note the hysteresis that occurs when we move down the filmboiling branch of the curve toward the rewetting point. the vapor film blanketing the heated surface begins to collapse and a rapid excursion of the transition and nucleate boiling branches. 29). (4. 31 ) For a flat horizontal plate (Berenson. 425 C2 = 0. In a temperaturecontrolled experiment. and (4. . At this point.Tsat ) q" = C1 [ KvgPv ( Pf . 28).P v ) g ] '12 For a vertical fuel rod of radius R (Bailey et al . (4. a re duction in heater power can reduce the temperature along the filmboiling branch of the boiling curve to point a ' .Pv ) hjg �v L( Tw Tsat) 3  hfg = hfg[l + C2cPi Tw C1 = 0.1 06 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B W R The correlations given by Eqs . the wall temperature increases rapidly from point b to b' The filmboiling temperature at point b' frequently is high enough to cause melting of the heater material and.
. . ."".. CJ.:.//. ('J 0 z « � 0 z UJ </) I 0 a: r !:: :!. ra 2 � � . '... a: a UJ . � I:. ..: I � 0 I« I:> a UJ N u: OJ a: UJ ::!.. .\� '\ "' d \ \ ... \ \ Ilil u::: . . ..W n l S I � q ' ... . to N � OJ :!.. vi c � 9 ::r: U � . . " ".. . I ( \ "" \."\. " ci UJ � .. \ \ I I I '" 0 � N 0 � u. ' " � . . a UJ . 6 �  '" S � . '\\.. '" " "'" ...) .... " � "! � 9 0 L X 1 zl j .5 00 0 0. b co d . " U: C\J :!. d <t N 0 ...B OI L I N G H EAT TRAN S F E R 1 07 .2 . .. '" w :3 '" a: UJ :> N . . 0 u � ? "0 "tl ra CJ) ... '\� \ \ \ . \ \ \ N S ..
32) where. 1961 ) . 412. 1958) to 0 . Unfortunately. CCFL in BWR fuel rod bundles is a hydrodynamic phenomenon. this phenomenon is discussed . the close spacing of the rods limits circulation of the coolant and. . . That is. q�'. 4 . 4. Specifically. (jg). Moreover. The situation normally under consideration is shown in Fig. That is. a typical expres sion for the Leidenfrost point is given by: h qa ' = C3 /I g fgPv [(J(P(Pf Pvp)v2 ) ] f  + v.or noflow situations in nuclear reactor fuel rod bundles are somewhat different from those that exist in an open pool .2 . It should be obvious that the breakdown of film boiling is closely related to localized flooding. flooding phenomenon) i n BWR fuel rod bundles. is sufficiently high. we mentioned that pool boiling is an interesting and rather well understood mode of boiling heat transfer. (4 . i t has been found that i n BWR fuel rod bundles. the condi tions that exist during low.1 08 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A B W R Although the heat flux at rewetting. 2 . critical power. thus. but on a more macroscopic scale. which for conditions of practical concern. i . 4. a global countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) normally determines the pool boiling critical power. it is not unusual to find transients with cocurrent upward flow at the exit of the fuel bundle that have flooded countercurrent liquidvapor flow in the lower part of the fuel bundle . 1 Countercurrent Flow Limiting ( Flood ing) Considerations The phenomenon known as flooding was discussed in Sec . values of C3 range from 1T/24 (Zuber. is not well known. Gi. we are interested in the same phenomenon. In Sec. 1969). the water in the upper (outlet) plenum tries to drain down into the fuel rod bundle and replace the mass inventory lost due to evaporation . When the superficial velocity of the exiting vapor. could be expected to decrease the thermal performance. it may occur within the fuel bundle . (4. CCFL conditions occur at an upper area restriction. we are concerned with the global CCFL (i .2 in connec tion with the hydrodynamic explanation of the poolboiling CHF . In this section. In that discussion. For sufficiently low inlet mass flux. e . which are enclosed by individual channels. the local or microscopic flooding phenomenon was of interest. and the water in the outlet plenum is unable to drain back into the bundle fast enough to replenish the fluid lost. rather. is adequately correlated by the following CCFL correlation (Wallis. 09 (Berenson. 1 . Flooding does not need to occur at the exit. for a horizontal flat plate. e . Previously. 33a) .
33b) (4. where.B O I L I N G H EAT T RA N S r E R 1 09 UPPER PLENUM AREA 0 0 0 0 0 R E ST R I C T I O N S I M U LATED F U E L R O DS CHANN E L LOW E R PLENUM Fig. (4. 41 2 Schematic of CCFL conditions in a BWR fuel rod bundle. 33c) .
413. 34) A typical value for the parameter. the hydraulic diameter dependence is not important and. Fig. Equation (4. (4.1 10 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B W R Shiralkar et al . C ' . Typical loci of bundle exit conditions for the case of increasing power (i. This equation simply means that there is a bal ance between the vapor outflow and the liquid inflow The CCFL. is C' == 0 . ( jg) Y2 + (I H I > V. e . . but a decrease in liquid inflow due = C' � C DH V. or flood ing. 6 (Shiralkar et al . . hence. Eq . = C ' where. " <1 '* '12 Jg = J g DH " <1 '* v. 34) is shown in Fig. 41 3 Typical CCFL flooding locus. Gg I Gt l . . 33a) is normally rewritten as. evaporation rate) in a rod bundle that is assumed to have no liquid inflow at the bottom are shown in this figure . (1972) found that for geometries typical of BWR fuel rod bundles. Any further increase in bundle power causes an increase in vapor outflow. the operating states at the exit of the bundle move along a locus from point CD to point 0 as defined by the equation. As bundle power is increased. 1972) . Jt = Jt D H (4. line is intercepted at point 0.
G. GgAo = I Gr I Ao + G. this is satisfied for G. point W can be reached where no liquid is able to enter the rod bundle . However. Normally. (4. in the detailed analysis of hypothetical BWR acci dents. in the bundle. ::::. . To do this. 37) q Gg = I Grl = Aohfg (4. _ ( 5) (4. a tie plate or a grid spacer. overheating will occur. an energy balance yields. 35a) yield. I Grl = Ax ( q . A x . g . of a rod bundle under conditions of pool boiling can be obtained by determining the intersection of the mass balance with the CCFL line.( q . 412. 36) and (4. for the specified subcooling and imposed inlet flow . 36). G. qc.G.B O I L I N G H EAT TRA N S F E R to CCFL conditions . multirod pool boiling. (4. which involve low. It should be obvious that continued operation at operating states along the CCFL line will result in overheating the fuel rod bundle. (4. + I Grl Aohr + q = Gg Aohg Equations (4 . qc. (4. 37) reduce to. 38) A CCFL condition ensures that overheating of the rod bundle will even tually occur. a mass balance yields.s�hsub) G. in Fig. 37). the empirical value for C' and the defi nitions of jg.jf can now be combined to yield the critical bundle power. e . Note that for the case of no inlet flow. . by determining point @ in Fig. that is.Ax . we also are interested in predicting when and where. the critical power. and (4. The most general analysis would include the effect of an inlet flow.Ax .sh. G . 34). Assuming saturated fluid in the upper plenum. and the twophase conservation equations (Chapter 5) into a tran sient prediction scheme. 05 X 106 Ibm/hft2 For steadystate operating conditions. 36) and (4. 35a) where Ao is the crosssectional flow area of the most limiting restriction in the top of the heated bundle. 413. The locus of operating states from point ® to point ® illustrates this trend. Eqs . Aohrg Ao In Eqs. Eqs . This operating state is frequently called the "hanging film" state .sdhsub) Gg Aohrg (4. For all practical purposes.or noflow situa tions. we must combine the applicable elements of the CCFL. which is low enough so that flooding is the controlling mechanism. 36) Thus. As power is further increased. (4.Ax . 0 . 35b) . since the mass inventory in the bundle will be depleted with time . .35) can be combined to yield.s (4 .
dryout and overheating would be predicted. the mass of liquid draining into the bundle just matches the vapor generated due to evaporation (i. the ratio of the rod bundle CHF to that given by Zuber's flat plate pool boiling correlation is 0. e . . Note that at very small void fractions. 39) . CCFL is achieved at point *. While it is possible that dryout { 0 . O . Naturally. (4 . the CCFL point. point * . pr l (jr )1 = pg (jg» and. we must know ( a ( z . 9. e . 416 can be entered to determine q�(z. the lower part of the bundle experiences countercurrent flow and flooding. and that this ratio was insensitive to the geometry of the vertical surface. we can replot the information shown in Fig. the void fraction increases rapidly in the upper portion of the rod bundle. t ) . Alternatively. That is. increases. no liquid drains back at all . . q�( z ). which indicated that the poolboiling CHF of a vertical heated surface was 85% of that of a horizontal plate. i . 41 6 in accident analysis. The normalizing factor on the ordinate. point * . is the poolboiling CHF correlation given by Zuber. 416.112 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS O F A B W R For example. t 6 . Note that in Fig. The essence of this method is seen in Fig. From then on. 2 (4..( a » . It is seen that as time. as seen in the upper region of the bundle. 9(1 . it is seen that at time. The resulting transient is seen in Fig. moves lower into the bundle until the vapor updraft. t . 416 the value for CHF falls off monotonically with in creasing void fraction . Below the CCFL point. 1972). Above the flooding point. which is a plot of the normalized CHF conditions in a rod bundle versus the local bundle· average void fraction. is reduced to the point where liquid can drain back in from the outlet plenum . (jg ). a quasisteadystate situation is established . otherwise ( a» ':. 414 in the (jJ)(jg ) plane. 1975) can be employed. To determine the transient location of the dryout front during conditions of countercurrent flow. 414 into the more familiar coordinates shown in Fig . either the liquid downflow is insufficient to replace the rate of mass evaporated or. Eq. 415. This is in general agreement with Lienhard's results (Lienhard and Dhir. i . t » . we may use: q c .9. 415. Once the transient void profile has been determined. Fig. Since the CCFL locus is the envelope of lines of constant void fraction. thus. The process then repeats itself in a somewhat cyclic manner provided the rods do not overheat excessively . let us consider a specific case in which the inlet flow is suddenly reduced to zero due to loss of pumping capability or flow block age . 29) with K = 'TT/24. e . while the void fraction in the lower (un flooded) portion is time invariant.. If the local transient heat flux in the rod bundle exceeds this critical value. 0 . a method similar to the one developed by Griffith (Walkush and Griffith. as the liquid is depleted in the upper part of the rod bundle.qe X " _ . To use Fig. In this plane. we must have predictions of the transient void fraction as shown in Fig. .
 NEGATIVE  <' I > Fig.<i. w .:tl > Z V"l n m .:tl m POSI T I V E  . > <lhS U B • q" • CONSTANT G. 41 4 Typical step change response of a BWR fuel rod bundle « jg)  < h ) plane) . Itl · G. 101 [ ' o U I • • p • CONSTANT CONSTANT I 0 r= Z Cl I c:l > I I .
0./ Z 0 .>:l )C r n Vl 0 )OJ . 41 5 Typical step change response of a BWR fuel rod bundle ( a)  zlLH plane). / / /' /' � ..4 � 1 // / � .1 .0 .>:l o ' l IINLET) � A IOIILH IBOILING BOUNDARY) R E LATI V E AXIAL POSITION Zl L H Fig.." 0.:: u 00( a: .8 °3 I 0 > /\ '" V ..>:l 3:: )r I < 0 . .. 0 0../ .2 1./ .j>.0 I rn . 1 ..6 0.
� . 41 6 before a CCFL is reached. it is unlikely. 6 0. 41 6 The relation between counterflow BT. VO I D F R AC T IO N <IX > Fig. e . Collier (1972). . 4 will be concerned more specifically with the dryout phenomena (i.0 . 41 1). since Zuber's poolboiling correlation indicates rather high values of allowable heat flux compared to typical BWR heat fluxes (see Fig. The calculational technique just described can be used to predict many items of interest including how the dryout front propagates into a rod bundle during transients. boiling transition) in BWR rod bundles . 4. g . . This section is conce rned with representative single. 2 °0 � 2 0 � � ��� . may be indicated in Fig .4 0. 1 975) . void fraction. and poolboiling CHF for a vertical surface (Walkush and Griffith.6 0 �·�'�1�'� � 0 .8 0.and twophase convective heat trans fer mo des in multirod bundles. Rohsenow and Hartne tt (1973).3 Multi rod Flow Boi l i ng Th e process of convective heat transfer is a very important mechanism for the tra nsport of energy from nuclear reactor fuel rods. e . and Hetsroni (1982) .0 0 .B O I L I N G H EAT T RA N S F E R 1 15 1 .8 0 . Readers interested in a more general treat men t of these topics are referred to other works more specifically concerned with convective boiling heat transfer. Section 4 .
I� N U C L EATE BOILING CONVECTIVE H EAT T R A N S F E R POOL imitTN G � LOG (TwTsAT) Fig. 41 7 Comparison of typical convective and poolboiling curves . pre viously discussed in Sec .' /'J. . 1 . L./ H EAT T R A N S F E R R E G I M E @ DNB "" FORCED CONVECTION V A P O R I ZA T I O N H EAT T R A N S F E R F U L LY D E V E L O P E D POST. It is this upper curve that we discuss in this section.D R Y O U T I .1 16 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U LICS OF A B W R To increase appreciation of the various modes of convective heat transfer that can exist in a nuclear fuel rod bundle.D R Y O U T ( P D O ) C O N V E CT I V E H EAT T R A N S F E R S I N G LEPHASE FORCED CONVECTION '. 4. 41 7 The lower curve is a typical poolboiling curve. The upper curve is a typical forced convection boiling curve drawn for a heater with uniform axial heat flux and a given quality.POST.. since it determines the convective heat transfer characteristics of a typical nuclear fuel rod bundle . flow rate. and pressure in the twophase region of the curve .. consider the two boiling curves shown in Fig .
41 7 Singlephase convective heat transfer in multirod bundles can be correlated in the standard form (McAdams. Pr. or the Colburn equation. St.41b) (4. 44 ) (H�. the singlephase heat transfer coef ficient.3 . In contrast. liquid film dryout will take place at the BT point (point ®). shown as branch CD to @ in Fig. 4.41a) (4. Reynolds number. Tbulk = ( T).'�H) � 0 .4 HI<I>DH = 0 ..41c) For moderate temperature differences. 1954) (4 . are given by Nu � HI<I>DH K (4.40) where the Nusselt number. HI<I> . ( Twall + Tbu l k)/2.:) 08 ( )( ) (4. St = Nu HI<I> = Re Pr Gcp (4. is used to determine the properties denoted by the subscript "film .43) . and Prandtl num ber. 1 Convective Heat Transfer in Rod Bundles The first mode of convective heat transfer that we consider is singlephase convection. � . as.42) (4 . for heating a liquid is often given by either the classical Dittus Boelter equation. In this book we will conc entrate on boiling heat transfer phenomena of interest in BWR technology ." The Colburn equation frequently is rewritten in terms of the Stanton number. ( 0 O8 . 023 (::) (":L (:. in a BWR. ILb ul k K bu lk where the bulk temperature. This is the situation of interest for a pre ssurized water nuclear reactor (PWR) . 023 G DH ) in which the mean film temperature. of the fluid is used to determine K bu lk the thermodynamic properties. Nu. Re.B O I L I N G H EAT T RA N S F E R Note that if subcooled boiling still occurs at the boiling transition (BT) p oint then a departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) will take place at a relatively high heat flux (point ®).
1974) . it can be ignored . Nu NUbulk ( Tw fO' S (r�) 0. However. 1966) recommend a property correction of the form. 47) The JensLottes correlation Gens and Lottes. thus. to yield a reasonably accurate estimation of the singlephase heat transfer coefficients in rod bundles . can be used without the property correction given in Eq. 1951) and the Thorn correlation (Thorn. This mode of convective heat transfer is a complicated mixture of singlephase convection and nucleate boiling modes of heat transfer. For those cases (e . H I<\> . H I<l> j� ( ) ( ) Gcp bulk Cp lL ¥. 41 7 Section @ to ® is associated with partial (subcooled) nucleate boiling. Eq. Fortunately. is normally correlated in the form. ( 4 .1 18 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B W R in the form. The next mode of convective heat transfer considered is that associated with the nucleate boiling branch of Fig. 46) for water which also requires that we iterate on the wall temperature Tw . as with the Colburn correlation . . 023 G DH ( ) 0. Section ® to G) represents fully developed nucleate boiling and. when it is used. an approximate treatment is possible (Lahey. the socalled Colburn jfactor is uniquely related to the smooth tube (DarcyWeisbach) friction factor by. 1966) are several frequently used correlations of this form for water. 46). (4.1 K film = 0 . j = fl8 Either the DittusBoelter or the Colburn correlation can be used to eval uate the singlephase transfer coefficient. for many practical cases of interest 2 the DittusBoelter correlation.2 IL film (4. 4 ) . In many cases of practical concern. 45) Note that by using the Reynolds analogy. (4 . g . These correlations are given in the following table: . for water. transients) where it must be considered. is easier to use. some authors (Kays. Note that the DittusBoelter correlation requires only knowledge of the bulk temperature for property evaluations and. 2 (1') for steam (4.
43) can be used to determine Hl<1>(loj. such as may occur in BWR technology.0051 84 ex p (2pI1 260)( Tw 0 ..47)] exp(4p/900) 12. and temper atures are in of . ( 1 961) . These correlations are given as follows: . 42) or (4. is normally given by. but is quite sensitive to system pressure . Note that in the two correlations discussed above. q". 41 7. H2<1> ( FC) H1<l>(loj _ where the turbulent Martinelli parameter. Forced convective vaporization heat transfer correlations generally are of the form.B O I L I N G H E AT T RA N S F E R 1 19 JensLottes (1951) Correlation m=4 K Parameters [Eq. Note that in branch G) to ® in Fig. this mode of heat transfer implies very high heat transfer coefficients resulting in de creasing wall temperature as the heat flux increases . 005184  Tsat) where the heat flux. p. 49) A(l. where 10 imp lie s that the singlephase heat transfer correlation is evaluated assuming that the total mass flux of the system is saturated liquid. This convective heat transfer regime is known as forced convective vaporization and it is characterized by evaporation at the liquidvapor interface and a flow effect similar to singlephase convec tive heat transfer. (4. is in Btu/hft2. is in psia. X I I . that nucleation is sup pressed and the heat is transferred by conduction through the thin liquid film on the heated surface . (4.) XI I n (4 . Several popular forced convective vaporization correlations are due to Dengler and Addoms (1956) and Bennett et al. and the liquid film can become so thin. For conditions of highquality annular flow.96 Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient H 2<!>( NB ) = d ( Tw   q" Tsat) 3 exp(4p/900) 1 2 . the vapor velocity and interfacial turbulence level can become so high. 96 (T U' Tsat) Thom (1966) m=2 K_ eXE(2p/1260) 0. fully developed nucleate boiling is insensitive to flow rate and flow quality. 48) Equ ation (4 .. pressure.
1 05 1 00 .(lo ) . which indicates a nucleate boiling mode of heat transfer. 1 973). 1 05 10 2 II blh . 0. (1961) Correlation Parameters [Eq .866 in. 25 psi. 1961 ) . smaller values of flow quality). Xu � \l 6. > 1 i' .9( 5.jO. .2. o . e . A N N U L U S I I N T E R N A L L Y H E A T E D ) H E A T E R . 66 Figure 418 shows a comparison of Bennett's correlation with some typical data .ft ) I B t u lh . 2 MASS F L U X .62 .66 • • MASS F L U X H E AT F L U X 0. That is. 1 .25 .d PR ESSU R E . is to know when to apply them. 1 05 1 . (4. 1 1 . ( � ) 0. Note that in the right portion of the figure.ft 2. large values o f flow quality) the forced convective vaporization heat transfer coefficient. Although there are a number of approximate criteria available (Rohsenow and Hartnett. T EST S E C T I O N . ) 0. for small values of X I I (i . the twophase heat transfer coefficient is independent of mass flux and quality. such as that given in Eq.37 5 o n 0 d x 29 . . 25 x 1 05 0. for larger values of XI I (i.1 20 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U LICS OF A B W R Dengler and Addoms (1956) Bennett et al.9 ( 1 X. 5 A = 2.5( �)0.48)..0 . 9 1l = 0 .<.(}. 0. Xt t (Bennett et aI .0 x 1 05 2. 1 00 r�r. e . 1 05 2.0 x 1 05 1 . n L O N G F LOW T U B E . 1 05 0.5 1l = 0. (4. 1 Pg 0 • 1 . H2q. we must have some criterion to determine when nucleation in the liquid film is suppressed . 1 Fig. has the same mass flux dependence as Hlq. 41 8 Variation of heat transfer coefficient ratio with Martinelli parameter.0 .(FC). In contrast.�'. 48)) A = 3.0 x 1 05 Iblh. One of the problems with the application of forced convective vapori zation heat transfer correlations.h 2 ) 1 .62 ..
which can be solved easily for the local wall superheat. 53) is a quadratic equation. and (4. 56) .8 (4. and multiplied by a correction parameter. (4.35 [. 50) wh ere. H . 25 Kf CPt Pf ( gc ) H2c/> (NB) . (4.923 x 1 06 [ [ G(l !  » DH It is often convenient to assume that the exponent 0 . 5 0.213 J .Tsat) . 0. ( Tw . F.45 0.Tsat) [Tw Tsa t 1 Equation (4. 75 F 0. This para meter is plotted versus the Martinelli parameter. XI t . (LP) � 0 . 023 � 0.49 * 0. (4. 0 . . 00122 0 .24 0.24 U" ILf fg Pg g � � 416.. tt + 0.Tsat) + aTsub] + " _ !� J ( ) hfg TsatVfg r('�7r (.29h o. 50).79 0. For tun ately.0 . e .99 (4. The singlephase heat transfer coefficient. Re (L P) [ Re2c/> Re (L P) = G(l d ILf (x) DH J O. Hlc/> (LP) . 417 The Chen correlation is in the form of a superposition: (4 . 419. 52) H2c/>(NB) 2 ( Tw . 736 F = 2. 53) F� where. LP.H l c/> (LP)[( Tw . 99 in Eq. given by. in Fig.Tsat) S (4. i . branch ® to ® of Fig.52) yield: q 2c/> . _ (4. A Convenient fit for this parameter is given by.51) ( Tw . is the standard Dittus Boelter correlation evaluated for saturated liquid conditions at the mass flux of the liquid phase. 52) can be approximated by 1 . can be recognized as the ratio of an effective twophase Reynolds number to the Reynolds number used to evaluate H lc/>(LP).51). 54) (4. Chen (1963) has formulated a rather good correlation for both the fully developed nucleate boiling and forced convection vaporization re gions.B O I L I N G H EAT T RA N S F E R 121 no ne has been proven accurate as yet for application to rod bundles. 55) The parameter.�) 0 . In this case Eqs . (4. F.
52) can be used in conjunction with Figs... The twophase nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient. some iteration is required . and 420 to evaluate the twophase heat transfer. thus..51). u. eN � . 421 for a typical value of � Tsat = lOoF. is given in Fig. the Chen. JensLottes. 5� where Il Tave is the effective radial average superheat in the liquid film. 5. which is defined as. 50). 5822 tan (4.. Re2<1>. The Chen correlation is widely used throughout the nuclear industry and is recommended for most convective boiling heat transfer evaluations. is a form of the ForsterZuber correlation times a nucleation suppression factor.99 (4. F (Chen. 9622 0 . (4. A fit for this parameter is Re2<1> 5 = 0. 1963) .. and Dengler and Addoms correlations have been evaluated in Fig.. The suppression factor. 420 as a function of the effective twophase Reynolds number.Tsat) and. 5. 58)  [ Il Tave ( Tw . 41 9 Reynolds number factor. � .Tsat) J O.= 1 01 APP R O X I M A T E R E G I O N O F DATA Fig. To gain further appreciation of how several of the more popular boiling heat transfer correlations compare. 57) Equations (4. 1 8 x 104 )J . note that the correlation is implicit in ( Tw .1 22 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B W R co 0 . H2<1>(NB). a: . however.. Note that the Chen correlation tends to merge with the JensLottes correlation for nucleate boiling conditions and with the Dengler 419 [ t ( 6. and (4.
.LOTTES ( tl T SAT = 1 0° F ) 1 0° F ) QUALITY.D E N G L E R A N D ADDOMS .t: iL .2 0..8 0.4 0.6 0..0 X 106 (lb/hft2 ) 1 000 PS I A 0_ 5 I N _ ./ / .25 1 06 1 05 6 4 8 G P DH = = = 1 ..E '" e . 2 . N J: 1 04 6 8 I / / / /' / / 4 2 . S (Chen.0 0..<x >1 Il f DH � 0.9 0.1 0 1 04 R Fig. 420 Suppression factor. <x> . 8241 • R 8( LP) x 1 05 F 1. 1 963) .3 0.5 G (l .C H E N ( tl T SAT = .J E N S ../ 0 N ..BOI L I N G H EAT TRA N S F E R 1 23 � c( VI � "w > c( � II VI 81 0 <l 1 .7 0.
is the BT or dryout point..4. 4. inlet subcooling. It will be shown subsequently that the socalled "local conditions hypothesis" is not generally valid for BWR conditions and. highflow phenom ena that can occur in pressurized water reactor rod bundles. The CHF was characterized by a sudden deterioration in the boiling heat transfer mechanism resulting in a temperature excursion of the heated surface. The term "boiling crisis" is frequently used in the European literature and. For nonuniform axial heat flux profiles. As discussed in Sec. Unfortunately. the boiling crisis 2. there is a family of boiling curves which are a function of the axial heat flux profile and inlet subcooling. In Sec. critical heat flux (CHF) 3. not the local heat flux. For instance. departure from nucleate boiling (ONB) 4. even in situations in which the local conditions hypothesis can be considered valid (i. thus. the phenomenon known as poolboiling CHF was discussed. CHF has the connotation that it is the local heat flux that determines the onset of transition boiling. as pointed out by Hewitt (1970). The point at which the heat transfer coefficient deteriorates is known by various names. it also lacks generality. thus. Also note the rapid increase of the heat transfer coefficient with quality when nucleate boiling is suppressed. more typical of BWR fuel rods. although it does accurately characterize the rapid temperature excursions 4 . 417. although ONB is frequently used to describe the highpressure. including 1. burnout (BO) 5.e. shown in Fig. In the American literature. dryout. it is primarily the critical quality that determines dryout. The next point of interest on the forced convection boiling curve. test sections with uniform axial heat flux or very low qualities). 4. it is well known that a temperature excursion can be achieved at constant power level by varying the system flow rate. as discussed previously.4 Boi l i ng Transition . Moreover. Of the terms tabulated above.Tsa t) plane only for uniform axial heat flux. A similar phenomenon can occur during flowboiling situations of interest in BWR technology. dryout most accurately describes the phys ical mechanism that occurs at conditions of interest to BWR technology However.e. CHF seems to be the preferred term. i. or pressure and. this point is uniquely defined in the q" versus ( Tw. unlike poolboiling situations. point @ .1 24 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A BWR and Addoms correlation for forced convection vaporization conditions.2. CHF is again misleading. the term CHF is not generally descriptive of the phenomena involved. all of these terms leave something to be desired.
These references discuss the analytical and experimental work that has been done in survey form.1 . Nevertheless. when the liquid film vanishes.4. 423. It is felt that the term boiling transition (BT) provides tra the correct connotations of the event and is generally applicable to the various phenomena and experimental techniques for achieving the event. the temperature excursion is normally rather slow and the oscil lations are not excessive. i. In most cases. Figure 424 is a represen tation of the incipient dryout of a liquid film. This phenomenon is associated with twophase annular flow conditions and has been studied rather extensively (Hewitt and HallTaylor. Note that there are numerous other works that classify and discuss the BT phenomena. The liquid film is being depleted by evaporation. The thermalhydraulic situation that we wish to describe is the onset of nsition boiling.1 Film Dryo ut Modeling 4. The BT. and Rohsenow and Hartnett (1973). 1970) . the heated surface is cooled only by vapor and the im pingement of liquid droplets. it is misleading for highquality film dryout in which the temperature excursions are quite mild. A typical PBT temperature history is shown in Fig.BOI L I N G H EAT TRA N S F E R 1 25 typical of lowquality DNB.e. In any case. for instance. includes Tong (1965). causing wave action. these surveys provide material of generic interest rather than material for specific ge ometry and operating conditions. etc. we are in a position to discuss the event more specifically. 422. Once the film of liquid ceases to exist. Now that a terminology to describe the phenomenon of interest has been established. 1973) . Collier (1972). which occurs at qualities of interest in BWR technology. for conditions of practical concern. Here we restrict our attention to those geometries and operating conditions of interest in BWR technology. Source material. As shown in Fig. shearing off liquid by the high velocity vapor.4. Hewitt and HallTaylor (1970). particularly at highquality conditions where vapor velocities can be quite high. Tong (1972).. a temperature excursion of the heated surface occurs. this is the terminology that is used exclusively in BWR tech nology in the United States (GETAB. this mode of heat transfer generally is rather good. The magnitude of these temperature os cillations and the speed of the postBT (PBT) temperature excursion de pends on the operating conditions. To g ain some insight into the phenomena of film dryout. we formulate a simple mechanistic description of the process. However. the surface temperature normally oscillates due to oscillations of the dryout front. As subsequently discussed. that results in an entrainment 4 . entrainment. 1 Phenomenological Discussion .. is primarily due to a dryout of the liquid film on the heated surface.
05 1 . w u z w a:: w u. . F LOW .1 26 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S O F A BWR E X T R E ME P O S I T I O NS OF WA L L L l a U I D F I LM  . 422 Heat transfer behavior beyond BT for uniform axial heat flux (Quinn. II N U C L EATE BO I L I N G III TRAN S I T I O N BO I L I N G iL ca.00 0.. 1963) .9 0.85 0. :r '  E N TR A I N E D L l aU I D D R O P L ETS • • • • D R Y WA L L z L l aU I D F I LM WA L L TEMP MAX I M U M T E M P E R AT U R E F LUCTUAT I O N z H E AT T R A N S F E R CO E F F I C I E N T h. u 1 oo0 rrT�����r�'�'' I FORCED C O N V ECT I O N I I I IV F I LM BO I L I N G � � w I S 50 0 !t 1I I � 1.80 0 Kw Kw C C R I T I C A L POW E R R A T I O ( C P R ) Fig.1 1 .95 0. 423 Typical temperature history beyond BT (Levy and Bray. I F U L L Y D E V E LO P E D POST· DR YOUT I H E AT T R A N S F E R I z Fig. .. 1966).
Some investigators (i. If we specify the functional form of rnd. Hewitt and HallTaylor..59b) in terms of the flow rate of the entrained liquid. then presumably we can integrate Eq.BOI L I N G H EAT T RA N S F E R 1 27 Fig. (4.s(1 . The works of Grace (1963). 1970) have preferred to formulate Eq. On the other hand. of the liquid droplets tends to replenish the film. how these parameters vary with z and wf )..59b) from the point where the annular flow regime begins to the point of dryout. rnd.e.: = ( :. Numerous investigators have attempted to specify these terms and inte grate mechanistic film flow equations such as Eq. (4. The conservation of mass principle applied to a saturated liquid film implies that for steady state. (4. the liquid that is carried over by any vapor bubbles that burst through the liquid film and cause a carryover mass flux. and carryover.Wle .rn�o ) (4. mass flux. (4. 60) Wf GAx . q". by Whalley (1987).(x» . rn�o. 424 A simple film dryout model . Wle • Th e appropriate transformation is accomplished easily through use of the identity.59b). d. is one of the most successful to date. deposition.rn� .e. and Whalley et al. and rn�o (i. rn�.e.� PH rnd  . (1974) are typical of early efforts. Tippets (1964). A latter model. which can be simplified to. rn�.59b) = . i.
wI. . .e.GA . the actual entrainment curve depends on many factors and is quite difficult to calculate accurately..e..%. c w z 5 40 E QU I L I B R I U M E NT R A I N M E NT I N A D I A B A T I C F LOW "'" ./' 'I . 1970) . It is seen that the critical quality (i.. ' " " " O �__� ____ � ____ � ____ � ____ ____ � �__�� __ �____ L ____ � o 1 00 60 BO LOCA L Q U A L I TY < x >.·s 1 1 . Since equilibrium can never be achieved in a diabatic situation (i.. 80 T O T A L L l O U I O F LO W . More over... . the quality increases with length)... there appears to be a tendency for the diabatic curves to approach the equilibrium situation. the quality at the BT point) increases when the tendency is to decrease entrainment and decreases when the tendency is to increase it.. Fig. . \ . which indicates the strong tendency toward equilibrium when "cold patches" are installed in various axial positions. � � \ ffi 20 ENTR A I N E D L I Q U I D . .1 28 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L ICS OF A B W R The work done to date indicates that understanding the entrainment pro cess is the key to understanding the dryout phenomena.. 425 Entrained liquid phase flow rate as a function of local quality (Hewitt. \ \ \ . .. 426. Figure 425 shows that there is a significant difference between the developing diabatic en trainment curves and the equilibrium adiabatic entrainment curve.. This tendency is seen more dramatically in Fig.< x> I i � 60 ! Q o ::::. .
5 It ( 1 15 000 Btulhft2 . m. valuable and interesting insight can be obtained from con sideration of the mechanisms involved.m eo) For very thin liquid films. (4. For the sit ua tion in which it is zero (i. 1 9 .O. 1966) . Hewitt and Hall Taylor (1970) consider Eq.. 62) q� = hfgm'd This situation is rarely achieved in practice. Thus. 40 .7. " " " ... 1 05 lb/hf.. For the situation of uniform axial heat flux. ..m e .316 in.. As an example. as su ming at dryout m.61) yields the CHF for socalled deposition controlled dryout. I N LET PRESSURE MASS F LUX __ �__��__�________�____ __�__�� O �__�__�� o 40 10 10 1 00 20 2..... . ..�__ ' . the film flow gradient can be either negative or zero. I EQU I L I B R I UM 30 20 10 I I I / I . At the present time. dWfldz = 0).61) /I qe = hfg ( m d . the film flow gradient must be zero.0 ft ( 2 20 000 Btu/hft2. As shown in Fig.0 . l it TOTAL LENGTH.". Nevertheless.. 1 ft TUBE. various possibilities occur.5. 8 1t TOTAL LENGTH. in which Up stream dryout may occur.. CO L D PATCH 5. 10 70 t:. it is virtually impossible to perform an accurate film dryout calculation in complex geometries such as BWR fuel rod bundles.59b) yields. • o 1 ft TUBE. (4. .59b) yields.5 . U N I FORM LY HEATED 1 1 21 000 Btu/Mt2.. 427b. Moreover.2 40 poi LOCAL QUA LITY "" Fig. . shown in Fig.. U N I FORM LY HEATED (207 000 Btu/hoft . Eq. it H Y DRODYNAMIC """\.e. Y " " . 59b) at the dryout point.a TUBE DI AMETER 0. (4. wave action and nucleation are normally suppressed. (4. and dWf ldz +. = m�o= 0. .. 426 Effect of unheated zones on the entrainment curve for the evaporation of lowpressure water in vertical tubes (Bennett et al. = m�o = O. Equa tion (4.BOI L I N G H EAT T RA N S F E R 10 1 29 10 KEY : . in which dryout normally occurs at the end of the heated length (EHL). 427a. (4. COLD PATCH 3. the spatial derivative of Eq. For nonuniform axial heat flux situations. since normally rivulets are present. typical of those at incipient dryout..
427b Upstream dryout with nonuniform axial heat flux (Hewitt and Hall Taylor. Thus.. dm'd/dz< O as dryout is approached since the amount of entrained liquid is decreasing. 1 970) .= PH dm'd dz 2 dz Normally. 42 7a  EHL dZ dW  '1 z O DO · EHL ·· �7A dW.1 30 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A BWR DRYOUT .0 dZ DO � EHL Dryout situations with uniform axial heat flux.) > 0 1 dq " hfg dz (4. 1973). 429 that some shapes are much better than others. This explains the experimentally observed fact that when upstream dryout oc curs. 1971). ��. As shown in Fig. 1973) to determine the critical liquid film flow rate (i. 63) .. It is well known that in BWR rod bundles the onset of BT always occurs initially upstream of grid spacers (Janssen. Obstacles of various shape and size were investigated in an adiabatic air/water experiment (Shiralkar and Lahey. . In (. d2wf . dq"/dz <O for upstream dryout to occur. this phenomenon is primarily due to impacting of the relatively highvelocity vapor stream on bluff spacer components. it normally occurs in a region of decreasing heat flux. thus causing a premature dryout. / EHL Fig.� dW ' dZ EHL 1 <0 EHL DO Fig. Another interesting example of the insight that we obtain from consid eration of film flow models is concerned with the effect of obstacles (Shir alkar and Lahey. It is seen in Fig. causing a horseshoe vortex that "scrubs" out the liquid film ahead of the obstruc tion. the rate below which upstream dryout occurs). e. 428.
. 428 Formation of an upstream dry patch (Shiralkar and Lahey.0 ""T] 5) =v2) � (DRY PATC H UPSTR EAM OF VAR I O US O BSTAC L E S . 250 200  1 50 1 00 50 DR YOUT OCC U R S B E LOW T H I S V A L U E o  o 10 20 30 40 50 VAPOR V E LOC I T Y . 0 . 1973) .. 429 Comparison of critical film flow rates for various obstacles .. . 350 300 . . It/sec 60 70 80 90 1 00 1 10 1 20 Fig. . .B O I L I N G H E AT TRA N S F E R 1 31 F LOW OBSTRUCT I O N (CYLINDER' H O R S E SH O E VORTEX L I QU I D F I LM L I QU I D F I LM Fig.
shown in Fig. e. but we must also know how the local situation came about. 4. then the data for the various axial heat flux profiles would coalesce.g. Rather than discuss the data trends observed in fullscale rod bundle experiments. thus. tells us the total liquid content but yields no information on how much of this liquid is actually on the heated surface. Ob viously they do not. The data of De Bortoli et al. the local flow quality. which presents Freon1 14 BT data taken in an internally heated annulus (Shiralkar.. This can be seen clearly in Fig. thus. For instance. since it turns out that the effects seen in the more complex rod bundle experiments are exactly the same. the upstream history is not important. 431.. but also due to the nonuniform axial and local (i. the local conditions hypothesis is not valid and some integraltype correlation of the data is required.1 32 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B W R general. If only the local heat flux and quality were important.2 In terpreta tion of Boiling Transition Data Boiling transition in BWR fuel rod bundles is rather complicated." strongly depends on the flow regime and. (x( z ) . the more difficult it is to cause an upstream dryout. In particular. In contrast. it is instructive first to consider the effects separately. The effect of the axial heat flux profile. Hence. not only due to the complex geometry involved. the quality. The hydrodynamic situation that occurs in a BWR fuel rod bundle is completely analogous. The integral concept can take many analytic forms. 1 . 1972). Collier (1972) has summarized the various techniques currently used in correlating nonuniform axial heat flux data. The socalled local conditions hypothesis states in essence that it is only the local heat flux and local quality that control the BT. all of which imply that it is not sufficient just to know the local thermalhydraulic parameters. for operating conditions of interest to BWR technology. provide . Essentially they are based either on the local conditions hypothesis or on an integral approach.4. First we consider the effect of nonuniform axial heat flux on BT in simple geometry experiments. In fact. a strong dependence on axial heat flux profile is evident.e. In general. (1958). as implied by the local conditions hypothesiS. 430. rodtorod) heat flux profiles that exist. sometimes referred to as the "upstream memory effect. shape @' the lower the critical film flow rate and. the more streamlined the obstacle. the components contained in a gridtype spacer can strongly affect the thermal performance of a fuel rod bundle. and the spacer designer is well advised to make these components as streamlined as possible. the integral concept implies that the upstream history is normally quite important. it has been found that the integral concept is essentially correct for heat flux profiles of practical concern. that is.
1 0 0. p = 123 psia. "' % oJ « u i i • � 26 24 22 20 � i= iii: 'V u oJ « 'V : 8 oJ B . 1 8 <X (zI >.54 X 1 06 lb/hftz (Shiralkar.563 in . 875 i n . U 18 16 � • • 'V 'V 14 12 0 0 • � 0 0 0 'V " 10 8 • • • • 0 " • 0 0 0 " 6 • • 0. 430 Heat flux versus quality at location of BT. 1972) . D1 = 0. 1 4 0. D2 0.22 LOCA L QU A L I T Y 0. 6. . various axial profiles. 0. • 30 28 'V 0 � 0 1 2 It U N I F O R M 12 It COS I N E 6 It COS I N E A X I A L H E AT FLUX SHAPE 6 It U N I F O R M • • 12 It I N L E T P E A K 12 It O U T L E T P E A K 'g IC ::l oJ II. = = . G 0. Freon114 annulu s data.B O I L I N G H EAT TRA N S F E R 40 38 1 33 o o SYMBOL 36 32 34 o o o 0 � l:!.26 Fi g. .34 4 0..and 12ft heated length.
��� SUBCOOL E D SATU R AT E D EXIT OUALITY I I I Fig. BT always occurs at the end of the heated length for flow rates of interest in BWR technology. In con trast. Hence. to yield the . For a profile of this type._ " q 3 " q l q "2/ 1 •98 ( I N L ET ) t t ���. F. D . q'l. interesting insight into the relationship between the quality and axial heat flux effects. . 98 q'i . for subcooled DNB conditions. Indeed. for the higher quality conditions more typical of BWR technology. There are various integral schemes for introducing the effect of upstream history. One of the most popular and widely used schemes is known as the Tong Ffactor method (Tong. G. for 99% of its length. the effect of the local hot patch washes out. 431 for highly subcooled conditions. The first had a uniform axial heat flux profile. where q2 = 1 . 1972) . 43 1 Schematic display of hot patch data (De Bortoli et aI . This experiment was performed in highpressure steam/water using two test sections. which implies the validity of an integral concept. only for uniform axial profiles can we speak meaningfully in terms of a CHF. 1 958) . q3. the CHF data trends for both test sections become colinear. with a small uniform axial hot patch at the end of magnitude q2. Note that in Fig. P ) ( O U T L ET ) "TT"_.1 34 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A BWR q ( F I X E D z . the local conditions hypothesis is approximately valid. The Tong Ffactor method is ba sically a fluxquality plane scheme in which uniform axial CHF test data are divided by the appropriate upstream weighting factor. The second had a uniform axial heat flux profile.
It can be seen from Eq. ra t her than the axial position at which either subcooled boiling or annular flow begins.O T [ ( L Bc + A) . for lowquality BT. the parameter. OT' decreases as critical quality increases (Tong.z )}.. for higher quality BT. typical of BT in a BWR. z « LBc + A). The functional form of the Tong Ffactor is given by Tong (1 972) and Smith et al. d F � i1«EQ) q� ( LBc + A) OT c + A) [ l .� [( LBc + A) . A. as the parameter. 432) � axial position of the boiling boundary. Eq. 64). (4.66) Actually. (4. To appreciate the implications of this variation of OT with quality. i. by using L'Hopital's rule.  1 iLS '+A q "( Z ) dZ (4.67) . 64) becomes: e a ssumption is made in Eq. Hence. (1965) as. there is equal weighting of the local and upstream heat flUxes.exp( . the exponential weighting term does not attenuate the effect of upstream heat flux as strongly. fl. axial position A where (Xe) = O. typical of BWR technology.B O I L I N G H EAT T RA N S F E R 1 35 appropriate thermal limit for the nonuniform axial heat flux profile under consideration.. (4.e. (4. For large values of the parameter {lr. qc(EQ) ( LB + A o q�(EQ) = l . In contrast. exp{ .X � J ' q" ( z ) e x p { . In the limit. the local conditions hypothesis is approx imately valid.z)} dz [ e p( OT LBC> J A 1/  � q� ( LBc + A) � � LBc (4. the flux weighting term. 65) For film dryout conditions. OT ' goes to zero.OT [ ( LBc + A) . let us consider the integrand of Eq. (4. dies out strongly for axial positions less than the critical position. d Th li F � qc( EQ) n� q�( LBc + A) = q� ( LBc + A) LBc A .64) where equivalent uniform axial CHF local nonuniform axial heat flux at the critical location critical boiling length (Fig.64) that we can integrate from the boiling boundary. since. thus. i. there is little upstream memory effect and the local heat flux is very important. 1972). That is.e. thus.. is very small. the parameter.z)} dz (4. 64) that the equivalent uniform axial heat flux is given by.OT LBC > J q� (LB ( LB H X JA ' ql/( z ) exp{ . OT is small and.
(4. however. o r 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o o 0 o o 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 o o 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 00 0 • 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A 0 0 Ll'l S I N G L E PHASE U N LET) t A t Fig. some fundamental drawbacks to the method.+A L A Be . There are. computerbased techniques fLB.1 36 TWO P H A S E (OUTLET) 0 0 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A BWR 0 0 t r. evaluation of Eq. 68) q"(z ) dz q�( EQ =  ) This interesting observation will prove valuable shortly. 1972). f1v has done a good job of correlating the nonuniform axial heat flux effect (Shiralkar. subsequent to proper optimization of the parameter. First. The Tong Ffactor approach has been applied to data of interest in BWR technology and. LB . which implies that the equivalent uniform axial CHF is given by the non uniform axial heat flux profile averaged over the boiling length. 432 Representation of boiling length.64) almost invariably requires numerical integration of an exponential integral. Thus. 1 (4.
graphic interpretation of the technique in the fluxquality plane is very involved. for a different axial heat flux profile. 433 Graphic interpretation of Tong Ffactor technique. while important for lowquality conditions.L BC > type. There is a technique that has been developed specifically for BT in the higher quality annular flow regime. Moreover. (4. logically we are led to explore alternate integral schemes that are more appropriate for BWR operating conditions. as previously discussed. is not nearly as important for BWR conditions of interest. Eq. 433. q q "(z) P = G = CONSTANT CONSTA N T = G I V E N ( C H O PP E D COS I N E ) <x > Fig.64). and axial heat flux profile. LBc . This is because for a given flow rate. Clearly a simple graphic interpretation is impossible. the pa rameter. where the upstream history is implicit in the critical boiling length. Second. Thus. as shown in Fig. are a function of inlet subcooling. 1965) at the Centre Informazioni Studi Esperienze (CISE) in Milan. q"( x) . (4. system pressure. This technique originally was intro duced into the literature by investigators (Bertoletti et aI. given by Eq. Moreover. Thus. 64) implies that there is a new family of CHF lines for each inlet subcooling. . F. The CISEtype correlation is basically of the critical qualityboiling length ( Xe )c . and the energy balance curves. the exponential weighting of the upstream history. Italy. . there is a whole family of such lines depending on the inlet subcooling. rather than a single CHF line.B O I L I N G H EAT T RA N S F E R 1 37 are normally required.
1971) plotted in the (Xe)cLBc plane. +II. we could develop a "best fit" line to the data and. e.shfg(Xe) and the position of the boiling boundary is given by. G )LBc [b( p . G . and. Techniques that assume the validity of the local conditions hypothesis attempt to correlate in terms of local values of q�� and (xe )c .LBc approach.1 38 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR To appreciate the (Xe)c .69) Jx PHq" ( z )dz = GAx . and system pressure. LBo are indicated. (4. It should be evident that. and critical boiling length. 434 in the critical qualityboiling length plane. nonuniform axial heat flux data. Figure 435 is an example of British data (Keeys et al. 70) a( p . a wellknown CISE correlation has a functional form given by.s( hf . we could correlate (xe)c and LBc' where the boiling length is given implicitly by. on the left.. The critical boiling length is then just the length from the boiling boundary to the point at which a BT is observed . thus. the Tong Ffactor approach) also attempt to cor relate these local parameters through appropriate modification of uniform axial CHF correlations. consider the situation of a hea te d rod bundle with a chopped cosine axial heat flux profile operating w ith fixed inlet subcooling. 1972) indicates that quadratic form of the correlation may yield a better data fit. As an ex ample. This trend originally was noted by the CISE group.hi) = GA x . Nevertheless . the boiling boundary. the axial quality distribution is shown with the critical quality. the heat flux profile is shown with the typical locatio n of a BT indicated. rather than correlating q� and (xe)c. As indicated in Fig. Moving from righ t to left in Fig. The integral nature of the boiling length parameter is evident in Eqs. it is seen that the axial heat flux effect is well captured in this plane. ( Xe )c _ f PH q" ( Z ) dz = GAx . . including the fluxquality data given in Fig. were replotted in Fig. 432. It is seen that this plane does an ex cellent job of collapsing the axial heat flux effect. 70). A .s ahsub (4. indicated. The functional form of this correlation is quite arbitrary and depends completely on the ingenuity of the investigator. by convention. flow rate. (LB (4. To determine whether this integral weighting of the upstream heat flux history is appropriate. DH) + LB.] (4. It is seen that the boiling length is just the length over which bulk boiling occurs. 430. Integral flux quality techniques (i. synthesize a critical qualityboiling length correlation for design purposes. Again. (xe)c . 432. A . but has been observed by other investigators. 71) a although more recent work at CISE (Gaspari et al. 69) and (4. measured from the boiling boundary. in principle. . It is.
.. L B C Fig.05 o .B O I L I N G H EAT TRAN S F E R 1 39 . 71) al lo ws us to fit typical BT data. as shown in Fig.30 BEST F IT L I N E 0..... 54 0 I blh ..____L____'____. 0. 6 10 C R I T I C A L BO I L I N G L E N G T H .. Freon1 1 4 annulus data . 1972) Indi cates that for conditions of interest in BWR technology. 1 9 72 1 0.20 a >= it u C u oJ F R EON A N N U LUS DATA SYMBOL "'V 0 • • Gll0 6 • 0 . optimization of parameters a and b in Eq.. 1 0 0 1 2 It I N L E T P E A K 6 I t H A L F CO S I N E ISH I R A L KA R . the Tong Ffactor and the critical qualityboiling length approach) for handling the effect of nonuniform axial �eat flux. 1 5 6 Y 0. the accuracy . 436.. l t 2 A X I A L H E AT F LU X SHAPE 1 2 It U N I F O R M 6 It U N I FO R M INE 6 It COS I N E 0. V >. 35 r 0. A systematic comparison of these techniques (Shiralkar. 434 Critical quality versus boiling length. C 0.___.____'___...L . I::.25 A ".. L.. We have discussed two techniques (i.L.e. (4.
0 2. 12.0 3.1 40 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L ICS OF A BWR 70 SYMBOL 60 "'i1 0 0 M A X I M U M /M I N I M U M HEAT F LU X R A T I O 1 1 .5 C R I T I CA L BOI L I N G L E NGTH 1m) Fig. .0 __________�__________�__________�__________�________� 1 . 66m heated length.99 � 4. = . 1971 ) . various axial power profiles. G 2 .5 3. 6mmdiam round tube2 3. 72 x 1 cr kglsecm (Keeys et aI . 435 Critical quality versus boiling length data.7 E X PO N E N T I A L D E C R E A S E SYMM E T R I C A L C H O PP E D COS I N E 50 40 30 20 10 o 1 .5 2.9 1 A X I A L H E A T F L U X SHAPE UNIFORM EXPONENTIAL DECREASE 2.
.. I .l » z V'l "TI m ..S 1 000 psi 9·ROD.� .6 B E ST F IT <> A • & . . 1 0 40 / 60 / / .J « u II: u E & 0.. �  _ o.. 00 E a . . .. 1972) . . _ _ . ". . ( 4 .O..7r ".l 0. ' X v 1\ u >' :::.<l!>.& _ 0.5 0. . 436 Nine..." OJ Q rG" "' .....7 IIb/h·ft 2) A X I A L COS I N E 0. _ � lJ.  0 20 so 1 00 1 20 CR I T IC A L BO I L I N G L E N G T H ( . Fig...../ / .H" •.and sixteenrod critical quality versus boiling length..... 6 ft U N I FORM AXIAL G/ I 0 6 1 6· R O D .lJ.. / /' /" �� ".. 1 000 psi (Polomik et aI .50 1 . .>. "'" .. ' :..2 / . 1 2f t 0.3 &.. C'l I m » I z 0...' � « :::l 0 .4 R . 52 ) 0. .>.
That is. 72). (4. the same procedure can be followed to obtain the corresponding critical qualityboiling correlation.shfg )/( mPH) + LBel (4.68). we can predict BT for conditions of nonuniform axial heat flux.72) To better understand the significance of the (xe)c . In more general situations in which the appropriate CHF correlation is no longer linear. 73) d(xe) q"( z ) dZ = q"( z ) q�(EQ) �  By using Eq. the appropriate heat flux to compare with � is the heat flux averaged over the boiling length .75) indicates the unique relationship between the CISE correlation and the parameters. This is an interesting and important result since it implies that. when appraising thermal limits.LBe correlation given in Eq. LB. 75) Comparison of Eqs. (4. How ever. (4. 71). either technique can be used for design applications. the correlation no longer has the same functional form as in Eq. the critical qualityboiling length technique is preferred.73) is inade . 75). by using Eq. although due to its relative simplicity. . to a good first approximation. Then. 1 (xe)e 1 dz (4. from Eq. It has been found (Bertoletti et al.1 42 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I CS OF A B W R with which the data trends are correlated is about the same. we only need to perform uniform axial heat flux experiments to obtain the slope and intercept. as in Eq. L Be Ill. + L Be l 0 d(Xe ) (4. at least in simple geometries. we assume that. 1965) that for cases of extreme axial heat flux profiles. 430. BT data for uniform axial heat flux profiles are linear in the fluxquality plane. the appropriate CHF correlation is of the form. In this case.m ( G .69) written in the form. 74) we obtain. 71). (4. p ) . the simple flux averaging given by Eq. Thus. (4. Hence. (4. however. before proceeding. (4. ( n/m )LBc (xe)c = ��'[ ( GAx . 71) and (4. n (intercept) and m (slope). lI. the equivalent uniform axial heat flux is. p ) (xe)c (4. (4. it is informative to investigate further the rela tionship between fluxquality and the critical qualityboiling length approaches. This trend is seen in the data plotted in Fig. in the uniform axial CHF correlation. It is well known that. � = n ( G.
As shown in Fig. B' 1\ q"(z g( z ) dz �( z ) dz  JA :7 +'B ( I\:. 438. the ratio of peaktoaverage axial heat flux is normally less than 2 and. To account for this effect. (4. thus. we are faced with the problem of evaluating and interpreting the thermal margin. 77) yield. (4._  J. Several popular figures of merit are indicated in the fluxquality plane in Fig.'  (4.76) where. Silvestri (1966) introduced an axial weight ing factor. rather than the CHF correlation. The main difference between the two techniques has to do with how the upstream history is introduced. . For conditions of interest in BWR technology. Once a par ticular technique has been selected. we see that the Tong Ffactor approach and the generalized critical qualityboiling length approach are completely equivalent. 437.exp( � fiT LB J )JA ( H LB' q"( z ) exp{ . 73). the critical qualityboiling length correlation is not plotted in the fluxquality plane an d IS done here only for illustrative purposes.  �(z) � [q "(z »)'l (4.I. to a good first approxi mation. This implies the validity of Eq. 79). In contrast. fi q�(EQ) = 1 [ . ( H I. Both techniques are equivalent and yield the same thermal margin.B O I L I N G H EAT T RA N S F E R 1 43 qua te. to obtain the expression for the equivalent uniform CHF. There are various figures of merit that can be used to quantify the thermal margin. Eqs.z)} dz (4.fiT[ ( LBc + X) z )} and the equivalent critical boiling length is given by.LBc correlations are valid. The effect of nonuniform axial heat flux now has been considered and it has been shown that for BWR conditions there are at least two integral techniques that accurately correlate the observed data trends. 77) (4. (4.. It. q"( Xe». eN or� ally. 78) LBc( EQ) � " qc(EQ) A 1 i A + LB ' q"( z ) dz Note that for the case in which 1] = 0. the critical qualityboiling approache modifies the energy bal ance. 79) By comparing Eqs. �(z ). which is entirely consistent with the Tong Ffactor approach for very small �.fiT [L Bc + X) . 65) and (4. standard (xe>c . 76) and (4. exp{ . the Tong Ffactor approach modifies the uniform axial CHF correlation to yield the appropriate correlation for the existing nonuniform axial profile. qc(EQ) = _ .
if CHFR = 1 . of CHF (given by the thermal limit. the .. 437 Comparison of (xe)c plane . i. It is defined as the ratio. from the operational point of view. this does not imply that the op erating power can be increased 50% .e. In contrast. More specifically.1 44 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L ICS OF A BWR q " q " MA RG I N TON G F  FACTO R Fig. 5. CHF correlation) divided by the local heat flux. This classical figure of merit does not give a true picture of the thermal margin. at a given quality." The critical quality defect is a convenient figure of merit to use in tran sient analysis and is a natural measure of the thermal margin in the critical qualityboiling length plane.  LB. nor does it imply that the local hea t flux can be increased only 50%. i. it is the integral of the axial heat flux profile that is important rather than a local heat flux "spike. this figure of merit is not very easy to interpret. and Tong Ffactor methods in the fluxquality The most popular measure of the thermal margin has been the CHF ratio (CHFR) . .e. Unfortunately.
. it implies that if system pressure. It is particularly useful to the experimentalist. flow rate.4. � q q C · C . defined as the critical power divided by the operating power. q �I < X • >1 • t. 438) along the energy balance trajectory of each axial position on the heater.4. To determine its thermal limits.. but (see Fig. because each rod bundle is separated from Its neighbors by a channel box. since if CPR 1 . An alternate interpretation of this figure of merit is in terms of a CHFR that is evaluated not at a constant quality. and inlet subcooling are held constant. Fig.< X IZI > . Fortunately. 20. is very easy to appreciate. 6 _ . C R I T I C A L POWER RATIO · THERMAL L I M IT. . 1 . _ .B O I L I N G H EAT TRAN S F E R 1 45 �h U • S 8 P G • CONSTANT CONSTANT CONSTANT _ . 4. we should expect a BT when the test section power is increased 20% . 438 Various figures of merit used to appraise thermal margins . Let us next consider the BWR design application of the techniques and concepts described in Sec.2 Boi l i ng Water Reactor Design Application The BWR fuel rod bundle has a rather complex geometry and power dis tribu tion. C R I T I C A L QUA L I T Y O E F ECT • < X q : iii ' > . physical significance of the critical power ratio (CPR). we can use the "unit cell" concept and . . � < X > • < X > . = 4. F I G U RES OF M E R I T : t. • .Q t. largescale simulation experi �ents are required. . 1 .< X IZ I > .
.0 0._.4 .. __.6 G/l 06 = 1 .. This 4..15 i ! a: .._. 1 000 psia. 38 PIA axial. . Figure 439 is typical of the results of an extensive experime nta l program (GETAB. .L.. '" u .._. 1973) performed in General Electric's (GE's) ATLAS heat transfer facility._"'" 1 .I .4 2..: ii 2..1... __. . __. 3.1 46 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A BWR perform fullscale experiments using an electrically heated simulated fuel rod bundle. 1 973) ... .0 3. . 25 1 .I 20 40 240 a 1 00 60 1 60 220 80 200 1 80 Ll h S U B' I N L E T S U BCOO L I N G I B lu / l b l Fig. Note that the critical power performance of the bundle increases approximately linearly with inlet subcooling and monotonically with mass flux.6 U 0.. Figure 440 indicates that the effect of increasing the local rodtorod peaking is generally to reduce the critical power of the rod bundle._.. .L.8 3.6 1 ._. various flow rates (GETAB...8 � .0 1 .2 0.J. 1 ._L .2 0.L.50 2. 439 Critical power versus inlet subcooling..60 2.L._.... uniform local peaking...2 �_.... 1 6rod x 12ft cosine..8 0.30 0 .L..L. 00 3..35 2.4 3..
a: 0 u. 0 x 1 06 Ib/hft (GETAB... 440 Critical power per unit mass rate.. m >< . . Al < .... p = 1 000 psia. " ... 1 973) ..8 Z CJ I » . normalized with respect to the value for uniform local peaking.. OF AODS < u 0 B X B . LATTICE 7 X 7 16 14 16 4• NO.j>.r.J Z => R x OJ � c 0 a: .Z ..J ::. �hsub = 20 Btu/lb.... versus corner rod 2 peaking.. Q r � ::: � � !t < � 0.I. G = 0 . F Fig. ' C O R N E R R O D PEA K I N G FACTOR.1 » Z (Jl n m Al OA �______________________________________________________________________________________. u !t � � 0.. .. 5 X 1 06 and 1 .
a conservative lower envelope to =______________________. The first approach that can beand has been used is to develop a limit line.. p :o:. dromedary) profile have the lowest. 5 X 1 06 and 1 ... the uniform axial and inlet peaked profiles have the highest thermal performance..___ 1 .IL.. normalized with respect to value at 1 000 psia.0 � iu � a: >t iu 0 .. Based on other data (not shown). Note that the observed effect is generally within ± 8% of the sym metric cosine data. OF RODS 16 0. 6·3 4 1... the critical power performance drops monotonically with increasing pressure... 00 6OQ I1OO I 000 P R E SS U R E \.. 440 indica tes that 8 x 8 (64rod) bundles are less sensitive to this effect than 7 x 7 (49rod) bundles. These techniques should be capable of following the experimentally observed data trends discussed above.. we must have techniques (analytical models and/or correlations) with which to predict the critical power performance of the rod bundles. BANDS R E P R ES E N T S P R E A D O F DATA FOR F OU R R E P R E SE N TATIVE TEST ASSEM B L I E S A N D TWO F LOW RATES 1 . 1400 psia.1 16 16 16 COR N E R PEAKING 1 .. 1 I 200 1 4 1 I Fig. that is.• NO.2 · 1 0 · '6OQ .L"" . Figure 442 indicates the effect of the axial heat flux profile on critical power. p<600 psia. 00 1 1 . Over this range. = = .. To design and operate BWR fuel. G 0 . versus �hsub 20 Btu/lb. As might be expected. 44 1 Critical power.. it appears that this effect turns around at lower system pressures.1. For corner rod peaking.. 1973) ..1 48 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A BWR decrease is proportional to 1 1\/F . 6OQ .. 0 x 1 0 6 Ib/hft2 (GETAB. while the outlet peaked and double humped (i.e.. Figure 441 indicates the effect of system pressure within the range 800 :0:. Fig. . 23· 1 1 ... That is. 1 . There are at least two approaches that can be taken to establish the required design techniques..
0 X 106 Ib/hft2 .4 . :��2 (4 . versus inlet subcooling.6 PI A I 1 1 .. 1 973) . 26 threerod corner peaking. G 1 X 1 06 2 Ib/hft (GETAB. 1 000 psia. 1 ._ . a: � I ) !! oI! i i . 71 (xe)c . i z .1 a .1.1 1 . 1 08( G/106 ) ( q�/1 06 ) = 1 .B O I L I N G H EAT T RA N S F E R 1 49 the appropriate BT data such that virtually no data points fall below this Historically. I! e . 25 in.. 80) ( Xe)c)< 0. . hydra ulic diameters between 0. line.. j iii . 197 .5 I . _ . 20 a F ig. 237( GIl0 6 ).. ( qm 0 6 ) = 0 . � e 1 . 8 1 ) 1i . They are co nsidered valid for mass fluxes from 0 . various axial power profiles. 60 in. These design lines we re known as the JanssenLevy limit lines (Janssen and Levy. 5 PIAl 1 1 . For 1 000 psia and a hydraulic diameter < 0 ... and system pressure from 600 to 1450 psia . 270( GIl06 ) . = = . 705 + 0 .0 0.2 1. 23/1 .0 . 1962) .1i 1. these limit lines are given by. The first set of limit lines used by GE was based largely on single rod ann ular BT data having uniform axial heat flux..  A X I A L PROF I L ES UNI FORM I N L ET P E A K E D 1 1 . 44 2 I N U T SUBCOOL I N G 'Btullbl 10 10 100 1 20 Critical power.0 . 634 . 245 to 1 . . for. normalized with respect to value for symmetrical cosine axial profile at Ilhsub 20 Btu/lb.3 1. :��2 (4. these limit lines have been constructed in the fluxquality plane .4 PIAl § .6 PIAl S Y M M E T R I C A L COS I N E DO U B L E H U M P E D OUTLET PEAKED 1 1 . 4 x 106 to 6 .
:.0 .and ninerod uniform axial heat flux bundles was conducted . 2 x 1 06 to 1 . the Hench Levy limit lines were developed (Healzer et al. the thermal performance (i.0 . 485 in. ( Xe)c) :. . an experimental program using four. 0714 (4. These BT data indicated that some ad justment to the JanssenLevy limit lines was in order. and (4 . 026( GIl 06) ( qm 06 ) = 0.3 . BT) should be quite similar.0 . 254 . thus. 1 9 x 1 06( D1I . Neverthe less. 86) . 605 . for. 026( G/1 06 ) :��2 (4. 254 . 82 ) [ At system pressures other than 1 000 psia. 85) for.1 50 T H E RM A L H Y D RA U L I C S O F A B W R for. 83) The validity of the JanssenLevy limit lines was based on the hypothesis that since the corner rod in a multirod bundle is geometrically similar to an annular configuration. The mathematical expressions for this correlation at 1 000 psia are given by. :��2 (4 .0 . Eqs. 2 . .0 .. 84) C�6) .0 . 36) (xe)c . 2 1 2 ( q�1 l 06 ) = 1 .0 . 22 ] (4. 060 in. 7 tanh2 (3G/10 6 ) tanh 2 (3G/1 06). 6 X 106 Ib/hft2 . ( Xe )c » 0. 1966) . 82 ) For hydraulic diameters greater than 0 . hydraulic diameters from 0 . 9 . (4 .e. 0 . In retrospect. for. it was recognized at the time that more multirod BT data were needed and..0. the following pressure correction was recommended. The HenchLevy lines are considered valid for mass fluxes from 0 . 8 1 ). 653(xe)c . 60 in. thus. should be modified by subtracting.0 . system pressures from 600 to 1450 psia. (4. 1 08( G/106) « (Xe)c) < 0 . 273 . 1 97 . and. 324 to 0 . 1 64( GIl 06 ) . 80). 3(xe)c . and rodtorod and rodtowall spacings greater than 0 .p) (4 . 0 . this was a rather good assumption.0 . q� ( p) = q� ( 1 000) + 400( 1 000 .
thus. 6 .0 . 7(xe) c . we must operate a BWR such that the MCHFR in any bundle is not less than 1 . At power level CD. we have the paradox that at power level ®. the axial BT location normally is predicted incorrectly. this margin of safety has been in terms of a minimum CHFR (MCHFR) . consider an experimentally observed situation shown in Fig. 9 . 09 _ tanh 2 (2G/1 O6 ). 269 tanh2 (3G/106 ) + 0 .B O I L I N G H EAT T RA N S F E R 151 and. That is. 1 The 1 000 psia limit lines are shown in Fig. 87) for. it was shown that an appropriate integral technique was in terms of critical quality boiline: lene:th . they have always been applied in BWR design with a margin of safety. to allow for data uncertainty and anticipated transients. since the heat balance line is everywhere below the limit line. 4 . 1 .>. Moreover. For the HenchLevy limit lines. Obviously. " ( qcll O 6 ) . Figure 444 is another example of the fact that the local conditions hy pothesis is not valid for BWR conditions of interest. a BT was measured although. Historically. When the power level was increased further to level ®. a BT would be predicted. Btu hft2 (4.0 . As with the JanssenLevy limit lines. Thu s. As an example. while the limit line concept can be used for design pu rp oses. 5 . 1 . it does not capture the axial heat flux effect and. At this operating condition. 9. to allow for the fact that rod bundles of untested power distribution and configuration may yield BT data below these lines. 2.0 . in which a rod bundle with a cosine axial heat flux distribution is operated at three different power levels. the following pressure cor (:�) [ 1 . these design curves were constructed such that they fell below virtually all the data at each mass flux. 443 .0 . no BT was observed experimentally and. q� ( p ) � q� ( J OOO) psia. 4 . In Sec. the MCHFR was 1 . the data point fell below the limit line.0 . BT is conservatively predicted along a whole axial region of the rod bundle. 88) .'OOr ] p S (4. where BT was actually measured. the local conditions are below the limit line. The power was then increased to level @' where the heat balance curve just touched the limit line. in the fluxquality plane. but none was observed. 444. The limit line approach allows for safe BWR operation. while further down stream. ( Xe )c) . none is predicted. but leaves some thing to be desired in terms of following the data trends previously dis cussed. 346 tanh 2 1 000 At system pressures other than rection is recommended.0. To eliminate the undesirable features inherent in the limit ( .
. :e o !': :! 0 0 c... > <Ii .. o o o d ...... .u_ � � " :!! Q II o ci ": � :: : :: :: N N N ".1 52 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L IC S OF A BWR �rTm�' � " 0 .. :: � I III 0 )!! 0 Ii! 0 3 IQ d ] :r: ..b u::: .. o '" . . a d � 0 �______�______4__ ..______L______�______�______� 0 . c: <Ii .....J M '@..... '" <Ii Ii: d 1: u M .. ci ..
a gen eralized local peaking factor.89) where Dq R thermal diameter.+ BT P R E D I C T E D B A S E D ON R E G I O N OV E R W H I C H LOCAL C O N D I T I O N S AT POW E R L E V E L 0 POW E R BT O BS E R V E D LEVEL 0 q " I < X. 444 Experimentally observed trend in BT data compared to HenchLevy limit line . (4Ax . To predict accurately the local peaking effect. since it quantifies the effect of the power on the neighboring rods on the thermal performance of the critical rod. Prods The GEXL correlation. The R parameter can be considered as the bundleaverage analog of subchannel analysis. a a .B OI L I N G H EAT TRA N S F E R G P 1 53 • • CONSTANT CONSTANT CONSTANT d hS U B . LEVEL I • NO B T Fig. which includes fullscale 49. uses crosssectional bundleaverage parameters rather than the local subchannel parameters discussed in Sec. was synthesized. > I . H E A T BALANCE POW E R <x > .and 64rod data. 4. 1973) . like the previous limit lines. R. The GEXL cor relation is based on a large amount of BT data taken in GE's ATLAS Heat Transfer Facility. The generic form of the GEXL correlation is (4.5. length (GEXL) correlation was developed (GETAB.sIProds) generalized local peaking pattern factor a the perimeter of the active fuel rods.
is also shown in Fig. For this oper ating condition. / / � /< . The energy balance curve in Fig./ '7� �� �= _e � . 445 Graphic display of GEXL correlation and BWR energy balance curves . and some maneuvering room.. 445.X / ./ ". /. " V / . For instance.2./ / / / / / / // / <. the reduction in CPR due to the most limiting anticipated transient (e. is associated with the critical power condition . which implies that there is an 50% proba bility that a BT would be experienced on some (0. a(xe)c. GEXL COR R E L A T I O N m.g. 1973) .5% (GETAB. turbine trip without bypass)./ . . 1 %) of the fuel rods. C4 701 7 ( 1\ . Figure 445 is a display of the GEXL cor relation and several typical BWR (cosine axial heat flux) heat balance curves.. which just touches the GEXL correlation. . The lower operating curve is typical of the operating conditions that would exist when the reactor is operated at a power level such that the plant dependent statistically determined minimum CPR (MCPR) criterion is not exceeded. 445. This parameter. if the required CPR is 1 .: / / / / /// .2. the plant must be op erated such that the operating MCPR .1 54 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A BWR Unlike the limit line approach. Moreover. The critical quality defect. The 20% margin includes un certainties in the GEXL correlation (2a). the GEXL correlation lends itself to a statistical treatment of the required thermal margin for safe plant operation. the GEXL correlation is a best fit to the experimental data and is able to predict a wide variety of data with a standard deviation of about ± 3.3 1 . / / / . / C R I T ICAL POWE R C H EAT B A L A N C E I P G 4h CONSTANT CONSTANT • CONSTANT oP E R A T I N G POWER CHEAT BALANCEi SU B Fig. MCPR = 1 .0.
have virtually no effect on the critical power performance of a BWR rod bundle. As shown in Fig. To better understand the basic heat transfer phenomena occurring dur ing TB. then an energy balance.6. classical film boiling exists on branch ® to Q). 4. Eqs. 0. To extrapolate these results to design applications and to handle untested situations of concern. (4. In addition. 446.90) has been found to be valid to within 1 % . . 4. for low� ality/highflow conditions. This branch is highly un stable and is characterized by the intermittent physical rewetting of the heated surface by the liquid in the flow stream. for lowquality/highflow BT a rather severe temperature excur sion is experienced at the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) point. can be used to approximate the operating CPR. steadystate operation is possible only in some very special cases of little practical importance. depe nding on the quality and flow rate at which BT occurs. yields. That is. Thus. if we assume that the change in boiling length is small between the operating condition and the critical condition. Branch ® to 0 of the convective boiling curve is commonly known as the convective film boiling or fully developed PDO heat transfer branch. one can always iterate on the power level until the heat balance curve just touches the GEXL correlation to determine the critical power. while for a heat flux controlled system.e. 417 is known as the transition boiling (TB) branch. 70). an inverse annular flow regime is established downstream of the DNB point such that an annular vapor film blankets the heated surface. it is convenient now to consider film boiling and postdryout (PDO) heat transfer.5 Post.90) When 0.69) and (4.l hsutlhfg (4. In contrast.BO I L I N G H EAT T RA N S F E R 1 55 which is zero when MCPR 1 . the approximation given in Eq. = CPR � K W 1 + KW == .9 � CPR � 1 . for higher quality/lowflow conditions. In a temperaturecontrolled system.Boil i ngTransition Convective H eat Transfer Branch ® to ® of the forced convection boiling curve shown in Fig. a detailed study was conducted (Lahey et al. 1. In any event.l(xe (LB ) c (Xe (LB ) + . (4. the temperature excursion is milder and the heat transfer situation downstream . Although the bulk of the experimental data has been taken with sim ulated fuel rod bundles having nominal clearances. effective subchannel analyses are required. such as reduced rodtowall clearance and rod bowing. since the basic heat transfer mechanisms are presumably the same as in the TB branch. i. steadystate operation can be achieved on this branch of the curve. 1973) in which it was demonstrated that patho logical geometric conditions. Such techniques will be considered in Sec. Note that a nuclear fuel rod acts like a heat flux controlled system.
0 T Vl cr LIQUID «tD '" '" " <> '" " DROPLETS <> " '" I '" " T • B T I DR Y O U T ) ".<J > z H I G H ·Q U A L I T Y ( M I S T F LO W .<J I I I < o . " " <> LIQUID F I LM f4 I 1 . <X I > : m . .<J > C s: > r n r (fl OJ o n � z LOW·QUA L I T Y D N B/F I LM B O I L I NG .� . 1 < 0 » <50% J Fig. 446 Postboiling transition heat transfer regimes.. BT!F'� R A N S F E R 1<'» ) > BO% I I I N V E R S E A N N U LA R F LO W .
equivalently. and assuming a saturated liquid phase . we assume com plete thermal equilibrium. ( Xe (Z ) . the vapor temperature begins to rise as it becomes superheated. To gain a better mechanistic appreciation for PDO heat transfer. we consider the situation shown in Fig. although there is obviously no vapor film in the true sense of the word . This model is known as the frozen droplet or nofurtherevaporation model. is frozen at the critical quality. First. 1973) to describe the high �ality/lowflow heat transfer phenomena which occurs on branch ® to (Z). we have adopted the terminology fully developed PDO heat transfer (Groeneveld. Calculation of the true vapor temperature is quite important since it is the key to the determination of accurate. This model implies no vapor superheat and assumes that all energy from the heated walls goes directly into evaporation of the liquid droplets. f the actual flow quality. (4 . neglecting kinetic and potential energy. In BWR technology. fprom a steadystate energy balance. The essence of the thermal equilibrium model is given by the steady state energy balance. (x( z ) . This case gives the most rapid heatup of the vapor phase that is possible since none of the energy from the heated walls goes into evapo ration of the liquid droplets. There are two bounding cases to be considered . (xe(z »c . no further liquid droplet evaporation occurs. is always equal to the thennodynamic equilibrium quality. subsequent to BT. we are concerned primarily with PDO heat transfer. that the flow quality. To avoid confusion. Before discussing various techniques for the determination of vapor su perheat or. the flow quality. (x( z ) . fully developed PDO heat transfer coefficients. The other bounding case is for the assumption that. as discussed more thor oughly in Chapter 5. which implies that the vapor temperature is always equal to the saturation temperature and. 447 Note that subsequent to BT. we consider some simple bounding cases that provide valuable and interesting insight into the ob served data trends. That is.B O I L I N G H EAT T RA N S F E R 1 57 of liquid film dryout is often referred to as a liquid deficient (mist flow) film boiling situation. 9 1 ) and the assumptions.
4 . otherwise (4. Eg. otherwise The fully developed PDO heat transfer coefficient.0. 42). '\ I \ II \1 I � SATU RATION ) TEMP E R ATU R E IT S AT I I I � I WA L L T E M P E R AT U R E I Tw I Z ) J I I I I I I I I F I LM Fig. [ HPDO( Z)DH ] = 0. 0 1. (4 .1 58 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR V APOR I <T T E M P E R AT U R E v lZ ) > 1 � . 93) Z a jJg Kg Kg " t PDO H E AT T R A N S F ER REGIME ~ Z w o e " G " ' " "" 0 ' I D R Y OUT) H EAT E R t 1 . for [(Xc(z» ] ::s:. (4. (Tv (z» = { superheated.0 Tsat. 1. 1.92) for [(xc(z» ]::s:.8 (Cpg jJg )0. 447 Typical PDO heat transfer in BWR technology . 023 [ C((X((z»» DH ] O. (X( Z » = { (Xe(Z» . is calculated from an appropriate singlephase vapor heat transfer correlation such as the DittusBoelter correlation. HPDO .
1 ... (4. 43). 96) (4. the liquid droplets are assumed not to participate in the heat transfer process.B O I L I N G H EAT TRAN S F E R 1 59 and. the fully developed PDO heat flux is given by. i. qPDO ( Z ) = HpDO( Z ) [Tw (z ) . (Tl' (z » = For « Xe» � 1 . It i s apparent that at high mass flux. 0.s Cp. thus. Tsat  Jzc where the assumption has been made that for z � Ze . Note that at lower mass flux. while at the higher mass fluxes. 93) equal to unity and evaluate the vapor temperature from the steady singlephase energy balance. such as that given by Heineman ( 1960) or through the use of the Colburn corre lation. (4. 95) PH q" dz ' (Tv (z » = Tsat + CA x s Cpv JZ«xe) = 1 . the data tend to approach the frozen droplet model. (Tv (z » . 0. (4 .J Lv ) (CPVbUlk) CP. 25)] . It will be shown subsequently that this mechanism is the heat transfer due to walltodroplet interaction. 92) for. (5. we set (x( z » and ( a ( z » in Eq.e. 023 ( a ( z » J.Tsat = C( Xe (x( z » = (xe)c )� e x . the fully developed PDO heat flux is given by [ ] (CP. 98) Pv qPDO ( Z ) = HpDO [ Tw (z ) .film Kv film 0.Lv fi lm film where the axial dependence of the void fraction is due to the effect of vapor superheat on [see Eq. 448 . 1 (Z (4. Thus. 94) where from Eq. 97) The fully developed PDO heat transfer coefficient again can be determined from an appropriate superheated vapor heat transfer correlation. the actual heat transfer process is somewhat better than predicted by the thermal equilibrium model. 99) A comparison of the thermal equilibrium and the frozen droplet models with some typical data trends (Bailey et aI.8 Y3 (4. Eq.. written as.(Tl' (z » ] (4. 0) We now consider the other bounding case known as the frozen droplet model. ( HPDO DH K 1J ) C(Xe)cDH = 0 .• r z PH q" dz ' (4. . . thermal equilibrium is approached. indi cating that some nontrivial mechanism has been neglected in this model. «xe» ". 1 973) is shown in Fig. This model is really just a singlephase heat transfer model in which the liquid phase is ignored.( Tv (z »] (4.. The vapor superheat is given by the steadystate energy balance.
...0' o T R E N DS '" // THERMAL E QU I L I B R I U M MOD E L / .... " • ... 1 06 I b/h l o > � . ... Fi v . � i I W a: OJ > .Al m 3: » .8 J( 1 06 I � » .5 . 1 973) . 448 Tvpical highq u a l i ty roo h e a t tra n s fe r d a ta tre n d s (Bai le\' e t ai.. � � a: » c . .Al N OR M A L I Z E D A X I Fig. � > f!..L r < X e > ?' 1 .. . . 000 pSla 0. ::s w U ..Al Vl C n OATA T R E N D S p 1 ()(X) pSla o:J G 3. DROPLET MODE L F RO Z E N ' "" / "..
023 The DougallRohsenow correlation can be recognized as simple modifi cation of the singlephase DittusBoelter equation given in Eq.06 K g (4 . fully developed PDO heat transfer correlation was previously given (Groeneveld. How ever. 1967) increases and. 100) and (4.  Hp :� DH = 0 . 0 . these models are concerned with the heat transfer mechanisms that occur during PDO conditions and the degree of superheat of the vapor phase. given by. 4 }. The two most widely used. fully developed PDO heat transfer correlations accepted by the U. the liquid droplets are shattered into smaller droplets with increased interfacial area for heat transfer. the 2slip ratio increases.S. since certain PDO correlations are currently important in BWR design and safety analysis. (1 . 1973) given by. Nevertheless. Naturally. 1 0 1 ) greatly underpredict fully developed PDO heat tra nsfer for low qualities « 10% ) . 1 [ (:�) ] 1 04 .Lg . considerable progress recently has been made in the development of physically based models for PDO heat transfer. In addition. that is. the use of global heat transfer correlations referenced to the saturation temperature. 052 { ( G�H ) [ (xe )+ � (l . 688 X and the DougallRohsenow correlation (Dougall and Rohsenow.( Xe » O. A thorough review of the various global. 1 973) and is not repeated here. These effects prevent the existence of large vapor superheats such as those observed at the lower mass fluxes. Both Eqs. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for use in BWR design and analysis are the socalled Groeneveld correlation (Groeneveld.26 { C wal l 1 . has been the most widely used to date. the vaportodroplet heat transfer coefficient improves as mass flux increases. In general. Pg (1 PI (xe» ] } ( ) Oo 8 CP fL Oo 4 (4. 1 0 1 ) . The empirical approach.0. (4.BOI L I N G H EAT TRA N S F E R 1 61 The observed trend with mass flux is primarily due to the fact that as the mass flux increases.g )1. 42) . There are two basic approaches that have been taken to synthesize tech niques that can be used for prediction of PDO heat transfer. the socalled ventilation factor (Bennett et a1. Typically. (4 . When the critical Weber number (Wee � Pv [(I4» v ( fLI)d Dd/geO" = 7 to 13) is exceeded. H pDO D H Kg ( p�. thus. any effective model for flow quality and vapor superheat must accurately ac count for the observed trend with mass flux. 100) 1963) 0 .1.(Xe» ] } 0. they are discussed briefly. the DougallRohsenow cor relation yields fully developed PDO heat transfer coefficients that are some { [ ( xe ) + G DH f.
q':v . This explains why fully developed POO heat transfer coefficients are frequently lower than cor responding singlephase vapor heat transfer coefficients. which penetrate and agitate the thermal boundary layer but do not actually strike the wall. tends to superheat the vapor phase. Insight into these mechanisms has been provided by Iloeje et al. Bishop (Bishop et al.8 cp.1 62 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A B W R what higher than those given by the Groeneveld correlation. 1 02) Global fully developed POO correlations. the wall to the liquid droplets.(xe)) ] 0 . For instance. while global correlations may be conserv ative.d . they do not accurately capture the data trends and they provide little insight into the heat transfer mechanisms involved . they are currently accepted by NRC for safety analysis. q�. since fully developed POO heat transfer coefficients are referenced arbitrarily to saturation temperature.( T .23 ( ) [ G DH /.J. Iloeje partitioned the wall heat transfer into the heat transfer from: 1. Since they generally yield conservative fully developed POO heat transfer coefficients.Lv 0. the wall to the impinging liquid droplets. . Unfortunately. more typical PWR operation. although both correlations tend to be conservative for BWR conditions. 1 967). 1 965) has proposed the following fully developed POO correlation: 0. To understand the observed data trends. Inherent in this model is the assumption that the thermal energy.d 3 .Lv Kv Pv 0 . which in turn evaporates the liquid droplets in the flow stream. 449. in which walltodroplet interaction was neglected . we must consider the detailed PBT heat transfer mechanisms. 1 03) the effect of vapor superheat is not included . such as those just discussed.v . For the higher system pressures. the POO branch of a typical convective boiling curve can be considered composed of the superposition of various heat transfer mechanisms. As shown in Fig. 68 (4. are frequently used to bound the temperature response of various hypothetical reactor accidents. Iloeje's model is basically an extension of the socalled "twostep" model (Bennett et al. The part due to singlephase vapor heat transfer increases . (1 974) . � q" HPDO . 068 film film Pf (Xe) + PlI PI ( l . . the heated wall to the vapor. q':v . 0193 ( ) ( )1.v 2.T ) w sat (4. which is transferred to the vapor.
.. / / /" "" ' .. q wYd 1 co WA L L T O V A P O R H E A T TRANS F E R \ \ \ DROP L E T IMPING E M E N T HEAT TRANSF E R 9 .... 0' '" ..� P DQ HEAT TRANSF E R R E G I M E T8 NUC L E A T E TRANSF ER PDQ � F U L L Y D E V E L OP E D � P DQ H E A T .. 449 A mechanistic model of PDO convective boiling curve s . .� . ' r:::: z C'J I m » l l ...A T T R A N S F E R TO DROPL E T » z / � TSAT WA L L S U P E A H E A T "" "...v \ '" V> n m ... AT M I N T !. � " BO I L I N G r.v T H E R M A L BOUN D A R Y LA Y E R H ...1 q .... ( T eA1T T SArl f J � �/ Fig.l SAT X \ . q wd ....
is largely thermal hydraulic. surfaces with a low KPCp product can support local temperature depressions due to drop let impact and. and the thermal diffusivity of the heated surface. rather than thermodynamic. thus. in nature. at low pressure (i. Note that the point at which dq"ld� Tsat is zero is determined by the relative value of the various heat transfer mechanisms and. the thermal boundary layer increases with wall superheat and begins to be significant at the higher wall temperatures. liquid droplets can no longer exist. e . and evaporation in. "dropletlike" heat transfer can occur at higher wall temperatures since. 1 6 L + 0. localized physical wetting of the heated surface can occur even when the measured wall temperature is between Tmax( p) and Terit. as the liquid droplets approach the heated surface. no further direct walltodroplet heat transfer occurs since the liquid droplets can no longer wet the wall. Spiegler et al. Iloeje has shown that. ( 1 963) have deduced from the spinoidals of the van der Waals equationofstate the thermodynamic maximum temperature. 104) . the contribution due to droplet agitation of. 84 pen t By surveying the available data.e. the surface conditions. At some local wall temperature. is sometimes above and some times below Tmax( p). local rewetting can occur. thus. thus. physical rewetting of the heated surface is not necessary for its existence.. While the KpCp product is of some interest in PDO heat transfer in determining the effect of droplet heat transfer. depending on the flow conditions. dq"ld� Tsat = 0. 4°F). thus. The contribution due to droplet impingement on the heated wall is seen to decrease monotonically as the wall superheat in creases. dq"ld� Tsat = O) point. Tmax. the contact angle. below the critical temperature of water ( Terit = 70S .. affect the location and shape of the minimum (i. ( 1974). however.1 64 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B W R monotonically with wall superheat. This result is given by Iloeje et al. the available data show that the minimum point. . confirming that the minimum is controlled by system thermal hydraulics rather than the thermodynamics of the fluid. the ratio of the KPCp product.e. i. These dense vapor "droplets" can provide rather effective local heat transfer and. Nevertheless. The importance of the KPCp product can be best understood in terms of the contact temperature between the liquid and heated wall. This min imum point is known frequently as the Leidenfrost or rewetting point. Similarly. [(Kpcp )wau/(KPCp )l iq Uid j'i' Thus. the point at which homogeneous nucleation occurs) . it is of much more importance for inverse annular flow con ( ) (4. surface tension goes to zero at the critical temperature and. � Tsat. It is a well known fact in conduction heat transfer that the contact temperature is characterized by the parameter. Moreover. Tmax( p)ITerit = 0 . the pressure between the droplets and wall can build up sufficiently to form a very dense vapor adjacent to the wall.
The principal assumption behind models of this type is that the heat is transferred first to the vapor and then from the vapor to the liquid drops. thus. that when these functions are well established. 1 969) . these models involve the simultaneous numerical solution of four firstorder ordinary differential equations for the charac teristic liquid droplet diameter.  surface roughness. 1 05) (4. A pref erable model would be a correlation based on the mechanistic understand ing of PDO heat transfer. the characteristic droplet diameter is constrained by a critical Weber number and the vapor velocity. fluid properties](Tw . 1 967) . Eqs. fluid properties. (Tv). In addition. Basically. Dd . That is. . 1 05) through (4. G. surface roughness. however. by superposition: Although quantitative models of this form have been derived (Iloeje et al. q�) . surface roughness. Once these parameters are known. 1 08) and. normally is obtained through a slip relationship. K PCI') x exp[ K ( Tw Tsa ) q�) . and velocity. (4. in two steps. ( uv ) v.d = Fl ( p . Now that we have some phenomenological understanding of what are currently considered to be the important PDO heat transfer mechanisms. K l ( Tw . (x). G. and K I .l) = Hl <1>(a )( Tw . q� . (x ) .B O I L I N G H EAT T RA N S F E R 1 65 vective filmboiling conditions (Kalinin et al .d = ( 1 . fully developed PDO heat transfer is evaluated through the use of q" = Hl<1>( Tw . particularly when PDO heat transfer is only a small part of overall reactor safety analyses. rewet of the heated surface. (x). Twostep PDO heat transfer models take the form of digital computer codes and thus are rather awkward to evaluate.(Tv») t (4. ( 1 974) have given the functional form of the various components of the PDO boiling curve as. we shall consider the status of the various mechanistic models. Kl = K l ( P. 1974). and the mean vapor temperature. 1 06) (4.Tsat ) l  (J'. 107) where. F2. the precise definition o f the functions. the flow quality.Tsat ). G. it appears that repeated contact of the liquid interface with the hea ted wall eventually leads to the collapse of the vapor film and. FI.(a») F2 [ p. .l) .( Tv ») . Iloeje et al. for steam/ water is currently a stateoftheart problem in POO heat transfer. 449 it should be obvious. fluid properties) (4. From Fig. (J'. (x). direct walltodroplet heat transfer is ignored . ( Ul ) l. For filmboiling con di tions . The first and most widely known mechanistic model is the socalled twostep model (Bennett et al. 1 08) can be used to define the entire .
450. Eq. thus. = (xe)c d(x) 0 d(xe) (x ) . (4 . flow quality generally is not easily obtainable unless the system is in thermodynamic equilibrium.:v . That is. or it can be estimated using a "profile fit" technique similar to that used in subcooled boiling models. all heat transfer to the entrained droplets is through the superheated vapor. imply that thermodynamic equilibrium initially exists. We. flow quality. In this case.).. (X) i<x. q'. are exactly the same. 0 d(X» =0 d(xe) . == (x) = (Xe)c + K( xe) .(Xe)c) (4. Unfortunately. superheated vapor) that nor mally are quite far from thermodynamic equilibrium. as in the twostep model. POO heat transfer is characterized by situations (e.e. the rewetting (i. is required to evaluate accurately the POO heat transfer terms.. 107). at the location of the BT. The asymptotic conditions. 1 12) (4. imply that all liquid droplets eventually will be evaporated. e. This flow quality profile can be calculated. (xe)c. the physics involved in the TB branch. 0 (4 . 1975) is given by. 1 1 1 ) I = F3(G. nonequilibrium conditions de velop. Eqs. (4. 1 10) (4. 1 09) While this fit agrees better with the data than the assumption of thermo dynamic equilibrium.. dq"/dilTsat = 0) point. 1 14) lim (Xe}+OO lim The first two boundary conditions. d 2(x) d(Xe)2 (x.) . 1 13) and (4. (4 . (4. 450 . . As discussed in more detail in Chapter 5. 106). 1 12) implies that as the vapor becomes superheated. (x). the effect of droplet heat transfer can be ignored (i. For the representative case of high POO wall temperatures. 1 14). p . Plummer et al.1 66 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I CS OF A B W R POO portion of the boiling curve. (4. by solving the governing differential equations. I . however. Note that in Eqs. ( ) (X) = 1 . and the fully developed POO branch. (1974) assumed a linear relationship of the form. the actual quality profile would look like the one shown in Fig. 1 13) (4 . it does not satisfy all the required boundary condi tions shown in Fig. 105). flUId and thermodynamIc propertIes) > (Xe}> OC . A profile fit that satisfies these boundary conditions (Saha.g.. and (4 .d 0) and.
0 � < x •> T H E R M A L E QU I L I B R I U M M O D E L 1 . / / / � / FROZEN D R OP L E T M O D E L ACT U A L V A P O R T E M P E R A TU R E 1 .B OI L I N G H EAT T RA N S F E R 1 67 T�t a THERMAL = L_ E QU I L I B R I U M M Q D E L L���_i__ .0 F ig. flow q uality. 450 Typical vapor temperature. " .J _ _ _ _ _ _ ACT U A L QU A L I T Y "' ..0 < x •> .� FROZEN DROPLET MODEL o o 1 .0 � � I'�' FROZEN _ _ 1 .0 <x > / / / ... " M A C ' 00 " ' '' ' " " " 0 0 ' ' I o I V r ACTUAL a I 1 . . and nondimensional rate of vapor generatio n .
such as GEXL. can be evaluated from Eqs. there has been considerable interest in the area of technology known as subchannel analysis. while the quality effect is very pro nounced only in the TB region. is prop erly formulated . rlre . the flow quality profile is just the integral of the nondimensional vapor generation rate. R. (1973) have proposed a tentative set of boiling curves for water Several of these curves are shown in Fig. 451 . 4 . thus. 2. d(x) d(xe)  I re (4. it was shown that a bundleaveragetype correlation. 1 1 8 ) and. Such curves arc of prime importance in the analysis of hypothetical reactor accidents. and (4. Although research currently is quite active in this area of technology. thus. which is in agreement with the mild PBT temperature excursions actually observed .1 68 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A B W R where the arbitrary parameters. By using the relationships developed in Chapter 5. Note also that for highquality conditions. 1 1 6) (4. a and b. 1 1 7) Figure 450 shows typical profiles for the two asymptotic cases previously discussed and the actual flow quality. vapor temperature.6 no Subchannel Analysis For many decades. This work has been motivated largely by the desire of nuclear reactor designers to predict accurately BT and void distribution in fuel rod bundles. Plum mer et al. The whole thrust of the above discussion has been concerned with the proper definition of the forced convection boiling curves. Note that the flow effect is quite strong in the entire PBT region. and nondimensional vapor generation rate. let's turn our attention to the use of subchannel techniques for the evaluation of the local thermalhydraulic parameters in rod bundles. 4 . (Tv). 4 . completely satisfactory set of boiling curves has been synthesized to date. Correlations of this type are empirical and. (x). 1 1 0) (4. (4. Now that the status of rod bundle heat transfer has been discussed. there may be no point at which dq"/dilTsat is equal to zero. 1 1 5) (4 . provided a generalized local peaking parameter. 1 12). generally . In Sec. it can be shown that for steadystate conditions. is able to predict accu rately local BT.
are valid only for conditions representative of the data on which they are based. subchannels 1. side. 452.. and center subchannels. If a designer is asked to investigate the thermal performance of a proposed new lattice type with different lattice dimensions and configu ration. By convention.. To optimize a given lattice. th us. the remainder is known by symmetry. respectively. symmetry would yield eight corner sub channels. . In the two cases shown in Fig. 45 1 Boiling curves for water (Plummer et a l . and center subchannel. and 3 in Fig.B O I L I N G H EAT TRA N S F E R 1 69 1 0 7 r����__. � � 1 05 � r:( 10 4 . The rod bundle is divided into a number of ventilated flow tubes (subchannels) . side.. it is assumed that the local peaking factor (Le.0 _ 1 0 X 1 06 lb/hft 2 2 . or to look at some abnormal lattice configurations. 2. 1973) . G = 0 . to investigate a proposed new fuel lattice..0_05 X 1 06 I b/hft 10 2 �____ �� ____ �__�____ �� ____ �� 10 1 1 00 1 000 1 0 000 TW . In the ninerod bundle shown.TSA T Fig. 452. we normally must use subchannel techniques. The essence of the subchannel analysis approach is shown in Fig. 1 X 1 06 Ib/h·ft 2 �. 452b are known as the corner. the empirical bundleaverage correlation is normally of little help. only a small section of the bundle needs to be analyzed.. power) on each rod is the same and.
On the other hand. although rodcentered subchannel techniques are also available (Gaspari et al. if subchannel 1 in Fig. Diabatic . This indicates the presence of a thick liquid film on the channel wall and an apparent affinity of the vapor for the more open subchannels. The most popular subdivision is really a compromise and. SQU A R E ( BWR · T Y P E I LATT I C E Fig. we will review the trends seen in the available data. 452. as shown in Fig. higher velocity regions of a BWR fuel rod bundle. . 1973) and HAMBO (Bowring. 1 974) with which firstorder approxima tions to the local parameters can be obtained more easily. A review of the available data (Lahey and Schraub. When choosing subchannels. although for BWR conditions. Once the subchannel grid has been established. any effective subchannel technique must have analytical models capable of accurately predicting these data trends. I f we use subchannels that are too small (e. 1973) may be preferable. Here we discuss the classical approach. 1 969) has indicated that there is an observed tendency for the vapor to seek the less obstructed.g. 452 Typical subchannel grids. the appropriate twophase conservation equations can be integrated to yield the axial subchannel parameters of interest in the rod bundle.1 70 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L IC S OF A BWR F U E L ROO OUTER C H AN N E L F U E L ROD OUTER CHANNEL I RC U L A R L A TT I C E b . then local conditions around the fuel rod of interest are not accurately predicted. 453. where it is noted that the flow quality is much higher in the more open interior (center) subchannels than in the corner and side subchannels. such as employed in the COBRA (Rowe. 1 968) codes. 452b were subdivided into many smaller subchannels) then we must consider the details of the twophase microstructure. normally involves drawing the subchannel boundaries at the minimum rodtorod and rodtowall gaps. Indeed. other for mulations (Forti and GonzalezSantalo. This tendency can be seen in the adiabatic data shown in Fig. it is important to select the right size. a task that is beyond the current stateoftheart. Current generation subchannel techniques normally take the form of large digital computer codes. Before discussing the details of the various equations used in subchanne l analysis. if the subchannels chosen are too large.
It is important to note that this OCcurs for both developed adiabatic twophase flows and developing dia batic twophase flows. while that in the center subchannels is the high est. 1970) show the sa me basic trend. the dependence of mixing on flow regime has also been observed by other investigators (Rowe and Angle. As shown in Fig. subchannel data (Lahey et al. 456. higher velocity regions. This tren d should not be too surprising since the same thing can be observed . . there is ap parently a strong trend toward the equilibrium void distribution . That is. As shown in Fig. 1 969) . the observed distribution of subchannel void fraction. even in the developing situation. It is interesting to speculate on the reasons for the observed data trends and.B O I L I N G H EAT T RA N S F E R CONTOURS CONSTANT QU A L I T Y (percent I Fig. 453 Quality contours from isokinetic probe sampling of airwater flow in a ninerod array (Schraub et al. the data trends seen in adiabatic and diabatic experi ments in eccentric annuli (Schraub et al. Moreover. We can gain valuable insight by considering the data trends seen in ex periments performed in much simpler geometries than rod bundles. the enhanced turbulent twophase mixing that occurs near the slugannular transition point ( . 454 clearly show that even though the powertoflow ratio of the corner subchannel is the highest of any subchannel in the bundle. the quality in the corner subchannel is the lowest. 454a and b. 455. 1969). 1971. 1 972) have confirmed this observation. The isokinetic steam/water data presented in Fig. 1969. Lahey et al. the vapor apparently has a strong affinity for the more open. in particular. Hence. Shiralkar.10% quality at 1000 psia) is seen clearly in Figs.
1 6 0. to develop accurate sub channel techniques. That is. A complete understanding and quantification of this "void drift" phe nomenon in twophase flow remains one of the fundamental unsolved problems in twophase flow today. 454b Variation of subchannel qualities with average quality for three sub channels (Lahey et a I . the vapor "drifts" to the higher velocity (centerline) region of the tube. . 1971 ) .12 0. .04 0 .3 1. < X2 > SUBCHANNEL 3 ./ .AV ERAGE QUALITY. .0 X 106 lb/h·f� = 0. G . 454a Comparison of subchannel flows for the three subchannels (Lahey et aI .> 0 0. while the liquid flows pri marily as a film on the tube wall. in a tube during annular twophase flow.45 X 106 Btulh·� 0.24 0. 1000 psia 1. G 2 b. db 0. 1 9 71 ) .20 x/\ V G " q P = = 0.28 0. < X3 > 0.08 0.45 X 106 Btulh·ft2 = o CORN E R SUBCHAN N E L .� = 0. Nevertheless.4 Fig. approximate void drift models must be synthesized.1 72 TH ERMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A BWR G " q P = 1000 psia 1 . o SIDE SUBCHAN N E L . 1 0. CENTER SUBCHAN N E L . <> <> SUBCHANNEL o SUBCHANN E L 2 .0 X 106 I b/h. <X. G 3 Fig.2 BUNDLE .
B O I L I N G H EAT TRA N S F E R G 1 . 0.1 0 i . momentum.  G  2. 1 969) .. These transverse inter .0 X 1 0' Ib/ " _ . but also the transverse (radial) interchange of mass.2 0. In the derivation of our model.6ij (WA L L I S . :r z l ll _ N X o:: � i � I� �I� WITH SPAC E R S S L U G · A N N U L A R T R A N S I T I O N (WA L L I S .4 The effect of flow regime on turbulent twophase mixing (Rowe and Angle.1 STEAM Q U A L I T Y . Figure 452 shows that not only do axial effects need to be considered.2 0.4 + 0. : :r z l ll _ N X i � I� o:: � � I . The specific model that is derived here is representative of current generation models that exist in the liter ature. < X > 0.3 0.S L U G · AN N U LA R T R A N S I T I O N (WA L L I S . Now that the motivation for subchannel analysis has been established and the observed data trends discussed.0 X 1 0' I b / hft' " . 1969) = SLUGAN N U LAR T R A N S I T I O N 0::' w fw ::.:: " 0::' w fw ::. 1969) Fig. The extension of this model to transient subchannel analysis is rather straightforward although. and energy in each subchannel. a steadystate model is developed.1 0 0. the basic approach is to consider the conservation of mass.2 0. momentum.0 X 1 0' I b / h ft' . and energy across the imaginary interfaces dividing subchannels.   0. To simplify this development and still retain the essence of the physics involved.. as might be expected. 455 0. the numerics may become a problem. we turn our attention to the de velopment of a detailed analytical model. 1969) G  3.
The trans verse exchange phenomena are quite complicated and difficult to decom pose into more elementary interchange terms. we can set trans verse pressure gradients equal to zero and solve the resulting set of sub . momentum. the unique feature of subchannel analysis. to a good first approximation. they normally are decomposed arbitrarily into three components: 1. lateral "void drift" that. as discussed previously. flow diversions that occur due to imposed transverse pressure gradients 2. and energy in both the axial and transverse directions. 456 Typical data trends seen in eccentric annuli . In the most general formulation. changes are. turbulent (eddy diffusivity) mixing that occurs due to stochastic pres sure and flow fluctuations 3. in BWRtype fuel rod bundles. is apparently due to the strong tendency of the twophase system to approach an equi librium phase distribution. Thus. we must consider the conservation equations for mass. Fortunately. it has proved use ful in the development of subchannel models.1 74 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L IC S OF A BWR ( R E G I O N O F B U B B L Y F LOW' VAPOR ( R E G I O N O F S L U G F LOW' ( R E G I O N O F A N N U L A R F LOW' Fig. Although this subdivision is arbitrary and not unique. Nevertheless. the rodtorod spac ing is so large that only negligible transverse pressure gradients can exist (Lahey et al. 1 970) . in fact.
k. Either we can write the appropriate conservation equations on a nodal basis. i. Consider axial node. the nodal derivation is pre sented here. I OUTI 1 75 z _ lt·1 I A Z IIiNI A _ os T l . M .f + F J' 1 J :. . z . By applying the basic steadystate conservation principlethe inflows and outflows rnust be equalfor the nodal continuity equation. shown in Fig. or we can finite difference the differential form of the appro priate conservation equations..1 z z . we obtain... CONSE R V A T I ON f fl 0 F P J + + t' 0 F JL Ii MASS CON $ E R V A T I E. c E N E R G V CONS E R V A T I O N Fig. 457a. :.'tr' b MOM ENTUM E. The basic subchannel conservation equation can be formulated in various ways. z  0 W " l l eF 8 F .B O I L I N G H EAT TRA N S F E R G iCOUTI G j lOUTJ p I IOU T ) A . gRequired to achieve unique solutions for the assumption of no transverse pressure gradients. 45 7 Nodal conservation laws. of subchannel. channel conservation equations with the physical constraint of no net cir culationg around fuel rods. For simplicity.
. D Hi 2gcPf GT (4.Mi(in) ".. 1 28) = MVD = TVDSi . we obtain the nodal momentum conservation equation. [pi(in) . 1 1 9) would yield the wellknown result that the axial flow rate is constant for steadystate. mixing.Z 2gc a = Mmix a TRe S i .. if any. were not ventilated (L e. j). � GRin)Ax . 2 . pi(out) Pj(out» ) ..j6. 457b. MCF = a ( Wi.pi(out»)Ax .i6. Z the density head pressure drop by.ikFSi .Z gc (4.. If flow tube.Fif .s � K (Pi)6. i. 1 22) the local (e.j6. 1 23) (4. of sub channel.g. k.Fip .1 7& T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A B W R (4 . mixing.l + (x) i 2gcPf vf a M i(out) = GRout)Ax . 1 24) (4 . Next we consider momentum conservation in axial node.5 .s = KL. mix.10 (4 . .z The assumption of no transverse pressure gradient [Le. 1 25) . 1 1 9 ) where the subscripts CF. 121 ) FipfAx . and VO denote diversion cross flow.s M I(m) gc ( P i(in) ) and the momentum transfer due to transverse flow diversion. These three interaction terms are a unique feature of subchannel analysis. . (4. the criterion of no net circulation.+. By applying Newton's Second Law. Vfg a GT FidAx . 1 26) (4 . then Eq. ( ' ) (4. grid spacer) pressure drop. 1 27) (4 . if it does not communicate with flow tube. respectively. and void drift by. by. and void drift. as shown in Fig.s � fi 6. and the choice of an appropriate VOidquality model (Chapter 5) yield a wellposed momentum equation.s ' gc ( pi(out) ) the node exit and inlet momentum by. 120 ) where the twophase friction pressure drop is given by. FIffA x .z ( Gi Gj +(pI ) ( pj ) ) (4.FiL = M i(out) + MCF + Mmix + MVD .
and subchannel. k.phase mixing. 457c yields. are discussed sub sequently in this section. 136) The normal choice for the crossflow enthalpy. the average enthalpy of the subchannel from which the fluid is diverted. and the shear stress due to void drift. which can be referred to if clarification is required. and void drift are given by.sLJ. 132) Eiq.jLJ. 133) The energy transfers due to transverse flow diversion. In fact. gamma heating. The expression for the turbulent mass inter cha nge divided by the mean subchannel flow rate. The models for turbulent Reynolds stres s." = Ei(out) + ECF + Emix + EVD where the convected energy flows are given by. hCF . (4. which is in general larger than that of the donor subchannel. is the enthalpy of the donor subchannel.e. For axial node.j � Z hCF a II A E VD = qVD 5 i j LJ. q�ix . that is. As shown in Fig. 135) (4..!.Z  a A E iq". Twophase turbulent mixing is frequently formulated as an extension of single. the available data indicate that a more appropriate choice would be a flow regime dependent cross flow enthalpy. Fig.shi(out) (4. etc. 129) Ei(in) + Eiq" + Eiq. � q lPH � Z and by internal generation (i. and void drift. are very important terms. TRe. 121) through (4. they rep resent the key to effective subchannel analyses. W.shi(in) (4. = q"'A x . qV D . 128) may be unfamiliar to some readers.Z a _II A E mix = qmix 5 i .). Hence. . These are discussed in Chapter 5.134) ECF � (W. can be expressed as. 130) a Ei(out) = Gi(out) Ax . TV D. the conservation of energy.. mixing. Hence.Z (4.j)CF 5 i . i. first we consider the nature of turbulent mix ing in singlephase flows. 458. (4. (4. it is appropriate to consider models for the various mixing and void drift phenomena that have been postulated. The pseudoheatflux terms for energy exchanges due to turbulent mix ing.B O I L I N G H EAT TRA N S F E R The notation and models used in Eqs.e. a E i(in) = Gi(in)Ax . The final nodal conservation principle that must be employed is the First Law of Thermodynamics. I (4. 131) The energy input to node k due to heat addition from the heated surfaces is given by. (4.
ap between subchannels i and j. \ I U � u. / / Jf P = psia A N N U LA R F LOW R E G I M E B U B B l Y F LOW R EG I M E V I S U A L I N T E R P O L AT I O N 0.. 1 6 0. \. 4·58 Crossflow enthalpy versus q uality of donor subchannel (Lahey et ai .08 0.. . 2 G.j (4. 1 37) W (G. j S.. 1 2 0.J U. j � S.Ax where � is recognized as the mixing Stanton number and S. . � 1 000 :IS U BC H A N N E l E N T H A LPY / / / / / 600 550 0 / 0... + Gj )Ax .. . 1 971 ) .j is the J. 3: 650 \ c \.J <{ J: Iz w cii 700 c c / c · r .28 SUBCHA N N E l QUA L I T Y < X C H Fig. .j PI E 1 (4 .04 / / / /" 0 C _ . 5 wI . G.24 > 0. c c \ II) 0 a: u rh 0 ..20 0.c . .0::: ::J > "... 138) . is defined in terms of mixing length theory as. The fluctuating transverse mass flux..1 78 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A B W R 750 .
Si  which implies that the turbulent mixing. in twophase systems. First we consider turbulent mixing in twophase systems. j. (4 . I. 19 71) and can be modeled as an exchange of globs of equal volume but of different density. 142) . other studies (Rogers and Rosehart. from Eq. wi/w. 1969) have suggested that the secondary flow patterns in the gap region are responsible for the scale of the turbulence and that the proper choice of mixing length is. we obtain. 1 37). implicitly defined in Eq. With such a divergence of opinion concerning the correct modeling of singlephase mixing in fuel rod bundles.( Si . One way to conceptualize the process is.l = Kl Re ( f12f2 = K l By combining Eqs. it should not come as a great surprise that the more complicated case of twophase mixing is not under stood completely. This volumefarvolume exchange model implies that the  (4. (4. to assume that all transfers are due to "globs" of fluid from one subchannel being exchanged with globs of fluid from the neighboring subchannels.) DHave 1 and (GDllave) Pl fJ. 1 41) . By averaging Reichardt's data (Reichardt. 1968) as. In contrast. In singlephase mixing. is still debatable. 1 95 1 ) over the cross sectional flow area. w i jl W. E . as shown in Fig.B O I L I N G H EAT TRA N S F E R 1 79 The singlephase eddy diffusivity. (4. (4. is di rectly proportional to the gap spacing. 1 972) have indicated that the mixing length should be a function of both gap spacing and hy draulic diameter. 138) has been expressed by many independent investigators (Rogers and Todreas. 459. implies that the turbulent mixing. Nevertheless. 140). there is usually no net mass transfer due to this process since the density in neighboring subchannels is equal. wi j = K r W The choice of what to use for the subchannel mixing length. (4. 138). substantial mass transfer has been observed (GonzalezSantalo. models based on realistic assumptions can be derived and employed in subchannel analysis. 139). Finally. is completely indepen dent of gap spacing but directly proportional to the mean hydraulic di ameter.l (4. In contrast. 139) we obtain. The true dependence of mixing length on geometric pa rameters is still to be established. other experimenters (Rowe and Angle. ( [12) 1/2 (4. 140) j Ax  ( [12 ) 1/2 which. E / fJ. (4 .
w'f. 459 A phenomenological model for twophase mixing .j = E t [(1 .j) t � E t «elj ) . " E Wi . E Ui .(pj » (4.i = _ _ The net fluctuating transverse mass flux is then expressed by. 145) (w7. d( p)/dy.( 1 . 1 47) Equation (4.(elj ») I (4..j = Wi . ( ) ( _ " )g � (4.j = [ « Pi) .(eli)) f (4 . 148) which clearly implies that the mass transfer due to mixing is directly pro portional to the transverse density gradient. . f W i . 144) also can be written in a more familiar form as.1 80 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L ICS OF A B W R o F LU I D G LO B � SU BC H A N N E L B O U N DA R Y Fig.j = Uj .(eli») . where. 1 44) (4. transverse fluctuating velocities for the vapor and liquid phase are equal and that.(elj )] + E g « eli) .j _ II _ . 146) (4. 143) or.j t + Wi .
j. (h i ) =  � 1 (Pi) [pf hf ( l . For instance. d(P)(h» /dy. (4. even though subchannel j has a higher void fraction. 150) and (4. 149) can be expressed as. 15 1 ) indicates that the energy transfer due to mixing is directly proportional to the massweighted transverse enthalpy gradient. the twophase Reynolds stress can be written as. 144) implies.(O: i» + pg hg (O: i ) ] Equation (4 .pg hg ) ( Pf . the Reynolds stress.. This is because Pfhf > Pg hg and. (4. Thus. more than offsets the energy transferred from j to i. in vapor form. (4.BO I L I N G H EAT T RA N S F E R 1 81 Phenomenologically. 1 50) Equation (4. 1 52) by. (4. for con ditions of bulk boiling. in liquid form. 151 ) where the centerofmass enthalpy is given by. given from Eqs.j _ (4.j )g hg _II (4 . (4 . there is a positive net mass transfer from subchannel i to subchannel j. is due to the exchange of a volume of vapor in one subchannel for an equal volume of liquid in a neighboring subchannel. This does not mean that mixing tends to increase further the void fraction in subchannel j. 150) indicates a positive net energy exchange from subchannel i to subchannel j.j )f hf + ( W". ij':n i x ( Pf hf . (4. (4. thus. 146) and (4. 150) can also be written as. since the mass exchange overshadows the energy exchange. 1 53) is al ways less than the saturation enthalpy. 147). 143). q� iX' i i qm ix = ( W" . since the equivalent net mixing enthalpy. due to the mixing process. Note that for the case in which (O:j ) is greater than (O: i ) . as expected. This process can be modeled easily using the results in Eq. Le. By using Eq. the energy transported from sub channel i to j. Now we determine the interfacial shear stress. hf . That is. the energy transfer due to twophase mlXlng. (4. mixing coo ls off the hot subchannel. 149) By using Eqs. (4. Eq.Pg ) w'!. Eq. . 1 52) Equation (4. 145) .
1 48). even infinite mixing fails to produce the required results since.j ) . denotes the equilibrium lateral phase distribution. (4.« OI. Note that net mass transfer due to mixing ceases when equilibrium con ditions are achieved. as seen in Eq.pghg ) [«OI. That is.j = (wi j)mix + (wi j) VD = 1 « Pi) . some important physical mechanism has been left out of our mixing model.(OI.( Gj . the net exchange due to mixing ceases.ge l P/[(l . the void distribution tends toward a uniform radial distribution rather than the observed nonuniform equilibrium distribution. the magnitude of turbulent mixing can be varied from zero to as large as desired and the observed data trends will not be predicted.j .j )( Ug)g) . 154) Equation (4. (4. 1 58 ) . the net interfacial shear stress due to turbulence can be written in the same form as Eq. 1 57) (4. 155). . It is convenient. (4.ge l pg « OI.i»)(UI)/j . This hypothesis implies that there is a strong trend toward an equilibrium distribution and that when this state has been achieved. (4.(OI. Clearly. Moreover. 1 50) as.G i )EQ) gc I E y (4.G i) . To develop the required phenomenological model. to partition the net turbulent mass transfer into an eddy diffusivity mixing part and a void drift part. q�et = q':nix + q'VD = ( Pfhf .j ) .(OI. 454 and 456 . 1 55) which is easily recognized as the classical Reynolds stress term. such that Eq. infinite mixing implies that subchannel void fractions must be the same for finite wi'. All the necessary mixing terms have now been formulated.(OI. Figs.1 82 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A BWR E E TRe = . 1 48) can be written as. net turbulent energy transfer ceases. . e. we first hypothesize that net twophase turbulent mixing is proportional to the nonequilibrium void fraction gradient. EQ. The net turbulent energy exchange can be written immediately in the form of Eq.(pj ») EQ  E E (4. wi .g.I «Pi) .(OI. E TRe = .(1 . Ell . 1 56) where the subscript.i» ) .[ ( G.(pj » ) . Unfortu nately. In fact. but not necessary.G i ) ge l (4. 154) can be regrouped and written more compactly as. Finally. Tnet = TRe + TVD = .i)(Ug)gj . the same equation implies that for any finite fluctuating velocity.( Gj . these models alone will not allow us to predict the observed data trends.j »)(UI)/) (4.i») EQ) ) Note that when the equilibrium distribution is achieved.
thus. and momentum transfer terms. Equation (4. This agrees with the observed data trends. (4. This model implies that the equilibrium density distribution is related to the mass flux distribution by the expression. . The data shown in Fig. in this case. (4. void drift works in the opposite direction. 1 57). 1 972) .B O I L I N G H E AT T R A N S F E R 1 83 As before. (p)EQ = PI . while the other is  . and a net flow of vapor from subchannel 2 to subchannel 1. Thus. Equ ations (4 . However. provided we know the equilibrium void fraction and mass flux distribution. 1. (4. 161) implies that since ( GI . at G = G av e where "no slip" at the wall implies G EQ = a and ave denotes the average of the various communicating subchannels. 161) allows us to predict the correct data trends is given by considering a typical case.( U I ) )EQ is also posi tive. 1 60) as. The equilibrium density difference between subchannels i and j is then given from Eqs. respectively The models are logical and simple to apply. Unfor tunately.G2) is negative. it is supported by mechanistic models (Drew and Lahey. 452b . when equilibrium is achieved. 1979) and by data for the fully developed void distribution in rod bundles (Lahey. void drift and turbulent mixing oppose each oth er. can be evaluated from the boundary conditions. 147) indicate that while turbulent mixing causes a net flow of liquid from subchannel 1 to subchannel 2.Gj )EQ G ave (4.Pg ) ( Uav e ) ( G i . and (4. 156). The void drift models given implicitly in Eqs. to a good first appropriation . 160) (p)EQ (Pave)EQ . a and b.(Pj » EQ = . at G EQ = O (4. A simple model (Levy. (4. 146) and (4. it does allow us to predict the observed data trends (Lahey et aI .e. 1 963) for the equilibrium void fraction distribution has been employed previously with some success (Lahey et aI. (( U2) . 1 986) . such as the corner subchannel. the quality is the lowest) and that the mass flux is the lowest in the corner subchannel. energy. 1 59) = } ((Pi) . 1972) . 1 6 1 ) where the equilibrium mass flux distribution can be taken as the existing mass flux distribution. 454 indicate that the density is the highest (i. ((PI) ( P2 ) ) E Q is positive and. 158) represent the equilibrium turbulent mass. shown in Fig. .(PI . Moreover. 159) and (4. (4 . the driving potential for mo men tum exchange vanishes. Some insight into why Eq. where the constants. one is trying to pump vapor out of subchannel 1. Although this simple model leaves much to be desired. correlations and/or models for predicting twophase equilibrium distributions are not readily available. equilibrium conditions are never achieved in the diabatic case under consideration.
it should be clear that void drift. 4 . An important potential application for subchannel analysis is in the area of fluidtofluid modeling of BT phenomena. . 4. 4 . To handle the effect of typical grid spacers. In the future. Since most modern nuclear reactors use water as the coolant and moderator. in which X.6. This simple model has been shown (Lahey et aI .e.. are normally required. 2. for the present. these test facilities and experiments are normally quite expensive and difficult to perform. such as those discussed in Sec. Unfortunately. is some characteristic dimension of the particular spacer under consideration. 1972) to do a good job of capturing the data trends seen in subchannel measurements taken at var ious distances downstream of typical grids. ... The models discussed so far allow us to do a reasonably good job of predicting the observed flow and enthalpy distribution in a "clean" rod bundle (i. . a model to quantify the eddy diffusivity enhancement observed downstream of these spacers must be employed . which is considered in the next section.. However. However.1 84 f T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A BWR fa a �__'_____________L.1 To determine the thermal performance of nuclear reactor fuel rod bundles. 460 Spacer downstream eddy enhancement model . trying to pump it in. it is anticipated that a more physically based model for the equilibrium distribution will be developed . in practice all BWR nuclear fuel rod bundles have grid spacers to maintain rodtorod clearance.____. 460. is the key to accurate subchannel predictions. There FluidtoFluid Modeling . a rod bundle without gridtype spacers) . =� BAC KGROU N D Z (It I 'SPAC E R I Fig. Such a model is shown in Fig. large simulation experiments.. or something like it.. simulation experiments in large highpressure steam water test facilities are indicated . .
and pressure of the two fluids. Consider a steadystate energy balance on a heated section having uniform axial heat flux. it was shown that for BWR technology. in fact. other investigators. ex periments have indicated that critical quality is a function of the following key parameters. A simple derivation that produces scaling laws typical of those currently used is presented to provide the reader with a more indepth understanding of fluidtofluid modeling. Equating the energy inflows to outflows. and Ahmad and Groeneveld (1972). In essence. Later. all of these models are quite similar and involve scaling the mass flux. (xe) = where. hfx Pf. Due to their low latent heat. we must match the dimensionless pa ra meters. these parameters must be matched. GAx .' L B . In Sec. Because of the desire for less expensive experiments. More recently. . 1965) . safety. ( Ghfg ' . the fluids that typically have been chosen for this modeling are members of the fluorocarbon family (Freons). Even when adequate facilities are available. Stevens and Kirby (1 964) developed a successful empirical correlation with which Freonwater modeling could be accomplished in simple geometries such as tubes and annuli.shin + ?AHT = GAx . there has been significant recent interest in the development of modeling relations to allow water conditions to be simulated by a fluid with a lower latent heat.B O I L I N G H E AT T R A N S F E R 1 85 are. Dix ( 1970). however. � �h sub (4. have presented empirical modeling relations. 0'. Boure ( 1 970). Over the years. 164) G. inlet subcooling. it is much less expensive to conduct preliminary screening tests using other fluids. 1963. 4 . and wellestablished fluid properties. 1 62) This equation can be rearranged to yield the following expression for quality. Pg . 2. 1 63) �hsub = hf .hin Thu s. only a few laboratories in the world that have the electrical power required for such experiments. 4 . The current interest and con fidence in Freonwater modeling of BT followed from this early work. critical quality was of prime importance in determining BT. ( ) _ a ? AHT Ms ub Ghfx Ax . These attempts were concerned with the identification of the appropriate dimensionless groups. In particular. other system and thermodynamic parameters also must be considered . The first attempts to model water BT phenomena with Freon were ini tiated in the United Kingdom (Barnett.s ( hf + (xe)hfx) (4. to match the quality profile.s hfx (4. 1 964. ( Xe )c = Fl DH. q"IGhfg and �hsubihfg in the two fluids. for critical conditions. gc ) .
e . (4. = 7T 2 = LBIDH gc PxCT (4. c = 0. However. (4. The three nondimensional groups now have been established and. 1 68) This can be recognized as the Weber number.e. any three exponents may be chosen arbitrarily to determine the desired di mensionless parameters. 1 64) and four characteristic dimensions: length. and above implies. t. 1 64). lead to an imperfect modeling relation. force. 1 64) can be rewritten as. Thus. and e = .3c . (4. 165) Since quality is nondimensional. Then. 1 .3d . which is a statement of geometric similarity Finally. L. and time.2f+ g = 0 (For M ) + d + f + g = 0 (For F ) e . 1 9 5 0 ) states that we can expect four independent dimensionless groups. the Buckingham Pi theorem (Murphy. 1 67) 7T 3  (G2DH ) (4. the ratio of vapor phase velocity to the liquid phase velocity) is closely related to the density ratio (see Chapter 5). 1 66) This makes sense physically since the slip ratio (i. and a 1 . F. the sum of the exponents for each char acteristic dimension must separately add up to zero: (For L ) a + b . (4. b 0. the parameters given in Eq. M. not considered. mass. Next we choose g = 0. Note that there are seven dimensional parameters in Eq. the system of equations First we choose g = 0. (4 . we choose b = I . This choice implies that.1 86 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A BWR Other parameters. We expect that it is important to model the slip ratio in the two fluids accurately since slip is strongly related to entrainment and entrainment is a very important mechanism in BT.g = O (For t ) f. for most practical applications. . 1 64) can be used to establish similarity for quasisteadystate conditions. d = I . thus. thus.2g = 0 There are seven unknown exponents and only four equations.1 to obtain. which is known to be of importance in the entrainment process. By applying this method to Eq. c = c = (4. Eq.
1975) and basically is due to differences in fluid properties that. the total twophase pressure drop initially decreases because the density head drops off faster than friction increases. ((JPx )Freon GFreom = Gwater ((JPX )water [ ] '/ 2 (4. as shown in Fig.BOILING H E AT T RANSFER 187 (4. 169) When the five dimensionless parameters given in Eq. Note that equating the socalled steaming rate. the density ratio of Freon114 matches that of water at 1000 psia. we might have net flow diversion into a particular subchannel in a Freon experiment. and essentially validates our choice of the key parameters. q�/Ghfx' implies that much lower power (i. That is. however. This minor correction is apparently a reflection of system param eters that were not considered in Eq. conditions of interest in BWR technology (1000 psia) imply that water BT results can be achieved in simple geometry test sections when the Freon114 mass flux is 62% that of water. equating the Weber number for the two fluids implies a mass flux modeling law that is the key to the accurate scaling of BT. heat flux) is required since the latent heat of Freon is much less than that of water. This is indeed unfortunate since reactor designers really are interested only in rod bundle scaling. (4. This implies that the diversion cross flows in the various subchannels of a rod bundle can be quite different in water and Freon. the friction term dominates and the trend reverses. It is found that for typical conditions of interest. 1970) that a small empirical correction to Eq. they normally are not adequate when applied on a global basis to fullscale rod bundles. (4. As quality continues to increase. For instance. (4. in general. 164). 461. 170) can improve the scaling. That is. as the quality increases at constant mass flux and system pressure. e . Finally. cause the variation of the total twophase pressure drop with quality to be different. 169) have been matched in the two fluids. The problem is fundamental (Torbeck. (4. particularly when nonuniform local (rodtorod) peak i ng patterns are involved . 169) are fairly accurate for simple geometry experiments. while . this reversal occurs at a lower quality in water than in Fre on due to the differences in fluid density. at 1 23 psia. In addition. 170) For example. Although the modeling relations implicitly given in Eq. The situation that might exist in a typical subchannel can be seen in Fig. we cannot use these modeling laws for bundleaverage scaling between Freon and water. the density ratio of Freon is matched to that of water at a much lower pressure. 462 . . It has been found (Dix. the thermal performance should be scaled ap propriately.
0 � � N N � � � � 1.. N .2 are currently used in the design and licensing of modern BWRs . VI.5 1.4 Fig.. and J.. the cost of fullscale BT experiments can be reduced greatly through fluidtofluid modeling techniques such as those just discussed .. S. and D. c." ASME preprint 73HT1 6.0  WATER (1000 PSIA) PSIA) = 6 G/10 1.5 1. J.. The situation is even more aggravated when the bundle mass fluxes are scaled in accordance with Eq. It also explains why Freon tends to give higher thermal performance than an equivalent water bundle. Groeneveld." Progress in Heat and Mass Transfer. This implies that bundleaveraging scaling for BT does not produce hydrodynamic scaling in the various subchannels.FREON·114 (123 2. References Ahmad. When more understanding of subchannel phenomena is generally avail able. The current stateoftheart is that it is not yet possible to accomplish fluid independent subchannel modeling and. Pergamon Press. New York (1972). 0. Collier. 1.0 '=: � 0. Ralph. .. thus.0 .188 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR . A . only water results such as discussed in Sec.5 . G. Vol .5 15 __________ O�________ �______�______�______� o 0. Bailey. "Post Dryout Heat Transfer in Nuclear and Cryogenic Equipment.3 0. in a corresponding water experiment. . United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (1963) .5 <X> 0. American SOCiety of Me chanical Engineers (1973). Y . "The Scaling of Forced Convection Boiling Heat Transfer..1 �. since it should be obvious that effective fluidto fluid modeling in rod bundles must be done on a subchannel basis. :::_. (4.2 0.. . "Fluid Modeling of Critical Heat Flux in Uniformly Heated Annuli. . 4." AEEW R134. This underscores the importance of accurate subchannel techniques. P G . 1 70). 4 . flow would be diverted out.. Barnett. 461 Typical total pressure gradients. C.
1 0. o t. 3 WATER PRESS' 1000 psi o 0.3 0.. l� £1. " \ " o z t...BOI L ING HEAl TRAN S F E R 189 d 0 '" '" "" 2 "" � ..... 462 Comparison of flow diversion parameter for water and Freon..Cl z W o II: iii 0 II: w w >< > " . .W 00. " \ \ " " NO·FLOW OIVERSION 1 \ " " "  "   .4 Fig.Z :::l 0 .O z .2 QUALITY 0.w 00.. 0(3 Z w 011:  2 FREON PRESS' 123 PS' iii 0 II: w w >< > " . '" "" � '" 0 \ 0 1 III I o \ 0 � a 0 \ I I I \ \ \ \ \ \ \ 0 \ \ \ 0 \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ ..
Pratt. . Convective Boiling and Condensation. C. and G . and R." WAPD1 88. W Wood . Peterlongo." ASME preprint 63HT34. R. P G . A . Amer ican Society of Mechanical Engineers (1965) . c. Freon12 and Freon21 in Uniformly Heated Round Tubes. 12 ( 1 966) . G. "Transition Boiling Heat Transfer from a Horizontal Surface. Tacconi. S. and J. New York ( 1972) . "Studies of Burnout in Boiling Heat Transfer to Water in Round Tubes with NonUniform Heating. K. W. Bishop. and L .. and R. Chen. J . Tong. United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority ( 1965). G. Drew. 12. E . 53 (1979). Bertoletti. Jr. A. United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (1968) . S . Chern. W . N . W "HAMBO. 83C(3). Harwell (1966) . A . . Nucl. and R. United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (1964) . American Society of Mechanical En gineers (1963) . . o. R. Westinghouse Electric Corporation (1958) ." AEEWR582. . . R. A . Bennett. "FreonWater Modeling of Critical Heat Flux in Round Tubes. H . "Forced Convection Heat Transfer Burnout Studies for Water in Rectangular Channels and Round Tables at Pressures Above 500 PSI A. General Electric Company (1970). M. Part II: An Exami nation of Burnout Data for Water. Keeys. J . Sandberg. Eng. E . "Flow Boiling on the Inside of Vertical Tubes with Upward Flow of the Fluid at Low Qualities. Thornton. K. Dix. . "A Correlation for Boiling Heat Transfer to Saturated Fluids in Con vective Flow. De Bortoli. D. S .. Lombardi. Ser 52. 18 (1956) . and R . R. A . et aI. H. Berenson." ASME preprint 65HT31. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1970) . Atomic Energy Research Establishment. . Collier. "An Experimental Investigation to Determine the Scaling Law of Forced Convection Boiling Heat Transfer. Lahey. Pulling." f. Silvestri. P Gaspari. McGrawHill Book Company. J . A . Heat Trans. Dengler. P G . F . G . lnst." ASME paper 70HT25. A. E .190 T H E RMAL H Y DRAU LICS OF A BWR Barnett. Kearsey. "Forced Convection Heat Transfer at High Pressure After the Critical Heat Flux. . P J. C . G . F. Boure.. Great Britain (1 967)." AlChE f. Atomic Energy Research Establishment. and J. and D. G. . . Collier. A. (London). G. F . "The Incipience of Nucleate Boiling in Forced Convection. Chern. "Heat Transfer in TwoPhase GasLiquid Systems. The Equa tions. Kearsey. Addoms. "Heat Transfer to SteamWater Mixtures Flowing in Uniformly Heated Tubes in Which the Critical Heat Flux has been Exceeded. J . J. D. ." Trans. Bennett. Keeys." AERER5076. Mass achusetts Institute of Technology (1963) . Dougall. R. A . and F.. A Computer Programme for the Sub channel AnalysiS of the Hydraulic and Burnout Characteristics of Rod ClustersPart 2. Anderson. A." AERER5375. H ." ANS Trans. A." NEDO1 309 1 . . and W M. A . Barnett. C. 3 (1965) . "An Experimental Investigation to Determine the Scaling Laws of Forced Convection Boiling Heat Transfer. 39 (1961 ) ." MIT Report 907926. Hewitt. 351358 (1961 )." AEEWR433.. Eng. G . . "Heat Transfer Crisis with SteamWater Mixtures. "A Method to Develop Similarity Laws for TwoPhase Flows. . Bowring. J. Part I: SteamWater Mixtures in the Liquid Dispersed Region in an Annulus. Rohsenow. Bennet." Energ. Part I: The Preliminary Examination of Burnou t Data for Wa ter and Arcton12. Hewitt. R. Prog. "An Analytic Derivation of a Subchannel Drift Flux Mode!. Davis. J. ." AEEW R363. T. F.
D . "A RodCentered Subchannel Analysis with Turbulent (Enthalpy) Mixing for Critical Heat Flux Prediction in Rod Clus ters Cooled by Boiling Water. Hahne.. "General Electric BWR Thermal Analysis Basis (GETAB): Data. Hatsopoulas. and U.. B6. D." GEAP10347. University of Minnesota (1963) . Plummer. J. M . Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (1972). A. . Hewitt. Germany (1972) . Atomic Energy Commission (195 1 ) . Healzer. Massachu setts Institute of Technology (1974). O." Proc. Lottes. N . E. G. "Dryout Onset in Flow Stoppage. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. D . "Experimental Studies on the Mechanisms of Burnout in Heat Trans fer to SteamWater Mixtures. Hewitt. and N ." Proc. Emer gency Core Cooling for Light Water Reactors. W. N .6 (1970) . CREST Specialist Mtg. 1 2 ( 1974) . General Electric Company (1962) . and S ." Proc. H . a n d P A . M . Mtg. Topl. P ." APED5286. Levy. HallTaylor. General Electric Company (1966) . Groeneveld. Fifth lnt. Handbook of Multiphase Systems. Depressurization and Power Surge Transients. Hassid. Principles of General Thermodynamics. Pergamon Press. . F . T . D. "A Study of Wall Rewet and Heat Transfer in Dispersed Vertical Flow. S . G . B . ." MIT Report 7271892. "The Mechanism of Burnout i n Initially Subcooled Forced Convective Systems. . J . France.. YY . M. and P Griffi th. Munich. E . Hench. Jans sen .s. . Granzini. Karls ruhe.. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation ( 1982) . General Electric Company (1971 ) . Gaspari. and J. E . Versailles. . E . Hsu. c." APED3892. Lucchini. and R. E. a nd F. Pressure Drop and Density Data for High Pressure Water. "Analysis of Heat Transfer. Hassid. WaterReactor Safety. Rohsenow." Ph . Jannsen. C. Thesis. New York (1965) . Argonne National Lab oratory (1960) . u. Hetsroni. ." ANL6213. "TwoPhase Flow and Hea t Transfer in Multirod GeometriesFinal Report. F . Annular TwoPhase Flow. M. U . ." NEDO10958. c. G .. M. "The Thermal Behavior of a Heated Surface at and Beyond Dryout." AECL4309. Hemisphere Publishing Corporation (1976) . "PostDryout Heat Transfer at Operating Conditions. Thesis. Iloeje . CONF730304. Heat Transfer in Boiling. General Electric Company (1973) . . GonzalezSan talo. Heat Transfer Conf. Transport Processes in Boiling and TwoPhase Systems. John Wiley & Sons. GonzalezSantalo. Correlation and Design Application. and A. P R. Heat Transfer Conf." Proc. Grace.. J. lnt. Mechanical Engineering Department (1971 ) . H . S . . Keenan." USAEC Report ANL4627." 4th IHTC. . . Janssen. "Burnout Limit Curves for Boiling Water Reactors. "An Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer to Superheated Steam in Round and Rectangular Channels.BOILI N G H EAT TRA N S F E R 19 1 Fo rti. Grigull. and J. paper B6. W. Hemisphere Publishing Cor poration ( 1 977) . D . J ens. "TwoPhase Flow Mixing in Rod Bundle Subchannels. . "Design Basis for Critical Heat Flux Condition in Boiling Water Reactors. Germany ( 1 973) . G . Atomic Energy Commission ( 1 973) . and S. Gaspari. G." Ph. J. New York ( 1 970) . Burnout. Heineman. Groeneveld. W. G . G . Levy. Graham. "A Model for Subchannel Analysis of BWR Rod Bundles in SteadyState and Transient.
G. . Shiralkar. "OutofPile Subchannel Measurements in a NineRod Bundle for Water at 1000 psia. Dix.. and D." f. New York (1 950). News (1 963). C. New York (1966) .and TwoPhase Flow Conditions. Akad." TwoPhase Flow and Heat Transfer in Rod Bundles. Karlsruhe. 3rd ed. I. . General Electric Company (1 973) . W M. B. "Mass Flux and Enthalpy Distribution in a Rod Bundle for Single. "A Comprehensive Model for Nucleate Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Including Microlayer Evapora tion. and D. "A Hydrodynamic Theory of Cha nges in the Boiling Process under Free Convection." f. L. S. Polomik. . and V V Kostyuk. Kalinin. H.. R." Izv. T . New York (1 954). W Radcliffe. A.. Schraub. W H . N . J. R. S. . R. T . Levy. 623629 ( 1976).S. Lahey." TwoPhase Flow and Heat Transfer in Rod Bundle. R. N. B. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1 969)... Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1 973). Kutateladze. Jr. R. Tekh. Great Britain (1971). A. D." Nucl. . Murphy. F. . R. "Reliability of Burnout Calculations in Nuclear Reactors. and F." I Heat Transfer ( 1 971). Shiralkar. Polomik. . and G. and W. Jr. Ralph. Atomic Energy Research Establishment. 4 (1951).. "A Study of Post Critical Heat Flux Tra nsfer in a Forced Convective System." ASME paper 72WA/HTlO.. Germany. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1 972). General Electric Company (1974). Kochelaev. and E. I1oeje. S. K." Progress in Heat and Mass Transfer. S.10991." GEAP13049. c. S . Jr. Lahey. D. and A. R. . Pergamon Press." NEDO13388. T . "The Effect of Reduced Clearance and Rod Bow on Critical Power in Simulated Nuclear Reactor Rod Bundles. . and V K. Convective Heat and Mass Transfer. Levy. "Mixing. Lahey. McGrawHili Book Company. Heat Transfer. Roberts. see also NEDM. VI. "TwoPhase Flow in Boiling Water Nuclear Reactors. Hwang. "Prediction of TwoPhase Pressure Drop and Density Distribution from Mixing Length Theory. Reactor Heat Transfer. Lienhard. Keeys. "Hydrodynamic Prediction of Peak PoolBoiling Heat Fluxes from Finite Bodies. Plummer. Lahey.1 92 THERMAL H YDRA U LICS OF A BWR Judd. . McAdams.. Jr. B. T." MIT Report DSR 7364580. Flow Regimes and Void Fraction for TwoPhase Flow in Rod Bundles. Yarkho. "TwoPhase Flow and Heat Transfer in Multirod Bundles: Subchannel and Pressure Drop Measurements for Diabatic and Adiabatic Conditions." lilt Mtg. "Investigation of the Crisis of Film Boiling in Channels." Proceedings of the 8th IHTC (1986) . paper #5. Jr. P Griffith. ASME Booklet. Heat Transmission. Lahey. T . "Post Burnout Heat Transfer in High Pressure SteamWater Mixtures in a Tube with Cosine Heat Flux Distri bu tion. Lahey. T. Heat Transfer (1963). Ronald Press Company. S. Lahey.S. Yu. J. R. E. American SOCiety of Mechanical Engineers (1 969). . and D. Shiralkar. General Electric Company (1 970). New York (1 972). W Radcliffe. E. Nauk. T. . S. 98(4). S. . S. E. Similitude in Engineering. ASME Booklet. Kays. Otd. S. and K.. Nauk. McGrawHili Book Company. Rohsenow. P Bray. S. E. Vol. O." AERER641 1 .. Berlin. W Radcliffe. M. R. "Subchannel Measurements of the Equilibrium Quality and Mass Flux Distribution in a Rod Bundle. . Dhir. I. K. E.R.
" ASME paper 66WA/HT36. E. and W M. Correlations and Inferences." BNWL371 ." MIT Report 7271891. Silberberg. Rohrer.. Nuc/. et aL. "Transient Critical Heat FluxExperimental Results. Rowe. D. J. L. Schnebly. . General Electric Company (1 970). E. W M. "Cross Flow Mixing Between Parallel Flow Channels During BoilingPart III. C. W Angle. Rohsenow. Hopenfeld. Heat Transfer. Handbook of Heat Transfer. "COBRA IIIC: A Digital Computer Program for SteadyState and Transient ThermalHydraulic Analysis of Rod Bundle Nuclear Fuel Elements. a n d R ." NEDEl31 58. R. .9 (1966). "The Role of Nucleation in Boiling and Cavitation." Trans. J.BOIL I N G HEAl TRA N S F E R 193 Plummer. J." GEAP l3295. American Society of Mechanical Engineers ( 1 972) .." GEAP1022112. 1 2th Quarterly Progress Report (April IJune 30. Janssen. Shiralkar. B. . T. Rohsenow. A.. S . Schraub. "A Method of Correlating Heat Transfer Data for Surface Boiling Liquids. Rowe. "Post Critical Heat Transfer in Flowing Liquid in a Vertical Tube. Bumpus. General Electric Company (1 969). O. and N. E. 1972)." Chem. S. E. F. J. Massachusetts Institute of Technology ( 1 974). G. Eng. Pt3. 74. and E. Rohsenow. Smith. . E. Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory ( 1969). F." NEDMl3279. Todreas. E. a n d P Griffith. Saha. Ganic. and L . S. "Correlation o f Maximum Heat Transfer Data for Boiling of Saturated Liquids. P .. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1966) .. and J. Rohsenow.. American Society of Mechanical Engineers ( 1 968). and E. M. Gonzalez. Polomik. American So ciety of Mechanical Engineers (1965). . "Coolant Interchange Mixing in Reactor Fuel Rod Bundles SinglePhase Coolants. B. AirWater Flow Structure Data for a Round Tube.." BNWL1 695. T . Quinn." ASME preprint #65: WA/HT33. Lahey. Ser 52 (1956) . General Electric Company (1 972) . L. D. "Burnout in SteamWater Flow with Axially Nonuniform Heat Flux. New York (1 973) ." Energ. Symp. Spiegler. Con centric and Eccentric Annulus. Shiralkar. Prog. O. E. S. ASME Booklet. S . N . "Local Void Fraction Measurements in Freon1 1 4 with a HotWire Anemometer." ZAMM. D. Rogers.. T. General Electric Company (1972). Shiralkar. M. Simpson." f. Reichardt. Iloeje. P Hartnett. R. "Analysis of NonUniform Flux CHF Data in Simple Geometries. and C. 13. Rogers. W. Tong. "Onset . General Electric Company (1 972).. "Deficient Cooling Program. ASME. "Mixing by Turbulent Interchange i n Fuel Bun dles. S. "The Effect of Obstacles on a Liquid Film. T.. "Forced Flow Heat Transfer Beyond the Critical Heat Flux. P. Lahey. Norman. . McGrawHili Book Company. Rosehart. W. and R. B. P Personal Communication (1 975). P Griffith. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1 970).. M. 31 (1951 ) . Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (1973)." GEAP5739. C. "Complete Representation of Turbulent Velocity Distribution in Smooth Pipe. D. W M. Silvestri. polom ik. M. Shiralkar. S. M ." ASME paper 72HT53. "TwoPhase Flow and Heat Transfer in Multirod Geometries. G . "On Burnout Equation and Location of Burnout Points.969976 (1952) . B. and NineRod Bundle. 95 (1973) ." Heat Transfer in Rod Bundles." ASME Monograph. W Radcliffe. and A.
G. "Kinetic der Phasenbildung. New York (1969). S . Walker." AECU4439. P . Inst. F. J. J." EPRI2922. Tong.1 94 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR of Stable Film Boiling and the Foam Limit. 80. TwoPhase Flow. McGrawHill Book Company." Proc. S. D . Clarendon Press (1987). M . and P Griffith. "Hydrodynamic Aspects of Boiling Heat Transfer. Kirby. Cole. Thorn. "Surface Tension o f Water. J . Torbeck. United Kingdom Atomic Energy Au thority (1964) . 3C180 (1966). S. "Analysis of the Critical HeatFlux Condition in High Pressure Boil ing Water Flows. . Oxford Science Publica tions. L. Whalley. 1 1 (1 974) . Walkush. 6 (1963). Personal Communication (1975) ." J. Akad. N . Volmer. S. . . Fallon. McGrawHill Book Company. L. . J. . Interim Report. Nauk. Atomic Energy Commission (1959) ." TID25887. . 2 (1950) . Tokyo. Boiling Heat Transfer and TwoPhase Flow. . P B . Wallis." Die Chemische Reaktion. 74 . Heat Transfer Conf." Trans. E . Boilillg Phenomena. Hewitt. . U . Volyak. F. paper B6. N. ." J." AEEWR327. Atomic Energy Commission (1972) . . New York (1965) . T. Whalley.. R. L. S . Van Stralen. . S . S . "Boiling Crisis and Critical Heat Flux. New York (1979) . I and II. 'The Calculation of Critical Heat Flux in Forced Convection Boiling. ASME. "Counterflow Critical Heat Flux Related to Reactor Transient Analysis. and G. Boiling. Vertical Upflow. 4 (1939) . Tong. Vols. Zuber. . Tippets. Heat Transfer (1964) . . S . John Wiley & Sons. 71 1720 (1958) . Electric Power Research Insti tute (1975) ." Fifth Int. "A Quantitative Comparison Between Burnout Data for Water at 1 000 PSIA and Freon12 at 155 PSIA . B . Mech. Reising.. U . . Japan. W M. Uniformly Heated Round Tubes. Stevens. "Boiling in Sub cooled Water During Flow in Tubes and Annuli. F. S . and G . A. Heat Mass Transfer. Condensation and GasLiquid Flow. "Stability of Boiling Heat Transfer. . AEC Critical Review Series. P Hutchinson. G . Zuber. S. and R. P B . OneDimensional. Eng. R." Dokl. and G. F.
Nevertheless. and empirical techniques invariably must be employed .1 Basic Princi ples and Defi nitions It is useful to establish a consistent set of notation and to develop some fun damental concepts and relationships. in recent years. 11' I (5 . twophase mixture is usually more difficult to analyze than corresponding singlephase flows. (l = � J Xv(:!. or void. fraction represents the time fraction of vapor in a twophase mixture.1 Concepts and Notations Void Fraction. stresses those aspects that are of current practical interest in BWR technology. the coolant is typically composed of both the liquid and vapor phases of water. 1 ) .1.t') dt' . considerable progress has been made in the field of twophase flow.1 (l The local vapor. 5.1. The behavior of this onecomponent. 5.1. 5. such that reliable methods are currently available to the BWR designer. Mathematically. Hence.CHAPTER FIVE TwoPhase Flow In BWRs. Chapter 5 is not an exhaustive treatment of two phase flow phenomena in general but. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss and develop those relationships and techniques that are of importance in the design and development of modern BWRs. rather.
0. the void fraction can also be con sidered the timeaveraged area fraction .196 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L IC S OF A BWR where the vapor phase indicator fraction is given by: Xv (x t ) = ' It is often convenient to work with the volumetric average vapor fraction or holdup void fraction. t ) dv= JJJdvlJJJdv= Vg v VgI ( V/ + Vg) (S. If the volume in question consists of the crosssectional area of a flow tube times a differential length element. Sl. .4) The void fractions defined in Eqs. How ever. Fig. 1. v when �apor i s a t point:! a t time t otherwIse (S. This is given by. That is. 5 . as shown in Fig. (S.3) are deterministic. 2) ��JJJ�(:!.0. l) and (S. {0. the phase indicator function is a random variable in space and time. 3) where the subscript. t� ( t ):j> l.1 Representation of void fraction . (S. denotes the liquid phase and g denotes the vapor phase.
1. . 51.4) and (5.0: ) Jg = ugO: .1 . However. 1 ) is the Ergodic hypothesis.1. u" ug The true onedimensional mean velocity of each phase is defined as the volumetric flow rate of that phase through its crosssectional flow area.P H A S E F LOW 197 we perform N statistically independent measurements of the instanta neo us phase content at location. h jg The total volumetric flux of the mixture. it is important only to realize that the void fraction that is used in subsequent analyses is a time averaged deterministic quantity. (5. . was occupied by vapor at time. 5) o: (x. ft3/sec. . we can write.3 a (5. (5. Volumetric Flux.2 If Phase Velocity. 8a) Now . In accordance with Fig. 6). t ) is the number of experimental observations in which the location." of each phase is defined as the volumetric flow rate of that phase divided by the total crosssectional flow area in question .TWO. 5 . of phase 5. 7) (5. and time. t ) = Ng (!. or socalled "superficial velocity. U/ = Q/IA/ a ug = QgIAg where Qi is the volumetric flow rate. which essentially states that for a stationary random process. !. !. The mean volumetric flux. 1981) for those readers interested in a rigorous statistical treatment of twophase phenomena.1. using the relations given in Eqs. the ensemble av erage and the time average of a given member of the ensemble are identical. t. (5 . This velocity should be considered as averaged in the same way as classical Singlephase turbulence analyses to eliminate the random fluctuations . j. t )/N where Ng (!. That is. can be expressed as J = J/ + Jg h = u / (l . (5. for our present purpose. 5) and (5 . t. 8b) . then the ensembleaveraged local void fraction is given as. These concepts can be developed more fully (Boure and Delhaye. � Q/I( A/ + Ag ) � QgI(A/ + Ag) (5. The link between Eqs. 6) i.1.
In general this notation is used to provide consistency with the current twophase flow literature . (13). 10) and (5 .4 Volumetric Flow Fraction. 1 .6 0. = jg I( jI + jg ) (5. 1 . The notation used here for volumetric flux is due to Zuber and Wallis (Wallis. 1 1) A comparison between Eqs . 10) For the special case of homogeneous flow. In this case. Thus. = jI (1 . = 13. .5 13 13� Qg I( Q/ + Qg ) = jgl( j/ + jg ) Relative Velocity. S The slip ratio is defined as the ratio of the phase velocity of the vapor to that of the liquid. 12) For homogeneous flow. UR It has been observed experimentally that in flowing twophase systems. !1 UR = u g . (5.U/ (5. 9) 5 . o. is a particularly convenient quan tity for the experimentalist since the volumetric flow rates are readily cal culated or measured . 1 . This quantity is defined as the volumetric flow rate of the vapor divid ed by the total volumetric flow rate. The global volumetric flow fraction. UR = O. ) Or solving for the void fraction. 5 . (5. 5 .9) shows that for the homoge neous flow case (only). we have "no slip" between the phases and. 1 . thus. (5 . S = ug lu / !1 (5. 1 1) and (5 . Eqs. Slip Ratio.198 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR Thus we see that for twophase flows. That is. the onedimensional velocity of the vapor phase is often greater than the onedimensional phase velocity of the liquid . 1 . 1 . 1969) .0. the phase velocities are larger than the corresponding volumetric fluxes of each phase. a parameter that quan tifies this velocity difference has been defined and is called the relative velocity. 8b) can be combined to yield. S = 1 by definition . jg lo.
7 Quality. X = Xs .TWO. p II There are numerous densities" that can be defined in twophase flow.8 TwoPhase Density. 14) and (5. The next quality that must b e considered i s x. the socalled flow quality. The first is the socalled "mixing cup" or thermodynamic equilibrium quality. Xe . Xe can be positive or negative. 5. x. Thus. Xs = pg Ag/ ( pt At + Pg Ag} (5 . which normally is calculated from the energy equa tion and is defined as. (5. 1 . That is. 15). There are several qualities that are of importance in the analysis of two p hase flow. It is of most interest during subcooled and postdryout boiling conditions where thermody namic equilibrium does not exist. 0. 5. As discussed in Sec. x = pg ugAg I( pt ut At + pg ugAg} a (5. it is the flow frac tion of vapor.3. and can exceed unity. when thermodynamic equilibrium prevails . 14) The flow quality is always in the range 0." It is defined as the mass fraction of vapor and is the quantity that is well known to students of classical thermodynamics. This is the true flow fraction of vapor regardless of whether thermodynamic equilibrium exists or not. the socalled "static quality. .PHASE FLOW 199 5.xs} a (5. 1 . following the standard definition of density as the average mass per unit volume.1. This is the quality that we would obtain if the flowing mixture were removed adiabatically..xs) = 5xs/ (1 . The final quality of interest is xs.1. 16) Hence.. Xe and x become equivalent for bulk boiling situations. 15) From the definitions given in Eqs. Xe. x:O. the density of the twophase mixture is the volume weighted density defined as. thoroughly mixed. x and Xs can be related through the following identity. Here. (5.0:0. it is seen that for homogeneous flow (only). x. however. x/(l .1. 13) where h is the enthalpy of the twophase mixture and hf and hf g are func tions only of the local static pressure. It is given by.1.x} = ( ug/u /}xs/ (l . and allowed to reach a condition of thermodynamic equilibrium .
1.200 THE RMAL HY D RA U L ICS OF A BWR By assuming constant density of each phase and employing Eq.17) (5.3).<j:ai) PI +<j:ai.JLx}dA 1 ('1)1=A xs(1(a»)IfAx_5/(1a)dA =«1a)'I) (I a) 5 .18) (5. It is defined as the total mass flow rate divided by the cross sectional flow area. That is. Similarly the local density is given by.10 (5. G Mass flux is a parameter that is frequently used in the analysis of flow systems. and the crosssectional average density by.9 CrossSectional Average Notation. 5. . G=w/A xs=PI( ul)l(l(a»)/(l(x»)=Pg( ug)g(a)/(x) WI G(l(x»)A xs=PI( u/)I(l(a»)A xs � (5. where the last two equalities come from the identities. <j:pi=(1. 20) Mass Flux..1. (5. (5. 23) . (UI)I=G(l (x»)/[pl(l(a»)] ( ug)g= G(x)/( pg(a») .22) (5. This is the notation used by Zuber to denote the crosssectional average of an arbitrary variable.pg=PI( PI pg)<j:aip=(la) pl + alg (p)= (1 (a)) PI +(a)pg () m� � (5.1.1.21) which also imply. = and.19) A :. For instance.
(5. 16) imply. only for the no slip. 29) where we have (5. ( Ph) Q lI(VI (X)VIg) + + + (5. Also note that Eqs. (5. 5.25) (x). where the specific volumes are defined as.P H ASE F LOW 201 5. (5. (x)/[(x) 5( Pg/PI (x))) + )(1 (5.30) . thus. the twophase density can be written as.24) This equation can be used to evaluate the void fraction once the flow is known and once the slip ratio. Thus. (a) = (x)/(I(x» ( pg/P/)5[(a)/(I(a))) = (5. (p) = [(1  VI (X)VIg) Thus. (5. 28) has the same functional form as the classical thermody namic density of a static multiphase system.1.TWO . 25) into Eq. (5. (5 . (5. quality.27) Equations (5. 16) implies that s tatic quality is not equal to flow quality except for the special case of homogeneous flow. w � G = (j) = = (x»5 (x)] /[vI5(1(x» vg(x)] 5 ( Ph).27) can be combined to eliminate void fraction in favor of static quality and.11 The Fundamental VoidQuality Relation The e quivalence of the last two quantities in Eq. Note that Eq. 26) which can be solved for void fraction. = 1. case do we have (p) = defined the socalled homogeneous density as. which can be solved for void fraction to yield the fundamental voidquality rela tion. 19) and (5. Equation (5. for slip flow conditions. 19) to yield.24) and (5.1. is known or estimated.21) implies. (p) 4= 1I( + VI lIPI Vig (lIPglIpI) ( P/P/Pgpg) = � � = = ''' The same result also can be obtained by inserting Eq.
1.202 T H E RMAL HY D RA ULICS OF A BWR 5. 1975) . ft3 Conservation Equations The basic conservation equations of twophase flow can be derived in many different ways. It is defined as the voidweighted average velocity of the vapor phase with respect to the velocity of the centerofvolume of the flowing mixture. 1981. lbm/hft2 5. ft PH � = heated perimeter.12 Drift Velocity. 31) Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Notation In general.:l where Some of the notations used in the hydraulic analysis of BWRs are: Ax . ft 2 Tw � wall shear stress. ft2 V� volume in which the heat is generated. 32. That is.:l q = heat transferred (Btu/h) q ' � q/LH = linear heat generation rate (Btu/hft) "� qlAHT = heat flux (Btu/hft2) q q '" � q/V = volumetric heat generation rate (Btu/hft3) . Ibf/ft2 Pf � friction perimeter.:l G = w/Axs = mass flux.2 LH = heated length. lbm/h . .1. fr p� system pressure.) (5. This parameter will be considered in more detail later when driftflux re lations are discussed.1.13 Vgj � (a( ug  j»/(a.s� crosssectional flow area.1. Specifically.:l W = flow rate. Vgj This concept is originally due to Zuber.1. the . Ishii. � mechanical equivalent of heat. the heat transfer notation that we employ is due to Jakob (1957). Ibf/ft 2 gc � gravitational conversion factor. 17 Ibmft/lbfSeC . 778 ftIbf/Btu . ft AHT � PHLH = heat transfer area. 5. Since the expressed purpose of this monograph is to convey physical understanding rather than to present analyses of complete generality. One method is to start with the differential equations of each phase and to integrate them across the cross section to obtain the working equations (Delhaye.
PHASE F LOW 203 derivations presented here are phenomenologically base d . The appropriate set of equations to use depends on the situation and apparatus to be analyzed.32) This is represented schematically in Fig. For a more rigorous derivation in which flat profiles are not assumed.1. the reader is referred to the work of Yadi garoglu and Lahey (1975) . {��!: �! } {: � } {��� } {��:: } a w + ge t ow t n Of � rate rate mass rate a . (5.s ) Dt  (5 . which although in agreement with standard practice.TWO. 5·2a Continuity equation of homogeneous flow. Equation (5. this is equivalent to assuming flat profiles in each phase. In all the derivations that follow. 33) can also be written as. Dj«Ph)Ax..s ) + Axs az at = 0 (5.2. (5. 35) �z Fig. it is implicitly assumed that the product of the crosssectional average of the various quantities is equal to the average of the product.33) . 5. The one dimensional conservation equations are derived for the limiting cases of homogeneous flow and the fully separated slip flow of a subcooled two phase mixture .. . Essentially. may be a rather poor assumption in some cases of practical concern.34) where the material derivative is defined as.( Ph )Axs a(j) . a( Ph ) =0 «Ph )(j )Ax. 52a and implies.1 Continuity Equation of Homogeneous Flow The basic conservation principle of mass can be stated as.
37) at +_1_ _ op _ £. ! oz .a + <j>+ aAx_.36) { = su � of the forces actmg on the control volume +i at } This is represented schematically in Fig.(GA <j>l.38). 37) becomes. (5. gc sin 8 . .204 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L ICS OF A BWR 5. 52b Momentum equation of homogeneous flow. rate �f creatIon of momentum 4 { } ={ gc momentum momentum �omentum .1.TwPr�z ! OG [ A xs O(G2A xOZ_S/(Ph» ] = OZ ( Ph) A xs G=(Ph)( j). gc where the identity.( Ph) sin8(A xs�z). (GA 9c .1ZI (p + 2az 9c 1 ap 4Z)az 4Z . A. Equation (5. (5..al1z] uZ (GA x·s <j>I. 52b and implies..I.. By rearranging.2. has been used.op gc (5.38) p + � a ( A p x.2 Momentum Equation of Homogeneous Flow The basic conservation principle for momentum can be stated as.oS 4Z. This equation also can be written in its Lagrangian form by expanding the left side of Eq. ' p.!. A. [�(GA xs(j»�Z (G)A xs�Z ] = OZ A xs�Z£. Eq.TwPr (5. �Z (} 7"" [A. 38) is the standard Eulerian form of the onedimensional momentum equation for homogeneous twophase flow.oS pAx. Fig. .a ) uZ .mflow outflow + storage rate rate rate }{ }{ } (5.
40) 5. Eq. (S.2.38) can be rewritten in Lagrangian form as. Hence.41) This is represented schematically in Fig.3S). [ a«Ph)( j» +A_1_ a( Ph)( az)2Ax_s) ] at x. The basic conservation principle for energy can be stated as. . S2c and implies. (S.{�:���} {:�::�} t n Of � energy rate rate + = 0 rate (S. sin e _ Ax TwPf (S. S2e Energy equation of homogeneous flow . Eq. 39) ( Ph) Dj(tj) azap ( Ph) D gc = _ gc £.j =! { ( Ph) (a(atj) +( j) a(azj») +( j) [ a(atPh) +A_1_ a( Ph)(j)Axs) ] } xs az gc gc ! (S. 33) .• <Ph> <j> <e>I Az Fig. {�:!: �! } {�����} .TWO.3 Energy Equation of Homogeneous Flow The final onedimensional conservation equation required is the energy equation. while the next term vanishes by continuity. + az a (Ax .1.PHASE F LOW 205 The first term of this expanded form can be recognized as the material derivative defined in Eq. (S.
] The first term on the left side can be recognized as the material derivative defined in Eq.46) By using the definition of the total energy. (S." By expanding Eq. Hence. 4S) Equation (S. (S.40).+( Ph) Dj«j)Ot2/2gcl) +Jggc ( ( Ph =q () +q +.44). TwP ( Ph) OJ «j)Ot2/2gc])= _«j)I]) aazp _Lc ( j)( Ph) _ (Jj)Axsr Jg ( e).43) By regroupin g Eq. The form that is used in subsequent analyses is the socalled "Lagrangian formulation . to yield. _ (S. Eq. (h )  ]) " .aatp Ot AxHs sin e (S. (S. 42) Equation (S. P J ( Ph) Oot(e)=q (AxH s) +q". Eq. 1 J  (S. 33) . 3S) and the second term vanishes due to continuity. +p AxHs _ _ _ (S. 1 J (S. (S.4S) can be rewritten as. Eq. Another equation of interest is the thermal energy equation of the system.44) ] _ ) _ 5 . ( j). The mechanical energy equation can be derived by multiplying the momentum equation. This is obtained by subtracting the mechanical energy equation from the thermodynamic energy equation. by the homogeneous velocity. we obtain.42). Eq. (S.46) is the thermodynamic energy equation of the homogeneous system.48) .42) can be recast into various different forms.. OJ P ( Ph) . can be written as. Axs(Ph)( j) a�:) +(e) [ :z «Ph)(j)Axs) ] q"PH q"'Axs +Ax s( Ph) a(e) +Ax s(e) a(atPh)_AxJs aatp=O at ( Ph) (a(e) +( ") a(aze») +�s [ �«Ph)( ")Ax s +Ax a(atPh)] at Ax az aat P =q () +q". ) sm e ". (S.206 T H E RMAL H Y DRAU LICS OF A BWR :z «Ph)( j)Axs(e»)aZ q"PHaZ q"'Axsaz +Axsaz ft «Ph)(e) pI])=0 where.. (S. +!J aatp .. j (e) ( +2( gc)2l +gc z J ) h) Sin e � � (S.47) given in Eq. (S. (S. 43).46) .
Equations (5.51) Furthermore. Dj (x) vf O(x) = 0 Ot Vfg _ (5. is frequently referred to as the characteristic frequency of phase change. (5. into the form of a quality propagation equation . This is readily done by inserting the "state" equations of the homogeneous mixture into Eq. 50) By neglecting internal generation.51) becomes. 52) are used extensively in Chapters 7 and 9 to analyze the occur rence of densitywave instability and transient boiling transition. we can turn our attention to the case of separate d flow. The equations to solve for the transient response of a homogeneous two phase system have now been formulated. given as Eq. in ( Ph ) lI( vf + (x)vfg ) = (h) hf + (x)hfg = (5. if we consider the case of constant system pressure and neglect the axial pressure drop compared to the constant system pressure. The conservation equations for the case of subcooled one . That is. qlll . 50) yield. Eqs. 52) where. (5 . (5. Now that the onedimensional conservation equations for the case of homogeneous flow are in hand. (5. For many cases of practical significance it can be neglected.47) then can be subtracted from Eq.TWO. Before leaving the case of ho mogeneous flow.49) represents the rate of increase thermal energy per unit volume due to viscous dissipation. and viscous dissipation effects.PHASE F LOW 207 Equa tion (5. (5. Eq. 0. 49) J Ot Ot Ax . it is useful to cast the energy equation.49) . (5 . = {I [ (q"PflIAxs + �t ) Oop hfg vf  Dohf �t ]} (5. 53) The parameter. It physically repre sents the speed at which phase change takes place.s JAx s ( ) ( ) The last term o n the right side of Eq. for saturated. homogeneous flow. 34) and (5. O (h) PH + qlll + ! Dj p + ( j ) TwPf ( Ph ) J = q " (5. respectively.48) to yield the thermal energy equati on. which has the units of reciprocal time. (4. 49).49) and (5.
(5. (5.32). thermodynamic equilibrium is assumed to exist and.55) in which the subscript. or a AxsfAz +[Pl( 1 ( ex»(Ul)IAxs]Az +[P1Axs(1(ex»Az] 0 az ata = (5. The derivations that follow are for an idealized annular flow situation. has been changed to f to denote liquid phase saturation .54) and (5.54) where is the amount of liquid phase evaporated per unit volume in the differential control volume. The magnitude of this evaporation term de pends on the thermodynamic conditions that exist. for the gas phase. that the same results can be obtained in other ways. and (5.95). respectively. Similarly.1.232) for more eneral expressions. the technique is largely a matter of choice. however. g .56) represent the continuity equations for the liquid and gas phases. For the special case of bulk boiling. neglect ing flashing. i.2. this implies. (5. For the liquid phase. a simple heat balance yields the following approximationd for f.208 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U LICS OF A BWR dimensional slip flow can be derived in terms of each phase separately or in terms of the twophase mixture. Note.4 Continuity Equations of Separated Flow Consider the control volume shown in Fig. the resultant conservation equations are of more general appli cability. 5. Eq.107). 53 for the case of idealized annular flow with no liquid entrainment. however.32) implies. f Equations (5.57) ·See Eqs. They can be added to obtain the continuity equation for the twophase mixture. The reader interested in a more general treatment is referred to the work of Meyer (1960). a a ai( pg( ex)Axs) +az ( pg( ex)( ug)gAxs) Axsf = (5. The conservation of mass prin ciple for each phase is given by Eq. In this chapter the phasic conservation equations will be derived and the mixture conservation equations will be deduced from them. (5. (5.56) a ( p)Axs) +( GAxs) 0 ata az = (5.
>.>.>.TWO.1. where the identities in Eqs. .>.Az oz OW. surface tension. +  o<u. oz Az IV.PHASE F LOW 209 <e. the momentum equations for each phase are derived ._.>.(1<a» Az Fig. (5. Reynolds stress._. + . oz Az Az A. + az o A. 22) and (5.+  (Ke.Az) oz <u. and virtual mass effects are ne glected. and the pressure of each phase is assumed to be equal. 23) have been employed to yield the mass flux.(1<a» + op (p+ . Eq.>. <e. Considering the control volume shown in Fig. oz Az o<e. 53 Control volume for separated flow (each phase) .36) applied to the liquid phase yields.2. 53. 58) 5. (5. (5. In this deri vation.5 Momentum Equations of Separated Flow Next.
Pg ) (Cf)i = pt/(4pg) gc(J(l. based on entropy production considerations. 60) where Tjm is a momentum transfer weighting parameter (0. for distorted bubbly twophase flow Harmathy (1960) recommends. Moreover. The classical assumption is to choose Tjm = 1 and. is in general different from the phase velocities.0 � Tjm � 1 .( U t )! ) 2 2gc (Cf)i == 0. choosing Tjm = 1/2 leads to momen tum equations for each phase that are symmetrical for evaporation and condensation. Neglecting any liquid entrainment. thus. ( Uk )k .( a » Pg ( ug)g . assume that the liquid phase velocity alone is important in evaporative momentum transfer. 54. This implies that the effective velocity of the evaporating interfacial liquid is V2 ( Ut )t + (ug)g ) . 2 Rbg( pt . is the shear stress ( lbf / ft2) at the liquidvapor inter face . Ti = (Cf)i Wallis (1969) has proposed an expression for the interfacial Fanning friction factor of annular flow as For other flow regimes different expressions are valid. the interfacial velocity. Since evaporation is assumed to occur at the interface. Ti.2 10 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L ICS OF A BWR where: 1 . Anderson and Chu (1981) have proposed a relation between the interfacial friction factor and the driftflux parameters. . Alternately.005[1 + 75(1 . As can be seen in Fig. The quantity.0). For example. this appears to be a physically realistic choice within the framework of the present one dimensional analysis. To maintain generality. 2. Ui. Tjm = V2 is recommended (Wallis.( a ))) [ ] 'h More generally. 1 969). we may assume: (5.
. pw. Fig.(ex»Axs Az az (5. � LIQUID FILM I <U.. p. 54 I nterfacial velocity for annular flow .e'i . to first order.TWO.. We have assumed that the radial pressure gradient is zero..e>.6 1 ) . 3.P H A S E F LOW 21 1 ACTUAL VELOCITY PROFILE VAPOR CORE .(1 . and wall pressure. we can also assume that the in terfacial pressure. Thus the first three terms on the left side of Eq. (5. are equal to the static pressure.�  I V'FOR/LlOOID INTERFACE WALL I <U g� Uj �. Thus. ap . in accordance with standard practice. pi.59) can be expanded and simplified to yield.
aazp _ _ . 23). Eq.. Eq. 64) .TiPiaZ rAxs a pg a . 22). 62) In a similar manner. Thus. (5.(j» sin O � aazp _ gc TwPsr [ aatc +A_1_ az (C2(Ax_s)] . (5.£. Equations (5. T (a) aazp '£'pg(a) AxiPi 1 a l [at ( pg(a)( ug)g) +Axs aaZ ( pgAxs(a)(ug)g)] . 65) This equation also can be written in terms of mass flux through the use of the identities given in Eqs. (5. (5..  gc gc (5. {i[P/(l(a»)( u/)/ +pg(a)( ug)g] gc (5.pg at ((a)Axs(ug)gaz) +az ((a)Axs( ug)g2) aZUi gc g smO gc . 62) and (5. and (5. By expanding the pressure drop term and neglecting higher order dif ferentials as before. 58). 66) . 59) yields. 36) can be applied to the vapor phase in the control volume shown in Fig. 64) can be added to yield the momentum equation of the twophase mixture as.212 T H E RMAL H Y DRAU LICS OF A BWR This is an interesting result since it is the same functional relationship we would obtain if we had neglected axial flow area changes and area changes due to evaporation in the duct.(j» sin O gc TwP at Axsr = 1. = where we have made the same assumptions and approximations as in the liquid phase momentum equation. for a nonconstant area duct. Ax xs p') = gc 1.£. 63) = gc  It should be noted that because of the assumptions made there is no jump in momentum across the interface.Ui 2 r _ _ gc sin O _ gc (5. 53 to yield. we obtain for the vapor phase momentum equation. for the liquid phase momentum equation. . (5. (5. ilaz ( p(a)Axs)az+pi a«a)Aazxs)azpg(a)Axsaz .
(5 . First we consider a driftflux form presented by Zuber ( 1967) and then a Lagrangian form from the Russian literature is considered . however. is commonly referred to as the momentum density. Equation (5.(a») and added to (a) times Eq. 68) is multiplied through by ( 1 . Um• As will be shown later in this chapter. (�) + (�Plgj + ( Co . and if for convenience we define. It is a widely used form of the mixture momentum equation. Um = G/(p) . 67) The parameter.TWO. It is not a "true" density. (a) (Ul )l _ (p) _ (l.69).69) These relationships are easily verified by using the definition of Vg given in Eq. to the velocity of the centerofmass. (5. it is convenient to use the following identities. but rather it is defined so that Eq. (5. 71) where the relationships given in Eq. 66) is the form of the onedimensional twophase momen tum equation originally derived by Meyer ( 1960). (p ') . other forms are possible . 8b) have been used . . this latter velocity is given by.68) (ug )g = where. j (5. (5.1 )(j)1 (5.38) . (5 .31) and using Eqs.66) has the same functional form as Eq. 17) and (5. 70) we obtain. (5. (5. Equation (5. To derive Zuber's form of the momentum equation. (j).PHASE F LOW 213 wh ere. (S. (5.)l (p � (5. + ( C o _ l)(J. 58) .7 1 ) is a fundamental identity that relates the velocity of the centerofvolume.(a») �)[VgJ. If Eq.
a (5. 73). That is. rather than a defined quantity. volumetric force in the same sense that the classical Reynolds stress term of singlephase turbulence is considered a force . (5.75) .(a»)(u/)/ + (a)(ug )g ] = (1(a » )Ur By using Eq.s �z [ Ax . Before leaving the centerofmass formulation given in Eq.66) does. Vgj (5. (P g Ax . the onedimensional twophase momentum equation can be rewrit ten in Eulerian form as. and obtain. Physically it represents the net momentum flux with respect to the centerofmass of the flowing twophase system.. (5.69) (5. Vgr� (ug)g . acceleration term of Eq. given by Eq.s ( (p�p )Pg») p(�) ( Vgi ] il p _ s)] (5.65). the last term on the left side of Eq. Ur=(ug )g .( j ) = (ug )g . uses the correct twophase density. we find that the centerofmass formulation.68) we (5.s gcAx . e . 6 5). integration and numerical evaluation of Eqs.73) =g1c [ dG + Axs ililz (G2(Apx) Several things should be noted about Eq. However. (5. which also was obtained from Eq.( u/)/ . (5. where. since it was derived directly from Eq. Thus. lends itself to a readily understandable interpretation of the various terms and is consistent with the classical techniques used in the kinetic theory of gases. 65).J)2 ] il il S S (p) _ (p) Thus. it contains no more information about momentum conservation than Eq.73).73) is written in terms of the center ofmass and.74) and noting that.73). (5. (p) (5. Eq. (5. However. (5. (5.s(a)(ug)g] 2 il (5. The spatial drift gradient [i .66) and (5. a requirement that can limit the practical application of this formulation. thus. are introduced into the spatial ilz [p/Axs(1 (a»)(u/)2/ + pgAx .[( 1 . in the spatial acceleration term. (5.214 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A BWR If the identities in Eqs.73) pro duce the same results. we must have information about the functional de pendence of before it is a useful formulation. First. ( p ' ) . . 73)] is due to the relative slip between the phases and can be considered as an additional _ _ _ _ ilpz gc il K ( p ) sin 6 .Tw Pf 1 _ at 1 (p). note that the spatial drift gradient can also be written in terms of the relative velocity through the use of the identity.72) = �z (G2 Ax _ ) + �z [ Ax _ ( P/( PPg»)P/pg ( Vg.74) (5.
This for mulation can readily be derived from Eqs.= iJ D Dm ( t ) � � + Um� D iJt iJz = 0 (5. 79) This is a form of the momentum equation that has been used by Ishii and Zuber (1970) to investigate twophase hydrodynamic stability phenomena . 62) and (5. 73) can be recast into a Lagran gian formulation by expanding its right side and combining it with the continuity equation. Another Lagrangian formulation of the onedimensional twophase mix ture momentum equation frequently appears in the literature. (5. 76) This may be a more useful form in certain applications. to obtain.Ax s(p) sine g XI (5.Ax _ siJiJPz . Equation (5. �z [ Ax . (5. iJ . 57). 64). Next we consider the Lagrangian form of the onedimensional twophase mixture momentum equation. p (gc)Ax _ sDm Um + gc �z [ Ax s ((PpI )( PP» ) p(�)x ( V' )2 ] t 1. (5. Eq. where. 78) to obtain.TWO.c. iJUzm Dm t (( p )Axs ) + ( P )Axs.TwPt. Eq. Eq.)2 ] =�z [ Axs( ex)(1( ex) ) PI Px U2 ] iJ iJ p p Px (P) ' ( VXI ( ((PpI )( PP» ) =(l(ex)ex») x ( ) r (5 .p D x . 77) (5.62).s ( (PI )_( P » ) PI Px .s) . Consider the right side of the liquid phase momentum equation. (uIMgcAx . minus times the liquid phase continuity equation. written in the form. (5.8.PHASE F LOW 215 we find.54).
tarding the vapor phase due to momentum transfer. 82) + � (pg(a)(ug)gAxs) fAxs ] az By expanding these terms and simplifying. 8 1) can be regarded as a negative volumetric force due to "vapor thrust. (5.(a).OgOtg )g . (5 64 ) .c Pg (a sm6 . 86) az gc gc 0 .«u g )g (u/ )/ ) (5. (5." That is. P at U L Fg = (a) gcg (a(Ug)g + (ug )ga(azg )g ) + TJgcIl f « ug )g (u/)/ ) (5.P/(1 (a») sm6 .21 6 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S O F A BWR f '" P at . Only for the special case of TJm 1 does this term vanish .+Axs Ax s az gc f P (1 TJII )gc «ug )g (u/)/) (1(a»)/ O/Otu/)/ gc ( O/ (U/ )/ a(u/)/ + (u/ )/ il( u/)/ Ot at ilz . < = 2 . In a similar fashion.gc(UAgx)g. (5. where. 62 and yield. (5 ) (5. 85) � Similarly. Eqs.gQ.s [ aat (pg(a)Axs) (5 . Equations . 8 1) il gc For the normal case of interest in BWRs. the last term in Eq..a(u/ a(u/z LJ F/ = (1 (a»gc/ (/) + (u/ )//) ) + (1 TJm ). it can be interpreted as a reaction force on the liquid due to evaporation . '" 1 a 1 a LJFg =. 84) (5.(1 (a»). Eq. 56). gf c [TJm (u/)/ + (1 TJI I )(Ug)g] } . the last term in Eq. (5. ) TiPi .Ax s «ug)g (u/)/ ) =(a). the vapor phase momentum equation can be recast into a Lagrangian for mulation by subtracting (ug )g l(gc Axs) times the vapor continuity equation. for the liquid phase.. 64) and (5. 83) For the evaporative case.{(pg(a)(ug)g ) + A(pgAx � s(a)(ug)g) x s az gc at . Eq. (5. for the vapor phase. 8 1) ap g .TJmf .83) can be regarded as a negative volumetric force due to the slower moving evaporated liquid re By expanding these terms and simplifying. ap Pg (u . from the right side of the vapor momentum equation. 83) yield. Now we are in a position to write down the momentum equation for the liquid and vapor in terms of the material derivative of each phase. TwPr =  Ti Pi (5.
Pg (5. (5.Ax ug )g (u/)/ ) gc s gc 1.2 . (5 .( U/ )I ) . 1 . 2 . 84) and (5..TWOPHASE F LOW where.l ] (p) (p) gcAx s _ (p) Urn r« 1\ g _ _ az It should be obvious to the reader that the continuity and momentum equations of twophase flow can be manipulated and recast into many different forms . but rather. .s ( p� . By comparing Eq. 88) is the net volumetric force due to evaporation and is frequently referred to as the "Meshcherskiy force" in the Russian literature (Kutate ladze and Styrikovich.4 and 5. one form may have a definite advantage over another. all forms correctly de scribe the physics involved and yield the same quantitative information about the flow field.[ (1 .(a» p/ O/ (u/)/ + (a)pg Og ( Ug )g ] = gc Ot Ot ap az 6 . 87) Equations (5. (5.. (U O/(u/)/ Om 1 .. 79) with Eq. 86) can be added to obtain the momentum equation for the twophase mixture. . The last term on the left side of Eq. (p) 'TwPr r « (5 . 5. to discuss and relate several popular forms that frequently appear in the literature of twophase flow. it can be seen that a fundamental relationship between the acceleration of the centerofmass of the system and the acceleration of the individual phases is given by. the continuity and momentum equations of the twophase mixture have been derived from consideration of the con servation principles for each phase.1. 88).6 Energy Equation of Separated Flow In Sees. As before let us write down the liquid phase conservation law for the control . (5 .gc [ (1 . For some applications. 1960) . We now consider the derivation of the phasic energy equations. 89) 5. g sin . 1 .2. however.. 88) This is a form of the twophase momentum equation that has appeared in the European and Russian literature. We have not tried to tabulate all the possible forms.( P ») p�g ( Vg.(a» p/+ (a)pg OgOtI\ )g] + gc U ) .Ot Ot gc 1 _ � [ Ax . 5 .
95) Once the interfacial heat fluxes to evaluate r.t) Axs J dZ = 0 (5. then Eq. (5. Neglecting surface tension. Eq. shear induced dissipation. (5. 92) and (5. 92) Similarly for the control volume shown in Fig. turbulence. and gravitational work terms. 94) implies.218 T H E RMAL H Y D RAU L IC S O F A BWR volume shown in Fig. The mixture energy equation can be derived by adding these equations and applying the interfacial jump condition for energy transfers .) are constituted. 53.91). the energy jump condition is: (5. (5. (5. 93) represent the first law of thermodynamics for each phase.Pi dZ +ft [ P/(l(ex») ((e/)/.91) thus we have. 53 we have for the vapor phase. we have: a ( P/(u/)/Axs(e/)/)dz + f e/'A sdz + Pi a(l( ex»AxsdZ qw" PHdz x az at ql"(l( ex»)AxsdZ q7. (5. For the assumptions made. (5. 94) This is just a mathematical statement of the postulate that the difference in the heat fluxes at the interface results in phase change. conduction. 93) Equations (5. (q'k.90) where. (5. If we assume that the interface is at saturation temperature and neglect kinetic and po tential energy in Eq. 95) can be used .
97) [ [ z Sine gc . (5.z Sine AX s + � P )K ' at gc _ { [ (1(X» 2 (X)2 ] } ) !. at ( at 2gcl P/ ( l . 96) q ". and we have defined. 100) . 98) ap Ax s = 0 _ (5.s(x).Ax .q�.( ) 0: 0: (5 .(x» g + .s(1 .q"'Ax .s az az (5. 92) and (5.96).Ax . a az gc g ] .l By combining Eqs .s a az a az ( » + qg".(CAx . 99) where Eq.s(x)hg) z a az a C2 +.:J ]Ax . (5.( o:» Pg( O: ) _ +  Ax s (5. :t [ P/ (l . . (5.( GAx . we obtain G3(1 .21) with Eq . ! q"'(1 .PH .91) and (5. 93) and using Eq. ( G3( X )3 2gc Pg 0: Sine .( x) )3 a a .TWOPH ASE F LOW 219 Adding Eqs.s az az 0: 2gc PI + . (5. (5.�) + Pg(O:) ((eg)g .( » ( (e/)/ .57) has been used to simplify the potential energy term.(x»hIJ + . 94) w e obtain the mixture energy equation in the form: + where. 2( )2) + .. (5 . 2(1 ( » 2 ]  + .[ GAx .s = 0 0: � (wI(e/)/) + � ( wg(eg )g) .) .GAx .s(l .
104) by combining it (5. h P (p ) = [ ( _p ) dd(h) + (h.101) (p ) p (l ( » p (o:f (h) hi + (X)hlg and ( p ' ) was defined previously in Eq.s + q"PH + q"'Ax J 1 ap at (5.(h» d((h)) ] [Px + (PI . Moreover. (5.102) is not a true Lagrangian formulation and.a [ Ax .102) where for the special case of a saturated twophase mixture. 1960). in which the properties are only a function of (h). (5. thus.102) has been widely used throughout the nuclear industry. In some cases. 99) and to combine it with Eq.105) (5.104) where. and to yield.70) 1I aatpAxs + q"PH + qiliAx. Equation (5. it has a limited physical interpretation. . ( p ' ) . xi e g g . (5. however.s �X V' ( ) ( ) )] (P )Axs Dme ( O: ) P/ P az Dt (5. (5. 96) a a = = 220 T H E RMAL H Y DRAU L I C S OF A BWR � 5 " a = can be rewritten as.Ax . 1967).106) The phase velocities can be eliminated from Eq.1"' 2 = [ t(1 (x»0: 3 2 + �(X)3 ] (5. 5 7) to yield (Meyer. we are required to deal with several pseudo densities. Zuber has addressed himself to these shortcomings and has introduced an alternate driftflux form of the energy equation (Zuber. it may be more convenient to expand the left side of Eq. ( p"' ) . (5. Eq. C3 q PH _ _1 ( p") a(h) + C a(h) A"xs + q'" _ Axs az (2gcAx"')2) at az l(p (5. 68).s . when it is used. 69). (5. ( p ").Pg )(x)] d(o:) (5.103) d(x) d Equation (5. (5.e l l = . which more readily lends itself to phenomenological interpretation. with Eqs . 67).
(S.(a) ) P/ + (a) pg ] =  m� . 106). Eq. The last term on the left side of Eq. ap at (S. it is the velocity of propagation of the plane through which no net mass flux passes. Equation (S. and c. which yields. By equating the mass flux terms in Fig.96) . p� U gc [p/ ( u/ )r(1 (a» + pg(uug )�(a)] G/(p ' ) .[pg(a)( ug)g . In Fig. SSb to define the plane through which no net momentum flux passes. it is interesting to consider a compact form of the conservation equations (Yadigaroglu and Lahey.(a» + pg( ug )g (a)] G/(P ) [(1 . constant thermodynamic properties. (Ug)g (u/ . 78) have been used in conjunction with the iden tity.(a» + pg ( g)g (a)] = (5. 102). 109) . S7) and (S.SS). SSa. = G/(p). 1975) . (S. (S. Fur thermore. [P/ ( u/ )/(1 . UIIl is the velocity of the centerofmass of the twophase system. The last term on the right side of Eq. 107) . (q"' ) .(a» (U" . numerous other forms can be derived from Eq. Similarly. (S . we consider the velocities shown in Figs. SSa. 106) is a generalization of the Lagrangian form of the two phase energy equation (Zuber. 1967) .UIIl ) Um = in which the definitions in Eqs.96) to yield. 19) and (S. (S . 107) yields Eq. and negligible internal generation kinetic energy and potential energy. 107) is frequently used as the general equation for evaluating f For the special case of saturated equilibrium. S8) have been used . 106) represents the drift of energy through the centerofmass plane. S6) with Eq.U.. (S. 107) rep resents the volumetric rate of energy transfer due to the evaporation pro cess. 99). 88) . (S. Before discussing the application of these equations. UIIl Equation (S .(a»ot/) +pg (a) OgO(eg)g Ax + q + y1 f( eg)g . (S. U pg (a)( ug )g p/(l . SSa. 107) This form is compatible with the form of the twophase momentum equa tion given in Eq. Another form of the twophase energy equation. b. (S. That is. can be obtained by combining Eqs. (S. O/(e/ q"PH p/(l . )] = /) [P/ (1 . To derive these equations. (S . by equating the momentum flux terms in Fig.TWO.P H A S E F LOW where Eqs. (S.S4) and (S.(e/ )/) f _ ". which has appeared in European literature. It should be obvious that the same information about mixture energy conservation is contained in Eqs. (S. constant pressure.(u/)/)] gc which yields the centerofmomentum velocity as.(a»( (u/)/) [P/(u/ )/(l . and (S.
T H E V E LOCITY OF T H E C E NTER.222 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A BWR e. T H E V E LOCITY OF T H E C E NT E R '() F ·MASS (U rn ) b. T H E V E LOCITY OF T H E CENTER'()FMOM ENTUM (U ) p / c.()FE N ERGY (Ue) Fig. 55 Twophase velocities_ .
aUe ili aatP (S.[ Dp (GAt x s) + (GAxs) aup ] (S. 23) into Eq. they yield no funda . Finally.TwPr .112) The momentum equation can be written in terms of the velocity of the centerofmomentum by expanding the right side of Eq.( p )Ax s sm6 . (S. 22) and (S.96) and regrouping the terms to obtain.112).10S). l 1S) are quite compact and phenomenologically appealing. 67) SSc. (S.113) az az D gc g _ _ gc where. (S. . (S.116) Clearly the conservation equations given by Eqs. to yield. . and (S. (eg)g[pg(a) «ug)g . (S. (S. and com bining it with Eq.110) [p/ (l(a»)(e/ )/ + pg (a)(eg )g ] By using the identities given in Eqs. (S.. (S. and by noting that (e) (e/ ) + (x)(e/g ).(u/)d which yields the centerofenergy velocity. defining the plane through which no net energy flux passes. [pg (eg)g (a)(ug)g + p/ (e/)/(1 . (S.llS) t « p ) e Axs) + ( ) e A xs=q H+q Ax s+. (S. 22). 66) (S.TWOPHASE F LOW 223 in which the definitions in Eqs.. we must deal with three different velocities and.. and have been used . 23). thus.109) ap 1 . and (S.Ue)] = (e/)J [p/(l ..Axaz De D .114) Finally. the energy equation can be written in terms of the velocity of the centerofenergy by introducing the identities in Eqs. P rIp where.= O t az _ _ ) m (S. 1 13). D m D e(p) m e aU « p Axs) + ( p )Axs. by equating the energy flux terms in Fig.(a»)(Ue .(a»)(u/) Ue = =�=�d (S. 23).Axs . (S . (S. Nevertheless. (S.111) Ue G(e) = U (e) a � � The continuity equation i n terms o f the velocity o f the centerofmass has already been given as. 22).
That is. 1 1 7a) and. The unique feature of multiphase flow is its ability to take on different spatial distributions. this exercise is left to the interested reader. This global point of view requires correlations for 1'w . this feature is one of the prime obstacles to an exact analytical treatment. 57 It can be seen that the coordinates of this map are the superficial velocities (jg) and (jI). some knowledge of flow regimes is available for possible use in BWR technology. account for variations with flow regime . . it is necessary to discuss flow regime configurations and analysis. which. primarily because this form is so widely accepted in the nuclear engineering literature. The various flow regimes that can occur in BWR thermalhydraulic anal yses are indicated in Fig. any of the relationships that are derived can be obtained from the other forms. Indeed. 56. Naturally. 1. several important forms. 1960) is frequently used. g . Indeed. in effect. etc . other flow regime maps (e. An alternate approach is to use the appropriate analysis for each flow regime and to couple these analyses at transition points. are solved independently of any explicit consideration as to what flow regime exists. it may be difficult to specify with any degree of accuracy when a given flow regime exists and where transitions occur. (5. It is customary to display these flow regimes in a socalled "flow regime map. have been derived from basic principles by using the same assumptions and approx imations . 1 1 7b) we see that the coordinates could have equally well have been G and (x) . The reader should use the set of equations that he or she is most familiar with and that best satisfies the particular need. . let us note that this has not been an exhaustive treatment of all possible forms of the twophase conservation equations. the conservation equations. Bergles and Suo. however." A typical flow regime map is shown in Fig. 5 . For many practical applications. which appear in the twophase literature. ( a ) .2 Flow Regi mes When discussing twophase flow phenomena. Vg j . In the subsequent analyses performed in this monograph. Meyer's form of the conservation equations (Meyer. 5. . Since. (5. their use is largely a matter of choice. 1966) have been displayed in this fashion. these equations contain no more or less information about the flow field than any of the other forms presented so far. developed in Sec. Again. hence. however. Moreover.224 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U LI C S OF A B W R mental simplification . The present state oftheart is such that this is quite difficult to accomplish. However.
�' :1 .I... ODO Q t 0 0 0 00 C> 0 0% 0 00 " 00 C> O () 0 B ubbl y flow t S l ug flow t � t Churn flow C7 �' 'b � OvO CJ o � .1 '�\\ AA AN � I�� V 0...._ U � ot: a: w D :> CI) /\  0.TWO. 1 0 ���r�����n�� > I U o l W > o :> o l .0 1 0. 00 00 0 � 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 00 ° 0 D • 0 0 t rJ ) t� " ... LIGHT Ptjf. .J..PHASE . ' ..00 0 0 .. OtJ 0 · 0 c> � Liq uid onl y 00 0 0 0 .U.. . .L.J 1 .. __J..J. c.L.. ' . DISPERSED 1m <jv> S U P ER F I C I A L 1 ... ....0 GAS V E L O C I TY (fps) 10 1 00 500 Fig..00 0 t tl " 0 . I ..J.. .J . . .I.\SE DISPERSEDi H t" M IXED iHt. 56 Typical flow regime patterns in vertical flow. : � ) .__''J..L..WJ.u.. m..IL...J . i ii.L. 57 Govier and Aziz flow regime map of vertical air/water at standard tem perature and pressure .w...0 ' ' � " i li 'i" �\!...1 L..' .L.J.. . Ann ular f l ow + ..PHASE FLOW 2 25 t� o 0 0 0' 0 '0 0 0 0 00 0 0° 0 0 g 0 o • DO O oO � . • Mist f l ow + Fig..J...
(5.(a)Ca) ( jl ) + (1 (a Ka . (a ) . 57 are predicted fairly well . b The froth flow regime is ofte n called the c h u r n . the flow regime map shown in Fig. Nevertheless. For example. . Eq . approaches 30% . for relatively pure water.t u rbulent flow regim e . 5. (5. 1969) and are not repeated here. many cases of twocomponent twophase flow. 1 1 9) Flow Regi me Analysis The analysis of twophase flow systems can be quite accurate for situations in which the flow regime is known .. such as that used in BWRs. A good example is seen for foaming fluids (e. 5. = 0. have been solved using this method .3. (jk). In these cases the conservation and constitutive equations that apply to that particular flow regime are used . do not account for variations in fluids or operating conditions (e . (5. 1 1S) are used in Eq.. only valid for steady air/water flow at standard temperatures and pressure (STP) . a frequently used "rule of thumb" is to assume that the bubbly/ slug flow regime transition occurs at. In particular. g . at best. it is frequently assumed that the slug/froth sition occurs in the range of global void fractions from 65 to SO% That is. it is well known that water purity and the addition of surfaceactive agents can dramatically affect the bubbly/slug transition criterion .0 . Thus. Let us now consider the flow regime boundaries. . the coordinates. pressure) . 1 1 Sa) is often a good first approximation . Moreover. As a consequence. Radovich and Moissis (1962) have demonstrated that a large increase in the amount of bubble collision and coalescence occurs as the global void fraction. 2 . 1 19) the bubbly/slug and the slug/froth flow regime boundaries shown in Fig. ( a ). 1 ( j. 1 18a) b flow regime tran Similarly.226 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A B W R It should be stressed that a flow regime map is nothing more than an empirical display of the experimentally observed flow regimes. The general techniques of onedimensional flow regime analysis have been well developed (Wallis. such as air/ water systems. ( a ). 1 1 Sb) One must use caution in applying these criteria . ( a W�j ( a Ka ) (5. 80 It is interesting to note that if the transition void fractions. (5.g.g ) _ (1 . . The socalled Zuber/Findlay driftflux model will be discussed in detail in Sec.65 . given in Eqs. in fire extinguishers) in which bubbly flow stiII occurs for void fractions much greater than 30% . (5. This relationship can be written as. 57 is.
including impurities and surface active agents. an idealized bubbly flow regime can be discussed. the momentu m equations should be modified to account for the effect of virtual mass. as an additional force on the bubble . and interaction be . (5 . the ideal bubbly regime) . In general. it is convenient to regard this additional mass. 1 . we must add. It can be seen that these are equal and opposite "forces" such that they will cancel when the momentum equations for each phase are added to yield the momentum equation of the mixture. 1 B ubbly Flow There is no such thing as fully developed bubbly flow. depends on the geometric configuration of. The virtual mass effect can be accounted for by adding a virtual mass force to the lefthand side of the vapor phase momentum equation. and the mag nitude of the other forces on the bubble. 62) . Nevertheless. the importance of this term will depend on the magnitude of the relative acceleration. although the treatm ent will be necessarily quite abbreviated . since the bubbles tend to grow due to static pressure changes and may coalesce and ag glomerate as they flow through a conduit. The virtual volume param eter. / / = p/Cl'm (cx) ( Os(Ug )g OOfU/ » ) Of ( (l'lIl Mg ) =  gc 5 _ (5. they increase the kinetic energy of the liquid phase that drains around them . As the bubbles accelerate through the liquid. 120b) to the lefthand side of the liquid phase momentum equation. This "virtual mass force" will be zero if there is no relative acceleration. . Cl'm.TWO. e . 120a) M ( l'lIl ) gc (5 . The speed with which this process occurs depends on many factors. Eq . Eq. For our purposes. This effect is the result of the relative acceleration of the vapor phase with respect to the liquid phase. (5. In this sense bubbly flow can be considered as the case in which the bubbles flow with negligible interaction (i . That is. for void fractions less than about 50% . the interaction between bubbles. 5. times the relative acceleration. It is convenient to model this inviscid effect as an increase in the effective mass of the accel erating bubble by some fraction of the mass of liquid displaced .P H A S E F LOW In this section some of the analytical features of those flow regimes of particular importance to BWR technology will be discussed.2 . the virtual mass of the bubble is the true mass plus an additional hydro dynamic mass. 64). In the bubbly flow regime. This volumetric force is given by: P/ C'I l (cx)azAx ( Og(Ofg )g o/Ofu/») u ( Similarly.
Equation (5. 1 0) yield. 123) to yield. ( UR) (ug )g (UI )I ( jg ) . 125) Equation (5 . For example. 125) is a general kinematic result for relative velocity. Zuber and Hench (1962) determined the following empirical relationship between the relative velocity and void fraction: (5. 123) = ( h) (5. This latter effect is given by the interfacial shear term. 128). 124) (5. Equation (5 . For a spherical. 122) Quite a bit of experimental and analytical work has also been done on the kinematics of bubbly flow. noninteracting bubble. (j) (jg) + fj.ex (5 . = The magnitude o f the term. it can be shown that Cv m Y2 (MilneThompson.( h) can be combined with the identity. Cdl(Db ). 127) through the identity. Equations (5.1 . 129) Combining Eqs . 128) (5 .pg)) ]'12 (Db ) = (5 . 126) is related to an equivalent driftflux relationship synthe sized by Wallis (1969) : (5. ( uR) = Ut ( 1 _ (ex »)11 . 121 ) 3 gc CT ( l . the bubbles. 1 27) and (5 .(UI)tI ( Cd ) 2 [ g(P/ . (5 . 1961 ) . for distorted bubbly flow Harmathy (1960) recommends. 126) where Ut is the terminal rise velocity of a single bubble in a still tank. TP· A��s = 3 Cd 4 (Db ) ( ) P/ (ex)( Ug )g . 8) and (5.(UI)/) i (Ug)g . depends o n the hydrodynamic con ditions of the bubbly flow regime. I t should b e stressed that the force due to virtual mass i s not a viscous drag term due to relative slip between the phases. . = = ( ex ) (1 _ (a») (5. The discussion presented below is based largely on the work of Zuber and Hench (1962) .228 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR tween. (jgl ) (ex)(l(ex»)( UR) = (5.
Finally. 1 26) and (5 . if m = 1 (a typical valu e for small bubbles). 58 indicate this dependence and the range of typical values of the parameter m ( m � 1 ) . (5 . from Eqs. In this case. . 1 34) Several interesting properties of this equation are worth noting. 135) .(ex ») (UR ) (5 . This type of analysis is particularly useful in the case of foam drainage problems (Wallis. and it is recommended (Zuber and Hench. then if ( jg )/ Ut > 1/4. and (5. This is the general kinematic relationship deduced by Zuber and Hench (1962) . Eq. 1 32) (5. 1962) that for churn turbulent bubbly flows m = ." This is the case in which a gas is bubbled through a still pool of liquid . 133) yields.( jl ) (ex ) (5 . and Eq. including the size of the bubble . 1 30) (5 .(ex ») m + 1 imply. 1 23) Vgj = Ut (1 . we may also note that since (}J) = 0. m. (5. which implies that if. this model shows that we may have a low void fraction region and a high void fraction region (Le .(ex ») . a foam) . 1 3 1 ) The numerical value of the parameter. several special cases will be discussed. 130) and Vgj = ( ug )g . (5 . (5 . (5 .(j ) = (1 .PHASE FLOW 229 Thus. (5 . 1 36) (5 . Equations (ex ) Vgj = U1 ( ex ) (1 . For largediameter bubbles.TWO. For example. Hence. m = n . 70) implies. (5 . 1 26) Vgj = Ut (5 . 126) (5 . 1 33) can be combined to yield. 1953) shown in Fig. To acquaint the reader with its use. The max imum possible void fraction is obtained by differentiating ( jg )/Ut with re spect to (ex ) and setting the result equal to zero. then a flow regime change must take place. Eqs. It is interesting to note that at a given value of ( jg )/Ut . ( iJ) = 0. In particular.1 . 134) implies that several different (ex ) may satisfy it.( ex»)111 + 1 = ( jg ) (1 . This is an interesting case. wake inter actions become quite strong. 1 3 1 ) it implies. 1 29) we see that. for m = I. The data (Haberman and Morton. depends on a number of param eters.l . in accordance with Eq. a transition from ideal bubbly flow occurs. 1969) . since. This procedure yields (ex)max = l/( m + I). (5. It is interesting to note that Eq. Let us first consider a "batch process.
. 1 0. 0 1 L__. 58 Terminal rise velocity of air bubbles in filtered or distilled water as a function of bubble size ._............Q1 0....00 1 0.__ ...__ .. �_ 0 . I N TE R ACT I NG BUBBLES SPH E R I C A L 3/4 '" m " 1 1:SPH E R O I D A L :i...._.230 1 00.....I.0 0... ISO U R C E H A B E R MAN AND M O R T O N . S T R O N G S H A PE W A K E I N TE R AC T I ON WE AK I N TE R ACTI O N m a 3 /4 m .0 >' ... .1 A r N ON ..SP H E R ICA L CAP S H A PE ......__ 1 .1 E a U I V A L E N T R A D I US . 0. G 0 ' w l > �� !!! II: ' < Z w 1 ..__.I.. .... 1 12 __....0 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR ..I.. 1 9 5 3 1 0bf 2 l i nchlll Fig.. _L.0 � II: w '\] :c .
345 (5. Griffith and Wallis. Although clearly discernible slug flow is rare in a diabatic system. (ug ) . . this is the case that occurs when a flask of liquid is drained .126) to eliminate the terminal rise velocity. it is very often seen in adiabatic systems. due in large part to the work of Griffith at MIT (e.PHASE F LOW 231 Next. 1950) to be. The most important group has been found to be the ratio of the inertia to the buoyancy force. (UR). given in Eq.133) (jg)/Ut = )(1 (5.1 70). This relationship is of interest. g . The unique feature of th is case is that we have a volumeforvolume exchange of each phase. (jg ). (5. is greater than the velocity of the vapor phase. 1961). Hence. The case of most interest in BWR technology is cocurrent upward flow. 1962) and analytically (Davies and Taylor.137) By combining Eqs. Ut = Vgj (5. the analysis of the slug flow is in fairly good shape. Vz (5.139) Fractional analysis can be applied to determine the appropriate functional form of the terminal rise velocity.137) and (5. As an example.140) Ut = kl [gDb (:I . let us consider the case of countercurrent flow. in which the gas flows upward and the liquid flows downward. since it implies that the relative velocity.169) . slug flow is not random. It has been found that the terminal rise velocity can be taken to be the drift velocity.141) For the more general case in which viscous and/or surface tension effects are important. which is flowing in a negative direction. Eq.2 Slug Flow Unlike bubbly flow.  ( 0. one may work with the pertinent force terms in Eqs . k}=0. That is. (h) (5. This is simply a consequence of the fact that the vapor velocity is taken relative to the liquid phase.133). Bubbly flow regimes of this type are common in the lower part of BWR fuel rod bundles. a situation described by Eq. (5. we obtain: (5.pg) ] The empirical parameter kl has been determined experimentally (White and Beardmore. the void fraction fluctuates periodically. Solving for the terminal rise velocity yields (5.138) =( 0. (5.2. 5. )) 111 + 1 Ut . Fortunately. Thus. becomes.TWO. 1 .
1 42) kJ = 0 . < ji ) = 0 . 18 < 250 (5. since it may occu r in the stea m separator stand pipes .Ps ) ] '/2 (S . A criterion has been proposed (Wallis. for lower liquid flow rates there is a region between the slug/annular transition that is frequently referred to as the froth (or churnturbulent) flow regime. ] � NEG = M � 69N. A modified parameter has been proposed by Wallis ( 1 969) : (5. They are given by. has been replaced by the hydraulic di ameter.NE(")/M ] } in which.6<ji) .0 . (5. in which the conduit boundaries are wet by the liquid while the vapor phase primarily collects in interior regions. 1 40) to reflect the relative importance of these other effects .' . * � . 1 47) < ji ) � < j. 34S) ] { I . 01 N. That is. However. 1 46a) . 37 . (5 . {W' 25. the values of kJ may need to be modified due to channel inclination and geometric effects.Ps ) p . ( p . . dimensionless inverse viscosity Eotvos number N.< Js > Pg / IR D I f ( P' . The transition criterion is given by.exp( .) P Y'/ [g D H ( P' . � [ Dt.Ps) gcu \I. occurs when slug flow breaks down . This criterion is given in terms of the normal ized superficial velocities. (5 . (5. <m and < ji) . (5. \I' L < Jg > . 57.g(p. 1 46b) where the bubble diameter. 1 40) through (5. 18 N. 1 43) (5. D H . 345 [ 1 . 1969) by which the slug/annular transition can be predicted . gc J. N. There is no clearly defined transition between the slug and annular flow regimes . Db . Annular flow.Pg ) ] \I' . 145) allow one to calculate the terminal rise velocity for slug flow for many cases of practical interest. as shown in Fig./0 . 1 45) Thus Eqs. g D f.T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A B W R or modify the parameter kJ in Eq . when the liquid slugs between the large vapor bubbles disappear.exp[(3. since the large. These parameters are the square root of the phasic Froude numbers and represent the ratio of the momen tum flux of each phase to the buoyancy force. The slug flow regime is of interest in BWR technology. spherical cap bubbles of the slug flow regime generally fill the conduit. Moreover. thus design values of this parameter should be experimentally verified if at all possible . the flow regime of most interest in BWRs is the annular flow regime.l. 1 44) > < < 250 N. 4 + 0 . As in bubbly flow.
As indicated in Fig. and due to the subjective nature of determining the transition boundaries. Equation (5. the co nstant C* has a value between 6.5 and 22. This is primarily because modern BWRs normally operate so that annular flow conditions exist in the upper portion of the fuel rod bundles. wispy annular flow is the situation frequently observed at higher mass fluxes (G > 1 . while the vapor phase and any entrained liquid tend to collect in the open.4 + 0 . It is characterized by the entrained liquid flowing in large agglomerates somewhat resembling ectoplasm . the Iiquid vapor interface is normally quite irregular due to the presence of surface . 2 6 It can be seen that for the lower mass fluxes (G/10 <S 1 . ) � (0. It has been shown both experimentally and analytically (Hinze. (j. 1948) that the appropriate stability criterion can be given in terms of a critical droplet Weber number.. This flow regime has been extensively studied and an excellent treatise has been written by Hewitt and HallTaylor (1970) . 147) can be used for estimating the slug/annular transition boundary for the lower mass fluxes. 5. 6(ji»). 147) are reasonably consistent.1. It is characterized by the entrainment of relatively small liquid droplets. Thus. Ideal annular flow is the situation in which there is no entrainment of the liquid phase and there is a smooth. We note that this simple criterion and Eq. 147) is compared with data (Bergles and Suo. Otherwise bubbly or slug slow conditions would be expected. 59. 148) where Od is the droplet diameter and. the treatment that will be given to the annular flow regime in this section will be rather brief. 0 x 106 Iblll/hft2) . This situation is highly idealized. 59. is shown in Fig. for relatively nonviscous fluids. 1 966) in Fig. higher velocity regions . Weerit � [ pg « ug )g gc .P H A S E F L OW 233 If.3 Annu lar Flow The annular flow regime is quite important in BWR technology. Due to the existence of this reference. (5. ( a )c == 0. (5. Spray an nular is the annular flow regime most frequently found in BWR fuel rod bundles.( U l ) t}2 0d ] cril = C* (5. There are various arbitrary subdivisions of annular flow that may exist. symmetric liquidvapor interface.65. but is quite useful for analytical purposes . 0 Ibm/hft ) the trends are generally correct. A value in the range of 7. depending on the process of droplet formation .5 to 13 is recommended for application to problems in BWR technology In both the spray annular and wispy annular flow regimes. it is reasonably accurate. Also the rule of thumb. The size of these droplets is determined by the stability of the liquid droplets to various shattering mechanisms. Eq . The unique feature of annular flow is that the liquid phase collects on the walls of the conduit. one should expect annular flow .2. 59.TWO .
0 � <!I " �I �I 1 .65 W I S P Y AN N U L A R O.0 J I I I I I I I I I 1 000 PSli 0 500 Pi_a pSI SUD ' 966 1 • W A L L I S T R AN S I T I O N < <lI C R I T E R I ON t F R OT H C R I T E R I ON > = 0.0 4. !.0 3. .B 9{ S LUG 0.4 I \ �\ \ \ \ � t \ \ \ SP R A Y A N N U L A R \\ 0.3 \\ � \ \ 0.TH F RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S O F A I3WR '0 I SO U R C E BE RGLES AND 1 000 5.6 0. .0 2. I 500 ps l a I / I • WALLIS TRANSI T ION C R I T E R I ON < Q 0 C R I T E R I ON > '"' 0. .65 ?} I I . 59 Flow reg i m e ma p .2 � 1 ______�______________�______�____�______________� o 10 15 20 25 30 36 <x> 1 '16 1 Fig.
is limited . first principle film d ry . 11l. primarily because the quality increases monotonically in the flow direction .TWO. It is commonly supposed that equilibrium conditions in this mass transfer process are fairly rapidly achieved.:.o ut models for critical power determination in rod bundles are beyond the present state .'6/a (Hutchinson and Whalley. A consequence of this state of understanding on BWR technology is that it is currently virtually impossible to keep an accurate inventory of the liquid films in rod bundles (having spacer grids) using a physically based analytical model . That is. = kC (5. although there are approximate empirical rela tionships for the onset of entrainment and the fully developed entrainment fraction. Ill. 1970). our ability to calculate accurately the en trainment mass flux. particularly for complex geometries. 1 972) . this feature of annular flow greatly complicates the analysis that must be performed . 1 49) where C is the mean concentration (lbllllfe ) of liquid droplets in the vapor stream and k is an empirically determined mass transfer coefficient. as shown in Fig. . 1 954) . nucleate boiling may also cause substantial entrainment (Newitt et ai.1) can be given by a diffusion model. 1 980) that the larger droplets follow ballistic trajectories. the distribution of entrained liquid builds up slowly to some "fully developed" profile in which droplet deposition and entrain ment are balanced. Nevertheless. The instability mechanisms ca using surface waves are closely related to the process of liquid entrain ment (Hewitt and HallTaylor. The mechanisms involved in liquid droplet deposition are also not com pletely understood . 1 966) that in the diabatic situation there is a strong trend toward the "hydrodynamic equilibrium" state. the thin. and that for small droplets ( Dd < 10 fJ. The process of entrainment and the behavior of the entrained liquid is very complicated . very little is known abou t the nonequilibrium process of devel op ing entrainment and.P H A S E F LOW wa ves. The present stateoftheart is such that our qualitative un derstanding far outweighs our quantitative knowledge. Quantitative relation ships for this equilibrium state are not well known nor is the process controlling the dynamics of the developing entrained fraction well estab li sh ed. In a diabatic situation. liquid film is pe rio d ically washed by roll waves having amplitudes an order of magnitude gre ater than the thickness of the liquid film . Clearly. where the rate of entrainment of liquid balances the deposition rate. Thus. Nevertheless. hence. much work remains to be done. it has been shown (Bennett et ai.m) the deposition mass flux ( 111. 51 0.. In some situations. fully developed conditions are never achieved. such as that occurring in a BWR rod bundle. almost stationary. although in the diabatic case. having the units of velocity It is now known Games et aI. Progress continues to be made in this area as evidenced by the success of entrainment correlations in terms of the parameter T. For instance.
0 Fig.. ( S O U RC E · 0.236 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A B W R 250 0 200 • • � • � 0 'V • • 0 0 24 60 97 1 33 lSI 191 1 15 42 78 HeIght I mc h es l 1 73 209 ISO � � 209 1 00 m.4 Ralio. . 24 In. 78 in. 51 0 Distribution of water mass flux in air/water flow as a function of distance from injection sinter..2 0. o 0. 42 I n .B V/O G ' L L . 1 964 1 1 . 1 33 m .6 O. . 6 m. 1 73 i n . 60 50  In.
( A » ) p / (5 . lS0b) and (S . (S .(A ») ( u / ) / + P/ (A) ( U/ ) /F + pg ( a ) ( ug )g ] e + pg Ax . RHS (5 . (S .(x») + + (a) pg ( A ) P/ [ ac at + Ax . (j . Hence. 15Oc) into Eq.TWO . 151). l S0a) _ C( l . 1 5 1 ) az{ AxsC [ a 2 ] }] E ( 1 . lS0c) refer to the average velocity of the liquid film and the entrained liquid. (S. Now.( a) .P H A S E F LOW 237 of. and (A) as the volumetric fraction of the liquid film . If we define E as the fraction of the liquid phase that is entrained. it has been shown that the momentum equations of separated two phase flow can be modified to account for the effect of the entrained liquid (Hewitt and HallTaylor.{it [ a 1 ( p / ( l . 65) show that.s (a) ( ug )�] Introducing Eqs.(a) .(x»)(l .the art. the only effect of liquid entrainment on the momentum equation of the twophase mixture is to modify the spatial acceleration term. however. Taking into account entrainment it can be rewritten as. (S. l S0b) = C(l .(X») (l . l50b). 2 one obtains. } (5 . respectively. (5 . the righthand side of Eq. For in s tance.65) = 2 2 (xf (1 . gc RHS (5.!.s 1 and (5. 150a). where our current understanding is su fficient to improve the analysis of twophase flow phenomena . Eqs.(A) ) P/ (5 . Whalley (1987) gives a good review of film flow modeling techniques for those readers interested in further information on this subject. 1 52) 2 (5. 1 50c) where the subscripts F and e in Eqs. then the various velocities can be written as. 1 52) and (S. (5. The resultant momentum equation is thus: . 1 970) .65 ) = gc .(x»)E (1 . Nevertheless. There are other cases. aside from small changes in void fra ctions. some progress is being made toward this goal.E ) (U / ) /F ( A ) P/ (u / ) / . 65) represents the acceleration of the twophase mixture.(a) .E ) (1 .
and (5. K( ) sin8 .. (5. which is reasonably accurate in some cases. E. One popular assumption. 153) . Although the discussion concerning the effect o f entrainment has been directed toward the momentum equation. a correlation for the entrainment fraction. Re = P l (j/ )/ILI and the inception of entrainment is given by the criterion: 1 1 .� � g (J � 8. by equating Eqs. We = pg ( Jg) 2 D H (J }) J (5. 156) (A) = 1 (a) _ P / ( X) _ / { PI. the effect of including entrainment has been to introduce two new dependent variables. .(x) )E (5.V3 . Re / < 1635 IL/ (jg ) . Thus.X) ) Pl + (1 . 156) that we can eliminate (A) in favor of the known variables (a) and (x) and the parameter E . 150) . one must either make experimental measurements or make some assumption about the velocity of the entrained liquid. 154) where.!. Normally.(a) .(X») + (a) Pg X . Rei � 1635 ( Pl PgPg )V3 { (5. Ishii and Mishima (1984) recommend the following entrainment correlation for fully developed annular flows: E = tanh(7. the energy equation of the two phase mixture would be modified as well.E(A) Pl.A xPsf = gc (ilGt + A x_ _ p il While there are currently no reliable correlations for developing flows. 25 x 1 O .238 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L ICS OF A BWR 2 (X)2 2 ) 2 (1 E2 (1 � Ax s G2 (1 . E and (A) . 1 50a) and (5. e . 25 Re p · 25) (5. 91).96).y/(J/[g/gc (P/ .7We 1 . is to assume "no slip" between the vapor phase and the entrained liquid (i.(A) ilz _ ilp { [ ilz gc _ 1 Tw . .Pg )] } 'h We note in Eq. To quantify (A). is used. 150b). 155) where. (5. (5. pg (a)(l . N IL = ILI Mathematically. as can be seen by combining Eqs.) . (5. 78 N� 8Re /. (ug)g = (Ul) /.
51 1 . are not yet available for detailed analysis of annular flows.8} = 7 . = (  R . 7 ( R . By neglecting any momentum contribution due to acceleration of the phases. entrainment effects are either not considered. the force balance becomes.pg SlOe dz gc . 158} p + :i .TWOPHASE F L OW 239 In actual practice. 51 1 Idealized annular flow. which simplifies to..a} + pg alr dr I r I (5. 157) o For the special case of no liquid entrainment and a smooth interface.. Unfortunately.dz gc r J [ PI ( 1 . dp g ) (5. as shown schematically in Fig.o. Some interesting features of annular twophase flow can be appreciated by doing a simple force balance for the case of idealized annular flow in a tube. are lum ped into the void correlations. r 7( r } = 2 ( ) a dP g sine . ac curate correlations for the nonequilibrium entrainment fraction.8) 2 ( . E.. 157) gives the interfacial shear stress as. or are treated approximately using cor relations (i. z Fig.. (5. Eq. e . . . in the advanced "twofluid" models) .
162) (5. (5. and Eq.160) Tw 2 ( R . _ dp = K p sine dz gc g = (R & g . This is essentially the minimum value it can obtain (Hewitt and HallTaylor. Eq. for hor izontal flow (e = this flow rate will produce a frictional pressure drop and thus a positive wall shear stress.240 T H E RM A L H Y D RA U L ICS OF A B W R where & is the mean film thickness. (5. R [ 2Ti g .( 2 p .( p ) sme d dz g gc ( P/ _ .157) which simplifies to. such as those discussed in Sec.160) implies that Ti 0. R Tw = .&) gc g )(l .163) = Physically this means that for deg < e < deg.161) implies that for 0 deg e 180 deg. (5. In contrast. Ti = < < < (5.& = R v'( a ) .. 2) [gc (PI . which are based on the work of Martinelli . Tw.158) and (5. however. 5. (5. the pressure gradient is just equal to the value it would have for a static twophase system. if. which has been assumed to be the same in both the liquid and vapor phase.(a») sme ] =. When. wall.. ) p  Several things can be noted from these simple relationships.161) then Eq. can be eliminated between Eqs . First of all. That is. there is downflow of the liquid film. If it is also assumed that the liquid film contains no voids and it is noted can be used to obtain the shear stress at the that R .159) The pressure gradient.159) yields. For the case under consideration. This simple example should warn the reader about the limitations inherent in pressure drop models.159) to obtain. Tw O. 0). it has no pressure loss due to wall friction . 4. (5. . (5.(a») sme ] then Eq. (5. (5.. the system flow increases the interfacial shear stress in order to maintain the annular flow configuration.Pg )(1 . (5.160) implies Tw 0 and Eq.dp = K (" p > sine dz gc 0 180 1970).
.. The interested reader is referred to the references cited for a more thorough treatment.. (Martinelli and Nelson.j 5 I DOWN F L OW t  dp /dZ > g/gc PQ 2 3 4 5 g/ c P � > g dp /dZ = CASES dp /dZ > g/ c < p > g g/gc < p >  (g/gc < p » > dp/dZ = dp /dZ > g/gc Pg g/ c Pg g Fig. annular twophase flow. idealized annular twophase flow . 51 2 Typical velocity a nd shear stress profiles for vertical..P H A S E F LOW 241 T" j WALL UP F LOW   . The consideration of flow regime analysis just presented has been nec essarily brief and has been slanted toward items having possible applica tions in BWR technology. which are of use in the thermalhydraulic analysis of light water nuclear reactors.TWO . In the next section we will be con cerned with voidquality relations. ��. It can be seen that many inter esting situations are possible. Figure 5 . . 1948) and in which it is implicitly assumed the wall shear stress is constant regardless of orientation. 1 2 is a schematic representation of some of the shear stress and velocity profiles that can occur in vertical.
5. in particular for bulk boiling situations . In this sense. (5. We now consider the derivation of a generalized voidquality model .j )a)/(a) (5. By averaging across the crosssectional flow area. Ug j + ( ug . 167b) Equation (5.j ) or where. It is characterized by the fact that both the liquid and vapor phases are saturated and is by far the most important case of interest in BWR technology. 1 66b) By using the relations given in Eq. quantifies the effect of the radial void and volumetric flux distribution . 164) yields. 6). the analysis of nonhomogeneous twophase systems requires that we relate the flowing quality to the holdup void fraction . 165) (5. 1965).242 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A B W R 5. first for diabatic conditions of saturated equilibrium (bulk boiling) and then for nonequilibrium (subcooled boiling) conditions. (a) = ( jg ) (Co( j ) + Vg j ) Vg j � «( ug .3 . 167a) (5. (5. we write the identity.3 VoidQual ity Analysis To have the number of independent equations equal the number of de pendent variables. We discuss the specification of this important relationship. 168) The concentration parameter. we discuss various voidquality models that have been used successfully in the analysis of twophase flow phenomena.j ) = (5. 164) (5. Co. This parameter can be regarded as a mea . Co � (ja)/( j )(a» (5. 166a) can be solved for a fundamental relationship for deter mining void fraction. 166a) (5. 1 Bulk Boiling The situation of diabatic onecomponent twophase flow in saturated equi librium is commonly known as bulk boiling. In this subsection. the appropriate voidquality relation can be thought of as the twophase equationofstate. Following the work of Zuber (Zuber and Findlay. Eq . (jg) = Co(j ) (a) + Vg j (a) jg = aj + a( ug .
Equations (5. we write down the important forces and then form the various ratios of these forces. net { forcebuoyancy } . 169a). 169b) = 1T Db IT (5. 1 69c) then yield. p fut 2 2� 4 ggc IT ( P/ . P/ Ut Db = ld gcIT 2 (5.8. In fractional analysis. 172) By solving Eq. 171) The product of these dimensionless groups yields. (5. Ut = k3 'I. [ (PI . .P H A S E F LOW 243 s ure of the global slip due to crosssectional averaging. 1 73) <Stokes' dra g law. (5 . 169b). 172) for the terminal rise velocity. (5 . we can perform fractional analysis (Kline. 169a) (5. In accordance with the rules of classical fractional analysis. 169c) (5. For instance.! 1TDg ( PI 2 = PI U2 ! 1TDb c t 4 g = 3 1T Ut VI DbPl . 1965) on a flowing twophase system. 169d) In the important case of churnturbulent bubbly flow. we assume that the ratio between these forces is constant. To gain some appreciation for the various functional forms of Vgj . and (5. 1 70) and.k3  (5.TWO. The drift velocity.. is a measure of the local slip and is closely related to the terminal rise velocity. the most important force groups have been found to be the ratio of the inertia force to the buoyancy force and the ratio of the inertia force to the surface tension force. Ut.�)ITggC ] . Vgj. of the vapor phase through the liquid. which app ear in the literature. in bubbly/slug flow.6 _ pg ) on a bubble force { inertiabubble } ( ) on a surface { force ontension } a bubble { viscous forceC } on a bubble . gc (5.pg ) _ k 1 k2 . (5. the important forces are given by.
for churnturbulent flows. Eq. 8b). 1 75) .23). 1 77) = C0 + (5. and (5. 176) to yield. 175). Eq.(x») (x) (5. Vgj . 173) is a frequently used expression for the drift velocity. P I Pf. is retained for generality. (a) = Comparison of Eqs. (5. the subSCript. O for this flow regime. Similar expressions for Vgj can be derived for other flow regimes (Lahey. (5. 174) (5. (5. 168) can be combined with Eqs . Eq.(x») G(l . G(l . 178a) or S = (l .22). 132). This is frequently referred to as "integral slip. 9) yield the socalled "Bankoff void model" (Bankoff. If we neglect the local slip between the phases (i. 178a) represent the slip due to crosssectional averaging of a nonuniform void fraction profile.1 ) PI PI Vgj + ��� Pg (l . I. 1974).(X») ] + Pg�gj} (x) (Co . (5. however. 1 79) . 168) is frequently rewritten in terms of flow quality. 176) + (j ) (jg) + (M G PI Pg = For bulk boiling. 166a) and (5. (5.Co(a») (M (5.(a») + (1 .Co(a») Vgj (l . 5 { Co [ (x) + :� (1 . 177) indicates that the slip ratio implicit in the ZuberFindlay voidquality model is. (5. when generalized voidquality correlations are con structed. That is. e . 173) is frequently assumed to be valid over all flow regimes. set Vgj = 0). and (5. [ ] Equation (5. by combining Eqs. (5. 1 78b) The first two terms in Eq. (jg) = G(x) Pg = (5. we obtain.(X») (5. 1960). Vgj Uf and. 1 74). however. (5.244 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR As noted in Eq.(a») (1 . For many practical applications. (5. . (5. Eqs. 70) implies Vgj = Uf • Here Eq. since Co= l .25) and (5. in twophase flow." The last term represents the contribution due to local slip between the phases . (S. (5. (5.(x») ( }I ) = PI = = (X) (1 .
Thus. K � 1 . Case 0 is the situation in which there is singlephase vapor flow ( a) 1 . 182) is identical to Eq.(X» (x) (x) (�)/Co = (5. K. (5. then Eq. thus. in general. Eq. (5. = lin ] l . Figure 513 is a representation of various typical void profiles in a once through evaporator. 1 79). (5. Eq.s � [ � ff Ax (ja) dA] (5.0. Case ® is the situation of annular flow and is of great interest in BWR technology. (5. 177). Co � ( ) (a) x . and the homogeneous model.25) for the special case of no slip. Some insight can be obtained by considering the definition of Co in Eq. 182).( i) (5. at a system pressure of p = 1000 psia. (5. (a) = Co (x) + ]= [ :� (1 .P H A S E F LOW 245 The variation with system pressure of the Armand (1959) parameter. thus. (5 . 1 82) Note that Eq. 183) clearly gives Co = 1 . (5. the homogeneous voidquality relation can be obtained from Eq. It is of interest to consider typical values that the concentration param eter. 180) Th us. 183) It is reasonable to assume that the local volumetric flux of the twophase mixture can be expected to follow a power law expression. 184) .TWO. jlj� = [ and. 0.(x» ] ( �) (5. are both special cases of the ZuberFindlay model. 11) implies that we have no slip. Eq. 1 77) by formally setting Vgj 0 to obtain. For example. (a) = It is obvious that if we let Co = 1 in Eq . 181).81 . j becomes very small as the heated surface is approached (Le . 167a). That is. 181) by setting Co = 1 to obtain. h as been given by Bankoff (1960) for water as. comparison of these various voidquality relations indicates that Bankoff's model. r� R ) .71 + O. (5. in a tube this expression is. Co. (5. Eq. (5. (5. OOOlp (psia) (5. 0) and. for instance. 181) [ (x) + :� (1 . 5 = 1. K = 0. could be expected to obtain in a diabatic system. Bankoff's voidquality relation only contains integral slip and can be obtained easily from Eq. K = 0.
01 .A N N U L A R F L OW (CO � 1...  ..L.. .... F U L L Y D E V E LO P E D B U B B L Y A N D/O R S L U G F L OW (Co  I. 1 . 51 3 Diabatic void concentration profiles and flow regimes...1.01 _ _ _ _ D E V E L OP I N G B U B B L Y P R O F I LE _ _ _ _ S U BCOOLE D V O I D I N I T I ATION (Co < II L...________..246 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S O F A BWR ..01 .Z E R O VO I DS (Co  01 Fig...1 00% V A P O R (Co � 1.21 _ _ __ D E V E L OP I N G B U B B L Y P R O F I LE (Co = 1.
185) Co = ( 13 ) [1 + ( 1 1( 13 ) l ) b] = =  where. 177) that must be specified is the drift velocity. the other necessarily must be optimized to ensure that Eq. a typical BWR rod bundle has a rather complex geometry (grid spacers.). the local void fraction is highest in the lower velocity region. Note that the parameters. (5. fully developed conditions and slug flow are rarely obtained and. Eq. respectively. That is. the vapor phase collects in the highvelocity core and the liquid ann ulus normally is rather thin. 187) . thus. in this case. The im lication of this type of distribution is that Eq. 514. 184) . 0. Co can be expected to be larger than unity. 2 are not unusual in adiabatic experiments. Develo ping and fully developed bubbly/slug flow is shown in Cases @ and ®. (5. In fact. subcooled boiling is presumed to occur and. etc. which could be expected to further limit the upper value that Co can obtain.2. in which Co 0. 0. ( 13 ) = and the behavior of Co for intermediate flow qualities can be seen in Fig.) 1 as ( 13 ) . for diabatic bubbly/slug flow. 183) implies Co « 1 . The final parameter in Eq. are not independent. Vgj . 185) gives the functional form of the concen Note that Eq. thus. we obtain Case CD. However. In a diabatic system. (5. (5.) 1 [ (x) + :� (1 . (5. In these situations the local void fraction has been foun d to have a radial profile of the power law type.3.(x» ] (x) (5 . Co can be expected to be somewhat smaller than its corresponding adiabatic value. Furthermore.) 0 as ( 13 ) . (5. Co . 186) Equation (5. (5. 183) . 183) implies Co 1 . 1 77) agrees with the available data. 0 . if the variation of one of these parameters is specified. Nevertheless. (5. 185) satisfies the necessary constraints.0. due to condensation and other effects discussed in Sec 5. A functional form for the variation of Co with pressure and flow quality has been deduced by Dix (1971).TWO. such that Eq. Case ® is again a developing profile. It is well known that values of Co around 1 .g yields Co< 1 . (5. 182) implies that. Co and Vgj . slug flow typically is characterized by a value of Co = 1 . as we approach zero diabatic voids. In the limit.2.PHASE F LOW 247 Typically.) 0 Co . thus. similar in form to Eq. Case 0 is an even more pronounced case of subcooled boiling in that virtually all the voids are in the very low velocity region and. Equation (5.
4 0. . (5.0. 1 73) frequently is assumed to be flow regime independent and. 1971 ) . 9 . Vgj is also a function of flow regime. However. Eq. and (5. 1 88) ± 2. (5 . as discussed pre viously.001 0. 190) . 51 4 Variation of concentration parameter. 51 5 .9 [ ( PI .248 1 .0 Fig.2 1 . (et) = (1 + x?i 8 ) . 1 89) yield a voidquality relation that is reasonably accurate for many practical applications . obtained from a diabatic experiment (Dix. It is evident from Figs . 1 87). (5 .01 < x > 0. the appropriate drift velocity is taken as. 0. Co .. This correlation is shown in Fig. Eq . (5 .4 1 . thus. Another technique that has been employed in the past is to use the empirical correlation for void fraction developed by Lockhart and Martinelli (1949) . tration parameter.2 o T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS O F A B W R . 1 86). with pressure and flow quality .. In general. 7 psi. 1 1 . It can be shown (Wallis. 1 89) Equations (5 . 513 and 514 that Co is a function of flow regime. I v: g} v: ( PI . 1 88) becomes. 1 969) that the mean curve through the data is well represented by. 1 85). respectively . 1 77). 2 .6 0. 1 4 . 3 78 (5.8 0.pg)(J'ggc . The value of Vgj compatible with Eq. SIn e (5.pg)(J'ggc PT ] '14 . (5 . 1 85) is obtained by setting k3 = for upflow and downflow.k3 P [ ] '14 (5 . Co. (5... 2 g) . Thus.0 0.
.PHASE F LOW 249 i\ j ::: e V . is derived directly from first principles.0 1 0...J � (SOURC E : LOCKART ANO MARTINELLI. � 2 Pg PI _ ( )Y2( ). where.... n is the exponent of the Reynold's number in f = C1R�.. ..........(x) (x) (5 ..TWO. 1949) and the phenomenological ap proach taken by Zuber (Zuber and Findlay... ... 1 92 ) .... 0... 191 ) Here. .. Thus. both have been useful to workers in the field of two phase flow. Xt t = A 5 ... To appreciate Levy's model.""""'I0I. 1 965) are excellent examples of the state of voidquality models. and normally has a value in the range of 0. 1_. 1 11 .. _.. . However. The empirical approach taken by Martinelli (Lockhart and Martinelli.. 5·1 5 Martinelli's correlation for void fraction ..... although only valid for a special case.. Martinelli's parameter. 2 to 0 .... Neither model is based strictly on first principles.. 1 10 100 Fig...... .. 0....§ I 0. Xtt .84) yields......l. .._. . ... (5.. _........._. A more basic approach has been taken by Levy (1960) in that his void quality model. (5 .. .. 4....1/2 ( ) fLg fL l 1 . consider the case of highly accelerating "flashing flow.... we can neglect the wall and interfacial shear and body force terms in comparison with the spatial acceleration and momentum exchange terms. is given by. .... .01 __ .... as discussed in more detail in Sec...... Eq." In this case. 25 . . .. . ... . for steady state....
Thus. 1 97) By combining Eqs.(x» 2 + 0 gcPI dz Pg (a) (1 . 1969) that 1')m 1 . 199) (5. Eq.(a» 2 (1 .P/ (U I ) I UI I = 0 Tz d gc dz Equation (5. C 2 � E!. (5.(a» (u/)T . 196) To reduce this to Levy's (1960) original notation. 1 94) If we subtract Eq.(a »2 2 [ ] (5. d(ug )g Pg (ug )g dz gc _ [gc(1(l1')m )» � J «ug )g . 197) can also be written as an exact differential. (x) 2 (1 . 193) are the appropriate steadystate momentum equations for the liquid and vapor phases.(a » (U I )/2 ] . (5. it is significant to note. 199).(a » 2 (1 .( U/ ) / ) + (ug )g dz dz gc ( a ) gc (5. yields. . it is often assumed (Wallis. (5. For steady flow in a constant area duct. = l d d d( ) 2 ( pg (a)( Ug )g) + ) PI (1 . yields.� (u/ )T ] = 0. (5. 193) from Eq. and combine the resultant equationd with Eq. .(X»2 _ ! (1 . we obtain Levy's "momentum exchange" model in the form.250 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S O F A B W R and Eq. 1 93) Equations (5.(a »2 _ (5. 56). 192) and (5. 196) yield. 194). 195) and (5. (5. (5. 200) d it is implicitly assumed that there is no radial pressure gradient in the twophase mixture . respectively. 1 95) (5. and (5. { } (5. 198). with the initial conditions (a) = 0 at (x) = 0. 23). 1 92) to eliminate .(X» 2 1 + Pg (a) (1 . we obtain. d( ug ) d Pg g .P = 1') m f « ug )g . For the high evaporation rates associated with rapidly accelerating flashing flow. (5. the equation of vapor continuity.c :z [ pg(a) (ug ): + PI (1 .(u/)/) C d(dzx) (a gc (a) _ PI U/ ) d( u I ) 1 = 0 ( I dz gc (5 . d( ) r=c x dz (5. (5. 83) yields. Eqs. 2 PI (X) (1 . 22).dp/dz. (5. 198) Integration of Eq.(x» 2 1 (1 .
2(a») 2 + (a) 2 ( 1 . the subcooled boiling process can be subdivided into two regions. 1 85). Bulk boiling tends to dominate the nuclear and thermalhydraulic per formance of a BWR. (5. Region I is commonly referred to as the region of wall voidage. and (5 . 187). (5 . 1958). Several voidquality models now have been discussed . any sophisticated analysis of a modern BWR requires the use of a reasonably accurate subcooled voidquality model. subcooled boiling is characterized by the fact that thermodynamic equilibrium does not exist. (5. l .3. we obtain Levy's (1960) void (a) . we attempt to summarize and unify the most important analytical and experimental work done to date and recommend those tech niques considered to be the most accurate. 5.e .2(a») ] } V2 (5. The most accurate and generally useful of these voidquality models is the modified Zuber Findlay model given by Eqs. + (a)(l .(a»)2 + PI 2 (1 .TWOPHASE F LOW 251 By solving Eq.:. . However.(a») 2 + (a)( l . This bubble boundary layer continues to grow under the competing effects of bubble coalescence and condensation until the void departure point. 189) . 2 00) for flow quality.2(a») (x) = .. (5. Zd. 1 77). experimental observations (Dix.:. assuming that Co accurately reflects subcooled boiling characteristics . even though the mean enthalpy of the liquid phase is less than saturation (i.2(a» ) Pg (a) ( 1 . Although the present discussion has been oriented toward bulk boiling situations. a situation of subcooled boiling exists. . nevertheless. In this subsection..(a» ) 2 + (a)( l . In accordance with a suggestion by Griffith (Griffith et aI. is reached.(. the voidquality relationships derived have been in terms of flow quality and thus are also applicable to subcooled boiling situations.''"'PI 2 ( 1 . Originally it was suggested that the voids in this region adhered to the heated surface. 1 86).. 201) Although not of general applicability. (5 . quality model. (5 . (x). . Eq.. Figure 516 is a schematic of a typical subcooled voidfraction profile in a heated tube. 201) has been found to cor relate twophase critical flow data reasonably well. voids are ejected into the subcooled core and significant void fraction begins to appear.2 (a» ) Pg { [ :.2 Subcooled Boi l ing Where there is local boiling from the heated surface. (h I ) < hf ). From this point on. That is. 1971 ) have shown that the voids actually travel in a narrow bubble layer close to the wall.
The ability to predict accurately the boundaries of Regions I and II is essential to the prediction of accurate void fraction profiles. further up the heated channel. the nucleation point. q" = Hl </> ( Tw. From this point on. Note in Fig. In contrast. the subcooled and bulk boiling void profiles merge... . .. 202) . For analyses that require considerations of Region I. .. At some point in the channel.. 51 6 Void fraction during forced convection subcooled boiling. the void fraction existing in Region I can be neglected. Zn . e .. .TI ) . BOILING I F LOW I � I _ _ .... In Region II. hi . although the bulk enthalpy is saturated (i. The location of the point of initial void nucleation is rather difficult since it is dependent on surface finish and chemistry. For many practical applications.. voids that are ejected from the bubble layer condense in the subcooled core and raise the mean liquid enthalpy. e .. the mean liquid enthalpy is still subcooled (i. (h) = hf ).. Zbulk = A. can be defined in terms of a critical subcooling by equating the singlephase forced convection heat flux at Z = Zn . there already are significant subcooled voids and.252 T H E RM A L H Y D RA U L I C S OF A B W R . Zeq .... (5... the void fraction in Region II can be appre ciable and normally must be considered .. . (hi) < hf ) ' At some point. Z Zd X Zeq Fig. true thermodynamic equilibrium is achieved and both phases are saturated. BULK BOILING � < h� h > s hin = hi hQ < « h >J « h>J < hf hQ = (h Q Jd REGION I I I I I « h >J > h f I h� = hf I Z Q A e V � WALL VOIDAGE REGION I DETACHED VOIDAGE � o Zn 9 D I STANCE ALONG HEATED SUR FACE. an equilibrium heat balance would give the onset of bulk boiling. and the subjective interpretation of the experimentalist. 516 that at Z = Zbulk.�___ SUBCOOLED .
1963) (5. the location of the void departure point. C2 and n. either set can be used . Note that all of these criteria predict a similar dependence on the heat and mass flux. Tsat is in oR. the critical subcooling is proportional to the heat flux and inversely proportional to the mass flux to some power. C2 = 15.TWO. 204) . the energy flux at the surface can be arbitrarily partitioned into that required to form vapor. The location of the initial void ejection into the subcooled liquid core can be determined fairly well experimentally and normally is given in terms of a critical sub cooling. (5. is greater at every axial position than the value calculated by Eq.PHASE F LOW 253 By equating Eqs.203) Kf at ( 8(JT8shfVfg ) 77 g (Davis and Anderson. Tw. C2( TwlI . based on the departure criterion alone.206) are approximately equivalent over a wide pressure range and. in Fig. 206) . 204) whi ch can be solved numerically or analytically for Twll• The recommended values of the nucleation parameters. C2 to an appropriate nucleation criterion of the form.Tl )] (5. It may turn out that the actual wall temperature. The most important element in any effective subcooled boiling model is to be able to calculate accurately where significant void fraction appears. it should be assumed that nucleation begins at the inlet of the heated section . q" = C2 ( TWII . In this case. Thus. either analytically as. have been obtained from the nucleation model discussed in Chapter 4.205) n = 2. 205) and (5 . The most accurate of these criteria has been found to be those of Levy (1966) and Saha (Saha and Zuber.Tsat) + (Tsat . (5. 1974) .6p 1 . Zd . thus. 516. 203). that associated with singlephase convection. that is.3Ipo .202) and (5. (5. 1966) (5.Tsat)" = H l <1> [ ( TwlI . that is. let us consider a control volume at the heated surface of our system.0 or graphically as.Tsat) " (5. Assuming that subcooled boiling oc curs. q�vap . To better understand subcooled boiling. we �annot determine whether initial void ejection is controlled by hydrodynamic or heat transfer processes. Table 51 tabulates several of the most widely used void departure criteria. n = 2. 1 56 where p is in psia. and q" is in Btu/hft2 The parameters given in Eqs .0234 } (Bergles and Rohsenow.
. 94 + 0. " q " = q .. The total energy flux from the heated surface.. is then given as. " (5.l .254 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U LICS OF A B W R TABLE 51 Summary of Void Departure Criterion Criterion (Critical Subcooling. 5 . If: O "'.. 0 [hr .(hr)d ) = cp. 2000. OOO46p(156 ". 0 [hr .G( f/8 ) ! I2 Pr b 5 . Y b ".(hr )d ) = Cp' x If: Y b . 1962) Principle Heat Transfer Model Empirical ��1 <1> q" ( G/ pr ) [hr . " t .OOO q"OhCpr Kr [hr .0 Prj + 0. " 6.(hr)d ) = C q" 5.G(5f/0q"1I2 8) [ Pr + In(l . Y b ". + qb = q" + qevap + qpump lq. 0 "..1] where 1] � 0 . 015( !TgcOHPr) 1 I2/ fLr Kr < 70 000  (Saha and Zuber.' 30 . 208) . qf>ump .( hr )d ) = 154q"/G qlq" and that due to liquid agitation or pumping. q". x where Yb If: Pe = � GOHCpr 0.0022 If: Pe>70.(hr)d ) = 0. Btu/Ibm) [hr .. lq... 0 . 0 [hr .(hr)d ) = cp.( hr )d) = cp.5 In( y: /30.0)) (Levy. Source (Griffith et aI. 0))} . 1958 ) (Bowring. psia). (5. 1966) Force Balance If: 5 . 30. 1974) Empirical [hr . O + 5. 0q" q" Hl<1> G( f/8) 1I2 {Pr + In[ 1 + Pr( y: /5. 207) The singlephase convection term normally is given as. q" q" + Y H l <1> . p ".
As will be discussed. Staub (1968). (5. thus. Some of the more widely used references for each method are 1 .210) By following Bowring's notation (Bowring. we define the ratio of the heat flux due to pumping to that causing vapor formation as.(hi») + pg (hf . Rouhani and Axelsson (1970). the mechanistic model presented herein is a far from perfect . 1970) result. in light of the present stateoftheart.209) where jB has velocity units (ft/h) and represents the volumetric rate of vapor formation per unit heated area. 211) reduces to Rouhani's (Rouhani and Axelsson. a phenomenological description of the boiling heat transfer process is postulated and.= 11 qflUmp PI (h cv . In the first ap proach. thus. ProfileFit Models: Zuber et al. Mechanistic Models: Griffith et al. and the energy flux required to raise the mass of liquid that evaporates to saturation tem perature. = q�vap = jB Pg hfg (5. Levy (1966). and Saha and Zuber (1974). A eff AHT. The pumping term is made up of the energy flux required to raise. Bowring (1962). (1966). and Hancox and Nicoll (1971). 212) Two distinctly different approaches have been taken to quantify the prediction of forced convection subcooled void fraction. Thus. The procedure that we follow is to first discuss a mechanistic model that is representative of previous models.211) If we assume that the enthalpy of the liquid leaving the control volume is saturated. The other approach is to postulate a convenient mathematical fit for the flow quality or liquid enthalpy profile between the void departure point.TWOPHASE F LOW 255 where Aeff is the effective area for singlephase heat transfer. Zd . 1971). the enthalpy of liquid leaving the control volume (due to displacement by bubble formation) from the mean core enthalpy. (hi) to h c v. (1958). For most cases of practical interest (Dix. then h c v = hf and Eq. Zeq . 1962).h c v) q�vap pg hfg (5. 2. modified as necessary to reflect our most recent understanding. and the point at which thermody namic equilibrium is achieved. Larsen and Tong (1969). the subcooled flow quality and void fraction are calculated from a mechanistic model. (5. £ = . hc v. (5.
(eI ) I ) where the volumetric vapor generation term. 2 14) (5. Consider the energy equation of the two phase mixture.pg n = Vlg r Units Ibm/ft3h 1/h lIh . ah ah a(hI» a (hI) pI (1 .+ pg (a) J + ( ug )g J az at at az =  ( Ax  1 ap q"PH + . 216) TABLE 52 Relationsh ip Between Present Notation and that of Previous Subcooled Vapor Generation Models Notation r 1/1 n Source (Zuber and Staub. PI (1 .2. 1966) (Forti. Next.256 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A BWR description of the observed phenomenon. but it does afford an opportunity to discuss the basic physics involved and to focus on those areas that need further experimental investigation.+ ( U I )I . 5. 1 . and the kinetic and potential energy terms without introducing any serious error. Finally. (5. recommendations are made for both steady state and transient calculational techniques.+ q + .f« eg )g .f(hg .3... 1 ap J at ) ( ) (5.97). 107). we can neglect internal generation. if the kinetic and potential energy terms are neglected we obtain. q "'. 215) For most cases of practical interest. Ax . we discuss a modified version of Levy's (1966) profilefit model and point out the merit and shortcomings of such an approach . The method that is presented here comes directly from the conservation equations derived in Sec. 1969) Relationship Present Notation I/Inel = r. (5.(a») . 5.(hI ») J at ) ( ) (5. f..(a») ( a(eg )g a(eg )g a( eI)I a (eI )I + ( UI )I + Pg (a) at + ( ug )g az at az = ..s q " PH ".1 A Mechanistic Model There are various ways to derive the appropriate flow quality relationship.213) becomes. Eq. has been defined previ ously and is related to other notation in Table 52. (5. 213) (eg )g = hg (eI)I = (hI) (5. Under these simplifying assumptions. From the definition of the total energy of each phase given in Eq. Eq. 1968) (Wallis.
(5.TWOPHASE F LOW 257 For steady state. First.218) Equations (5.(x» dd(hI) + G(X/dhZg = A"xPHs .(x» d(M + G(x) � G(hg (hI» d(x) = A"PH dz q x dz dz _ (5. 13).56). given in Eq. 23). (5. (5. (5.219) d z [(1(X»(hI ) hg(x)] = GqA"PxH. z . the steadystate version of the steam phase continuity equation.(hI» Z Gd«X» =f dz + f( (5. dhg/Equation (5. We obtain the interesting result. By using Eq. Equation (5. q G(1 .22) and (5.219) can be rewritten under the reasonable assumption that dz is negligible. we obtain for a constant area cuct. (xe). it is obvious that (x(z» becomes equal to (Xe(Z» as (hI (Z» ap proaches the saturation enthalpy. The next step is to consider Eq.217) and (5.s d + z (5. hf.(x» + hg(x) = hin + GA1x _ s Jo PHq"dz Noting that. (hI)(1.hg .219) into an exact differential.217) (5. 218) can be combined to eliminate the volumetric vapor generation term. f. This equation can be used to yield several important results.(hI(hZI (»Z]»] [ hg From the definition of thermodynamic equilibrium quality.220) can be integrated to yield. where the identities given in Eqs. we can regroup Eq. G(1. (5.221) (x(z» = [(h(z». this becomes. yielding. (h) � hin + GA1x _ s Jo PHq"dz ( (5.220) which is the same result that we would obtain from a steadystate heat balance. 23) have been used .
d(x (z) = PH q '{. thus. (Z) . PH .225) dz GAxs hf g [ l + e(z)] where the boiling heat flux. part of the heat flux goes into raising the mean liquid temperature and part goes into vapor formation. He assumed that the void departure point. " " " " q PH . we can arbitrarily partition that portion of energy that goes into the net formation of vapor as. such that the heated perimeter. we can write. 223). Moreover. Eq. Equation (5.GAx. to any { } (x(z) = { PHq/:( z)dz " } hf g J [ 1 + e(z)] . axial position downstream. 222) During subcooled boiling. q�ond .s " dz Now. and comparisons with a wide range of sub cooled void fraction data have shown that rather than being constant. In general. (5 .qcond ) + ( ql"q.222) and (5. Thus.q�On d(Z) (5. is defined as q/: � q�vap + qpump. we can write. This latter term is a balance between the vapor generated at the wall and that condensed by the subcooled fluid.qc"ond ) = hf g) (5. the parameter e could be assumed to be piecewise constant. 227) A more careful consideration of the problem exposes the fact that Bowring's analysis of the effect of the condensation term did not take into account the effect of turbulence and the resultant eddy diffusivity transport of thermal energy. q/:. 226) yields.258 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A B W R " q PH GAx = (1 . and performed analyses which indicated that for water the magnitude of the condensation heat flux. + qpump + qcond)] " AGx. d(x PH ( qevap . Zd. was the appropriate value for Zo. (5. Zo.PH [( qevap . (5. 223) By comparing Eqs. 225) can be readily integrated from some location. should be negligible. he found that by comparing his model to the available data. E .s _ (5.J PHqcond (Z)dz GAxs 1 z z (5.224) GA x .(X» ) d(h 1 ) + ( hf (h l» ) d(x) + hf d(x) dz dz g dz _ (5. 21 1). 226) Zo Zo Bowring (1962) derived a similar expression for flow quality in a constant area duct. (x(z) = GAxs ( l + �.: E ) Zd J q/:(z)dz Z (5. was constant. it has been found that one cannot neglect the condensation heat flux term. by using the definition of e given in Eq.
. is negligible .>O. 51 7.'f. and this is the recommended choice. 1958) that the heat flux LOG iQ··i . we normally can neglect Region I voids. If one is to use Eq. at the void departure point.TWOPHASE FLOW 2 59 varies axially. it is seen that the effect of boiling on the heat transfer process is felt from the nucleation point on. First. q. Zd. As shown in Fig.. We th will now consider the specification of these parameters one at a time. in general... 5 . Zn . Thus. This observation would suggest that the appropriate choice for Zo is Zd. then we must somehow modify q. it has been found (Griffith et al. However.226) is the appropriate expression to use for steadystate flow quality calculations.. .(z). The easiest way to accomplish this is to consider the heat flux profile between the nucleation point and the void departure point and to modify q. q " > q 'irl>. If we choose Zo = Zd for evaluation of Eq. (5. Zd. That is. (5. and q�ond(Z ) . Thus. '  CONSTA N T CONSTA N T PA R T I A L SUBCOOL E D N U C LE A T E BOI LI NG SINGLE PHASE R E G ION I R E G ION " Fig. Indeed.1 7 A forced convection subcooled boiling curve.(z ) or q�ond( Z ) to reflect the fact that Region I voids have been neglected . en we must have explicit expressions for zo.226). thus.. we consider the appropriate expression for Zo o In Fig. Eq. one possible choice for Zo is the nucleation point. £(z). it has been found experimentally that the net void production below the void departure point. FULLY DE V E LOP E D SUBCO O L E D NUCLE ATE BOI L I N G G T. (5... 517. q.226) for calculations of the steadystate flow quality.(z ) to avoid any discontinuity in our calculations..
h qb (Z ) . of these models could be incorrect. (5.h ld(Z) ]} (5. is not represen tative and must be determined from forced convection subcooled boiling data. Ho . q. considering the current stateoftheart in subcooled boiling models and the present data base. we can optimize the choice of the arbitrary condensation parameter. assuming the validity of the func tional forms described above. The last item to be specified. (5 . the boiling heat flux.q "( Z )hi :::. we have phenomenologically based functional forms of E( Z). (5. or all. so that Eq. in the present model. Ho.230) The next term. and q�ond ( Z ).212) .s( cx) ( Tsat . the net boiling heat flux is given by .21 1 ) .o. the arbitrary param eter. qb. That is.. to be consistent with our assumption of neglecting Region I voids.226) can be inte grated. such that the void data of interest to BWR technology are predicted accurately. we cannot currently synthesize a mechanistic model of complete generality. Levenspiel (1959) experimen tally determined a functional relationship for the condensation heat transfer process in the form. However. Ho .(h I (Z» hf . is the appropriate form of Eq. Preliminary comparisons with rep PHq�ond = Ho f g Ax . Any.l4> (idZ )eff = q "( Z ) q" " _ _ {o. which must be considered before Eq.226) can be integrated. which is representative of most previous at tempts.TI) f h .229) such that for steadystate calculations. (5. Hence. is the condensation heat flux. which he determined from his measurements. At this point. must be zero below the departure point.260 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L IC S O F A BWR is approximately five times that predicted with singlephase flow correla tions. Zd .231) Vg Since Levenspiel's experiment was run in a still tank.228) However. q�ond .(z). we can postulate a pseudosinglephase contribution for ( {hi» � hid' A ql"4> (Z)eff = q"( z ) [ hf (hi(zz») ] h hl f i (5. Specif ically. (5. The basic problem inherent in all mechanistic subcooled boiling models is that there are insufficient data to specify accurately the basic mechanisms involved and there are too many degrees of freedom. { [ 1 _ hf . which would naturally bias the choice of the arbitrary condensation constant. (5. To ensure this. we have no better evidence to recommend anything other than the simple expression given in Eq.
(h 1 » ) . t ) . E. o ]  Note that if we were to consider Region I voids. 232) defines the vapor generation term and Eq.shf g + hf g 1 [1 Dfhf Dg hg ap . t) PHq�on d(Z.0 « j)/ hn)z.2. .(Z. 1974) . and q�ond on (M . it is still important to consider the effects of boiling in this region so that represen tative heat transfer coefficients and accurate cladding temperatures can be evaluated. Eq . 0 + 4.P H A S E F LOW 261 resentative subcooling boiling data indicated that the appropriate value for Ho was.( ex » ) .s at Equations (5. t)] Ax . It can be seen in Figs.. 233) are coupled through the former's dependence of q/:. (5 . (5. 1983) has indicated that a better choice is. (5.232) and (5. (5. 55). many important cases exist for which we must be able to predict the subcooled void fraction during transients. (5. twophase flow. Ho = 150 (hOF) More recent work (Park et al.232) The remainder of the energy goes directly into the liquid phase and. 232) reduces t o E q .TWO. Eq.Pg (ex ) Tt j at Dt ] (5. to be discussed in Sec. 226). However. f= PHq.s hf g [l + E(Z. the optimized value of Ho would need to be much larger in Region I and vary axially to provide agreement with the data . the partial subcooled nucleate boiling region (Lahey. In transient calculations where Region I voids are neglected. we have been considering the prediction of subcooled void fraction for steadystate conditions only. Dg hg 1 ap D 1 (h 1 ) P H " (5. t ) .216) can be partitioned [in the same manner that led to Eq. thus.216) yields. . we can generalize the mechanistic method just discussed .3. 5.pg ( ex ) Tt + j Pl (l . 518 and 519 that the agreement with steady state data is quite good for the mechanistic model and the profilefit model.2. Eq. " Note that for steady. Various methods are available for approximating the heat trans fer in Region I. For such predictions. The next section is concerned with approximate profilefit methods and their application to BWR designtype problems. t ) Ax .Pf (1 . 224)] to yielde. saturated. Basically. Ho = [ 1 . Until now.( ex » ) 15t = Ax . 233) yields the mean liquid enthalpy. 233) q (z. (5. (5.f (hg . (h l (Z. Equation (5 . thus setting ZO = Zn in Eq.
) 0 . 04 (x. 08 0.9IHJO Bru ll> fr2 . 51 8 Comparison of mechanistic and profilefit model with void fraction data.5 � G Q" PRESSURE .08 0.M E C H A N I S T I C 0 0.P R O F I LE .06 0.2 � " 0 » c::l "TI .iII . 1 2 Fig.8 .0 .F I T MODE L 0.3 I11 n Vl 0.6 � .IC » C r 0.02 .0. 06 0. .04 0.IC � 0.421 p. 1 9661 MOOE l r . P = 427 psia .f t I m .02 0 . 1 0.2 = 91 300 Ib m /h . 1 0 0. 1 0. N aN + OAT A f R O U H A N I ..• � � 3: » r 0 I < .IC o .
( hl (z ) . 1 2 0. 5. 1 0. 011 0.235) (5. '. In this section. such that.2.3 .02 o 0.06 0.08 0.g. The assumed profile may be either that of the mean liquid enthalpy.02 0. (hi). Following Zuber et al. ( hi .234) In accordance with Fig.(h i») [hf .6 _ . a number of subcooled void fraction models are available in the literature that do not attempt to specify the mechanism of subcooled boiling. q " : 290000 0. or that of the flow quality. 516. 1 4 Fig. 236)  0. for (h» > hf . (x( z ) . (1966).2 Brulh·'.7 r�� 0 DATA I R O U H A N I . (h).3 0.( hl)d ] (5.( hl)d hf . we assume that the mean liquid enthalpy.725 pli. 1 966) M E C H A N I ST I C MODE L 0. the function must satisfy.2 0.5 0. _ :!F [ (h) . :!F = ?f 1. at (h) = (hi) = ( hl)d (5 . if we assume no voids in Region I. . 1 0 0.4 G : 774 000 Ib m1h. is a function of the bulk enthalpy. but rather.04 0.2 A ProfileFit Model As mentioned earlier in this section.P R O F I LE F I T MODE L PRESSURE . we present a version of this technique that hopefully combines the best features of previous models. directly assume a profile be tween Zd and Zeq .( hl )d ] .06 0. 51 9 Comparison of mechanistic and profilefit models with void fraction data .TWOPHASE F LOW 263 0.
243) Thus. 239) (h) . 234) and (5. thus. Before we formulate this model.240) For virtually all cases of practical concern. 242) and by analogy. (x) = (xe) . That is. (5.(h 1 ) d hf .(h l )d ]'?J.238) and use the definitions in Eqs .(Xe}d exp ( �: ) e ( d 1 (5. and thermodynamic equilibrium quality. 241) Equation (5. 238) (5. 242) and (5. (x) = (xe) .(Xe }d '?J (5. (5. '?J = exp = '?J 1 . hfg » [hf . we .240) reduces to.tanh { [ �:�(�l:: ] } [ ] _ (5. (5. we will use it as the basis for our profilefit model . Eq. Eq.(h l )d Data comparisons have indicated that Eq.h (h ) d(h } f . it is obvious that (x(z )} and (hl (Z )} are not independent. 244) can be written as. (5. 244) If we assume the validity of Eq. it is instructive to combine Eqs . 245) which is Levy's (1966) assumed expression for the functional relationship between flow quality. 243). 241) can be written as. 13) yields. (5. (5. 1 d'?J . since d(h }ldz = d(hl }ldz for z � Zd . (5. (xe) . Eq. Thus. (5.2 64 T H E RM A L H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B W R Also. Thus.l d at Z = Zd (5. (5. 239) gives a slightly better fit and. (5. 237) Two functions that satisfy these requirements are. (5. (x). 221) to obtain.
245) is valid. r= d(x) " " ( qcva p . for Z » Zd For steadystate calculations. if the available data are to be correlated.TWOPHASE F LOW 265 can either directly assume the form of the flow quality variation or the liquid enthalpy variation. such assumptions necessarily must have the same basic functional depen dence on (h) and ( hl k Moreover. r. Basically. In particular. only mechanistic models follow this trend. once the (hi) or (x) profile has been assumed. the mechanistic model is required. we obtain. "cold patch" experi ments indicate that the subcooled void fraction should decrease in the adiabatic section. several techniques have been discussed for the prediction of subcooled voids during steadystate and/or transient conditions typical of BWR technology. is uniquely defined. they are recommended for application to problems in BWR technology. In summary. (5. Eq. 247) which implies that.218) and (5. Once flow quality is known. however. Nevertheless. For example. the same voidquality relation is used for both subcooled and bulk boiling conditions. For transients calculations. is uncomfirmed for the prediction of subcooled void fraction in cases of nonuniform axial heat flux. the volumetric vapor generation term. thus.qcond ) = C dZ A x . 177) can be used as the appropriate vOidquality relationship to calculate sub Cooled void fraction. Eqs. a profilefit method is normally easier to use than a mechanistic method and is as accurate. However. .shfg PH (5. In Figs. The main disadvantage of this simple method is that it is based on a fit to uniform axial heat flux data and. r = c d(Xe ) 1 _ exp (xe ) . for most cases of interest in BWR technology. That is. 246) Assuming that Eq. the profilefit technique is quite adequate for steadystate situations and is recommended.224) yield. although in some instances profilefit techniques have been used.1 dz (Xe )d [ ( )] (5. Since these methods have been found to be in reasonably good agreement with available data. these models consist of either postulating a phenomenological description of the subcooled boiling process (mechan istic model) or assuming a convenient mathematical fit to the data (profile fit model) to determine flow quality . (5. 518 and 519 it is seen that the recommended profilefit model agrees with the data and the proposed mechanistic model . (5.
� () .a ( C2Ax_s)] .gc az gc at The first term on the right side is the pressure gradient due to the effect of acceleration. 5.4 Pressu re D rop The field of twophase flow is empirically based .+ .1 Frictional Pressure Drop In Singlephase flow. Once the empirical voidquality relation has been specified. That is. pressure gradient. which is written for frictional losses as.P sm (5." The next . in the form. e. The accurate evaluation of irreversible pressure loss is quite important to the reactor designer to ensure adequate performance of the reactor system. The aClat term is frequently called the "temporal acceler ation. etc.s az (p') Ax. e term on the right side is the irreversible pressure drop due to frictional effects. The last term is the gravitational.266 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U LICS OF A B W R The next section is concerned with the evaluation of pressure drop in BWR fuel and components. sudden expansions.Q.. (5. but instead must rely heavily on correlations synthesized from experimental data. we can rarely make calculations solely based on first principles. K=f C2/2gc Pl (�:) (5. (5. they are nor mally written as. 66) ap = 1 [ ac . The next section is devoted to discussions of the techniques commonly em ployed to evaluate these components. we rewrite Eq. +  + TwPf . or elevation. Empirical methods are also employed for the evaluation of friction pres sure gradients and local losses. The prediction of pressure drop is a particularly good example of the empirical basis of these calculations. 250) . spacers. 248) Ax1. it is well known that frictional pressure losses are commonly correlated in terms of the dynamic head. That is." while the other term is called the "spatial acceleration. This subject logically follows void fraction models since adequate void models are essential to the accurate evaluation of the elevation component of total pressure drop. 249) is the dynamic head and K is an empirical irreversible loss where coefficient. 5 .g. To focus attention on the various types of pressure drop that can occur in a twophase system.4. the evaluation of the acceleration and the elevation pressure gradient is straightforward and is not discussed further here.
256) . (5. we note that for twophase flow we can write. That is. C2 (5. homogeneous twophase flow.2cf>/ lJ. which is a function of (at least) flow quality and system pressure. and recalling that over a wide range of turbulent Reynolds numbers we can approximate the friction factor by. <l> ro. 253) ilP2cf> = K. 252) ilP2cf> = K 2gc ( P2cf>) in which ( P2 cf» is the appropriate twophase density. . Eq. In flowing twophase systems. <!>fo = l + ( �:(X») (5.251) ilP2cf> = K. (5.253) and (5. The classical approach. C2 (5.TWO. For this purpose.2cf> we can choose an appropriate correlation for twophase viscosity such as that due to McAdams et al.255) 1J. which has been taken to correlate twophase frictional losses. it has been observed experimentally that for a given mass flux. ) 2gcPf Before we present some commonly accepted correlations for <l>ro .2gcPf ( Ph ) . p. The friction pressuredrop multiplier. Using the definition of loss coefficient given in Eq.250).254) Note that vfg lvf = 19. (1942).6 at 1000 psia. it is found that. C2 Pf (5. . is to multiply the equivalent sa turated singlephase pressure loss by an empirical multiplier. ( ) Thus. is sometimes modified to ac count for the effect of the vapor phase on apparent viscosity.251). thus it is obvious that even for elevated pressures. f= ( ) CDH C n (5. let us examine the expected behavior of <l> ro . by comparing Eqs. <!>fo.f =  [ :.PHASE F LOW 267 and f is the DarcyWeisbach friction factor (Vennard. <!>fo increases rapidly with flow guality. the pressure drop can be much greater than for a corresponding singlephase system. 1959).<!>fo « x) . (5 .30) yields. 1 (x) + (1  (x» ] (5. 1J. For the limiting case of saturated.
Eqs.(X»2 [ (1 ��X» (:. (5. Mo=(1(X» 2 (Xtt Y1pg/Pl +5) (Xtt Y1Pf/Pg + !5) (5.x ( x) <PtO =(1. = � + (x) _  (5. 260) (5. (5. 258 ) indicates the appropriate viscosity correction. (5.191) yields. for homogeneous flow. 257) (P24» /oLf ( � Y2g. <Pto = ( 1 �:(X») [ :. Eq. 261) x + �'� Thus.K) .K2g. 254) and (5.268 T H ERMAL H Y D R A U L ICS OF A B W R (5. 252) can be written as.DHPf Thus. (5. P Mo= [ (1 (X» 2 + Pgf (X)2] (1 (n» As discussed in Chapter 9. C�ZC2 ( ) ( /oL24» n �P24> C H (5. It has been suggested (Chisholm. ". + (1 (x» ] n (5. Due to uncertainty of the correct twophase viscosity correlation such that Eq. we can rewrite Eq. Thus. 259).) +5 ] [ (1 ��X» + �] . 259) (5.2Pf ()) 2g. 252) 1973) P C2 . 260) as.(p' Thus. viscosity corrections are normally not employed in two phase analyses.C (p'f �P24> . (5. 251). that the momentum density should be used. (5. 263) Xtt (1 ( »YPg/Pl Thus we can rewrite Eq. 262) It is interesting to note that for high Reynolds number flows (n = 0) . and (5. 258) Comparison of Eqs. (5. 264) . 67) yield. 262 ) as. (5. Eq. (5. 'I'21O = Pf/(P ' ) = Pf [ (X) 5(1 Pf (X» ] [ ( ) (1 5(X» ] Pg (n ) + and the fact that flow qualities of practical significance normally are much less than unity. becomes. The appropriate twophase density of separated flow is not as well de fined.
266) In ideal twophase annular flow.22).255).267) By definition. '1'10 = where a typical value of the Reynolds number coefficient is n = 0. we can write similarly. _(ddPz) 4> = 4DTw= 4 (!t14» 2Pfgc(UDf)Hf = ft/2gc(UDf)Hf f 2 H 4 C2(1(x))2 2 (dPz)24> = n 2gcDH Pf (1 .PHASE F LOW 269 Equa tion (5.n . ". (5.L H] . By combining Eqs.265a) C = sy 1 Pf/Pg + SyPg/Pf (5. Levy (1960) has provided further insight into the nature of the increase in dissipation in annular twophase flow compared to singlephase flow in terms of the resultant speedup of the liquid phase. Consider the single phase frictional pressure gradient.CD2H pt D G�H d 10 C � � (5.270) .269) Thus.2 [ (1 . 265a) is a popular form of the friction loss multiplier for two phase flows. Eqs.(a» d C (5.266) and (5. Xrt (5. (5.(X» ] 2.25 .268) yield.»f (5. (5. (dPz) fr·2g.TWO.264) can also be rewritten in the form proposed by Chisholm an d Sutherland (1969). we obtain. ( D [ C(( ll(aX» f.267). 265b) Equation (5.C2HPf ( ) 2g. <1> 10 = (1  2 (x» 2 [ 1 + C + 1 ] XII where. and (5.(a (1 » (5.268) (5.
271) where.:l.p) { 1 . increases rapidly with quality . 1 ( G/106) . 1948) . which is valid for low qualities and includes the flow effect synthesized by Jones (1961).7 (x) = decimal fraction p = psia G = Ibm/hft2 Equation (5. Another popular empirical correlation is due to Thorn (1964) . + 0.271) is shown plotted for p = 1000 psia in Fig. no flow effect has been included in the Thorn correlation. 0005p + 0 .p) = .(x» /Pf (l . Note that the flow effect is in the same direction as observed experimentally (Isbin . which is presumed to flow as a film on the wall. 522. � ( G. Nevertheless. an appropriate two phase multiplier. it has been found to be reasonably accurate for vertical two phase flows in which the flow rates are high enough to ensure cocurrent flow.0. <1>70 tends to increase as mass flux increases. Thorn's correlation for <1>70 is shown in Fig.0004p + 0. 270).0. we turn our attention to several frequently used empirical correlations .(cx» . is given by. .260). 1 1 g e�6) (G/106)<0. 36 + 0 . 0 (5. these models are often good first approximations and serve to help explain why twophase pressure drops are normally much higher than for singlephase flow. <1>70' has been motivated. Equations (5.824} + 1 . 1 959) . 1 . 26 . Note that like the MartinelliNelson correlation.000714p( G/106). A convenient empirical approximation to <1>70 for water. Now that the need for. 1 .2 70 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L ICS OF A B W R We see that <!>To increases rapidly with quality. 2[( Pf / Pg ) _ 1](x)0 . which is a reflection of the fact that the average velocity of the liquid phase. By far the most famous and widely used of these correlations is due to Martinelli (Martinelli and Nelson. This correlation was developed for horizontal flow conditions under the assumption that one has turbulent flow in both phases. 521 . and (5. This correlation is shown in Fig. Unfortunately. Nevertheless. and the significance of. (uf)f = G(l . this is the opposite of observed experimental trends (Isbin et aI. 1 77) imply that for a given system pressure and flow quality. <!>To = � ( G. 00028p e� ) ( G/106» 0. Note that the twophase dissipation goes up markedly with decreasing pressure level and that no flow effect has been included . (5.7 6 . 520.
J w z � ...P H A S E F LOW 1 000 8 6 4 � � il� $ ' .. � 2 .TWO ..J 8 6 4 j: a: « � Q U A L I TY < X > ( % 1 Fig.. ... � !!! j: 1 00 8 6 4 a: .. w (II « J: 0 t= � ' :::> � Z 2 'I0 � � (II ' w z' 0 10 .. 520 MartinelliNelson. twophase friction multiplier for steam/water as a function of quality and pressure.. a: • .
T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I CS OF A BWR 1110 90 80 50 40 30 60 50 40 30 70 20 15 c1'�o 20 10 9 10 9 8 6 5 6 2 1 . 521 Thorn's twophase friction multiplier.. .5 Fig. Mo SYST E M P R E SS U R E (pli.
191).2 as the appropriate Reynolds number exponent.n (5. (5. has been found to do a good job of correlating the pressure drop characteristics of a wide range of fluids.272) (x)/(x»)2 . . 1959) . 522 MartinelliNelson approximation with Jones' flow effect .TWO.Yezx�X)r .2) 0_25 G/ l 06 < X > 1%) Fig. To better appreciate this correlation. When we compare the pressure drop characteristics of different fluids. who postulated a value of 11 0.) (:. The values for water at various pressures of interest are = . The term (1 can be considered a constant and we can write Eq. et aI.n ) XTt XTt C ��X)y Il = . (:�Y (5. we recall that the Martinelli parameter. The final correlation we consider for <1>70 is due to Baroczy (1965) . this correlation does not go to the correct (all vapor) limit. However. (5. it normally is done at the same flow rate and quality. given in Eq. . Fi gure 523 is Baroczy's <1>70 multiplier plotted versus the property index fo r v arious fluids. 273) The nondimensional parameter on the right of Eq. 191). we obtain.  = (. (5. If we square both sides of Eq. (5. 272) as.P H A S E F LOW � r� I Ib/h_. 273) has been called th e property index by Baroczy.
� '!o ':. � " "...'. 523 for flows other than G = 1 .0 X 106 Ib. 523 Baroczy' s twophase friction pressure drop correlation .. w U'I « 1: ' 1000 � 1 ()() 10 r4__ 0_000 1 WATE R 0_1 (OFI 212 3 28 382 467 54 5 636 705 Fig. VAL UES A RE • 1 X 106 fblh. Figure 524 is the mass flux correction ratio that should multiply the appropriate value from Fig.2 74 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A B W R 1 � � r. .:! 10 � 0 . explicitly shown. ( SO U R C E B A R OC Z Y 1 9651 l oo � FOR G NO TE. 0 x 1 0" Ibm/hft 2 Figure 525 is a composite of the various <PTo correlations discussed above for the commercially interesting case of 1000 psia steam/water at G = 1 . 6 :> ::!.)hft2 . Note that the Thorn multiplier is very close to that for homoge .
5 .01 P ROPE RTY INDEX l"'I// .TWO . (5.8 0.1 80 40 TO 60 Fig.P H A S E F LOW 1 .' 1 . 25 Ib/h· f. X .000 1 &0 0. neo us (no slip) conditions .. the .001 0.(16 Ib/h· .2 0 . 5·24 Mass flux correction versus property index.6 (SOURCE B A IWC Z V 1 96�1 " .(/j 0.8 1 .. That is. 0.• ·V Q � � " � • . Also note that the MartinelliNelson multiplier an d the <1>70 approximation given by Eq.06 QU A L I T Y '0 I I � 0 08 r" I 1(16 ]0 1 00 80 � " J X .4.. 0.6 rG 'b' . as in Eq.251)." O.1 10 0. is treated in much the sa me manner as frictional pressure loss .. � � ::: G = 0.] X .271 ) are the highest in the quality ra nge of interest to BWR technology. such as grid s pace rs or sudden contractions and enlargements..2 Local Pressure Drop The tw ophase pressure loss due to local flow obstructions. . { 0.06 AND G · 3 X . (5.2 IPg /PIl I 0. � 1 2 ItcrQ.6 275 l SO U R C E B A R Q C l 'V 1 9651 .5X G . 25 X . 06 AND G 2 X I ldi � G a 0.2 .
N. for sudden expansion and sudden contraction losses.276 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A B W R 30. To provide some appreciation of the analysis required in the derivation of twophase local loss multipliers. ( 1 . where a is the flow area ratio...a ) . _ . but it is normally synthesized empirically. he. <1>70' for frictional pressure drop.. Before we launch into a detailed derivation of the twophase pressure change caused by area changes. _ _ _  20 . C2 C2 <1 (5. respectively. we deduce <I> for the special case of a sudden expansion. Thus. and subscript 1 refers to conditions upstream of the area change and subscript 2 refers to down stream conditions..O .�)C�/2gcPI ' is the singlephase Bernoull i equation (with no elevation and irreversible headloss term) and is assoCr 2 2 ( p2 .Pl )cont = [(I . Eq \5. a � ( A I IA 2) . The term. the designer is given pressure loss coefficients such as Kexp and Kcont .. corresponding singlephase pressure drop is multiplied by an appropriate twophase multiplier to yield the local twophase pressure drop.. 275) and.201 �:�:c!. 2 76) .254 ) ) Morlintlli .0 4>� Z S.�:. 525 A comparison of Mo correlations. APproaimationUee f i Q. 0 === .. Thus. Historical precedent requires us to reserve the notation. Normally. The static pressure change is then calculated as.Kexp J  2gcPI (5. Cr 2 ( P2 ...)  The functional form of <I> can sometimes be derived from the twophase conservation equations.2 2 ) . S .. we define the twophase local loss multiplier as <1>. This is the type of flow situation that might be expected at the outlet of a BWR fuel bundle..274) <I> K ilp2q.�'i:'l'�3) . 10 0 � � M <X> � � � � » � Fig.a ) .P l) ex p = [(I .:." on l• • • fiQ 5 .HOmOVlneOu.local = K 2gcPf 2gc ( P2q. we recall the equivalent situation in single phase flow.a Kcont J 2gcPI (5.
278) By combining Eqs ... 279) directly from the momentum equation... 1 959) that the irreversible loss coefficient can be approxi mated by.276) indicate. (5. As we will soon show. it can be shown (Vennard.P I ) = 2a (1 . ( P2 . (5.278) is only an ap proximation for a certain type of geometric configuration. By focusing attention on the case of a sudden expansion. (5.1 1 I I 1 "'. Eqs.. 526 Sudden expansion. (5.. etc.279) can also be derived directly from the singlephase mo mentum equation. ll pstatic = ll prev .. Thus. However.277) That is. Consider the pressure rise associated with a sudden expansion as shown in Fig.ll pirrev (5. . the static pressure change is equal to the reversible pressure change minus the irreversible loss. Thus. _ __ _ J I " rO�� � 1> 1 1> 2 I _ _ F U l L Y O f V E lOPf O p I Z t 0 ACTUAL S T A T I C I"RESSURf I Fig. it does not account for ragged edges... Kexp = (1 .279) Equation (5. In twophase flow.. 526.TWOPHASE F LOW 277 dated with the reversible pressure change.a )  2gcPl GI (5. 1 1 L I . for the static pressure change due to a sudden expansion we obtain. 278).. 275) and (5. I f I I . it is normally better to use Eq.a ) 2 (5. it is usually more convenient for the analyst to work out the twophase equivalent of Eq. (5. non flat velocity profiles. 275) in conjunction with tabulated values of Kexp since Eq.. the situation is different.. that is. The engineering approximation to the actual pressure rise is r .275) and (5 . the equivalent twophase irreversible loss coefficients are rather complex and are not normally tabulated..
. (5.sz dz = ( p1 .278 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A B W R the "sawtooth"shaped profile labeled fully developed p( z ) .PI ) . to do an accurate analysis. Eq. then Eq. dp 1 d G2Ax _ s dz gcAx .280) can be rewritten as. Eqs. 66).z * ) dz where & is a Dirac delta function. If we note that. (5.280) .286) . 2 CJp (5.s The lefthand side of this equation can be integrated by parts: 2 2 2 dp dAx .285) p( z *) = PI then Eq. the pressure rise is dominated by spatial accel eration effects.S2 · CJ 2 CJp (5.281) where z* is the axial position of the sudden expansion and U is the so called Heaviside step operator (which is discussed in Chapter 7).s dz ( pi )  = ( ) + g e TwPf ( P ) sm + gc Ax .s . For steady conditions. . we must be able to calculate the ideal pressure rise. � G 2Ax _ s = dz gc dz ( p i) ( ) (5. (5. thus we may neglect the wall friction and gravity head terms in Eq.S2 .P(Z*) [Ax .pIAx .sl] CJ If we assume (based on experimental observations) that.sp] .SI .p � dz dz I I I dp _ 1.283) since. Jt Ax .280) Ax .sz dz = P*IAx . (5.284) JI Ax . Eq.pt )Ax .S2 . Thus. ( p1 .s dz = d [Ax .285) yields.282) J J J (5.s Ax . the twophase momentum equation for separated flow. (5. (5.  (5.z* ) &( z .283) yield.280) can be easily integrated.281) and (5. becomes.Ax . (5. dU( z . For a sudden expansion. (5. Making the assumptions noted above.
279). 292) 1961 ). 289) Thus. (5. 99) . 287) gc dz (p') z gc (p 'l ) Thus.P I) .TWOPHASE F LOW 279 (5.ZI) TwPr (Z 2 (pi) = (pz). twophase energy equation can be deduced from Eq. 90) are normally negligible. Nevertheless. l ( . 282) can be integrated. 1 PI >I: PI ' P I) � Apstatic == . as discussed previously.P Comparison of Eqs.. it is of interest to pursue the derivation of the irreversible component of the pres sure change so that the reader can better appreciate the complexity in volved. yielding. 274) indicates that the appro priate twophase multiplier for sudden expansion in which no phase change Sim ilarly. (5.g (X)2 ] (5. and (5.sl (5. <1> = [ ( 1 (X» 2 + P1 (X)2] = � 1.S2 = gc (GtAxI ). (5. . equivalently.Pg (p ' ) (a) (a) (5.SI _ G�AX'2).zl)1Ax ( p2 (5.S2) (5. (5. 2 _ 1 f � ( G2Ax . the analyst has sufficient information t o predict the static pressure rise accompanying a sudden expansion. 2 86) and (5. as. 288) (P (P or. Eq.29 1 ).P I) (a) (a) is assumed is. (pi = 2(1(1 (1) 2��1 C:�») Gt = 2(1(1(1) 2gcPl [ (1(X» 2 + E!. 2For the special case of no phase change across the sudden expansion. A t this point.)AX . the last two terms on the right side of Eq. 280) yields the following general expression for a sudden expansion. 291 ) 1.s ) d = 1 ( GfAx . (5. 287) yield. This multiplier is frequently called the "Romie multiplier" and has been found to correlate the available data rather well (Lottes. and Eq. (5. the righthand side of Eq. (5. (5. Eqs. The steady. 2 89) becomes. to a good first approximation. ( pi gc sin6 .£'(1)) ( Z2 . 290) where.
280 T H E RM A L H Y D RA U L I CS O F A BWR (5.) gc / ( ) (5. T d(s) d( IJ. + pl/p . we obtain. by comparing Eqs. In accordance with the thermodynamic definition of enthalpy.s to obtain. h � IJ. 298) involve heat transfer . 301) The last two terms on the right side of Eq. � __ 1 dz dz / dz ( Ph ) = ( ) (5.G . d( IJ.299) It can be shown (Wallis. lD1).2 dz 2gc dz (p"') gc tV� J( Ph ) ( ) (5.293) can be divided through by GAx . (lbtlft3) Ax . we can write.297) tV. by defi nition . 294) where.) + /( Ph ) .293) For steady flow conditions.296) and ( Ph ) previously has been defined in Eq. (5. tV + Sme( Ph ) + . (5. G2 d(h) q"PH q '" d g sin e +2 . the flow rate ( GAx ./ G . 298) This dissipation function can be easily related to entropy production .) + f!. dp _ ( Ph ) d G 2 g . 1969) that for a general twophase mixture. (5. consider the adiabatic case in which. (5. 300) Thus.300). tV = /( Ph )T d(s ) dz (5.294) and (5.s) is constant.dz GAx . and the definition of (h) given in Eq. Eq. after some algebra. where the generalized twophase dissipation function.) q"'( Ph » Ph ) q"PH � _l_ + ( Ph ) P .G dz 2gc!(p".s dz dz ( Ph ) ( ) / ( ) ( ) is given by. 295) (h) = ( IJ. By combining Eqs. (5. (5. P (5. (5. 295). 299) and (5. (5.30). For example. Thus. (5.
'" o. 526 can be derived by considering the case of no dissipation. (5. ( 2( Ph) d C2 � II(5. and (5. (5. 302) aPre v = ( PI .(x» 3 ( X) 3 (Ph)CI + ( 1 . that is. or diabatic flow in which no phase change occurs across the expansion. 297) integrates to.302) becomes.( h ) + 2gc ( "') 2 + gc sm Oz2 (Ph ) 2gc ( PI gc P P2 which can be recognized as the twophase Bernoulli equation.fMo 1 C2 4 2gc PI (5.PI = aPrev = .sm O . ) 2 The most general expression for the irreversible pressure loss due to dissipative mechanisms occurring during the sudden expansion of a two phase mixture can be obtained by combining Eqs. 277). The reversible pressure rise between points 1 and 2 in Fig.) 2 dz ( gc _ ( ) For adiabatic flow. (5. pi . To obtain the ideal reversible pressure rise.P It Eq. 290). 305) where we can recognize ( 1 .TWOPHASE F LOW 281 and represent the entropy production due to irreversible transfers of ther mal energy. (5. 2( Ph) 2 (Ph) d C 2 g .307) Neglecting the residual elevation head. Eq. (5. For this case. 304) PI .303) + "') 2 + sm Zl . (Ph h = (Phh and Eq. � C ? K · O (5.P2 ) = . and we note that the twophase multiplier is <I» = (Ph) PII( p".302). ( ) Note that for situations in which there is no quality change across the expansion. Tw = .(12) 2gc pt ( 1 . (5.( a» 2 pg ( a? [ ] (5. where. 304) integrates to aPre v = (1 . this can often be approximated by . Eq. 2 dz 1 2� dZ ( P ) � I 2� = J.."..302) yields for the special case of a horizontal conduit. � � C� K · l!!. J.dz + .Jl 2 dz p ". (5.(12) as the singlephase reversible pressure rise coefficient discussed previously.
(5. twophase loss multipliers are rarely tabulated . (5.310) The situation shown in Fig. Eqs. 266 0.0.a ) . 1959): Kcont� a = AIIA 2 : (5. One of the most important local losses that must be considered in BWR technology is that due to gridtype spacers that maintain the proper geo metric configurations of the fuel rod bundles. 053 0. given by Eq. does a reasonably good job of correlating twophase component pressure drop data and is recommended for design purposes for all local losses.282 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S O F A B W R (5. 274) and (5 .0 0. 1964) that a homogeneous multiplier does a good job of correlating the data.308) It should be apparent from Eq.0 0. 528.8 1. These components have not been investigated thoroughly. 527 is typical of various hydraulic components such as pipe bends.5 0. In contrast. the spacers can be located axially such that the twophase mixture never gets redeveloped before it encounters the next spacer (Case A). and valves. 1964) indicating that the homogeneous multiplier.4 0.6 0. unlike singlephase flow. the designer must account for the pressure recovery that occurs in the outlet region of the fuel bundle. in which the flow becomes fully developed before the next spacer. Two situations can exist: as shown in Fig. which is typical of the LlDH == 40 spacing in BWRs. thus. (5. the normal design approximation yields the correct static pressure drop (�c ) 1 a 2 0. elbows. 1 64 0. 276) yield. . Case B. However.308) that the twophase multiplier for the irreversible pressure losses during a sudden expansion is quite complex and.pl ) cont = [(1 . and values for the irreversible loss coefficient ( Kcont ) are normally taken as (Vennard.310). In Case A. A completely analogous derivation can be performed for the case of a sudden contraction . tees.219 0 . there is evidence (Fitzsimmons. 385 0. Normal design practice is to superimpose the local loss due to spacers on the fully developed friction pressure gradient. 340 0. or the situation can be shown in Case B. 309) where. That is. 2 2 ( P2 . This analysis is not reproduced here since it has been found experimentally (Geiger.2 0.a Kcontl <I> 2gcPI GI (5.
. C E AS . 527 Typical static pressure profile due to a typical fitting (i .... an elbow) . 8J O SPACE R SPACE R OUTLET R E C OV E R Y L E NG T H  CASE B: A E C O V E R Y L E N G T H S HO R T E R THAN DISTANCE B E TWE E N S P .... .'" D E S I G N APP R Q )( I M A T ' D N .. � I" �  \ .TWO.TWO·P H A S E R E C OV E R Y L E N G T H CASE /II. e . SPACE AS C L O S E R TOGE T H E A T H A N �a§§E��i :��.PHASE F LOW 283 ou� M E AS U R E ME N T S f A T I Fig. � P F R I CT l O N P R E SS U R E pROFILE ACTUAL STATIC  >.
(5. 1jJ  _ 'w Pf If we multiply both sides of Eq. and Eq.248) uses the slip density. The only reliable approach is to measure the gradient downstream of the spacer and.3 is normally determined Alternate Schemes Previously it has been suggested (Isbin. to account for the effect of elevation on the static pressure gradient. (5. 299) uses the homogeneous density. (5. 248). interfacial shear increases with elevation and the resultant increase in dissipation is reflected in Eq.312) by (j )II. (5. 274) yield ilPspacer = KSP. That is. (5.s g.1 2 G2 ( + ) gc Pf vf ( x) Ksp. The next term. 5.(2gc ( (pG"'2)2) _ dz d dz d (5. Our purpose here is to show that both approaches are correct and that the difference in density head terms is just a reflection of the fact that the dissipation function. contains interphase dissipation due to slip as well as wall shear. (Ph).. More specifically. experimentally. 527. in Eq. � (5.297) and the steady version of Eq. Ksp. (P>. we eliminate the static pressure gradient between Eq. as shown in Fig. Eq. 1962) that there may be some advantage to correlate friction pressure drop data in terms of the dissipation function. Since the effect of elevation is different in these equations.297).g (5. (5.311) where the singlephase spacer loss coefficient. To gain some appreciation for the relationship between these results.313) . 312) represents the volumetric dissipation due to slip between the phases.313) Ax .4 . to extrapolate the fully developed gradients back to the spacer. we can recognize f the first term on the right as the volumetric dissipation due to viscous effects at the wall. These considerations become quite important when one is trying to measure the singlephase loss coefficient. (5 . (5. rather than the usual procedure of trying to correlate the wall shear.284 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A B W R across the fuel rod bundle. (5. in Eq. 1jJ. this suggestion has caused some confusion among workers in the field as to what the appropriate density head term should be. Ph) + gc sm8( p )(Ph » + G ((pG' )) . 248) . (8 ) .:. Eqs. That is. 'w . 310) and (5. Extensive experimental data taken on a wide range of gridtype spacers have indicated that the homogeneous multiplier does a fairly good job of correlating the twophase pressure drop data . 1jJ.
AERE Translation from Russian." Proc. In summary. . (5." J. "BWR RefillReflood Program. C. W et aL. "The Determination of Forced Convection Surface Boiling Heat Transfer." GEAP24940. (5. since we have only attempted to cover those topics of par ticular significance to BWR technology In the following chapters. "Studies of Burnout in Boiling Heat Transfer to Water in Round Tubes with NonUniform Heating. 7. we use the analytical results presented here and apply them to evaluating the performance of a modern BWR nuclear steam supply system. e . and K. transient evaluations).TWOPHASE F LOW 285 The final two terms in Eq. and M . 828. f See E q . G . i. G . 7999 (1966) . 312) are the volumetric dissipation due to vaporization effects. American Institute of Chem ical Engineers (1 965) . there is no particular advantage in correlating I\J if we are required to perform calculations involving the momentum equation. and W. or assume. H. <!>to'fWIO ) is preferred. J . Bankoff. . "A Systematic Correlation for TwoPhase Pressure Drop. E . American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1963) . . Heat Transfer. Task 4 ." AERER 5076. pp. 82 (1960) . the classical method of correlating twophase 'fw (i. 312) that I\J and 'flO are uniquely related . Armand. References Anderson. United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (1959) . A. General Electric Company (198 1 ) . It is evident from Eq. . 4 9) . . . Bergles. but since the twophase momentum equation is normally required in BWR analysis (e. A. either approach of data correlation is possible. . E . . Thus.0. This section on twophase pressure drop completes our treatment of twophase flow phenomena .(Ph») > 0. Con stitutive Correlations for Shear and Heat Transfer for BWR Version of TRAC. "A Variable Density SingleFluid Model for TwoPhase Flow with Particular Reference to SteamWater Flow. M . Bergles. A . A. since we must know. Suo. g This term is always positive since ((ii) . . By no means has it been an exhaustive study of the subject. Eighth Nat'l Heat Transfer Conf. Bennett.. an appropriate voidquality relation to determine the corresponding correlation for twophase wall shear ( 'flO ) ." preprint #37. Atomic Energy Re search Establishment (1966) . due to axial acceleration and kinetic energy changes of the twophase mixture . S. Los Angeles." paper 63HT22. 1966 Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Institute. (5. Stanford Uni versity Press. Rohsenow. g. . Chu. M . Baroczy.e. J . "Investigation of Boiling Water Flow Regimes at High Pressure.
and K. 12 (1966) .and TwoPhase Flow. Res. . Roy Soc. Heat Mass Transfer. "Pressure Gradients due t o Friction during the Flow of Evaporating TwoPhase Mixtures in Smooth Tubes and Channels. Davies. R . J. 16 ( 1 973) . 6(2) (1960) . Griffith. . "Void Volumes i n Subcooled Boiling Systems. W . Hewitt. D . E. D . T . . Davis." NEDO10491. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1958) . L." EUR4052e. G . Pergamon Press. and W B.. . "Analysis of Annular TwoPhase Flow : Application of the Dukler Analysis to Vertical Upward Flow in a Tube. . A1 (1948) ." HW08970. P and G . ASME. M . E.286 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S O F A B W R Boure. Sutherland." David Taylor Model Basin Report DTMB802 (1953) . ." AIChE j. Hancox. Dix. Series A (1950) . Annular TwoPhase Flow. "TwoPhase Slug Flow. Rohsenow. J . University o f Pittsburgh (1964) . Sci." Proc. Hinze. London 2 00. L . G. "Vapor Void Fractions for Forced Convection with Subcooled Boiling at Low Flow Rates. Studies of the Effect of Phase Flow Rates on Phase and Velocity Distribution. 83 (1961 ) . 2. "Prediction o f Pressure Gradients i n Pipeline Systems During TwoPhase Flow. New York (1972) . "Sampling Probe Studies of the Gas Core in Annular TwoPhase Flow: II." AIChE J. . S . Fitzsimmons. W . ''Two Phase Pressure Drop i n Piping and Components. 184. . G . Chisholm. Bowring. A . Wallis. Aziz. . E . Haberman. J. "Physical Model Based o n Bubble Detachment a n d Calculations of Steam Void age in the Subcooled Region of a Heated Channel. . and J." Chern. Atomic Energy Research Establishment (1961 ) . General Electric Company (1964) . Taylor. Lacey. 0. Govier. Chisholm. "Velocity o f Large Drops a n d Bubbles i n Media o f Infinite or Restricted Extent. 1 9 (1 964) . Eng. Mech.. and G . Hemisphere Publishing Corporation (1981 ) . F. Chapter 1 . . . European Atomic Energy Community (1968) ." AERER3680. Z . A ." paper 58HT19. E. J. and W M . I. M . "The Mechanics of Large Bubbles Rising through Extended Liquids in Tubes. Forti. New York (1970) . G . Sci. " A Dynamic Model for the Cooling Channels of a Boiling Nuclear Reactor with Forced Convection and High Pressure Level. . Morton. and HallTaylor. . G . and G. K . Ser c . j. . W . G ." App/. Gill. F . TwoPhase Flow and Heat Transfer in the Power and Process Industries. W. "An Experimental Investigation o f the Drag and Shape of Air Bubbles Rising in Various Liquids. Clark. Delhaye. Rev. 1. . The Flow of Complex Mixtures in Pipes." Trans. Nicoll. "Critical Speed and Sizes of Liquid Globules. 14 (1971 ) ." Int. OECD Halden Reactor Project (1962) . Engs." Report HPRlO. Harmathy. . P73C ( 1969) ." Int . Griffith. R." Ph . H. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. Geiger. D . F . . J. "Sudden Contraction Losses in Single. General Electric Company (1971 ) . "The Incipience of Nucleate Boiling in Forced Convection. Inst. E . and R . P . B. Thesis. N . T. . . Anderson. Hewitt. G . and P M . Heat Mass Transfer." Proc. "A General Technique for the Prediction of Void Distributions in NonSteady TwoPhase Forced Convection. a n d L . Hewitt. . C. D .
. Wickey. P W ." NEDO13388. 55(23) (1959) . 45 (1949) . 9 ( 1 961 ) . . "TwoPhase Flow in Boiling Water Nuclear Reactors. .. Mtg. "Collapse of Steam Bubbles in Water. C. "Forced Convection Subcooled BoilingPrediction of Vapor Volumetric Fraction. and P B . L. Heat Transfer COllf. Vol . T . S. R. W . Part IIPre diction of TwoPhase Annular Flow with Liquid Entrainment. C . . H . Theoretical Hydrodynamics.." Chern. Martinelli. John Wiley & Sons. R. Kline." Trans. Lottes. Nuclear Reactor ThermalHydraulics. "Proposed Correlation of Data for Isothermal TwoPhase TwoComponent Flow in Pipes. Atomic Energy Research Establishment ( 1972) . A. Mosher. S . V ( 1 970). P S . and L. . . R . (Paris). "Analysis of Various Types of TwoPhase Annular Flow. J . Zuber. and K." AERER71 26." AIChE J. D. M . Similitude and Approximation Theory. . Eng." Nucl. H. . James. Lottes.. 70 ( 1 948) . General Electric Company ( 1 974) . Heat Mass Transfer. . Sci. . G ." KAPL21 70. I. Des. General Electric Company (1 966) . B . R. Ishii." Chern." ANSIASMEINRC Topl." Trans. 3. ASME. . "Conservation Laws in OneDimensional Hydrodynamics. S . Argonne National Lab oratory (195 1 ) . 86(2&3) (1984) . 24. . "Expansion Losses in TwoPhase Flow." Trans. H . M . Lahey. Vol. 0 . and P B. . M . Levy. "Void Fractions in Subcooled Flow Boiling. "Vaporization Inside Horizontal TubesII . E . BenzeneOil Mixtures. O. Lockhart. WrightPatterson Air Force Base translation (1960) . "Prediction o f Pressure Drop During Forced Circulation Boiling of Water. Moen. WAPDBT20. Gen eral Electric Company ( 1 964) . NUREGI CP0014. R. and M . Mishima. H . MilneThomson." J." p. . Levy. Fourth Int. S." Eyrolles ( 1 975) .PHASE F LOW 287 Hutchinson. . Isbin. and H . . Jakob. ASME. . Tong. . Westinghouse Electric Company (1960) . P. 64 (1942) . S . A. . "Droplet Motion in TwoPhase Flow. Larson. S. . . and N . Ser. Levenspiel.TWO. "Thermally Induced Flow Instabilities in TwoPhase Mix tures. McAdams. Jens. W . 82 ( 1 960) . and R." Proc. pp. Levy. . Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (1961 ) . Ishii. "Two Phase SteamWater Pressure Drops. Ishii. . Heat Transfer." Nucl. 4th ed . New York ( 1 957) . "Reply. B . Isbin. Styrikovich." Ind. . Martinelli. Hewitt. Burnout. et aI ." Bettis Technical Review. . Larsen. "Hydrodynamic Stability o f a Boiling Channel. ASME." ANL4627." GEAP46 15. and P A. . Progr. McGrawHili Book Company. Pressure Drop and Density Data for High Pressure Water. Meyer. . S . Chern . 1 4841503 (1980) . Kutateladze. New York (1 965) . P A . "A Possible Characterization of Entrainment in Annular Flow. 51 (1959) . F. M . Whalley. and D. S . 91 ( 1 969) . Whalley. W. "Analysis of Heat Transfer. M. "TwoFluid Model and Hydrodynamic Constitutive Relations. H . Macmillan Publishing Company ( 1 961 )." GEAP51 57. R. Eng. Eng. 8 (1962) . "ThermoFluid Dynamic Theory of TwoPhase Flow. J . S. Vol . Nelson. "Steam SlipTheoretical Prediction from Momentum Mode!. "Hydraulics of GasLiquid System. Eng. C . Eng. Jones. Progr Symp.
New York (1959) . Eng. . N. 5 . . J .S . Rouhani. "Velocity of the Rise of Single Cylindrical Air Bubbles through Liquids Contained in Vertical Tubes. ." Int . G . . . G . "Prediction of Pressure Drop During Forced Circulation Boiling of Water. "The Propagation and the Wave Form of the Vapor Volumetric Concentration in Boiling. . Part II." Appl. . . Parts I and II. 13 (1970) . J. "Void Measurements in the Region of Subcooled and LowQuality Boiling. Z . MuItiphase Flow (1975) ." Int. Saha. Studsvik. "Flow Excursions and Oscillations in Boiling.288 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A BWR Newitt. and van der Laan. and J. . Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1983) . F. Heat Transfer (1965) . and F. . K . A . IV (1974) ." J. Heat Transfer Conf. 17 (1962) . T. M . . Chicago (1966) . . G . c . 1966) ." Trans ." Proc. Lahey. EUR4288. Vol . Staub. Moissis. H . A . "Average Volumetric Concentration in TwoPhase Flow Systems. Popowski." Int. "Point of Net Vapor Generation and Vapor Void Fraction in Subcooled BOiling. "Calculation of Void Volume Fraction in Sub cooled and Quality Boiling Regions. Zuber. "Boiling. New York (1 969) ." Chem . an Analytical Model for the Stability Analysis of NuclearCoupled DensityWave Oscillations in Boiling Water Nuclear Reactors. U. Fifth In t. Axelsson. and R. Heat Mass Transfer. 9 (1966) . . Yadigaroglu. . Heat Mass Transfer. of Mech. F. Wallis. Elemen tary Fluid Mechanics. McGrawHill Book Company. N . 3rd ed. Zuber. W . J . H . Rouhani. Zuber. . Symp. E. 7 (1964) . J." Proc. Aktiebolaget Atomenergi. . "The Transition from TwoPhase Bubble Flow to Slug Flow. S." Dept. Hench. Heat Transfer Conf. Z . T . Sci. 90 (1968) . 10 (1961 ) . Park." GEL Reports 62GLlOO and 62GL 1 1 1 (1962) . Knelman. N . "Vapor Void Fractions in Subcooled Boiling and Saturated BOiling Systems. Becker. Findlay." Proc. . . N . Zuber. R . T. University of Eindhoven (1967) . Staub. . Clarendon Press. D . John Wiley & Sons. J . P . Sci. Thorn." NUREG/CR3375. M." In t. Sweden (Apr. 11 (1965) . Radovich. Lahey. and R. . Condensation and GasLiquid Flow. "Momentum and Energy Balances for Dis persed TwoPhase Flow. 32 (1954) . TwoPhase Flow Systems with Heat Addition. Whalley. Zuber. N . and F . ASME. B ." AIChE J. Zuber. Report 7763222. and G . Heat Mass Transfer. N . and R. W. MIT (1962) . Inst . "SteadyState and Transient Void Fraction of Bubbling Systems and Their Operating Limits . . M. . Eng. and N." Trans . White. Oxford (1987) . J. . N. "Measurements of Some Basic Parameters in TwoPhase Annular Flow. P B . Quandt. "The Void Fraction in Subcooled BoilingPrediction of the Initial Point of Net Vapor Generation. Vennard. Dombrowski. J. TwoPhase Flow Dynamics. R. . A. and R. Chem . Eng. and E. Beardmore. van Deemter. and J. "The Development of NURREQN. "On the Various Forms of the Conservation Equations in TwoPhase Flow.. W . Staub. . Sec. Forced Convection Systems Under Oscil latory Conditions." Oxford Engineering Science Series 21. Jr. Res . S. Bijwaard. J. OneDimensional TwoPhase Flow." AERTL788. The Mechanism of Drop Formation from Gas or Vapor Bubbles. "Liquid Entrainment: 1. . E. . 3rd In t.
P ART T H REE Pe rfo rm a n ce of th e N u c l ea r Stea m S u p p l y Syste m .
.
which is of importance in subsequent discussions of the socalled "gap conductance" between the fuel pellets and the Zircaloy2 cladding. which have excellent stability in a steam/water environment. It was shown that they are typically com posed of a series of cylindrical U02 fuel pellets of 95% theoretical density. such as thermal conductivity. These pellets are enclosed in hollow Zircaloy2 tubes. The properties and physical characteristics of U02 are well known (Belle. However. Figure 61 is a plot of Eq. and density are tabulated in Table 61 for handy reference. 1 ) given in Table 61 . which serve to con tain the radioactive fission products and to protect the U0 2 pellets from the steamwater environment in the rod bundles. coef ficient of thermal expansion. One feature of these fuel pellets. they readily crack and fragment due to thermal stress and irradiation effects. 6. 1961) and are not discussed in detail here. a few of the salient physical characteristics. This correlation is based on General Electric (GE) data reported by Lyons (1966) and an International Panel (1965) . sintered U02 fuel pellets are an economical and durable fuel material.C H A PTE R SIX T h e rm a l . It can be seen that this correlation in291 . heat capacity.H yd ra u I i c Pe rfo r m a n ce This chapter deals with several of the most important conductive and convective heat transfer modes in BWR technology. Of particular interest is the temperature dependence of U0 2 thermal co n ductivity. (A. In general.1 Heat Conduction i n N uclear Fuel Elements A detailed mechanical description of the fuel elements used in modern BWRs was given in Chapter 2. is that because they are ceramic.
22) 11 _o . and Zircaloy2 A..!!. Ib Bt _ 2.42659/[R(5/9T + 255 . where K (u� )( T ) = (692.32)/1 . hSee Hein and Flagella (1968) . d c ft p(UO. 76 x 1�/[R(5/9T + 255 . h lb F X A exp{6. 8). 22))} R = 1 . 4 B .472 x 10 . Density "" _ = ilL L[T("F) . aT(Uo:z) 2. T= T(OF) where .. 1 7. dSee Mehon a n d Wiesinger (1961) .25 ..3 )T + (1 .! 3 g P(Zr. cSee Belle ( 1 961 ) .)T . 3872 x 1O . 1.5[( T . 'See FSAR Report ( 1971) . 1 :�. 22) + where 2 2 Btu x {6. Thermal conductivity 1..f 650. lb/f� (95% TO )e . Ib/ft3 (100% TD)e. eTD = theoretical density. 76. i See Eldridge and Deem (1967) . hftOF' Btu • 10 � 1 6 � 2. 0 . 674 x 10 .) { = Cp 684 . . 1 .2) ( T ) = 7. (32°F < T < 1 1 75°F) ( 1 1 75°F < T < 1922°F)i !See Belle (1961 ) .6(5/9T + 255. 987 T = T(OF) 0 .02366 x 10 3978 . hftOF' Btu b T = T("F ) . 16 x 10 . Cp(Zr2) ( T) = { . 6 x 10 6 . 6 ftOF' 3. 334 x lO . 52.. 07622 + 1 . lb/ft X (1 + X) D.) r . K(Zr.)( T ) = 0.12 )( T + 460) 3.720F) 6. cP(uo.(3 . gSee Seddon (1962) . Heat capacity. bSee Scott (1965) . 6 1 + T / (6. aT(Zr·2) C. 65 x 1 0  ' ftOF' . 085. 151 + (2 .292 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B W R TABLE 61 Some Selected Thermal Properties of UO.2) = 41O .06805 + 2 . Coefficient of thermal expansion aT 1 .
. 1 96 1 1 ( N I S H I J I MA . 1 0 .. 61 The thermal conductivity of U02 .0 o .. ...0 ...... 1 9701 ( K .0 » c o l E "" 1 t � ..  ..0 5 • t:: I > m .6... (T + 460 1 3 » z n m � o �O��"�TEMPERATURE (OFI Fig.. . .02366 .t .0 TI + .. 1 964 1 ( F E I T H .61 3978 . '" w N .0 (6.0 "3' § > I t 3..0 .. ii: o � 1 4. 1 9631 1 964 1 5.  ...J < :l II: � 2. .0 � » ..1 ( D A Y TON A N D T I PTON .. 1 96 1 1 ( R E ISWI N G . K(T! = � (692 . l 9651 ( BUSH •• al .0 o ( G O D F R E Y . :I:  < Z o U . N G E R Y •• • 1 9541 ( H OWA R D AND G U L V I N . "'0 m ..1 2 . 1 + � n 1 .
and density that proves useful in subsequent discussions. (6. e . 1) is obviously conservative for BWR design calculations. thus. small quantities of fission gases such as xenon and krypton are released . only a limited discussion of its properties is given here. respectively. On initial loading of the fuel pellets. Eq. and irradiationinduced swelling of the fuel. this gap is filled with helium gas. This gap closure occurs due to thermal stress induced cracking and relocation of the U02 pellets. but that this increase is somewhat less than shown in the data plotted. we can consider the thermal analysis of typical BWR fuel elements . fuel densification kinetics. helium has a relatively high thermal conductivity so that the operating temperature drop across the gap is minimized. we might expect that the gap. heat capacity. coefficient of thermal expansion. it is conservative to use a constant value of Hg = 1000 Btu/hft2_oF in design evaluations. It is chosen for use in BWR fuel elements because it has superior properties of strength. hence. Now that the fuel element geometry.2) ] . Zircaloy2 has a relatively small neutron capture cross section. Subse quent to initial operation. (A. However. These gases have fairly low thermal conductivity compared to the helium fill gas (i. and neutron economy. in the absence of any other effects. corrosion resistance. shortly after initial operation. and due to the fact that the fuel pellets are at a higher temperature than the cladding and have a coefficient of thermal expansion about twice that of the Zircaloy2 clad ding [see Eqs. A detailed analytical model known a s GEGAPIII (1973) i s used i n the evaluation of the fuel/clad gap conductance. . there is a small diametric gap between the surface of the fuel pellets and the inside surface of the Zir caloy2 cladding. e . and physical characteristics have been described. the gap essentially is closed. 1 ) . fuel relocation. KXe/KHe = 1/23 and K Kr/ K He = VIS). when the thermal "contact problem" is considered. It is seen that for most cases of practical significance. A more thorough discussion of the actual heat transfer process at the fuel gap interface is given later in this chapter. Table 61 contains infor mation on Zircaloy2 thermal conductivity. The general procedure is to solve the classical conduction equation. thermal properties. . i . This analysis yields the transient and steady state temperature distributions required in the design/safeguards analysis of a BWR. AT. Helium is inert and thus is nonreactive during seal welding of the end plugs. would increase with irradiation. 1 ) and (8.2 94 T H ERMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A BWR dicates some increase in thermal conductivity due to densification at the higher temperatures. hence. Hg • This detailed technique accounts for the effects of clad and fuel thermal expansion. Before initial operation. The Zircaloy2 cladding material is also a wellknown reactor material and. Furthermore. cladding creep down. (B. aT PCP iit = V · K VT + q". Figures 62 and 63 indicate how gap conductance varies with burnup in 7 x 7 and 8 x 8 fuel.
. 10 � B E G I N N I N G O F .J U ..: .: :.L 1 F E I B O L I POW E R L E V E LS � is c . " z § ... ... 62 BWRl5. W . 0:: w J: .J W 1 000 . w u z ..J .. l 00 �____________L____________�� __ __ __ __ __ __ �____________"__� o 10 PE A K P E L L E T E X POSU R E I GWdlt 1 20 30 40 Fig..T H E RMALHYDRA U L I C PERFORMANCE 295 l 00 � �..... 7 x 7 gap conductance ...: . u ::l C Z C u " CJ ..
.296 T H E RMAL H Y D RAU L I C S O F A BWR l 00 � r. I U :> o z o u !Ii t:) :. . § '5 1 0 000 B O L POWE R L..J U Iw .E V E LS w U Z . 63 BWRJ6.J . 8 x 8 conductance..J w :t 1 000 .. '" 100 ��____________�______________�_____________J o 10 20 30 P E A K P E L L E T E X POSU R E IGWd/t l 40 Fig. ... � a: w :t l t:) Z o o .. ...
4) is called the con ductivity integral. Eq. (6. dT K( T) dr = foR F( r)rdr = R2/2 [ ] (6. involving Bessel functions of various types and order. The significance and relative impor tance of the conductivity integral concept and the linear heat generation (kWlft) parameter are clearly indicated by this form of the solution. The technique that we employ in the discussion of steadystate tem perature distributions is to obtain an exact solution for the case of variable internal generation and conductivity . A convenient discussion of solutions of this type is given by Tong and Weisman (1970).= . lr r'F( r' )dr' 0 (6.. many simpli fying assumptions invariably must be made.3)..1 SteadyState Temperature Distributions For steadystate conditions in which angular symmetry is assumed and axial effects are neglected. where R is the pellet radius. 6.. Typically. The left side of Eq. 1 d dT .K( T)r.R [� I" r' F( r')dr' ] dr" r I 0 T(R) = � r . such that. and a normalized power distribution function. which is an important parameter in the thermal analysis of reactor fuel elements (Belle. By using these parameters. (6.1. Eq. these are quite complex. (6. F( r). q"'( r).4) r . This is the approach that is taken in the subsequent discussion of thermal transients. once again.H Y D RA U L I C PERFORMANCE 297 One technique is to write this parabolic partial differential in finite differ ence form and to solve it numerically with the appropriate initial and boundary conditions. 1 ) becomes. 3) Integrating.q"'rF( r) dr dr By integrating Eq. 1961) . 2) It is convenient to express the internal generation.T H E RMAL. q"'. in terms of its average value. iT(r) K( T)dT q'" J. d dT K( T)r = . Also.q"'( r) r dr dr [ ] ( 6. 2) becomes. Another approach is to attempt to obtain exact solutions such as those tabulated by Carslaw and Jaeger (1959). (6.
Equation (6. Since the avoidance of fuel melting (i.4) can be written as. There are several cases o f practical interest that are considered . 6) For the special case of constant thermal conductivity and uniform internal generation.4) and (6.e. Eq. r = 0. . K[T(O) . has been specified . r = R.T( R )] = q ' ( R )/41T (6. (6. which is normally a good approximation to the actual power distribution in fuel pellets. 10) and. e . 7) implies that the temperature dif ference across the fuel pellet is a function only of the linear heat generation of the fuel and thus is independent of the radius of the pellet.5) and the linear heat generation rate (i . M2 = qIllR 2Ml = 2Rq" ( R )Ml (6. Eqs. case is that of uniform power density such that F(a') � 1 . kW/ft) is given by. 0. The next case of interest is a parabolic power distribution such that F(a') � 1 + [(a .8) where. (6. 3) that heat flux is given by. MI. . center melt) is normally a thermal design criterion. F(a '). we can readily appreciate why the kW/ft rating of reactor fuel is such an important parameter in the thermal design of nuclear fuel elements. The first. A better approximation is given by neu tron diffusion theory as. ) 2 . and simplest. (6.T(r) T( R ) K(T)dT (6. Returning to the more general case.¥l] f. can be obtained once the normalized power distribution function. (6. q ' ( R ) � 2TfRq" ( R ) = TfR2q lll (6. a � rlR a ' � r'IR a" � r" IR The integral.298 T H ERMAL H Y D RA U L I C S O F A B W R It is interesting to note from the first integral of Eq. to the pellet surface. given by Eq.9). q"( R ) = qlll rR F( r)rdr = RqIll/2 R Jo (6. 6) yield. 7) where the integration has been carried out from the centerline. (6. 9) M2 � J.
M \ Equation (6. 65." It is defined as the ratio of the power at the centerline of the fuel pellet to the value at the surface of the pellet. 0) = (1 . can be displayed conveniently. (6. F(a ') 1 + [(a.H Y D RA U LIC PERFORMANCE 299 TABLE 62 Type of Power Distribu tion Uniform Parabolic Diffusion theory approximation Form of the Power Distribution Function.O. 02366 x 10 . 10) yields. This is readily integrated such that Eq. these figures can be used to estimate rapidly the temperature profile in the fuel pellets. A plot of the internal generation in tegral for the diffusion theory approximation is given in Fig. M2 = F(a') = 2I J3 o (J3 a ' ) �/ F(0)/F(1 . For a parabolic power distribution. 1 1 ) . 10).[(1 . The temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity of U02 has been tabulated as Formula (A. Sf) 3978 . 9) can be integrated using these assumed forms of the power distribution function.T H E RM A L . which is displayed in Fig.Io ([3a) 2[31t ([3) Internal Generation Integral.( 2 )/4ff (1 . x {[T( r) + 460] [ ] (6.0 V4(1 . 66. 66 can be used to determine I in the parabolic distribution.W [3Io([3a ' )/21 t ([3) 1. 1 I n 6. A parameter frequently used in nuclear reactor fuel design is the "flux depression factor.1 2 692. If the flux depression factor is specified.0 case implies uniform internal generation.) 2 .61 + T( r) + 692. 1) in Table 61 . This is due to the selfshielding effect of the uranium atoms and the higher thermal neutron flux in the moderator. we now consider the condu ctivity integral. M 2 . internal heat gen eration due to nuclear fission is normally less at the centerline of the fuel pellet than at the surface. M l. Note that for all finite I. Figure 64 is a parametric plot of the internal generation integral for an assumed parabolic power distribution function . Note that the 1= 0. The results are summarized in Table 62. given by Eq.61 + T( R ) 4. the flux depression factor is simply.( 10([3) . Sf)/(1 + O.0 4 _ [T( R ) + 460] 4} .\. As dis cussed later. To complete the thermal analysis of a fuel pellet. (6. The internal generation integrals.a 2 ) 2 )/4 . Fig.
. 64 Graphic presentation of M J integral for parabolic power distribution ..J 0.: > .30 0. 1 2 I < 0. 1 4 � � 0.r.0. I 3: . Q . 1 0 � > C o n <.. r l R Fig.0..22 0..90 0 0.: II: Cl w I 0.00 P E L L ET R A D I A L POS I T I O N .28 0. 1 8 iii ::l .5) 0.20 0.60 0.40 0. ..06 � 0.04 :.80 0.20 1 .50 0. 1 0 0.28 5 T H E ASS UM E D POW E R D ISTR I B U T I O N I N P E L L ET I S P A R A BO L I C o 0. > 0:> 0. 1 6 m � > r ... 7 0 0.. r 0.24 � F ((X ) o 1 1 10< ' ) 2 ..02 0 0.0 0.08 o .J .
22 0. 0: 0.2 P E L L E T R A D I A L POS I T I O N .T H E R MA L .06 0.4 0.20 0. 1 8 w :::l .24 0.08 0.02 0 {3 P {3 i3 � � 0 0.04 0.J c( > .8 1 . . 1 6 0.. 1 4 0.0 Fig. 1 0 0. I = T � 0.2B 0.J c( II: Cl w � T H E ASS U M E D POW E R D I ST R I B U T I O N I N P E L L E T I S M O D I F I E D B E SS E L F U N C T I O N : 8 10 (po:' I F ( O:.H Y D R A U L I C P E R F O R M A N C E 301 0.6 = rlR 0. 65 Graphic presentation of M\ integral for diffusion theory approximation to power distribution.26 0. 1 2 0..
<:J » c n (f1 r C n 0. w 0 in u <t u. .4 P A R A B O L I C POW E R D I ST R I B U T I O N F A CTO R .4 0 . .<:J z 0.2 0.0 1 .2 1 .0 Fig.8 I I m .8 2.<:J o 0. 2 �  0:> ::E » .0 !t § II) w c: . 66 The flux depression factor for a parabolic power distribution . f 1 . 0 0.6 1 . c: 0.8 o 0.6 � » I < r x ::> � u.. 0 l u..4 1 .w o N 1 .6 0.
T H E RMAL. 12). which is nominally 5080°F. N2 ( T) � 692. 61 (TTo K( T')dT' = 3978 . N2 ( T). is arbitrary . Equation (6. To determine the surface temperature of the fuel pellet. 13) once the fuel pellet radius. M 2 = N2[T( r) ] . Too. for a given size pellet operating at a heat flux. a graphic display of the conductivity integral. 67 Now it is possible to determine the temperature distribution in the fuel pellets by using Eqs . since it has been observed that below this temperature the thermal conductivity of U02 decreases with irradiation. and internal generation profile (Ta ble 62) have been specified . we normally must add the temperature drop between the pellet surface and the coolant to the bulk temperature. 14) T( R ) aTgap + a TZr 2 + aToxide + aTcrud + aTfil m + Too = where the physical significance of these temperature drops is shown in Fig. For T � 5080°F. we obtain.61 ++TTo) j . are known. Eq. (6. Between these limits. 12) yields. (6. surface temperature. (6. for our purposes here. If graphic solutions are to be ob tained. 12) is displayed in Fig. The choice of reference temperature. N2( T ) � in which To is an arbitrary constant temperature . To . 12) By comparing Eq. Next we must direct our attention to the determination of these temperature drops. it is seen that. That is. we write.02366 1O 4. Eq. (6. (TTo K( T')dT' j � [( T + 460) 4 _ ( To + 460)4 ] (6. in degrees Fahrenheit r. Some authors (In ternational Panel.H Y D RA U L I C PERFORMANCE 303 This expression can be used to evaluate T( r). 15) . q" ( R ). T( R ). (6. L 32°F 50800F K( T')dT' = 9674 h. it is convenient to evaluate the related conductivity integral.N2[T( R ) ] (6.ft = 93 W/cm Btu (6. allows us to estimate rapidly the radial temperature distribution in a fuel pellet. 1965) prefer to use To = 500°C. 1 In (692. 68. By integrating as before.12 + 6. 13) As discussed later. while above 500°C irradiation effects apparently anneal out. 12) can be evaluated up to the melting temperature of U02 . surface heat flux.  (6. 12) with Eqs . when M2 and the pellet su rface temperature. of the coolant. the conventional value of To = 32°F is used . Nevertheless. and (6. (6. 1 1). the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit at any radius. 10) and (6. 8).
LP)f I! * ..1 (..5 u: ca. III '2 e z: .._O I x ::Iol:t (lJIf/nlBI '00 III.£ � u =' be QJ .11 Z:N . :e e 'g =' ::J lib i:i: " ..... .304 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR 7J . � '0 t: 0 QJ '0 u .
16) where the identity. (6.. � 'ox t C L AD G A P� O X I DE C R UD I � � � 'i = r' I t COOLANT AT T = Too R CO N V E C T I V E f.H Y D RA U L IC P E R FORMANCE 305 �. 'o . This procedure is discussed in Sec.'c. 6 . . ) . Figure 68 is a representation of the various resistances in the thermal circuit. �o T. has been used to reference the heat flux to the pellet surface . Fig. 2) reduces to. !!(/T) dr dr =0 aTcJad = q"( R )R In( rolri)/Kzr2 (6 .. the temperature dependence of the cladding thermal conductivity given in Table 61 can be considered and Eq. 68 Representation of thermal resistances of nonfuel components in a typical fuel element.. For more detailed design calculations.TH E RMAL. 2'Trq"( R )R = 2'Trq"( n)ri.1 FI L M T CR) R GA P R CLAD R OX I D E R C UD R ( EQ U I VALENT T HE RMAL T ero ) T ( rox) C IRCUIT) T C' c . 32 to 37 mils. (6 .. it is usually a good approximation to assume constant thermal conductivity.. 3.. For this case. This can be integrated to yield. 1 . Eq. and since its thermal conductivity is fairly large and not a strong function of temperature. Since the Zircaloy2 cladding is relatively thin. 2) can be evaluated numerically.
HK « C. we can integrate as before to obtain the gap temperature drop in terms of an equivalent conductivity . 10. 1 . however. This expression is frequently modified to more accurately account for the fact that 00 when the gap is zero . we obtain. Ll Tcrud = q"(R)R I n (rcrlro)/ Kcr LlToxide = q"(R)R In(roxlro)/Kox (6. Dean's expression takes the form.20) and (6.R) + 10] _ Kg (6. we can write. 6. Further discussion of the details of the contact problem is de ferred to Sec.20) Ll Tgap q"( R) (�)lHg = Also. (6. . The final temperature drop i n Eq. 23) For most BWR design purposes. 22) which implies that gap conductance is approximately equal to the equiv alent thermal conductivity of the gap divided by the gap thickness. The contact resistance problem subse quently is considered in Sec . normally conservative. Previous investigators (Dean. Hg .C [(r. it has been experimentally verified that an equivalent gap conductance is a useful concept and. This results in. HK = Thus. 1963) have proposed that a pseudogap distance. as 1000 previously discussed. a constant. 18) The next component of the thermal circuit is the socalled "gap conduc tance. 1 7) (6. (6." the specification of which is a very complex problem of determining the appropriate contact resistance .21). 1 . 16) since the constant thermal con ductivity assumption is usually valid . 2. LlTgap =q"(R)R In (riIR)/ Kg Kg Hg = ri In(riIR) (ri Kg R )  (6. be used to approximate the effect of temperature discontinuities. (6 . 19) (6. The appropriate heat transfer coefficient Hg . 15) that must b e considered is that across the coolant convective film . HK � q" (ri )1 Ll Tgap = q " (R)(Rlri )1 Ll Tgap (6. value of Btu/hft2_OF can be used in scoping calculations .306 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS O F A BWR The temperature drops across the zirconium oxide zone and the crud layer are of the same form as Eq.2. is taken as an empirically determined parameter. (6. 6 . Gap conductance normally is defined as. Specifically.21) Equating Eqs . be employed and that an accommodation factor.
(6. (6.24). 24) Equations (6. . oxide layer. 8) and (6. and is given by. This procedure can be repeated until the radial temperature profile through the fuel pellet has been evaluated completely . the surface ] (6.20). aTfilm = q" (R) (Rlrcr)/Hfilm T(R) . 17). "" T(R). given in Table 62 can be used to evaluate nu merically the radial temperature distribution. T(r). 69 .T H E RMAL. and (6. 64 or 65.+ ro In(rolri)/Kzr2 + ro In(roxlrO)/Kox r. 26) and (6. M2 (r). 18). 16). Note that the calculation just discussed includes many assumptions and simplification s . (6. (6. de pending on which internal generation profile is assumed.H Y D RA U LIC PERFORMA N C E 307 depends on whether the coolant is single phase or two phase (i . 25) (6. If computer facilities are not readily available.Hg ro + ro In(rcrlrox)/Kcr + rcrH film  [ q"(ro).27) Hence. then is used to evaluate the temperature. Equations (6.Too = q" (R)[(Rln)Hg + R In(rolri)/Kzr2 + R In(roxlro)/Kox + R In(rcrlrox/Kcr + (Rlrcr)Hfilml This frequently is written as. ro l /U = :. to yield the internal generation integral. and fuelcladding gap can be calculated using Eqs . 24) can be combined to give. e . 1 1).20). respectively. no flux tilt). 27) = allow us to calculate the fuel pellet surface temperature. (6. when the bulk coolant temperature. Ml(r). 15) through (6. A discussion of the appropriate empirical heat transfer coefficients was given in Chapter 4. 13). we have taken a macroscopic point q"(R) (rolR)q"(ro). combined with the appropriate internal heat generation integral. For instance. In addition. . T and the heat flux at the pellet surface. Once the coolant bound ary condition has been specified. Equation (6. have been specified. 8) then assigns a unique value to Figure 67. Eqs . A typical temperature profile generated in this manner is given in Fig. (6. T(r). we have assumed no circumferential varia tions in the internal generation distribution factor (i . in Figs . . boiling) a t the axial location of interest. in conj unction with Eq. 26) T(R) U  Too = q"(ro)/U where is the overall heat transfer coefficient based on heat flux of the cladding. the film drop can be written as. 18). Mt. at the radial position originally assumed . In addition. (6. cladding. and have neglected axial effects . crud layer. e . (6. and (6. One procedure is to choose a radial position. (6. the individual temperature drops through the convective film. then a graphic solution scheme can be employed . rlR.
2 0. conservative assumptions were made to purposely simplify the analysis .9 1 .8 0.308 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR P E L L E T ·TOC L A O GAP CLAD WA L L IDE CRUD 4000 3800 3600 3400 3 200 3 1 52 3000 2800 :.0 Fig.4 0. In some instances.5 0.3 0. This approach is motivated largely by the complexity of a microscopic approach and the fact that an empirically determined equivalent thermal conductivity is normally adequate for de sign purposes. 1 0.6 0. Typical of these assumptions is that we . � a: :> >" 2600 2400 � > 2200 2000 1 800 1 600 1 400 1 200 1 000 0.7 0. of view in analyzing the fuel pellet in that we have employed an equivalent thermal conductivity rather than trying to consider the details of the heat flow paths in a fragmented fuel pellet. 69 Typical endoflife (EOL) temperature distribution in a BWRJ4 fuel rod .
2 Gap ConductanceThe Thermal Contact Problem So far. 61 1 . 610. As discussed previously. this is the case. the calculated EOL centerline temperatures can be higher than actual. and that when contact is made at the fuelcladding interface. However. analytic solution is quite difficult. The most widely used models are probably those of Ross and Stoute (1 962) and Rapier et al. Jacob s and Todreas (1 973) have compared the three models given in Table 63 with some selected gap conductance data . it is assumed that the surface protrusions are of variable size with a Gaussian height distribution .1. Nevertheless. . as indicated in Fig. there are many semi empirical models available that can be used to estimate the effect of interface parameters on the ef fective gap conductance. The assumptions made i n the Centinkale and Fishendentype models can be realistic if the surface finish of the fuel pellets and cladding is controlled carefully. protrusions). 1969) and. these models assume that there is a uniform distribution of surface contact points (i . Indeed. e . the contact pressure will be sufficient to cause plas tic deformation on at least one of the surfaces . (1963) . in general we expect a nonuniform distri bution of surface protrusions. Both of these models are based on the earlier work of Centin kale and Fishenden (1951) and both involve several key assumptions con cerning the dependence of gap conductance on contact pressure. As seen in Fig. 6. mathematical expressions for gap conductance are given in Table 63 for the three models just discussed. A concise summary of many of the models cur rently in use was given previously by Tong and Weisman (1970) . which has been observed in highperformance fuel elements as the fabricated porosities and fission gases migrate to the centerof the pellets . This model is based on the work of Mikic (Cooper et aI.H Y D R A U L I C P E R FO RM A N C E 309 have neglected the "coring" of fuel pellets. the discussion concerning the heat transfer modes at the fuelcladding interface has indicated that the physical mechanisms involved are very complex and that an exact. Ne glecting heat transfer through the entrapped gas pockets between contact points. In ad dition. which has a value of 1000 Btu/hft2_oF. By assuming a solid pellet throughout its incore life. the actual physical situation at the fuelcladding interface can be considered a thermal contact problem . The details of this type of analysis and its role in BWR fuel design are considered next.T H E RMAL. Another conservative assumption that has been made to simplify the analysis is the use of a constant gap conductance. A more physically realistic model for the gap conductance has been put forward by Jacobs a nd Todreas (1973) . . . These protrusions or contact points are nor mally of various heights and their deformation can be plastic or elastic depe nding on the contact pressure at the interface.
.3 10 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L IC S OF A B W R SU R F A C E 2 ENTRAPP E D . subj ect to the following boundary conditions: . Ross and Stoute's model can be used to estimate the effect of varying the height of the surface protrusions on gap conductance . (6 . Eq. 61 0 Typical surface profile (Jacobs and Todreas. pc aT 1 a =P at r ar ( aarT) + q rK III (6. However. we must be able to analyze the thermal response to various hypothetical accidenttype transients . Eq. I n the interest o f simplicity. 1 972) . if the surface finish is known and the contact pressure is relatively high.Too(t)] + qR (6 . Under these assumptions. t) = H". [ Tn (t) . 1) can be written for the fuel element shown in Fig. Eq . Mikic's model is recommended . 1) . ISSION GAS F SUR F AC E 1 Fig. (6. (6. These operational transients are as sociated with such things as reactor startup or shutdown and changes in power level .K aT ar i r = rn = q" (rn.. 28) To solve for the transient temperature distribution. 612 as. although the data scatter is quite large .1 . In addition..3 Transient Conduction Analysis During the course of its incore life. Mikic's model does a somewhat better j ob of predicting the gap conduc tance. 28) must be finite differenced and numerically evaluated. a nuclear reactor fuel element normally experiences many thermal transients . we retain the previous assumptions o f an gular symmetry and neglect axial effects . 0 (1 000 psi). When no information is available about the surface finish or contact pressure. 6. The time history of the fuel element temperatures can be obtained by numerically evaluating the conduction equation. 29a ) .
T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C PERFORMANCE
31 1
A. The Ross and Stoute model" H = g
TAB L E 63 Expressions for Gap Conductance, H.
km
0.0905R 112
where km � 2klk2/(kl + k2), harmonic mean of the thermal conductivities of the contacting surfaces 1 and 2, (Btu/hftOF) &j = he ht of protrusion on surface, i, ft R � [(Ii! + &� )/2 ] 1/2 , root mean sq uare (rms) of surface protrusions, b ft pc � contact pressure, psi H � hardness (Meyer) of softer solid, pSi. This model is valid strictly for plastic deformation at the fuelclad interface.
H (f:.c.)
, (Btu/ hff OF),
lf
B. The Rapier et al. modelc H = g
where
�: (�)
(
1 12
(Btu/hff OF),
A� H� . Am !  , rms protruslOntoprotruslOn wave length, b ft 2 km , This model is valid strictly for plastic deformation at the fuelclad interface. d C. The Mikic model Hg C1km i tan(O) i l!E H a

pc
)
.
and H
defined in A above .
()
C2
where i tan(O) i � [tan 2 ( O I ) + tan2 (llz)] 112 , mean absolute slope of the surface protrusions of the contacting surfaces tan(Oj) � &;/(A;/2), the slope of the surface protrusion on surface i aj � rms surface roughness of surface i, ft a � (ah a� ) 1/2 , ft C1 C2 �
�
{
{1. 45,
fresh fuel 0 . 29, irradiated fuele 1 . 0, plastic deformation at fuelclad interface 0.50, elastic deformation at fuelclad interface.
·See Ross and Stoute (1962) . b See Fig. 610 for further definition . c See Rapier et al. (1963) . d See Jacobs and Todreas (19 72) . e The gap conductance of irradiated fuel has been found (Skipper and Wooiton, 1958) to decrease by approximately a factor of 5 due to the presence of fission products and the buildup of oxide layers on the inner surface of the cladding.
312
T H E RMAL H Y DRAU L I C S OF A BWR
1 00 �
�,
6. o
o
COOPE R at 11 .,
DATA
R OSS AND STOUTE , ( 1 962 1 RAP I E R a t II . , ( 1 9631
1 1 9691
N .::
0.
u::
10 �
0 0
.e "
Iii
'b
...
% 0 w � u
::; �
w 0 0
f1
U
is
w a: IL
i
it 1�
8 8
0
1 00
t:AA
1 00 M EASU R E D 1�
Hg
�6
1 1 03
f1
'tn
0
0
0
Btu/h.ft 2 .o F I
Fig. 61 1
Gap conductancepredicted versus measured .
T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C PERFORMANCE
313
T oo
Fig.
61 2
Spatial grid for transient conduction analysis of a uranium fuel element.
314
T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S O F A BWR
(6. 29b)
aT  Kar
I aT I ar
r = rm 
= q"( rm  t ) = � q" (rm , t) rm  l =0
( )
(6.29c)
r = rJ = O
(6. 29d)
where Hoo is the "convective" heat transfer coefficient, Hg is the gap con ductance, and q'k is the heat flux due to thermal radiation . Equation (6 . 29c) implies negligible energy storage in the fuelcladding gap and Eq. (6. 29d) implies radial symmetry . Both of these boundary conditions are rather good for most cases of practical concern. However, there are special cases in which different boundary conditions may need to be imposed . For our purpose here, the system given by Eqs . (6. 28) and (6. 29) is well posed and can be used to demonstrate the solution scheme of interest. To set up the solution scheme, the spatial derivative in Eq. (6. 28) must be finite differ enced . There are three cases that must be considered: the interior nodes, the boundary nodes, and the node on the centerline of the U0 2 fuel pellet. First, we consider the interior nodes in both the fuel pellet and the Zircaloy cladding . By using standard central difference techniques, the term, rK ( aTlar) , can be approximated at,
ri + 112 = V2( ri + ri + 1)
and time, t, by,
a
aT rKar
Similarly,
I I
Ti = ri + 1I2 K i + 1 /2 Ti + l  + O(d y2) r l  rri + 1I2
1+ 1
(
)
(6. 3 0)
aT rKar
r; 
= r;  12 K i  112 Ti  Ti  l + O(dr 2) r  r  l
J I
(
)
(6. 3 1 )
Next, at interior mesh point,
a aT  rKar ar
aT aT ( ) I = (r; + 1/2  ri  1I2) [ ( rK)  (rK) ] ar ar
1
ri Ti + 1 I2 ri  1/2
ri,
we write,
+ O(dr)
(6 . 32)
T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C PERFORMANCE
315
Hence, by combining Eqs . (6. 30), (6 .31), and (6. 32), and by dropping terms, we obtain, after regrouping and dividing through by ri ,
! i rK aT = ar
r
rj
1I2 ( ar ) [ ( + riri 1 ) (ri + l  rKil)(ri  ri  l) ] Ti i r; 1I2  [(1 + ;:;I ) (ri + 1  rKi1)( ri  ri  1) i ri + K i + 1I2 + (1 + 1 ) ] Ti ri (ri + l  ri  l)( ri + l  ri) [ (1 + riri+ 1) (ri + l  rKi i +l)(112ri + l  ri) ] Ti + 1
1
+
O ( Ar)
(6. 33)
Equation (6. 33) is the appropriate finite difference expression of the spatial derivative in Eq. (6. 28) for all interior nodes. Note that the thermal con ductivity, K, can vary spatially in this expression and that we do not need to have a uniform spatial mesh; i . e . , Ar can vary . We now turn our attention to the node on the centerline of the fuel pellet . Note that on the centerline, r = 0, the spatial derivative i n E q . (6. 28) i s undefined. T h e easiest w a y t o proceed is t o expand the spatial derivative as,
! i rK aT r ar ar
( ) Kq + aK aT + !r K aT ar ar ar ar
=
(6. 34)
On the centerline, the symmetry condition given by Eq. (6. 29d) implies that the second term on the right side of Eq . (6 . 34) vanishes and the last term is undefined . By using L'Hopital's rule on this latter term, we find, hm ,...... 0
. 1r K  = KT2 I aT i ar a,
r=O
(6. 35)
Thus, Eqs . (6. 34) and (6. 35) imply, 1 a aT   rKr ar ar
Equation (6. 36) can be central differenced at time, t, to yield, 1 a aT   rKr ar ar
r=O
where, due to symmetry, the fictitious temperature, Thus, Eq. (6. 37) yields,
( ) I
( ) I
iT  2Kar2 r=O
I
r=O
(6. 36)
 2K l
(T2  2Tl + To) O A 2 + ( /.Jor ) 2 r2
(6. 37)
aT 1 a   rKr ar ar
( )I
To, is given by To = T2 .
(6. 38)
r=O
 4K l
(T2  Tl) ' 2 r2
316
T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A B W R
or, by regrouping and neglecting
1a aT 4KI =  TI + T2   rKr� d ar r = O r ar
( )
O ( Llr2)
Now we must consider the form of the spatial derivative on the various boundary nodes. First we consider the node at rm  the surface of the fuel pellet. Using Taylor's theorem,
I
4KI
terms, (6. 39)
aT a aT aT + O ( Ll y2) = rK (rm  l  rm  2) rKrKar rm ar ar Tm  2 ar Tm  . 1
I
I 1
( )
(6. 40)
By using Eqs . (6. 29c) and (6. 29b), Eq. (6 . 40) can be written as,
m  l  m  2 =  r (T mHg m  l  Tm) ( rm  1 + rm  2) K m  3/2 r 2 m  I  rm  2 T
(6. 41 )
(T
)
By rearranging, dividing through by we obtain,

(rK��) I [ ( 1 �:= �) (rm _�m�::_ 2)2J Tm  2 ;: rm [( 1 rrmm  2l ) rm KImr3m/2 2 � + (l ) (rm l  rm  2) J Tm rm r
+ 
rm 
, and neglecting terms of
O ( Llr),
rm 
=
+
)
(
2Hg
(6. 42) At the inner surface of the cladding, position yields,
rm ,
a Taylor' s expansion
(6.43) As outlined above, Eqs . (6.43) and (6. 29b) can be combined to yield, 2Hg a aT   rK= T r ar ar rm ( rm + l  rm) m
1 ( ) [ I

[ ( rm +  rm ) + ( 1 + rmrm+ l ) ( rmKm +'Ir2m)2] Tm + K m + '12 2 1 r + r( 1 + m + l ) Tm + l . rm ( rm + l  rm)
2Hg
1
]

1
(6.44)
T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C PERFORMANCE
317
The final node that must be considered is the surface node of the Zircaloy cladding at r/l ' The appropriate finite difference form can be derived using exactly the same method as employed to obtain Eq. (6.42) . The correspond ing result is,
  rKr ar ar
1
a
( aT) [ ( I
rn
=

[ ( 1 + ) K/I  Y2 2 + [ 2Hoe J TOO  2qR +

1 + r/l
r/l  1
)
( r/l  r/l  l ) 2
K /I  Y2
) T/I

r/l  l r/l
in Eq.
The various finite difference approximations for the spatial derivative (6. 28) are given by Eqs . (6. 33), (6.39), (6.42), (6. 44), and (6. 45) . The temporal term can be approximated as,
a
( r/l  r/l  l )
( r/l  r/l  l )
( r/l  r/l  l )
( r/l  r/l  l )
2Hx
] T/I
(6.45)
at
T = ( Ti. k + 1  Ti,k)
ilt
d
+ O(ilt )
(6.46)
where,
Ti,k + l = T( ri t + M )
,
Thus, Eqs . (6. 46), (6.33), (6.39), (6.42), (6.44), and (6.45) comprise the explicit finite difference formulation of the transient conduction equation. It is well known that the stability of explicit numerical schemes limits the size of the time step, ilt, relative to the spatial step, ilr. Crank and Nicolson ( 1947) have suggested a mathematical substitution that essentially eliminates the stability problems experienced in explicit schemes. The basis for this method is to substitute the arithmetic average of the temperature at the present and future time step into the spatial derivatives . That is, in Eqs . (6.33), (6. 39), (6 42) , (6.44), and (6.45), terms of the form Ti,k would be replaced by ( Ti,k + Ti ,k + 1 )/2. The resultant spatial derivatives can be combined with th e temporal derivative, given by Eq. (6.46), and the transient conduction equation, Eq. (6.28), to yield a semiimplicit finite difference formulation of the conduction equation. Approximating the conductivity, heat capacity, heat transfer coefficients, and surface radiation heat flux at time t + ilt by their value at time t, this system of equations can be written conveniently in matrix form as,
.
(6.47)
where, using standard indicial notation,
T � ( Tl,k, T2.k, T/I,kl, a vector T ' � ( T1 .k + l ' T2.k + l , . . . Tn.k+ l)T,
(6.48)
vector
a
(6.49)
31 8
T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A BWR
Ck � [(pCp}i,k8 i j ], a diagonal matrix / 1 � i, j � n
(6. 50)
(6 . 5 1 )
Lk � lt�  1)8 ij + l + lt�)8ij + 1�,� + 1)8ij _
a tridiagonal matrix, 1 � i,j � n (6. 52)
The elements, li,k, of the tridiagonal matrix, L, are tabulated in Table 64 . Equation (6. 47) can be rewritten as,
( C  L )kT' = ( C + L )kT + Qk
(6. 53)
In this form, we can readily solve for T ' , the temperature vector at time t + At using standard matrix inversion techniques such as a modified Gaus sian elimination scheme (Varga, 1962) . Thus, the required solution is,
T' = (C  L )k l ( C + L )kT + (C  L )k 1 Qk
(6. 54)
T vector and the internal generation vector, Qk, is specified. The elements of the Ck and Lk matrices are evaluated for the given initial conditions and
the new temperature distribution is obtained, as indicated in Eq. (6 . 54), by matrix multiplication. For the special case of constant properties, the matrix (C  L )k is constant and only needs to be inverted once . For the more general case of variable thermal conductivity, it must be inverted at each time step. Fortunately, ( C  L )k is tridiagonal and, thus, the linear system given in Eq. (6. 53) is solved readily on modern digital computers. The procedure outlined above is a powerful method to evaluate the transient temperature distribution in a nuclear reactor fuel pin. A very similar analysis can be performed on the steadystate version of Eq . (6. 28) to yield the finite difference formulation of the steady conduction equa tion as, (6.55) Thus, the steadystate temperature distribution can be easily evaluated by numerical integration in which the effect of spatially varying properties can be included . This can be used to initialize a transient calculation, for direct design analysis, or to check the accuracy of the approximate analytical methods discussed in Sec . 6. 1 . 1 .
a a. .
To start the calculation, the initial temperature distribution is given in the
'I
A{l,
0, i of. j
i =j
TH E RMAL H Y D RA U LIC PERFORMANCE
319
A. Interior nodes,
B. Node on centerline, �
C. Node on fuel pellet surface, i
D. Node on the inner clad surface, i
E . Node on outer clad surface,
••
{ (2"" i "" m  2) U02 ( m + 1 "" i "" n  1), Zr2 l> flt ri 1(0k I ) = ( 1 + ) Ki1I2,k i, 2 ri (ri + l  ri  l)(ri  ri  l) 1 1.f+ l) � flt(l + ri + ) Ki + 1I2,k 2 ri (ri+lriI)(rinri) /l,f ) �  [Il.f  I ) + /l,f + I) ] i= 1 2fltK2I,k �D I I,k ) _ (r2) I �� + I ) � _ I ��) =m1 1(01)k = + 2) Km312,k 2 l> flt(l rm mI, 2 rmI ( rm I  rm  2) flt(2!....) ( 2Hg,k ) I�+I �Z � 2 rm l rm2 1 ��Lk �  [I rmI + I�+I�l] � S =m (01) l> fltHg,k I m, k = "(rm+lrm) 1 ��k+I) � flt[(l + rm+l) Km+1I2,k 2 ] 2 rm (rm+lrm) I�k �  [I�k I ) + I�t l )l i=n 1(01) = +I ) Kn  ll2,k 2 l> flt(l rn k 2 r. (rn  rn  I) 1(0)k � [1(01) + fltH"" k ] ', ',k ( rn  r.  I)
,
I l
TABLE 64 The Elements of the Matrix, Lk *
_
Although the CrankNicolson substitution i s not used in time invariant problems, we obtain here the functional relationship between the matrices in Eqs . (6 . 54) and (6. 55) by formally setting T' = T in Eq. (6. 54) to yield, b
T = [I  (C  L )  I(C + L )]  I(C  L )  I Q
(6. 56)
b l is the identity matrix,
8ij .
320
T H E RMAL H Y DRA U L I CS OF A B W R
Thus, by comparing Eqs . (6. 55) and (6. 56),
B = [I  ( C  L )  l (C + L )]
This completes our discussion of both steadystate and transient heat conduction in nuclear fuel elements . The intent has been to make this discussion representative of BWR fuel rod analysis. There are many other areas of BWR technology in which the analysis of heat conduction is nec essary. Nevertheless, the basic approach and considerations are similar to those discussed in this section . Next, we consider the analysis of convective heat transfer in a BWR core .
6.2
G = (C  L )  l Q
(6. 57) (6. 58)
Core Convection Heat Transfer
In this section, analytical models for the thermalhydraulic analysis of a BWR core are summarized. The model consists of parallel but noncom municating flow channels. Core geometry, operating power level, and distribution in the core, operating pressure, and core inlet enthalpy are presumed known . Techniques are summarized for determining either core pressure drop for a specified core flow or the core flow split for a specified core pressure drop.
6.2.1
Core Hydraul ics
Flow entering the core from the lower plenum divides into two parts, the active coolant that passes through the fuel bundles, and the bypass (i. e . , leakage) flow. Figure 613 shows the various leakage flow paths i n a typical BWR fuel assembly. Normally, the leakage flow, WL , is specified as a known fraction, h , of total core flow rate, WT, such tha t,
(6. 59)
The active core coolant distributes itself among the bundles in such a way that the total static pressure drop across each fuel assembly is the same . The fuel channels are normally grouped into discrete types, which pro vide a number of parallel flow paths . Each type is characterized by similar hydraulic characteristics, power distribution, and power level. The total static pressure drop of a BWR fuel channel is composed of the sum of frictional, local, spatial acceleration, and elevation effects,
(6. 60) ap to tal = apfriction + aplocal + apacceleration + apelevation Analytical formulations for determining these pressure drops, including reversible pressure effects caused by flow area changes, were given in Chapter 5 .
T H E RMAL H Y DRAU L I C P E R FORMANCE
321
CHAN N E L
F U E L S U P PO R T
GUIDE TUBE
SHROUD
CONT R O L R O D GUIDE TUBE
2 . CO N T R O L R O D G U I D E T U B E  F U E L SUPPOR T A N D 4. SUPPORT P L A T E H O L ES ! I F A N Y ) 7. 3. CO R E SUPPO R T P L A T E  I N COR E G U I D E T U B E
1.
F U E L SUPPO R T  L O W E R T I E P LA T E
C O N T R O L R O D G U I D E T U B E  C O R E SUPPO R T P L A T E
5 . COR E SUPPO R T P L A T E  S H R OU D
6. CO N T R O L R O D G U I D E T U B E  D R I V E HOU S I N G
LOWER TI E P L A T E H O L E S ! I F A N Y )
L...o' CONTRO L R O D D R I V E HOUS I N G
Fig,
61 3
Schematic of a typical BWR fuel assembly showing the leakage flow paths .
322
T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A BWR
6.2.2
Core Enthalpy Rise
The actual core power distribution and hydraulic characteristics are closely coupled. That is, the flow split between the bundles influences the core power distribution, which in turn influences the flow split. Hence, the thermalhydraulic and physics models are normally solved iteratively. Core power is absorbed in the coolant flowing through the channels and also in the leakage flow . The energy absorbed by the leakage flow is due to neutron thermalization, gamma heating, and the heat flux from the channel walls. The power absorbed by the active coolant, Qactive , is used to calculate the active core coolant enthalpy rise, and is normally expressed in terms of total power, Q total , less that fraction of power associated with leakage flow, FQ L ,
Qactive (1  FQ L)Qtotal
=
(6. 61)
The active core coolant energy gain normally is allocated t o the N individual fuel bundles, based on the associated normalized radial peaking factor, FR . The energy absorbed by the active coolant in a given bundle is, for steady state operation, given by a normalized axial peaking factor, FA . It follows that the energy absorbed by the coolant at the k'th axial node of the N'th fuel bundle is,
qactive ( N,k) = FR (N)FA (k)Qactive IN
(6. 62)
By applying the First Law, as discussed in Chapter 3, to axial node k of fuel channel N, the enthalpy rise is given by
ah( N, k) =
qactive ( N,k) w( N)
(6.63)
If hin is fluid enthalpy entering fuel channel N, then the enthalpy at the M'th axial node is given by,
h(N,M) = 2: ah( N,k) + hin
k= l
M
(6.64)
The enthalpy rise through the leakage path is also obtained from the First Law of Thermodynamics as,
(6. 65)
This section dealt with the steadystate analysis of BWR thermal hy draulics . The next three chapters are concerned with transient thermal hydraulic models and analyses .
Vasilas. Mikic. "Thennal Contact Conductance in Reactor Fuel Ele ments. D. and M. . H." J. Deem. A . 12 (1969) . Am. "Enthalpy Measurements of U02 and Tungsten to 3260oK. . 1 968) . Yovanovich. 392 (1964) . Cera m . G . J . 37. "Specific Heats and Heats of Transformation of Zr2 and Low Nickel Zr2. Conduction of Heat in Solids." Proc. Crank." Final Safety Analysis Report. 7. Godfrey. and F." Nucl . Nucl . "Thermal Contact Conduc tance. A. M. "Thermal Contact Conductance. Carslaw. F . . N . T." BMI1 803. Lyons. General Electric Company (1973) . and J . Atomic Energy Commission (Dec. and R J . Hein. U. and D. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (Feb. General Discussion on Heat Transfer. J . W. M. Coble. . R L . S . "Uranium Dioxide: Properties and Nuclear Applications. Thesis. L. General Electric Company." GEAP51001. Francl. R . Phase II: Report on the AEC FuelCycle Program." M . Vol ." NEDO20181. T. J . . Gulvin. Dayton. Feith. 1951). . Pashos. Coplin. Kollie. Oxford University Press. McElroy. . New York (1959) . M. Jacobs. Soc. International Panel of Experts. "Thermal Conductivity : X. Battelle Memorial Institute (1967) . A ." KAPL21 10. "Thermal Conductivity of Uranium Dioxide. Cincinnati. T. . . Christensen. A . Cooper. R A . and T. R. R A . Todreas. E. and P Nicolson. L. S . Bush. Soc. J . London (Sep. Rough and Walston Chubb. 50 (1973) . H . W.S. "FSARBrowns Ferry Nuclear Plant. . Am. M . and M. 1966) ." ORNL3556. "Mechanical Properties of Zircaloy2." GEMP578. and N. "Uranium Dioxide Thermal Conductivity. Hausner. 1961 ) . 107 (1954) . Allio." Int. Vienna (1965) . G . B. 1 970) . "A Practical Method for Numerical Evaluations of Solutions of Partial Differential Equations of the Heat Conduction Type. Eldridge. B. . . 27. Fishenden. Eds. Cambridge Phil. "Thermal Conductivity Determination on Ura nium Dioxide by a Radial Flow Method.. "U02 Powder and Pellet Thermal Conductivity During Irradiation. Weidenbaum. . and T. P Moore. Ohio (1963) . J. W. Jaeger. Eng .T H E RMALH Y D R A U L I C PERFORMANCE 323 References Belle. . Mehon. 2nd ed . Oak Ridge National Laboratory (1964) . "Thermal Conductance of Metal Surfaces in Contact. Heat Mass Transfer." Frank A. University o f Pitts burgh (1963) . and P N. . and C. D . J. "Thermal Conductivity of U02 by Radial Heat Flow Method. Howard. "GEGAPIII: A Model for the Prediction of Pellet Cladding Thermal Conductance in BWR Fuel Rods. J. Soc . Tipton. 43 (1947) . Data for Several Pure Oxide Materials Corrected to Zero Porosity. General Electric Company (Feb. ." USAEC Report TM6395. Ferrari. Institute of Mechanical En gineers. Flagella. . J. H. Wiesinger.." Trans. Cetinkale. 1 (1971 ). and H. G. . G. W. F . "Progress on the Development of Uranium Carbide Type Fuels. D . c. Fulkerson. V c . . Kingery. "Ther mal Conductivity of U02 and Armco Iron by an Improved Radial Flow Tech nique." Proc." Tech nical Report Series 59. H. and T." Naval Reactor Handbook (1961). B . . Dean. General Electric Company (Mar. International Atomic Energy Agency." IG Report 51 (RD/C) (1961). Sci.
2 nd U. and J . R. Am. B . D. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (1962). Rapier. Illinois (1970) . "Zirconium Data ManualProperties of Interest in Reactor Design. "Thermal Conductivity of Sintered U02 and Ah03 at High Tem peratures. Ross. . Skipper. A. "LossofCoolant Accident and Emergency Core Cooling Models for Gen eral Electric BWR's. 5 . Stoute. United Nations. 5 ." AECL1 152. M . United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (1962). General Electric Company (1971 ) . Slifer.. E. M . J. Peaceful Uses of At. T. . R. Tong. American Nuclear SOciety. c ." TRG108(R). Westinghouse Electric Corporation (May 1965) ." J. Jones. J . J. Scott. Energy." Int . A m . . . New Jersey (1962) . D . "Physical and Mechanical Properties of Zircaloy2 and Zircaloy4.324 T H E RMAL H Y DRAU L I C S O F A B W R Nishijima. Thermal Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactors. Seddon. G. Reiswing. Varga. R." WCAP326941. . . 6 (Mar. Geneva. Int. Weisman. L. Woolton. PrenticeHall. 44. B . Soc. 48 ( 1961 ) ." J. La Grange Park. Cera m . 5 . . N. L. Soc. . J. A . . "Thermal Conductivity of U02 to 2100°C. B . 31 (1965) . . 7. "The Thermal Conductance of U021 Stainless Steel Interface. and J . Switzerland (1958) . . 1963) . "Heat Transfer Coefficient Between U02 and Zir caloy2. 48. T." NEDO10329. "Thermal Resistance Between Uranium and Can. Heat Mass Transfer." Proc. Conf. Matrix Iterative Analysis. Englewood Cliffs. Ceram. McIntosh. and R. and K.
This concern caused Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a rather extensive series of experiments. 1958) .Hyd raulic I nstabil ities In addition to nuclearcoupled instability.C H A PT E R S E V E N B o i l i n g Wate r Reacto r Sta b i I i ty A n a l ys i s During the early days of BWR technology. while instability was observed at lower pressures. it was not expected to be a problem at the higher system pressures typical of modern BWRs (Kramer. modern BWRs use Zircaloyclad U02 fuel pins that have a thermal time constant in the range of 6 to 8 sec and. thus. Examples of the static instabilities that are normally considered are : . that is. . the reactor designer must con sider a number of static and dynamic thermalhydraulic instabilities . Indeed. thus. The socalled "static" instabilities are explainable in terms of steadystate laws. the change in internal heat generation (i . e . The lack of instability problems due to voidreactivity feedback mechanisms is because BWR void reactivity coefficients (akla (a» ) are several orders of mag nitude smaller at 1 000 psia than at atmospheric pressure and. this has proven to be the case in the many operating BWRs in commercial use today.1 Classification of Thermal . the interaction between the ran dom boiling process and the voidreactivity feedback modes. only relatively small changes in reactivity are experienced due to void fluctua tions . feedback control) analysis . Moreover. which indicated that. e . there was considerable concern about nuclearcoupled instability. 7. reactivity) due to changes in voids tends to be strongly damped . while explanation of the dynamic instabilities requires the use of the dy namic conservation equations and servo (i .
flow excursion (Ledinegg) instability 2. Flow regime relaxation instability is due to flow regime changes.. one must guard against the occurrence of this instability mechanism in components such as rod bundles and steam separator standpipes . 1965) i s the name given to the instability mode in which Ledinegg. Geysering o r chugging instability i s frequently observed during the re flood phase of BWR emergency core cooling system (ECCS) experiments. when the flooding water rises into the lower part of hot fuel rod assemblies. In the past decade. This instability mode obviously is quite important and is ex amined at length in Sec . 1 . Although this instability is normally not . Examples of dynamic instabilities of interest in BWR technology are: 1.2. which may tend to increase the system flow rate and. In BWR technology. a lower pressure drop is experienced. the instability mode in question is desir able. l Hz) oscillation . After a short dwell period. densitywave oscillations 2. In this case. 7. Excursive instability was discussed by Ledinegg ( 193 8) and is concerned with the interaction between the pump's headflow characteristics and the hydraulic characteristics of the boiling channel .2. cause the flow regime to return to its previous state. thus. l1his instability mode is discussed in more detail in Sec.e s . That is. and the reactor should be designed so that it is stable from both the standpoint of parallel channel and system (loop) os cillation s .326 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S O F A B W R 1.type instability and a compressible volume in the boiling system interact to produce a fairly low frequency (O. For instance. flow regime "relaxation" instability 3. rapid vapor formation occurs and a twophase mixture surges up through the fuel assembly . Pressure drop oscillations (Maulbetsch and Griffith. if a churnturbulent flow pattern changes to annular flow due to a small perturbation. In BWR technology nuclear coupling occurs. acoustic instabilities. because it enhances the cooling characteristics of the flooding mode of the ECCS. the phenomenon of densitywave oscillations has re ceived rather thorough experimental and analytical investigation . geysering or chugging. This periodic phenomenon can have an un desirable effect on system performance . This in stability mode is due to the feedback and interaction between the various pressure drop components and is caused by the lag introduced due to the finite speed of propagation of kinematic density wav..2. flow regimeinduced instability 4. pressure drop oscillations 3. 7. this expulsion process is repeated.
However.1 T h e Analysis o f Excursive ( Ledi negg) I nstabil ity First we examine the case of nonperiodic flow excursions due to the Led inegg instability mechanism .2 Analysis o f Thermal . . in twophase systems the sonic velocity is a strong function of void fraction. which has an externally imposed pressure gain. steam line resonance and acoustic insta bilities in the upperplenum/steamseparatorcomplex have been observed in BWRs . In this section. d pext (e. as discussed in Section 9 . = (7. 2) .STA B I LITY ANALYSIS 327 a problem in modern BWRs. For example. other instability modes can occur in twophase systems . flow regime related in stability is not normally a problem of practical concern . The static and dynamic instability modes discussed above are of interest in BWR design and operation . 7.H yd rau lic I n stabi l ities From the point of view of the reactor designer. A dynamic force balance on the boiling channel yields. g . the most important instabil ities that must be considered are Ledineggtype flow excursions and density wave oscillations .s . 196 1 ) . In a BWR system. The interested reader can pursue these topics more fully by reference to an excellent review paper on twophase instability (Boure et al . The only difference is that. the slug flow regime is periodic and its occurrence in an adiabatic riser can drive a dynamic oscillation (Wallis and Heasley. 1 ) I� (_) L gc Ax . The former is a singlephase flow and the latter a twophase flow. The final dynamic instability to be considered herein is acoustic insta bility . a pump) . Consider a system. For example. 7. we must guard against this type of instability in components such as steam separation standpipes . 3. The design of the BWR steam separator complex is normally given a fullscale outofcore proof test to demonstrate both static and dynamic performance and. Since this monograph is concerned exclusively with BWR technology. we are concerned with the analysis of these instability modes. dw d pext d psystem + I dt wh ere. thus. having a static pressure drop of d Psystem . we do not consider them here .2. 2 . (7. 1 . care frequently must be exercised to avoid its occurrence in lowpressure outofcore thermalhydraulic test loops. 1971 ) . . Another instability mode of interest is due to the flow regime itself. Both can be analyzed using standard "organ pipe" methods. This instability occurs when standing waves are excited in a single or twophase system .
thus.2 The Analysis of DensityWave Osc i l lations We now turn our attention to the analysis of socalled "densitywave os cillations . ( {[ a(a P. &w( t ) = &w(O) exp Thus. Note that neither Case 3 or 4 is typical of a modern BWR operating at high pressure . this firstorder system is stable from the point of view of excursive instabilities if. (7.2. 1 ) can be linearized for small flow perturbations. &w. this is an unde sirable situation that must be prevented through appropriate design .328 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A BWR Equation (7. 5) Various situations of interest are shown in Fig . small negative and positive flow perturbations cause flow excur sions from state 1 to states 2' or 3' respectively. Clearly." The physical mechanism leading to densitywave oscillations is . Case 1 is an ap proximation to the situation that would exist with a positive displacement pump in the external loop . Case 2 is an approximation to a parallel channel situation in which a fixed external pressure drop is imposed on the boiling channel . [ a ( aPsystem ) _ a ( apext ) d(&w) + &w = o dt aw aw [ ] (7. (7. As in Case 2. In this case. to yield. the designer must guard against this phenomenon since flow excursions from state 1 to 2 could cause physical burnout of the heated channel .3) The general solution of this firstorder differential equation is. 7. state 1 is stable since Eq . Again. Eq. in which the pump in the external circuit is well throttled . operation at state 1 is impossible since a small negative flow pertur bation drives the channel to operating state 2. while a small positive per turbation drives it to state 3. For these operating conditions the hysteresis in the pressure droplflow curve does not occur. 71 . we would not experience any Ledineggtype instability. In this case. Case 3 is typical of the situation that can occur when a centrifugal or jet pump is used in the external circuit of a lowpressure boiling loop .�tem) a(��xt) ] �} ) a ( apext) aw (7. In this case. Case 4 is typical of the situation that exists in a lowpressure boiling loop. a ( apext) '""'"= = ''aw  00 Thus.5) is satisfied and. 4) a ( aPsystem ) aw > (7. 5) is always satisfied and the system is stable.
The inlet flow fluctuations create propagating enthalpy perturbations in the singlephase region . Consider an oscillatory subcooled flow entering a heated channel. defined as the instanta neous location of the point at which the bulk fluid temperature reaches saturation.. 71 Excursive instability. The combined effects of the flow and void fraction perturbations and var . !I �I I I I I I ) I EXTE R N A L (CASE 1 1 6p (wl +i�__�k::::�_j�. }. ( t ). The boiling boundary..6 P (wI 6 p (wl EXTERNAL ICASE 21 EXTE R N A L ICASE 3 1 w fig. The following description closely reflects the essence of the physical phenomena .STA B I L ITY A N ALYSIS 329 <I . now clearly understood and can be described in a number of equivalent ways . oscillates due to these enthalpy perturbations. At the boiling b oundary.. the enthalpy perturbations are transformed into quality (or void fra ction) perturbations that travel up the heated channel with the flow .
our remarks here are largely motivational. the appropriate frequencydomain stability criterion is. 1 + G ( s )H( s ) = 0 (7.. The [) vEXT + . selfexcitation occurs when the external forcing function.8) gives the zeroes of the characteristic equation. 7) Since by definition �Uext *' 0. 6) where G( s ) is the socalled "forward loop transfer function" and H( s ) is the transfer function of the feedback loop . In terms of the block diagram given in Fig . For the benefit of those readers not familiar with classical servo techniques. G lsI I FORWA R D LOOPI G 1 1 +G H I [) �E X T H lsI I F E E DBACK LOOPI f4 Fig. Since the total pressure drop across the boiling channel is imposed externally by the characteristics of the system feeding the channel. Those familiar with the techniques o f linear systems analysis recognize that the phenomenon described above readily lends itself to frequency domain interpretation . Equation (7. 6) can be rewritten as. Linear system instability occurs when the system becomes selfexcited .. 1963) on this subject. An excellent monograph is available (Weaver.�Uext (7. . the two phase pressure drop perturbation produces a feedback perturbation of the opposite sign in the singlephase region. which. are the poles of the closedloop transfer function . which can either reinforce or attenuate the imposed perturbation . 72 Schematic of a linear negative feedback system. 8) Equation (7. Mext ' can be removed and the system con tinues to oscillate in an undamped fashion . 72. . [1 + G(s)H( s )]�uex t = 0 (7. as seen in Fig.330 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR iations of the twophase length create a twophase pressure drop pertur bation . This situation can be expressed in analytical form as. 72. �Uext[G( S )H( s )] = . a brief review of frequencydomain stability criteria is in order.
. for those familiar with servo techniques. !J. 1/>.p= o . p . + .. + aj a "A ." Before we become too engrossed in the mathematics involved in fre quencydomain analysis of densitywave oscillations. In this diagram.. P 2 . which.. P 2P.. instability mechanisms are much easier to understand in the frequency domain ."A �  + r [) !J.F " � I/> a !J. for the transfer functions associated with BWR stability analysis. the subscript. f'.. refers to flow effects and A. P 1 1/>. P l . we consider the case of diabatic homogeneous twophase flow in a heated . . 8 !J. refers to boiling boundary effects .... we now investigate the stability of a boiling channel by constructing the appropriate transfer functions. P "A . note that we can always appraise the stability margin of a boiling system in the time domain through the use of a transient computer code and the application of an appropriate damping criterion . The real motivation for linear frequencydomain stability analysis is that exact solutions are possible.. w . the computer costs are far less._ a . 1/>. 73 Block diagram of a boiling channel .. Moreover. Indeed.. says.STA B I LITY A NALYSIS 331 criterion given i n Eq. o a !J. "A 1 1/>.. as shown in Fig . ai . ii.\.ext . 1961)..  t o i· I. Hence. P 2 . p . .. and the threshold of instability can be predicted at least as accurately as with a nonlinear timedomain analysis . 73. this is frequently done in practice .. [) !J. [) !J. a !J.... . Timedomain solution schemes use the nonlinear conservation equations developed in Chapter 5 and.. /\ 1 ( s) � . w.. P 2 . w + + o !J. "A necessary condition for a linear system to be unstable is that the complex locus of the openloop transfer function ( GH ) passes through or encircles (in a clockwise fashion) the unity point on the negative real axis . (7... To simplify the analysis and yet retain the essential physics involved. are theoretically able to predict limit cycle phenomena as well as being of use for general transient analysis . [) !J.. . l/> Fig.8) i s frequently stated i n terms o f the Nyquist theorem (Cheng. thus.
(7. is that of a singlenode lumped heat capacity model . e . Bei" In the singlephase region. ( �) 8 ''' q ( 7 . 12) 8Hl4> B)i . 8TH . This model can be written as.) (7. dTH McpH Tt = VHq . independent of axial locatip n . The resultant equation is. and combined such that the boundary condition imposed on the momentum equation is satisfied . In this section. 8)i' as. we derive each of these dynamic models. the velocity of the Singlephase fluid is j. (t). 1 1 ) 8ft' = Since the singlephase continuity equation implies dj/dZ = 0.q "A HT ". MCpHS 8 TH = VHqO ( �I ) 8 '''' AHTqO where s is the Laplac�transform parameter and the transformed variables are denoted by . The simplest model. (7. The perturbation in heater wall temperature. uniform axial heat flux. fuel rod) dynamics .and twophase regions with a model for the dynamic thermal re sponse of the heated surface. . The basic solution scheme consists of coupling analytical models for the single.B t. The resultant system of equations then readily lends itself to a frequencydomain inter pretation of the stability margin . 1 0) q" = Hl4>( TH . 8Hl4>' can be related to the inlet velocity perturbation.9) can be linearized using standard perturbation techniques and Laplacetransformed to convert from the time domain to the frequency domain . which still captures the basic physics involved.Tcc ) By perturbing and Laplacetransforming.332 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U LICS O F A B W R channel with constant system pressure. . Laplacetransformed. As discussed previously by Yadigaroglu and Bergles (1971). such that the imposed boundary conditions are satisfied . Thus. 13) . First we consider the model for the heated wall (i. and no subcooled boiling.. They are then linearized. 9) Equation (7. (��::) qo + Hl4>O(B TH . the per turbation in the singlephase heat transfer coefficient.o (7.= aH l 4>o j. various levels of sophistication can be incorporated into this model . can be expressed in terms of the heat flux perturbation.
1 9) . 16) d(Bh) + sBh _ qo PH Bit B)i (7. 17) to yield.Pfj. can be eliminated by combining Eqs . 14) to obtain. which gives the response of the heated wall in the singlephase region to perturbations in inlet velocity. (ah laz)o = q{5PH/PdioA x s. (7. for nuclearcoupled stability evaluations is nonzero). internal heat generation. a h q" PH az Ax s (7. (Bft) qo II .BL) Bji Hl4>O }io qo A A (7. the relationship is similar. ( )( () + ) d(Bh) <\>( 5 )Bh = a ( s ) �)i dz } io (3( 5 ) (Bqo /) �� (7. a.o A xs qo j.(BTH . BTH .8. 15) and (7.= By perturbing and Laplace transforming. However. has been used .o . 1951) that the surface heat flux in the boiling region is not affected by flow and quality perturbations . it is simpler since it is well known (Jens and Lottes. The singlephase energy equation can be written.STA B I L I TY A N ALYSIS 333 where the Reynolds number exponent. = a. The normalized heat flux variation. Sq'" Pf . 10) and (7. and fluid enthalpy . 12) and (7.+ . 18) where. 13) can be combined to yield. Bf('lq{5. 1 7) Tz j.+ Pf}i . Let us first consider the analysis of the singlephase region of the heater . In contrast. 14) Itjs now convenient to eliminate the heated wall temperature perturbation. (7. For outofcore stability experiments... In the twophase region. constant heat flux may be assumed in the twophase region. the assumption of constant heat flux in the (in which boiling region is not valid and may introduce appreciable error. (7. ah at . Equations (7 .o where the identity. i s typically around 0. between Eqs .
shown in Fig.PHASE REGION I I I / SINGLEPHASE REGION � 1/ / / / / / V V / 1/ / /1 I N LET t jJ t z Fig.<I>( s )z ] 6( s ) A + ex p [ . For uniform axial heat flux. This location is unambiguously defined [ ( f) ( �) Si jio Sft " hi Si/ "' + I3 ( s ) qo ( )] { z exP [<I>( S )Z] . z ) = exp [ . Sh( s. we obtain. .334 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A B W R (7. z .<1>( s )z ]hio The axial position of interest is the location of the steadystate boiling boundary.l <I>( s )z } (7.21) Equation (7. 74. 22) OUTLET t TWO.20) (7. z = Ao . 74 Schematic of a heated section. 18) is a Bernoullitype ordinary differential equation that can be readily integrated from the inlet to some arbitrary point.
<1>( s )AO)}/<I> ( S )AO. (7. .sAoIJ io) . SA( t ) = h( t. we can set M = H = 0 to obtain.STAB I L ITY ANALYSIS 335 as the position at which saturation conditions are achieved.26) . is comprised of the delay� d inlet enthalpy perturbation. S � ( s ) = A l ( S )S]i + A2(S )8q'" + A3(S )Shi . no heater wall dynamics).24) readily lends itself to phenomenological} nterpretation . { I . Ao) = hio ex p( .25) Equations (7.<I>( s )Ao1 . For the special case of constant heat flux (L e . the enthalpy perturbation at the boiling bo '! ndary. Sh ( S.23) V qoAo PH Slz i Sh( s. It has the property of delaying and "smearing out" the response of any input perturbation imposed on it.25) can be combined to yield.. AO) dh(AO) dz 0 ] _ ( PfqAox sho) Sh( rI p H S. and the inlet velocity per turbation. For the assumption of uniform axial heat flux. i s a generalized form o f pure transport delay .<1>( s )A o1 ( ) Sirhi � (7. AO) [ dh(AO) dz 0 ] Thus. times the standard zerohold operator. assuming ther modynamic equilibrium. S� = [ . the en thalpy increases linearly with axial distance up the heater. 75.SAoIho) � '· s '" oI !zo ]( ) SJi ::J /o (7. Eq. That is. The next step in our derivation is to determine the dynamics of the boiling boundary .24) Equation (7. Hence.Sh ( S. a positive perturbation in enthalpy at the boiling boundary causes a negative perturbation in the boiling boundary . exp[ .exp[ . Sh( S.AO) = 9 ( s ) + hio [ �:: �'] { 1. The term. Sji . As shown in Fig. Sh i . exp[ . At this location. (7.h( t. A0) (7.·· · A h'0 A • ( ) Pf!zo x.X���� } + �(s ) AO e ( S )A 01 The term. AO). 22) becomes.23) and (7. is a generalized form of the socalled "zerohold" operator of servo theory.s [ 1 exp( .A) .
(P qo Ii  s ho <1>( s ho <1>( <1>(  <1>( (7. > = fl( t ) A (7. where. 29) The main purpose of the singlephase analysis has been to derive the expression for the dynamics of the boiling boundary . the continuity equation for a homoge neous twophase mixture can be obtained from Eqs. 1 9) and (9 .336 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L ICS O F A BWR h l Fig.exp [ S )AO S )Aol } ) tAxPIi ) exp[ . (9 .eXp [S)A<I>O( S )Aol } ) Ax A ( PtqOPH ) (qoOI3( S ) { 1 . 27) (7.S )Aol . AJ(s ) � A2 ( S ) � _ A3 ( S ) � � ( PfqoPx s) ( A08( S ) { 1 . where the appropriate transfer functions are given as. Equation (7. 23) in the form. a�. For constant system pressure. 75 Boiling boundary perturba tions. We now turn our attention to the twophase portion of the heater.26) is the required result.31) . 30) fl( t ) q"( t )PIi v fx g Ax sht (7. 28) (7.
34).STA B I L ITY A N ALYS I S 337 Th e corresponding energy equation for a homogeneous twophase system is . since it is through the momentum equation that the imposed boundary conditions are satisfied . can be recognized as the equation of the particle paths. To simplify the analysis.32) GonzalezSantalo and Lahey (1973) have shown that by neglecting acoustic phenomena.A(t)] (Z A(t) (7. O (x) vf 'Ot . Typically. from Eq. (7. we first consider the singlephase and then the twophase momentum equation. we are able to obtain information from the continuity and energy equations without having to consider the momentum equation . 34) The first characteristic. is a family of constant time lines in the spacetime plane . . 30) and (7. This characteristic implies an infinite speed of sound and is a consequence of the assumption of incompressi bility . Equation (7. Eqs .32) form a hyperbolic system having two characteristics given by. The momentum equation.23). ( j(Z. however.33). 1961) and we have allowed for the timevarying heat flux (and thus 0). (9. �� = ( j( z. (7. Eq.30) can be integrated along a constant time characteristic to yield. It is well known that a system of hyperbolic partial differential equa tions can be integrated along their characteristics as if they were ordinary differential equations. the boundary conditions are in terms of pressure drops .t» dt dz = 0 (7. Since we have implicitly ne glected acoustic effects (thus restricting the analysis to transients of longer duration than the time it takes an acoustic wave to propagate through the he ated section). Eq. 33) and (7. The second characteristic. must be considered to complete the anal ysis. 35) where is the instantaneous position of the boiling boundary (Wallis and Heasley. These results are then coupled such tha t the required boundary condition is satisfied .t» = ji( t) + JA(f)O dZ ' = ji ( t) + O ( t) [Z .O(t)(x) = O(t)Vfg (7. (7. The next step in the analysis is to consider the boundary conditions that must be satisfied by the conservation equations .
. can be eliminated in favor of where and represents the inertia Physically.= gc dtj. while the last term represents the dynamic boiling boundary effect.'.H( S ) = r3. (5. The next two terms represent in phase friction and local singlephase losses. which has a 90deg phase lead.26) . For the case of vertical. g Pf j U U.43 ) (G DH . The resultant single phase pressure drop perturbation transfer function for the heater can be rewritten as.42) A3( S ) Now we are ready to deal with the twophase momentum equation. 38)8hi 8� [A ' ] \ S "'� L.. the first term on the right side of Eq.� 2fPf/fo gc gcDH (7. term.+ gc Pf) Uh . 2 ap a G a 2 G (7. 33) as. (7. "' by using Eq.338 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A B W R The appropriate momentum equation for the singlephase portion of the heater can be written. 41) (7. � + i�� ioUJi + (. 38) (7. H = gchO UJi + fPgfcDioHAO". = + I(Ph » + f 2(Ph ) + g (Ph ) . + 2fpdTH + gc . (7. homogeneous twophase flow in a heated channel having constant crosssectional area. this equation becomes. the momentum equation in the two phase portion of the loop is given by Eq. g Pf .d gc D Pf ap aZ  (7.H( S ) = Il g / (2fpfDfoH + gcPf) gc f g (2fpf/DoH +cPf) gc g  A2( S ) (7. By integrating and perturbing. ".Plei>.36) After Laplacetransforming. 8Ji ' 8e!. respectively.J K "" where.az at az .UJi E lei> Pfj. 40) Il r2.
are the axial varying steadystate terms. to Bq'" Let us begin by taking the transformed perturbation of the boiling heat tra nsfer correlation gi ven in Eq. B<l(s. m Bq" = m K ' ( THo . Perturbating E q . ( Ph o( Z » = A PI [ 1 + Oo(z .Zk» ] bH (jO(Z » 2 + g] B ( Ph (S. (7.48) Another term of interest is the perturbation in the time constant for phase change.47) ( PhO( Z » = Go/(jo(z » then. perturbating. (jo(z » = Oo(z . where.o + gPI ) B � H (7.OoB � ( s ) + Bj.46) (7.49) . Although this parameter is spatially independent it must be related to one of the state variables of the system.Z » The next step in the analysis is to specify the various terms in the integrand of Eq. since. we find that the twophase velocity perturbation is a linear function of axial position.Z » + GoBO( S ) } dz . (7.35) implies. BO(s ) . Equation (7.Zk» + 12 (jO(Zk»2B ( Ph (S. H) = + Oo(jo(z » + 2 [ + k EL24> ! Kk [ GoB ( ]( S.Ao) + j.44) so that spatial integration can be performed .STA B I L ITY A N ALYSIS 339 By integrating.Ao)/j.ol (7. (7. in particular. The next terms in the integrand of Eq .Ao)BO( s ) .35) at a fixed Z and Laplacetransforming yields. (s ) (7. (4.45) Thus.l BTH = m [ qOl ( THo .44) AO f { [ (s + OO) (Pho( Z » + �H Go ] B( ]( S. (7.z » = (z . The first term to be considered is the twophase velocity perturbation . which must be considered.Tsat) .o Finally. LH B( l1p2<j1. 134).Tsat) l BTH . and Laplacetransforming. (7.( GoOo + � Goj.44).
51) (7.+ () 08(j) + (jo) (xo)80 .58) Vf Vfg A A A GOVfg GOVfg GOVfg GoAx . where.10). . heated wall. 1 AHT 8TH [__ ]84"'_ [MHCPIP ]8tJI PHCPIP (7. The last term in the integrand of Eq. 05 00 (80+. 56) (7. (7. Equation is a Bernoullitype differential equation and has an inte grating factor (f. 55) = 80Vflvfg By Laplacetransforming we obtain.o +Oo(z .56) dz [ j. a8(x) d(X» . 54) 8(Ph(S.shfg = .L) given by. a8(x) . (7. 32). we obtain. 52) (7. O( t )= [ql ( t )PH ] = and that for a lumped parameter model of the and using the definition of Ax  Vfg hfg (7. 57) dz 0 (7. 50) O( t ). where we note.Ao)] 00 = qrlH (d(X») (7. Thus combining Eqs.340 T H E RMAL H Y DRA U L ICS OF A BWR Now we note from Eq.49) (7. to be determined is To do so. 44) (7. is given as.8A 8ji ) d8(x) ( s 00)8(x) + [ jLo+Oo(zAo)] (7.Z) . The perturbed form of the quality propagation equation. Eq.008(x) az at dZ  (7. (7. we can consider the perturbation in flow quality. (7. 53) to deduce.50).
44) & [p2<!>. 56) can be integrated subject to Eq. (� n + fl5 &� . 61 ) . 60) .� ( jo(z »/ho] (l Slfio)&x.[( ). A (7.63) (7.SlfiO} [ (s floflo) ] ( jO(z» 2 ) i l (7.s/Oo) .STA B I LITY ANALYSIS 341 The required boundary condition comes from E q . 62) . The result is the twophase pres sure drop perturbation in the heater.flo{ (s ��o) ljo�:)f &� o + {I . &( Ph . Equation can now be integrated .0( z» 1li" o] l .[( ).64) ll l. 2sflo) fl Fl (s) _ (sS_ flo) 2DH ((sflo) (s _fl5 o)2 h flo + [2Do. 25). [ 1 (jo(z »/ho](l .H 21"ex + [( LH>O)(S)= GoF+s (s)A3(S) {exp[ (flos)1"ex] I}(7.� &Ji) & GOVfg GOVfg G5Vfg &(X) (7. H(S) GO[Fl( S) F2( S)Al(S)] (7.61) (S Z» {s[(jo(z»/ho] (l . H( S)&]i + ll2. &h = hfg & (X) = Thus.H] ll l. It is given by: where. (7.slfio) (s _ flo) (7.Ho ( S . Combining Eqs . Eq.65) ll2.SlfiO} (s 1flo) ( jO(Z»lo 2 (7.{I . 60) (7. = G G Oo 'On & 0 = = = .59) yielding.H( S)&qll + IhH(s)&hi (7.flo)( s _ 2flo) {exp[(2flo S )1"ex] 1} &(x( s . flo &>A (7. &( Ph ) = A G 5Vfg &(X) and we obtain the result we sought. (5. 59). 25) (7.[jio + flo(z >o)]2 = (jo(z» 2 (7.H( S ) GO[F2( S)A2( S) F3(S)] 66) ll3. GOVfg Now we can perturb and Laplace transform Eq.z » Vfg GOVfg to obtain.O( Z» 1li" o] l .
o)2 [exp(no. _ _ .2( 0) .1 ( 7 68 ) .n ) (7. 73) TH.ex �8( J(s.0 0 Ir .o ( LHAO).o ]i. where I {IeXp( nOTex) no [exp( STex)I]} S Jio. 72) TH.s)Texl] 0 'u f H ( (LH AO)2 (S (LH AO) {exn [(2no S)Tex] I} 2D (S nO)(S (S no) { � [IeXp( nOTex)] ![I.0.o 2Doi .00 ) . LH» (7. ) + 0 + + o +� + + + g "0 .exp( STex)]}) no S + ( LHAO) !�� {1 eXp[nOS)Tex)})Kex ]Z4(S) (7. 62) Z= LH .exp[(no S)Tex] ] } n0 S02 0 F3(S) = [(S u.OH» ] o (7. + + .o S )Tex] . 0 .0.) 0 0 fj + u.{exp[(2nOS)Tex] I } � n� [ e xp( STex) exp( noTex)] 'io.2(S) = LBZ4(S) nOA2(S) + 0 . l (S) = 1 . and by sub stituting The result for is. 69) (7. o 'oTex.0.2 0)  g .o ( s .45) 8(J(S »H.2 .3(S)8hi (7. 10 . +_  . .u.( Soho.1 . 67) Kex{ 1 + 2(s�ono) (1 .O ( S .2(s�ono) [1 . Kexuo{ I [(u.o.( S.nOAl(S) (7. n . 2(S)8q'" /H. 71) 8( j>H.o + qVH (s 00��.342 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S O F A BWR Note that the perturbations in density and volumetric flux at the exit of the heated channel can be evaluated from Eqs . 0  0 200 ) ( 2 exp + 200) .ex = TH.HO . . (7.exp[(noS)Tex]) } H 0 0 F2(S)= (nOS2Tex f( L2DAo) 00(2s no) Snas )2 {exp[(nos)Tex]I} sH Suo u.o)u.�l [ ( jo('ioL. 70) Tex . 1 (S)8 J i TH.
In particular. l ( S)=. 3 (7. A (7. 8(Ph)H.2(S)8qll + RH. (7. 3(S)= J.80) Applying Eq.82) .'o'OAl(S)]} exp( .87)]: (7. ] 5) for j = 1. fossil boilers o r electrically heated test loops) will then b e a special case of this analysis . 80) to the heater exit.2( S)=. 76) ( . + [ 1 . 76).0/'o'o)Z4( S)] J io. 79) ra To evaluate the enthalpy perturbation at the exit of the heater. we note that for a homogeneous twophase flow in thermodynamic equilibrium [see Eq. 74) (7. where.0/'o'o)Z4(S)] } exp( 2'o'O'Tex) Go RH. 1 (s)81i + RH. where JH.STA B I LITY ANALYSIS 343 where Evaluating Eq.zO S . .[ (Pho)�.2'o'OTex) Go no RH. i( = .3( S) = 'o'OA3(S) LB LB = ( LHAO) (7.0 ( (7. 76. the model of the heated channel must be combined with similar models for the remaining loop components .3( S)8hi Go RH. with we obtain. ['o'OA2(S) ( ho. 8(Ph)H.ex�.ex given by Eq.1£0) A3( S){S exp[(Oos)'Tex'o'O] exp(. 77) ra ( + (7. these components HH. 62) z = LH .2'o'OTex)} io.( S'o'O)'Tex][SAl (s)I] J io. Let us now extend the analysis of densitywave oscillations in a heated channel to densitywave oscillations in a recirculation loop. (7. let us consider the analysis of the recirculation loop of a boiling water nuclear reactor.ZO S no. For a typical BWR loop. To analyze loop oscillations. 75) at we obtain. (7. g . Loops in which nuclear feedback does not occur (e .1£0) {exp[('o'o S)'Tex][SA2(S)+( J.ex = RH. shown schematically in Fig.io. (7.zO Sno 0) {exp[ . 2. 78) (7. is the steadystate length of the boiling region.
344 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR fI' . � ('" W . are the upper plenum._A_S__1 Lsw Corl' Lowl'r pll'num Fig... downcomer. 84) . and lower plenum .11 R i sl'r Stl'om S l' p o r o t or . Assuming adiabatic conditions. riser and steam separator complex. The upper plenum has a fairly large crosssectional area as compared to its height. 83) (7.in WUP. 76 BWR loop schematic. thus a lumped parameter model can be used .ex dt d = (7.. VUP (Ph)UP WUP. the mass and energy conservation equations are.w . .
(7.93) (7. 84).89) (7.)Up.92) we obtain.in and for and � (7.in + 8(jO))UP'iinn ] (Pho)UP ( Up. (7.)Up. g J Wo [ (1 (ho)up Vhffg(Pho)uP ) 8(Ph)Up. perturbing and Laplacetransforming the resultant expression and rearranging yields. Assuming a constant system pressure.ex (h)up (x)Up. (Ph) Pf /(1 + Vvfgf (x» (h) (x)hfg + hf (7. (Ph)UP (h)up Combining Eqs.STA B I LITY ANALYS I S 34S and are volumeaveraged parameters. 90) (7.90) into Eqs .ex 8( J)up.94) = � where is the (perfect) mixing time constant for the twophase mixture in the upper plenum. (7. (7.95) . (7.85) and Using a perfect mixing assumption for the upper plenum. and substituting Eqs . 89) and (7. For a simple ho where mogeneous twophase flow we have.ex AUP.85) yields. 91) Solving Eqs . (7. (7.ex.ex = (Ph )UP = = yields.85) (7. and is given by.87) = (7. (7.!) + hf (Ph) Pf (h)Up. 88). AUP. 88) (7.86) (h)= Vhffgg (_l__ .91) (7. Eq. TUP TUP=( VUP(Pho)UP)/wo=(Mo)up/wo � . 83) and (7. 8(. we �btain. Consequently. Thus. 86) (7. (7.einx 8(.ex = (x)up (Ph)UP. p.92) 8(Ph)UP.
Thus Eqs .ex + � ( jO)DP.eexx s ( J. e x ] + [ sAup.ex 11 Similarly. ex . ex = Rup(s)8(Ph)H. and into Eq. ex (7. e xIA up. 99) lup= Ax.97) 8(])up.ex = GUP.103) GupAuP Wup = WUP. apup) = [ AUP.102) az (Ph )UP (7. ex/up( jo)up.ex = lup 8(])H.ex (7.in) + gL up ] 8(Ph)UP. Lumping any frictional pressure losses into the pressure drops at the heater exit and riser inlet.in . Hup(s) = Rup(s) = (1 +TUP s) (5.346 T H E RM A L H Y D RA U L ICS O F A B W R We note that both the density and flow rate at the inlet to the upper plenum are equal to those at the core exit. 93) (7. perturbing and Laplace transforming the resultant expression and rearranging.103) (7. ex 8(J )uP. The perturbation in pressure drop across the upper plenum can be eval uated from Eq. <:> u dpup � pUP.100) (7.101) (5. (7.exIADp. 90) (7. the enthalpy perturbation at the exit of the upper plenum can be expressed as. and can be rewritten as.ex(lADp.o)UP.pUP. + (1 AUP. Substituting Eqs . 94) (7.exAUp. 98) Rup(s) � (l + TuP s) (7.ex/UP (GO)Up. (7. in)(GO) UP. we obtain. 33) .102).ex (7.sIAuP. 33) It is convenient to assume. where. where. we can integrate Eq.96) 8(Ph )UP.104) 0 = (A A 2 2 � . to obtain.ex = [ ddt JrLup Gup dz + JrLup A1up o o a (GDPAup) dz+g lLup (Ph)up dz ] (7. x (7.
1 12) (7.ex RR( s) = S'TR) JR = AUP. 104) as. (7. 105) Using Egs . we can rewrite Eg. e .esx � (1 + 'TUPs) (7. 1 16) (7.ex = JR8(J )Up.ex=HR(S)8(h)up.exIAR 'TR = LR/( jo)R 8(h)R. Taking into account that is a constant.STA B I LITY A N ALYSIS 347 where Lup is the hydraulic inertia of the upper plenum.O)R = (Ph.ex)S + (1 . 1 13) (7.ex 8(Ph)R. substituting Eg.in = 8(Ph(S ) Up. Assuming constant system pressure. 108) (7. 109) (7. setting n we obtain from Eg.in) g UP + ( jO)�UP.ex 8(J )R. (7.ex = RR( S )8(Ph )Up.ex + (1 . . (7. 1 17) (7. UP = Go [ (Axs1up/(jo)uP. nt.in 2 2 2 hfg (7.AtJP. and an adiabatic model for the riser (i. 1 10) Using the following boundary conditions at the upper plenum/riser interface: we have. and integrating the resultant expression.ex . yields. p.30).Up(S)= Go [ Aup. 106) where. (7.exIAR)8(J(s) up.exIAuP. = 0). into Eg.ex ] A�u�p. exp( (7. (7. 1 15) (7. 87). given by. exIAtJP'in) ] (AxsIAuP. where. 8(Ph(S ) R. 1 1 1 ) (7.114) (7.o)UP.ex 8(J(s ) R. O)R. 1 18) . . Iup= jLUP [Aup(z)] t dz ° (7. 100). and (7.ex1uP ( J.97). 109) (7 62) (Ph. 107) (7.in = (Aup. Also.AuP. .ex) S 21 n3.
1 19) The pressure drop perturbation in the riser.ex . Conse quently. 123) (7. the upper down comer (01) region. and the lower downcomer (02) region . and can be perturbed. 124) (7. we obtain. will be constant.ex hFW &hDl .33) up the length of the riser and then perturbing it and Laplacetransforming. are time Assuming that the inlet feedwater parameters. 90) and (7. 122) wsw.} hVffgg AA�� s KR. &(Llp ) R. In region SW we can assume an adiabatic model.O)WFW &WSW'ex = = • (7. can be written as.R Jo R ) (jGo [l . R( ) . (7. the downcomer model can be derived by dividing the total length of the downcomer into four zones: the saturated separated water region. 121) ST R)] ( . (7. to yield. 120) where.:l (7.e76.348 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A BWR where. )2 + g exp( + + exp( STR) ] (7.Go{(2DfH. the outlet flow rate from this region. . 125) (7. . the downcomer flow rate. 103). S = .in (hfWO. the mixing region (MIX). 123) (7.O)Rs 1 2:Go[KR. Thus. so that both the inlet and outlet enthalpy are equal to the saturation enthalpy. Including both the inlet and exit losses. In the mixing region (MIX) we can ignore the storage terms in both the mass and energy conservation equations .out. Eqs . x. can be obtained by integrating Eq.in KR. (SW). 01. + + hr. n3 Note that the hydraulic loss characteristics of the cyclonetype steam sep arator are contained in As can be seen in Fig. and independent.ex WFW WOhDl. does not depend on position in the downcomer. (7. (5. and taking into account Eqs . In addition. exhf wFwhFW WFW hFW. 126) = 2 • Because of the assumed incompressibility of the water.in WSW. the energy equation for the upper regions of the downcomer. (7. 124) &WSW. Wo. &wo = wo WSW.
ex f D2 apoc = A " Pf Pf (7. q v.S H.z) Zlv(s)8qv(s. (7.OZ1V(S)] } a  .z) ZlV(S)= AHT/(Mvcpvs) = (7. exp [ Similarly. for the lower downcomer section. 130) After perturbing and Laplacetransforming Eqs . 1 n D2 ( ) [ IDCS + f.in (7. (7. and combining the result with Eq . 01. ex where.ex (hf hFW)WFW [�Dl(s)LDl + �D2(S)LD2]}8wsw. SW. �D2(s) 8hDl. (7. we obtain.33) with ( Ph ) = Pf ] over the componentvolumes. <.OCPfP[ lHD1. 134) To evaluate the pressure drop perturbation along the downcomer. 2 H. 133) (7. 128) where.DlHD1.O = exp{ " 8hD2. " + WD.in 8h" D2. 129) (7.�D2( S )LD2]8hDl. 126). qv= HDl(TvTDl ) = Tv . 129). 8hDl.0 'l'D1 ( S ) = { WD.0 u where � is the slope of the pumphead curve of the (equivalent) recirculation pump at steady state . we assume that for the steadystate there is no net flow in region SW and integrate the singlephase momentum equation [ L e . Substituting Eq. 135) .WoAL2iSW + DwD.Ao2KDC) _ 1 ] 8WSW.DolLADl2D1 + DwD. 132) where is given by an expre� sion similar to Eq.Do2LAD2 H. 8Tv(s.�Dl(s)LDl]8hDl. are related through the vessel wall dynamics model . (7. we can write.ex (7.50) reduces to. (5. 131) into Eq. (7. 131) A Dl Pf (7. The heat flux.STA B I L I TY ANALYSIS 349 Pf ADl o(hDlp/Pf) + WDOhDl qvPH. (7. Eq.Dl ot oz _ 1/ (7. 133) with given by Eq. ex = exp [ . Eq. A. 128). and ignoring any heat loss to the ambient. 132). to obtain. and 02. and vessel wall temperature. . we obtain. for a lumped parameter model. H. Assuming that the vessel wall's internal heat generation rate is negligible.. (7. (7.ex w2D.(DWsw. 127) and (7. 127) where the heat flux between the vessel wall and liquid is given by Newton's law of cooling as.O s + WD.
ex = hin q'Lp. 144) 8(ApLP) = 0 yields. A lumped parameter model yields the following energy equation. 136). 141). which is analogous to that in Eq.hp) ==  hn (7. 1 46) . 139) (7. 142) and TLP is the mixing time of the singlephase water in the lower plenum. (7. As with the upper plenum. This implies no internal heat generation in the head of the lower plenum. combining it with a trans fer function (i. 137) (7. Zl.LP. to the inlet velocity perturbation.  VLPPf = MLP Wo  Wo (7.o = O (7. combining them with Eqs . p. as. 143) Ignoring the frictional pressure drop. (7. 129). and no heat loss to the ambient . WLP = Wo W = Ax sPf q'LP =HLP (Tw. TLP = t. 144) (7. we can relate the enthalpy perturbation at the core inlet. (7. 141) where. (7. 134) and (7. 140) Perturbing and Laplacetransforming Eq. perfect mixing. . and adiabatic steadystate flow . 8h i n . 8li n . we shall assume constant system pressure.350 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U LICS O F A B W R The last element of the recirculation loop is the lower plenum . (7. LP). APLP = gpf LLP (7. 138) hLP = hLP. the momentum equation for the lower plenum reduces to. 145) Perturbing Eqs . 136) where. (7. Eq. and rearranging. After perturbing. e . (7. (7. 137) and (7. Using these assumptions we have. (7. and rearranging yields. 139).
STA B I L ITY ANALYSIS
351
where ,
Hin(S)= (hf hFw)wFw  [Q>Dt (s)LDt + Q>02(s)L02]}HLP(s)Ax  sPf Wo2
exp { Also, Eq. (7. 135) can be rewritten as, where,
(7. 147)
and,
All the necessary component pressure drop perturbations have now been derived, and the hydraulic loop shown in Fig . 76 can be closed . We now have in hand the equations with which to appraise the hydro dynamic stability margins of a boiling system. We are normally interested in appraising the likelihood of densitywave oscillations in a boiling loop (loop oscillations) and/or in the "hot channel" of a heated array (parallel channel oscillations). Both loop and parallel oscillations must satisfy essentially the same boundary condition . For the parallel channel case in which a constant core average pressure drop is impressed on the hot channel,
8(dPoc) = f1, Dc(S)S]in wo WO f1, 0c(S)= [ Pf1ocs + f( 0 OAL2in + 0H, DLtDAt201 + 0H, DL20A2202 + wfoAKoc) _e'" J Ax b2 L'. Ioc = i�l Ai
WSW, H,SW SW Noc
(7. 148)
(7. 149) (7. 150)
(7. 151)
where Eqs . (7. 39) and (7. 63) are used for the single and twophase pressure drop perturbations, respectively . For the loop oscillations case, the static pressure is continuous around the closed loop; thus,
(7. 152)
where, combining Eqs . (7. 146), (7. 120), (7. 106), (7. 81) and (7.71), we have,
(7. 153)
and,
(7. 154)
w here,
(7. 155a)
352
TH ERMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A B W R
f2,L(s)=f2,H(S) lll, L (s) = llJ, H(S) ll3, H(S)Hin(S) [llJ, up(s) llJ, R(S )/UP(s)] [JH,J(S) /H,3(S)Hin(S)] + [ll3,UP(S ) + ll3, R(S)Hup(s)] [HH, J (S ) + HH,3(S)Hin(S)] ll2, L (S ) = ll2,l1(s) [llJ, up(s) llJ, R(S )/uP(S)]/H,2(S) + [ll3,UP(S )+ ll3, R(S)Hup(s)]HH,2(S)
+ + +
X
(7. 155b) (7.156a) (7. 156b)
+
X
+
+
The application of these boundary conditions to the equations just de rived allows us to construct the characteristic equation of the system for frequencydomain evaluations of stability margins . In fact, Eqs . and 0, for parallel channel are essentially the stability criterion, and loop oscillations, respectively. Before discussing the block diagram of these coupled equations, let us consider the extension of the analysis re quired to accommodate nuclear feedback effects.
(7.152)
7.3
1 + GH =
(7.151 )
Analysis of VoidReactivity Feedback
In a BWR, the nuclear feedback is largely through voidreactivity coupling. Thus, a parameter of interest, especially in boiling water nuclear reactor stability analysis, when the dynamics of the core thermal hydraulics is coupled with a pointkinetics model for neutronics, is the coreaverage void perturbation . This is because BWR reactivity feedback effects deal primarily with the perturbation in coreaverage void fraction, defined as,
where, for homogeneous flow, as,
Consequently, substituting Eq. into E q . and given b y Eqs . and performing the integration, and rearranging, we obtain,
1 1LH8(&(s,z» dZ=iLH8(&(s,z» dz 1 8(&(S» ave= 0 LH LH 8(&(s,z » 8(Ph(S,Z» 8(&(s,z» =  � &(Ph(S,Z » ((7.158) (7.45), ( 7.157),), 7. 26), 8(](s,z» , Sn(s) (7.53
�o
(7.157) (7.158)
with 8 � ( s ) , respectively,
can be expressed in terms of
Pfg
where,
1 T} (s)= ( )1i.Go,0lloH S 0 { [lexp(sTex)][lsA J (s)] S nL H  H 1 ll0A _ ( Lllo( LAO)[AO) + hn,J (S)] } o
Pf  Pg

(
.1£
no
)
(7. 1 60a)
STA B I LITY ANALYSIS
353
T
3( S )

�
( PI  Pg
GOOOA3( S) 0 { OO( LH Ao) [ 1 )jin,OLH(S  0) OO( LH AO) jin,O
.
+
.
exp (
_
(7. 16 ) ST )] } (7.
0b
ex
1 60c)
The equations are now inhand with which to assess nuclearcoupled density wave instabilities in BWRs . The reactivity perturbation is obtained by multiplying the coreaverage void perturbation by a suitable void reactivity coefficient, Ca,
8k
ko
=
8 Ca (&)ave (aO)ave
(7.161 ) 1963), (7.162)
and the reactivity is related to the nuclear heat generation through a clas sical zeropower kinetics transfer function (Weaver, «1>, such that where,
and
l3i «I>(S)= qO{ S [ A+ z=1_z.) ]}.± ( S +A
the neutron generation time the decay constant of delayed neutron precursor i delayed neutron fraction of group i.
(7.163)
The transfer functions that we have constructed have been combined in Fig. into a compact block diagram for a BWR. The blocks labeled I, il, and [ represent the matrix (vector) transfer functions tabulated here :
A Ai l3i
=
77
Driving Variable
Inlet velocity Heat generation
I
Driven Variable
CoreAverage Voids [ Eqs . (7. 1 60)]
Pressure Drop In SinglePhase Region [Eq. (7 . 1 53 ) ]
Pressure Drop In TwoPhase Region [Eq. (7. 154) ]
TI
T2
r2,1.
f1,L
II LL flu
354
T H E RMAL H Y D RA U LICS OF A B W R
8 i i,ext
+
1\
8QF"
1\
��
8 i i,F
1\
Fig. 77
Simplified BWR block diagram.
The stability of the system can be investigated by externally oscillating the inlet velocity, heat generation rate, total pressure drop, or the reactivity in Fig. 77, the external perturbation quantities have the subscript, ext; the subscript, F, denotes feedback quantities, and subscript, t, the net total perturbation . Note that in a BWR sq ;x t = O , while in an electrically heated test loop 8kext = 0, C. = O, and <I>( s ) = O . The system derived is linear and thus has a unique characteristic equa tion . That is, its stability is independent of the forcing function. If we choose the state variable vector as,
where,
8x = ( 8i1,1'8q I''' ' 8j(I') T , ' _I
.
J
(7. 1 64)
j = t, F, or ext
then the block diagram in Fig. 77 can be written in matrix form as,
d(s) 8!t = �(S) 8Xexl
(7. 1 65 )
where, (7. 1 66)
{! ( S ) =
[
STA B I LITY A N ALYSIS
355
[ r U( S ) + I1U( S )] 0 T} ( s )
[r2, L( S ) + I12,L( S )] 1 T2( S ) ( 7 . 1 67a)
!}, ( S ) =
[
TU( S ) 0
o
0 1 0 (7. 1 67b)
The characteristic equation of the system (i . e . , a BWR) is given by, det[ � ( s )] = 0 (7. 1 68)
That is, <I> ( S ){[rU( S ) + I1 U( S )] T2( S )  [r2,L( S ) + I12,L( s )] T} ( s )}
+
lICx [ fu ( s ) + TI u ( s )] = 0
(7. 1 69)
Hence the stability of a BWR can be appraised by evaluating the roots of Eq. (7. 169) . That is, if we have roots, s, with positive real parts, then the system is linearly unstable . Alternatively, other servo techniques can be used to assess stability . In particular, the Nyquist locus can be plotted in terms of either:
 A 
'OJ ;,F 'OJ ;, t
It is also interesting to note that for the evaluation of thermalhydraulic instabilities one need only set Ca = <I> ( s ) = 0 in Eq . (7. 1 69) to obtain the characteristic equation for a nonnuclear boiling loop or parallel channel array: (7. 1 70) where,
J. {H'
=
It s hould be noted that Eq. (7. 170) is often used to evaluate parallel channel in stability in BWRs since the nuclear coupling with an individual channel is weak. For nuclearcoupled stability evaluations, the model given in Fig. 77 can be evaluated numerically . For hydrodynamic stability evaluations, nu clear feedback is suppressed by setting Ca = 0 and <1>( 5 ) = 0 and either loop or parallel channel stability margins can be appraised.
L, loop (with no nuclear coupling)
parallel channels
356
T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B W R
The model discussed above can be easily programmed . The resultant digital computer code can be used to gain insight into the mechanism of hydrodynamic instability . To this end, let us investigate the stability of the hot channel of a typical BWRl4. For simplicity, a uniform axial power distribution was a ssumed. Since under normal operating conditions the reactor is quite stable, it became necessary to examine the pathological case of reduced inlet flow and unrealistically high power generation (50% flow, 355% power) to achieve the threshold of instability. Figure 78 shows the frequency variation of several important perturbation phasors in the com plex plane. Note that &LlPl<j>,w leads the inlet velocity perturbation because the inertia effects (having a 90deg lead) are combined with the frictional effects, which are in phase . In contrast, &LlP2<j>,w acquires large lags as the frequency is increased . This effect is due to the lags in the density pertur bations caused by the finite speed of the void waves through the channel. At the highest frequency shown ( w = 0 . 956 rad/sec), the threshold of in stability is achieved, as evidenced by the fact that the single and two phase pressure drop perturbation phasors become equal and opposite . This same information can be displayed more compactly in a Nyquist plot, such as that shown in Fig . 79 . For channel stability the Nyquist locus is seen to cross the negative real axis at an absolute value of unity and, thus, for the pathological conditions investigated, the system is marginally stable . This model has also been used to generate a stability map for the "hot channel" of a typical BWRl4 . The results are given in Fig. 710, in which the abscissa is the phase change number (Npc h) and the ordinate the sub cooling number ( Nsub) . For the higher subcoolings, the stability boundaries tend to follow lines of constant exit quality, (Xe). Also note that at lower subcoolings as the inlet subcooling is raised, the stability margins can decrease . Finally, note that for typical BWR/4 operating conditions ( Nsub = 0 . 56, Npch = 5.2, and (Xe) = 0 . 24), we are quite far from the threshold of parallel channel densitywave oscillations. This stability margin is de signed into BWRs, largely through the use of appropriate inlet orificing to increase the singlephase loss, which stabilizes the system since it is always in phase with inlet velocity perturbations. The model developed in this chapter is, although simplified, quite ca pable of predicting the trends given by more exact solutions (Peng et aI . , 1986) . The purpose of this simplified analysis has been to expose the reader to the phenomena and techniques involved without getting too involved in refinements . Those readers interested in a more detailed understanding of BWR stability and dynamic performance are referred to more complete works on these subj ects (e . g . , Lahey and Podowski, 1989) .
STA B I L I TY A N ALYSIS
357
w = 0 . 2 1 r o d / sec
w = 0. 5 2 5 rod / sec
Fig. 78
Phasors for a limiting BWRl4 parallel channel .
I M AG 3
2
3
2
2
3
w  (RA Dl S ) REAL 0.0 4
3
Fig. 79
Nyquist plot for typical BWRl4 conditions (parallel channels) .
358
T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A B W R
/ / // / / / 20 / .. / / / � .s= / / / I / / STA B L E .s= � / 15 / :::=::: .s=.,. .,. / 9 Q... / <i: / 25
'l ./
'1" ..LII. T
0"),
,.," 'II. .
Of?'
/..
+11.
..,
..., O
�
Fr = 10
2
10 To l O
I
4
O L____�__��____�____�____� 20 25 30 35 40 45
Fig. 71 0
Typical BWRJ4 stability map ( Kin = 27.8, Kexil = O. 14).
References
Boure, J . A . , A. E. Bergles, and L. S. Tong, "Review of TwoPhase Flow Instability," ASME preprint 71HT42, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1971) . Carmichael, L . A . , and G. J . Scatena, "Stability and Dynamic Performance o f the General Electric Boiling Water Reactor," APED5652, General Electric Company (1969) . Cheng, D . K . , Analysis of Linear Systems, AddisonWesley Publishing Company, New York (1961 ) . GonzalezSantalo, J . M . , and R. T. Lahey, Jr., "An Exact Solution for Flow Tran sients in TwoPhase Systems by the Method of Characteristics," J. Heat Transfer, 95 (1973) . Jens, W. H . , and P A. Lottes, "Analysis of Heat Transfer, Burnout, Pressure Drop and Density Data for High Pressure Water," i U SAEC Report ANL4627, U . S . Atomic Energy Commission (1951) . Kramer, A . W . , Boiling Water Reactors, AddisonWesley Publishing Company, New York (1958) .
STA B I L ITY ANALYSIS
359
Lahey, R. T., Jr. , and M. Z. Podowski, "On the Analysis of Various Instabilities in TwoPhase Flows," Multiphase Science and Technology, Vol. 4, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation (1989) . Ledinegg, M . , "Instability of Flow During Natural and Forced Circulation," Die Wiirme, 61, 8 (1938) . Maulbetsch, J . S . , a n d P Griffith, " A Study o f SystemInduced Instabilities i n ForcedConvection Flows with Subcooled Boiling," MIT Engineering Projects Lab Report 538235, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1965) . Peng, S. J . , M. Z. Podowski, and R. T. Lahey, Jr. , "BWR Linear Stability Analysis," J. Nucl . Eng. Des . , 93 (1986) . Wallis, G. B . , and J . H. Heasley, "Oscillations in TwoPhase Flow Systems," ]. Heat Transfer, 83C (1961) . Weaver, L. E . , A System Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Dynamics, American Nuclear Society, La Grange Park, Illinois (1963) . Yadigaroglu, G . , and A. E . Bergles, "Fundamental and HigherMode DensityWave Oscillations in TwoPhase Flow: The Importance of the SinglePhase Region," ASME paper 71HT13, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1971 ) .
PA RT FO U R
Performance of BWR Safety Syste m s
while a fuel cladding defect would not. the BWR design must withstand various postulated accidents . Another interesting hypothetical accident . An operator error can result from a deviation from written operating procedures or nuclear plant standard operating practices. and any system upset not resulting in a forced outage . a n d E n g i n ee red Safegu a rd s A nuclear plant is designed not only to operate in a prescribed range of steadystate conditions. the design must accommodate various expected abnormal conditions . transients caused by a fault in a system component requiring its isolation from the system. An accident is defined as a single event. for example. Such abnormal conditions are associated with any deviation from normal conditions anticipated to occur often enough that the design should include a capability to withstand the conditions without operational impairment.C H A PT E R E I G H T Postu l ated A b n o rm a l O pe rat i n g Co n d i t i o n s . Thus. that has been hypothesized for analysis purposes or postulated from unlikely but possible situations and that has the potential to cause a release of an unacceptable amount of radioactive material. a reactor coolant pressure boundary rupture would be considered an accident. Included are transients that may result from any single op erator error or control malfunction. transients caused by loss of load or power. Furthermore. not reasonably expected during the course of plant operation. A single operator error is the set of actions that is a direct consequence of a single reasonably expected erroneous decision by the reactor plant operator. Acc i d e n ts . but also to undergo successfully changes between different operating conditions without exceeding established design limits . In addition to expected abnormal conditions.
MAAP. generator trip turbine trip (with bypass) loss of condenser vacuum (turbine trip without bypass) isolation of one main steam line isolation of all main steam lines . d. General safety features of the BWR and its containment are designed to handle anticipated and abnormal transients as well as postulated accidents . Positive reactivity insertion caused by moderator temperature de crease due to a. inadvertent recirculation pump start. none of the models currently available is completely satisfactory . Such accidents have received particular attention since they have a significant potential to pro duce core damage .1 S ingle Operator E rror or Eq u i pment Malfunction To assure compliance with the established limits. Analyses of this type are normally performed using digital computer models having various levels of sophis tication (e . An engineered safety feature is a safety system that provides a safety function to mitigate the consequences of accidents that may cause maj or fuel damage. Nuclear reactor system pressure increases caused by a. and the fact that the field of degraded core analysis is still evolving. The purpose of these engineered safety features is to prevent the release of radioactive material in excess of the requirements of the U . 8. MARCH. S . b. loss of feedwater heating b. Due to the complexity of the phenomena involved. A safety function is identified for each event and is incorporated into the design of one or more engineered safety systems. c. 2. Nevertheless. e. . . 6 . specific abnormal con ditions that could result from a possible operator error or equipment mal function must be analyzed . The following describes some abnormal con ditions that are considered in the design of a BWR: 1 . interest has increased in the evaluation of severe degraded core events in which significant core damage may result. 8 . Since the accidents at Three Mile Island 2 (TMI2) and Chernobyl. g .3 64 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR is the anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) . Nuclear Regulatory Com mission (NRC) and to ensure that the radiation exposure to plant personnel does not exceed allowable limits . and APRIL) . they can provide useful guidance as to likely scenarios and appropriate steps for accident mitiga tion. The current stateoftheart in degraded BWR core analysis will be summarized in Sec .
8. excessive rain. Core coolant temperature increase caused by feedwater controller failure . other potential causes of these conditions include natural phenomena such as earthquakes. This postulated pipe break results in the largest coolant loss rate from the reactor and imposes the most severe thermal transient on the core. inadvertent startup of idle recirculation pump. Various ATWS events . Other potential hazards that must be con sidered include the plant proximity to airports. loss of feedwater flow d.2 Design Basis Lossof Coolant Accident The BWR design basis accident (DBA) of a modern (jet pump) BWR is defined as the instantaneous. and transportation routes for shipping explosive or corrosive materials. 6. loss of pumping power) . ice. 7 S.3 Emergency Core Cooling Systems Protection against a highly unlikely lossofcoolant accident (LOCA) is a n essential safety feature o f all nuclear reactors . tropical storms and/or hurricanes. Positive reactivity insertion caused by a . Positive reactivity insertion caused by core coolant flow increase due to a . Excess of coolant inventory caused by feedwater controller failure . improper fuel assembly insertion or drop c. Core coolant flow decrease caused by a. control rod removal or dropout. trip of one recirculation pump c. chemical plants. recirculation flow control failure b. floods. trip of two recirculation pumps d. recirculation flow control failure b . 5. The engineered safety systems are designed to provide ade quate core cooling to keep radioactive releases and exposure within estab lishe d limits for the DBA . 8. doubleended circumferential break on the suction side of a recirculation line. recirculation pump seizure . . 9. Lossofcoolant inventory caused by a.POST U LA T E D A B N ORMAL OPE RATI N G CO N D I T I O N S 365 3. inadvertent opening of relief or safety valve c. resulting in discharge from both ends of the broken line . 4. The main purpose o f the . drought. and snow . In addition to human (operator) error and equipment malfunctions. total loss of offsite power (i. tornadoes. control rod withdrawal error b. ordnance plants. pressure regulator failure b. e .
thereby limiting release of radioactive materials and ensuring that the core maintains a coolable geometry. To assure sufficient safety margin and to avoid exceeding cladding fragmentation limits. the high est allowed peaking factors. it is necessary to determine the important thermalhydraulic phe nomena and to consider the overall effect of each accident on the maximum temperature in the core . the average temperature rise would be much less than the peak rod' s temperature rise) to ensure that the core would suffer little damage in the event of a LOCA . The Peak Clad Tempera t u re Criterion : The limitation of the calculated peak clad temperature to 2200°F on the hottest fuel rod provides substantial conservatism (e . the calculated blowdown transient is more rapid than would actually occur. 1975) that more stored en ergy would actually be removed during blowdown than current de sign assumptions permit. 1971). a maximum cladding temperature criterion of 2200°F has been legislated by the NRC for ac ceptable ECC system performance . and that the fuel has been irradiated at full power for infinite time. Decay Heat: It is conservatively assumed that the heat generation rate from the radioactive decay of fission products is 20% higher than the proposed American Nuclear Society (ANS) standard (ANS5 Subcom mittee. . 1975) that the critical flow rates assumed are conservative and.3 .366 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A BWR emergency core cooling system (ECCS) is to provide sufficient cooling of the core to prevent gross core meltdown and/or fuel cladding fragmenta tion. 8 . To ensure the adequacy of the ECCS design. 5. 2. resulting in conservatively high calculated cladding temperatures. g . 4. 1. We now summarize the important considerations and philosophy employed in the design of current generation BWR ECC systems . . thus. These conservatisms are incorporated into the following design bases for BWR ECC systems . Blowdown Flow Rate: There is considerable evidence (Sozzi and Suth erland. 3. Blowdown Heat Transfer: Heat transfer during the blowdown phase of a LOCA is also calculated in a very conservative manner.1 I m portant Emergency Core Cooling System Design Considerations The major considerations that contribute to the conservative design of a BWR ECCS are: Stored Energy: The assumption of 102% of maximum power. There is strong evidence (Sutherland and Lahey. and conservatively calculated thermal resistance between the U02 fuel pellets and Zircaloy cladding pro vides a conservatively high value of the stored thermal energy .
Have mechanical components that are designed to withstand tran sient mechanical loads during LOCA . The term "active component" means a component in which moving parts must operate to accomplish its safety function . "An analysis of possible failure modes of ECCS equipment and of their effects on ECCS performance must be made . A single failure may involve only one individual component or it may include the failures of several components resulting from the cascading effect of an initial failure . the ECCS must be designed to meet its objective even if certain associated equipment is damaged . 1974) that states. in conj unction with the contain ment. Have sufficient capacity." To satisfy the singlefailure criterion. and redundancy to cool the reactor core under all accident conditions . Ground rules for equip ment damage are summarized by the socalled "singlefailure" criterion (lOCFRSO. 4. the worst single failure that can be hypothesized for a BWRl6 is failure of the low pressure coolant injection (LPCI) dieselgenerator (dieselB. 6. diversity.3.POST U LAT E D A B N ORMAL O P E RAT I N G CO N D I T I O N S 367 8. 81 ) . the BWR ECCS mu st: 1. Remove both residual stored energy and radioactive decay heat from the reactor core at a rate that limits the maximum fuel cladding temperature to a value less than the established limit of 2200°F . For either a large main steam line or recirculation line break. The combination of ECC subsystems assumed to be operating are those remaining after the component failure has occurred . is to limit the release of radioactive material following a hypothetical LOCA so that resulting radiation exposures are within the established guidelines . see Fig. In carrying out the accident evaluation the combination of ECCS subsystems assumed to be operating shall be those available after the worst damaging single failure of ECCS equipment has taken place. Be initiated automatically by conditions that sense the potential in adequacy of normal core cooling. in any pipe up to and including a doubleended recirculation line break. . AppendixK. reliability. 5. following the hypothetical LOCA and assuming the most damaging single failure. Be capable of startup and operation regardless of availability of off site power and the normal generation systems of the plant. Have essential components that can withstand such effects as mis 3. Provide adequate core cooling in the event of any size break or leak 2. and also assuming loss of normal auxiliary power. Therefore. Moreover.2 Design Bases f o r BWR Emergency Core Cooling Systems The overall objective of the BWR ECCS. Operate independently of containment back pressure . 7 8. evaluation of the BWR LOCA is performed assuming the single active component failure that results in the most severe consequences.
8·1 I E SELB DI ESELC BWRl6 ECCS schematic ...0 > C r < o n C O N D ENSATE STORAGE TANK !J> SERVICE WALL > OJ o n :2: .0 H O R I ZO N TA L VENTS D I ESELA y Fig.0 F E EDWATER � >r J: ... J: m .w 0' 00 C O N TA I N M E NT SPRAY SYSTEM M A R K III CONTAI N M E N T DUMP VALVE T U R B I N E GEN ERATOR WETWELL STEAM .
if HPCS failure occurs. ADS. The system functions over the full range of reactor pressure . For smaller breaks. The RCIC system discharges coolant into the feed water ring in the upper part of the downcomer. Have flow rate and sensing networks that are testable during normal reactor operation to ensure that all active components are operational . and. the automatic depressurization system (ADS). The HPCS. For large breaks. which begins injection when reactor pressure is low enough . It is actuated by low water level or high drywell pressure and. I n addition. and the LPCI systems . LPCS. maintain a sufficient water level in the core . the reactor core isolation cooling (RCIC) system and the re sidual heat removal (RHR) system can be used for emergency core cooling. high temperature. The LPCS pump draws suction flow from the suppression pool and discharges from a circular spray sparger in the top of the reactor vessel above the core . The LPCI is an operating mode of the RHR system . If the HPCS cannot maintain water level or. 9. it cools the core by spray cooling and reflooding of the lower plenum. fluid jets. hurled objects). which takes suction from the condensate storage tank or the pres su re suppression pool . The ADS employs pressure relief valves for steam discharge to the pressure suppression pool . Low water level or high drywell pressure activates this system. and seismic acceleration . 81 for a BWRl6 plant with a MarkIII containment. thereafter. Be able to obtain cooling water from a stored source located within the containment barrier. The HPCS system is activated by either a low reactor water level signal or a high drywell pressure . These systems are shown schematically in Fig . The BWRl6 ECCS is composed of four separate subsystems : the high pressure core spray (HPCS) system. The HPCS pump obtains suction from the condensate storage tank or the pressure suppression pool . . in conjunction with other ECC subsystems. 1 0 . The spent steam from the . can reflood the core before cladding temperatures reach 2200°F. reactor pressure can be reduced by the independent actuation of the ADS so that the flow from the LPCI and LPCS can provide sufficient cooling. pipe whip. the lowpressure core spray (LPCS) system. Breaks that impose the most severe demands on the ECCS will be considered in the next section . The RCIC system is comprised of a steam turbine driven centrifugal pump. humidity. Injection piping enters the vessel near the top of the shroud and feeds two semicircular spargers that are deSigned to spray water radially over the core into the fuel assemblies. and LPCI are designed to accommodate steam line and liquid line breaks of any size . the HPCS cools the core by resubmerging it. e .POST U LA T E D A B N ORMA L OPE RATI N G CO N D I T I O N S 369 siles (i . pressure.
8. In this mode. guillotine severance of the main steam pipe upstream of the steam line flow restrictors is the worst steam line break that can be postulated . Even in this severe case. although an automatic control rod scram also occurs to ensure shutdown .2. the LPCS and LPCI also start to inject coolant into the vessel . where it is condensed . About 20 sec after the postulated break. 81 . Thus. a doubleended circumferential rupture instantly occurs in one of the two recirculation pump suction lines simultaneously with the loss of offsite power. The resultant condensate is then routed to the suction of the RCIC centrifugal pump and discharged. as shown in Fig. All other modes are submissive to the LPCI mode and will be overridden when ECCS initiation conditions are sensed .3 70 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A BWR RCIC turbine is routed into the pressure suppression pool (PSP). Pump coastdown in the intact loop and natural circulation continue to provide relatively high core flow until the falling water level in the downcomer reaches the elevation of the jet pump suction.3. That is. 82. The LPCI mode is the dominant operating mode of the RHR system. The worst single failure to be assumed. the core is always submerged and the minimum critical power ratio (MCPR) is always greater than unity . the RHR system can also be operated in a steam con densing mode . and discharges into the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) via the feed water ring. Shortly thereafter. boiling transition would not be expected and fuel cladding temperatures would not rise. The reactor is assumed to be operating at 102% of rated design steam flow when. in conj unction with a large steam line break.3 . 83. the emergency diesels are running at rated conditions and the HPCS is activated .1 Steam Line Breaks An instantaneous. 81 . the RHR may also be manually aligned to accomplish shutdown cooling. As shown schematically in Fig. While not shown in Fig . Vessel depressurization causes sufficient incore voids to shut down the reactor. 8. It is also possible to discharge the coolant through the containment spray system to accomplish cooling and scrubbing . 2. steam from the steam line is passed through the RHR heat exchangers . as shown in Fig. About 20 sec later. via the feedwater ring.2 Liquid Line Breaks The doubleended recirculation line break is the DBA for the ECCS . passes the coolant through the RHR heat exchangers. In this mode the centrifugal pump takes suction from a recirculation line. into the RPV It should be clear that there are many ways in which core cooling can be accomplished during normal and emergency conditions . the break discharge flow changes . it is the largest pipe break that can be postulated in a BWR. is failure of the LPCI dieselgenerator.
Fig. 8. .POSTU LATE D A B N O RMAL O P E RATI N G C O N D I T I O N S F i g .3 Hypothetical BWR LOCA eventtime of jet pump suction uncovery . 82 Hypothetical BWR LOCA eventtime of initiation .
This reduces the CCFL at the inlet orifices and allows some of the liquid in the fuel assemblies to drain into the lower plenum. Fakory and Lahey. In contrast. the interstitial region between the fuel assemblies rapidly fills with HPCS liquid since the CCFL in that region breaks down almost immediately after HPCS activation . Significant parallel channel effects have been found to occur during the subsequent portion of the transient (Dix. We know (Dix. 1983. The HPCS is automatically initiated by low RPV water level or high drywell pressure within 30 sec after the DBA break occurs . . As shown schematically in Fig. un covering the fuel rods. 84 Typical multichannel conditions.372 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR to steam and an increased vessel depressurization rate causes vigorous flashing of the residual water in the lower plenum. 1984) . These conditions continue until the twophase level in the lower plenum falls to the bottom of the jet pumps. 1983) that flashing of the liquid in the lower plenum may create a countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) at the inlet orifices of the fuel as semblies. resulting in enhanced core cooling. which in turn forces a twophase mixture up through the jet pump diffusers and core. preventing the twophase mixture in the assemblies from drain ing out. a quasiequilibrium condition can be Fig. 84. and vapor venting through the jet pumps occurs .
it has been observed (Dix. It is significant to note in Fig . CCFL breakdown will occur in all fuel assemblies and they will eventually fill with coolant. . the calculated peak clad temperature for a BWRJ6 is sub stantially less than 2200°F. 1 983) that. in spite of the conservative assumptions employed in the licensing analysis of ECCS performance. It is currently conservatively assumed that in licensing calculations only very limited heat transfer occurs subsequent to boiling transition and that no rewetting occurs during lower plenum flashing. 1983) .4 Antici pated Transients Without Scram The category of postulated accidents known as anticipated transients with out scram (ATWS) has been extensively studied since the late 1970s . Indeed. SCRAM) . Moreover.POST U LA T E D A B N ORMAL O P E RATI N G CON D I T I O N S established due to the CCFL a t some o f the inlet orifices and upper tie plates and the difference in power levels of the various fuel assemblies . In particular. 84. The analysis used to predict DBA core heatup is discussed in Sec . the average and highpowered assemblies do not normally experience a CCFL breakdown at the upper tie plate or the inlet orifice . 8 . CCFL breakdown at the upper tie plate and inlet orifice of the lower powered peripheral fuel assemblies may occur. 84 that reflood from the interstitial region occurs well before bottom reflood from the lower plenum . leading to a rapid draining of the ECC from the upper plenum to the lower plenum. While the LOCA reflood scenario just described is quite different from that envisioned in the original design. In contrast. Examples that may lead to severe conditions in . which is concerned with the evaluation of hypothetical BWR accidents . It is also interesting to note that while break size changes the timing of the events discussed above. e . in fact. so low. the liquid level in the upper plenum does not rise much above the level of the spray header. 8. 1 983) to that obtained using AppendixK licensing assump tions (lOCFRSO. These lowprobability accidents are concerned with the occurrence of various anticipated transients coupled with the failure of automatic control rod insertion (i . a SBLOCA is normally converted into an equivalent largebreak LOCA depressuri zation through actuation of the ADS . that no perforation of the fuel cladding is calculated to occur. unless the ECC is near its saturation temperature. a smallbreak LOCA (SBLOCA) in a BWR responds similarly to a largebreak LOCA (Dix. 1974) . However. AppendixK. 613) . it does lead to core cooling that is superior (Dix. Due to differences in the hydrostatic pressure. the assemblies having average power are cooled by a relatively lowquality twophase mixture. 5. these fuel assemblies are fed ECC from the interstitial region via the leakage paths in the lower tie plate of the fuel rod bundles (see Fig. while the highpowered assemblies are cooled by a highquality spray flow As core power delays. As shown in Fig .
and.3 74 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR clude a turbine trip without bypass or an event involving the closure of the main steam isolation valves (MSIVs) . 62 requires hardware criteria for ATWS compliance . which results in a void fraction increase in the core. The heat . the reduction of the water level in the downcomer to the top of the active fuel (TAF). due to the resultant void collapse in the core. e . Thus. and cooling of the pressure suppression pool with the RHR system. current mitigation procedures are based on interim emer gency procedure guidelines (EPGs). various operator actions are recommended to reduce core power and to prevent overpressurization of the containment due to loss of con densing capability (i . which are symptom oriented . the issue is whether this step could be avoided by taking credit for faster boron delivery to the core and a lower integrated energy release to the containment . the operator has the option of depressurizing the vessel to reduce power. a power excursion . heatup) of the pressure suppression pool . While the recommended operator actions for ATWS events have not yet been finalized. if necessary. manual insertion of the individual control rods. this means that the suppression pool temperature remains below the quencher condensation stability temperature limit with the high pressure makeup systems (RCIClHPCI) available and without operator action to reduce the downcomer water level . In par ticular. Reducing the water level is not normally a desirable action because it could challenge core coverage and may increase the potential for core flux oscillations. inj ection of a sodium pen taborate solution into the lower plenum with the standby liquid control system (SLCS). The operator is also instructed to drop the downcomer water level to the top of the active fuel to reduce the power level . or (providing mixing and convective transport are adequate) the introduction of a neutronabsorbing solution into the core region via SLCS injection into the lower plenum . Specifically. The statement of considerations for the rule is based on analysis demon strating that all design criteria can be met with this boron injection capacity . BWRs are required to have boron injection equiv alent in control capacity to 86 gal/min of 13% sodium pentaborate solution . . The philosophy of the EPGs requires the operator to have a series of contingency actions in the event of equipment failure . Most of these actions are intended to reduce the reactivity in the core through either flow control. The ATWS rule established under lOCFRSO . Both of these events lead to pressurization of the reactor and. In the extremely unlikely event that the boron injection fails. The operator is instructed to activate boron inj ection into the reactor vessel if the suppression pool temperature reaches 1 1 0°F and there is evi dence of no scram based on APRM power and SRV opening. Typical actions include recirculation pump trip (automatic). The operator's actions should be viewed in the context of the primary requirement to maintain containment integrity .
At this point the HPCI and RCIC systems are activated . g . This system will blow the reactor down to the PSP Once the shutoff heads of the lowpressure ECCS and the condensate pumps are reached. Anderson et al . system pressure is predicted to increase. 85. If the HCTL is reached. the automatic depressurization system (ADS) will be actuated. If unthrottled. . the water level in the RPV may continue to fall and the PSP may continue to heat up until condensation capability is lost. 1987. a manual reduction of the water level in the downcomer to the top of the active fuel level. If the 101010 level. 5 fullpower minutes . from about 30% to about 20% of rated. the hot shutdown condition should be achieved before the pool reaches HCTL to avoid an unnecessary blowdown . Moreover. or. 85. thus leading to excessive hydraulic loads and containment overpressuri zation. due to intermittent SRV actuation. is reached and there is a high drywell pressure. about 1 50°F) is of the order of 1 . This action reduces the power level. these systems can lead to an operating state more severe than the previous one (i . and safety relief valves (SRV) open . higher core power) . heat up due to the discharge of the steam from the reactor pressure vessel. the operator is expected to depressurize the system . 1987) . Clearly the above scenario is quite undesirable since it may lead to containment overpressurization. they will begin to inject water into the core. in which the SLCS is inop erative. they a pp ear to be capable of mitigating ATWS events if prompt and proper op erator action is taken (Dallman et aI . e . Even if perfect mixing of boron with the vessel contents is assumed. in turn. coupled with wellthrottled ECCS. coupled with ECCS throttling to control core power and RHR system cooling of the PSP While there are a number of potential problems with both of these techniques (e. to increase voids and thus reduce power level. which will. is reached . The SRV discharge is routed to the pressure suppression pool (PSP). . The energy required to heat the pool from 1 1 0°F (boron initiation) to the HCTL (typically. resulting in a large positive reactivity insertion . shown in Fig . . before the boron starts taking effect. As an ex ample.POST U LATE D A B N ORMAL OPERAT I N G C O N D I T I O N S capacity temperature limit (HCTL) is calculated for the pool such that the vessel blowdown energy can be accommodated without exceeding the suppression pool quencher condensa tion stability temperature limit. The question of pressure control is also a complicated one . shown in Fig. . during the most limiting ATWS events. The current EPGs recommend either early manual ADS actuation (if the SLCS is inoperative) and thus blowdown. As the discharge continues to the PSP the mass of liquid in the reactor may become depleted until the 1010 level. . there would not be sufficient time to reach the hot shutdown condition before HCTL is reached unless the downcomer water level is reduced. core stability). When boron is available. The shutdown rate is currently limited by the boron injection rate rather than mixing efficiency .
5 Core Heatup The analysis of a hypothetical BWR LOeA requires the consideration of heat transfer mechanisms that exist during the core heatup period .1 Radiation Heat Transfer in Rod Bundles Several definitions and identities are used frequently in the radiation heat transfer analysis of gray surfaces and medium . In this section. the rewetting of hot surfaces. It is assumed that the reader .5. and liquid droplet evaporation in the superheated steam. These mechanisms are characterized by radiant heat transfer phenomena. 8. 8. LEVEL LOLO lEVEL DRIVE FLOW _ MAIN FEED FLOW LOLOLO LEVEL TAF JET PIJM> CRO TUBES SLCS SPARGER Fig. 85 Reactor pressure vessel. we try to summarize the essence of the phenomena that may occur during core heatu p .376 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR MAIN STEAM FLOW TO lLflBINE S TEAM DRYER SlEAM SEPARATORS NORMAl. A more indepth treatment is found in the work of Andersen (1 973) . O f particular interest are those heat transfer mechanisms that are dominant during Eees operation .
(8. and the emissivity. That is. The fraction of radiation in a transparent medium that leaves a uniformly distributed. Hi denotes the radiant energy flux incident on surface i. must equal unity.  Here. 2) where N denotes the number of surfaces in the enclosure . Ek. the absorptivity. is given by. Here. (8. F 1· . The other is known as reciprocity.POST U LATE D A B N ORMAL OPERAT I N G CO N D I T I O N S is familiar with classical radiation heat transfer and. Bi. 1 ) L Fi . Pk + (Xk + Tk = 1 (8. The reader unfamiliar with these relations should consult a standard text on radiation heat transfer for clarification. The radiosity.j has two important properties. Pk. and is intercepted by surface j.�J J Ai A i Ai N COS J3i cos J3j dAidAj 2 'ITr (8. The radiant flux emitted from surface i is given by EioTt. diffusely emitting surface. (1 . (X k = E k (8 .4) In addition. the view factor. which is taken to be a gray. Tk. i.j = l j= 1 AiFi . k. Figure (8. . One property is.i (8. . 6) "The inclusion of specular reflectance improves the modeling. by using Eqs . 5). g . 3) Another useful relation in radiation heat transfer is that the sum of the reflectivity. 5) We now consider the components of the radiant energy flux from surface 86 is the diagram of surface i. thus. Sparrow and Cess (1967) . which is really just the lineofsight be tween the two surfaces. is normally denoted by Fi j and frequently is called the view (or angle) factor. are equal. e . a t surface i i s defined a s the net radiant energy flux leaving surface i. these relations are considered only briefly here .Ei)Hi . but greatly complicates the resultant analysis and is not considered here..j = Aj Fj . and the transmissivity. . 4) and (8 . (X k . opaque (Ti = 0) body . (X k . Fi . Mathematically. of body. i. and that portion of the radiant energy that is diffusivelya reflected is given by Pi Hi or. it is well known that Kirchhoff's law implies that the absorp tivity.
8) (8.Ev TM = 1 . 7) The first term on the right side of Eq. (8.EITv (8. 0 TI = l . the absorption coefficient would be a function of the beam length between . the incident radia tion flux is given by. 1975).2: BjFi j TM + E vO'(Tv)4TI Fi . If we employ Eq.3 78 T H ERMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A B W R Fig. 7) represent reemission by the vapor and liquid phases. Now consider the case of a homogeneous mixture of a gray gas and liquid droplets in a gray enclosure consisting of the fuel rods and the channel . The second and third terms on the right side of Eq. due to absorption in the medium . TM.v = Fi . Hi = . Since the situation of interest in BWR LOCA analysis is optically thin (Sun et al. to a good first order approximation.I = 1 . attenuated by the average transmissivity of the medium. and that all reflections are diffuse. 9) (8.EvTI . 7) represents the sum of the radiant energy flux from all surfaces of the enclosure. assume that the radiQsity is uniform over the individual surfaces.EI Tv = l . 1 1) The term EvTI can be thought of as the net absorption by the vapor phase and E ITv can be thought of as the net absorption by the liquid phase . In a more exact analysis. (8. (8. respectively.v + E IO'(T/) 4TvFi _ I J=l N (8. Note that the absorption coefficient for a singlephase medium (only) has been reduced by the transmissivity of the other phase . 10) (8. Fi . 86 The components of radiation at surface.3). .
14) where al can be expressed in terms of the droplet size and number density (Sun et al . 2) . 15) can be rewritten as.Bj )F. This can be accomplished by writing down an expression for the net radiant heat flux from the vapor to the liquid phase. we use equivalent average coefficients based on a mean beam length.) = 22l ( B.uTt + (1 . Equation (8 . 1 967) and. LM = d The emissivity for the vapor and liquid are given by 4V AHT = DH (S. 1 6) which can be recognized as a statement of Kirchhoff' s "current" law for node i.CT(T/)4) (8. given by (Siegel and Howell. (8. 1 975) . B. 6) and (S. 1 7) The first term on the right side of Eq. 1 7) can be rewritten in terms of an equivalent electrical resistan ce as. 7) to yield.j TM j=  N + EvTl(B.E. 1 3) where av is the Plank mean absorption coefficient (Sparrow and Cess. ./(l . (8. . 1 7) is the product of the radiant energy emitted by the vapor phase times the fraction absorbed by the liquid p hase . 12) E v = 1 . Equation (8 .E.) ( . for simplicity. 1972).avLM ) (S . . (CTTt B. 15) B. . (S . Before drawing the network.)B.E. .POSTU LAT E D A B N ORMAL OPERAT I N G CO N D I T I O N S 379 surfaces i and j.CT(Tv)4) + E/Tv(B.exp( . 16) can be thought of as an equivalent electrical network.f Now.j TM + EvCT(Tv)4Tl + ElCT(Tl)4TV ) (S.)E. and by using Eq. . we need to complete the circuit between the liquid and vapor phases. however. + (1 . (8 . = E.B. (8. by noting the identity. The second term is j ust the converse statement for the liquid phase . 18) . (S . It is informative to combine Eqs . (S . = E. }=l Bj F. Eq. Here.
Normally it is convenient to recast the equations of radiative heat transfer into matrix form . (8. 87 Equivalent electrical analog for a homogeneous mixture of a gray gas and liquid droplets in a gray enclosure (rod bundle). 1 1 1 1 1 ' • • Ej • • • • • r1 1 1 1 Fig.3 80 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A B W R Equations (8. • • • • • • • • �III Ev E. . To do so. we consider the net radiant heat loss from surface i. 87. the electrical analog for radiation heat transfer in a fuel rod bundle . 1 9) • • • F j _ 1 TM • • • • • • • • E. 16) and (8 . 18) can now be used to construct Fig.
(TI) = Tsat. (8.24) represents N linear algebraic equa tions. For all cases of practical Significance. (8. 20) Bj Fi j'rM + EvCJ'( Tv)4'r1 + EICJ'( TI)4'rv CJ'Tt = ! B i . Normally. " qRi = Ei We now explore expressions for the vector.( 1 . must be calculated sepa .(1 . . 20) and (8. we are not interested in the radiosity.l (8. 23).Ei) Ez )=1 or in matrix form as. 22) now can be solved in terms of the radiosity vector B. Ei a i = ij Q j ( 1 .Ei) Ei ( EvCJ'( Tv) 'rl + EICJ'( TI)4'rv) 4 B = 'itO + 'itS 'I' � X . (8. 2 1 ) where. in terms of the Kronecker delta function. we obtain.j'rM]/Ei a Equation (8 . qR = AO . 24) is normally used to determine qR in conjunction with an appropriate conduction model .B i ) i (8. the vapor temp erature. (1 _ Ei) ( CJ' T4 . 1 < j < N and N + 2 unknowns.POST U LATE D A B NORMAL OPE RATI N G CON D I T I O N S 381 By combining this equation with Eq. Thus.QS (8 . By combining Eqs . 15) can be rewritten as. but rather the re lationship between the qR and 0 vectors .f )] (8. e . Eq. [ ( . B. 25) For steadystate conditions. Eq. For transient conditions. 22) OJ � CJ' Tt Si = a Xij = [8ij . (Tv) and ( TI). i . Equation (8 . 23) where. 24) where. the liquid droplets are saturated .Ei) 'l' (8. ( 1 .Ei)Fi . N surface temperatures Ti and the two medium temperatures. which is frequently superheated. 8ij ' XB = O + S (8. To close the system of equations. (8. B i . 6) to eliminate Hi.
s( Tv> and the net radiant energy absorbed by the vapor and liquid phases. respectively.L . and energy (Andersen. acts in conjunction with convective and conductive heat transfer processes during ECCS op eration . 88. 27) and (8. The radiation interaction with the vapor temperature.L PHli jEv T / (Bi .E v E / (aT:at . the rewetting of the Zircaloy channel changes the temperature and the emissivity of this surface. plus the radiant energy emitted by the other phase and absorbed by the phase under consideration.a(Tv>4) + . The radiative heat transfer process. the channel wall) with ECCS spray water. 1 975) . discussed in Sec . Any effective model for core heatup must also consider these mechanisms as well as radiation effects . One of the most important heat transfer processes is the rewetting of the hot surfaces (e . Indeed. 27) (8.a(Tv)4) N N 1=1 (8. per unit temperature. To gain some appreciation of the physics involved. 26) q Rv q R1 = L L PHli . per unit volume (Sun et al . 28) can be interpreted as being the amount of radiant energy absorbed by the phase in question. less the amount reemit ted.�v and qRI are the net rate of radiant energy absorbed per unit axial length by the vapor and liquid phases. momentum. 67 and E H20 == 0 . we consider the falling liquid film shown in Fig .2 Falling Film Rewetting The mechanism for rewetting the channel wall with ECCS spray water is through the conductioncontrolled advance of a liquid film.aT!at) j= 1 i= 1 i= 1 J=I I=1 N N . E Zr02 == 0 . I3d represents the heat transfer rate between the droplets and the superheated vapor.382 T H E RMAL H Y DRAU L I CS O F A B W R rately through the use of the appropriate conservation equations for mass. q. and thus greatly enhances the ability of the channel wall to act as a heat sink for radiative energy transfer.L P H.5. are such that sufficient liquid is available to support a falling film . assuming that the bundle's CCFL flooding character istics. 28) Equations (8 . A onedimensional energy balance o n the Eulerian control volume shown in Fig . (Tv> . 4 . 8. just described. b rAx . . . g . . 1 973) .aT!at) + L PH. 2.s = N N [ l3dAx . 88 yields the classical "fin" equation b Here. That is.jE/ Tv (Bi . is through the evaporation rate of the liquid droplets. hfg  Tsat) + q R11 (8.EvE/ (cr(Tv)4 . 96.
such that the velocity of the advancing film front Can be considered constant within each node .Tsat) = kmomaz 2 at (8. t1L. then. 88 Falling film conductioncontrolled rewet. 29) It is convenient to make a transformation to a coordinate system moving with the assumed constantC velocity.t �Z { • • �o  WETTING FRONT (VELOCITY. = . U) DRY R EGION Fig. the heated surface can be divided into nodes of length. = <For situations in which U U( z ). of the advancing film front. If we let � z . U.Ut.POSTU LAT E D A B N ORMAL OPE RATI N G CO N D I T I O N S 383 CONTINUOUS LIQU I D 1 "WtSPUTTER ING FRONT WET R EGION .+ H( T . aT a2 T pmcp m.
the Biot number 7' A = P mcpm &m Ulkm.Tsat)] For high spray rates.384 T H E RMAL H Y DRAU L ICS O F A BWR Thus. I . 36) 11 10 A = A = A = rewettmg temperature t/&m H(11). 29) becomes. 37d) ( Tw . and the ease with which axial heat conduction can occur.Tsat)/ ( To . If we assume that H(11) = Hb for 11 � 0 and H(11) = 0 for 11 > 0. 30) is a statement of the relationship between the rewet ting front velocity. U. 33) (8.To)( Tw . 37b) (8. 30) In essence Eq. 37a) (8. the analysis can be improved by considering the precursory cooling of the liquid droplets through the assumption that for 11 > 0.00 = )=0 (8. 8 + ( oo ) � 1 + 8 (0) = 8 + (0) = 1 8} = 1 +  8 ( . (8 .. (8. the Peclet number ( T . 37c) (8. 35) (8 .Tsat) d8 d11 d8 + d11 where Tw is the initial upstream temperature of the channel wall . 34) (8. 3 1 ) P 8 B(11) � H(11)&mlkm. (8. Eq. 38) = __ Hbkm 1 U P mcpm &m ( ){ ( To . d2 8(11) + i8(11 ) = B(11)8(11) d11 2 011 where. 30) can be transformed further into a more convenient nondimensional form. the name "conductioncontrolled" rewet. (8. then on integration we obtain the wellknown result of Yamanouchi ( 1968). Hence.Tsat) [( Tw . = 0 1 . U.. (8 . Equation (8 . 38) frequently is written in terms of the velocity of the falling film. V2} (8. Once the axial dependence of the convective heat transfer coefficient.To)/( To . (8 . 39) .Tsat) . as.31) can be solved with the appropriate boundary conditions. is specified.  V2 (8. Eq. = 0 PIYB = [8}(8} + 1 ) ] '12 Equation (8 . 32) (8 ...
B = 2 v. Note that intersection occurs at.41) should be used to evaluate the rewetting front velocity. 42). the rewetting time. P. but upstream pre cursory cooling is negligible (e. (8. it is always conservative (i . (8. g . (8. To complete the analysis of core heatup. 40) Solution of Eqs . tR W (i. (8. however. low spray rates).41) In general. (8 . . we must consider the effects of decay heat and the exothermic metalwater (Zircaloysteam) reaction that can occur at elevated ( Tw > 1 800°F) cladding temperatures. 38) is valid for B « 1 and Eq . thus. e .i2 (8. 4 1 ) for B » 1 . (8. (8.( Y2 + V1T74i (8. . For conditions in which twodimensional conduction effects in the channel wall are important. the wet front ve locity is always smaller) if precursory cooling is neglected . (8 .. . (8. (8.42).POST U LA T E D A B N ORMAL OPERATI N G CON D I T I O N S 385 B('YJ) = (k. These equations are shown in Fig. as shown in Fig .) Hb 8m exp( . 44) It is important to determine when the liquid film arrives at a given axial position since. 1 974). 35). 37). twodimensional effects are important and. If precursory cooling is important. as mentioned previously. 42) represents the threshold for twodimensional effects .v:. (8 . the fuel rod temperatures in the region for z � L have a more effective radiation heat sink than those for z > L .i2 [61(61 + l )] v. 39) can be used . For Biot numbers. 1974) .43) Equation (8 . a wetted surface is a much more effective radiation heat sink than a dry one .41) should be used . 89 . 3 1 ) .. and (8 .42) (8 . larger than those given by Eq . is given by (Anderson.r!4 [61(61 + 1)] . Eq. e . L). can be approximated by. 810. Eq. (8. The onedimensional analysis resulting in Eq. B. Eq. . For Biot numbers less than those given by Eq . the time for the wet front to advance a distance. 40) yields an implicit expression for the dimensionless wet front velocity. P (Sun et al. Once the velocity of the advancing liquid front has been calculated. (8 . PIB = 2 . That is. a onedimensional analysis is adequate and Eq.a8m'YJ) (8 . For most cases of practical significance in BWR technology. the appropriate expres sion for the dimensionless wet front propagation velocity. 36). the resultant expressions are some what different. 29) can be extended to a twodimensional analysis for those cases in which the simple one dimensional model is inadequate .
2 10. L<" =�� 8 ( 8 .To l l (T O .r> 1 0.2 1 0.1 '" � 0> » 1 0. + 1 1 1 .. .1 1 0 ../2 as a 1 03 +'. function of modified Biot number. 89 Modified Peclet number.' 0' 1 02 .1 04 w 0> a 1 03 l$ I MP O R T A N T I MPO R T A N T E F F ECTS . (8 .:. I < o '" » c 8 .. B _ ...".T S A T I n o R r <... E F F ECTS � 1 02 ONEDIMENSIONAL • TWOD I M E N S I O N A L � " P q) � 1\ • ' 0' P m Cp m h m U/k m r I '" � » m I ." 6 m Ik m H 8 .. P.....l. • ( Tw . ol 1 04 Fi g .
d.5. dependent on the temperature and the amount of steam available at the reacting surface . for current BWR ECCS calculations. which is. Thus. 8. is dependent on the reaction rate.810 A segment of a BWR fuel rod bundle during ECCS spray cooling. it is conservatively assumed that there is an infinite amount of steam available at the reacting surface and that the parabolic rate law of Baker and Just (1962) is valid . the heat of re action.POST U LA T E D A B N O RMAL OPE RATI NG CO N D I T I O N S 387 ECC SPRAY WATER r '�"� FILM sPUTTERING FRONTCHANNEL WALL 0 0 0 • 0 0 0 0 0 LlaUID DROPLETS J L 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Fig. In general. (8. the reaction rate is limited by the gaseous diffusion of steam from the coolant through a hydrogen boundary layer near the oxidizing surface and/or the solidstate diffusion process through the Zr02 layer to the reacting ZrZr02 interface . is conservatively based on the wellknown BakerJust model .3 Heat Generation Effects The exothermic reaction that can occur between the hot Zircaloy cladding and the steam environment is given by The heat of reaction. 45) . Normally. however. The actual reaction rate would be the most limiting of these two processes. in turn. d.
t)] (8. and decay heat. 1983) indicate a much lower PCT than that shown in Fig. It frequently is known as the "ANS + 20%" curve . a lot of attention has been given to postulated accidents that are outside of the original design basis for the ECCS and containment design . The essence of the radiation model required has been described in Sec .5. S . and the convection model is given by. lim iting the MAPLHGR of 8 x 8 BWRl6 fuel to 13. Such . 8. In particular.6 q�onv=Hconv(z. Finally. 46) Severe Accidents Subsequent to the accident at TMI2. 3. 1 . internal heat generation due to neutron and gammaray ab sorption in the fuel cladding can be considered in the rigorous calculation of core heatup. the conduction model for film rewetting in Sec . 8. An example of the transient peak clad temperatures calculated with such a technique is shown in Fig. accidents have been studied that may cause a degraded core due to inadequate core cooling .5. 813 for a typical BWRl6 LOCA analysis in which Appendix K assumptions have been used . 2. t)[T(z. 1 . This curve is based on the con servative 1 0CFR50 AppendixK guidelines established by the U . Figure 812 shows how the various essential pieces fit together into an analytical core heatup model. It is obvious that a transient calculation is required to determine the thermal response of the fuel rod cladding to the postulated accident. (1975) . Hconv. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Note that the calculation is iterative in nature and invariably takes the form of a large digital computer code. delayed neutron induced fission. to the dropletlade ned flow stream can be calculated in a manner similar to that presented previously by Sun et al.4 Analytical Modeling We are now in position to synthesize an analytical model for the calculation of core heatup. where the appropriate convective heat transfer coefficient. and for cladding temperature response in Sec. 5 . Moreover. Thus. Figure 81 1 is a curve of the energy input due to delayed neutrons and decay heat. 8 .388 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A BW R Another extremely important energy input to the calculation of peak clad temperature is due to the effect of stored sensible heat. 6. best estimate calculations (Dix. Licensing calculations of this type have shown that the ultimate peak clad temperature (PCT) is controlled by the maximum axial planar linear heat generation rate (MAPLHGR) . 81 3 .4 kW/ft inherently limits the thermal excursion during a hypothetical LOCA. but these effects generally are quite small and normally are neglected. 8. t)(Tg(z.
I I ! ! I I 100 TIME (seel ! ! I 1000 I ! " 0. <{ a: z o o t= � » ro r w <{ a: m o ro "1.1 1.0 I I ...) 1. w 0:> <.) � FISS I ON PRODUCT DECAY z w Cl a: w .D . . 811 ANS + 20% decay heat curve.0 Fig.: m o » OJ Z o w . .: 0.0r== Vl I C r o » I � <{ a: w z w Cl a: w .01 ' 10.POWER GENERAT I ON F O L LOW I NG A SCRAM ( APPENDIX K 10CFRSO REQU I REMENTS) z o t= "1..1 � D E LAYE D N E U T R ONS & F I SSION P R O DUCT D E CAY Z Ci n o z o =i C Vl z 0.
e .II > I CHANNEL . IR. I'· I + � II !. Clearly these are undesirable events since there may be an associated release of radioactive materials to the environment. corium) to the containment and may also result in a loss of containment integrity .> IZ. . 812 Calculation scheme for peak clad temperature during ECCS phase of core heatup. .. DECAY HEAT lAG •.I 'I " � • T wMAX IZ.. 101 IBAKER AND JUST...II H CONV I! IR. I W R MODEL A ZrH20 REACTION q lAG .II AND • IZ. Nevertheless...t'.Z. Since these issues are still under study no final conclusions can be made at this time .< Tv IZ... 19621 r. T II .Z.REWETTING TIME. Z. .Z..I ') Fig. hypothetical accidents may result in the release of molten core and struc tural materials (i . The purpose of this section is to present an overview of the status of BWR severe accident sequence analysis (SASA) .II ...IZ .IR.. IR.390 T H E RMAL H Y DRAU L I CS OF A BW R INITIALIZING TO START OF ECCS CALCULATION FOR H CONV <r.
2� 2000 r�N�RC�L�IM�IT�LEGISLATED HOT SPOT REFlOOOED CORE SPRAY INITIATED 1500 1000 I LOWER PLENUM FLASHING TIME (SECONDS) I 500 Fig. Once the dominant sequences have been identified. 8. the possible environmental and health .POST U LAT E D ABNORMAL OPE RATING CO N D I T I ONS 391 2500 r. result of any severe accident study is an evaluation of the amount and type of radioactive material released to the environment. and magnitude of the releases of fission products to the environment. The results of the SASA study may then be fed back into a revised PRA study if the original assumptions concerning accident scenario and consequences were invalid . Once this is known. timing. The dominant accident sequences that may lead to core uncovering and damage are normally evaluated through a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of a particular plant.813 Typical BWRl6 peak cladding temperature following a design basis ac cident calculated with AppendixK licensing assumptions (LPCS diesel generator failure systems available2 LPCI + HPCS + ADS + RCIC). It is the purpose of this section to document some of these insights . and most important. a SASA study can be conducted to explore the details of the postulated accident's scenario .6.1 Severe Accident Sequence Analysis The overall goal of severe accident analysis is the determination of the probability. The final. mode. a qualitative understanding has emerged as to how BWRs might respond during severe accidents .
which result in a loss of containment (i . transients with SCRAM. to gain some appreciation of the current stateoftheart in degraded core analysis. This exothermic reaction will greatly accelerate the core . In such an accident the decay heat of the fuel will boil off the water in the core and uncover it.2 Degraded Core Cooling Phenomena There are too many BWR accident scenarios to discuss them all in detail . most of them are not "risk dominant" sequences . 8. let us consider a TQUV sequence in which CRD cooling water is assumed to be inoperative .3 92 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BW R consequences can be estimated using standard aerosol plume dispersal methodology such as that embodied in the CRAC2 code (Ritchie et aI . Sequences 3 and 4 have been previously discussed in this chapter. . Although this cooling water does not come from a safety grade system. such as a stuckopen SRV) 4. it has become customary to identify a particular accident with the symbols given in Table 81 . and to about 1 70 gal/min when the reactor has been depres surized. To this end. . Such situations can arise from postulated accidents such as loss of all offsite power. Thus. suppression pool) heat removal capability 3. . a SBLOCA. it will begin the core heatup. coupled with a loss of the ECCS diesel generators . Neverthe less. starting with the wellknown WASH1400 study . A number o f detailed severe accident analyses have been performed. transients with SCRAM coupled with a failure to provide adequate makeup water to the core 2. 1981 ) . This flow increases to about 100 gal/min subsequent to SCRAM when the reactor is pressurized. Se quences 1 and 2 are situations in which there is an inability to remove the decay heat generated during the accident . a TQUV event represents an accident in which an inadequate amount of makeup water is supplied to the core . To specify unambiguously the type of severe accident under consider ation. Fortunately. ATWS events) . At some point (about 1600°F) a vigorous exothermic reaction will take place between steam and the Zir caloy of the fuel cladding and channel walls. producing zirc oxide (Zr02 ) and hydrogen (H2). Interestingly. lossofcoolant accidents (e . transients in which the reactor remains critical (i . consideration will be given to some typical accident scenarios in which severe core damage is predicted to occur . e . it can successfully mitigate many accidents of the TQUV type. e . an important source of makeup water for such accidents may be the CRD cooling water that enters the reactor.6. As the core uncovers. for example. The results of these stud ies are generally consistent and indicate that there are four sequences that give BWR accidents having dominant risks: 1 . g . .
0. and again relocates . If blockage occurs.  Containment isolation failure in the wetwell .   Failure of normal feedwater system to provide core makeup water. the steam flow from the lower regions of the reactor will be reduced (or terminated) and thus the pro duction of hydrogen will be correspondingly reduced . of of of of of of of of of C D E F G  I J M P  H Failure Failure Failure Failure Failure Failure Failure Failure Failure Failure of core spray recirculation system.POSTU LAT E D A B N ORMAL O P E RATI NG CO N D I T I O N S 3 93 TABLE 81 BWR Severe Accident Sequence Symbols A . a molten Zircaloyl uranium eutectic mixture may form .Transient event. vapor suppression system . V . f3 . remelts. safety/relief valves to open . or RCIC to provide core makeup water. e . due to fuel slump . As the uncovered portion of the core heats up. Sl .5 to 2 in. HPS. leading to a release of the fission gas . containment isolation to limit leakage to less than 100% volume/day. emergency core cooling injection. ' y .Reactor building isolation failure. The molten materials (i .Containment failure due to steam explosion in containment. local melting and relocation of control rod material is predicted to occur before melting of the Zircaloy cladding . 2 to 6 in. II Standby gas treatment system failure. W Failure to remove residual core heat. As a consequence. highpressure service water system.Containment failure due to overpressurereleases direct to the atmosphere. "II . t E heatup process. U Failure of HPCI. emergency core cooling functionability. B  Failure of electric power to engineered safety features. However.  /) . the internal fis sion gas pressure in the fuel rods may cause them to balloon and rupture. safety/relief valves to reclose after opening. When the cladding reaches high enough temperatures. T .Containment isolation failure in the drywell. .Rupture of reactor coolant boundary with an equivalent diameter of greater than 6 in. Containment leakage greater than 2400% volume/day. Subsequently. It can be expected that the local blockages may reopen as the frozen corium heats up.Small pipe break with an equivalent diameter of 52 . the reactor protection system. corium) may oxidize and relocate to a lower portion of the core where freezing and blockage may occur. a Containment failure due to steam explosion in vessel . energy will be radiated to stainless steel control rod blades .Small pipe break with an equivalent diameter of  Q lowpressure recirculation system .Failure of lowpressure ECCS to provide core makeup water. y Containment failure due to overpressurereleases through the reactor building.
As shown schematically in Fig. due to either crust failure or pool overflow . a cohesive global blockage (i. Once molten corium begins to discharge into the drywell. . it will ablate the original opening in the lower head and thus enlarge it.3 94 T H ERMAL H Y DRA U L IC S OF A BWR ing and rubble bed formation. throughout the drywell and wetwell regions of the containment.814 A schematic of melt propagation. at some point the corium pool may be relocated into the lower plenum. e . The amount of dispersal. the corium that collects on the lower head will attack the lower head and its penetrations . . followed by the CRD mechanism stub tubes. In any event. 814. Fig. It has been found that the 2in . crust) may occur leading to the formation of a corium pool . of the corium being discharged will depend on the containment type and if the reactor is at pressure at the time of lower head failure .diam lower head drain plug in the center of the lower head of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) should fail first.
the composition of the corium melt relocated is quite different) . 1980). Thus. significant differences in the predicted results can occur. Such phenomena are considered in Sec. APRIL . because of the mechanistic incore blockage model used in APRIL . To appreciate better the stateoftheart. Figure 81 6 shows that the fraction of the core relocated by APRIL. we can compare the thermal hydraulic predictions of various codes for the same accident. 0 (which assumes irreversible blockage) but much low er than MARCH (which assumes no blockage) . but less than M ARCH/STCP It is important to note that.POST U LA T E D A B N ORMAL OP E RAT I N G CO N D I T I O N S 39. causing it to fail .5 The molten corium that collects on the floor of the drywell may attack and ablate it. APRIL. 1988). MOD2 (Kim et al . 1990). MOD2. if the temperature and/or pressure in the containment is high enough. while MARCH/STCP is rulebased. 1986) has been used to approximate the ATWS core power. Naturally. As a consequence. as well as the steam that is present. as ca n be seen in Fig. beca use of di fferences in material reloca ti on and blockage models. 0. unlike the other codes. and MAAP3 . Moreover. as shown in Fig. MOD2 . arbitrary assumptions concerning the eutectic melting tem perature of the fuel are not made in APRIL. MOD2 predictions of the fraction of cladding reacted are somewhat higher than MAAP3 . 1987) . Other nonmechanistic models include MARCH (Wooton and Avci. . 817 shows that.4. 0 (Henry et al . Figure 815 shows that APRIL . 8. this code predicts that sustained blockage does not occur. we note MAAP3 . MOD2 predictions of the maximum core temperature are higher than those of the other codes because. the core outlet gas temper . . For ATWS events the ChexalLayman correlation (Chexal and Layman. will lead to aerosol formation and to further containment pressurization . MOD2 is similar to that relocated by MAAP3 . 0 predicts a period of corium superheating starting at about 2 h into the accident . In addition.18. Typical mechanistic models include APRIL. MOD3 (Cho et al . Large digital computerbased models have been developed to predict the thermalhydraulic scenarios just described . Fig . a code that was used in the WASH1400 study and has been employed in the NRC's Source Term Code Package (STCP). APRIL is more mechanistic than MAAP. the molten corium may spread (particularly in MARKI containments) and attack the drywelliiner. failure may occur. 819. rather than being mechanistic. 1983) . 1 1 . it will release gases that may react with the unoxidized materials in the corium pool on the drywell floor. As the concrete decomposes. thus. 0 (however. MOD2 predicts that more hydrogen (H 2 ) is evolved from oxidation processes than does MAAP3 . APRIL. An interesting accident that can be used for code comparison is a hy pothetical BWRl4 ATWS initiated by a MSIV closure (Abramson and Ko moriya. The gases released from the core and the corium pool on the drywell floor. In contrast.
0 . MOD . .6 r"TI. 2 .396 THERMAL HYDRAULICS OF A BWR 6ooo rr. 817 Fraction of cladding re acted.0 .815 Maximum core temperature. 1.6 0.S 0 () u.816 Fraction of core relocated.0 0. minutes � 'I �0 6�1�02� 60 6 I � / f�TIME.2 o W I () <{ w a: z o i= () <{ a: u.MAAP  3. 0 0.MARCH/STCP 0 i= () <{ a: u. .. Fig.0 2 t: 4000 W a: :J I<{ a: w a. MOD 2 . minutes  Fig. 0. OL_______�_________��� o 60 TIME.APRIL. . minutes 120 1S0 Fig.MAAP O.APRIL.3.MARCH/STCP i \.4   0.MAAP .APRIL.2 TIME. Z W a:  3. MOD . :::i: w I .
MARCH/STCP C 1000 z w Cl o a: o > J: ilj 500 60 TIME(minules) 220 Fig.APRIL..  MARCH/STCP 2400 1200 ____________ OL________���� 40 120 80 1 TIME.0 � I< II: W D.0 w > ' o � 1500 .818 Total hydrogen (H2) mass evolved. minutes Fig. MOD 2 . MOD 2 . .APRIL.MAAP  397 3. 4800 .POSTULATED ABNORMAL OPERATING CONDITIONS 2000 �'r�' ..MAAP  3. 819 Core outlet gas temperature. � W I W II: ::J LL 3600 _.
" 8.398 T H ER MAL H Y DRAU LICS OF A BWR atures predicted by APRIL . cesium hydroxide (CsOH). 0. many of the radioactive fission products may be released . failure of the steam sep arator complex can be expected.6. Thus aerosol deposition may significantly reduce the radioactive source term . cesium iodine (CsI). In . thus. As a consequence. if any. The vaporized fission products may chemically react to form other compounds and the resultant mixture of condensible vapors and relatively noncondensible gases. may subsequently vaporize and be released. may flow out of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) into the containment building. During a postulated BWR accident. will be released when the fuel cladding fails and many of the other radioactive fission products. While it is not clear at this time which. Since the main purpose of all degraded core analyses is to determine the amount of radioactivity that may be released to the environment. both APRIL . When the superheated vapors flow out of the core into relatively cool regions. Since this structure supports the steam separator assembly. in which the core dries out and becomes severely overheated and damaged. It should be obvious that aerosol transport and deposition mechanisms must be carefully evaluated if one is to predict realistic source terms. it appears that the variance between these predictions is reflective of the current uncertainty in the state of the art in degraded core analysis . which as sumes that irreversible core blockage occurs. That is. fog formation is expected. it is clear that the implications of the blockage and other assumptions made in these codes may have a significant effect on the predicted accident scenario. but MAAP3 . for example. the radioactive aerosol material deposited on these structures. In particular. MOD2 and MARCH predict melting of the shroud head. xenon (Xe) and krypton (Kr). It is expected that a significant fraction of the aerosol droplets may be de posited on the relatively cool structures of the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) and the containment building. such as hydrogen (H2). unlike MAAP3 . predicts much lower core exit gas temperatures. aerosol droplets will be formed. for example. let us now turn our attention to the evaluation of the radiation "source term . of these core predictions is correct. which are then convected with the bulk flow of the gas/vapor mixture . 0 predictions. and tellurium (Te). such as cesium (Cs) and iodine (I). the fission gases. As a consequence. may be unable to escape to the environment through any leakage paths from the containment building. MOD2 are similar to those predicted by MARCH (which assumes that blockage does not occur).3 The Source Term The evaluation of the socalled "radioactive source term" is concerned with the hypothetical release and transport of fission products from a degraded core to the environment. Such a failure may have a significant effect on the subsequent accident scenario.
gv gsat(T) gv =gsat + RT In( pv/psat) Similarly. we have for a perfect gas.3. As noted in Chapter 4 this is given by.&. dg=VI Psat(T) J PI dp (8. Kj.48) To understand better the heterogeneous droplet nucleation rates that may occur in the vapor stream. . g. is assumed to be only a function of fuel temperature.1 Aerosol Formation Mechanisms Let us next consider aerosol formation mechanisms. The release of vaporized radioactive material from the core can be ap proximated from the burnup history of the core and a phenomenological model recommended by the NRC (NUREG0772. J Pv dg=RT Psat(T) J d: (8.POST U LAT E D A B N ORMAL OP E RAT I NG CO N D I T I O N S 399 this section models for the aerosol technology relevant to nuclear reactor safety analysis will be summarized. 50) gl =gsat + VI(pI psat} As discussed in Chapter 4. (8 . A force balance on an aerosol droplet of radius rd yields: pv'ITrd + 2'ITrdU =pmr d 2 2 Thus. (8 . for an incompressible liquid. for phasic equilibrium: gl=gv Thus Eqs . dg=vdpsdT For constant temperature conditions. let us examine the differential of the specific Gibbs free energy function. 47) where Mj is the mass of isotope j in the fuel and the empirical release rate parameter. 50) yield. 49) and (8. 8. Tf. 49) gsat(T) J g. 1981 ) : dMj Tt= Kj(Tf)Mj (8.
let us consider a simple example . 56) n'd m droplets/m3 molecular mass. (8. 53) and (8. (6. (8. The homogeneous nucleation rate is given by (Hill et al . This process is called homogeneous nucleation .h fg rd To appreciate better the implications of Eq. 55) vfTsat 2<1 dTsub=.(pv psat} (pv psat) rd VI Thus. 52) pv psat=!!L vfv rd 2<1 (8. 53) To compute the required vapor subcooling (dTsub) for droplet nucleation. Eq. ".J!JL = dT sat TsatVfg = [pv psat(Tv)) Tsat(pv) Tv [pv psat(Tv)] dTsub = (8. (Na/M) Pg Boltzmann constant. assuming VI == vf. (8. 1 mm . Combining Eqs . 2<1 Vv PI pv ==. let us use the ClasiusClapeyron equation. (8. 55) implies that an infinite vapor subcooling is needed if no nucleation sites are present. fogging can occur. . 2 K for a water droplet of diameter 0 . (8. 1963). 55). dn d 2<1 = dt rrm where. This is a low subcooling. using Eqs . It should be noted. (M/Na) molecular weight. (8 . ( ) lh vf N'd exp( dA/kTv) Vv (8. This is incorrect since.51). that Eq. 5 1 ) Hence. (8. we have for the case where Vv ( ) dP .400 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L ICS O F A BWR RT In( pv/psat) PI psat= VI  = RT (pv psat) Vlpv  (8. the prob ability always exists that liquid molecules present in the vapor stream will collide and form a liquid droplet. however. (8 . and the perfect gas law. due to molecular effects. 023 x 1023 molI ) molecules/m3 . thus it is clear that if small nucleation sites are present in the vapor stream. (RlNa ) M Na N'd k and the socalled "activation energy" is given by: . 54) vg. 54). 48). For atmospheric pressure steam. (gm/mol) Avogadro's number. 55) yields a vapor sub cooling of 0.
6 x 10 0 droplets/m3s. . events that change the particle's size.pv) 161T(J 3 4 . many other related works are also of interest (e. 1981) or by performing control volume anal ysis (Epstein and Ellison. 1983. However. 57) dn'd/dt 8. Rit chie et al . and aerosol sources/sinks. 1 990) . 1983. . . Both approaches have been used (e . Evaluating Eq. t)PaV dvLidS. 1957.POST U LAT E D A B N ORMAL OP E RATI NG CO N D I T I O N S 401 aA= where ra can be calculated from Eq. 1986. (8 . the aerosol phenomena of most interest in nuclear re actor safety will be discussed . 56) for atmospheric steam we find that 2 3 . 820). the con servation of aerosol mass in the control volume V is given by: This balance can be written mathematically as.2 Aerosol Transport Equations The time rate of change of the suspended aerosol content in an arbitrary volume. By taking into account convective transport. inertial impaction. The "bible" for aerosol phenomena is by Davies (1966).. for example. . v. MOD3 (Cho et al . Von Smolnchowski. at a Tsub = 25 K. 1 985. 3( Pl . Subsequent to fog formation one can determine what happens to the droplets formed by either computing the individual droplet trajectories (see. [ outflow rate of aerosol mass from the control volume ] [ v.56) only differs in form from the corresponding expression for the homogeneous nucleation of bubbles by the factor vf/vv . . . nevertheless. (8. Friedlander and Johnstone. V (see Fig. Owcarski et al . Loyalka. t)PaV dv . . dif fusiophoresis. Bunz et al . t)n(r. v.3. thermophore sis. Walker et al . and rd = 8 x 1 010 m. 1 979) . can be derived by balancing the various mech anisms through which aerosols can be gained or lost from the volume (Duderstadt and Martin. (8 . Dunbar. It is interesting to note that Eq. 1 962. Epstein et al . in NAVA and MAAP) in light water nuclear reactor safety analysis . The next section will summarize the aerosol mechanics of most interest for the evaluation of severe accidents in the BWRs . hydro scopic effects. g . This description is based on the models used in APRIL. Epstein et al . 1985. 1917. 55) . They are aerosol coagulation and the asso ciated gravitational settling. . . 2 2 3 1T ( r d) (J (8. 1976) . inflow rate of aerosol mass to the control volume ] [ + storage rate of aerosol mass in the control volume ] = 0 LidS·Ua(r. g . and the decontamination factor (OF) associated with pool scrubbing. A complete discussion of aerosol mechanics is beyond the scope of this chapter. DVn(r. Brock.6. 1981. 1988) .
G(r.. . ' . v is the volume of an aerosol particle. uf.J. v+dv). ' " . in Eq. v. t)PaV dv dV=O at vJv  (8. Also. t) is the aerosol size distribution density function such that n(r. . v. v. !) is the rate of aerosol particle size change per unit volume such that N(r. e . . 59) . t)PaV dv dV !vi G(r. t) is the source rate density defined in such a way that G(r. (8. v. v+dv) at time t and location r. v+dv) at time t and location r. Ua =uf +ur) . and N(r. N=1I2 r�(ii' vii)n(ii)n(vii) diiLoc�(V' ii)n(v)n(ii) dii . V is the size of the cOl!trol volume. 58). The term N can be expressed as. v. 820 An arbitrary control volume V with surface area S . and the relative velocity of the aerosol particle. Ya Fig. This velocity can be rewritten as the sum of the fluid velocity. t) dv is the number density of particles generated/ lost within size range (v. v. and Ua is the velocity of the aerosol par ticles. . v coagulation • generation . 5 is the surface are� of the control volume (see Fig. 820). (. v. v.402 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A BWR s .t)dv is the number density of aerosol particles within size range (v.v.ur (i . D is the !vi N(r. v+d�) at time t and location r. t) dv is the rate at which the number density of aerosol particles change in the size range (v. (8 . It is interesting to note that coagulation may either increase or decrease the !lumber density of aerosol particles in size range (v. t)PaV dv dV +i f r n(r. 58) diffusion coefficient for aerosol. pa is the density of the aerosol particles. where n(r. this term accounts for coagulation and hygroscopic effects .
Dvnpav dv=IvLV·DVnpav dv dV (8. the total aerosol mass. (8. V·ufn=V·DVn . ii) is the socalled coagulation kernel (Friedlander. and deposition as: IvLnpav dv dV (8. thus. (8. V. the aerosol mass conservation equation.POST U LATE D A B N O RMAL OP E RAT I N G CO N D I T I O N S 403 where �(v. v. 63) comprise a nonlinear. Since this equation must be satisfied for any control volume. (8. That is.58).Dvn(r.DvnNC) dV dv=O (8. 58) can be written separately for the inflows. (8. t)PaVdv= LLds·ufnpaV dv+LLds. t)npaVdv=LLds·(uf+Ur)npaV dv =IvLV·(ut+Ur)npaV dv dV Similarly.+V. M(t)= If we assume that the relative velocity of the aerosol particles (ur) is also the deposition velocity (Ud) of those particles. 1 977) .V·urn+N+ G at IvLPav (:. A significant amount of computing is required to solve such equations numerically . an . In particular. partial inte grodifferential equation . the divergence terms in Eq.urnV.Ufn+V. The surface integral in Eq. v. 61 ) Thus. 63) As can be seen. can be rewritten as.Uanpav dv. + . Eqs . 60) LLds. outflows. its inte grand must be equal to zero. M. v. 59) and (8 . LLds.Dvn(r. Eq.LLds. (8 . 62) (8. A more tractable expression for the aero sol mass balance can be obtained using a lumped parameter approach. 64) LLds.Ua(r.urnpav dvLLds. 58) can be rewritten as a volume integral by using the divergence theorem . in volume V is given by. t)Pav dv= 1 1 ds·ufnpaV dv+11ds·ufnpaV dv Sout V Sin V .
(1986. (8.67) with Eq. 8. integrating the source/sink term.eter. depending on the flow conditions and geometry .66) Finally. A. !vi G(r.65) fsJrvdS'(urnDVn)Pav dv Ji is the fraction of deposited mass to the total mass in the control volume per unit time .3.3 Aerosol Deposition Mechanisms Aerosols suspended in the primary system may deposit on solid surfaces because of various mechanisms. Win=fsinfvds.65). 1988). Sin is the surface area where the angle between the positive outward normal vector of the surface and the flow direction is greater than 90 deg.g�(t) . (8. (8. Wout=fsouJvds.66) and (8. a A=�npaV dv dV v iL nPaV dv dV Vv n Pa V dv dV=WoutWin+AM(t) JvJv a (8. (8. and. The terms implicit in N imply a gain or loss of aerosol in (v.62). we find that. v+dv) due to aerosol size change.68) is a generalization of the result obtained previously by Epstein et al. v. JvJl' r r Npav dv dV=0 (8. This param.67) dM(t) dt + WoutWin + AM(t) =<§(t) (8. t)Pav dv dV. we finally obtain the following global aerosol mass conservation equation. represents a rate constant for aerosol loss.6.68) It is interesting to note that Eq. (8.ufnpaV dv is the aerosol inflow rate.404 T H E RMA L H Y D RA U L ICS O F A BWR r fsJvdS'(UrnDVn)paV dv rr + where Sout is the surface area where the angle between the positive outward normal vector of the surface and the flow direction is less than 90 deg. yields: Combining Eqs . Since the total aerosol mass in the control volume does not change due to coagulation.ufnpaV dv is the aerosol outflow rate. The net deposition rate of aerosol is usually written as a sum of a number of individual deposition rates representing the different re .
Gravitational Settling. 1988) developed by numerically evaluating (Epstein et al. Epstein et al. (1980) . where �sed is the deposition rate due to sedimentation. uf is the fluid velocity. . 71 ) . and thermophoresis. and �th is the deposition rate due to thermophoresis . 63) and (8 . settle out more rapidly . Aerosol particles in gas streams moving along solid surfaces may impact and be removed by these surfaces due to aerosol Uf heff (8 . �t()t = �sed + �imp + �dif + �th (8. As noted previously. (8 . 59). the projected area/volume) . Eqs . thus the deposition rate due to sedimentation is given by. The deposition rates for sedimentation and inertial impaction can be obtained using the functional forms of the correlations (Epstein and Ellison. 1986) the full integrodifferential equation. 69) where Ud is a deposition velocity. e . �imp is the depo sition rate due to inertial impaction. Inertial Deposition. and inversely proportional to the control volume for wellmixed conditions. e . �d . inertial impaction. . 70) �sed = �FAI  w here �FAI is the deposition rate using the appropriate FAI correlations (Ep stein et al . �dif is the deposition rate due to dif fusiophoresis. the projectedarea/volume ratio) . diffu siophoresis. such as gravitational settling. due to the relatively high aerosol concentration expected during accidentinduced releases. Gravitational settling is the dominant deposition process in most severe accidents since. The deposition rates for diffusiophoresis and thermophore sis may be expressed as. (1986) developed the functional forms of the correlations for both sourcereinforced aerosols and aging aerosols by numerically evaluating the integrodifferential equation for coagulation dominated situations using a sectional method developed by Gelbard et al . This expression will be used subsequently to define the various deposition constants. That is. Ud �d=heff (8. In the present model convective outflows are explicitly accounted for. and heff is the effective height (i. the aerosol size may grow very rapidly as a result of coalescence .POST U LATE D A B N O RMAL O P E RATING CO N D I T I O N S 405 moval processes. The rate of deposition due to gravitational settling is proportional to the sum of the horizontal projections of the receiving surfaces times the settling velocity of the aerosol particles. The resultant larger aerosol particles. and heff is the effective height (i. in turn. 1986).
. Using the perfect gas law. The parameter E..= E. Eq. a diffusioninduced flow of noncon den sible gas away from the condensing surface will reduce the velocity of the aerosol particles toward the surface . 72) where C is the socalled Cunningham correction factor (Fuchs. Stk= 4CPar�uf 9 J. is defined as the ratio of the number of captured particles to the number of aerosol particles that would be captured if the particles did not change direction . (v'M.uf (8 . Uo== dC2 dx (8. jit dx Y1�+Yiv'M. 74) can be rewritten as.: v'M. 1964). A flow of the vapor directed toward a condensing surface exists near the surface of the condensing body.. and C2 is the mass concentration of the gas. pa is the aerosol density. 1 964) . 75) The aerosol particles near a condensing surface might be expected to move toward it with velocity Uo. ILf is the fluid's viscosity. the Stefan velocity). Such phenomena may occur in the flow of a single condensible vapor (component 1) and a noncondensible gas (component 2) . is given as.406 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR inertia . 1966): Udif= . the deposition velocity for inertial impac tion.1f Ds (8. is a function of the Stokes number and is often represented by an empirical formula (Fuchs. and Ds is the characteristic dimension of the surface . The reduction in particle velocity in a binary gas mixture in which two components are diffusing into each other is given by (Davies. U. The Stokes number (Stk) is the basic quantity characterizing the intensity of inertial deposition. (8. U. E. ra is the aerosol particle's radius. uo. 74) D12 dP2 P2 dx D12 dP1 P2 dx (8. (8 . 76) . e . The efficiency of inertial deposition. 73) Diffusiophoresis.. is governed by the following diffusion equation: D12=UOC2 where D12 is the diffusion coefficient of the vapor in the noncondensible gas. However. The velocity of this flow (i. Diffusiophoresis accounts for the force acting on aerosol particles suspended in a nonuniform but isothermal gas mixture due to aerosol concentration gradients . uf is the fluid velocity. Finally. ) d D12.
Pl (O) ] (8. to the edge of the mass transfer "boundary layer.80) .D12 dPl vM.78) fd [ P /) o I exp ( . Aerosol particles suspended in the gas move with a con stant velocity toward cooler temperature regions under the influence of a temperature gradient in the gas .= .77) yM2 ) P2 dx P2 dx (Yl vM. Udif. and �=YMl/(YlYMl + Y2YA1z ) . the resultant deposition velocity due to diffusiophoresis. the Stefan velocity. dPl_ UdifPl Udifpv dx �D12 + �D12 = 0 (8. x=O.Udif x)dx /) 0 .P2 dx I D dPl D12 dPl or. M2 is the molar weight of the gas. and Y2 is the mole fraction of the gas ." . fit is the mole fraction of the vapor." +Y2 where pv is the mixture pressure.. (8.1t + Y2 that by Dalton' s law.Udif x)] =  � D12 Ud fp . (8. 8 ln [ pvpl(8) PVPl (O) ]= ��12 PI In [ pvpl(8) PV . Udif= � D12 where �12 = D12 Pl/8 is a mass transfer parameter that can be obtained using the ChiltonColburn analogy. Eq..79) Thus. the deposition velocity due to diffusiophoresis is..i v � D12 f exp ( .!)t.: '.!)tuo (8. This phenomenon is called thermophoresis and was apparently first described by Tyndall (1870). Noting ===� or. (8.!)t D12 Hence. Eq .77) can be rewritten as. using an integrating factor." x= 8. Assuming that Udif and D12 are constant. Thermophoresis. Subtracting Udif from uo. Thus. is: 12 Udif=UOUdif= .'.yM2 dYl D12dx YA1z ) (Yl \I'X.= '.POSTU LAT E D A B N ORMAL O P E RATI NG CO N D I T I O N S 407 where Ml is the molar weight of the vapor.78) can be integrated from the condensing surface. yMl .
as shown in Fig . since the total pressure remains constant. Too is the temperature of gas.(KPr) W] (8.. producing a driving force for gas diffusion away from the surface. L is the length of thermophore tic surface. a partial pressure gradient of the gas exists opposite that of the vapor ( )[ T 1. This occurs because noncon densible gas is carried with the vapor toward the interface where it accu mulates.p.(KPr)1. X is a Stokes law correction factor. and Pg is the gas density . Condensation and Evaporation. 25 Nu 1. The thermophoretic deposition velocity is given by Epstein et al .P2 gas/vapor stream _. K is the non dimensional deposition velocity coefficient. ��p.� .81) condensate interface ' . 821. 25 Too 1. 821 Profiles of partial pressure during condensation.408 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L ICS OF A BWR The unbalanced force is presumably due to differences in molecular agitation and collision frequency due to local differences in the internal energy of the gas . fLg is the gas viscosity.+. The partial pressure of gas at the interface increases above that in the bulk of the mixture. Tw is the temperature of the surface. . (1985) as: fLgK Too 1 XpgL TW Uth = where Nu is the Nusselt number for natural convection heat transfer. Pr is the gas Prandtl number. ::+.temperature :t1rz {j __ r z Fig. Noncondensible gas mixed with the con densing vapor has a significant influence on the resistance to heat transfer in the region of the condensation interface .. That is. .
Eq. and Pi(Y) is the density of fission product i at distance Y into the surface (g/cm3).82) where �12 is the mass transfer parameter. Thus. When an aerosol mixture of steam and condensibles is injected . Kij are the coefficients of chemical reaction (cm/sec).85) where As is the surface area.POST U LAT E D A B N ORMAL OPERAT I NG CO N D I T I O N S 409 (Collier.6. (8. At the chemical reaction front.83) 2 sec) of fission product of species i reacting with where nij is the flux (g/cm material j. dramatically changing the ability of the radioactive material to revola tilize . pv is the mixture pressure. Actually. If UD is defined to be positive for condensation.83) reduces to. . is shown in Fig. bulk con ditions). nij=KijPi(O) Hence. (8. Pl (O) is the partial pressure of vapor at the interface. (8. and PI is the molar density of vapor . including surface chemistry. we see that it is just the Stefan velocity previously discussed. It has been widely assumed that. . The flux of fission products diffusing into a solid surface and reacting there is given by (Elrick et al . they remain there unchanged and may heat up and revaporize due to decay heat and vapor superheat.3. depending on the chemical form of the surface and the deposited material. 1980). The velocity of this vapor toward the condensing surface is given by. 8.84) RChem=nijAs (8. A schematic of the various aerosol interactions. Chemical Reaction with Surfaces. the chemical reaction rate is given as. 1986): nij=Kij[Pi(O) Pi(Y)] (8. Pl (&) is the partial pressure of vapor at the edge of the diffusion "boundary layer" & (i. Pi(Y) is assumed to be equal to zero . e .4 Pool Scrubbing In BWR containment systems the radioactive material released from a de graded core may pass through a large (pressure suppression) pool of water before it is released into the socalled wetwell air space of the containment building. chemical reaction with the surface material may occur. sub sequent to the deposition of radioactive aerosols on a surface. 822. where Y=0 is the location of the surface of the solid structure .
I / • Woul : ". including sedimentation. ' • .:. The sedimentation velocity. Used.. sedimentation must also be considered .::.. Fig. . . aerosol .. diffusio phoresis is normally the most important. .. Of these mechanisms. diffusiophoresis.... .. hydrogen Wi "::. via a pipe or sparger into a pool of subcooled liquid. : condensation . . Typical OF values for BWR containment systems are around 1 00 . .. is given by a force balance. . The efficiency with which pool scrubbing occurs is often given in terms of a decontamination factor (OF) . .. In addition to aerosol deposition due to diffusiophoresis. ..0. 822 Aerosol interaction in a control volume. . ': / . . As the bubbles rise through the pool.. �or . • . many of the aerosol particles may be deposited on the liquidvapor interface of the bubbles and are thus no longer entrained by the vaporgas mixture in the bubbles... .. . This represents the ratio of the amount of radioactive material entering the liquid pool divided by the amount leaving. vapor bubbles are formed that rapidly condense until the partial pressure of the steam re maining in the bubbles reaches the saturation pressure corresponding to the local pool temperature . This process of aerosol removal is called pool scrubbing. : . This aerosol capture process occurs during the time the bubbles are rising through the pool . " : + . . "0 . . and centrifugalinduced aerosol deposition . {:':�: FP� v.. .. .. . revaporization " . A number of pool scrubbing mech anisms are involved. .. chemical reaction . This condensation process causes significant diffusiophoresis to occur. ___ nucleation '.410 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A BWR steam... .: : . _ • :• • deposition . ...
86) When applying Eq. As can be seen in Fig . e . 87) = 0.Lv (8. 86) inside a bubble. Hence. . (8 . Ur = Used . or equivalently. 823. Uv sin6. Used = 2g ( Pa . 6 = <1> . where the angle 6 is measured as pos itive when downward from the horizontal (i . the ve rtical upward component of the (radial) vapor velocity ( uv ) is given by .Uv cos<l>. 88) We note that no gravitational setting occurs when situation occurs at.Pv ) � 9 gel. 823 The generation of centrifugal force on an aerosol droplet in a gas bubble.Uv sin6 Ur (8. the relative velocity in the vertical direction is. and that this (8. the retarding effect of the vapor produced at the vaporliquid interface of the rising bubble as the hydrostatic pressure is reduced should be considered .11"/2) . .POST U LA T E D A B N ORMAL OPE RATI NG CO N D I T I O N S 41 1 LIQUID POOL Fig. or.
v (Used1uv) } n'BIVB) 823. = n'BJ Ur21TR� cos6 sin6 d6 o 60 [ N��d = 1TR�(UsedIUv)2 Used  Another mechanism that should be considered is the deposition of aero sol particles due to the centrifugal force created by the gas circulation induced within the bubble due to the interfacial shear created by bubble motion through the pool . 2. This starts at.90) where UB is the bubble's rise velocity.92) The net deposition rate due to centrifugal effects is thus. As can be seen in Fig. (8. �o = sin 1 ) ] (8. uv (PVCDRB )V:! ] [ UB 6raPa (8. A potential flow analysis indicates that the tangential velocity (Ut) inside the bubble at the vaporliquid interface is given by.93) VBN�'= r1T"'on�l )"'0 uc(�)21TR� sin� d� (8.94) . when the water in the pressure suppression pool is clean (sudh that the bubble interface is mobil) the aerosol particles inside the bubbles will experience a centrifugal force. [( V:! . 6rapa UB sm� Uv PvCDRB  We will only have droplet deposition due to centrifugal effects when Uc > O .89) (8. A force balance on an aerosol droplet within the bubble and adjacent to the interface yields. which is opposed by drag.91) or.412 THERMAL H YDRA U LICS O F A B W R Hence. ��pa GUB sin�) gcRB Uc= 2 = 2. The net drag on the aerosol particles must also include the effect of the radial vapor velocity just discussed .gcPvCD1T�(Uc+Uv)2 1 (8. the aerosol sedimentation rate per unit volume (N��d) is given by: VBN'��d or.
Anderson. Chexal. and L. E. J. Garrett. Nucl. Anderson. K. G. 53 (1986)." Re port EP8619. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the ZircaloyWater Reaction. L. R. G. Komoriya." Report 296. New York (1980). Need less to say.. Just.+. Dua. Personal Communication. Electric Power Research Institute (1987). E." Proc. "BWR Loss of Coolant Technology Review. MOD3 Severe Accident Code..0 ) 2 4 4 'IT ] (8.. Denmark (1973). Claassen.11N18. RISO. "Studies of MetalWater Reactions at High Temperature. and W. "Severe Accident Sequence Analysis ProgramAnticipated Transient Without Scram Simulations for Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant UnitI." EPRI NP5562. Koyro. S. Jr. and M. ESEERCO (1990). DH. V BIVC A T'" = ( R ". Convective Boiling and Condensation. Davies. III. L. J.S. . SoW." ANL6548. H. R T. "Decay Energy Release Rates Following Shutdown of UraniumFueled Thermal Reactors.. Kim." Trans. Bunz. Denmark (1974). Kernforschungzentrum Karlsruhe (1981). and H. Jia. McGrawHili. Layman. R. CS. Schock.. and W.. Holcomb. and P D. proper analysis of aerosol deposition mechanisms is essential to obtain realistic radiation source term evaluations for hypothetical nuclear reactor accidents. "On the Theory of Thermal Forces Acting on Aerosol Particles. "Analysis of Anticipated Transients Without Scram in Severe BWR Accidents. "NAUAMod 3: Ein Computer Programm Zur Beschreiibung des Aerosolverhaltene in Kondensierender Atmosphaer. 768 (1962).. American Nuclear Society (1971). Anderson.. W.. J. Collier. References Abramson. RISO. Argonne National Laboratory (1962). Thermal Hydraulics of Nuclear Reactors. M. 2'lTna 6ra �pa PvCo ) [('IT 'h 2<1>0) ! . Brock. Lahey. Am. Colloid Sci. G. "A Correlation for Predicting Reactor Power During a BWR ATWS. Kim. E.6. Dix. "REMI/HEAT COOL. G.0) +! s m (2." proposed ANS Standard.. Academic Press. J. "Degraded BWR Core ModelingAPRIL." J. S. Aerosol Science. Podowski.. R. J. Wheatley. M. Jouse. S. ANS Symp." KfK3514. 17. G. B. J. ESEERCO (1983).. H. . Vol.+. B. A Model for Evaluation of Core Heatup and Emergency Core Spray Cooling System Performance for LightWaterCooled Nuclear Power Reactors. Baker. P B. Wagoner.. "BWR Source Term Codes Comparison. '" "' sm2( ." NUREG/CR4165. C.95) The material presented in this section briefly summarizes the current state oftheart in aerosol mechanics as it applies to BWR safety analysis . Z.POST U LA T E D A B N ORMAL O P E RATI NG CON D I T I O N S 413 or. N. 5. U. Dallman. Cho. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1987)." Final Report EP844.. 2nd ed. R. Soc. Gottula. New York (1966). M.. integrating. M. and J. E. 1 (1983). C. C.
Hauser. E." Proc . . California (1967).S. Light Water Reactor Severe Accident Evaluation.. R. H . M . Eng . and A. U. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. 2 (1980). . K. Pessanha. 342355 (1986). Dunbar." Ind . and R. 272276 (1985).S. Illinois (1983). L. ANS700085. Fuchs. 162." NUREG/ CR5157. 65. G. A. "Thermophoretic Deposition of Par ticles in Natural Convection Flow from a Vertical Plate. "Reaction Between Some CesiumIodine Compounds and the Reactor Materials 304 Stainless. 7. Douglas. Version2. Epstein. "Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences. H. Sparrow. 1151 (1957). S. Radiation Heat Transfer. 156 (1983). M. . and J. Epstein. M . Mtg . Howell. and H. Interface Sci . Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1988). Sozzi. 49. MOD2A Computer Code for Core Meltdown Accident Analysis of Boiling Water Nuclear Reactors." NUREG/CR2324. La Grange Park. S. and R T. VolI & II. . "Deposition of Suspended Particles from Turbulent Gas Streams. The Mechanics of Aerosols." Fauske & Associates (1987)." J. Heat Transfer. and R. SAND 830395. P Demetri. . Colloid. 12. 327344 (1988). 3. . Podowski. R. M . 113. et al. Sallach. Johnstone." J.. 85. Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer. "Mechanics of Aerosols in Nuclear Reactory Safety: A Review. Lahey. . Heat Transfer. Energy. Ouellette. I. Witting. General Electric Company (1975)." J. Siegel. P G . Kim. Koh. H. ." J. L. P c . T . "Correlations of the Rate of Removal of Coagulating and Depositing Aerosols for Application to Nuclear Reactor Safety Problems. Martin. L. McGrawHili. M. and E. New York (1964). Transport Theory. A. Technol . Lahey. D. . ." Nucl . Ellison. and R. H. Henry. ." J. . 303317 (1963). "Correlation of Aerosol Sedimenta tion. Kim. R M . K.. Schreck. and S. Colloid In terface Sci. G. Friedlander. Hill. 2 (1984). "Sectional Representations for Simulating Aerosol Dynamics. R. Nucl . Elrick. . N. Sutherland. P G. "The Role of Diffusiophoresis in LWR Accidents. 76." NUREG/CR3317. and R.. 107. "Technical Bases and User's Manual for the Prototype of a Suppression Pool Aerosol Removal Code (SPARC). Eng . SiAhmed. . Epstein.414 T H ERMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A BWR Duderstadt. New York (1979). "MAAP User's Manual. S. . F. Gelbard. J. F . Smoke. Des . Monterey. and W. Pergamon Press. and R T. E. S. Jr. Henry. et al. Cess. "Condensation of Metal Vapors During Rapid Expansion. . C. PNL4742. Loyalka. "An Investigation of BWRl4 Parallel Channel Effects During a Hypothetical LOCA for Both Intact and Broken Jet Pumps. Owczarski. Dust and Haze. A. John Wiley and Sons. Henry. In conel 600 and Silver. P Johnson. 2. U." Prog. . I. D. John Wiley and Sons." NUREG/CR3197. and P G. . R. In t .. R . "The Development of APRIL. 107.. M. A . . Nucl . Nuclear Regulatory Com mission (1981). R. Sandia National Lab oratories (1986). B.. p. Chern. B. . American Nuclear Society. Fakory. Ritchie. E. EIK." NEDO13418. Friedlander. New York (1972). J. M. Jr.. James J. Postma. "Critical Flow Measurements of Saturated and Subcooled Water at High Pressure. K. K. New York (1977). Ellison. and William R. R E. Z. Pacific Northwest Laboratories (1985). Bland.
Tyndall.. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1975). "Discretisation and Integration of the Equation Governing Aerosol Behavior. Nucl . A m . Wooton. 5 (1968). Soc. H. . Gonzalez. J. Proc. SRDR98 (1976)." ASME paper 74WA/HT52.. C. Lahey. 3 (1974). Phys . . "Mathematical Theory of the Kinetics of the Coagulation of Colloidal Solutions.. Von Smolnchowski. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1974). Gr. 3 (1870). J. Kirby. c . Appl . "Technical Basis for Estimating Fission Product Behavior During LWR Accidents. B. . K. 21." J. and C. 346 (1975). and R. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1980). M. R. 92. "MARCH Code Description and User's Manual.S. U." NUREG/CR1711. R. M. and C. U. "Calculations of Combined Radiation and Convection Heat Transfer in Rod Bundles Under Emergency Cooling Con ditions. . Ins t . R. A . Dix. 39. "Effect of Precursory Cooling on Falling Film Rewetting. T. "Effect of Core Spray Cooling in Transient State After Lossof Coolant Accident. K. Williams. W." Nucl . A.. Report. "BWR Blowdown Heat Transfer Experiments. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1981)." ASME paper 75HT64. L." NUREG/CR0772. . Sutherland. Federal Regis ter. I. Chern . Yamanouchi. L.POST U LAT E D A B N O RMAL O P E RATI NG CO N D I T I O N S 415 Sun. AppendixK. lOCFR50. Tien. Br 6. Sun. 0 . 129 (1917). J. E. and R. G. . Tien. Avci. H." Trans. and H. Walker.s. K." Z. .
.
One of the best examples of the analysis of transient boiling transition (BT) in a BWR is that for a recirculation pump trip or seizure . typical of those used in the evaluation of certain hypothetical singleoperator error or equipment malfunctiontype accidents. power. 9.1. All of these involve a transient evaluation of the thermal margin. we must have the analytical capability (typ ically in the form of a digital computer code) to evaluate the flow and .2. are discussed and in Sec.1. there are a number of hypothetical accidents that can be classified as singleoperator error or equipment malfunction type accidents . The designer must have avail able the analytical tools with which to appraise the consequence of these various accident conditions to determine whether relevant safety limits are satisfied . analysis relevant to the design basis lossofcoolant accident (LOCA) is presented . Basically. In Sec. Hence. 9. that is. some analytical techniques. the designer must be able to analyze these transients accurately to appraise realistically the potential for fuel rod damage .1 Transient Boiling Transition Evaluations If a BT occurs at all in a nuclear reactor.B o i l i n g Wate r Reacto r Acc i d e n t Eva l u ati o n s C H A PT E R N I N E All commercial nuclear reactors have as part of their design criteria the evaluations of certain postulated accidents . this is the case examined in some detail in Sec. As discussed in Chapter 8. 9. an evaluation of the transient critical power ratio (CPR) . it is most likely to occur during transient accident conditions of system pressure. Thus. and flow rate. The techniques required are quite similar for the various accidents that must be considered. 9.
the system pressure is constant at 1000 psia . Trajectory number 2 is the locus of the same flow decay transient starting from a higher heat flux. If the minimum critical power ratio (MCPR) is always > 1 . 91 that a BT would be expected during the flow decay since the trajectory exceeds the steadystate thermal limits near the end of the transient. and thus the inlet subcooling. These flow parameters then can be used in conjunction with an appropriate bundleaverage BT correlation to evaluate the transient CPR. These traj ectories are the loci of state points at the end of the heated length. yet. . Hence. Conversely. Indeed. The fact that we desire to obtain accurate predictions of the time to BT has motivated much of the transient analysis that follows. qt. since the analysis is somewhat less complex and. Rather than analyze each postulated accident individually. can be connected by a trajectory of constant heat flux. Trajectory number 1 is the locus of state points during the transient at constant heat flux. Since typical flow transients are rather fast. q2' Note in Fig. the end points of the transient are known and. flow decay transient performed in a singlerod annulus with uniform axial heat flux (Shiralkar et al . 1972) . if we predict an MCPR � 1 0 at some point in space and time. we consider a constant power. 91 allows us to determine a prior i whether a BT will occur. then a BT may occur. then no BT would be expected. . to a good first approximation. but does not give any infor mation as to when in time it will occur. The initial condition of these transients is a mass flux of G = 1. remains approximately constant during the transient. 0 X 106 Ib/hft2 and an inlet subcooling of 50 Btu/lb . it has been ob served experimentally that a BT does not occur for transients typical of trajectory number 1. where BT occurs. Indeed. The flow is then decayed at some prescribed rate to G = 0. This is typical of the separate effectstype experiments required to check the prediction capa bilities of transient analytical methods. it is appropriate to summarize some salient experimental obser vations. Note that even at the end of the transient. it has been the need to accurately predict transient ex perimental data of this type that has motivated the development of the analytical techniques to be discussed. it has been verified experi mentally that the use of plots such as that given in Fig. . Indeed. Figure 91 gives the trajectories of several typical flow decay transients in the fluxquality plane . 0. of a heater rod with a uniform axial heat flux distribution . For our purposes here. it is found that the inlet temperature.5 X 106 Ib/hft2 During this transient. 5 to 3 sec).418 T H E RMA L H Y DRAU LICS OF A BWR enthalpy in the "hottest" fuel assembly (bundle) at each point in space and time . 0 (0 . it is typical of the whole class of transients under consideration. Alth ough the main purpose of this section is to describe the analysis involved. BT would not be expected from steadystate considerations . we will con centrate on the recirculation pump trip or seizuretype accident.
40 t� IT iONS ...5 0.TRAJECTORY NO. 2 r � � '" .. 2 5 0. 1 0 0..0 0. � � . 91 o 0..35 The locus of typical flow transients..80 '" e ..1 4 1 2 1 . J h SUB I T i A L CON D I T IONS 7\ » n n 6 m Z 0. 20 � Fig.. 1 5 0 . q .. � / '" ..60 t � t m r < » C » 0.. 20 r' 0.30 0.H E AT B A L A N C E G i l 06 0 5 ../ J 'CR IT G I l 06 (Jl 0 t Z 0 .
(5. In practice. as given in Eqs . There is negligible internal generation. The inlet conditions are specified functions of time . 5. 5. 4. this is normally accomplished by the simultaneous numerical solution of the appropriate twophase conservation equations given in Sec . The two phases are in thermodynamic equilibrium. Rather than detail the specific numerical solution scheme required to handle the most general problem. i . q and viscous dissipation in the coolant. . a The system pressure is constant. 3. With these assumptions. e . we must be able to predict ac curately the flow and enthalpy in the fuel assemblies at each point in space and time . . ( PH ) Ax . 6. 1972) .420 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A B W R We now consider the case of a BWR recirculation pump trip or seizure . we consider a somewhat simpler problem for which an exact solution can be achieved . The assumptions made in the subsequent analysis are: 1 2. the continuity and energy equations. 4) hf + (x)hfg "This assumption can be relaxed at the expense of a somewhat more complicated analysis (Lahey et a I . we consider the case of an exponential flow decay in a homoge neous twophase system . To evaluate the transient thermal margin.29) and (5.44). Dj ( Ph ) Dt ( PH ) + ( Ph ) =q Dj (h) Dt and the appropriate equationofstate can be written as. .2) 1 ( ph ) = �( vf + (x)vfg ) (h) = (9 . The flow is homogeneous.1) (9. 3) (9 . lll.2. Both phases are incompressible. 7 There is a constant crosssectional flow area . . respectively. More spe cifically. in conjunction with voidquality relations such as those given in Sec. can be written. 8.s a(j ) = 0 az (9. constant thermodynamic properties . 5. 1 . The heat flux is constant in space and time . .
we can neglect acoustic effects and use the simplified analysis given by Eqs. e . There are two initial conditions that we must consider for the control volumes of interest.= (j (Z' t » and. t = constant (9. As we will see in the devel opment that follows. since the system of equations is decoupled. �. 6) with the appropriate initial conditions . 7) . (9 . as the propagation velocity of the acoustic waves increases. Physically. . this is more meaningful than the Eulerian point of view. we frequently obtain more insight into the nature of the phenomena when exact solutions can be constructed . in which compressibility effects are included. For those control volumes that were in the twophase portion of the heater at the start of the transient. Although computer evaluations are normally used for actual design application. 6) Equation (9. the particle path) . e . 1 ) through (9. we have been able to leave out the momentum equation [ i . . Eq. of this hyperbolic system is just the Langrangian trajectory (i . Note that due to assumptions 2 and 5. For all cases of practical significance in BWR technology. 5). since one set of characteristics.5) (9. given by Eq. in which the observer is fixed in space. (j » = (j ) (x) (xo) at t = O = .3Idt ± C2 q. (9 . 38) ] . The point of view that w e adopt i s the Lagrangian description in which the "observer" travels with a particular control volume . In the more general case. (9. closed form solutions rather than having to use numerical schemes. 5) can be recognized as the differential equation describing the trajectory of the particle paths.) representing (in the spacetime plane) the trajectories of the acoustic waves propagating in the test section.ACC I D E N T EVA L U AT I O N S 42 1 It can be shown (GonzalezSantalo and Lahey. This implies that acoustic waves propagate through the test section instantaneously. In that solution. (9. 1970) that there are three characteristic curves: the particle paths ( dztldt = and two curves ( dZ2 . 1973) that this system of equations fonns a degenerate hyperbolic system with characteristics given by. (5. the two acoustic characteristics collapse into a single traj ectory that is identical to the constant time characteristic given in Eq. this simplification allows us to construct exact. it can be shown (Tong and Weisman.6). an assumption that only introduces serious errors for very rapid flow transients where the duration of the transient is of the same order as the time it takes acoustic waves to propagate through the test section .
ex ponential flow decay). shown in Fig. (9. in which the subscript.s tv "p (9. 13) Knowing v. 1 1 ) I n the Lagrangian frame o f reference.. . e . the time required for a control volume that enters the heater to lose its subcooling. the continuity equation. that is." That is. Eq. the energy equation. The required expression was formulated previously by Wallis (Wallis and Heasley. AU).. refers to inlet conditions . Thus. In the singlephase region. (9 . t » = ( ji ( t » (9 . Eq. To establish the transient position of the boiling boundary. The result of the integration gives u s v. For the case under consideration here (i.. 2). 1 4) Once the time dependence of the inlet flow has been specified. (9 . this differential equation can be integrated as if it were an ordinary differential equation . In the singlephase region. . Eq. That is. This equation implies that fluid motion is essentially that of a "rigid body. 92. ( j( z. the time at which that control volume crosses the socalled boiling boundary. lhfd(h) = (3. reduces to. 10) Dj(h ) = � Dt PfAxt (9. = 0 at t to = (9. reduces to. the next step in the analysis is to evaluate the transient position of the boiling boundary. 1961) as.422 TH E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A BWR For those subcooled control volumes that were either in the heater or had not yet entered the heater at the start of the transient.� s)�hsUb ( f GiPft' ) dt' tv (9.8) a( j ) az = 0 (9.9) in which constant liquid density has been assumed . for t � v. i. we must work out the dynamics of the singlephase portion of the heater. using assumption 4. 1). 14) can readily be evaluated .!L) dt' hi i PfAx. A( t ) = (9. (x) where to is the time at which the control volume under consideration first experiences bulk boiling. 12) v = (p��.
K2 t ) ] Pi Pi K2 Go Go (9.exp( . That is. (t) I Fig.K2t ' )dt' 0 Pi � (9. 1 7) .0 Iv G � dt' + Pi 11 G exp( .( t ) = Thus.[1 .( v . 9·2 Schematic of a heated channel undergoing convective boiling. 1 6) X( t ) = . x. 14) must be integrated in two parts.ACC I DE N T E VA L U AT I O N S 423 0 0 L ( H EATED LENGTH) H 0 0 o 0 0 0 SATU R A T E D R EG I ON 0 °0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 0 0 Z I A ft) j .t ) + . compares to v. depending on how the time. (9. t. for t � v . f. 15) Equation (9.
As shown in Chapter 5.51). For our particular problem.5) and the fact that ( ji ( t » = G i (t )/ Pf and. for t � v . (9. z. Dj plDt.4) to eliminate (Ph) and (h) in favor of (x).+ (x) . A(t) dz G i (t) l Dj Vf dz + = dt 0 vf Dt f P + lz i A(t) (vf + (x)vfg ) 1 where we have used Eq. (9 .exp( . l5t Dj (x) + = (  Dj Vf Dt + ( x)  Dj Vfg Dt + vfg  Dj (X» Dt ) dz (9 . 18) Since there are two expressions for the boiling boundary.s + t t ( ) ]} ) �] � ( ) (x) (9 . assumptions 2 and 5 can be applied to reduce these equations to. (5 .v Pf Pf K2 f. and (9 . depending on the value of the time considered. 1 9) This equation now can be integrated from the heater inlet to some arbitrary position. 2 1 ) Dj (X» Vfg G i (t) + (Z dZ JA(t) ( vf + (x)vfg ) Dt Pf (9. in the subcooled region. 3) can be combined to yield. t Go Go . (5 . for the heated channel shown in Fig. We now turn our attention to the twophase region of the heater. (9. dz dt _ {I[ [( 1 hfg Dj hfg D " IAx + j p Vfg s hfg l5t . by definition . Eqs .K2 t ) [exp(K2v ) . 92. (x) . thus obtaining Eq. we can combine Eqs . That is. 22) . A. Thus. ( ) = (J j (Jz Dj (X» Dj Vf Dj Vfg 1 . they include the "flashing" term. 1 ) and (9 .49). 20) Equations (9 . (9 .21) are more general than required for solution of the present problem. it should be anticipated that integrations in the twophase region have to be done in two parts .exp( .K2t' )dt ' = .+ vfg Dt Dt ( vf + (x)vfg ) Dt (  ) (9 . due to depressurization and the effects of pressure on thermodynamic properties. 3).q PH Dt Dop D o hf " vf q PH IA x . To reduce the number of variables involved. Next we consider the appropriate energy equation . in the twophase region . In the case of the continuity equation.1 ] A( t ) = t . 20) and (9 . (x) = 0.424 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S O F A BWR Similarly. it is convenient to write the continuity and energy equation in terms of quality.
by knowing dzldt. For the specific case of an expo nential flow decay. Thus. (9.28) Equation (9 . (9. (x( t. e . and (x ( t » .(l) (9. 22). Thus. 24) (q"PHZO For the initial conditions given in Eq. z( t ) . 15). Each fluid particle can be identified by its state at the beginning of the transient. assumption 4 implies that 0 is constant. (9. By taking the Lagrangian point of view. dz Gi ( t ) (Z + Odz = dt Pf JlI. Eqs . 28) and the various initial conditions of interest to yield the axial position of the control volume as a function of time. (9 . 28) can be integrated exactly for virtually any constant pressure flow transient of practical significance . z( t).ACCI D E N T EVA L U AT I O N S 425 where 0 previously was defined in Eq. (9 .to ) ] . Eq. 27) integrates as.I ] (9. We now turn our attention to the integration of Eq. As discussed previously. 1 7). One group contains those fluid particles that were within the twophase portion of the heater at t = O. 1 (xo( zo» = hfg G0Ax Llh sUb ZO» = (xo (z o» exp( O t ) + Vfg [exp(Ot ) . (9 . For the initial conditions given in Eq. Eq. (5 . 28) . 23) where from a steadystate energy balance. (9 . dz dt _ O[ z _ A( t ) ] = Gi ( t ) Pf (9. 23) can be combined with the integrand to yield. to» = � ) (9. (9. 7).= g ( vf + (x)vfg) Vf Dj (x) Dt � 0 (9. 23) can be regarded as an ordinary differential equation along the particle path and is readily integrated . . Eq. . these particles are bounded by the "main particle path characteristic . (9 . the solution is." That is. and (9 . 18) can be combined with Eq. we can easily evaluate the flow and enthalpy at each point in space and time . 48). i . 93. (X( t. 27) For the case under consideration here. 25) Vfg { exp [O( t . 8). there are three separate groups of fluid particles that must be considered.I} (9 . 26) To integrate Eq. the trajectory of the control volume that was located at the boiling boundary . (9. As shown in Fig .
E c:tIA"ACTE"""1C . {ZO 'O}  .K .aION Y! o .. � ..e xp .t.. � up l ... o "T1 "E GlON I / IIEGION V I I " II .K 2t ) 111 K 2 1 { O[ { }/ I I m " P..J r 3:: » ".K 2 t l l J Zo } �exP f . 93 Solution map for constant pressure exponential flow decay. <>( \ "/�9� / .9\� » O:J .�'n S! REGION VI It ..K S exp f n r l 2 Pf K2 R E G ION I I 1 I .u .t.. �} G 1 IK2tl Z . ) + .REGION I "' II GoK 3 + H + K2 REGION V It 20 up f n t l t Ul K2) REGION IV '> 0  1 exp I K 2 t lH AD t H + K2 �n I ....t .K S + . N cr" Go Z . ' .J » c I < e SiNe LE 'HASE n Vl MAIN T.z  .' .t./' / / /" / / / 1 R EGION IV Fig.> . c.j:>...K 2t { < vi � Kg \ [z . K ...K6 u p ( n t ) + exp f n t l ]} � }/ R E G ION I I I ( H '" K 2 ' { [PI {:�ll [Z_ { U t i + � "p I .J f:"" \ / �' ..
. In addition to the particle path characteristics forming natural boundaries for the various regions." This latter char acteristic is defined as the trajectory of the control volume that was located at the inlet to the heater at the beginning of the transient . (9 . 8) and the appropriate expression for A( t ) is Eq. The particles that at t = 0 were in the single phase region of the heater but only for t .exp{ K2 t ) ) PI K2 PI A { t ) = . the exact solution for quality. 93 . the initial conditions are given by Eq..exp{ K2 t » ) PI P/ K2 A { t ) = .1 ) PI K2 Go Go Go . and axial position. O. For the as sumptions made here..t) + ... These exact solutions are obtained through integration of the continuity and energy equations . (9 . As a specific example.. The particles that at t = 0 were in the single phase portion of the heater but only for t . To complete the solution. is shown in Fig. the constant time characteristic at t v also sub divides the solution plane shown in Fig.exp{ . This characteristic has been defined as the "main time characteristic.(v .( v . v. The final group contains those particles that had not yet entered the heater at t O. z( t ).K 2 t )[exp{ K2 v) ..ACC I D E N T EVA L U AT I O N S 427 at t O . v . v or t � v.. t ..:..exp{ .I ) PI K2 Go Go Significance of Region The particles that had not yet entered the heater at t = O. we must com= = = = TABLE 91 Tabulation of Various SpaceTime Regions in the TwoPhase Portion of the Heater Region Expression for Boiling Boundary A { t ) = .K2 t )[exp{ K2v) . v.I » ) PI K 2 II A( t ) = . The particles in the twophase portion of the heater for 0 . (9 .. For this region. we consider the case of Region I. The physical significance of the other six regions is tabulated in Table 91 . 93." Its importance is a mathematical consequence of the fact that A( t) has "branches" depending on whether t .. 93 . The particles in t h e twophase portion of the heater for t .[ 1 .. 18) . For each of these regions. v. As shown in Fig ..( 1 . the solution in the singlephase region is trivial and we will not discuss it further . Go III IV V VI Go A { t ) = .. (x( t ) .. 26) .. These particles are bounded only by the secondary particle path characteristic . The first region is for singlephase flow .. there are seven regions into which the solution naturally divides. The appropriate expression for quality is given by Eq. The particles in the twophase portion of the heater for t . The next group contains those particles that were in the single phase portion of the heater at t O. This group of particles is bounded by the "main" and "secondary particle path characteristic .t ) + .exp{ ..K2 t )[exp { K2 v .
42 8 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L IC S O F A B W R bine the continuity equation. predictions using a steady state BT correlation (GETAB.. since if the parameter.(ll � K2) In { . For real K2 (i . 95 . 94 . In the special case of an imaginary K2 . (9. to = (ll Equations (9.[ exp( K2v ) . and VI represent the "startup" transient . 15) and (9 . . 1 973) . 1 8) and integrate ..1 ] K2 dt PI This differential equation is of the Bernoulli type and is easily integrated. W e can proceed in a similar fashion for the other regions . e . Go dz ll .K2t ) ] } (9 . is complex. An example of typical prediction capability is given in Fig. while Regions II. 29) :1 { 1 . The resultant differential equation for Region I is. let us consider some simple poolboiling experiments . it has been found that for very rapid transients a steadystate BT correlation is generally conservative in that it underpredicts the transient critical power (Aoki et al . However. 28). the flow and quality are easily evaluated at each point in space and time.llz = . 30) also can be written as.1 ] } Go exp( K2 v ) PI (K2 + ll) Equation (9 . 30) specify the solution for quality and axial location as a function of time . nonCOffi plex). Note in this figure. Figure 96 is typical of transient �K2) t .� [eXp( K2V) . this region represents the asymptotic response of the system. these results represent the exact solution for an exponential flow decay in a homogeneous twophase system . 26) a n d (9 . the likelihood of transient BT can be readily appraised through the use of the exact solution for flow and quality and the appropriate BT correlation . Thus. 196 1 ) . (9 . 1 973) are quite good . 30) { } (9. Eq. J z + (�:K. III. K2 . with Eqs . K3 � K9 � GOK3 exp( .(ll + K2 )tO] exp(nt ) where.2) exp( .K2 t ) 1 . 3 1 ) . only Region I exists and the results presented here are essentially the same as those previously used in the stability analysis of a boiling channel (Wallis and Heasley. The results of these integrations are tabulated in Table 92 . V. Region I is an interesting case. Z = K9 exp[ . To better appreciate the effect of transient speed on BT.K2 t ) (ll + K2 ) (9. Note that for transients typical of BWR technology.exp( . for this particular transient. A typical flow chart for nu merically evaluating this solution is given in Fig.
1972) . one twophase transit time). e . z = 6 ft . In addition. Once the main particle path characteristic has been crossed. 95. . 5in diam heated tube . in this par ticular case at t 1 sec. Curves 1 and 2 in Fig. the transient CHF can be much larger than the stationary CHF . lines of constant quality are shown . This is best seen in Fig. heat flux. e . 1968) taken for exponential power excursions. the exit quality decreases. 1974) found that due to time delays associated with activation of the boiling cavities. . . the stationary (i . a quasiequilibrium situation is achieved and the exit quality monotonically increases. 98. The idealized thermalhydraulic analysis of transient BT. quasisteady) poolboiling curve was normally not tra versed during exponential power transients if the heated surface was not boiling before initiation of the transient. the transient quality rises rapidly to the new equi= . the exit quality actually decreases even though significant flashing is occurring. . for T on the order of milliseconds . Note that during the first part of the transient. which resulted in Tables 91 and 92. Fortunately. i . 1974. In addition. note from Curve 3 that if the heated surface were boiling at the time of initiation of the power excursions (i . It is of interest to consider the results of the numerical evaluation of a constant' heat flux and inlet flow rate. as indicated in Fig . When the blowdown is terminated. In Fig . This is due to the rapid expulsion of the twophase fluid due to the flashing process . if the cavities were already activated). we can infer that the precise value of the transient critical power apparently involves history and surface effects as well as transient type and speed . depressurization transient in a O . Note that the more rapid power excursion (Curve 2) has a greater overshoot from the stationary poolboiling curve .ACCI D E N T EVA L U AT I O N S 429 poolboiling data (Sakurai and Shiotsu. e . several characteristics are shown in the spacetime plane . Sakurai (Sakurai and Shiotsu. . Most transients of interest in BWR technology involve simultaneous variations of pressure. Also note that the critical heat flux (CHF) point associated with the stationary poolboiling curve is exceeded for sufficiently rapid transients. and flow and. During the time it takes the control volume that initially was at the boiling boundary to exit the test section (i. as in Curve 2. analytical solutions . thus. Tachibana et al . the stationary poolboiling curve is traversed during the excur sion. for rather mild transients of interest in BWR technology. We consider the time varying quality at the end of the heated length. 96 illustrate the observed phenomena for two different power excursions . These results are typical of those that would be obtained from a transient computer code . 97. which is a plot of exit quality versus time . Nevertheless. From these basic experiments. steadystate BT cor relations do a very good job of predicting BT . . e . although. computerized numerical solution schemes based on the "method of characteristics" can be readily constructed (Lahey et al . do not readily lend themselves to exact. was restricted to an exponential flow transient in which the heat flux and pressure were constant.
17) and (9. v Combine Eqs.28) Elimination of Constant of Integration Set Z = A at 1 = 10. z(v. i . v 1 . ZO VI. (9. i . Set Z = A at 1 = 10. (9. v Combine Eqs.. III I . v Combine Eqs.. e .. (9. (9..28) and integrate.. 15) with Eq. z(v...28) and integrate. (9... II I . Equate result of integration with result of Region V at I = v.. (9.. (9.. )I . v Time Combine Eqs.28) and integrate.. 1 7) and (9. e . Equate result of integration with resuit of Region II at I = v. Use initial condition zo = z( I = O). IV SteadyState Initial Conditions V I .28) and integrate. 18) and (9. (9... 15) with Eq. 0 Combine Eqs. to)l m. (9. 18) and (9. 15) with Eq. zo)lv = z(v. (9. VI I . 15) with Eq.28) and integrate. 15) with Eq...430 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A B W R TABLE 92 Tabulation of Solution Scheme Region I I . Integration Procedure Eq.. . 10)lu = z(v. (9. 18) and (9.
K211> Pf K3 Z = Zo (xo) = (Xexit)O [ .exp( . zo» or (x(t.26) K3 � *{ � 1 [eXp( K211) .exp( .Ks exp(Oll) } + Zo exp(Ot) z( t.exP( .t Pf .K2 0 Pf A  (0 + K2) ] { [.Ks eXP(Ot ) Go [ 1 Eq. to) .(Oll) .K211) 1 (11 + K2) Go Eq .. to) to = 0 (0 + K2) t X ln + (0 + K2) GoK2 {�J (0 + K2) 1 Result: Explicitly for (x(t.] LH zo o � �o 1 Go 1 A K6 . to) to = t . (9.26) Defined Quantities K2 � Reciprocal of the time constant of the flow transient Z( t..exp( . (9.ACC I D E N T EVA L U AT I O N S 431 TABLE 92 Tabulation of Solution Scheme (continued) Result: Explicitly for z(t. (9. (9..I ) } O Z .exp . zo) = Zo exp(Ot ) + K6 exp(Ot ) G K3 O (0 + K2) ] . [ K2 .K2 t ) K2 ..24) ] K9 4. zo) = . Pf (K2 + 0) exp( K211) x exp( .K7 exp(Ot ) exp( .Ks + t + to = t + n 1 (0 + K2) Go GoK3 ln { [ � exp( .o Go 1 {[ Pf . to» Eq.K2t) Pf ]} 2 exp(  K2t) ]} ]} K2 1 Eq .In 0 z«t.01l).26) Ks � (1I�) .K2t ) .24) 1 1 Go K7 . 1 2 (9.K211) K2 + Pf K3 exp( .. zo) or Implicitly for z(t.KS + K .K2t ) Eq ..!..Pf K2 0 z( t.
94 Exponential flow decay solution scheme..28 1 . and 19 . 19. W I T H T H I S P R OC E O U R E W E CAN Fig.432 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S O F A BWR Z o �A 0 E Q U A T I ON 19.. E QS. .. 1 5 1 dZ N OT E : C A LC U LATE G A N D X AT ANY GIVEN Z AND ... 1 8 1 ... 19 . .. 1 7 1 . 1 51 . E as. v 1 9 . a n d 19 .261 . . ". 19.2B 1 .
.. 95 Calculated versus measured time to initial BT (GETAB. 0 <> ASS E MBLY 2I5A 28D V 0 MEASURED TIME TO BOILING TRANSITION I_I I • Fig. 3 2 14 27C ZlD il . 4 i i= 0 I. 3 2 3 4 6. le .___________. I. 1. 1973). I \\ q" ST A T I O N A R Y CURVE Poo L·BOI L l N G """" /0 V' I" lJ I I0 I _ _ _ ..J OF TRANS I E NTS PO I N T OF I N I T I A T I ON 11.c·0 t. .. :I Q .\ \.. > 12 > 13 ' Fig. 96 The effect of exponential power transients on the poolboiling curve.ACC I DE N T EVA L U AT I O N S 433 6 ! � l 5 I C I" Z ::...
40 < � > . f t 2 6 10 (UNI FORM A X I q H= 0. 97 Particle paths and constant quality lines for depressurization transient.0% 0.G " 500° F . 1 0 o 8Hl iBEGI I N G OF H E A T E D L E N G T H I I EHL l E N D OF H E A T E D LENGTH) Fig.N 6 " 1 .. T ..0% I :r I'TI .50 800 BO I L I N G B O U N D A R Y <X >.ee � w � 0. 0 II Ib/h ..0.r> o "T1 ) OJ � .30 :r < .. 0. N " 6 ft 0. 7.h 2 SIMPLE PRESSURE DeCAY dfJ / d t . 20 <.0 0..0 . ..5 In •• Pml tl81 .3 1 000 Blu/h. . . 1 000 Pl l a .0 ) C o n r 0.0 r � ) j 0.200 psi/. O F T U B E · 0.
:::./ _I I TRANSI ENT QUALITY C O N D I T I ONS AT E N D O F H E AT E D L E N G T H F O R 1 ·sec D E P R ESSU R I Z A T I O N AT dP/dt .0 1 ..6 T I M E (sec) = Fig./ / . .oJ V> . « ::l 0 O N E TWO·PHASE .2 1 . 4 <./ " " » n n m o I Z )( v ./ m C » I r < » 1B o (fJ Z 11 0..BO 1 . .' .20 0.STEADV STATE 21 " h :r l s ec l BOO ..200 psi/""./� I t Ol A � " 20 1 000 psia .4 1 .22 ../ ..40 0./ pm ./ . 98 Quality versus time during and after depressurization (2 6 ft)./ E QU I L I B R I U M QU A L I T Y AT P I t I ./ " D E P R ESSU R I Z A T I O N 19 .60 O..
(9 . the second law of thermodynamics and the Gibbs equation yield. for ideal reversible flow. . if any. 34) Glj = [2gc Pl PO( 1 . 9. is equal to the downstream (9 . Since the LOCA represents the worstcase BWR accident and is the most involved to analyze. ( p) = P l . 34) becomes. By using Eqs . Thus. 33). (u)2 (9. For incompressible liqUid flow. 35) receiver pressure.2 LossofCoolant Accident Evaluation There are many aspects to the accurate evaluation of the hypothetical BWR LOCA . fluid is expelled at a blowdown rate. In actual practice. equipment modifications or additions may be necessary . PR. where throat pressure. the resulting isentropic mass flux ( Gi ) is.1 Critical Flow When a flow passage opens between the reactor coolant system and its environment by either a pipe rupture or some other mechanism.(h»)]I!:z = ( P ) ( 2gc ( t�) I. w . 33) By assuming a onedimensional velocity profile and by introducing the definition of mass flux. (9 . 32) ho = (h) + J = constant 2gc where ho is the stagnation enthalpy . we concentrate on the thermalhydraulic phenomena involved . The same type of analysis is performed for both singleoperator error or equipment malfunctiontype transients and the designbasis LOCA. In the following sections. If the blow down passage transfers no energy to or from the fluid. 33) can be integrated between the stagnation state in the vessel and properties at the throat of an ideal nozzle . and Glj is the socalled Bernoulli mass flux . Eq. it is considered separately in the next section. (9 . Moreover. G = ( p)(u). 9.Pt/PO) (2 pI. similar analyses are carried out for the various hy pothetical BWR accidenttype transients of interest to identify which tran sients are the most limiting and what. dp d(h) = J( p) (9. 0 Gi = ( P )[2gcJ(ho . Eq . 32) and (9 .2. This type of analysis helps explain why there normally is no premature BT observed during depressurization experi ments and why BT frequently occurs j ust after blow down ceases.' (9 .436 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S O F A B W R librium value at 800 psia .
the corresponding critical mass flux for an ideal gas is. (9. Gli continuously increases with decreasing Pt . (9. if receiver pressure is decreased for the flow of an ideal compressible gas. Pt . PR (sonic) (9. pt . Therefore. 38) always applies for incompressible fluid flows and. 99. 42) shows that the critical discharge rate of a given ideal gas . 40) leads to the socalled critical pressure ratio. Consider a nozzle discharging into a receiver at pressure. The mathematical maximum value of Ggi is determined by the condition at the throat. local pressure and density are normally characterized by the isentropic relationship. pc /po. By substituting ( p) = Pg into Eq.37) and (9 . Pt = PR (subsonic) (9. 99. as also shown in Fig .:. piP: = polP:o (9 . That is.: = KKl (K�1) (9 .40) It can be easily shown from Eq.41) . Whenever the discharge flow is subsonic. (9. as seen in Fig. 39) g ' = 0 dG dpt (9. a critical condition is reached at which the dis charge rate reaches a maximum .ACC I D E N T EVA L UATI O N S 437 For compressible gas flow in an ideal nozzle. receiver pressure cannot propagate to the throat and further decrease of PR does not change the value of flow rate or throat pressure . the corresponding throat velocity is sonic . it is necessary to obtain throat pressure. PR o Before the flow rate can be predicted. it follows that. For this condition. (9 . 34). 36) The flow of incompressible liquid and an ideal gas have unique differ ences. the receiver pressure readily propagates to the throat so that. 42) Equation (9 . By combining Eqs .41).� �. 37) that the condition of Eq. 38) Equation (9 . (9 . However..
. 99 Ideal nozzle flow rates.0 Fig. from an isentropic nozzle is determined entirely by vessel stagnation properties.8 1 . its pressure decreases until it reaches the throat..6 Eq. If a liquid particle is near the boiling point. twophase flow occurs for most postulated liquid discharge processes in a BWR. such that the discharge of twophase flow occurs.42) 0. Therefore.2 o ���� o U U M / / / / /" .438 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A B W R 1 . When a particle of liquid travels from a highpressure region through a nozzle. (9. Furthermore. Ggo __ __ __ L______� 0.. it is important to consider the effects of twophase discharge flow in the calculation of BWR blow down rates. vessel fluid may already be a liquidvapor mixture near the point of discharge.8 G Li I L I QU I D I 0.4 0. Therefore.0 "0 PL or �/ p�/««<a G " /" NOZZLE Pt '� 0. resulting in vapor formation due to flashing . . its pressure may drop below the saturated value during its transit.
lD1). (5. 32) becomes. (9. so» Sfg So = so(po. nonequilibrium effects and flow regime effects . and (5 .(so . 35) when (x)+ O. 45). (9 . (9. 48) reduces to the Bernoulli mass flux of Eq. po . 1965) . it is demonstrated that nonequilibrium effects in twophase critical flow are important only for certain geometric configurations of the flow passage . (9. 49) . 46). equilibrium flow assumptions apply to BWR LOCA analysis. 49) that for given stagnation properties. For this situation. S. (9 .ACC I D E N T EVALUAT I O N S 439 There are at least two important additional degrees of freedom in single component. 45) through (9 . 43) (h) � hf + (x)hfg = (9.2. { [�: 5(1 �(x» ] [(X) (1 ��x» ] } + (9. hfg (h) = hf + . (9. 46) Furthermore. ( g )� ( f)l ho = (h) + (x) U l + (1 .(x» u c l 2gc 2g where the twophase enthalpy of the saturated mixture is given by. 45) By eliminating (x) between Eqs. sf + (x)sfg constant = S o (9. 23) yield (9 . namely. 22). For most practical purposes. (9. the equilibrium model is developed first with the effects of flow regime incorporated into a phaseaveraged slip ratio . (p"'). h O » )}Y2 socalled energy density. G = (p"') {2gc l[ ho . twophase flow systems that do not occur in singlephase flows. we obtain a saturation state equation in the form.47) where the rewritten in terms of the slip ratio. a functional relationship exists among stagnation properties in the form.(h(p . (9 .1 .1 An Equilibrium Critical Flow Model The following is a derivation of a thermodynamic equilibrium critical flow model that has come to be known as the Moody model (Moody. 43). 47). defined in (p"') = \I:z + (9. It is readily seen from Eqs . If the flow is approximated by an isentropic process. ho) Equations (9 . can be Note that Eq. 9. as. 44) and (9 . Consider a twophase system in which unequal phase velocities occur.44) !:t. Later. po and ho . 48) Eq. (9. (5 . Therefore. Eq.sf) = (h(p.
49) that for critical flow. Numerous experimental and theoretical studies have been made to de termine the slip ratio {or equivalently. twophase critical flow should correspond to the same condition expressed by Eq. Figure 910c gives Gc in terms of pc and (xc ) . Various maps are available giving flow regimes in terms of G and (x) for various pressures. 5. 50) and.440 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L IC S O F A BWR That is. it follows from Eqs . G = G{ p. Employing Eq.48) and (9 . (i�) p a5 p <0 (9 . 9lOa can be obtained. (9. However. then we would reduce the downstream receiver pressure until a maximum discharge rate is achieved . for a given stagnation state . 40) . (9 . at which critical twophase steamwater flow occurs . p. 37). Published slip ratios cover the range from 5 = 1 . 52) and using saturated steam water properties. Fig. and slip ratio. . (x) . for the twophase system. (9 . 5 1 ) ap s <0 (9. 5. and the local static pressure. (9 . for a known stagnation state. (aaG5 ) =0. 0 (homogeneous flow) to 5 = (Pf/Pg ) lh Here. I f a n experiment similar t o that which provides the critical flow rate of an ideal gas is considered.51). (9. 53) . e . g . the void fraction (a}) in terms of other properties such as flow quality. and the slip ratio. (9 . local static pressure. Fig. (9. we obtain the maximum twophase equilibrium flow rate with respect to slip ratio by finding a particular value of 5 that maximizes G. If both p and 5 are considered independent. 9lOb provides the nozzle throat pressure. 53) in Eq. pc. 5 5 (p) = = Equation (9 . which gives Gc in terms of po and ho. p . the slip ratio is a function of pressure only . however. (9 . ho) (9 . Moreover. 54) (:�) 'h (9. po. 40) is appropriate . Levy (1960) and Zivi (1964) . (9 . From Eq. 5. 52) For the condition of Eq . a maximum G corresponds to the conditions. (aapG) = (i�) s 0. Eq. 50) expresses G as a function of both local static pressure. Since throat and receiver pressures are equal until the discharge velocity is sonic. where. so that the total derivative of Eq. 53) shows that at maximum G. the flow rate per unit area is uniquely determined . Gg j is seen to be a function only of throat pressure for a given stagnation state. p .
G�[(X) (Ug )� + ( l ... Note that the twophase critical flow model just described minimizes the specific kinetic energy of the twophase mixture with respect to slip ratio ...2..2 S = (pf /p� ) 'Il Other Equilibrium Slip Flow Models Several other workers in the field have formulated thermodynamic equi librium models for twophase critical flow .. That is.55) from which the result is again.. a: .22) . c a: . by using Eqs . and (5. 9.. 23 ) .. c ! :Ii c :Ii .(x» (u/). lIIlO &000 5000 40CII 2lIOII SATURAT ED llQJID IOII RDARY �u � ..1 . (5. 1 l 0lll 1 1 0lIl 10 0lIl .ACC I D E N T EVA L U AT I O N S 44 1 � \ g . 1 2) .] = £ �s { [(X) as a 2gcl 2gcl 2gcl Pg + S ( 1 .�X» S )} =o (9. A formulation that minimizes .J .( X» Pf ] 2 (\ X) + l . 91 Oa Maximum steam/water flow rate and local stagnation properties (Moody model).. . (5 . . w :) :Ii j( c :Ii Fig.
. I ..2 psia C R I T I C A L P R E SSU R E ...... • . " ....J « t '" 1111 80 &0 40  � � ..... Po = = 1 600 . I J "o ( BtuIl 'M) 100 I 10lI0 J I ZOO Fig. P o = 1 00 .. .. I i...2400 P o = 2000 L 1 �o . ..442 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A BWR I P � 1000 8111 6111 400  I I o = 3206. =�2 800 '" .. I . ..... I I .. IPD = so P = 25 psia STA G N A T I O N P R E SS U R E • ... 9·1 O b Local static pressure and stagnation properties at maximum steam/water flow rate (Moody model) .....::) � J """" �I ot' � �E �' . �PO =.L ' � � �  .. �I ... OJ � Au ' w a: :l w a: A '" ZOO '" u �  .po 6 00 = SOO P o = 400 >III: c c z :::> III:  P = 300 o I 1 2 c > c .c. ...J « u 0 . � c III: :::> � i! o . I ·� ff.200  � lzo  � • . . I �  10 o I 200 I &00 400 STAGNATION ENTH ALPY.! L � P o Po Po P o = 1 200 1 000 800 � .
which is concerned only with upstream stagnation properties. 1 965) . 1 .00 'j � C> . both Levy' s and Fauske's models require local properties at the nozzle throat to be known before the critical mass flux can be predicted. or Levy's slip ratio predict nearly the same critical blowdown flow rate for given values of local pres sure and quality . the specific twophase momentum flux with respect t o slip ratio was ob tained (Fauske. In contrast to Moody's model. The Moody model predicts equilibrium flow rates some what higher than data representative of BWR blowdowns and is.. Models employing either (Pf / Pg ) Y" (Pf/ Pg )'h.. 1000 g z: cC z: CJ cC 500 t. A theoretical formulation for slip ratio based on interphase momentum exchange was incorporated in another model for twophase critical flow rate (Levy. thus.(x» ( uf)f 1 = G2� (X) + S ( l .. 56) S = (Pf/ Pg ) Y. G � [(x) ( u ) + (1 . l cC :z: I z: ...(X) S ]} = 0 (9 .ACC I D E N T EVA L U AT I O N S 443 1 500 PIPE EX IT QUA L I TY < Xc > . 1962) by writing. . 910c Exit properties for maximum steam/water discharge (Moody model) .(X» as Pg Pf as gg which results in {[ ][ (X) + 1 . o 200 1000 M A X I M U M STEAM WATE R DISCHARGE RATE Gc ( lb M 2 / leett 1 1 0 000 Fig.c > Q.
""'" .444 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR conservative for accident analysis.. in terms of po and ho ..J a: <. (9.0 I I J 0. . l 00.__....I 1 . 50) gives Gc as a function of p...___.. Thus.__ ...0 1 1 000 I bm/sec ..0 1 o . .25 6. .5 k N /m 2 1 1 00 Btu/Ibm 0. When 5 is set equal to unity in Eq. 2. 1 0.0 1 2..__"""'__'___..0 B.0 STAGNATION ENTHALPY . P ofPR E F I = 0... holh R E F Fig. Another important analytical critical flow model is the socalled homo geneous equilibrium model (HEM) . rather than unknown local properties . Eq. To find the critical mass flux. the conditions of Eq.50 STAGNATION P R ESSUR E ..I IL gj E < � .J 0.. Moreover..0 < <. Figures 91 1a and b give the homogeneous equilibrium Gc.... 2 689. this model is readily pre sented in terms of known stagnation properties. 911a Critical mass fluxhomogeneous.32 6) 1 05 J/kg m I 4.. 49).O 1 0. 0 IL W a: � u 0 'Ii :J . 1975). 52) were employed . and associated critical pressure pc.tt2 488 2 kg m/secrn2 ( 2 .1 PRE F hREF GR E F = = 1 1oo lbf/in. (9 . . it is much easier to use in design analysis.0 r. equilibrium steam/water (Moody...1. (9. then for given values of po and ho.
0 STAGNATION P R E SSU R E ... hoIhR E F =:��I0. A comparison of Figs . the maximum mass flux. 0 .0 6.. .. values of Gc are greater for the Moody model than for the homogeneous equilib rium model ..___'. equilibrium steam/water (Moody.25 12.. ��.. Ge . the homogeneous equilibrium model agrees quite well with .22 I 1 (10026) 105 I 2 .0 � 10 1'2. is readily identified . the value of Ge occurs at the peak of a sharp spike . Experimental results (Sozzi and Sutherland. PoiP R E F = � �5 �/1.I 2.O I � 4.J « CJ II: CJ . the critical pressure pc is easily obtained. 1975) from tests on various nozzle types have shown that for conditions typical of BWR technology. .__I.0 P RE F = hREF = 100 kN/..___.. 91 1 b Critical pressurehomogeneous.0 10..___'___..0 \ 30. 1 L.0 8..o .no 1�0 � �o Fig. at which the quality is just zero .3 Btu/Ibm J/kg m 445 � 1 0. w II: III w E II: .ACC I D E N T EVALUAT I O N S 1 00.. When vessel fluid is saturated. 910a and 91 1a shows that for (xc) < 1 ..L.5Ibf/in.... incompressible liquid flow can be assumed between po and pc to obtain Gc for large subcooling. Figure 912 shows that for increasingly subcooled vessel liquid.. 1 689..0 4....... Therefore.0 STAGNATION E NTHALPY.0 ' w II: :l . However.. 0._ . 1975)..
why does the ho mogeneous model predict flows in terms of vessel properties. 914. 1975) that bubbles form homogene ously in the decompression region near the pipe entrance. Why does the slip flow model overpredict in terms of vessel properties. 915. as seen in Fig. 9 . as shown in Fig .446 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A BWR dG dp o Po P G    G ��. a slip flow model (Moody. the available data when vessel stagnation properties are used to evaluate Ge. subcooled liquid discharge. These observations have led to the apparent discrepancy indicated in the critical mass flux data shown in Fig. and yet accurately predict the flow based on pipe discharge properties? Moreover. 913.P o Po Pc Fig. Moreover. 1975) can also accurately predict the equilibrium discharge rate in terms of local properties at the nozzle throat or exit. and yet underpredict flows in terms of pipe discharge properties? It has been hypothesized (Moody. which leads to .1 2 Maximum G.
8 em) LENGTH 0 1 2 .. This condition is followed by phase separation with discharge in the an nular or separated choked flow state . E QU I L I B R I U M = { { 1 0 0 LBF/sq i n .2. as shown schematically in Fig. which is more restrictive.. 917 9. 0 . 7 9 5 em) ALLE M A N N ( 1 9 7 0 ) • 6 . 0 in.H O M O G E N E O U S . d . 916. 3 1 em) i. 6 3 5 em) HENRY ( 1 9 7 0 ) 0 0 . 3 e m ) U C H I DA ( 1 9 6 6 ) a x :l . 1 5 8 i n . 0 i n . 5 i n .. as seen in Fig. ( 0 .J II. VI VI « � z 0 0 0 . 8 em) LENGTH • 7 0 . 5 i n . ( 1 7 ..1 . Po / PR E F Fig... 5 1 3 in.d . FA U S K E ( 1 9 6 5 ) 0 0 . ( 2 2 . 91 3 Blowdown rate of saturated water. ( 1 . (3 1 . W II: (!) • @ • 5 • � � • PR EF = G REF 1 00 0 LBM/seesq ft 4 8 8 2 KG M/seesq m . An alternate approach. 2 5 i n . ( 1 1 . D. ( 0 . which is frequently employed. which include simultaneous sets of vessel and discharge properties and flow rates. 4 e m ) i . . 8 0 i n . verify the hypothesis for equilibrium stream! water flows. 1 1 7 8 em) LENGTH } 0. 4 e m ) LENGTH @ 9 .ACCI D E N T EVA L U AT I O N S 447 10 SOZZI ( 1 9 7 5) {• 4 .3 An Alternate Approach The critical flow rate models just discussed have been based on thermo dynamic principles.J En II. 5 kN/sq m o ��� 20 10 o STA G N AT I O N PRESSU RE . The mass flux is limited by upstream homogeneous critical flow. a homogeneous critical flow condition. Comparisons with measurements. 3 1 3 in. (0. 6 8 9 .
CJ 1 .60 .02 0 0.S L I P T H EO R Y 0 .03 ...0 " ' " • '_ : pREF'.40 x x = 0...400.03 0.01 0.0.S L I P T H EO R Y IL W a: CJ .0 Fig.SLIP THEORY x RANGE .0 o RANGE 0. } = GREF e ooo 0. 1 0.. 5 kN/sq m } HENRY ISB I N F A L ETTI MOY FAUSK E seZZI ZA LOU D E K x DATA O F 1 0.e OO L B F /sq in. a: CJ CJ IL w 1 ..05 .0. .60.200. 1 LBM/secsq ft 4882 K G M /sec sq m 689.0 x RANGE 0 0..8 RANG E . 91 4 Critical flow properties at pipe exit.448 T H E RMAL H Y DRAU L ICS OF A BWR 1 0.2 ..0.
po � ACC I D E N T EVA L U AT I O N S 449 ___ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ EXIT VESSEL . 91 6 Two choked conditions.G c ho PE XE �0 0 0 00 / / / / / / / / a / HOMOGENEOUS V E S S E L Po E X I T PE Fig. 91 5 The discrepancy in Gc • I DECOMPRESSION ��� o o FLOW PATTERN TRANSITION S L I P FLOW �. . D I S C H A R G E SLIP CHOKING Fig.� O O� HOMOGENEOUS CHOKING .
:. ... . • • '" •• • . W a: � X c. • • • • PEXIT • • SLIP �_ .sq ft 4882 K G M /secsq m } HOMOG E N E O US • . .. . � (I) (I) w a: A.. . ...! . . Fig. . . r� o . .. IP • • .... • .005 Xo STAGNATION QUALITY. • • • • • 0 1 .. . . . S : • .. : e. � " ..005 0. 0 "\\ • • • HO M OG E N E O US . . SUBCOO L E D . � « � GREF = { • • • • • • 1 000 L B M /sec.. W a: � � X � ..450 T H E RMAL H Y DRA U L ICS O F A BWR 1 0.0 I&. !:: X w . SAT U R AT E D 0 0. .. 91 7 Blowdown rates and exit pressures of Sozzi and Sutherland (1975) at 70 atm.0 w c.J I&. .
Hence. (1 .dp dz g By combining Eqs . we use only the mo mentum and continuity equations of the twophase mixture in our deri vations and.ge dp = dz [ G� d ( ) ] 1 ge dp (p') +_ [ 1 . however.ACC I D E N T EVA L U AT I O N S 45 1 is to derive the critical condition directly from the conservation equations of twophase flow. (9. (9 . the spatial acceleration term on the left side of Eq. e . That is. 6 sm ] (9. More complex models of this type are under development (Boure and Reocreux. For choked conditions. the same procedure is used with the twoequation model discussed below. To derive the required result.s) TwPf (9. the pressure gradient becomes infinite or indeter minate. at the critical condition. For illustration purposes. The basic solution procedure is to solve the system of equations for the pressure gradient and to set the denominator of the system's matrix equal to zero to establish the choking conditions.. thus. 57) dP dAxs + d e. 57) and (9. 1 972) . 66). we derive the socalled "two equation model" for twophase critical flow. we consider the steadystate version of the twophase momentum equation given in Eq. . the functional form for is based on fluid mechanics rather than thermodynamics. 1 = _ sm . 59) can be used as a condition to locate the position of the choking plane . 60) where M is the local Mach number of the twophase mixture ." since it is based on the three conservation equations for each phase . Thus. the thermodynamic process must also be considered . where in the latter case.») G� dz e Axs(p' ) . Ge. that to numerically evaluate the critical mass flux. (5 . 57) can be rewritten as AxGeAx . the vanishing of the numerator of Eq . 1969) . thus. by using arguments established in this previous work. 59) 2 (9. Ge dp g d (G2Ax_s) (p) geAxs dz (p' ) dz ge . (9. 59) can be recognized as a generalization of similar formulations deduced previously (Wallis. 6 The continuity equation implies that at the critical condition. Essentially. the mass flow rate is constant at its maximum value (i . The most sophisticated of these is known as the "six equation model. 58) + 1 (9 .M ) TwP ( G� dAxs g ( P ) + f ) =dz Axs geAxs(P' ) . and.  Equation (9. Note. . the Mach number is unity and the denominator vanishes . and solving for the pressure gradient. 58).. the denominator can be thought of as.
59) equal to zero. (9 .» a (x) d(x) p dp (9. dp ap (x) + a  C: ) . (9. twophase mixture undergoing an isentropic expansion . 6 1 ) can be used to evaluate the critical discharge for any slip model that may be of interest. respectively . 1 ' = vf + (x)vfg (p ) Thus. . (5 . (9. First. the derivative in Eq. To illustrate the specific evaluation of Eq. 62) Now. By assuming that the throat properties are known. d(s) = 0 = a (s) ap I ( x) dp + a (s) d(x) a (x) p I . 64) For an isentropic process. 61). (9 57) . (5 . 25). Eqs .452 T H E RM A L H Y D RA U L I C S O F A B W R We can solve for the critical mass flux relation by setting the denominator of Eq. (s) = Sf + (x)sfg = constant Thus. 63) and. S 1 and S (pf /pg )'l3 can be used for the equilibrium homogeneous and slip models. (9 . 6 1 ) It i s interesting t o note that this i s the same result that w e would obtain if all terms except the pressure gradient and the spatial acceleration term were neglected in Eq . (9 . and (9.+ (x) dp (x) dp (9. for homogeneous flow in thermodynamic equilibrium. For instance. = = d C: ) C: J . 67). a (<h) ap dVf dVfg = . 6 1 ) can be expanded as. we consider the case of the critical flow of a homogeneous.» a .
the next section is devoted to a discussion of nonequilibrium effects. 62) through (9 . the expression for the critical mass flux is. _ vf.ACC I D E N T EVAL U AT I O N S 453 Hence. evap oration. condensation. 66) and (9 . For some cases of interest. Thus. by combining Eqs . The results for other slip and thermodynamic process assumptions are obtained in a similar manner.4 ({ �_ � � ( + dp Sfg dp ( �[� _ (�) � ) dp ]})V2 (9. It is possible for the liquid to remain in a nonequili brium. Note that for sufficiently high subcoolings. suppose that a hot water particle undergoes decompression during expulsion from a vessel at high pressure through a short flow path to the surroundings . metastable state and to produce a blowdown rate much higher than that obtained in phase equilibrium flow. d(x) = dp d iJ(s) p iJ By combining Eqs .2. 9. This phenomenon can occur if the time spent in transit through the flow path by the escaping fluid is short compared to the time required for phase change mechanisms to produce an equilibrium state . It follows that if a small volume of hot water is rapidly decompressed below its saturation pressure. (�) dp I iJ(x) I iJ(s) (x) p = (� +(x) �) Sfg (9. All the models we have discussed so far have been based on the as sumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. (9. (9. even if vessel conditions were saturated. This situ ation is shown in Fig . 65) Now. and bubble expansion involve finite periods of time . 65). the inherent inertia in the phase change mechanisms causes the fluid state to lag behind equilibrium conditions for a brief period of time . Furthermore. the critical mass flux can be evaluated using derivatives obtained from the steam tables. � dVf dp + (x) dVf. equi librium conditions are not achieved . 67) Nonequilibrium Effects It is well known that processes involving heat transfer. 918.61). for an isentropic process. 66) GC = Thus.1 . . d Sf + dp Sfg dp ( (x) ) dSfg dp Sfg dp (9 .
88in. i. 1 % Fig.. 0 msec for hot water. 9·1 1 0 a:���==== ISATURATEDI 1% ISUBCOO L E D I 0. singlephase (Bernoulli) discharge is achieved.. 1969. while for conditions of sat urated equilibrium.. 9 · 1 00 _ HOMOG �uiMO D F I G . pressurized initially with 1 000 psia.. The nucleation interval clearly is < 1 . but begins to rise again toward the saturation value within 0. 91 8 Typical variation of critical mass flux with inlet quality. However.. 458°F water (460psia saturation pressure) . there are several reported experimental results.. diam pipe . 0005 sec) . Sudden rupture of a glass diaphragm was induced at one end of the pipe.25 ft from the discharge end of a 1 .351 . Pressure was measured at approximately 2. . 1 969) were performed with 1 3ftIong pipes of 1 . which if properly interpreted. followed by the transit of a decompression wave through the test section. Decompression experiments (Edwards. Figure 919 gives the measured pressure trace at 0.45 4 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U LICS OF A B W R B E R NOU L L I M A SS F LUX E O .. ... Note that pressure undershoots the saturation value slightly. provide a means for determining when phasic nonequilibrium is important.==. d . 0 and 2. �O� O� F I G .to 3ft intervals along the test section. Borgartz et al. 0in. 18. No experimental studies have been conducted that directly measure the time required for a new twophase equilibrium state to be reached following a change in pressure . the observed discharge rate is much lower. 1 o 0.5 msec (0. or time for vapor formation to begin . The time duration between the pressure undershoot and low est pressure point is interpreted as an indication of nucleation time.
1 000 ( E DW A R D S ... 91 9 Pressure history near discharge end of pipe.4 V1 V1 . 1 9691 ! '" > n n rn o w 500 . . a: :> II> II> W a: � r Z I o I Z V1 C > BUBBLE FORMATION t 4 T I M E ( msec l o I ______________________�_______________________L______________________�______________________�________ L6 2 F i g .
Edwards. 0 msec. . Other independent studies (Simon. 0 in . 1971. is applied to the ideal liquid (Bernoulli) flow rate. 1966) similar to that just described have been reported. sharp edged orifice flow is predicted.456 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A B W R Other hot water decompression experiments (Zaker and Wiedermann. Once an equilibrium amount of vapor formation is approached. The mass flux falls below an extension of smalldiameter data. 1970. Blowdown rate data (Fauske. inside diameter. Note that the blowdown rate decreases rapidly with increasing tube length in the 0 < L < 2. Beyond a tube length of 2 . Sozzi and Sutherland. Therefore. 0inIong. diam pipe is shown in Fig. Cf = 0. 0 in. Several investigators have obtained blowdown rates of saturated water from large reservoirs and straight tubes of varying length and diameter. These formula tions include the additional degree of freedom that local flow quality may lag behind equilibrium quality in a flow passage . which corresponds to Fig . . 1970). these formulations do predict the proper trends in critical flow rate and pressure. 920. while the homogeneous model gives fairly good pre dictions for L > 1 0 . 1 968) . 0in . 0 in . suggesting that larger diameters may have the effect of reducing the critical mass flux. they persisted for only . 35). The region.1 . 1970) with hot water up to 2000 psia and initial temperature up to saturation have been reported. Similar experiments (Gallagher. Uchida and Nariai. 920 .1 . an initial blow down rate corresponding to saturated water blowdown from 1600 psia through a 29. 0 msec and were independent of geometry . 8in . 6. If a flow coefficient. 0 in . 1965. Although empirical con stants must be evaluated from data in the various flow geometries. 1975) have produced similar conclusions . 5 and 1 . it is concluded that if a fluid particle would be expelled in a time of . Gli of Eq. 1966) in terms of tube length. 0 msec or less. 0 < L < 2 . Twophase blowdown rate models that include the effects of metasta bility have been proposed (Henry. interval. and reservoir pressure are shown in Fig. (9 . To include a largediameter test (Allemann et al . Note that the Moody model overpredicts blowdown rates for L > 2 . Numbers shown at the extreme right of Fig . blowdown rate decreases at a much slower rate . is interpreted as a region dominated by me tastability or nonequilibrium states and twodimensional flow effects . 920 values at zero length . we should expect metastability and must accommodate nonequilibrium phenomenon in the flow rate prediction . Gallagher found that if metastable states did occur. . . They found that if nonequilibrium states occurred. they lasted between 0 . particularly in the range where metastability is dominant. the blowdown stream is expected to fill the flow passage and lend itself to a onedimensional description.61. 920 give ideal critical flow rates of saturated water for the homogeneous equilibrium and equilibrium slip model of Moody .
0.. . 50 "" Vl 'J Fig.. 1 500 o 1 600 p S I a 6. r � I 1 000 5DO 1 14 28 f. 1 9651 po � E O U S M O D! L 1 =1000 � I 1 500 1 000 5DO 40 . 920 Saturated water blowdown rates through tubes..1 1 .28 . ( F L OW H A T E S P R E D I C T E D B Y HOMOG f N E OU S E Q u I L i B R I UM 1 5 000 B L OWDOWN M O D E l l BW f1 R E C I R C U L A T I N OZ Z L E L f N G T H I MO O E L I ( F LOWR A T E S P R E D I C T E D B Y M O O D Y (ALLEMANN et . � 20 10 I I I .8 I n .. 30 _.=.� : �2000 P'" C » I < » r Z (/l (5 5000 0 .. n I I I 1 0 000 1 000 ( M O O O Y M O O E L I Z I m o m P I HOMOGE ( F AU5K E ..===t=�o LE NGTH (.25 j (UC H I DA o a rl {j 0 1 S8 r rl . o:====::��====.20 000 �r... P o 2000 psi.
69a) (9. dG =O dp where.2(X»} ] + 5[ 1 + (x)( 5 .1 .(x»w W (9. .5 The HenryFauske Model The HenryFauske nonequilibrium critical flow model (1970) is often used to predict the critical discharge of subcooled liquids . that is. rapid expansion of a mixture through ��} 1 dv/ dp d�. 74) .1 ) + 5( 1 . VI .s Ax W/ = (1 .(x» ( 5v/ . Eqs . 68) Critical flow is identified as the condition where the mass flux discharged is a maximum with respect to pressure.1)] + (x)( I 2 { (ug)g/(u/)/.5 [1 + (x)( 5 + [vg {1 + 2(x) ( 5 . 72) (9 . Wg = (x)W If the slip ratio.(x) ( 5 . 73) Gt = .gcAx . 68) through (9 . 73) yield.sdp = d( wg ug + w/ u/) (9.1) + 5v/ 2«x) . and 5 can be expressed as functions of pressure only.2. ) (9 .vgl5 ) where it has been assumed that Vg.1 )](x) �: . 71 ) Wg + w/ = Ax .2 ) . It was developed from the mixture continuity equation and the mixture momentum equation . (x). s =  (9 . (9. Mixture continuity: d(w/ + Wg) = 0 where W/ = A /(u/)/ Iv/ Wg = Ag(ug)glvg Twophase momentum conservation (without friction): . 69b) (9. 70) (9. In particular. However. is introduced. G= and. for steady discharges.458 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U LI C S OF A B W R 9.
79) S O . It is seen that the empirical constant. 75) The assumptions of negligible slip at critical flow. d<l> d<l» = dp dt ( /( ) dP dt (9.81) .ACC I D E N T EVA L U AT I O N S 459 a nozzle is not expected to follow equilibrium states. which became saturated soon after blowdown began .xo)ds l ldp + (Xo)dSg ldP Sg O . Cl . ( Xe ) _ (9. 76) (1 . 82) Comparisons with examples of the Marviken timedependent blowdown data (EPRI. 1949). Recommended constants are : _ [ ( 1 . 921a and b. uniform quality between the stagnation and critical flow states. 77) (9. 1 982) are shown in Figs . dVl = O dp dS = O dp The equilibrium quality is given by. The blowdowns started with subcooled water in the vessel. The actual flow quality. the Moody model.Sle (9.S IO ] =N dxe dp (9 . 78) (9 . is expected to lag behind the equi librium value so that its rate of change with respect to pressure is given by: d(x) = dp where. and the HenryFauske model. (9. Therefore. with the homogeneous equilibrium model. (x). 80) where subscript e refers to equilibrium conditions at the instantaneous pressure .(x» ( Ct/cpg ) + 1 ( 1 . and isentropic flow yield the follow ing simplifications: dVg Vg = dp np where (Tangren.Sle Sge .(x» ( Cl lcpg ) + Cvlcpg (9 . the deriv atives are expressed as. n= Furthermore. can be chosen to match the data closely .
.. 0 = 509 mm. t:...J U.....� N 100 <xe> .MOODY SLIP ..t:. 20 <xe> N . ' ..921a Mass flow history for Marviken test 4.. = OLo ______ � 10 ________ � 20 ________ � 30 ________ _L 40 ________ � 0 50 TIME (sec) Fig... _  � g E 0 ... 1...t:..0 DATA HEM ..t:... t:.5 �_ 6. uIJl IJl « ::i.1 <xe> ..t:.t:..t:....... 0......... =. :....... � . t:.J ::i. .t:..t:.. x ..460 THERMAL HYDRAULICS OF A BWR 3 MARVIKEN TEST 4.HENRYFAUSKE 2 <t I a x <t I a N ::!! w � � a: = 7.. LID = 31 t:.. t:. t:..t:..t:...... IJl IJl « � � ...
J u.6 66 6 . 0 = 300 mm..7 6 DATA HEM .. � :2' ..MOODY SLIP 1..� .1 o L�L������� 0 90 70 60 o 50 40 30 20 10 TIME (sec) Fig. ' 0. LID = 3.5 E g 0 . �.J u..0.HENRY·FAUSKE <t I �''\ �'\ �\� � 6 6 66 � � ' � X 0..921b Mass flow history for Marviken test 18. 100 <xe> N 6 6 6.!::A 6.2 3: 0 . .... 0. 6 = � :2' 0. ' � 3: \ ' = N 7 1 <xe> � x en N 20 <xe> ..6.... CIl CIl ..5 MARVIKEN TEST 18.3 u. " " <t I 0 ... e:/::>6.66 66.0 0.ACCIDENT EVALUATIONS 461 0.4 6 ��... CIl CIl ..' 6666 1::. . C. � w a: \ .
1 for subcooled blowdown. (9.: 1. Analysis of the nonequilibrium liquidvapor phase change in decompressive flashing systems has shown that nonequi librium phase exchange can be approximated by a firstorder relaxation process. 1961) in Fig.6 922.84) ho = hf + (x)hfg + where (p') and (pili) are. G. Furthermore. 1 l (plll)2 = constant 2g c G 2 (9. (x)) and. with corresponding void fraction given by Eq. the socalled momentum and energy weighted densities.1.101). for an adiabatic pipe in the following form: 923. and is therefore a pathdependent initial value problem. (5. as defined in Eqs. The basic model employed is shown in Fig.5 for LID. whereby three quantities must be adequately speci terfacial heat transfer rates.S = (Pf/Pg)Y3. 9. respectively. Application of this approach is verified by com parison with data (Powell..5 for saturated blowdown = 100 = 100 A more mechanistic approach to nonequilibrium predictions has been sug gested Oones. (9.83) ( ) _ _ dP TWPf g + c dz Axs ( ) (9. In this analysis.67) and (5. the slip ratio.2. and the in 1982). it follows that for a given 1 (p') =f(p.85) since phase equilibrium is assumed at every location. it is necessary to incorporate wall friction effects.25).87) .:. rather than a local phenomenon.86) ho = ho(p. (x)) = constant . is assumed throughout the flow. (5. respectively. Effects of Pipe Friction on TwoPhase Maximum Flow Rate For blowdown analysis from long pipes.462 THERMAL HYDRAULICS OF A BWR Cl C! Cl = 7. fied: the void inception criterion. LID � 1. The dotted control volume shown is used for writing the steady conservation equations Mass: G = Gc = constant Momentum: 2� _1 G (p') dz Energy: (9. the interfacial area density.
ACCIDENT EVALUATIONS 463 15 <t o � POWELL ( 1961) l:> 5% + 0. .922 Comparison of critical throat mass fluxes measured by Powell (1961) with predictions for different nozzle inlet pressures and temperatures.. N E C.. IJ) IJ) <{ ::i' .J <{ u i= 12 u 5 o 15 x 103 o 5 10 INLET PRESSURE (kPal Fig.. � '"" o To 203C 230C 258C 288C To o To o To = o (!l � cr: J: I 10 � X :::J ..J U.
in terms of wall shear based on an equivalent liquid flow.88). and a two phase multiplier. dP x) + (9..87) dz (9. �':. (:�)p as. . 923 Pipe maximum flow model." 1 I I I I : 4 L � STA TlON 1 Fig. Tw is normally expressed (5. � ' LlOUID VAPOR ����:":� �� '�'��. 1960).. I fl n.+ :. ( ::�: ) G2{ [: C: l [ a�) C: 1 } in Eq. d(x)ldp. formulation was chosen (Moody.).4. can be obtained from Eq.:�i" : : =t. STATION 2 I I I I The differential. 5.» p . (9. ISENTROPIC ENTRANCE �. sonable accuracy up to 1966) because of its simplicity and rea quality.89) so that d(x) can be eliminated from Eq.\ ..> G hO \ \ EXIT PRO P E R TIES \\ \".C.= d(x) dp  ( ) a:.:.. <X. (9. the derivative.loll. This There are numerous possible empirical correlations for the wall shear stress in twophase flow. Twl.88) Next.=.. (x) ." 'I' .84) . As discussed in Sec. the wall (Levy.270) with n=O.0 1: o i. Based on the assumption that only liquid contacts be expressed by Eq.464 THERMAL HYDRAULICS OF A BWR ENTRANCE PROPERTIES P.» ) can be expanded to give..:· . Note that for highquality flows. d(x) = gc dp + (9. <PTo can 80% <PTo. for the assumed constant stagnation enthalpy throttling process."'." ) .'�. d(lI(p'»).
to apply Levy's formulation at high quality. 923.91) Thus. C < Ce• In passing through a pipe.0 It follows that the friction parameter for Levy's formulation can be ex pressed in terms of the friction parameter for gas flow as. DHS � (x) � 1. fl DH L fg L .93) Properties first must be integrated between Stations 1 and 2 in Fig.0. A C) . a critical flow state is .! w> ap (x) + 2gJ a p (x) P + G' P 2g T P (9. and a slip ratio of S (PI/pg)1f:I. we can write the irreversible pressure loss for gas flow as. the corresponding value of Ce decreases.2geC 2 � [(a )] (a(h») [a(�)] a(x) ( (a(h») a �) a(x) c r] a(x) 1 C2 ge .88). Ce. (5.0 (9.= It . an adjustment must be made in the friction factor. (9. F(p. and (5. where /I is the Darcy friction factor for all liquid flow and. Levy's expression for ap proaches (PI/pg)4/3 Therefore. From Eq. A condition finally is reached at the pipe exit where C = ho. It is well known that subsonic flow of a compressible fluid approaches critical flow in going through a uniform pipe with friction.90) (x)+1.$To I DH 2gePI L C2 (9. friction causes the pressure to decrease. Consider a two phase mass flux. from Eqs.251).ACCIDENT EVALUATIONS 465 (x) � 1. ho..92) ho. Llpg = fg  DH 2gePg L C2 . (9. C)dp (9.307). Therefore. P/F(p. with = $to K replaced by fLlDH. Figure 910c shows that for a given as pressure decreases.89).
94) The pressure at Station 1 can be expressed in terms of vessel stagnation properties by idealizing the pipe entrance as an isentropic nozzle such that. G)dp 1 Pf G 1+ .95) Numerical integration involving saturated steam and water properties was carried out to express the maximum twophase blowdown rate from uni form pipes in either of the forms.the exit. (9. 923 and some other state is determined at Station 1.96) or Gc = fz ( PI.G) [ ( ) J 2 = II DH L (9. ho.97) Equations (9. (9. ( tiL DH ) (9. fl PfF(p. ho. It follows from Eq.97) are plotted in Figs.1 (x) S Pg 2 Pc(ho.466 THERMAL HYDRAULICS OF A BWR specified at Station 2 in Fig. tiL DH ) (9. . G).92) that if the pressure at Station 2 is expressed for the critical flow condition as pc(ho. Gc=ft po. 924a through 924e. ho. which is distance L upstream from .96) and (9.
500 H+ht:':..924a Pipe maximum steam/water discharge rate.....? « Iii 8 N MAX.I � � Iii 1000 HHw' o .. PI (psia' c IIb /sec.. M INLET STAGNATION PRESSURE..7".J « 1: I Z w z Q ..'! I « Z \. M o �� ����� o 1000 2000 3000 INLET STAGNATION PRESSURE. . Po (psia' T'SATURATION ENVELOPE 1000 HiH+H��4 . PI (psia' c (lb /Sec.<: >11.2.INLET STATIC PRESSURE. Po (psia' Fig.. . FLOW RATE.ACCIDENT EVALUATIONS 467 SATURATION ENVELOPE T.INLET STATIC PRESSURE. FLOW RATE.MAX.:i. G .. G ...
. FLOW RATE.t:J <::: " Iii 1000 H+II4J o .MAX.ft ) M INLET STATIC PRESSURE.. Gc IIb /sec..:::::. I <{ Z \!) <{ Q <{ J: I Z w z � > A. Gc (lb /sec.t:J '3 Iii . FLOW RATE. Po (psi Fig. � <{ J: > � w z Q � 500 z \!) <{ Ii.... Po (psia) SATURATION ENVELOPE � .. P (pslal I 3000 INLET STAGNATION PRESSURE. 2 ..468 THERMAL HYDRAULICS OF A BWR � .INLET STATIC PRESSURE.l�1'______II 8 '" 2 MAX.1t ) M .t:..t:: Ii.924b Pipe maximum steam/water discharge rate. P I (psia) o ���������� __����__���� o 3000 1000 2000 INLET STAGNATION PRESSURE.. .t:: o 1000 ..
t: Ii. � ::.l � « 1: f Z w z Q f0{ Z t:l 0{ f en 500 INL ET STATIC PR E SSU RE ..ACCIDENT EVALUATIONS 469 � 0 0 0 '" ID H = 4 qj & SATURATION ENVELOPE � .J « 1: fZ w 0 .. Gc (lbM/sectt 1 2 (psla) INLET STAGNATION PRESSURE. Po (PSla) Fig. P 1000 2000 o (pSla) 3000 � "'5 B § > 1000 �IH.. MAX_ FLOW RATE. 924c Pipe maximum steam/water discharge rate_ . Gc (lbM'se ft ) z >a.... (psi MAX 0 0 INLET STAGNATION PRESSURE. . P. '000 Q f« Z t:l « 2 c FLOW RATE. P. 0 0 '" INLET STATIC PRESSURE.
10 '" a.. ' <t I I Z w 0... .. P o (psi Fig.MAX FLOW RATE. a J:. Gc (lb /sech ) M ..924d Pipe maximum steam/water discharge rate.MAX. ' <t I I Z w  I .. .> 8 .INLET STATIC PRESSURE.. P (PSla) o 1. a a '" 2 ... P 1 (pSla) o 1000 2000 3000 INLET STAGNATION PRESSUR E.. FLOW RATE.1_ 500 ". P (psia) o 1000 2000 3000 INLET STAGNATION PRESSURE. ::l 1000  > Z o I<t Z t:l <t 500 Ii. I L Q z I<t Z t:l <t l.r  � N c (lb /sech' M 1 8 � Ii.INLET STATIC PRESSURE. G a a N �  ..470 THERMAL HYDRAULICS OF A BWR SATURATION ENVELOPE ::.1000 > 0.
.
472 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A B W R 9. 6 thereafter to the discharge end of the pipe .2 . 99) The stagnation enthalpy.2.psat = 2 G VI 2go ( 1+ /ILl DH ) (9. 1 . Figure 925 shows liquid flow from the vessel to pressure. respectively. 98). 925 Subcooled liquid blowdown from pipe with friction. psat . f2L2 fz(L . The procedure for obtaining con sistent values for G. . and L2 is summarized next. Ll. 9. 7 Subcooled Liquid Discharge from Pipes with Friction Subcooled water discharge rates from a uniform pipe with friction can be estimated by employing incompressible fluid flow theory from the vessel stagnation state to the location where saturation pressure is reached.Ll) DH DH = (9. neither G nor Ll is known . and the twophase flow model of Sec. at the unknown mass flux for which. ho ht( psat). The remaining frictional loss coefficient is.98) where /I and Ll are the singlephase liquid friction factor and flow length. �L ____________� 0 ___ SINGLE PHASE LIQUID TWO·PHASE LlQUID IVAPOR MIX TURE a Fig. and fzL2IDH should give a value of G that corresponds to that in Eq. (9. pO . 1 . However.
VI = Vt(po).ACC I D E N T EVA L U ATIO N S 473 Ca lculating Subcooled Blowdown.98). 102) . and psat from steam tables based on ho = ht(psat). 6.in. (9. 2. and core sprays . 926. This model can be used to estimate the lossofcoolant discharge rates of steam/water mass and energy . ho. If G1 > G2. Enter Figs . Calculate the twophase flow length from L2 = L . Calculate the singlephase value of G1 = G from Eq.. The following procedure i s used for calculating subcooled blowdown from a uniform pipe with friction . Pick a trial value of the singlephase length. A valid solution cor responds to G1 = G2. Compare G1 from Step with G2 from Step 5.2 Vessel Blowdown The relationships just derived for the critical flow rate of a steam/water mixture can be employed with the conservation of mass and energy for a vessel of fixed volume to determine its timedependent blowdown properties. 100) dU WouthO. and the total pipe length L. heat transfer between the coolant and vessel mechanical components. 3 9. blowdown discharge. Estimate reasonable values for the single and twophase friction fac tors It and fz. . (9. A mass inflow rate has a stagnation enthalpy. ho. 4. and thus L2 was too long.L1. hO. 924 with hL21D from Step 4 and read the dashed lines of psat on the saturated water boundary to obtain the twophase critical mass flux. (9 . and obtain hL2IDH. G2. 3. core heat transfer. 1 . the trial value of L1 was too short.2. 101) V =Mv . 5.WinhO.out . The model includes both energy and mass inflows and outflows. L1. determined by vessel fluid properties in the region from which discharge occurs . determined by its source .in + qout . (9. U = M. 926 are written as: dM Wout .. The reactor vessel model is shown schematically in Fig . List values of po.qin + dt = 0 The state equations. Several iterations may be necessary to obtain a solution for Gc during subcooled discharge.out. Repeat Steps (2) through (6) with a longer L1.Win + Tt = O and. A mass outflow rate has the stagnation enthalpy.. Mass and energy conservation equations for Fig. The kinetic and potential energy components of the coolant are neglected since the thermal energy components dominate .
¥IM) = (::) Ip for any simple compressible substance such as water.474 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A B W R Win hO.out/p) + qin qout = dt MF (p. VIM) where the functions f(p) and F ( p.in VOLUM E V PRESSURE P FLU I D MASS M F LU I D ENERGY U Wout ho•out p dV (EXPANSION) dt Fig. to give the vessel's rate of pressure change as: dp Win( ho. can be employed in Eq. F(p'¥IM) = 0 (incompressible liquid) . In particular. VIM) are given by: (9. .105) (9. F(p.104) (9.) Iv f(p ) = IJ. steam. for an incompressible liquid.103) (9.Wout(ho. (9.in fp ) .106) f(p) �e .v and. (:. or a two phase liquidlvapor mixture in equilibrium . 926 Mass and energy conservation in the fluid region. 101).
and inversely proportional to the discharge area. 1 12) (9 . (9. (9. 108) and.d pc>Pd tvd. Mi. Vessel blowdown rates do not depend on the drywell pressure as long as the critical discharge pressure. 107) Finally.out)Ab (9 . It can be estimated from the results of Fig. VI M)= ( K v has the functions. 109) (9 . A b . 1 10) pd pc . A�. ' ) f(p)= IJ( p) vf( P) IJfgg((PP)) Vf (vfg)' + M (g)' F(p . Consider a mass discharge from the vessel at a critical flow rate of. . Initial depressurization rates can b e obtained from E q .ACC I D E N T EVALUATIONS 475 while for a perfect gas: f(p)= O F(p . The vessel depressurization time. 113) . Figure 929 shows the calculated coolant mass fraction remaining and pressuretime characteristics for blowdown from an adiabatic vessel initially filled with saturated water at 1000 psia . 927 and 928 . Heat transfer terms are negligible during the time required for blowdown through a large pipe break. 103) t o show the difference between steam and saturated water discharge . (9. The blowdown rate was based on the homogeneous equilibriu m model (HEM).VIM)=lJf .1) (perfect gas) (9. = Gc(p . for either steam or water discharge is proportional to the initial fluid mass. 111 ) Wout The vessel pressure rate is given as. 5 2 = 4. satisfies the criterion.m /skg (9 . . ho. and core heat transfer was neglected . denotes where ( These functions are plotted in Figs .0x 10.IJf V IJf Vfg Vfg d( )Idp . an equilibrium twophase liquidvapor mixture with a state equa tion given by. 929 as.
000 PRESSURE p (kPa) Fig.4 76 TH E RMAL H Y D RAULICS OF A BWR I'lg VI VIg OL__�__���LUU__�__�����____�L���� 100 1000 10.hgo) f( p) . The function f( p) and the denominator of Eq. 1 13) depend on the fluid state in the vessel and not the instantaneous blowdown discharge properties. It follows that the ratio of steamtowater vessel decompression rates is given by: ( dp/dt)g Gc (p . g and ho .Ge(p. 1 .[. (9 . The critical mass flux for steam and saturated water discharges are Gcg and Ge[ from Sec .h[ol _ (9 . saturated steam/water mixtures. 1 14) It can be shown that for steam and saturated water blowdowns from 1000 psia. The corresponding stagnation enthalpies are ho.hro) f( p) . .hgol ( dp/dt)[ . 1 . 92 7 Function f( p). the ratio of decompression rates is (dp/dt)g ( dp/dt)[ = 75 . 2. 9 .
1 _ (Vfltf9) Vrfg) Vfg M Vfg + O.0 aIm 2.95cm orifice . It can be seen that the agreement between theory and experiment is quite good .0 "iii 0I p 1.0 � 0. 0. 928 'Function F( p. saturated steam/water mixtures.. The mixture level in the vessel was determined by a computation of vapor formation rate in the liquid during decompression. as rising bubbles . . The calculated blow downs in this section were based on an ideal nozzle of flow area. less that vapor leaving the mixture.0 >Ii LL :J '" .26mIong. 5..ACCI D E N T EVAL U AT I O N S 477 1.p).OlL__�__�����____L__�����____��__�L�U 1 10 100 1000 Fig. For cases where blowdown occurs from a pipe with AB. the critical discharge of saturated steam gives more than seven times the vessel decompression rate as saturated water from a system at 1000 psia.3mdiam cylindrical pressure vessel through a 0. Figure 930 shows a comparison of typical calculations and data for steam blowdown from a 4. The initial vessel pressure was 68 bars and the starting water level was 3 . 6 m. That is.
.. STEAM  p p...5 " . ._ _ / STEAM � Mj �_  WATER LEVEL GONE ::2: a z « � C...... . is: 0..... 929 Vessel blowdown calculation.0 �� ...." .. .. ..... steam/water.....  o L��� Bx 105 o 4x105 Fig..... ....478 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A BWR 1.... � ..
2 o 0 DA TA . If the vapor formation rate exceeds the rate of vapor separation from the mixture surface. i.e 40 BREAK ELEVA I ON T I N IT I AL WA TER LEVEL :g 0 . However. it is necessary to obtain both the pressure and liquid/vapor distribution throughout the vessel .C ALCULATED 60 Iii w II: :::J en en w II: Il. Prediction of the transient void distribution and level swell during blowdown can be performed readily using the appropriate conservation equations derived in Chapter 5 . 91 1a and 924 can be used to estimate an equivalent ideal nozzle area.ACC I D E N T EVA L U AT I O N S 479 r.e. vapor formation oc curs throughout the bulk of the saturated water.. AB(EQ). depending on the location of blowdown mass extraction from the vessel. As decompression progresses. Figs .J w > w . AB(EQ)Gnozzle( pi.. Apipe.. which would produce the same blowdown rate as a pipe with appreciable friction and area. ( £�) ho. the mixture swells. ( 9 .J 20 O LL���� o 20 40 60 BO 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 TIME (sec) Fig. 930 Steam break blowdown test. To predict the reactor core environment and subsequent thermal behavior.. ho) = ApiPeG Pi. 1 15 ) . the mixture level also may fall. m . appreciable length and associated friction.
T. "Experimental Studies of Water Depressurization Through Simple Pipe Systems." RISO Report No. ." Report IN1 354. A Model for Evaluation of Core Heatup and Emergency Core Spray Cooling System Performance for LightWaterCooled Nuclear Power Reactors. 1969. H. 1 969. G . Furubayaki.. 9." CREST Spe cialist Mtg. OneComponent Critical Flow." Chern. L . R "Conduction Controlled Flashing of a Fluid and the Prediction of Critical Flow Rates in a OneDimensional System. J . D. and H . Idaho Nuclea r Corporation Oune 1970} . "OneDimensional TwoPhase Transient Flow Calculations. Depressurization Effects in WaterCooled Reactors. "Contribution t o th e Theory of TwoPhase. III. Ser. J. Edwards. Lahey. United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (1 968) . Just. "General Electric B WR Th ermal Analysis Basis (GETAB): Data. Int." BNWL1 1 1 1 1 . Oc tober IDecember 3 1 . Germany. Flow." 1001 7242. M. "Quarterly Technical Report. "The Discharge of Saturated Water Throu gh Tubes. R. Denmark (1974) . A . V " Water Decompression Experiments and Analysis for Blowdown of Nuclear Reactors.480 TH E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A BWR References Allemann et ai." ANL6633. 95 (1 973) . T. "TwoPhase Critical Flow o f SteamWater Mix tures. 358 (1969) ." I. June 1013." AHSB(S}R1 1 1 7. . Nucl . . Frankfurt. J. Fauske. T. Y. 61. K. Argonne National Laboratory (1962) . K. Aoki." Trans. 0 . . M. (1 972) . . Personal Communication. "Blowdown2: Westinghouse APD Computer Program for Calcula tion of Fluid Pressure. Baker. 210 (1965) . "Studies of MetalWater Reactors at High Temperature. En g. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the ZircaloyWater Reaction. Prog. M. Soc. Reactor Heat Transfer. Depressurization Effects in WaterCo01ed Power Reactors. U. A.S. P O'Brien. . W Moulton. Rees. Heat Transfer. Fauske. G . C. Boure. V Smith. Germany (1973) . Electric Power Research Institute Oan. GonzalezSantalo. Correlation and Design Application. Gallagher. Battelle Northwest Laboratory ( 1 970) ." Fourth AllUnion Heat and Mass Transfer Conf. Borgartz. a n d R. General Electric Company (1 973) . Riso." NEDO10958." ANL6548. Faletti. . . and A.. Dietz. Authority Health and Safety Branch. ." IITRI578P2139 Ouly 1970}. Inoue. Andersen. A. Kozawa. "SubcooledBlowdown Forces on Reactor System Components: Calculational Method and Experimental Confirmation. S ." EPRI Report NP2192. and Density Transients During a LossofFlow Accident. 1962) . 1982}. "Critical Flow Data Review and Analysis." AIChE I. "An Exact Solution for Flow Transients in TwoPhase Systems by the Method of Characteris't ics. "REMI/HEAT COOL. Argonne National Laboratory (Oct. "Experimental High Enthalpy Blowdown from a Simple Vessel Through a Bottom Outlet. 296. Edwards. Petroleum Company (May 1968) . Okazaki. Karlsruhe. . Frankfurt. H. M . Minsk. 12 . and R T. Fabic. W.R. . Andersen. J. Battelle Institute.S. Ed. . H . A m . Denmark (1 973) . Germany. J." CREST Specialist Mtg. Hanson. 1967. A. M. and L. Reocreux. B. E . S. G . Engineering and Test Branch." Proc. K. June 1013. Mtg. Bat telle Institute. Aritomi. N.. Symp. "Critical Heat Flux Under Transient Conditions. Nakajima. and M. "General Equations of TwoPhase FlowsApplications to Critical Flows and NonSteady Flows. .2 (1963) . .
"Maximum TwoPhase Vessel Blowdown from Pipes. A. and L. F. S. R. Radiation Heat Transfer.. . . . Shiotsu. . Appl. American SOCiety of Mechanical Engineers (1975) . American Society of Mechanical Engineers ( 1 974) . R. ." WAPDPT(V)90. D." ASME paper 75HT64. Gonzalez." J. "Compressibility Effects in TwoPhase Flow. E. . Pergamon Press. VoL . and H. et aL. London ( 1959) . Moody. Moody. Howell. 87. D. "Maximum Flow Rate of a SingleComponent. A." Nucl. M . "Steam SlipTheoretical Prediction from Momentum Model. I and II. and R. . Moody. General Electric Company (1972) . 285 (1966) . J. H . U .. Shapiro. E. 1961 ) . 134 (1965) . App/. Landau. . Sutherland. S . E. . . L . E. "Effect of Precursory Cooling on FaIIing Film Rewetting. Moody. M . a n d J ." J. M . 1971 ) . McGrawHilI Book Company. General Electric Company (1975) . B. Phys. Heat Trans fer. R. A . and M. and C. Ser C. a n d W. Ser C. Des. . 69 (1982) . Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer. Eng . New York ( 1972) . S. ASME Symp. "BIowdown Flow Rates of Initially Saturated Water. Rose. American Society of Mechanical Engineers ( 1 969) . and E. and L . American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1974) . 69HT31 . G . Dix. Jones. Gonzalez. "Critical Flow o f Saturated and Subcooled Water at High Pressure. General Electric Company (1972) . Sun. . Levy. Schnebly. ASME." ASME paper 74WA/HT52. U . Levy. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. H . Sci. Heat Transfer. Rise. B ." ASME pre p rint 74WAlHT41. H ." presented at the European TwoPhase Flow Meeting. O. ASME. Schnebly. . S. E." AEC Research and Development Report TID4500. 20. "Transient Critical Heat FluxExperimental Results. R. An Experimental Study in Saturated Pool Boiling." J. F. E .. Shiralkar. "Prediction of Blowdown Thrust and Jet Forces. T. P ." J. 637 (1949) . 5. Akiyama. "Prediction of TwoPhase Critical Flow Rate. Sakurai. Fluid Mechanics. American Society of Me chanical Engineers (1 975) . Tien. "Towards a Unified Approach for Thermal Nonequilibrium in Gas/ Liquid Systems. Lahey. "Transient PoolBoiling Heat Transfer. Gonzalez. California ( 1967) . J . Denmark (June. R.ACC I D E N T EVAL UAT I O N S 481 Henry. "Flow of Subcooled Water Through Nozzles. Heat Transfer. Heat Transfer. Trans. F. "Hydrodynamics Describing Acoustic Phenomena During Reactor Coolant System Blowdown. Tien. M. New York (1 953) ." Nucl. J . Sozzi. J. Siegel. H . Lahey." GEAP13249. The Ronald Press Company. D . M. R . Cess. 8 7 ( 1965). Sun. Jayne. F.3 ( 1 968). K. G ." NEDO13418. J . J. Powell. .. Monterey. T. Tachibana. Trans . A." ASME paper no.. Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Apr. Hanson." GEAP13295. R. . "Maximum Discharge Rate of Liquid Vapor Mixtures from Vessels. "The Analysis of Transient Critical Heat Flux. K. A. W . Vols. 88. 41 ( 1970). 82 (1960) . TwoPhase Mixture. F . J." Non Equilibrium TwoPhase Flows. Polomik. Lifshitz. Kawamura. L. The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Flu id Flow." J. Atomic Energy Commission (July 1 967) . a n d G . c. "Heat Transfer and Critical Heat Flux in Transient Boiling. Simon. L. Sparrow. S . E. M. L. "TwoPhase Critical Discharge of Initially Saturated or Subcooled Liquid. . W Radcliffe. F. Eng. Tangren. Shiralkar. ." Nucl. I. "Calculations of Combined Radiation and Convection Heat Transfer in Rod Bundles Under Emergency Cooling Con ditions. G . and C.
. "Effect of Core Spray Cooling i n Transient State after Lossof Coolant Accident. H.482 THERMAL H Y D RAU L I C S OF A BWR Tong. . "Discharge of Saturated Water Through Pipes and Orifices. "Estimation of SteadyState Void Fraction by Means of the Principle of Minimum Entropy Producti on. . and J . New York ( 1 969) . Wiedermann. Weisman. S. and J . Zivi.. Heasley. 3rd Int. McGrawHill Book Company. . Appl." ]. A." IITRI578P21 26 Oune 1 966) . American Nuclear Society ( 1 970) . "Water Depressurization Studies. Heat Transfer Conf. 86 (1964). B ." ]. H . A . Zaker. G . T. Thermal Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactors. . B . and A. 5 (1968) . . L." Proc. M . Wallis. ." Nucl. Uchida. OneDimensional TwoPhase Flow. Nariai. 5. Yamanouchi. Heat Transfer ( 1 961 ) . S. Wallis. and H. . H. Heat Transfer. 1 (1966) . . "Oscillations in TwoPhase Systems. G.
transient loads are exerted for greater time intervals and can reach larger magnitudes on pipe segments in which a disturbance has a longer prop agation distance. It follows that the resulting load impulses can create larger pipe motion. 1973. largely motivated by the emphasis on safe design and operation of nuclear power stations (ASCE. which may change with time as fluid velocity increases.and spacedependent forces are created in piping systems whenever local disturbances occur in the pressure. Moreover. Although nuclear. velocity. leading to higher stresses in the piping system. Increased attention has been focused on transient forces in piping sys tems during the last several decades. Haupt and Meyer. 1979). containment systems are designed to withstand the consequences of large pipe ruptures and lossofcoolant accidents.1 Background . or density . Both the propagating pressure forces and thrust forces can reach magnitudes large enough to require structural design features for the purpose of preventing mechanical overstress or other dam age to a piping system or its surroundings . Consequently. For example. a com mon design objective has been to prevent pipe ruptures from fluid accel eration loads by specification of appropriate mechanical design.CHAPTER TEN Valve and Piping Transients Time. A corollary design objective is to minimize damage even if a pipe failure should occur. Pipe lengths associated with the nuclear industry often are longer than those in conventional power plants . 10. fluid discharge from a ruptured or otherwise open pipe creates a thrust force. imposing unsteady forces on various pipe segments . 1 979. valve openings or closures create fluid acceleration and associated pressure changes that propagate through piping geometry.
Rose. Moreover. However. the stateoftheart has developed to a sophisticated level at which accurate load deSCriptions are predictable in terms of valve characteristics or pipe rupture description. Wheeler. direction. To provide appropriate mechanical design specifications. This chapter provides a summary of theoretical models and methods employed in the prediction of transient pipe forces . 1 979. Theoretical models and experimental results for pipe reaction forces began to appear in the open literature in the 1 960s and 1 970s (Fabic. 1969. The predicted loads are subsequently input as forcing functions in dynamic stress analysis programs to determine the pipe system dynamics and to determine design margins for various pipe support and protection features. it is necessary to predict both steady and transient load magnitudes on the piping system from the fluid response. Large com puter programs (Fabic. and fluid acceleration inside the pipe generates forces on all segments that are bounded at either end by an elbow or turn .484 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A BWR by preventing such reactions as pipe whipping. 1970. stop valve closure. 1969. As compression . thrust forces caused by fluid discharge can cause further damage to piping and other components unless adequate mechan ical restraints are employed. L2. which could result from various disturbances . 1980) . Hanson. Various studies and experiments are cited that have helped bring the stateoftheart to its present level of sophistication . 1 970. Solution techniques were introduced for the prediction of unsteady single. Either a rupture of segment N or valve opening or closure is postulated . 1967. 1 979. it is often more efficient and economical to first estimate reaction loads to spec ify position and capacity of restraints. and then later to check the final design with a detailed analysis. 1 0. and duration of pipe forces must be known before mechanical restraints can be designed and positioned . The disturbance travels through the segments at sonic or shock speed relative to the fluid . Semprucci. attached to a pressure source .2 Pipe Reaction Forces If a pipe rupture occurs. Figure 1 01 shows a rigid pipe system with N segments of respective lengths LI. 1979) . and pipe rupture pressure transients are discussed . the opening or closing of valves also generates fluid acceleration loads on all segments of a connected piping system. Discharging fluid creates a reaction thrust on the ruptured pipe itself. piping geometry. Hanson. Pipe forces resulting from safety/relief valve operation. LN. ANSI/ANS. 1 967) can be employed to help predict pipe forces for a postulated fluid transient. A disturbance prop agates into the fluid contained by the pipe . and the state properties of the fluid . The magnitude.and twophase flow behavior (Haupt. which could cause addi tional failures. Consequently. unsteady gas and liquidvapor mixture flows.
/ __ � F L OWAREA' A \ �: . Impingement forces on structures that overlap the jet depend on the fraction of total forward momentum intercepted . However. F2. ' N � 'r� DISCHARGE 1_) Fig. these forces are expressed in terms of the fluid properties . Therefore.. IMPINGEMENT TARGET or decompression waves move through the pipe. Since the discharging fluid pressure inside pipe segment N is generally greater than ambient pressure. resulting in net longitudinal forces Fl..VALVE A N D P I P I N G TRAN S I E N T S 485 �F1 PRESSURE RUPTURE VESSEL FREE JET AREA. A. the pressure at one end of each segment exceeds the pressure at the other. .. a free jet of steam or steam/water mixture decom presses and expands to an asymptotic area ... thrust and impingement forces continue to survive after the acceleration forces vanish. FN on each segment. 101 result from fluid pressure. 1 0. shear. and momentu m . Ax:. Successive wave transmissions and associated fluid acceleration forces decay as steady discharge is achieved. poo. All reaction forces shown i n Fig .1 General model for pipe force and jet l oad.
The forces. b. Fn.. JET IMPINGEMENT FORCE p� Fig. Fll. Forces FI and F2 are due to pressure acting over the elbow surface that is formed by projections of the . Consider the segment of pipe shown between two elbows in Fig . G'.. It is assumed that the fluid volume contained by the elbows is small compared with segment volumes . pIAl. 1 02 Pipe and jet forces . The solid boundary outlines the fluid control volume used for expressing pipe forces in terms of flow properties .. 1 O2a . PIPE REACTION FORCES WALL OPEN PIPE JET CONTROL VOLUME P2A2 G 2 2  .t . and P2A2 have lines of action parallel to pipe segments joined to each end of the bounded segment.486 T H E RMAL HYDRA U L I C S OF A B WR 8 .
1 ) . On this line. Fw. 1 ) . bounded pipe flow area at each end . The force is caused by wall shear and can include drag caused and by orifices or other flow restrictions .I. GFI Fs .Poo)A 2 + G �A 22 FwN.VALVE A N D P I P I N G T R A N S I E N T S 487 A l A2.J COS"YI a G�A 2 .. Therefore. 3) yield.2) 0 (10.[ F22 (p2 poo)A2 . ) (10. FBN' FBN = ( P2 . 1 ) Equations (10. ( 1 0 . the wave force vanishes. acts on the pipe outer surface and cancels everywhere except on the projected areas. Li. vanishes at steady flow. W e now consider forces o n the bounded segment due t o transient wave propagation .5) where. =FI . force.F2= . The control volume in Fig.. (10. . � gc(p ." survives on the discharge segment . momentum con servation normal to the axis can be written for the left and right parts of the control volume as follows.. and ( 1 0 .( P2 poo)A2 . the "blowdown Although the wave force. normal momentum flow rates and pressure forces do not occur.F . 2) . [ F22 .] COS"Y 2 +. ( 1 0 .G Adz at gc(p h gc 1 gc(p h 0 (10. Fw. 3) From Eq. and (10. note that when steady flow is reached. as.6) . Ambient pressure. (lOA).G �A2 ] Slll"Y2 = gc(p'h (10. 3) can be combined to obtain the "wave force.IL. 2) . Force on the discharging pipe segment can be expressed as a special case of the bounded segment by making o. It follows that 0 and Eqs. 1O2a can b e divided i n two b y the double dashed line shown normal to the pipe axis. Conservation of momentum for a direction parallel to the bounded axis is given by. Fs poo.GAdz � 5 gc II 1 0 (lOA) FN "Y 2 = F22 = (10.F2 = [ Fl1 ( PI poo)AI IA.::Iat IL.." on a bounded pipe segment of length.
It follows that for the part of the control volume to the right.+ . respectively. However. pxA. 10. make determination of impingement load characteristics difficult. to2b. Forward motion of the jet is stopped by the wall shown. The total reaction force. therefore. an impingement pressure is defined as. (to. area can be expressed as.gc ( p ) where. poc and G2(A 2/Ax:) at the double R j = P2A2 + . (10. as well as jet crosssectional area and flow properties.9) An unbalanced force on the wall is caused by R j acting on its left side equal and opposite to that shown in Fig . where it is assumed to be homo geneous (Moody. 1969) . to) and (10.c.. (10. (10. (10. to2b can be used to estimate jet loads on structures en countered in nuclear power systems . the net rightward impingement reaction on the wall is. To estimate the corresponding jet load. G � Aoo R j = pocAx. projected area. 1 1 ) I f Eqs . (to. to) Comparison of Eqs .� dashed section drawn normal to the flow direction. Rj can also be expressed by. 7) + poc( AX) A2) gc ( p ) 2 Jet pressure and mass flux are.488 THERMAL HYDRA U L I C S OF A BW R Whenever the discharging jet encounters an object in its path. is obtained from momentum conser vation. Nearby pipes and other targets can intercept only part of the expanded jet area . and leftward force. tO) shows that blowdown thrusts on the discharging pipe segment and impingement reaction of the jet are equal . written for the jet control volume as. the simple model shown in Fig.6) and (10. and orientation relative to the j et. A steady jet discharges from an open pipe with area A2 a n d expands to area Aoo at some distance downstream.8) are combined with Eq . on its right side . Target shape. the mo mentum of some fluid particles is changed and an impingement force is developed.7). Rj.3 Fluid Impingement Forces G�A2 (10. (to.9). the expanded jet .8) oc (to. From Eq .
Therefore. If the target is concave so that jet flow could be turned opposite to its forward direction. The expansion of a fluid jet to asymptotic area is an idealization that neglects shear and mixing with the surrounding air at its boundary . For twophase blowdown. 1 1 ) (10. Ro should be doubled . pressure.) G22 A2 and (10. Aoo G� ' A2 gc ( RlA2)(p )x (10. Eq. However. the impingement load. Effects of separated flow are incorporated in a later consideration of steady thrust forces . 12) that the impingement pressure is. Therefore.VALVE A N D PI P I N G TRAN S I E N T S 489 It follows from Eqs. The force equations for bounded and open pipe segments and jet im pingement loads have been expressed in terms of fluid velocity. Nonflashing water or steam is treated by methods of singlephase flow . when steady discharge rates are approached. 14) Ax Following a postulated pipe rupture. an appropriate slip assumption must be made . the homogeneous flow regime may become sepa rated. the homogeneous flow pattern is probably realistic for a steamwater mixture flow during initial decompression and flashing stages. it is necessary to obtain time. since shear forces would be absent in the expanded jet. RO=PIAO (10.4 Unsteady Pipe Flow . (10.and spacedependent flow properties from fluid mechanical considerations . the contained fluid decompresses rapidly . Therefore. When the discharging jet strikes a mechanical component so that area can be estimated from. These effects tend to increase the expanded area and reduce impingement pres sure even more . 13) Ro. 12) 2 gc( P ' )oo PI = (B. 14) should yield higher loads than would actually occur. Ao intercepts part of the expanded jet. (10. and density . the assumption of a homogeneous expanded jet appears to be reasonable . pipes and most other possible targets are convex so that jet forward momentum is only decreased rather than stopped. It is well known that twophase mixtures of liquid and vapor do not always flow in a homogeneous regime . Later. Saturated water undergoes rapid flashing and expansion in a reduced pressure environment. velocities of the liquid and vapor phases would be equal. Furthermore. However. 10.
from the horizontal have been given in Eqs . (5.  PH ]  (10. (5. 22) . 19) Td(s) d(h)  1 dp J (p) (10 . 16) Energy : where wall shear stress is given by.4 . 18) Simple compressible substances in thermodynamic equilibrium obey the Gibbs equation. ) ho�(h ) + 2(jgcl2 = (10. Tw h z (Ph ) (iJO + (. momentum. 21 ) The sonic speed. (Ph). is defined by. )iJho) = q (Axs ) + 1 iJiJtp iJt iJ J . and (5. and energy conser vation that describe homogeneous flow in a rigid flow passage with friction. 1 Basic Equations for Pipe Flow The onedimensional equations of mass. C. and inclination angle.TwPf (10. 15) sin9 .K(Ph) Axs ( z gc gc _ (10. (j ) (10.490 TH E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A B W R 1 0. (10.45) as. variable area. 17) and the stagnation enthalpy is defined as.33). iJ(Ph) + (j/(Ph) + (Ph/iJ(jz ) + (Ph)(j ) iJAiJxs = O iJt iJz Axs z (Ph) (iJiJtj ) + (j/iJ(j») = iJiJpz . 9..38). Determination of the flow properties and in space and time for given initial and boundary conditions permits computation of wave and C2�gc (a:�») I <s> p. which is used later. Mass: Momen t um: and by neglecting potential energy and internal heat generation contributions. 20) where the state equations are of the form. ( Af(j2)Igcj )I (Ph ) (10. heat transfer.
16). Saturated steam. 19) is first employed to eliminate from Eq. (10. Equation (10. 1 0. Eq. fluid state equations are required before the flow properties can be determined . For cases of sufficiently large subcooling. 21) in terms of and Finally.24) dt a( )/at. and The resulting equations can then be added and grouped by their time and space derivatives. are used to express total derivatives o f the dependent variables as: where. However. 1982) . and density from Eqs. A ruptured piping system in a nuclear reactor initially may contain either subcooled water. (10. if decompressed isentropically. (10. 1 7). 24). (10. requiring twophase state properties . p = p( z. or steam . This procedure yields: p. (j ).and spacedependent values o f pressure. and the resulting coefficients of the space derivatives. leaving only total derivative terms. ap + ( }p _ C2 (a(Ph) + ( }(Ph») = DT(as3 = F3 ( Z. However. ] ] . 1 7) . a( )/az. (j ) (10. 15). and are and The MOC involves a search for paths in the plane on which and can be integrated as ordinary differential equations. A general solution for time. Then the differential is obtained from Eq. The functional forms (Ph). (10.20) and (10. Anderson. (Ph) A 2.t) (10 .t) d(dt ) =+) . Decompression causes satu rated water to flash. and by unknown constants }q.4. (10. (j p). (10 . (Ph). (10 . (Ph) . z. 22) are used to express the energy equation.dz a(az ) a(at ( ) = p . ho dh dp (dph) . subcooled water prop erties are used . 1953. velocity. 16).t) (j) = (j( z. 15) through (10. are eliminated next with the last term of Eq .2 The Method of Characteristics The method of characteristics (MOC) yields three ordinary differential equations for and which are integrated on two characteristic lines and a particle path line. 22) can be obtained numerically by the method of characteristics (Shapiro.t (10. The time derivatives. for the timedependent part of most practical problems.VALVE AND P I P I N G TRAN S I E N T S 49 1 blowdown forces on the ruptured pipe. 23) p. 15). Eqs . (10. falls into the wet region . (j ). 23) A3. Let us multiply Eqs . are set equal to zero. 23) at az go at az 2go f(j) /ap p ) (10. saturated water. The same is true for subcooled water if the decompression reduces its pressure below sat uration .. (10. steam can be treated as an ideal gas . in the form: The dependent variables in Eqs .
1981 ) .492 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A BWR �= t.t R p L � l!.Z vc ' = _ v+c . Integration can be performed to obtain a solution in either natural or standard Cartesian coordinate systems (Hsiao.t  �='v .Z Z �++. 103 which displays the right. dt pC C pv dA _ pCfv dp±dv= ( .. The sound speed. The first equation applies on characteristic lines and the second equation applies on a particle path line. ( 1 0 .C2Fdt dz = v qi F(z.C2dp= .2 . A typical computational mesh is shown in Fig . 1 03 Method of characteristics (MOC) computational mesh . 25) D 2go p ( 1 0 . C. Zj_.AL t. determines how fast fluid disturbances propagate through the piping system when shocks are absent. Fig.and lefttraveling characteristic lines and the fluid path line on which Eq .Z t+t._ t. 26) .t)= (L v2\v\ + pAn)/[(iJiJhp) _ !] P go gc gc 2goD for = 1 gc for 1  I ( 1 0 .+ 2 +F)dt dz _ v±C A dz dt dp .25) is integrated .
.. .. The de compressive sound speed from Fig .. . 1 Cg = 4 8 0 mls ( 1 5 74 ft/s) . 104 and 105...... 0. 5 void fraction for the compressive curve . 1961)... . which has a minimum value at about 0 . This corre sponds to a decompression speed of (4 m)/(200 msec) = 20 m/sec ...1 ... . 8 MPa pressure and 242°C temperature.. 1O6a for steam water mixtures.... .__... 8 MPa . Figure 1O6b shows a rapid pressure re duction about 20 msec after the pressure dropped to saturation.1__'"....".. 104 Compressive sound speed.. Another experiment (Edwards..1.1.1..1 0.... ...0 Vg v OR � p Fig. 0mIong pipe initially containing subcooled water at 6 . suddenly reducing pressure to the satu ration value.. which caused a decompression wave to travel in the subcooled water at 1370 m/sec.1. This highspeed decompression wave was followed by an other decompression wave through the saturated water.. equilibrium steamwater mixtures has the peculiar shape given in Figs ..... .. . signaling arrival of the second decompression at the pressure sensor. 105...... The decompressive sound speed has no such minimum .1..... . .. for which the saturation pressure was 2 .0 1 0.00 1 0. . 1 970) provided a measure of the decompressive sound speed in a 4... based on a saturation pressure 1 0 r� SATURATED WATER SATURATED STEAM 2 1 ....... .0002 0.1.. such as those shown in Fig..1.0 5 10 0.".0 1 . A glass diaphragm at one end of the pipe was ruptured.. bubbly steamwater mixture ...VALVE A N D P I P I NG TRAN S I E N T S 493 The sound speed in bubbly...... The character of the bubbly mixture compressive sound speed has been verified by numerous experimental measurements (Karplus..1.. 1 1 .. which decreased the pressure below saturation .. .
__'__.u ..0 Fig. saturated equilibrium.494 THERMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A B W R 1.... which compares favorably with the measured 20 mlsec.I... .00 1 . .0 r� 0. or relationships for vessel stagnation and pipe entrance flow properties ..L..001 0....u..J 0..1 Cg C 0.... of 2..J.... The boundary conditions may involve sonic or subsonic flow conditions at the discharge end of a ruptured pipe. 1 05 Decompression sound speed.. 0... 1 1...L.. .01 v Pg p 0. 8 MPa (27 atm).___'____J�..I.J.. is 1 9 . bubbly... .L. and 13 kglm3 steam density. steamwater mixture. Initial and boundary conditions and fluid state equations are specified to obtain a complete solution for unsteady fluid properties ....L.II.'L. 830 kg/m3 water density.01 Cg = 4 80 m/s (1 5 74 ftlsl +1 aIm . .___'____JL......� .L. . valve strokepressureflow rate specifications...____....L. 2 m/sec..
6 Fig.4 0.3 VOI D F RACTION. .__________________. o o START OF PRESSURE WAVE MIDWAY KNEE U 0 ..VALVE A N D P I P I N G TRAN S I E N TS 495 9 0 r.1 0 .. o KARP LUS ( 1 961) 0.HOMOGENOUS THEORY 6. 0 (/) U I � 45 g 0 0 0 Z w > U 30 o 15 OL�__�____�____�____�____� o 0 .. 1 06a Prediction of sonic velocity data of Karplus (1961 ) ..2 0 . c<= (VVf ) vg V fg v 0 .68 atm STEAMWATER D ATA 75 0 60 en .
(Ph). a... �____________�______�.8 MPa 2 � SONIC TRANSIT TIME II ..) a(J») ap az az (Ph) t.) a(Ph) Ph) a(J) at az (Ph) (a(atj) (. it is called a simple wave .__� o ______ o 20 0 400 600 TIME (ms) Fig.4. 22) for the sonic speed. fluid density is only a function of pressure ... and time. a(Ph) . (j). a solution p (Ph).. (j) J dZ +( +( =0 (10. it is possible to obtain a closedform solution for the unsteady flow properties . If the flow is also isentropic.. 15) and (10... can be expressed as a Since determines function of By employing Eq. (10. For frictionless adiabatic flows that are isentropic. � . there are unique values of and for isentropic flows....3 Isentropic Flows and Simple Waves When a disturbance propagates through a pipe in one direction without reflections or shock formation. ( 1 0 . INITIAL PRESSU RE 6.28) gc + J + =0 p. At any location.8 MPa EDWARDS ( 1 9 7 0 ) i'4.: i =E 4 .. With the additional simplifications of a constant area flow passage and negligible effects of gravity. 1 6) become. 27) (10. 106b Edwards water decompression experiment (1970) .496 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A BWR B r. o 0 0 0 0 00 .. z. Eqs . 1 0.4 m 6 w a: :l rn rn w a: a. .SATURATION PRESSURE 2.
(j(z. (10. Therefore. (10. sonic flow cannot occur and the discharge pressure drops to the ambient value .29) (10. It follows from Eq . incompressible liquid. permits Eq. A further simplification for nonflashing and C are constant. t» ±g = c z = [(j)±C] t+f(j ) f(Ph(P��C(P) + K (10.33) p( L.31) which can b e recognized as the classical "waterhammer" equation. where disturbances are propagated along characteristics in the timespace plane with slope. (10. For a short distance into the pipe. (P/I)O 0» = . nonflashing liquid) (10.28) can be obtained in the Riemann form (Landau (j(z .27) and and Lifshitz. 1953) providing unique values of discharge pressure.34) Normally. density. 101 are connected by an ideal nozzle through which the flow is isentropic .29) to be liquid flows. ho = (h) + Further. 1959).p pC (10. we assume that the vessel and pipe in Fig . As an example of the various boundary and initial conditions required. f(j ). suitable initial conditions are.30) The ± in Eq. p(z. t » = C( L. The exit boundary conditions therefore are expressed as. (10.30) implies right. t»poo (compressible fluids) or. friction effects are negligible . (Ph) 6. Therefore. and velocity .35) . (10. p( L. For compressible fluids. dz/dt = (j )±c .32) (j( L. Riemann's solution initially applies . POdP fP J (p) at z = o (10. it is assumed that the fluid velocity in the pipe before rupture is small compared to discharge flow conditions . t ) = poo (incompressible. (10. For the case of nonflashing. The ar bitrary function. and the constant. are evaluated from appropriate boundary and initial conditions . (10. 0» = 0.(j ) = ±�6.or lefttraveling sonic waves . K.20) that vessel pressure and enthalpy are related to pipe entrance properties by. we assume that an instantaneous circumferential rupture occurs at the other end of the pipe . sonic discharge flow develops immediately (Shapiro.VALVE A N D P I P I N G TRAN S I E N T S 497 to Eqs . 0) = po. in which written as. (Ph(Z. t ).
note that the friction parameter. From Fig. [LID. The total wave force is obtained from Eq.4). and ( 10 . 1O8a. Eqs . 0. 1 O8b as follows. steady state is reached where the pressure profile becomes flat. we consider a vessel and constant flow area frictionless pipe that contains pressurized ideal steam . Note that immediately following the rupture. ( 1 0 . 1 08 . Also note that ( FB + Fw)lpoA 1 . pipe entrance pressure begins to drop. but the blowdown and j et impingement forces continue to act. poA. Eventually. both wave and blowdown forces decrease with increasing fric tion and the steady blowdown force is strongly dependent on pipe friction . This feature can be shown to be valid for any fluid in a rigid pipe by considering the rupture as removal of a rightward force. 107 as an isometric pressure spacetime surface . 36) . wave forces vanish.28% of its initial value and remains constant until a wave is reflected from the vessel. steady blow down and impingement forces. The resulting solution is shown in Fig.5 Evaluation of Reaction and Im pingement Forces Z /L /L F W( t ) z2 F W ( t ) z2 Fw( t ) I poA ZI poA 0 poA 0 = l l _ Presentation of blow down and segmented wave forces with a wide range of the friction parameter. Following a postulated rupture. When the decompression wave reaches the vessel. saturated steamwater mixtures. To determine the wave force on a given segment bounded by lengths 21 and 22. 6 ) . integrated over the entire pipe length. 17) were solved for isentropic vessel attachment and sonic discharge boundary con ditions. ( 1 0 . it is necessary only to subtract values from Fig. However. 1 08b were obtained by in tegrating Eq. the discharge pressure varies during this time interval . [LID. 1 6). = = 10. until the decompression wave reaches the vessel . or some intermediate flow regime . discharge pres sure drops to . from the pipe end . separated. 4) and ( 1 0 . (10. The steadystate discharge of steamwater mixtures can be in the form of a homogeneous. (10. ( 1 0 . L. I ( 1 0 . for pipes with friction. as time progresses. Fortunately. Segmented wave forces in Fig .498 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S O F A B W R When steady flow conditions are reached following a pipe rupture. 4) from 2 0 to various fractions of the total pipe length. and steam would be a computational task of staggering magnitude . does not affect the initial value of blowdown and wave forces . Corresponding solution surfaces also exist for velocity and density. approximate speed of waves in the fluid. Solutions of the space. As an example solution of fluid properties. useful design data can be extracted from initial blowdown and wave forces. L. and state properties corresponding to non flashing water. Typical blowdown and wave forces are shown for ideal steam i n Fig.and timedependent fluid properties can be used next to obtain wave and blowdown forces from Eqs . 15).
..1.. . Fig.....VALVE A N D P I P I N G TRAN SIE N T S 499 ( \. ..0 / / / / / / / / / CDMPR ESSIDN WAV E FROM VESSEL REACHES DISCHARGE 'CoiL / 107 Pressurespacetime surface (steam).. � D I SCHARGE A ________ :::.� ' ZIL DISCHARGE PRESSURE DROPS INSTANTL Y 1..
0. .0 �' FB/PoA Po IDEAL STEAM �wmovmJl{ � W A '. SEGMENTED WAVE FORCE.} � 0. 108 Typical blowdown and wave forces (steam). I .0 5.0 �O 1.32 �§:::. ____r..0 .0 0.6 IDEAL STEAM 1C0/L 3.68 0.0 � ° 0 �����a��� 3 ��4�.0 = b. _______::: 2. ILID 0 Fig. NE.. � L � FB <t IL/D' 0..500 T H E RMAL H Y DRAU L I C S O F A BWR 2.� .== o. �5� .8 .0 �.. . 0 0 lCoiL BLOWDOWN AND TOTAL WAVE FORCES 1.0 t 10.
At one atmosphere.6) to obtain the initial blowdown force. discharge density is 62. discharge pressure drops to the ambient value and discharge velocity is obtained from Eq. The term Co corresponds to the sonic speed in a saturated water mixture at the initial pressure . In contrast. a trailing decompression wave advances at the sonic speed corresponding to flashing water.5 ft before the discharge end flashes.2. a bounded pipe segment (j )/Co   . Note that higher subcooling leads t o higher wave forces. 1 . 3. 28 (ideal steam) (10.4 it requires . 9. and the initial discharge velocity varies with pressure.37) For the case of saturated or subcooled water in the pipe. As an equilibrium saturated water mixture is decompressed isentropically. initial discharge properties are shown in Fig . following a decompression . 1010. For nonflashing water. 29) can be integrated to determine the initial discharge properties . Initial discharge properties were used in Eq. following the rupture of a pipe initially con taining water. It is well known that water can exist in a metastable state before flashing begins. a decompression wave could advance into water 4. Therefore.31). These results also are shown in Fig. Therefore. totO. By expressing the fluid density and sonic speed in terms of pressure and entropy. a decompression wave moves at sonic speed in water. Therefore. 0 msec for flashing to occur. The initial wave force was obtained by subtracting the normalized initial blowdown force from 1 . roughly 4500 ft/sec. Eq. totO. Note that higher subcooling reduces the initial blowdown force. begins sonic outflow. to9. (to. For the case of stagnant ideal steam with K 1 . which approaches zero for nonflashing water . (10. and produces the blowdown and jet forces of Fig. It follows that although a brief decompressionrecompression wave travels at sonic speed in nonflashing water. The solid lines correspond to subcooled water initially at pressure po but whose saturation pressure is psat. and by employing the condition that the discharge velocity is sonic. As discussed in Sec. initial dis charge properties are: = ( (j ) ( (p) ( Co 2 1: = __ po K+1 2 = __ = 0.VALVE A N D P I P I N G TRAN SIE N T S 501 and an approximate time required for steady flow to be reached. a s given in Table toI . 109. which is shown in Fig.86 K+1 = 0. These design properties are considered next. explaining why > 1 .0 in Fig. repressurizes.1 . 4 Ibm/ft3 .40 2 = __ K+1 Po ) ) 21(K) 2K1(K = 0. the initial blow down force for ideal steam is directly proportional to po. (to. its sonic speed increases. po. 0.
IS.0 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A BWR r . water. 4. 109 Initial discharge properties.: ° u 2.1 1211 f.0 14441 400 O �____________________________�__________________________� o Po 1000 (psia) 2000 1.0 r. P/P SAT O �__________________________�__________________________� o 1000 2000 Po (psi •• Fig. plP SAT 1000 INI TIAL DISC H A R GE DENSITY RATIO.0 P (psiol SAT IN I T I A L D ISC H A R G E V E L O C I T Y I T S AT (OF I 1 IEO.502 6. . I N I T I AL DISCHARGE P R ESSURE RATIO.
This early wave has a relatively brief period. L . po . ( j ) (ftlsec) 3. The later decompression wave associated with saturation pressure is of longer duration and normally is the most important from a loading standpoint. Nonfl ashing Water System Pressure.39) it follows that the time required to discharge the initial contents of a pipe with length. is.6 22. poo .41) . If the average discharge velocity and density are approximated by.3 125.VALVE A N D PI P I N G TRAN S I E N TS 503 TABLE 101 I n itial Discharge Velocity.7 S. ( j ) oav is roughly equal to Vz( j )O. 0 14. psat. although its maximum amptitude is between ( po . 2 96 .initial + (j )O.poo)A and ( pO . 5 31 . ( j )oav = Vz( (j )O. at one end and a pres sure at the other end somewhere between the ambient.4 1 200 1400 2000 lSoo 1600 42. 2 56. final) (10. and fluid density. Numerous detailed numerical solutions for timedependent discharge flow from ruptured pipes lead to the conclusion that steady flow is ap proached when the initial pipe contents have been expelled . and saturation pressure.0 can be momentarily exposed to vessel pressure. where (10. depending on the degree of metastability.psat)A.38) (10. po.final is obtained from. For nonflashing liquid flow. po (psia) 400 600 SOO 1000 200 Discharge Velocity. 0 75.40) ( j )O.final . (10.
. �.....0 c======.:.504 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR 1 o r.:TR F lASH NG E �7 A ...�_�L S A T U R A T I ON L I N E o .. � ..�__. 1010 Initial blowdown and wave forces..:N. *. ��� 2 PSA P _ .. .. ° ��==��J 1 2 ooO 0 0 00 P o { P S'I' ."''''' SAT U R A T I ON L I N E Fig. 400 . ..' ...  ...."j'..... WAVE L _ _ �:::. z S L OWDOWN A PSA T '" 2 400 00 psi.. O �______________________________�______________________________� o 1 000 2000 1 .T . OO ... t: .
based on both separated and homogeneous flow regimes. In the mixture region. 10. does not strongly affect for saturated water in the vessel . 45) are used with the formulation for the steam water critical flow rate expressed functionally by. Also shown is the steady blow down force for saturated steady and nonflashing water (Moody. required to reach a steady discharge . it follows that y. Outside the saturation boundary. 43) can be used for estimating the approximate time. ( 10 . Thus.46) F BlpoA. 44) and ( 1 0 . finally reaching the value 2. 0 . 109 can be employed with Eq. the twophase blow down and jet impingement forces of Eqs . 1969) .1 .45) The steady blowdown force. tD = 2L For compressible discharge.poe) ] is . The steady blowdown force for separated flow i s graphed i n Fig. Therefore. �) PO.0 for nonflashing liquid (Moody. is plotted in Fig. 42) and ( 1 0 . initial and final density and velocity are roughly the same .(x» �] ( X )+ l S(X» )} 1 (10. It is readily shown that for separated liquidvapor flow. CP�:aJ Cj��aJ (�J (compressible fluid) (10. F B= poA. . F B=R= (p2 poo)A2 + Ggc�ax'A)22 ( P + (10. the separated flow model is conserv ative for use in subsequent twophase formulations . po F BlpoA po.42) tD = Equations ( 1 0 .VALVE A N D P I P I N G T RA N S I E N TS 50 5 The corresponding density ratio. 101 1 for frictionless pipes. vessel pressure has only a slight effect on the nondimensional blowdown force. the blowdown force increases more rapidly with increased subcooling. pol(Ph)Dav [2gc(poPO. 67) as. (p' ) � {[ �: (1 . (10. 6) and (10. but other values of would be very close to the dashed line shown . The curve for saturated steam was based on 1050psia vessel pressure. Gc= Gc ( ho.40) in the form. (10. Note from Fig. for nonflashing water. (5. 1 012 as a function of pipe friction .44) Equations ( 1 0 . Pressure. (10. 10) can be written as. 1 969) . Eqs . tD. Therefore. ( 1 0 .1 1 that separated flow gives slightly higher steady blowdown forces than homogeneous flow . 37) or Fig.43) where (p ' ) is the momentum density given in Eq.
0 M I XTURE 'i.0 SATURATED WA T E R M I XTU R E !!: .506 T H E RM A L H YDRAU L I C S O F A B W R �r�r��' 2. > Q C 1 . ... SATUR A T E D WA T E R H OM OG E N E O US F L OW 'LID ..0 � C 0 ..0 NON F L A S H I N G L I QUID SATURA T E D S T E AM . .. . ....0 O �______�________�________�______��______�________� o ho ( Btullbml 600 1 200 Fig. . SEPARAT E D F L OW 0 0 *� ILiD ' 0 DISCHA R G E ho I Btu/lbm) 600 1 200 2. l 01 1 Steady blowdown force. C 0 !!: > Q C 1 . .
. ..4 \ \ \ SA T U R A T E D S T E A M S A T U R A T E D WA T E R 0. 1 000..0 (SATU R A T E D ) Po � ��FB A � SAT U R A T E D W A T E R Po = 800... 1 200 psi.60 80 100 o 20 40 /0 Fig.6 ..2 ....   . l012 Friction effect on steady blowdown force.r� 0.VALVE A N D P I P I N G TRAN S I E N T S 507 1 ..   . Po NO N F l A S H I N G W A T E R 1 050 pSla ' . IliD 6 10 0. . 2 �o 1 ..
1010 and the steady blowdown force. 1016. Fig. it is necessary to know the propagation speed of disturbances in the pipe fluid . Results are shown in Figs. 12) and (10. PI/PO. The curve for saturated. . if A is the expanding jet area at a target. respectively. For sub cooled water. Sometimes a pipe contains an orifice. Figs . 13) were employed with the expanded ho mogeneous jet density. obtained under the assumption that the stagnation enthalpy equals the static enthalpy of the expanded jet. The restriction considered for the upper curves was a sharpedged orifice with standard pressure loss properties . 1963) for the critical discharge of steamwater mixtures indicate that fully expanded properties are ap proached closely in less than five discharge pipe diameters of forward travel. fb. For closer targets. 1015 was constructed to show the effect of an upstream flow restriction on the blowdown force . and the steady blowdown force of Fig. Previous data (Faletti and Moulton. 1013 and 1014. as the initial and steady full j et impingement forces . Curves for saturated steam are based on the derivative. flashing water is based on evaluated on the saturated side of the steam dome . 1012 was employed to obtain the expanded jet area and impingement pressure . the sonic speed is 4500 ft/sec. 101 1 and 1012 can be interpreted. s tea dy. valve.22) to determine the prop agation (or sonic) speeds shown in Fig. the jet boundary should be assumed to expand linearly between the discharge plane and five pipe diameters downstream. or other flow restriction that reduces the steady blowdown force . if vapor begins to form before the restriction. By equating orifice flow rates for both flashing and nonflashing flows to critical pipe discharge rates. Equations (10. A third case is shown for ideal steam flow with choked flow in an upstream Venturi and supersonic discharge flow . Therefore. of Fig . If an upstream restriction exists in a region of nonflashing water.initial . (10. the normalized jet pressure. if a target is more than five pipe diameters away. the initial blowdown force. can be taken as FB/poA . 1013 and 1014 can be used. of Figs . evaluated on the superheated side of the steam dome . FB. Therefore. Steam and water properties were employed in Eq. However. choking probably will occur in both the restriction and pipe . Another case is for choked flow in both the restriction and the pipe. (ap/apg ls ) . Then.  (ap/a(Ph) l(s}) . To estimate the duration o f blowdown and wave forces. it is likely that choking will not occur in the restriction . One case is shown for saturated water flow with no flashing in the restriction but subsequent choking in the pipe .508 T H E RMAL H Y DRAU L I C S OF A B W R Earlier it was mentioned that the full jet impingement force is equal to the blowdown force.
............ I ILiD SAT U R A T E D S T E AM 1050 pSla  ... l 0.VALVE A N D P I P I N G TRAN S I E N T S 509 D l Oll S A T U R A T E D WA T E R " k " 10 \ \ \ \ " ".   N D N F L AS H I N G W A T E R 80 � �20������ 10 1 011 Fig. "' .. ... . ...... .1 3 Expanded jet area ... ""'" ..
.060 . . .0 � NON F L ASHING WAT E R A T ZERO F R I C T ION o 0. 0.. 1 01 4 Expanded jet pressure...510 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A B W R 2.020 1 200 NO N F L A S H I NG WAT E R 20 40 IL/O 60 10 100 Fig.040 SA T U R A T E O WAT E R Po = 800 psia 1 000 0..
UPS T R EAM V E N T U R I I D E A L S T E A M F LOW IN P I P E W I TH . ' "" " / ... Po o o � __ � __ � __ __ __ __ � 4 __ __ __ __ � 6 __ __ __ __ �________� 8 10 Fig. 1 200 pSia .2 1 000 1...6 \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ SAT U R A T E D WAT E R Po NO F L ASH I N G I N R ES T R I C T I O N CHOKED I N PIPE = 800. 1 01 5 Steady blowdown force with restriction..VALVE A N D P I P I N G TRAN S I E N T S 51 1 1 200 1..0 0. . 1 200 psi \ \ \ 0. 1 000 . 1 000 ..... t o..8 . !: .2 SATU R A T E D WAT E R TWO·PHASE C H O K E O AND PIPE = . ... 0.. F L OW I N R E S T R I C T l ml 800. '" 0.4 .. Q C ..... . .
. w w ..SAT U R A T E D STEAM .. P I Fig... f LASH I NG WA T E R 100 PR E SSU R E ... .. 1 0. ..... NON F LASH I N G WATE R C O L D WATE R R EG I ON 1000 ... o o ! o Z Sl o SATU R A T E D .. 7 .1 6 Sonic speed .S12 T H E RMAL H Y D RAU LICS O F A BWR 10 � r' SAT U R A T E D ..
For the case of nonflashing liquid. before the transition l!i. 54) . 47) On reaching Sec. (j )lljAl = (j )'j A. AI (j).=E!. 31) Pll (10. Mass conservation in the intermediate region requires. 1 Effect of Area Changes When a decompression or compression wave encounters an abrupt area change like the one shown in Fig. ( Fw PII PI)AI = 1. 3 1) can be employed again to write. grated to show that the total wave force is given by. 5 . Equation (10. (3 AAllI ) . I. 50) (10. 49) (10. = 2/(Al.j =2/( 1 AI ) All (j). 1 ) PIPll A (j hIj =2/(All + 1 ) (j). (10. Pi . II.4) G = (p)r(j). I and I I . 48) (10. the intermediate pressure. For lowvelocity liquid. can be assumed equal in Secs.31).!. To estimate such an effect. 101 7. 53) can be inte (10. 52) (10. = :� ( Pi PI) + By using the identity.0. and Eq. ( Pll Fw )A. Eq.VALVE A N D P I P I N G TRAN S I E N TS 513 1 0. consider an oncoming wave traveling leftward in Sec. the wave is partly reflected and partly transmitted. flow readjustment causes a change in the wave force.j (j). ( 1+ I ) PI A All + = after the transition (10. Pl . (10. further suppose that pressure in the undisturbed fluid is and that the oncoming pressure is Equation can be used to show that. (j)llj = � ( PllPi) (j). The last four equations can be combined to obtain the intermediate prop erties as.. (10.51) (10.
1 0·1 7 Effect of area transi tion . . B E F O R E THE T R A N S I T I O N . .0 1.< i > 1 AFT E R I �_l 2. 0 •. ".. 0 1 0..0 ����. AFTER THE TRANSITION BE F O R E � FW + IP .../ 1t I I AI 3.0 4. 'P" ..0 . . .0 . ' t r"0 """' t TRANSMISSION R E F LECTION .0 •...0 Fig. ...P ' I �    TRANSM I T T E D WAV E  I 1...514 T H E RMAL H Y DRAU L I C S O F A BW R ONCOM I N G COMPR ESS I O N OR A l l DECOMPRESSION WAV E PI I < i >.. 0 2.. >�        � R E F LECTED WAV E  F A I 0 I / ..
( 1 0 . 1 01 7 Fw. 10. 101 7 The graph of Eq . Comparison of the steady blow down Results from several basic experiments are available to evaluate predictions pipe . based on a 920psia vessel saturation pressure. 101 7 should be considered as very 1 0. 2 is shown in Fig . 236 in . The pipe system contained cold water initially pressurized to 21 75 psia . Test number 704 contained a 0 . It should be noted. 55 ) is useful in estimating pressure loads imposed on reactor vessel internals following arrival of the decompression wave waves. which drop pressure below the saturation value. vessel. Only the initial thrust Fig. 027fi orifice about midway in the 4ft discharge water to begin flashing . 2 ( PII pl )All F WI and also are shown in Fig .1 9 .VALVE A N D PIP I N G TRAN SIE NTS 515 Note that for large ratios of wave force in Sec . These wave forces are given by. Discharge . 1 968) is shown in Fig . Thus. The experimental force measurement (Hanson. ( 1 0 . A graph of the wave force before and after transition is shown in Fig . 95 to 4 . II. Good agreement with the test is shown for The expressions of Eq. 1010 for a frictionless pipe . 1 015 was used to area enlargement. however. 1 970) for an area transition from 0 . 5 6) + 1) 1 ( 1 0 . AlI/AI. was obtained from from the methods just described . 1018. Test number 706 did not contain an orifice in the discharge pipe . 5. that large decompression tenuated in the pipe and decrease about an order of magnitude in intensity when they reach a rigid wall about one pipe diameter into the pressure conservative for estimation of loads on reactor vessel internals . the curve labeled " saturated water. are strongly at (�: (pIIPI)AI (�: (� + 1 ) 1 1) ( 1 0 . 2 Comparison with Data force with some Loft data (Dietz. Therefore. 54) were employed to predict the wave re action forces before and after a decompression wave arrived at an abrupt this comparison also . 55 ) from a pipe rupture . F WII the wave force can triple its magnitude . I The total wave force. is composed of FWI plus FwlI ' where FWI is the and FWI l in Sec. The distance from vessel to orifice was sufficient for the saturated calculate the blowdown force . twophase choked flow in restriction and pipe" in Fig . Reasonable comparison is shown . value. the loads indicated in Fig.
. LOFT I 1 9681 1 2 .027 f t 2 V E SS E L P R E SS U R E .... I N I T I A L SATU R A T I ON PR E SS U R E T E S T 706..000 . 0: ::l 1 200 � 800 r:Y� 7 04 R I F I C E . . � . . ... 1 0·1 8 Steady blowdown force comparison. 0: ...��======��' 0 T I M E l sec ) 6 .516 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S O F A B W R 11. NO O R I F IC E CA L C U L A T E D 1 � r__... 400 o ���==... 704 P I P E D I SC H A R G E P R E S SU R E . > 1 .000 . BLOWDOWN FORCE tI . OR I F IC E 920 ps.. o 8000 4000 I� I '\ . C A L C U L A T E D ! I N I T I A L VA L U E I TEST 704.. � .0 Fig. . O.
2 2 • �'[""A� � DISCH A R G E = 0.VALVE A N D P I P I N G TRAN S I E N TS 51 7 100 in. 1 9701 2000 O r�_i o 2 4 5 6 Fig. 36 in. comparison with data . .95 in. 6000 5A in.2 4000 I I I I I I I I I ANALYTICAL MODEL EXPERIMENT I H ANSON. WAVE F O R C E � All = r 4. 1 01 9 Cold water wave force.
An approximate determination of the forces is obtained by the following procedure . 3 Example Problems Example Problem # 1 The vessel and pipe system shown in Fig. estimate the forcetime behavior on the three segments . _� 300 �"'"'''' ' 0 . 1 021 contains ideal steam at 1000 psia . The method of characteristics was applied using twophase homoge neous equilibrium flow theory (Gallagher. 2 For the postulated rupture.. 1020 Comparison with Edwards experiment (1970) . 6 � ::::_ :200 T I M E (msec) 0 0 1 00 400 Fig. 32..518 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR 1 200 1 000 CCOS". 1 970) to predict ruptured pipe transients . diam pipe containing water at 1 000 psia with a saturation pressure of 500 psia . 2. 1 2 .BB in.. The solid curves on Fig. The analytical model (dashed line) is seen to agree closely with the experimental trace ._== . and a flow area of 100 in .. 1 021 were obtained from a detailed analysis . I. was initiated by a rupture disk in the smaller pipe .. 5 5 ft CALCULATED PRESSURE EDWARDS ( 1 9 70) MEASU RED PRESSURE 400 __=:. It is seen that the predicted and measured pressures are relatively close. who ruptured the end of a 13ftIong.5 .:) 600 III III W a: ..PRESSURE 200 CALCU LATED fLlD = 0. which supports the validity of the theory ... 10. The pipe is 1 60 ft long with segment lengths of 64. Several example problems are presented next to demonstrate the use of the graphs presented so far.. 1 0 iii 'iii w II: BOO E.� 2. EDWARDS ( 1 9 70) MEASU RED . . Figure 1 020 gives a comparison of this theory with the exper imental data of Edwards and O'Brien ( 1970). ". B 9 ft l� �r:::::. and 64 ft. 9in .
1 0.__'__�] V � 0. 1021 ___ ....1 _.:::::� ::::i__=::r:l ] . = :=" L Fig... __ 1£�=== +==c=:::=r=::===� _1.VALVE A N D P I P I N G TRA N S I E N TS 519 64 ft SUD D E N B L DWDOWN A = 100 i B L DWDOWN 100 000 _ _ _ � ! _ � 50 000 ���_ L � WAVE I SUM IWAV E + B LO'l'lOOWN I I A N A L Y T i C A L l j". ...___� _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ J I I _ _ _ _ .. I � � M�I ��I� L o o ����� I I WAVE r.I _L.2 Sample computation.
initial = 0. The wave force is assumed to travel at sonic speed.04 sec 1 2 3 96 = 0.0 . = Time Interval Segment Containing Wave 0<t< toward vessel · Co LI 0 04 < t < 0 · 06 < t < Co Ll +L2 = = = 1600 64 = 0.37) and � (10. To estimate time to reach steady discharge from Eqs . 86 tD The steady blowdown force can be estimated from Fig. 1016 to determine the speed of the sonic wave in saturated steam. By using Fig.29 sec 1011 as. Co 1600 fps .32)(1000)(100) = 32 000 lbf The initial blowdown force is constant until a reflected wave returns from the vessel . 1010 to obtain the initial blowdown and wave forces.initial = 0. FB. (10.43).steady = 1 . 10 sec 1600 224 0. FB. 22poA .40 p = 0. 68)(1000)(100) = 68 000 lbf FW.520 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L IC S O F A B W R Use Fig. 6 (p)o = 0. 14 sec 1600 Ll +L2 +L3 Co 0 · 10 < t < toward rupture Ll +L2 +2L3 Co = 0 14 < t < · Ll +2( L2 + L3) Co 256 . = 0.06 sec 1600 160 = 0.32poA = (0. 16 sec 1600 = 320 = 0 20 sec 1600 · = 3 2 1 0 · 16 < t < 2( LI+L2 +L3) Co The above process is repeated until steady discharge is reached . = (O.�O) ( � )C��0) 0.68poA = (0.
Example Problem #3 . Co =4500 (10. 43) and (Ph) =0. (The large. lbf as. 1010: FB. at the saturation pressure . The saturated water enthalpy is Btullbm • Only the basic numbers are obtained for this example . by using the vessel and pipe layout of Ex ample Problem # 1 . 74)poA = (0.initial The wave speed can be estimated from Fig. Fig.0)(1000)(100) = 200 000 lbf lbf sec as. 6 . but whose initial pressure is psia . FB. 42) .steady = 0. Again.0poA = (2 . estimate the forcetime behavior for a water system whose saturation pressure is psia.74)(1000)(100) = 74 000 = (0.0)(1000)(100) = 100 000 1016.0poA = (1. 26)(1000)(100) = 26 000 1016 Co= 1 20 fps lbf lbf The time to reach steady discharge is obtained from Eq. Using the vessel and pipe layout o f Example Prob lem # 1 . The initial blowdown and wave forces can be estimated from Fig. to In The steady blowdown force is obtained from Fig. estimate the forcetime behavior for a nonflashing cold water system. 800 510 1000 1010. The initial blowdown and wave forces are estimated from Fig. fps The time to reach steady discharge is obtained from Eq. 26)poA = (0. 4) = 2(160) [ (2)(32.75 1011 = 2 .initial FW.initial FW. FB.VALVE A N D P I P I N G TRAN S I E N T S 521 Example Problem #2 .22 Psat �� =2. brief decompressionrecompression wave in the liquid is ignored for reasons discussed earlier) : = (0. 109: (10.initial The initial wave speed is estimated from Fig.0 = 1. Only the basic numbers are obtained here. from which the forcetime graphs could be approximated. 2(6)(21000)(144) ] = 0 .
63 psat = 0. Fw/ = ( . Example Problem #5 . F Wr = (0. AI = 1 0 . 1017 with PI = 504 psia.1 1 for separated flow: FB. 0)( pll . pl = 0 . 1017 to determine all the forces. 35)(496)(20) = . Figure 1015 i s used to obtain the force a t a pipetorestriction area ratio of 5 . 0)( Pll . 2 area is installed in the 100in . Now.P l )A l = (1 . 32poA = (1 . 34)poA = (0.p l )A l = (1 . and AnIAI = 0 .3470 lbf and the transmitted wave force is obtained from. pn = 1000 psia. 0)(496)(10) = 4960 lbf After reaching the transition. = Fw = (1 . 109. 10. ruptures . 5 .0. F B. 2 . Example Problem # 6 . which contains 1000psia subcooled water with 800psia saturation pressure. pipe. An 10 in . 63(800) = 504 psia . noting that PI = 504 psia. 3)(496)(1 0) = 6450 lbf . FWII = (1 . 2. 34)(1 000)(100) = 34 000 lbf 2 A 10in. 2 pipe joins a 20in . Before reaching the transition. An = 20 . 2 Again. F wll = (0. The initial force is. Determine the initial wave force and both transmitted and reflected wave forces at a junction 2 where the 10in . Determine the steady blowdown force if a Venturi of 20in . the reflected wave force is obtained from. 0 in. 0. Fw = (1 . 32)(1000)( 100) = 1 32 000 lbf Example Problem # 4 . From Fig.steady = (0. use Fig. 2. use Fig.522 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A BWR The steady blowdown force is obtained from Fig. 2 pipe of Example Problem # 1 . 2 . 0 in. pu = 1000 psia. 3)(496)(10) 1488 lbf = and the transmitted force is. steady = 1 . and AuIAI = 2 . pipe. 0)(496)(20) = 9920 lbf The reflected wave force is given by. 65)(496)(20) = 6450 lbf Consider a break in the 20in. 2 pipe of Example Problem #5. and determine wave forces where the section area changes to 10 in . AI = 20 in.
A shock can form in cases of a rapid valve closing. and energy conservation laws across the shock can be written for the dotted CV in which storage terms are negli gible . it becomes a moving boundary across which fluid properties are assumed to change discontinuously . methods presented in this study can be used in the preliminary design and positioning of mechanical restraints to with stand pipe rupture forces resulting from postulated accidents . initial blowdown force of the discharging pipe segment 2 . Moving shock relationships can be obtained by analysis of a disconti nuity moving rightward at speed 5 relative to the pipe in Fig. 1 989) . and shocked properties are designated by subscript y . but properties across a shock must be obtained from the conservation equations to be developed next (Moody. The disturb ance has occurred at the left. Therefore. which charges an otherwise stagnant pipe fluid . which applies only to the discharging pipe segment and is equal to the full jet impingement force 7 effect of upstream area restriction on the steady blowdown force 8. saturated water. effect of pipe area change on the wave force 5. which decelerates oncoming fluid. The graphs are based on either subcooled water. methods for estimating the forcetime character of reaction factors caused by the postulated circumferential rupture of a pressurized piping system have been presented in graphic form . If a moving shock forms. or saturated steam. Mass. expanded jet area. and can be used to estimate the following: 1 . Therefore. Prop erties in the undisturbed fluid are designated by subscript x. approximate time to reach steadystate discharge conditions 6.VALVE A N D P I P I N G T RA N S I E N T S 523 In summary. expanded jet impingement pressure for computing the impingement forces . approximate wave speed to determine the transient location of the wave front 4 . The blowdown and wave forces compare favorably with representative experimental data . momentum. to determine which mechanical components over lap the fluid jet and experience impingement forces 9. steady blow down force. we have. 1022 . 1 0. or a rapid valve opening. transient wave force.6 Shocks in Pipes . which travels back and forth through the pipe fluid until steady blowdown is reached 3. The MOe can be applied on both sides of a moving shock.
Mass conserva t ion: W= (Ph)yA( S (j)y ) = (Ph)xA( S (j)x) Momen t um conserva t ion: Energy conserva t ion : If we substitute Equations and relate properties across a moving normal shock for a simple compressible fluid ..hy + !2 P(Ph)yX ( (Ph)x +1 ) =0 (10.60) . (10. hOy . I I w MOMENTUM ENERGY Fig. 61) (10. I I I I  :_ 1 L _ . 57) (10. 62) .. (10.. I I I < i > y ' py A l I I L _ .58) (10. (Ph)x (S2(j)x) = (Ph)y ( S (j)y) (Ph)x(S (j)x) (Ph)y (S (j)y)2 = gc(Py .px) Y P Ph)y hx . 60) (10... SHOCK SPEED U N DISTURBED FLU I D I L Px O)X hx .hox) + (px . 1022 Moving normal shock formulation. 62) w( = rearrangement yields.I (P ) x h hox :1 r. State equations for the fluid are required for a complete analysis .524 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS O F A B W R SHOCKED FLUI D Py 0) y hy (PW y hoy r 1 I I I I I I I I I I S.61).J MASS I I I I w r . ( 10.py)AS = 0 ho h + (j )2/2go.J I II  w P xA 0) x r . 59) ( 10..
there are postulated transients in the power industry that can lead to the discharge of gasliquid mixtures through a SRV . Figure 91 1 a gives . it is fortunate that when shocks form. It was found (Wheeler. How ever. a simple solution of the shock equations and prediction of pipe forces is possible . the MOC can be employed to obtain relatively accurate results even for severe pipe flow disturbances without including a moving shock boundary condition . ( 1 0 . 64) 1 .7 Wgc=A [ kgcP()(Ph)O (k � l ) po (Ph )O and Safety/Relief Valves (k + l )/(k . but none have proven to be successful (Von Neumann. ] V2 ( 1 0 . .1 ) are the stagnation pressure and density . and ( 1 0 . which closely approximates a shock over three to five spatial mesh points in the numerical computation. 62) can be written as 1 k. 1950) . Various means of incorporating local dissipation to simulate a moving shock have been pro posed.1 2 1 A = (Ph)A(j) = GcA( Gc where 1 0.1 + 1 = ( 1 0 . where is the critical mass flux. 60). (10. and ( t ) is the timedependent valve throat area . 1973) . The local critical flow rate for a perfect gas is expressed by: h = CpT p = pRT C=yKgoRT (Ph)y = (k+ py ) (k+ py ) px px (Ph)x S C(j)x k + Py k x px (j)y (j)x (py ) (k+ py + ) Cx px J px 1 1+ k. How ever. 65) 1 1 k(k .61).VALVE A N D P I P I N G TRA N S I E N TS 525 If we employ the perfect gas state properties. a safety/relief valve (SRV) would discharge gas or steam . 1 979) that the MOC has an inherent numerical dissipation mech anism when steep pressure profiles form. When this occurs. The discharge mass flow rate w through a valve is usually restricted by the critical flow at the throat such that w( t) t). 66) Normally. then Eqs . 63) 2k 1  1 2k ( 1 0 . ( 10 .1) k . A shock may form immediately and propagate through the piping sys tem in cases of rapid valve opening or cloSing.1 + It is difficult to incorporate shocks in a MOC solution that employs standard Cartesian coordinates ijonsson et aI .
written between the reservoir and a pipe section immediately downstream of the valve. or the reflected shock if appropriate. Simultaneous stepwise solution with the arriving char acteristic. Other discharge flow models. equilibrium twophase states are not fully achieved in the relatively short flow length through a valve throat. the boundary condition normally is applied at one position. The homogeneous equilibrium model usually can b e employed t o ap proximate steam and highquality discharge . going from a closed position to a fully open position in a stroke time of less than 50 msec. it creates a compression wave that propagates through an initially stationary gas. SRVs in nuclear plants generally have fast response. such as one based on a non equilibrium formulation (Henry and Fauske. 1 023 . becoming steeper as it advances through the relief pipe. Since the pressure propagation speed in liquid is much faster than it is in gas. adiabatic energy equation. 1975) . the steam flow rate closely follows the valve opening characteristic. This model is based on two phase flow through an isentropic nozzle throat that is 10 cm or longer to permit phase equilibrium . tending to form a moving shock wave as shown by the pressure profiles in Fig . and an appropriate state equation to obtain a relationship between entrance values of pressure and velocity . The entrance boundary condition for SRV discharge makes use of the critical mass flow rate. 1971 ) give better flow rate predictions at low steam mass fractions . + ( j )2/2go. However. Consequently. As highpressure steam charges from the SRV into the relief line. which normally is air at 1 atm . the quasisteady. Although a liquid column moves through a distance. as indicated by the mass discharge rate also shown in Fig.526 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A B W R the homogeneous equilibrium critical mass flux for saturated steamwater mixtures and subcooled water (Moody. Figure 1 023 shows the main disk opening characteristic for a direct acting SRV The full opening stroke occurs within 24 msec. the momentum law is written for the entire liquid column. all increments of a liquid column tend to respond simul taneously to imposed pressure disturbances. Simultaneous solution with the arriving solution of the characteristic equation yields the fully prescribed entrance condition . expressing velocity in terms of driving pressure . with the condition that equal pressure and velocity exist across the interface. which are bounded by elbows ho h = . the arriving pressure disturbance drives the submerged liquid column out of the pipe . yields the necessary boundary condition. 1024. SRV discharge generally occurs into a pipe that contains stagnant air. Most SRVs are close to the pressure vessel . Therefore. If a pipe is charged at one end and its other end is submerged. provided that its submerged length is much smaller than the total relief pipe length . The propagating pressure wave changes shape. when the water quality drops below about 0 . 5 steam mass fraction. As the developing pressure front passes through various sections of the relief pipe.
The discharging steam pushes the initial gas ahead of it such that a steamair interface or contact surface follows the propagating pressure front at a slower speed as shown in Fig . direct acting SRV o r turns at each end (bounded sections). The calculated timedependent pipe . The pressure front is reflected at an increased level and simultaneously begins to move the water column.VA LVE A N D P I P I N G TRAN S I E N T S 527 STROKE MASS F LOW RATE TIME Fig. when the interface enters a bounded pipe section. Ultimately. unbalanced pressures a n d fluid momentum effects create net longitudinal forces. fluid momentum again creates unbalanced pressures. 1023 Stroke and mass flow rate. 1 024. Thus. and only the blowdown thrust force survives on the pipe discharge end . Although pressure and velocity are continuous across the interface. If the SRV pipe discharge end is submerged in water. causing a decompression wave to propagate backward through the pipe . which result in a net lon gitudinal pipe force. the advancing pressure front eventually arrives at a gaswater interface . propagation effects attenuate in the piping system and steady flow is achieved. which is accelerated until it moves out of the SRV discharge pipe. respective air and steam densities are different.
P ��SHOCK p x Fig. 1 024 Pressure profile in SRV pipe.528 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B W R p P 17::"""'__ w II: ::::> Vl Vl W II: Q. .
The various curves shown on each graph all start at the origin and diverge at o o "'__ l_.)/(Ph)oI(Ph)'" for a perfect gas with k = 1 .. Co". b. 1979) .. Gas Charging The following paragraphs present a discussion of the piping forces that are created from SRV gas discharge into a relief line.. Each graph is for a given normalized mass flow rate wmax/(Ph)".. and d. Associated wave forces on various pipe segments correspond to Figs. (Ph)"'.J . 3 (Moody.5 1 . 1 0.. 1 Safety/Relief Valve Forces.AC". The pipe discharges to ambient air with properties poo...0 Fig. and stagnation properties ( polp". l 02Sa Pipe force with valve flow acceleration. Fig. 1 O25a.. c. Referring to Fig. 0.VALVE A N D P I P I N G TRAN S I E N TS 529 loads on each piping section then are used as input forcing functions for subsequent analysis of the pipe dynamic response. an SRV mass discharge rate usually can be sim ulated with a rampflat approximation according to: w= { wmax Wmax � t<T t>T where Wmax is the full valve flow rate and T is the ramp time. 1023. l 02Sb Pipe force with valve flow acceleration.30.7. .
7 when the pressure front moves past this location . = = = 10.. the )/(�) A = oc CooT p(O. These individual curves correspond to the total wave force exerted on the relief line between the SRV and a normalized distance X/CooT. 0 rises from 0 to 10. 5 . t ) is the estimated density of discharged fluid just downstream of the valve in the relief pipe at initial pipe pressure.. ) = 4 w /(Phi "" AC "" = 1 0 (Po/p". Fig. the total wave force Fw/pooA between the valve and location X/CooT 1 .530 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B W R w/(Ph) "" AC "" = 5 (Po/p". ) / ( (Ph)o I (Phi ".. The approximate location where a shock first forms during a valve opening corresponds to: Xshock C�T (0 . and drops abruptly at a time of th = 0 . in Fig. Instant (Step) Discharge When an SRV opening time T and the relief pipe length L are such that CooT/L« 1 . t) Coo L ( w/A)"" ( 1 0 . pipe forces can be estimated for the idealized case of instant valve opening.7. For example. which creates a moving normal shock. For example.. 67) . 0. 1025a. 1 025d Pipe force with valve flow acceleration . 0 is obtained by the difference of total wave forces corresponding to X/CooT 1 . The wave force on a pipe segment between X/exiT 0 . 8 � 20 10 Fig. 0 and 0 . ) = 4 15 « 30 « LL B  Q. 8 10 � 5 B LL  Q. ) / ( (Ph)o / (Ph) ".2 Safety/Relief Valves. t L L P = where p(O. 5 and 1 . various times. 1 025c Pipe force with valve flow acceleration .
. where ( P h)O is steam denSity in the pressure vessel. At time t * = 1 . has been normalized with (Ph)oCA. Figure 1028 gives the shock pressure for sudden SRV gas discharge . The valve flow rate. Fn are normalized with PiA. it exerts a force on the elbow that partially counteracts the pressure force on the valve .2. 07 m 2 . Fig . sudden steam discharge at a mass flow rate of w = 150 kg/sec into atmospheric air in a pipe of 0 . which results in the five timedependent forces . w. which would justify a moving normal shock analysis. and Fs increases . Time has been normalized with LlC. and A is the pipe flow area . 5 when the pressure front enters Sec . reflects on the water interface. The dotted line shows how the reflected compression wave propagates backward through the SRV pipe . Computations are shown to be in reasonable agreement. 4. from a vessel condition of po = 6 . . Usually. F2 . Fi begins to rise.VALVE A N D P I P I N G TRAN S I E NTS 531 discharge o f steam a t 6 . which pushes against the SRV When the pressure front moves into the next pipe section. creates a shock force of Fs = 120 kN and an interface force of Fi = 2. 1029 can be employed to obtain the shock speed and other flow properties . The pipe suddenly is charged at one end with gas at mass flow rate w coming from a source at pressure po and density ( Ph)O. ( Ph)"" and Coo. where Pi is initial air pressure in the pipe . 1973) . Figure 1030 shows a comparison o f theoretical a n d measured pressure above the water column near the discharge end of a submerged SRV pipe (McCready et al . 9 MPa and (Ph)O = 36 kg/m3 . and then is partially counteracted as the pressure front enters the next pipe section . 5. For example. Figure 1031 shows results from a detailed example calculation of lon gitudinal forces exerted on various pipe segments during the operation of an SRV Five straight pipe sections are shown between the SRV and the submerged discharge end . The op posite may be true if an SRV discharges a twophase mixture . . the shock force is much greater than the interface force during steam discharge . where L is the total pipe length . Figures 1026 and 1 027 give the normalized forces resulting from a shock and steamair interface moving through a pipe that initially contains gas with properties poo. Force Fj in the pipe section connected directly to the SRV begins to rise with the entering pressure front. 7. . pressure at the discharge elbow is reduced.and spacedependent pressures in a piping system. This process continues until t* = 0 . Simultaneously. The ability to predict unsteady piping loads caused by fluid disturbances is directly related to the ability to predict the time. C is the sound speed in undisturbed pipe air. 8 MPa through a 10msec valve would create a shock at Xshock/L = 0.8 kN. . Only the ramp opening portion of the SRV is shown. and begins acceleration of the submerged water column. When the reflected pressure wave moves backward from the water column into Sec. Once the shock pressure is determined for given values of the mass discharge rate and stagnation properties. the water plug is fully expelled. at which time Fs reverses due to higher pressure on the submerged discharge elbow . Resulting forces Fl. Fs again reverses. .
. shock force.532 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S O F A B W R 60 r��_. 50 40 30 20 10 o �o __ __ �____________�____________�________ 5 10 15 Fig. 1 026 Valve step charging.
.1 0 11L____________�______________�______________�______� o 5 10 15 Fig. 1 02 7 Valve step charging. interface force.VA LVE A N D P I P I N G TRA N S I E N T S 533 20 r�r_� 15 10 o « � 5 O ������_j� 5 .
(INTERFACE' (SHOCK' S 10 0. 5 O �____________�____________�____________�____� o 5 15 Fig.534 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B W R 1 5 r��__. 8 til 0. 1 028 Valve step charging. . shock pressure .
4. k = 1. (Ph) "" . 1 029 Moving shock properties. C "" STATIONARY 4 / / / / / 3 2 O ���L�� o 5 10 15 20 Fig.r� A 5 p"" .VALVE A N D PI P I N G TRAN S I E NTS 535 6 r. ..
. . 1982) . . and gives the calculated shock pressure resulting from sudden steamwater mixture discharge through an SRV for a range of mass flow rate and mixture en thalpy (Moody. . Although subsequent reflections and movement of pressure fronts through the various pipe sections in both directions create increases and decreases in the resulting force components. which results in higher prop agating pressure . . whereas saturated and subcooled mixture creates smaller shock forces . These speeds are useful in determining both the pipe segment forces.536 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A B W R 500 2 0 . 1029 to obtain the associated shock force that propagates through the relief pipe . .7. It is seen that the interface force . It should be noted that saturated vapor results in the maximum shock force. 000 400 1 0 • 000 w 0: :> '" '" w 0: Q.3 Safety/Relief Valve Flooding Various transient conditions are postulated in the nuclear power industry that involve SRV flooding with steamwater mixtures. .�. Figure 1033 gives the calculated mixtureair interface force for twophase discharge through a SRV (Moody. Btu/htt 2 F A L Po = 6.02 S H w T 200 : . . : .. this discussion should help explain basic pipe loading effects caused by SRV discharge . .. C w c 0: 0 U w 0: ! 300 HI = O r PIPE WALL STEAM CONDEN SATI ON HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS. . . 1 030 Comparison of model with measured pressure data . .._ . Figure 1029 also gives the shock speed and the shocked fluid speed for a range of shock pressures . 1 0. 1982). based on the shock or interface transit time . and the time of force application in any segment. STEAM = 0 . The relief pipe forces resulting from twophase valve discharge must also be accommodated by the design . The main reason for this behavior is that higher enthalpy mixtures undergo greater expansion in the relief line. .6 MPa SAT.. Figure 1032 is based on the perfect gas idealization for air. The resulting shock pressure is then employed in Fig. _ .  1 00 O ���_�__�__�__�__�__�__�__�__�__� __� a 1 00 200 300 400 500 600 700 BOO 900 1 000 1 1 00 1 2 00 TIME AFTER START O F VALVE OPENING (maec) Fig. . . . . 3 1 7 FT 2 74 FT 1 6 FT 1 5 2 LBM/S = 0.
1 03 1 t Ci/l Relief valve opens. ' Pi A .�L� 01 o l V1 Z ':C rn Z � o 2 . · 10 0 I I O F3 F2 · ¢ F4 F3 .\ " F5 * F4 * VALVE F LOW . ' Ci A .Po Po F ./J h J f'v /(J J � X� J IL.F . \ • ' " 2 t C i /l �� Fig. V1 W " .�  » z o J2 J2 Z C'l l Po W " . F5 � < » r < rn ° � H" .
1 032 Shock pressure in terms of valve flow rate and fluid enthalpy.'HOC' �O� M IXTURE " r SHOCKED AIR E _ @ 30 U N D I STURBED AIR 1 ATM 1 1 4 . 0 7 5 2 I b m/ft 3 ) (Pill "" h "" = 1 2 . V.S38 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B W R 40 r. 2 1 KG/M 3 1 0 . 8 20 10 4 3 2 O L__________�____________�____________�_______ o 20 40 60 Fig. 0. 7 p sia) p"" 3 4 3 MIS 1 1 1 2 6 ft/s) C "" 1 . . 8/I b m ) en 0. ' . 9 5 ) 1 0 5 J/KG 1 1 2 7 .
0 7 5 2 Ibm/ft 3 ) C eo 3 4 3 MIS ( 1 1 2 6 ft/s) w u if � « a: Co � 8 z 1 00 50 NONFLASHING WATER o 20 40 60 Fig. . 7 p sia) P eo 3 (Ph} eo = 1 . 2 1 KG/M ( 0 . 1 033 Interface force in terms of valve flow rate and fluid enthalpy.. t R INTERFACE t '" '\ A U N DISTURBED AIR 1 .VALVE A N D P I P I N G TRA N S I E N TS 539 200 ( 1 50 rM I XTURE VS AIR r . 0 ATM ( 1 4 .
1036. 1035. 8 x 1 05 J/kg and dis charged at a rate of 650 kg/sec into a relief line having 0 . 1034. For example. A typical SRV system is shown in Fig. 025sec opening SRV discharging: subcooled. and 1037 for a 0. 03 m 2 flow area would create a shock force of 37 kN and an airmixture interface force of 220 kN . (198 1 ) . 9 x 1 05 Jlkg Fig. 6 . . 1 034 Typical SRV system. 9 .540 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U LICS OF A B W R also increases with mixture enthalpy. 8 MPa water. and generally is higher than the shock force . Figures 1 029 and 1033 give conservative force pr�dictions . Example reaction force predictions are shown for each straight segment in Figs . subcooled at 8 . This attenuation effect has been formulated in a characteristic solution presented by Hsiao et al. Pipe friction and other pressure losses in the shocked gas and mixture tend to reduce the shock and interface forces during propagation .
. 0 ' 0 .STEAM SUBCOOLED WATER . 0. (/) w U II: 0 u.2 0 L______�______�________�______� 1 20 1 60 BO o 40 TIME ( msec) Fig.. (/) W U II: 0 .SATURATED WATER 200 Z � (/) w U II: 0 u.g u. 1 035 Comparison of forces for segment 1 . 0 20 r\ " 1 00 z � (/) w U II: 0 u.VALVE A N D P I P I N G TRA N S I E NTS 54 1 60 SEGMENT 1 STEAM SUBCOOLED WATER 40 SATU RATED WATER 200 0. 1 036 Comparison of forces for segment 2. 40 1 00 20 o .. g c... SEGMENT 2 60 ...20 L______�____�� __ �______� ____ �� __ 200 40 o 1 20 80 1 60 TIME (msec) Fig.
Figure 1 039 shows the stearn velocity re duction associated with a typical turbine stop valve (TSV) closure for which the valve area reduction is approximately linear with time. The effect of valve opening time on relief pipe force is shown in Fig . saturated water. respec tively.STEAM . The relief line initially is submerged 4 .542 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A B W R SEGMENT 3 60 . the resulting forces on segment 3 are much closer together due to higher pressure losses associated with the higher density mixture . It is seen that the resulting force is roughly proportional to the reciprocal valve opening time . It is seen that. farther away from the SRV flow dissipation re duces pipe forces resulting from saturated and subcooled water discharge to levels of the same magnitude as saturated steam discharge . 0 II. 8 m..SUBCOOLED WATER 40 . Stearn flow is fully terminated in a time interval T. and saturated steam from a vessel at 7 .SATU RATED WATER 2 00 Z :! OJ Vl w u a:: . 2. Vl w u a:: 0 0 . and 12 m long.g Q. and 3 are 3 . 1 037 Comparison of forces for segment 3..20 �____�______�____�______�____� 200 1 20 40 o 1 60 80 TIME (msec) Fig. although subcooled water gives larger forces than saturated water or steam on the first two segments. water. In other words. 046m 2 pipe . Segments 1 . 6. 12. which is about 100 msec for some stop . 5 MPa into a 0 . 20 1 00 0 II.8 Stop Valve Closure The pipe loading characteristic from valve closure is different from that associated with valve opening.. 10... 1 038 .
0 . 0 5 SEC . 1 0 0. 20 \ SEGMENT 1 LEGEND VALVE T I M E . 1 039 Steam velocity for TSV closure .06 0. · III w U a: 0 LL � '0 Q. 1 2 0.VALVE A N D P I P I N G TRA N S I E NTS 543 30 I I .08 0..0 .. 1 038 40 TIME (msecl 1 20 Effect of valve opening time on segment 1 forces .J W > > I U 60 < w IIII � 40 20 I o 0.�.02 0 . 0 2 SEC 1 00 Z � 10 50 III w u a: 0 LL o ����� o o Fig.0 . 1 4 t (sec) O ��______�____�____�______���� Fig. 1 00 r���� 80 i. 04 0. ..
544
T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L ICS OF A B W R
ONCOMING

p
::;) (fJ (fJ w a: 0..
ti!
t2 p
p SHOCK
p
x
Fig. 1 040
Pressure profile for TSV closure.
VALVE AN D P I P I N G TRA N S I E N TS
S4S
valves. As the flow deceleration occurs, an increasing pressure disturbance is propagated into the oncoming steam, tending to steepen while it ad vances, as shown in Fig . 1040. Steam pipe lengths usually are long in nuclear plants, making it possible for a shock to form in the pressure front advancing from a TSV closure . Figure 1041 shows a sample calculation of pipe section forces resulting from a TSV closure, based on the MOC method already discussed . When valve closure begins, an increased pressure wave moves toward pipe sec tion 1, where it arrives at a normalized time of about 0.8 and exerts force Fi toward the valve, as indicated by the negative dip . As the compression wave moves into pipe section 2 at t * 1 . 0, force Fi stops increasing. The same general force profile occurs in sections 2, 3, and 4, acting toward the TSV The valve is fully closed in a normalized time of 0.8, and the corre sponding full pressure achieved at the TSV moves out of section 1 at t * 1 . 8, causing Fi to become zero . The same event occurs in each of the pipe sections in sequence . The compression front arrives at the vessel at t * 1 .4, and reflects as a decompression . This causes F4 to stop increasing. The decompression travels toward the TSV, moving into section 3 at t * 1 . 6, causing F4 to become zero . The same effect is repeated in sections 3, 2, and 1 . There is a delay of about t* 1 . 0 as the decompression moves from section 1 to the TSV When the decompression arrives at the TSV, a larger magnitude decompression is reflected. The larger decompression arrives at section 1 at about t * 2.8, and with temporary higher pressure at the elbow of pipe section 1, force Fi becomes positive . Reaction forces in the other pipe sections successively rise to positive values. The process con tinues until propagation dissipates, at which time all net longitudinal forces become zero . The closure of a valve can be sufficiently fast that a shock forms and propagates through the pipe . The condition for which an idealized instant valve closure analysis is appropriate in a pipe of length L is given by:
= = = = = =
CocT/L« 1 . 0
where T is the closure time. When a saturated bubbly mixture of liquid and vapor flows through a pipe in which a valve closes rapidly, the resulting sudden compression drives the vapor into a superheated state and the liquid into a subcooled state . An approximate fluid state is therefore de scribed by an idealized mixture of incompressible liquid and perfect gas bubbles. Letting (x) be the gas mass fraction, Fig . 1042 gives the pipe force resulting from sudden valve closure on a bubbly mixture flowing at velocity ( j )x for several values of the parameter ( 1  (x»)pgl(x)Pf (Moody, 1973) . Also shown are pipe forces for liquid and gas. Shock pressures recorded in a bubbly mixture are compared with predictions in Fig. 1043. The agreement is reasonable, although predictions of the pressure tend to favor the data upper bound .
546
T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B W R
Po Co
0.04 ,,
F3 *
� ,.
0
1
____J .. ....__ __ _ _ _ _
v
�
O: K
o
VALVE AREA
..........
_ _ _
..J
5
o
5
Fig. 1 041
Stop valve closes.
VALVE A N D P I P I N G TRAN S I E N T S
547
PL CL V x
. 1 000 ��
O 1
__ __ __ __ __ __ __
1 0 . ���
9c P x
__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
�
____
�. ____ .r�
1 00
S
1 00
ONCOM ING
�I
�
SHOCK
10
1 .0
  :r: "'"   , 
bx
= (� ) �
x Pf
LlaU ID
PxA
S + vx Cx
FS
, FORCE
_
S + vx C 9x
SHOCK SPEED
(1
+ bx )
IX
0. 1
0. 1
�________________L________________�______________�
1 .0
10
1 00
Fig. 1 042
Flow stoppage force and shock speed.
548
T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S O F A BWR
1 00 r,
>.
c.
c.
)( 1 0
10
Fig. 1 043
Flow stoppage pressure comparison with data.
References
Anderson, J . D . , Modern Compressible Flow, McGrawHill, New York (1982) . ANSI/ANS58.2, "Design Basis for Protection of Light Water Nuclear Power Plants against Effects of Postulated Pipe Rupture" (198@) . ASCE, Structural Design of Nuclear Plant Facilities, Vols. I, II, III (1973) . ASCE, International Seminar on Probabilistic and Extreme Load Design of Nuclear Plant Facilities ( 1 979) . Dietz, K . A . , Ed . , "Quarterly Technical Report, Engineering and Test Branch, Oc tober I December 3 1 , 1967," 1001 7242, Phillips Petroleum Company (1968) .
VALVE A N D P I P I N G T RA N S I E N TS
549
Edwards, A . R , and T. P Obrien, "Studies of Phenomena Connected with the Depressurization of Water Reactors," J. Brit. Nucl. Energy Soc. , 9 (1970) . Fabic, 5 . , "Computer Program WHAM for Calculations of Pressure, Velocity, and Force Transients in Liquid Filled Piping Networks," 6749R, Kaiser Engineering ( 1 967) . Fabic, 5 . , "Blodwn2: Westinghouse APD Computer Program for Calculation of Fluid Pressure, Flow, and Resulting Transients during a Loss of Flow Accident," Trans. Am. Nucl . Soc. , 12, 1 , 358 (1969) . Faletti, D. W . , a n d R W. Moulton, "TwoPhase Critical Flow o f SteamWater Mix tures," AIChE J. , 9,2 ( 1 963) . Gallagher, E. V . , "Water Decompression Experiments and Analysis for B1owdown of Nuclear Reactor," TIDU500 (1970) . Hanson, G . H . , "Subcooled Blowdown Forces on Reactor System Components," IN1354, Idaho Nuclear (1970). Haupt, R W., and R. A . Meyer, Eds . , "STEALTH: A LaGrange Explicit Finite Difference Code for Solids, Structural, and Thermohydraulic Analysis," Vols. 14, EPRI260, Project 307, August 1976, Safety Relief Valves, ASME SP PVP33 ( 1 979) . Henry, R. E . , and H . K. Fauske, "The TwoPhase Critical Flow of OneComponent Mixtures in Nozzles, Orifices, and Short Tubes," Trans. ASME, J. Heat Transfer ( 1 971) . Hsiao, W . T . , P Valandani, and F. J . Moody, " A Method t o Determine Forces Developed during a TimeDependent Opening of a Relief Valve Discharging a TwoPhase Mixture," ASME Paper No. 81 WA/NE15 (198 1 ) . Jonsson, V K . , L . Matthews, and D. B . Spalding, "Numerical Solution Procedures for Calculating the Unsteady, OneDimensional Flow of Compressible Fluid," ASME Paper No . 73FE30 ( 1973) . Karplus, H. B . , "Propagation of Pressure Waves in a Mixture of Water and Steam," ARF 413312, Armour Research Foundation (1961 ) . Landau, L . D . , and E . M . Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics, AddisonWesley, Reading, Massachusetts ( 1 959) . McCready, J . , et aI. , "Steam Vent Clearing Phenomena and Structural Response of the BWR Torus (Mark I Containment)," NEDO10859, General Electric ( 1 973). Moody, F . J., "Prediction of B1owdown Thrust and Jet Forces," ASME Paper No. 69HT31 ( 1 969) . Moody, F. J . , "TimeDependent Pipe Forces Caused by Blowdown and Flow Stop page," J. Fluids Eng. 95, Ser. 1, No. 3 (1973) . Moody, F. J . , "Maximum Discharge Rate o f LiquidNapor Mixtures from Vessels," in NonEquilibrium TwoPhase Flows, R. T. Lahey and G. B. Wallis, Eds . , ASME ( 1 975) . Moody, F. J . , "Unsteady Piping Forces Caused by Hot Water Discharge from Sud denly Opened Safety/Relief Valves," Nucl. Eng. Des. , 72, 213224 (1982) . Moody, F. J . , Introduction to Unsteady Thermofluid Mechanics, Wiley Interscience, New York ( 1 989) . Moody, F. J . , A . J. Wheeler, and M . Ward, "The Role of Various Parameters on Safety Relief Valve Pipe Forces," Safety Relief Valves, AS ME SP PVP33 (1 979) . Semprucci, L. B . , and B. P Holbrook, "The Application of RELAP 4/REPIPE to Determine ForceTime Histories on Relief Valve Discharge Piping," Safety Relief Valves, ASME SP PVP33 (1 979) .
550
T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L IC S O F A B W R
Shapiro, A . H., The Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Compressible Fluid Flow, The Ronald Press ( 1 953) . Von Neumann, J . , and R. D. Richtmyer, "A Method for the Numerical Calculation of Hydrodynamic Shocks," f. Appl. Phys. , 21 (1 950) . Wheeler, A. J . , and F. J. Moody, "A Method for Computing Transient Pressures and Forces in Safety Relief Valve Discharge Lines," Safety Relief Valves, ASME SP PVP33 (1 979) .
CHAPTER ELEVEN
Pressu re S uppression Containment Systems
The major function of a containment system is to protect the environment from an uncontrolled release of radioactive materials in the event that a lossofcoolant accident (LOCA) should occur. This objective is achieved by designing containment systems to accommodate all combinations of loads generated by the mass and energy releases associated with reactor blowdown from a postulated pipe rupture or safety/relief valve (SRV) dis charge . Significant features of pressure suppression containment are pas sive steam condensation in the pool, lower maximum pressures and rapid pressure reduction, higher capacity for blowdown energy discharge, and insensitivity to the initiation time of heat exchangers for energy removal. The thermalhydraulic phenomena and associated loads imposed on a pres sure suppression containment system are discussed in this chapter. Major subsystems of the pressure suppression containment concept in troduced in Chapter 1 are shown schematically in Fig . 17 These include the drywell, vent, water pool, and wetwell air space . Reactor vessel blow down from a pipe rupture raises the drywell pressure and purges air, or for inerted containments, nitrogen gas, through the vent and pool, where it rises to the wetwell air space in a compressed state . The large volume of steam associated with the reactor pressure vessel blow down is vented to the pool where it is condensed to a small volume of water. Drywell and wetwell pressures tend to equalize as the vessel blowdown rate diminishes. Emergency core cooling sprays (ECCS) produce additional steam at first, but later can result in drywell pressure reduction when subcooled water flows from the pipe rupture and provides a cool condensing surface for
1 1 .1
General Pressure Suppression System
552
T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B W R
steam . A decreasing drywell pressure causes air backflow through the vacuum breakers and decreases the wetwell pressure . Pressure suppression systems are designed for a variety of accidents, the most severe being the socalled designbasis accident (DBA), which is a postulated instantaneous circumferential rupture and doubleended blowdown of reactor coolant from that pipe, which causes the highest containment loads . The DBA usually is a main steam line or recirculation line rupture . The drywell and wetwell volumes, vent flow area, vessel blowdown discharge properties, and vent submergence are important physical pa rameters, which permit design control of the overall system response. Typical drywell and wetwell pressuretime responses to a DBA are shown in Fig. 1 11 . The effect of the pipe break area to vent area ratio on the maximum drywell pressure is given by a correlation of the experimental data shown in Fig. 1 12. The objective of this chapter is to discuss the stateoftheart of pressure suppression containment technology . Containment phenomena are sum marized in terms of our current understanding, analytical procedures, and simplified analyses, which help to display the qualitative effects of design parameters on containment loads.
3 r�
2
�� WETWELL
DRYWELL
O L______�____________�__________�____________� o 4 2 3
TIME (secl
Fig. 1 1  1
Typical drywell and wetwell pressure response for
a
DBA .
P R E SS U R E S U P P R E S S I O N C O N TAI N M E N T SYSTEMS
553
20 r,
D.
H U MBOLDT BAY DAT A BODEGA BAY DATA
o
15
�
1 1�
10
tf
\
I
I I
I
I
1\,1\1i
5
�
I I
D.
I
�
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.......
�
0 L__________L____________�__________��__� o 50 1 00 1 50
VENT AREA/BREAK AREA RATIO. Av/Ab
Fig. 1 1 2
Maximum drywell pressure correlation (PG&E, 1 962; Robbins, 1 960) .
554
T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A BWR
1 1 .1 .1
Models of the Individual Subsystems
Basic thermalhydraulic models of the reactor pressure vessel, drywell, vents, pool, wetwell, and vacuum breakers are discussed in this section . Simplifications also are given to help show the dependence of various containment loads on important parameters .
1 1 .1 .1 .1
Reactor Pressure Vessel
Reactor pressure vessel (RPV) blowdown is discussed in Sec. 9.2.2, where equations and graphs are given for the timedependent predictions of RPV thermalhydraulic properties .
1 1 . 1 . 1 .2
Drywell
The drywell receives coolant discharge from the reactor during a LOeA . Prior to vent clearing, the drywell responds approximately as a closed system, with unrelieved pressure rise . Once the vent water is cleared, drywell venting begins and the pressure rate immediately decreases. The drywell volume, blowdown discharge flow area, and vent flow area de termine if the drywell pressure begins to decrease from the maximum nonvented value when venting begins or if it continues to rise at a slower rate to a maximum value . If the drywell air and reactor stearn discharged remain unmixed, Eqs . (9. 103), (9. 104), and (9. 107) yield the initial nonvented drywell pressure rate,
d = dt
which is inversely proportional to drywell volume, and proportional to the blowdown mass flow rate . The initial drywell pressurization rate is important because it plays a major role in the pressure load imposed . Figure 1 13 gives the initial pres surization rate for an initial containment pressure of 101 kPa (1 atm) and a RPV at 1000 psia . It is seen that the pressurization rate has a maximum at some value of blow down enthalpy in the subcooled region . The pres surization rates are comparable for RPV blowdowns of saturated steam, water, or twophase mixtures. When drywell venting begins, the pressurization rate decreases and will tend toward a level where the pressurization rate due to vessel blowdown and the decompression rate due to vent discharge balance to give the quasi asymptotic condition .
,ho)A p kpdVtg( Pd) [ho _ f( Pd)] Gc(pVd b htg(pd) Vd,
(1 1 . 1)
d =0 dt
p
(1 1 . 2)
P R E SS U R E S U P P R E S S I O N CONTAI N M E N T SYSTEMS
555
6
VESSEL PROPERTIES
DRYWELL
Po ho
N
�
w
E
4
Ab. B R E A K A R E A
£]
Vd Pd = 1 . 0 atm Po = 6 . 8 MPa
u
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2
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I I I � SATU RAT E D WAT E R I I I I I
SATU RAT E D STEAM
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0
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I I
3
2
STA G N AT I O N ENTHALPY ho ( K J / g m l
Fig. 1 1 3
Drywell pressurization rate .
If it is assumed that most of the drywell air has been purged to the wetwell when the condition of Eq . (1 1 . 2) is reached, the corresponding drywell pressure can be obtained from a solution of Eq. (9. 103), written as,
(pd)
Av = Ab
for cases in which the value of is sufficiently large to give critical vent and a break area of A b , Eq . (11 .3) discharge flow . For a vent flow area of was used to obtain Figs. 1 14 and 115 for predicting the quasiasymptotic pressure in a typical drywell after venting begins . Figure 1 14 is based on saturated water blow down from 1000 psia and either sa turated steam or water discharge from the vent. Normally saturated steam will flow into
Gc(pO,in, hO,in) [hhO,oin  f(pd)] Gc(pd , hOd) [ df(pd)] Pd Av
(11 .3)
0 0 . steam or water venting.556 1 . 1 L. saturated water blowdown.________�________�________�_________L________� o 50 10 20 40 30 P MA X (atm l Fig. WATER 1 00 SA TURAT E D WA TER DISCHARGE 10 SATU RATED STEAM DISCHARGE 1 . .000 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U LI C S OF A B W R __ __ � REACTOR PRESSUR E VESSEL Po = 7 0 atm SAT. 1 1 4 Quasiasymptotic drywell pressure.
1 8 routes steam and air from the drywell to the pool .0  10 Win 1 00 1  (K .P R E SS U R E S U PPRESS I O N CONTAI N M E N T SYSTEMS 557 1 . which extend downward into the pool below (MARKII design). the vents with some carryover of water droplets._________________________. 1 . 000 .. 1 . .l I � 9c Fig. c. b.. 19a. Q. and a weirvent arrangement with three levels of horizontal vents submerged in the pool (MARKIII design) . c.. II 0: 10 win h oi n Pi = p "" n � LJ ( EQUAL I N ITIAL A N D AMBIENT PRESSURES( K = 1 . 1 1 5 Asymptotic drywell pressure.3 Ven ts The vent shown in Fig. 1 1 . steam blowdown and venting. and d include large radial pipes connected to a ring header with downcomers submerged in the pool (MARKI design). Figure 1 1 5 is based on steam blowdown from the vessel and steam flow in the vents .4 1 . vertical downcomers in the drywell floor. 1 00 . Various geometrical vent designs in Figs .
or a steamair mixture begins to discharge from the vents immediately after expulsion of the water column. and is thus neglected. parallel vents at different elevations has been formulated and verified experimentally (Bilanin. to account for inertia of the surrounding water. 1 16 is given by. pressures. is applied to the column surface. the Mach numbers.poo] d2� PI (1 1 . followed by air or nitrogen and steam discharge to the pool . if only gas flow occurs in a vent pipe whose entrance and exit are designated 1 and 2. Taylor instability of the accelerating vent water surface does not materially affect pressurization loads. and friction parameter are related by: (1 1 . p( t). 4) where friction and gravity are neglected. A more exact treatment of these effects has been given by Khalid and Lahey (1980) . 1953). 5) and. First. the drywell and vent pipe pressurization rate decreases . WI and wg . which imposes a step pressure on a submerged water column. (11 . Droplet flow is closely approximated by classical methods of com pressible flow (Shapiro. Most vent expulsion predictions include a virtual length. (L . whereas a LOCA imposes an almost linearly increasing d rywell pressure on a vent water column . When the vent water clears. respectively.Y/ t = gc [p( t ) . steamwater. equal to about one vent radius. The water expulsion and steamair discharge are summarized next. The dynamic equation that governs liquid column expulsion from the submerged vent shown in Fig . A SRV discharge usually forms a shock in the relief pipe. 1974) . Drywell air.558 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S O F A BW R Pressure rise in the drywell causes expulsion of the vent' s water column.6) . It is expected that any liquid water will be in the form of small droplets rather than other flow patterns. for both the liquid and gas flow rates. A similar water expulsion model for horizontal. Pressure. Figure 1 16 gives calculated water column transients for step and ramp driving pressures. which require more extensive twophase flow analysis .
P R E S S U R E S U P P R ES S I O N CONTA I N M E N T SYSTEMS 559 2 'V � p"" POOL L � ! p(l) I toZ w ::! w u « ' Den p : pj + PI RAMP is l IIj I'/ t \'\ ::! w u « ' Den w V C z « >to V/L (9cL 2 )1 /3 P _  P 0 U ' w > � VENT 0 0 TIME. )1 /3 P P . (IlL) J 9c (� Pi) Fig. (9c . .I L2 2 toZ 2 0 U > w ' c z « >to is TIME. 1 1 6 Vent water expulsion. ramp and step pressure .
6).2 1 .1 MY) 2 PI = + k/(k  (1 1 .560 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S O F A BWR Also.6 O. 7) were employed to obtain Fig. . which gives the entrance Mach number in terms of the vent flow resistance and Pd ( 1 k . 1 1 7 Vent entrance Mach number.:! Vl 2 > � � ' ' LL iii � 0 w a: � w u z 1 . 117. 5)..0 � Z w " C R ITICA�' FLOW 0.B 1 . M 1 Fig. Equations ( 1 1 . drywell and vent entrance properties are approximated by an isen tropic process. 7) 1 00 10 e . ( 1 1 .2 0.4 ENTRANCE MACH NUMBER. and (1 1 .0 1 .4 0. 1 (Q (Q 9 0 '" '" 0.01 0 0.
the mixture mass flux is ob tained in terms of Gv in Eq.0 o o 0.8) Pgd PI i Gmix Gv (x) + (1 . .. if the quantity (k . 1 . 7) can be employed to closely approx imate results for a twophase water dropletgas mixture of constant quality (x).. 9) The pool of a pressure suppression containment is designed to provide a large heat sink for absorbing the energy discharged from a reactor vessel during a LOCA.9 LOCAL MACH N U M BE R .54 0 .2 0. the vent mass flux Gv = v'kgc Pd Pd M I The results of Eq.6).46 0.1 )/(x) whenever it appears. 58 0..1) is replaced by (k . 1 2 0 .(x» . . Once Gv for gas flow is obtained from. when MI and P I are determined. Equations ( 1 1 .6 0.J LL Pd Pd :::. 50 0.3 0. Pd = [ () 1 1 . 1 1 8 Vent mass flux.8 M1  0.04 0 . MI is determined. Moreover. 3 8 Gv 0. 08 0. I= 0.4 0.. r 0. M Fig. 1 0. and must be condensed by vent discharge to the pool . 8) are graphed in Fig.) .5 0. and (1 1 . 1 6 0. 8) as: (��) (k + 1 )/2k ( 1 1 .. (1 1 .. 5).20 0.. a: « a: � � 0. 7 1 \.34 0.4 Pool J ( 1 1 .24 0. 1 . When highpressure reactor coolant enters the lowpressure drywell.30 1 .P R E SS U R E S U PPRESS I O N CONTAI N M E N T SYSTEMS S61 > C1 f . 118 for a steamair mixture . large quantities of saturated steam are generated by flashing. ( 1 1 .. (1 1 . drywell pressure for gas flow.42 � X C/l C/l « ::. 2 8 0. :::...
1 1) and. 1 kg of steam can be condensed in 1 . based on perfect gas equations of state for air. For example. .I1Li _ ( 1 1 . it discharges from the vents. Ma wi . hg.4 atm and BO°C . and the last term of Eq. for example. 12) where the temperatures are absolute. which can be condensed in a pool of initial mass. and pressure. That is. but also continued steam formation from core decay heat. Vaw.562 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B W R Mass and energy principles for the pool with steam entering at enthalpy. as: Mg hf ( pw) . If a mass of air. Tw i . and enters the wetwell air space . Mg = 0. 1 1 ) cor responds to the vapor pressure in the wetwell .5 Wetwell When air is purged from the drywell during a LOCA. the drywell and wetwell air masses were equal. from the drywell enters the wetwell air space at temperature Too. a thermodynamic analysis. T:xl. ( 1 1 . pw i . and hg ( pd) is enthalpy of the steam entering from the drywell . Consider a wetwell at 1 . ( 1 1 . If. rises through the pool. at temperature. 1 MpI. 0 atm and 20°C (293 K) .hL i Ml'i hg ( pd ) . about 0. a pool at 100°F temperature and between 1 and 2 atm pressure yields. 1 1 . and drywell air entered the wetwell air space at pool temperature so that Tw i = the pressure and temperature would rise to 2. Reactor heat removal (RHR) heat exchangers in the pool are designed to provide longterm cooling. the initial wetwell air and pool temperatures the same. hf( Pw) is saturated water enthalpy at wetwell pressure. yield the mass of steam. the pool's heat capacity can absorb LOCA energy or energy release from a stuckopen relief valve (SORV) for about 6 h . pw Too Mda pg ( Twa ) =l+ + Ti Maw i pw i pwi k (11 . Mda . The initial wetwell air mass. if the RHR systems are unavailable. 0 kg of water without raising its temperature to the saturated water value . 1 . However. 10) where hL i is the pool's initial enthalpy. Mg. occupies a volume. Suppression pools are designed to have ample heat capacity for steam condensation from not only a LOCA. 1 . yields the resulting pressure and temperature as. Ml'i.
5 could. if the difference of wetwell and drywell pressures. The flow rate through most vacuum breakers can be obtained from incompressible flow theory. Figure 1 19 compares the containment pressurization for an IBA. and the DBA postulated for a pressure suppression system with properties of Table 1 11 (Abramson. but large enough to prevent the highpressure coolant injection system from maintaining reactor water level. 1 . 1 . other breaks are postulated that cause containment responses which are different than that of the DBA . and small enough so that the high pressure coolant injection system is sufficient to maintain reactor water level. in the limit of an adiabatic wetwell air space. Thus. Drywell pressure rises slowly. 1 . The containment response to a DBA has been discussed in Sec . An SBA is a postulated 0 . an SBA. Two such other break designations are the intermediatebreak accident (IBA) and the smallbreak accident (SBA) . AlyK. I ft2 (0. is typically about 0 . and typical drywell and wetwell pressures are shown in Fig . 1 1 . 00093m2 ) steam break. However. However.6 Vacuum Brea kers Vacuum breakers are employed to permit backflow of water from the wet well air space to the drywell if the drywell pressure is reduced by steam condensation or other mechanisms . 85 m2 . which is not large enough to depressurize the reactor.PRESS U R E S U PPRES S I O N CONTA I N M E N T SY ST E MS 56 3 1 1 . 1985) . J (pw Pd)  A2 2gc Pwa K (1 1 . is employed as the pressure loss through a vacuum breaker. which fills the drywell with steam . 01ft2 (0. which is small enough to prevent rapid depres surization of the reactor pressure vessel. 1 1 9. For discussion of containment response. which depresses the submerged vent water columns and allows air and steam to discharge 1 1 . the flow rate is  Wvb = where pwa is the wetwell airvapor mixture denSity. 0093m2 ) liquid break. 0 atm. pw Pd . the IBA is a postulated 0 . the pool temperature is elevated during a LOCA. 1 .2 Lossof Coolant Scenarios . which results in the highest containment pres sure loads . 1 . If the drywell and wetwell pressures are again returned to 1 . and does not permit an adiabatic limiting temperature reduction during vacuum breaker operation . be reduced significantly . and the flow resistance parameter. The DBA is a postulated rupture of that largest pipe. 1 . based on an orificelike pressure loss . the wetwell temperature considered in the example of Section 1 1 . Liquid discharge from an IBA undergoes significant flashing. 13) The containment pressure and thermal loads resulting from a LOCA de pend on the discharge rate of reactor coolant.
000 ft3 ) 3663 m 3 ( 1 29. The ADS is actuated on high drywell pressure and low reactor vessel water level resulting from an IBA or SBA and discharges steam directly to the pool TAB L E 1 1 . 1 1 9 Containment pressure responses . 7 psia) 27°C (80°F) . SRV operation automatically controls the system pressure . sensed in the control room.400 ft3 ) 1 10 kPa ( 1 6 psia) 101 kPa ( 1 4 . The temperature of drywell steam. 2 MPa ( 1 050 psia) 4504 m 3 ( 1 59.5 64 T H E RMAL H Y DRAU L I CS OF A B W R � w a:: ::::l rJl rJl w a:: 11. into the pool . w t:J « t:J g 2 TIME Isec) Fig. corresponds to the saturated value at drywell pressure . If the main steam line isolation valves close due to low vessel water level. 300 ft3 ) 3637 m 3 ( 1 28. Air transfer from the drywell through the pool increases wetwell air space pressure .1 Properties before Pipe B reak Reactor pressure Drywell air volume Wetwell air volume Suppression pool volume Drywell pressure Wetwell pressure Pool temperature 7 . Continued steam discharge to the pool may result in unsteady conden sation loads.
3 Water Expulsion and Air Discharge Loads 1 1 . Steam condensation causes gradual pool heating and continued wetweII pressurization . The expulsion force exerted on surrounding pool water is pA v \1'2. resulting in air backflow from the wetweII air space through vacuum breakers.P R E SS U R E S U PPRESS I O N CONTA I N M E N T SYSTEMS 565 through the ADS SRV discharge lines . 1 1 .3 . reaches its maxi mum just before significant gas bubble growth begins. The expulsive force. pressure will increase and intermittent SRV operation will control the system pressure . more decay heat is transferred to the suppression pool via the ADS SRV lines and main vents resulting from the break flow . Main steam isolation valve (MSIV) closure may occur due to the water level transient in the reactor vessel or low steam line flow. . 1 Wetwell Loads at Vent Water Clearing Approximate vent water expulsion velocity V can be obtained from Fig . 1 16. Vent water expulsion in the form of accelerating liquid jets can impose forces on structures in the pool. the liquid interface velocity reduces to about one half its expulsion value. Since re actor depressurization is less rapid for the IBA than for the DBA. The steam discharged from the vessel and dryweII air is vented to the suppression pool . Water cascading into the dry well from the break would cause steam condensation and pressure reduc tion. eventually equalizing dryweII and wetweII pressures. This results in a higher s u p p r e s s i o n p o o l t e m p e ra t u r e at the t i m e of c o m p l e te r e a c t o r depressurization . and decreases there after. The time of the maximum vent water clearing loads thus corresponds to that obtained from the clearing times of Fig . resembling spherical bubble growth . The core spray systems and LPCI mode of the RHR system will be activated to flood the reactor vessel and cool the core during ADS depressurization. If the main steam lines isolate the reactor system. 1 1 6 . An SBA causes dryweII pressure to increase at a rate slower than the IBA until the dryweII pressure scram set point is reached . The expulsion of vent water and discharge of dryweII air may result in loads on submerged wetweII structures. which reaches a maximum at the instant of water clearing. whereas submerged air discharge can impose pool acceleration loads and pool swell impact forces on structures above the undisturbed water level. therefore. However. when an approximate hemisphere of air has just emerged whose area is twice that of the vent. Subsequent air discharge tends to expand. Un steady condensation loads may occur during continued steam discharge into the pool .
Fluid shear forces are neglected. . A simplified mass conservation and momentum analysis is formulated for the arbitrary. 15) M = pAdx and w = pAv.+ v. 2 Submerged Water Jets Expulsion of the vent water column creates forces on submerged pool structures in its trajectory.= O at ax (1 1 . 1 1 .I 1 _ v + av/ax dX w + aw/ax dX 0 A Submerged water jet. 1 7) .+ v.1 0 i�� . 15) can be written as. Eqs .= O ax at Momentum: a(Mv) a(wv) dx + =0 ax at Since ( 1 1 .I I w +v ___ __ : M 7771. and the surrounding fluid pressure is assumed to be uniform so that no net pressure force acts on the differential control volume shown dotted . The resultant governing equations are written as: Mass conservation: aw aM dx + . Since the jet and surrounding liquid have the same density. 16) and. 14) and (1 1 . .566 T H E RMAL H YD R A U L IC S OF A B W R 1 1 ..3 . Fig. submerged water jet shown in Fig. aA aA av . the buoyancy and weight of the jet cancel. and its motion proceeds as if it were in a zerogravity environment.= O ax ax at (1 1 . 1 110. (1 1 . 14) (1 1 .+ A. av av . X . � �  r.1 .
4 0.4 0. 2 O �____�____�____�____�____� o 0.4 1 . v(x.6 1 .8 0. Submerged jet . +1 ] ] (1 1 .8 1 . 1 1 1 1 Submerged water jet properties . 19) VD = v(O.2 1 .0 Fig.r. The area and velocity formulations are useful in estimating which submerged structures overlap the jet and in predicting the drag forces imposed. t ) = Vo + at ( 1 1 . Although the velocity mag nitude diminishes with distance.8 1 .6 0. 0 '0.P R E S S U R E S U P P R E S S I O N CO N TAI N M E N T SYST E M S 567 2 . 20) These expressions are graphed in Fig. 1 . [ 1 4ax (vo + at) 2 1 4ax 1(vo + at) 2 where. 18) ( 1 1 . the jet area increases both with distance and time. 111 1 . t) ! 1+ VD (vo + at) 2 = and. Moreover. t ) V(X. it increases with time at a fixed position .2 0. The solution for a stepramp discharge velocity yields local jet velocity and area in the forms. 0 r.
Both cases of air discharge may create dynamic loads on containment structures . but increasing. 23) (11 . it undergoes an acceleration toward the bubble center) . eration is given by: Q. ( Ro/R )3k . It can be shown from this simple model that each jet particle proceeds at its expulsion velocity . requiring individual predictions for each containment. Also. (11 . e . As a jet particle overtakes the ones expelled ahead of it. Q( t). in viscid flow give reasonable predictions of both bubble growth and pool swell (Moody and Reynolds. 1945). is constant. gas volume .poo)/PI = (11 . The matter o f bubble wall stability during growth o r oscillation i s largely determined by interface acceleration . d2Rldt 2 + (3/2)(dRldt ) 2 gc (p . which is the condition described by Eq . 1972). compressed air discharge from submerged SRV pipes produces bub bles that undergo energetic oscillation. . which results in a stable. 21 ) I f the volumetric flow rate. Figure 1 112 shows an experimental bubble expansion and the corre sponding pool swell for drywell air discharge from a horizontal (MKIII) vent (McIntyre and Myers. Bubble dynamic behavior implies the dynamic response of the surround ing liquid since the mass of the gas in the bubble is small . its growth rate decelerates (i. the j et front dissipates. 22) which means that as the bubble radius increases.. 1 112 that the average interface velocity decreases with time. 1974) . Consider a spherical bubble that is being charged with gas at a volume rate. It is seen in Fig . the bubble' s interfacial accel (1 1 .v� or p p". This permits a jet response time to be defined as the time required for all jet particles to pass a fixed point in space . Spherical bubble dynamics are governed by the in viscid Rayleigh equation (Lamb. pvk p". R. �he corresponding radius. the interface is stable. 22) . 1 1 . is governed by. ( 1 1 . Drywell air discharge immediately follows vent water column expulsion . 24) If bubble pressure undergoes adiabatic state changes. Whenever acceleration normal to an interface is from the liquid to the gas.3 . 3 Submerged Air Discharge Discharge and expansion of compressed drywell air underneath the pool surface following a LOCA vent water expulsion causes pool swell motion .5 68 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L IC S OF A B W R discharge properties vary from one design to another. = = . Calculations based on incompressible.
Rx ( 1 1 .max at minimum radius in liquid surroundings at px is Rmin .1 0m � 8m 6m 4m 2m Fig.. The initial frequency is about 8 Hz . which is in reasonable agreement. yields the typical pressure trace shown in Fig.P R E SS U R E S U P P R E S S I O N C O N TA I N M E N T SYST E M S 569 . 25) gives a frequency estimate of 6 . Equation ( 1 1 . even for large amplitude bubble oscillations . for which Eq. 25) gives reasonable estimates of frequency. 3 Hz. 1 113. (1 1 . where subscript 00 designates the undisturbed state . The expelled air volume 3 was about 1 . A largeamplitude oscillatory solution for a spherical bubble of maximum pressure ph. 0 m at atmospheric conditions. expelled into the pool after vent clearing from a SRV blow. horizontal vents. 25) It is seen that the frequency varies inversely with the radius. (1 1 . linear ization of Eq .1 2 Submerged air discharge. Furthermore. 23) for smallamplitude oscillation about yields the equation for a linear oscillator whose frequency is given by. The initial pipe air. 11.
) Cl (/) z « a: � TIME Fig. (1 1 .1 sec J 'in . which was obtained from a secondorder RungeKutta solution of Eq.5 70 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L ICS OF A B W R 1. 23) for a spherical bubble undergoing adi abatic pressure changes according to Eq . 24) . the maximum radius is roughly proportional to max imum pressure . 1 1 . RMIN R (t) O �L______�______�____J o 2 RMIN Fig. Submerged oscillating bubbles resulting from safety/relief . 1 1 .0 (/) L1J a: a.5 o " <0 a: L1J U ::. � (/) L1J 1 2. Moreover. shown for one cycle in Fig.1 3 SRV air discharge bubble oscillation pressure . This reciprocal depen dence of smallamplitude frequency on minimum radius is approximately preserved . adiabatic oscillating bubble.e _ 2 5 . 1 1 14. (1 1 .1 4 v 4 6 8 9cpPoo Bubble radius.
1945) is also of interest.P R E S S U R E S U P P R E S S I O N CONTAI N M E N T SYSTEMS 571 pipe air discharges are reasonably predicted from the procedures used to obtain Fig. 915 [ I . This can be estimated from a solution of Eq. The short time intervals during which an unstable condition. 28) . 0. surrounding liquid inertia has caused a slight overex pansion of the bubble where ph/poo < 1 . 1 116. 27) are plotted in Fig . If drywell air at an average pressure Pd and density Pd discharges through a frictionless nozzle into an expanding bub ble at pressure Ph with ambient pressure poo. 26) ( 1 1 . 1I2) is an incomplete beta function. The radial growth rate accel erates at first. where when J(RIRj) (5/6. 1 118. Sudden expulsion of steam into cold pool water would cause rapid condensation and almost a step reduction of pressure for an inertiadominated bubble collapse . Such energetic bubbles usually undergo several os cillations before they reach the pool surface by buoyancy . 1965) . Figure 1117 shows that bubble pressure decays as soon as radial growth begins. The classical analysis of spherical bubble collapse with interior pressure suddenly reduced to zero (Lamb. occurs do not permit substantial growth of interface disturbances . An idealized spherical bubble of radius R( t ) has the following velocity potential. corresponding to a volume growth rate. 1 114.J( RIRj) (�' DJ J p/:xJ ( ) 3 2 gc Rl 1 R3  ( 1 1 . Drywell air discharge and bubble growth dynamics can be employed to show approximate trends. The first integral of the Rayleigh equation with Ph = 0 is given by dR _ dt A second integration yields. and then becomes almost linear with time. 26) and ( 1 1 . the bubble's collapse characteristics can be substantially different (Flor sheutz. When nonconden sible gas is present or when bubble heat transfer to the liquid is reduced. 1 115 show that the interface is decelerating most of the time during a cycle. d2R/dt2 > 0. the idealized spherical growth properties correspond to those in Fig. Full collapse occurs � gCPOO = 0. Moreover. 23) at constant bubble pressure. d V/dt. (1 1 . proportional to the square of time . which gives dR/dt = constant.915 Ri PI �i Jg�OO = 0. J ( 1 1 . which implies a stable interface. The corresponding bubble interface velocity solutions given in Fig. 27) Equations (1 1 .
_�_4 . .5 72 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A BWR 2 r� 0 ������r_. 1 1 1 5 Energetic bubble oscillation velocity.1 2 t __ RMIN J gC 4 6 p "" p  Fig.
1 6 Bubble radius during charging. 1 17 t Bubble pressure during charging. R It) Ri 5 O ��� 10 5 o Ri t 9 POO J Cp Fig.P R E SS U R E S U PPRESS I O N CONTAI N M E N T SYSTEMS 573 1 0 r. 9 POO J Cp . 1 1 . Pb Poo 5 O �_______________L______________� 10 5 o Ri 1Fig.
30) shows that at these extremes. 32) .8 1 .6 0.31) That i s . Equation (1 1 . or R(1 1 . 1 1 1 8 Bubble collapse . at the R P=Pb r whenever Vel> = O . (11 . 30) The bubble's interfacial velocity passes through zero at the maximum and minimum radii during an oscillation . (11 . 0 _=. (1 1 . ael> + (Vel> )2 + gc P + gy = f( t ) at 2 PI ( 1 1 .8 0. a field solution for pressure outside a bubble o f radius extremes in its oscillation has the same form as the potential of Eq.6 0. 29) The local pressure field in the surrounding pool can be predicted from the unsteady Bernoulli equation. 0.0 Fig. 29).2 0.4 0.4 0.5 74 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B W R 1 .
which are associated with N sources and sinks in an array. The superposition of point sources has a shortcoming in that calculated wall pressure at instants of zero bubble interface velocity can exceed the bubble pressure. 33) where poc is the undisturbed pressure . the maximum wall pressure is proportional to the minimum bubble radius and maximum bubble pres sure. that is. If identical sources of the form given by Eq . Noting that since V2<\> = 0.m a x or to make use of actual bubble boundary computations without point source simulation. 33) is different for bubbles near corners and between parallel walls or below free surfaces. However. the maximum wall pressure on a line joining the two sources. which occurs at extremes in bubble oscillation . b. which has the property that no rigid boundary pressure can exceed the highest pressure imposed elsewhere . 30). .and lowpressure fields shown in Fig.3.4 Pool Wall Pressures The pressure on a rigid wall during submerged bubble oscillations can be estimated from analyses that employ multiple sources and sinks (Valan dani.5 Submerged Structure Loads Pool motion caused by drywell or SRV air discharge creates forces on submerged structures. ( 1 1 .3. 1 119 (McCready et al. since each satisfies V 2<\>n = O. the flow pattern corresponds to a flat wall at the symmetry plane . 1973) . corresponding to a large amplitude bubble oscillation at the instant when dRldt = 0.m a x . The maximum pressure corresponds to the minimum bubble radius during an oscillation. is given by: 2R min (pwall.P R E SS U R E S U P P R E S S I O N CONTAI N M E N T SYSTEMS 575 This reciprocal distance pressure dependence i s verified from the measured high. A bubble near a stationary wall or corner can be simulated by a point source and images with identical properties placed in a symmetrical pattern. can be added. (1 1 . These forces are conservatively estimated for rigid structures as a combination of ordinary profile drag. 1975) . 33) gives infinite pressure if b � O. This procedure is based on the property that the velocity potentials.poc ) = .( pb. 30). (1 1 . Eq. (1 1 . This result is shown to be invalid by setting Vb = V<\> 0 in Eq. the equation V 2p = 0 also must be satisfied when Vb = O. p momentarily satisfies LaPlace's equation. 1 1 .px) b ( 1 1 . = 1 1 . Observations from multiple source analyses are useful in determining how well singlevent steam discharge and collapse experiments represent multivent geometries . is employed. 29) are placed a distance 2b apart.max . <\>n . The factor 2 in Eq . and the minimum pressure corresponds to its maximum radius. Eq. If the unsteady Bernoulli equation. Thus. and inversely proportional to bubble distance from the wall. (1 1 . The remedy employed is either to restrict pwall to pb.
0 @ 0 0 � . 0 I t 1 0 > c::: � Al Fig..... 1 973) .. I m Al 12 o 0.. .1 2 1 ..� '" 0 I I I 9 TRANSDUCER N O . � .. . � """" • 0 0 30 35 Al > C r n <J> 0 .....20 16 �...· " 28 l .32 4 3 10 51 1 "' 24 1.8 1..__ .l 25 � � ..... 0 �'" """I � � I � > r .. .. 1 1 1 9 Pressure field from oscillating SRV air bubble discharge (McCready et al. ... 4 0 15 20 � 1.:) « w a: a: w u 8 I < 0 4 0 CIl Z « a: I" « w Q. 6 V1 'I 0' 20 1 0 " o "b 0 CIl C) Z j 0 �10 flO ¢ RADIUS FROM "B" DISCHARGE (It) 16 .
In contrast. at least in the early stages. if bubble growth extends horizontally across the pool. 37) flat PI dP . Submerged bubble dynamics.peo are given by. (� gPIo ) . 1977). ( 1 1 .t L . The hydrodynamic virtual mass component is the result of fluid being decelerated and deflected by the structure . if peG is the undisturbed liquid pressure and pb is bubble pressure. Eq. where flat bubble growth is governed by. the wetwell geometry resembles a water piston above a flat air cushion . The growth characteristics of spherical and flat air bubbles are different. and y is its upward displacement. is given by. (1 1 . resembles spherical expansion. 34) ( 1 1 . 23).3. 36) where L is the depth of the water slug. The spherical volumetric growth rate is proportional to t2. The corresponding spherical and flat volume growth rates for constant driving pressure. = dVb dt where A is the pool surface area . ap . 1 1 . The corresponding pool surface upward acceleration.6 Pool Swell ( ) PI o vI g PI Mvm 2go ( 1 1 .A (gO ) 41T 3 { 3/2 dP t2 spherical ( 1 1 . 1 965) . For example. . 35) The growth rate of a submerged air bubble determines the pool surface velocity at various elevations where structural impact could occur. FA = Vs + where Vs is the structure volume and Mvm is the classical hydrodynamic virtual mass. whereas the flat volumetric growth rate is proportional to t.P R E SS U R E S U PPRESS I O N CONTAI N M E N T SYSTEMS 577 FD = CD ApI VT plus a fluid acceleration force (Moody et al . Examples of the hydrodynamic virtual mass for various structural geometries found in BWR systems are given in Fig . dp pb . the instantaneous radius for a spherical bubble is gov erned by the Rayleigh equation. 1 1 20 (Patton. The force component caused by the structure volume is like a buoyant force in the direction of fluid acceleration .
1 1 20a Hydrodynamic virtual mass for twodimensional structural compo nents (length L for all structures) . • RECTANGLE .67 0..85 0.a 2 L 00 alb 10 5 2 1 1 /2 1 /5 1/10 alb 2 1 1 /2 1 /5 1 . 70 1 ..23 t t Pt1l"a 2 L pf1l"a 2 L Pt1l"a 2 L pf1l"a 2 L Pt1l"a 2 L Pt1l"a 2 L pf1l"a 2 L Pt1l"a 2 L 0.51 1 . ble = 3 . 1 1 Pt1l"a 2 L Fig. 98 2. • � 2b l M9J ale = 2 . 6 1 Pt1l"a 2 L Pt1l"a 2 L Pt1l"a 2 L Pt1l"a 2 L IBEAM .  e _1t t: � Q 2b 2' D � 2b l . 36 1 . 6 .14 1 .76 0.578 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L IC S OF A BWR BODY SECTION THROUGH BODY AND U NIFORM FLOW DIRECTION VIRTUAL MASS..21 1 ... .l 2a �] Pf . 1 9 6 5 ) CI RCLE ELLIPSE ELLIPSE PLATE . 6 2 .. 00 1. M vm ( PATTON . • DIAMOND .
5 1 .. .... SPHERE .P R E S S U R E S U P P R E S S I O N C O N TAI N M E N T SYSTEMS 5 79 DESCRIPTION BODY AND FLOW DIRECTION VIRTUAL MASS.. ELLIPTICAL DISK ..0 ba 2 ba 2 ba 2 ba 2 ba 2 RECTANGULAR PLATE .5 3 0..8 2 6 0. . M vm (PATTON .680 0..5 2 2. $/f 1 b 8/3 PI R 3 = 0 . .63 7 Pl r/6 Pl r/6 PI"r16 Pl r/6 Pl r/6 3 2 1 .478 0. 6 36 PI (4/3 rR 3 ) 00 bla 0..840 0. 1 1 20b Hydrodynamic mass for threedimensional structure s . . Fig..953 P l r/4 Pl r/4 Pl r/4 Pl r/4 Pl r/4 Pl r/4 a2b a2b a 2b a2b a2b a2b TRIANGULAR PLATE . 748 0. 1 9 6 5 ) CI RCULAR DISK . 9 0. . 00 bla 1 1 ...
Sig nificant trends have been established from scale model data correlations . Scale model testing has provided insight to other containment phenom ena and promises to be useful in further studies. 35) . or stagnation enthalpy.3. 1 1 . When a small structure is fully submerged in the rising pool.4. Vertical acceleration largely determines the time required for breakthrough. 1980). 7 Wetwell Air Space Compression Pool swell may be decelerated by compression of the wetwell air prior to breakthrough of the submerged drywell air. 1 1 . ho . and designs typically are based on largescale experiments (GE. 1977) . the air charging product who was found to be significant rather than the mass flow rate. 1976. w. which contrib utes to the applied force. (1 1 .580 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A BWR a P A _ ! d Vb dt2 2 _ {G go Llp PI L � !>�p r t spherical (1 1 . The usual procedure has been to deduce appropriate scaling laws. For example.8 Pool Swell Structure Impact A rising pool during submerged air discharge may contact stationary struc tures in the wetwell above the initial pool surface . and wetwell air space compression can be studied by simplified procedures in which a fixed pool mass is accelerated . that is. imposing a significant pool deceleration. the force exerted is characterized by a standard drag load of the type CD Aplvf/2go . Anderson e t aI. . Pool surface irregularities and breakthrough strongly affect structural impact loads. McCauley and Pitts. design a smallscale experi ment. while flat bubble growth causes constant acceleration for constant Pb . 1 1 . It has been observed that structural loads applied while the structure is being submerged correspond to the impulsive deceleration of a partial hydrodynamic mass. 1975). and that the phenomenon is governed by bulk rather than acoustic effects (Valandani. these coupled phenomena have been studied by scale models (Torbeck et aI . and scaleup the measurements to predict fullscale behavior. 1977. alone . per Eq . since fluid acceleration is relatively small . 38) flat It is seen that spherical bubble growth causes a linear change in pool upward acceleration. The procedure for scaling thermalhydraulic phenomena is described in Sec . . Wide structures may overlap a large fraction of the rising pool surface area. The coupling between air bubble charging. pool motion. . The charging rate and bubble penetration strongly affect the quantitative results such that simple analyses usually are not accurate . when the rising bubble overtakes the pool surface . However.3 . A study of water impact loads is available that concludes trapped air can play a major role.
which results in water acceleration and pressure loads in the pool . 40) Air discharge from the vents during a LOCA is followed by a rapid tran sition to steam discharge into the pool . 1950) for waves stabilized only by surface tension (J" shows that the early. which remains outside the pipe as shown in Fig . it overtakes the pool surface at a relative velocity of (Davies. A pool swell deceleration of onetenth gravity corresponds to an estimated surface wave length of 10 cm . and diminishes over the period of reactor pressure vessel blow down . which draws the water column back into the vent and the cycle repeats . Figure 1 1 21 shows a map of condensation modes that have been observed during either a LOCA or SRV discharge . 39) If the rising pool water is decelerating (a < 0). Decreasing steam flow passes through several condensation modes. A = 21T vR = 0.P R E S S U R E S U P P R E S S I O N C ON TA I N M E N T SYSTEMS 581 1 1 .3. The steam discharge rate is high at first. and helps explain observed top surface wave growth . . 1 122. its top surface develops Taylor instability. followed by rapid condensation in the pool. fastest growing wave length is.9 A i r Bubble Breakthrough If drywell air rises as a large bubble with a round top of radius R. 1950): a > g ( 1 1 . Further di minished steam flows cause transition to the ch ugging mode during which a column of water rises in the submerged vent.6v'(a + g)R Pool deceleration is equivalent to downward acceleration of wetwell air toward the pool. 1 1 . Small amplitude theory (Taylor. The bubble may be approximated by part of a sphere. 1 0 Condensation Loads J 3gc(J" PIa (1 1 . during which disturbance wave amplitudes grow downward toward the rising bubble . 1 1 . High steam flows result in steady con densation. 3 . Diminishing steam flows cause condensation to enter the con densation oscillation mode.1 Condensation Oscilla tions Figure 1 121 shows that condensation oscillations (CO) can begin when the discharge steam mass flux falls below a pool temperaturedependent value . Observations show that CO can be modeled as an oscillating steam bubble at the exit of the discharge pipe . then is blown out by continued steam flow.3 . 1 0. Con densation oscillation and chugging phenomena have been identified as the two condensation modes that dominate unsteady containment loads. where the steamwater boundary at the vent discharge oscillates somewhat like a flickering candle flame .
3. p p "" Fig. 1 1 2 1 Schematic of typical regions for condensation modes during SRV or LOCA blowdown. 5. 1 1 22 Condensation oscillation . V E N T S DR BLOWDOWN PIPES CHUGGING C O N O E N S AT I D N OSCILLATI O N S QUASI·STEADY C O N D E N SATION TRANSITION REGION I N C O M PLETE C O N D E NSATION O ���������1 00 50 a 1 50 STEAM MASS F L U X Ikg/m 2 sJ Fig. . r L O S C I LLAT I N G BUBBLE WITH PROPERTIES h o • p. 6.582 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A BWR 1 00 TRANSITION REGION S T E A M C O N D E N S AT I O N W I T H I N 2. 4.
635. and pressure intensity. whereas the oscillation in bubble surface area behaves like a periodic steam sink. 1 . vent acoustics influ enced the CO frequency . and the steam properties: pressure. for which the governing equations are. Linearized theoretical models. When the oscillating area is small. The pulsation frequency is seen to increase with both subcooling and discharge velocity. dT is the pool sub cooling. stagnation enthalpy. Rv. and Vg is the steam kinematic viscosity . Pool subcooling exhibited the largest influence on dynamic behavior. 1 1 23 for tube diameters of 0. Lv. Smallscale experiments were performed to investigate the condensation process and pressure oscillations when steam was discharged into sub cooled water (Simpson and Chan. dplp. 1982) . 41 ) aV + gc ap =0 at Pg ax (1 1 . and the oscillation is caused by unsteady condensation on the liquid surface . sonic speed. and the local steam and water temperatures . Cg. less condensation occurs. fb. Pg. Ls. 1981) was formulated for cases where the vent gas flow is dominated by acoustic effects. Typical correlations are shown in Fig . density. w. the pulsation frequency would reach a limiting value. pg. Acoustic effects in the vent also play a role in some applications (Marks and Andeen. Overexpansion of the bubble reverses the motion and contraction follows . were found to correlate with the Jacob number ( P/CpLdT)/(pghfg) and the Reynolds number (vgdlvgo) where PI and Pg are liquid and steam densities. but decreases with subcooling . The bubble pulsation frequency. hfg is the vaporization enthalpy. and 2 . 1984) . 22 cm . The pressure amplitude increases with discharge velocity.P R E SS U R E S U P P R E S S I O N CONTAI N M E N T SY ST E MS 5 83 The bubble is continuously supplied with steam flow. 59. Continuity: ap PgC� av 0 = at gc ax Momentum: + (1 1 . steam flow rate. The average bubble size appears to be determined from heat transfer considerations. the submergence length. hog . VgO is the steam jet exit velocity. A theoretical model (Moody. It is expected that as subcooling increases and less bubble area is required for condensation. The important parameters for CO appear to include the total vent length. 1979) . CpL is the liquid specific heat. yield strongly damped oscillations with reasonable pre diction of measured frequencies (Nariai and Aya. which are based on a heat transfercontrolled condensation rate. 42) . and the bubble grows. bubble pres sure increases. and radius. Earlier CO tests showed that for higher subcooling. d is the jet tube diameter.
584 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L ICS OF A B W R 1 � � '" 0.5 5. 1982) . density. = = .4 IRe) 0. R ( t ) . 7 5 IJa) 1 .l ) and sound speed Cg (kgcp/pg) V2 A simplified boundary condition at the submerged end of the vent pipe was considered in which the vapor volume of Fig. > �I Cl 1 0  IJa) O . 1 � O ° ��I�I�� 2.5 I r o /R) 0 . 1 1 2 3 Condensation oscillation impulse frequency correlations (Simpson and Chau. The steam was treated as a perfect gas with internal energy Ug pV/(k . 7 2 IRe) 0 . '0 g. 2 5 Fig. which yields. The vent discharge and bubble values of stagnation enthalpy. <>. 2 5 1 5 �' <>. and pressure are assumed to be equal. 1 122 was assumed to be spherical with radius.0 7.
46) If vapor condenses on the bubbleliquid interface at a rate mgf' maintaining the interface liquid at the steam saturation temperature. ' . mgf = woo pac where Woe is the average. p(O. which causes the steam bubble and water to respond like a springmass oscillator. An energy conservation principle. t) R3 . 44) ( 1 1 . namely.= O dt dt If V is replaced by (4/3)7TR3 and Ug for a perfect gas is employed. p( L . t )R2R + (mgf . then interface liquid transports thermal energy by conduction to the surrounding liquid . pg (L .who + . 51) If the flow rate o r bubble boundary i s perturbed from its steadystate values. 47) Woo = pooAv"" (1 1 .� + P ( L . 50) Water inertia outside the steam bubble is related to bubble pressure by Eq . t ) = __ 2go (k . t ) = 0 3k k ( ) ( 1 1 .P R E SS U R E S U PPRESS I O N CONTA I N M E N T SYSTEMS 585 k p( L. equal to that of the vent. t). t) ( 1 1 . A.  ( 1 1 . t ) = po ( 1 1 . t )Av( L . that is. t) V ( L . which charges the bubble at any instant. yields. ( 1 1 . 23). 49) becomes k . the ventbubbleliquid system will respond dynamically in an oscillatory . W = pg (L . t ) = p (11 . It is assumed that the condensation rate is proportional to the discharge steam density so that the unsteady rate is given by pg (L .l ho( L . t) pg (L. t) . is expressed by.43) ( 1 1 . Eq . t ) = P p( L . 45) The vent discharge flow rate. The entrance boundary is assumed to remain at constant pressure po .l ) pg (L .48) The density. 1 1 22. t ) 2 = ho + ho( L . Condensation is expected to occur primarily where discharged steam strikes the spherical bubble interface directly ahead over a relatively constant area. is unsteady because of the surrounding water inertia. dUg dV . (1 1 . or steady steam condensation flow rate at density poo.w) . written for the bubble of Fig.+ mgfho . 49) p. ( 1 1 .
the wave equation for the disturbed pressure is obtained. t) = O (1 1 .41). 50). 42). t ) = sm . each property is written as its steady value plus an unsteady component.+ .Coo.t) RooR' = &' p' ( L.1 poe (1 1 . 55) ( 1 1 . 59) An oscillatory solution that satisfies the entrance boundary condition is of the form P ' ( x. 00 . [ j( ) ] k _ poo k . The dynamic behavior is obtained by assuming that some disturbance has been imposed on the system. 52) ap' poeC. (11 . B� l + 41TR. V poo. 53) (1 1 . Thus. Conditions for steady condensation correspond to the properties po .= 0 at go ax av' go ap' +. which causes each property to undergo unsteady response.=0 at poo ax where boundary conditions are given by (1 1 . (11 . t ) = Bv' ( L. 54). The full perturbed problem formulation is now written from Eqs . (1 1 . 54) R' + 3�/ ' ( L.23) a s (1 1 . p = po + p' v = voo + v' P = poo + p' R = Rx. t) PI p' (O.60) . v. namely. that is.. a n d (1 1 .586 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S O F A BWR mode . ( 1 1 . 53) and ( 1 1 . 57) and B is the constant. 56) (1 1 . wx . av' . and Roo. (11 . ( C1 coswt + C2 smwt) ClO (1 1 . 58) ip' 2 a2p' .51). 2gc If v' is eliminated from Eqs .= 0 at2 ax2 (1 1 . + R ' where the superscript prime denotes a perturbation ..
20 7. R x =L: ( PI R � PI ap (11. A typical trace of a single chug is given in Fig . 1 0. 60 4. p ' ( 11.LlC. 1 (Roo) PI ( ) [ 1 + k. ( 11.2 Ven t Ch ugging ' 11.71 7 . vent acoustics dominate) RdL = 0. 50 4 .B = 0 3kp poo ax' A = 1T R./L = 0 .1 3 poc L Cx ( voolC.57). (Marks and Andeen. . = 2 WL The phenomenon of vent chugging has been observed during tests when the drywell pressure and vent steam flux are reduced. The bubble and vent radii are assumed to be approximately equal so that is replaced with The solution for in Eq . 1124 1125 1979). 00 The term is small enough to neglect during condensation oscillation . 1 0 1 0 . 54). 1 1 . 1 0 1 .1 ( voo )2 ] ( ) 4 L !P:� (c: ) ( T c: (11. we obtain at . 62) R:xl ) . One form of chug ging occurs when a water column rises in a vent. CO frequencies are inversely proportional to the vent length. + .o)2(k. Eq. along with a sample regional map of chugging in vertical vents (Fitzsimmons et al . .P R E SS U R E S U P P R E S S I O N CONTAI N M E N T SYSTEMS 587 TA B L E 1 1 2 Fi rst Four CO Eigenfrequencies ( f. This process is shown schematically in Fig.. and can be con trolled by lengthening or shortening the ven t. and is expelled into the pool where rapid condensation and steam bubble collapse occur.61) C�. Also. 85 1 0 . 3 . + (go oo) p . then repeating the cycle . to obtain the following equation for condensation oscillation eigenfrequencies: WL tan WL e. ( 11.60) kgcpoo/p<x: ( 11. The first four vent acoustics eigenfrequencies are given in Table for water and steam densities and at standard conditions . and v' is obtained from Eq .56) is substituted from is differentiated with respect to time.1)/2 112 poo PI If Eq. is finally substituted into Eq.. reverses direction because of diminishing condensation.. 61) p . ..01 R.) (h igh subcool ing. 90 1 .
.588 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A BWR 60 STEAM FLOW N X ::> � Cl � � 40 � _ .y 2 a.. UJ cc ::> (J) (J) UJ cc a... 1 1 24 Sample chugging map. ... ' u.. iii � 0 2 0 1 00 Fig.. 1 1 2 5 TIME (msec) 200 300 400 Single chug. I " 0 0 20 I " TEM PERAT U R E ( O C ) 40 " 60 Fig.. « � " � 20 (J) 1lttr� t t � C H U G G I N G" . 4 . NO C H U G G I N G . vertical vents .
Tx. A = 41TR 2 . is disturbed to give the initial value. and the gas internal energy is expressed by. in liquid at temperature. which shows a pressure measurement adjacent to the vent discharge . 1979). 63) where the heat transfer. The presence of these small gas bubbles imposes a strong damping effect on the speed and magnitude of the acoustic pres sure waves . 65) . p + k � ' where subscript 00 designates the equilibrium state . Also. pdV/dt + q + dUldt = O (1 1 . p"".px R3 ) .1). are followed by a damped oscillation known as "ringout" (Lahey et al . The perfect gas equation of state. R(t). The liquid's dynamic response is governed by the Rayleigh equation .1) ( PR3 . The bubble energy balance is given by. (1 1 . and mean pressure. An initial pressure reduction is seen. 23) ac counts for the water inertia . seen in the chugging trace in Fig . (11 . and spherical volume. were employed in Eq . 1 1 26 Gas bubble in liquid.0 R + x 3k P 3MRg k (1 1 . 11 25. Rx. is assumed to be dominated by convection according to q = HiA( T . formed during the initial air discharge into the pool . 63) to obtain. 64) R(O) = Roc(l + E ) (1 1 . q. pV = MRgT. which is close to the theoretical bubble collapse pressure corresponding to a solution of the Rayleigh bubble equation for a sudden reduction of bubble pressure to zero . . 41THi (k . 1990) . Figure 1126 shows a gas bubble of radius. followed by an abrupt pressure rise. Eq . The equilibrium bubble radius. It was also noted that the suppres sion pool water became milky with small bubbles. The initial pressure reduction and rapid spike increase in pressure. V = (4/3)1TR3 with surface area.Tx).P R E S S U R E S U P P R E S S I O N C O N TA I N M E N T SYSTEMS 589 p d Vld t q Fig. U = pV/(k .
and elimina ting 8p yields: d38R d2 8R d8R (1 1 . [��) ] 3 R( t ) = Roo + d lR Substitution into Eqs . The thermal damping model was extended to a bubbly mixture of non condensible gas in liquid (Moody. 71) which gives maximum attenuation. any other case with a finite value of Hi undergoes a damped oscillation .1)Too (11 . due to gas bubble heat exchange with the surrounding liquid . which also is shown in Fig.40) of Chapter 5. The damped oscil lation for 0 < Hi < 00 simply displays an available power loss during a pro cess in which there is entropy production . An example is shown in Fig.. 1127 However.23) and (1 1 . 8R = l. 64) that the initial (11 ./3MgRg b = 3gc kpoo/plR � c = 127rHigc (k . 1 1 27 The isothermal case ( Hi = 00 ) yields another undamped oscillation solution with frequency. Neither is energy lost from the bubbleliquid system.. 68) + a 2 + b . (3gcpoo/R�Pl)YiI27T. Equations (5. 66) p(O) = poo A linearized solution for small amplitude bubble oscillations is obtained by writing R ( t ) and p( t ) as. However. (1 1 . with an undamped oscillating fre quency (3gc kpoo/R� Pl)'I2/27r.1) poo/3MgRgPl = a(3poogclplR � ) (1 1 .5 90 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A BWR at Too. and p( t) = px + E 8p (1 1 . Thus it appears that the strong attenuation observed in "ringout" involves thermal damping. 64).1)HiR. It follows from Eq . which express mass conservation and momentum for one . 69) a = 47r(k . 67) (1 1 . there is no frictional dissipation in this formulation .34) and (5.tt + c8R = 0 dt3 dt 3gcpoo d8R d28R = 0 ' .2 dt dt P 1R� with initial conditions given by: t = O. bubble pressure is (1 1 . and. 1983) . 70) where Rg is the gas constant and Mg is the bubble's mass .. An adiabatic bubble (q = 0) corresponds to Hi = 0. which is shown in Fig. It is interesting t o note that this damped bubble oscillation closely resembles the damping of a mechanical system by friction . where E is a small number . 1 1 27 for Hi = 2 Vgcp� PI13(k .
J.0 \) \) ISOTHERMAL V I I Hi = V 00 \) Hi = ..nI'..___""..0 r.___� 20 o 10 2PooJ 9 c/00/3 (K 1) Too TIME t/( RaJ) 9c P aJ ' ) Gas Fig.. . 1 1 2 7 bubble oscilla tio n .1 ...J ID ID :J ID 0 l 1 .I.___.0 "" a: B � a: :J " " " vi UJ . 0 I V V V V A D I A BAT I C V n Hi = 0 V f1 .___.. 1 .P R E S S U R E S U P P R E S S I O N C O N TA I N M E N T SYSTEMS 591 1 .0 I I ' L..n".
1/dt (p/p2)dp/dt (1 1 . Writing Eq . x. Heat transfer between the bubbles a n d liquid causes non isentropic state changes. (1 1 . where. 73b) dp = x{p/Pg )2dpg + { 1 x ){p/pL)2dpL (1 1 . as in the case of classical acoustics .1M.1/dt = {gccp/�pC and its derivative can be written as. the density differential is. liquid is the continuous phase that contains many small bubbles in an idealized homogeneous pattern with negligible relative motion and in terface forces . 73 a ) The first law for a closed region of fluid is given by where heat inflow is considered positive . mixture density is not a function of pressure only.+ {p/p2 cp/�p)dp/dt (1 1 . 76) df. p p = [x/Pg + {I x )/pd. 75) { p.l = exPg + (1 ex) Pt (I I . q/M = df. 77) Slight relative motion between the small bubbles and the liquid establishes internal gas circulation so that interphase heat transfer would tend to be . Therefore. 72b) 0 where quality. Therefore. 74) becomes Employing the functional form (II .592 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS OF A BWR dimensional flow. ah) cp = (aT p (11 . remains constant in systems without phase change . p 2f. 72a) (1 1 . 74) q = dUidt + pd V/dt q V =M/p U = f.1)dp/dt). The mixture density can be written as ap ap av +v+ p =O at az az av + v av + gc ap = at az p az (l 1 . are written here for horizontal adiabatic flow of a fric tionless homogeneous fluid in a uniform passage with and (n replaced by and P v: ( PH ) Here.
( 1 1 . It follows from Eqs . It follows that Eqs . and ( 1 1 .P R E SS U R E S U PPRESS I O N C O N TAI N M E N T SYSTEMS 593 limited by convection in the gas . 75) and (1 1 . Acoustic disturbances result in negligible convective derivatives vpz and vvz . Therefore. 85) Either p or V can be eliminated from Eqs . The liquid temperature is assumed to be at the undisturbed gas temperature such that. ( 1 1 . implying that the liquid has much larger thermal capacity than the gas. PI + D( p . 78).(p/p/) 2 (J3p/cp)1 ( 1 1 . 83) and (1 1 .pco ) + (pCtlgc )vz = 0 ( 1 1 . which is considered constant. 79a) dplldt = . 79a). A single bubble at temperature rounded by liquid at TI loses thermal energy at a rate Tg sur ( 1 1 . ( 1 1 .x )(p/p/) 2/CT l  ( 1 1 . 84) to give equa tions of the form ( 1 1 . VI + ( gc1p)pz = 0 ( 1 1 . ( 1 1 . 79b). 80) and ( 1 1 . 72a) can be written in terms of pressure instead of density derivatives as: PI for the liquid in a unit cell of mixture containing the bubble . ( 1 1 . and the bubbly mixture sound speed is given by. and relatively constant derivative coefficients . q < 0 represents heat inflow to the bubble . 79b) M = Mg + MI is constant in a unit cell. ( 1 1 . 82) Gas temperature is expressed from the perfect gas law Tg = plRpg . TI = poolRpgoo.TI)lgcM = 0 ( 1 1 . the govern ing acoustic equations for a bubbly gasliquid mixture with interphase heat transfer are obtained from Eqs. where Mg = xM and MI = (1 . and ( 1 1 . 76) that dpgldt = (J3p/cp)gqIMg + ( gc IC�)dpldt for a single bubble. Cb = [x(p/pg) 2/C� + ( 1 . The total mass + vpz + (pCt lgc )vz + Ct FHiA( Tg . 73b). 80) where subscripts t and z designate partial derivatives with respect to time and space and F is the mixture property F � (p/pg) 2 (J3p/cp)g . 86) .81) v. 83) and.(J3p/cp)lqIMI + ( gcIC r) dpld t (1 1 .x)M. 78) Since q > 0 represents heat inflow to the liquid. (1 1 . 72b) in the forms. D = (CtFHiA)/( gcMRpg) ( 1 1 . 84) where D is the thermal damping coefficient.
::.3. \ 105 104 103 VO I D F R A C TI O N . and unsteady steam condensation create forces that are transmitted through the pool to its boundaries and submerged structures. for which Eq . 1 1 28 Bubbly mixture pmperties . It is interesting to note that Eq.." _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ j PF1Pf2  _ . ..:::. .. ( 1 1 ..1 1 . air discharge. a 10 Fig. 1 . 86) yields the classical onedimensional wave equation. Figures 1 1 28 and 1 1 29 give bubbly mixture properties and the damping coefficient at standard conditions in terms of void fraction ." = 1 1 . " 2 = .0 �_.. Local fluid motion where a structure actually would exist is regarded as a local unsteady uniform flow to be used in a separate analysis. A simplified procedure for es timating submerged structure respon se involves a prediction of the pool flow field as if it contained no submerged structures and was bounded by rigid walls and a free surface . .. 86) also characterizes the behavior of a damped vibrating string. which provides forces acting on the structure as if it were rigid.5 94 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A B W R 103 10 102 10. PIPfj " 0. <\>tt q<\>zz O.. The absence of interphase heat transfer corresponds to D 0. (1 1 .1 0..3 Flu idStructure In teraction (FSI) Disturbances caused by vent water clearing. The force exerted on a rigid structure can be obtained by analysis or experiment. Several considerations are required before the rigid structure force can be employed in a dynamic analysis for the response of the flexible structure . This thermal damping mechanism helps explain the strong damping associated with " ringout..
moving rightward at ve locity vc (t) in an unsteady uniform flow of velocity vx( t ). consider a cylinder of length. If the disturbance time is long relative to the pool acoustic response time.4 L�������L� 103 104 106 105 VOI D FRACTION. in the positive x direction through a stationary fluid is. 1 1 30 Fluidstructure interaction. . potential flow methods can be used to predict the resulting fluid force on the cylinder. Vc . � I X� I Fig.1 102 ( 3 Cl 2 \ 9c R Pr D Hi) 103 1 0 . '" Fig.P R E SS U R E S U PPRESS I O N CONTA I N M E N T SYSTEMS 595 102 10. The potential function for a cylinder moving at velocity. L. bulk flow. For example. 1 1 2 9 � � v oo (t ) � Damping coefficient. 1 1 30. � F pi I I I I I k � . as shown in Fig.
92) A simple structural dynamic equation for negligible damping is given by. This result is general and extends to submerged structures of other geometries .p =/( t ) gc p (1 1 . (M + p'ITR 2L) i + Kx = 2'ITR 2 L � iJ". which can be integrated over the cylinder surface to yield. 89) can be used to obtain the pressure distribution on the cylinder. 88) as ( �2) a<!> [(CJ<!» 2 (CJrae)2J <!> <!> uf = voo( t) r + 1 cose (1 1 . = FR (1 1 . Simultaneous cylinder motion in a uniform unsteady flow is ob tained by adding the potential functions of Eqs . voo( t). (1 1 . 94) gc gc 2 The term p'ITR L is identified as the virtual mass for a translating cylinder (see Fig. in the positive x direction past a stationary cylinder is If gravity effects are neglected.c ) If the cylinder were rigid. the flexible structure analysis can be performed by applying force F R. e coordinate system is fixed at the center of the cylinder . 1 1 20a) . M gc i + Kx = Fx ( 1 1 . 93) It follows that the structural dynamics equation can be written as. It follows that for the case of a bulk flow without acoustic effects. obtained for a rigid structure. The x component of this force is dFx = cosedF. Furthermore. +at 2 Equation (1 1 . {27r (1 1 . . 90) The differential radial force on a cylinder surface area of LRde is dF = pLRde . 87) where the r.+ ar + . Fx = LR 2 � D D Jo pde = 'ITR L gc (2 :x: . (1 1 . the applied force would correspond t o or. 87) and (1 1 . 91 ) Vc = 0 . the unsteady Bernoulli equation becomes. 89) <!> = <!>c + <!> u f (1 1 . the potential function for uniform flow at unsteady velocity. 88) .596 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B W R ( 1 1 . provided that the structural mass is increased by the virtual mass of the fluid .
(1 1 . e . Kgc gc Xs + Xs = Ps A M M ( 1 1 . acoustic disturbance . which is of the same order as the pool acoustic response time (i .t) F( t + x C) + G(t x/C) v(x. 96) (1 1 . which has fluid on one side only . the incident pressure disturb ance. 97) = /  / If the initial pressure and velocity are zero. 1990).t) :�[F( t + x C) G( t x C) ] = /  (1 1 . . 95) The linear wave equations that govern oncoming and reflected pressure and velocity disturbances have the following general solutions for pressure and velocity (Lahey et al. consider a disturbance like a chugging pressure spike whose mag nitude varies rapidly over a brief period of time. pool dimension/sound speed) . The flexible structure's response for negligible damping can be approximated by. 98) ONCOMING D I STURBANCE '"'d t T 1 A m K r ' I I I I I I L . p(x. . 1 1 3 1 Fluidstructure interaction.J REFLECTED D ISTURB A N CE I I I" 1 Xs Fig.P R E S S U R E S U PPRESS I O N CONTA I N M E N T SYSTEM� 597 Next. Figure 1 131 shows an acoustic disturbance arriving and reflecting from a flexible structure. .. corresponds to po( t).
can thus be written as. 96) Fo( 11.4 Scale Model i n g Procedu res . are. provided that a mechanical damping term is included . Substituting into Eq . Scale models are useful for predicting certain unsteady thermalhydraulic behavior in nuclear containments . oo). 99) Gr. employing Eq. The forcing function in Eq . or.97) (11. The a p p e a ra n c e o f l i n e a r a c o u s tic d a m p i n g t e r m s .104) ( 11.1 02) (11. . 2gc poA _gMc Ps. which inherently include effects of water inertia and acoustic damping.103) ( 11. and.102). yields.:� (po. accounts for acoustic energy radiation into the fluid . ps. in ( 11. GE.103) (p C M)is This result is consistent with classical waterhammer doubling of the mag nitude of a pressure disturbance at a rigid boundary . K .105) 1979. The design of a scale model requires 1 1 .100) ( 11.101) ( 11. Sophisticated computer programs are available for treating the FSI prob lem (McCormick. Arrival of the pressure wave at the structure causes it to move with velocity The resulting structural motion causes a reflected pressure wave. then Eq. Note that l if a structure is rigid (i.102). 2gcpoAIM. is .598 T H E R MAL H Y D RA U L IC S O F A BWR since. rigidA M  ( 11.95) is + ( p�C) is + (�) xs = � po( t)A ( 11. ps. e . 1978). and (11. (pAC M)ps p=po + Gr is= v = . A l and .rigid 2po = ( 11..101) ( 11. which now adds to so that the pressure and velocity at the structure from Eqs . It follows that a flexible structure response analysis can be performed with out submergence by using the pressure obtained from a submerged rigid structure. ps + ( p�C)ps + (�c ) ps = 2 [ PO + (�c ) po ] yields.Gr) ( 11. rigid.
at prototypical pressure. and accelerating submerged water jet profiles. . pool swell during a LOCA. identical results would be expected for the same volume and area ratios in a full size test. A summary of the scale modeling employed in containment technology and important examples of model laws are given in this section . pool circulation and heat up during steam discharge. Another method. whereas these properties often must be reduced by a par ticular fraction in geometric scaling . 1 973). A small vessel of saturated steam and water. 1 1 . and submergence were employed. 1 1 . the blowdown discharge and vent areas were reduced by the segment volume fraction of full size . Many researchers. This approach provides model laws. Figure 1 12 gives a correlation of some of the data from the segment tests conducted for the Humboldt and Bodega containment systems. One such method is the Buckingham pi theorem (Baker et aI . 1 Segment Scaling Segment scale modeling was employed in some of the pressure suppression tests mentioned in Chapter 1 . which is based on force ratio similitude. have a preferred method of determining the appropriate scaling laws for a given system. but with all dimensions reduced by the same factor. Fullsize vent flow length. 3 . 1 965). 4 .2 Geometric Scaling Geometric scale modeling has also been used successfully in predicting phenomena that include pool sloshing behavior during an earthquake. but does not show which effects can be neglected. transient pipe pressures during SRV discharge. which employs a system geomet rically similar to full size.4. pool depth. It is likely that geometric scaling will also be employed more extensively to study the thermal hydraulics of postulated severe accidents . and geometric scaling . who make extensive use of scale models. A generalized method of similitude pro vides model laws from a complete problem formulation and gives the starting point for scale modeling of thermalhydraulic phenomena. was discharged through a simulated pipe rupture into a drywellventwetwell system in which the volume ratios were equal to that of full size . fractional analysis (Kline.4 . Although these data were recorded in a small seg ment test. which is dis cussed in Sec . does not show how to scale thermodynamic effects . and the experi mental results provided the pressuretime trace expected if a break should occur in the full size system . . 4 . Also. which involves a small section of a fullsize system. Fullscale thermodynamic properties usually are employed in seg ment scaling.P R E S S U R E S U P P R E S S I O N C O N TA I N M E N T SYSTEMS 599 that all important physical phenomena be preserved. Two scalemodeling philosophies used extensively in studies of con tainment phenomena are seg ment scaling.
Integrals identified by cs are . the normalized variables are equal in full and small scales. space coor dinates. 1 1 .LV 2� + 3 j.4. and energy conservation in a chosen system . 106) Momentum: cs (1 1 . making it possible to employ data from a smallscale experiment and upscale it to determine full size behavior. and magnitudes of estimated property disturbances so that the resulting non dimensional variables and derivatives are of order 1 . mo mentum. p(dVldt) . defined by. 1 1 . and all variable properties are normalized respectively with the response time. 1 V·[ = j. characteristic size. 1 Overa ll Procedure The scalemodeling procedure starts from basic equations of mass.600 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S O F A BW R A general description of the geometric similarity scalemodeling pro cedure is given next. 109) E is the total stored energy per unit mass. 2 Govern ing Conservation Equations Governing equations of thermalhydraulic phenomena occurring in severe accidents are summarized below in the integral control volume form (Shap iro. 107) Energy conservation <uniform pressure): cs J (hodw + dq) + g>out .LV(V ·�) ( 1 1 . 1953): Mass conservation: JdW + :t J pdV = O cs Cl' cv cs cv cs (11 . 2 . Time.g>in Jq"'dV + :t J E pdV = 0 cv cv (1 1 . and d� is a differential area vector on the surface of the control volume.4. The relative magnitudes of non dimensional model coefficients appearing in the normalized equations display the phys ical effects which must be preserved in a scale model . 108) where g> designates mechanical power due to expansion. Also.2 .[ is the shear stress tensor. or shaft transmission and . 0 in magnitude .
2 . etc .Pi ll. Time is normalized with the response time Ilt so that t* = tf Il t .Vi V = ll. and its farthest expected departure from 4>i is 4>" the normalized form is.Pi ll. 1 1 . Geometric similarity between fullsize and smallscale models is usually implied . which yields parame ter grou ps (model coefficients) to be preserved in a scale model test.. p .!l. 1 10) and its derivatives are of order 1 . (11 . p * V = r =i =ll. 3 Norm a l ized Variables If 4> is a variable whose initial value is 4>i.4.PRESS U R E S U P P R E S S I O N C O N TAI N M E N T SYSTEMS 60 1 taken over the control surface.t y * p * = P . z L w* = !!!. Table 1 13 gives a list of the normalized variables. y .vIL ) qmt = � q� r = q "'* = '1q �' '" . qr p p * = . whereas cv designates integrals throughout the control volume .v V = = 1L(ll. as x* = xfL. Space variables x. z are normalized to the system space interval L. z * = x. 0 in magnitude. V * d!! dA = Ar q * = . These equatio ns are nondimensionalized with reference variables. TAB L E 1 1 3 Normal ized Variables t * = !"" ll. Wr ho ho = hOr * V . y.
or model coefficients.4. Accidents of this type are discussed in Sec . 1 1 1) Momentum: es cs ell ev Energy conservation: cs cv + where the resulting nondimensional groups. property dis turbances. let us consider a hypothetical severe accident in a BWR having a MARKI containment. Relative magnitudes of the model coefficients deter mine which physical effects are negligible and which should be preserved by a scale model.4 . 2. z*. to be used in evaluating the A postulated severe accident involves the melting of a reactor core from a loss of cooling. tOO 1Tj. (1 1 . at. 8. and reference variables. a<Vk. Although the governing equations are not solved in the modeling procedure. 107). As an example of geometric scaling. The molten debris spreads and undergoes simultaneous cooling from the top x* y*. 1132) .602 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A BWR 1 1 . 2 . (1 1 . One designs a scale model test that begins with molten core debris draining by gravity from a simulated depressurized reactor vessel break onto a concrete floor (Fig.* J1T 14Q"'*dV*  cs cs + =  9J>�ut) (11 . 106).4 Nondimensional Equations and Mode l Coefficients (1 1 . 108) are The non dimensional equations obtained from Eqs . simplified formula tions are employed next to estimate the response times. 1 13) The nondimensional model coefficients 1Tj . independent variables and and properties <vZ provide the information for designing a scale model test and upscaling the results for full size . . <Vr.6.5 Reference Pa ra meters for a Postu lated Severe Accident �* f(1TI P* 1T2)(1TI O E * + 1Tll)d VOO 1TlS(g'>fn ev J 1T 1 2hodw* + J1T 13Q"*· dA. 1 1 . and Mass conservation: (1 1 . are given in Table 1 14.
and from the bottom by conduction to the floor.t2 wr Ll.t to an overlying water layer.tV r q �Ll.thor q�'Ll.pLl. Ar = A/. finally arriving at the dry well shell .4.t 'lT3 = Pr Vr 'lTS = 'lT9 = v r Ll.P R E SS U R E S U PPRESS I O N C O N TAI N M E N T SYSHMS 603 Ll. decay heat from oxidic compo nents. Potentially important phenomena that are neglected in this example include nonuniform debris stratification. pr = pd L = H Vr = Vd (11 . 1 1 . VA r t 2 Vr T Ei 'lT l l = Er 'lT1 3 =  Pr Vr E r 'lT l S =  PrVrEr 'lT1 2 =  pr Vr E r 'lT 1 4 =  P r Vr E r wr Ll. Table 1 1 5 gives example parameters and properties .t2Ll. containment pressurization by possible hydrogen generation and burning.2.tA r 'il'r Ll. Q = A b V r Wr = Pd Q . concrete water and gas release. and possibly immobilization by freezing.6 Molten Debris Dra ining Reference values associated with gravity draining of molten core debris are: Llv = vr = \I2iH .t A r p r Vr t 'lT7 = P r Vrt gLl. The significant safety question is does the shell melt or not. and boiling of the water layer. metalwater reaction.p 'lT l = pr Pi 'lT2 = Pr TABLE 1 14 Model Coefficients 'lT 6 = gcLl.t 2 Ar 2 gcpi Ll. 1 14) .
604 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A BWR VESSEL VENTS T O POOL Fig. 1 1 32 Example system . = 2600 K 2 Ambient tem perature T� = 373 Debris solids tem pera ture Td { = 21 00 K K K = 400 W/m 2 m Solidification enthalpy hLS = 250. TABLE 1 1 5 Example Parameters and Properties Vessel branch a rea Debris specific heat Cd Shield diameter Ab D H = 1 6 cm 2 Concrete specific heat Cc Heat convection coefficient h Debris depth in vessel = 480 J/kg = 835 J/kg =5 m K Debris initial temperature Td. 07 cm 2/s Concrete thermal di ffusivity ac = 0 . 007 cm 21 Steel thermal diffusivity as = 0 . 000 J/kg = K Debris thermal conductivity kd Concrete thermal conductivity kc Steel thermal conductivity ks = 30 W/m = 1 . 1 4 cm 21 Shell thickness Molten debris volume Vd = 15 mJ Concrete density pc = 2300 kg/m3 Debris density Pd = 9000 kg/m3 K K 1\ = 3 cm . 3 W/m = 50 W/m K Debris thermal di ffusivity Cld = 0 .
o (11 .6) : Y= L=O Ar  _ C� r 2 �V = Vr = (�r 2 Q .= . 1 15) Vd �t = Q = 1500 sec The model design coefficients to be preserved in a scale model. 1 19) �t = .2. If the volumetric rate of debris pouring onto the surface is Q.P R E SS U R E S U PPRESS I O N CONTA I N M E N T SYSTEMS 60S The time response. (1 1 . based on the parameters of Table 1 15. for the parameters The time response for flow a distance 0 at velocity of Table 1 15.4. The discharge rate and time can be upscaled to predict fullsize behavior from Q Pd Q w w * = . which yields V = (2g y )1f2. 2 . 1 1 . 1 17) 1 1 . 116) (1 1 .= IS sec Vr The model coefficients of Table 114 were evaluated. (11 . is (1 1 . 1 18) 1f02 4 Vr is. obtained from 1fl through 1T9 for negligible heat transfer during core debris discharge show that only geometric similarity should be preserved . 120) The velocity of spreading and time would be upscaled from . and its frontal perimeter is the floor diameter 0. pr (the same as in Sec . It follows that reference values for horizontal spreading on the floor are W r Q. 7 Molten Debris Spreading on the Floor The spreading velocity and depth of molten debris on a horizontal surface are estimated by equating the hydrostatic and velocity heads. showing that the only non dimensional group to be preserved between a scalemodel test and the fullsize system is.= Q* = "=:= PdQr Wr A b Y2gH t* = A b Y2gH t Vd (1 1 .4. then Q = YO(2g Y)'/2 .
Td .Toe)Y and the response time.2g Q ()Y. 125) Conduction from the bottom surface to a concrete floor is obtained from a model of a molten layer of thickness Y and initial temperature Tdi.l (1 1 .Too) (1 1 . 129) � tc = .. will cool according to ( 1 1 . based on the parameters of Table 1 1 5. which gives. . Tdi .c ax? at (1 1 .V D . 123) The solution is exponential with a response time.c ax (1 1 .8 Cooling of Molten Debris A reference convection heat flux from the top surface is q � = qh = H( Tdi .T". 122) If the stored thermal energy is a corium layer of thickness Y.0:  aTc iTc .= 65 sec h (1 1 .4. 2( ) oc () A t at (1 1 . t ) Pd Cd y Tt = .t er fc with a thermal response time.= 270 sec O: c Pc Cc An approximate heat flux to the concrete is expressed as the quotient of thermal energy Pd Cd (Tdi . 2 Y PdCd (1 1 . Pd Cd Y �th = . 127) for which a solution for the debris temperature is. 128) . 121) 1 1 . with convection from one surface.2. 126) and conduction in the slab. dTd k aTc (O.606 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A BWR V  * . based on parameters of Table 1 1 5. sud denly put in contact with a semiinfinite slab at T::c. governed by.Toe) (1 1 . 124) �E = E r = Cd (Tdi .T etI!l. The layer and slab temperatures are governed by the layer boundary condition..
133) after the freezing temperature is reached .Too (1 1 . namely 'Tr I O. based on parameters of Table 115. A comparison of thermal response times shows that conduction to the concrete can be neglected from a scale model because it takes an order of magnitude longer than the other heat transfer phenomena.Too Td i .4. is Y y2 PdhLs £l tf = .= k (T i . 1 947). 131) PdCd A debris layer of thickness Y. If the debris is idealized as a pure sub stance. 132) away from the freezing interface .T ) = 5 sec vf d d df (1 1 .P R E S S U R E S U PPRESS I O N CONTA I N M E N T SYSTEMS 607 " Pe cd (Td i . initially at Td i with a freezing temperature Tdf' would have a maximum heat flux (11 . If the molten debris and shell are treated as two semiinfinite slabs with conduction heat transfer at the contact surface.9 Debris Arriva l at Drywell Shell Sudden arrival of molten debris at the steel shell of a MARKl containment results in shell heating. and involves only the energy groups of Table 114. 135) Temperatures would be up scaled by. the heat flux must balance the energy absorption rate of phase change h L s vfPd where vf is the freezing interface velocity . and 'Tr l 3 . which is to be predicted . (1 1 . 1 34) (1 1 . 136) 1 1 . P dCd 2 pe ce cd (Td i . If the debris spreading time is employed as the reference response time. 'Tr I l .Tdf) (freezing) Pd Cd h Ls T* = T . 130) PeCe (1 1 .2.Too) Y (1 1 .Too)Y qe = £l te = � ( Td i . . It follows that the freezing response time. The separate effect is considered as shell response. the thermal groups to be preserved in a scale model are: ( ) h 02 ( Q convection coo 1'mg ) . the contact temperature is (Carslaw and Jaeger.
spreading. Limitations often are discovered by the inability to satisfy all the model design coefficients that must be pre served . 142) (1 1 . 138) dE = cs (Teon . which introduces no model laws . 139) The integral of q�on causes shell heatup to Teo n in a reference time.Too) The contact heat flux is given by ks (Teon .608 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S O F A BWR (1 1 .T'X> Toe The 1T l l was unity. 143) 1 1 .2 . Moreover. phenomena time responses also must be compatible. it is often desirable to include as many phenomena as possible in an integral scale model . and this can introduce further limitations .4.Too ) " qco" = / v 1Tas t � (1 1 . However. based on parameters of Table 1 1 5. 141) It follows that the nondimensional groups for preserving shell thermal effects in a scalemodel test are 1T1O = 1T13 = = Teon . Shell temperature would be upscaled according to Eq . 1 0 Mu ltiphenomena Sca le Modeling The phenomena of molten debris discharge from the vessel. (1 1 . . 136) and. cooling. 140) for which the average shell heat flux is " dE 4ks qS = A = � ( Teon . ( J) ks kd ad as (1 1 . 137) Other reference parameters are Ar = DY Vr = DY8 Er = L=8 Ei = cs Too (1 1 .Toe Too 1+ Tdi . and heating of the shell could be studied as separate effects in a scale model .ts 1T u x (1 1 . ( 1 1 .T ) u.
148) ( 1 1 . for each pheno mena. [.�b (�:JL � [. 1 49) shows that in order to include the shell thermal response in an integral scalemodel test. the simulated shell thickness !:ihould cor respond to If the shell material is the same in the full size and small scale. 1 34). (1 1 . 8m 8m � 3t J�. ( 1 1 . for example.PRESS U R E S U P P R E S S I O N CONTA I N M E N T SYSTEMS 609 be obtained by considering two phenomena. (1 1 . j and k represent the phenomena of molten debris discharge from the vessel and spreading on the floor. If. 120). 150) = . Since non dimensional time t* is the same in the smallscale model ( m ) and in fullsize ( f ). (�. consider debris discharge and shell heatup as the j and k phe nomena . a 1/16scale model of the vessel and floor geometry would require a shell of thickness 1 . The time scale requirements can An integral test should preserve the nondimensional groups of Eqs . Eqs . 1 35).�b (��n (82Ab Y2iR) = (82AbV2iR) m r <Xs Vd <Xs Vd ( 1 1 . Eqs . Next. j and k . f (1 1 . ( 1 1 . ( 1 1 . respectively. 121) yield. 149) Equation (1 1 . (!::t = (!::)r ( 1 1 . the time scales for debris discharge and spreading are accommodated by geometric similarity . 143) yield the requirement. 142). 146) which yields. 147) which simply implies geometric similarity . (1 1 . 1 17) and ( 1 1 .5 em to preserve the thermal response of a 3cmthick fullsize shell . 1 17) and (1 1 .. Therefore. 145) To preserve the same relative times for each phenomena in a postulated accident. 144) ( 1 1 . (1 1 . and (1 1 .
610 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I CS O F A B W R A procedure for obtaining scalemodel laws of severe accident phenom ena has been described and applied to example events . or if a detonation resulted.5 Containment Response to Degraded Core Conditions Let us now consider the response of the containment system to postulated degraded core conditions. the relative timescale ratios in full size and small scale must be equal. combustion. The possibility of a deflagration (rapid burning). which could produce as much as 2000 kg (about 24. However. The reaction of steam with vessel stainless steel could also produce hydrogen. These volume percentages are affected by the presence of steam or other gases and the degree of mixture tur . Nondimensional parameter groups were obtained that should be preserved in both full size and a scale model . solubility. decomposition of paints and galvanized materials. and recombination. and concrete decomposition by postulated molten coreconcrete interaction . Often smaller sources of hydrogen generation include radiolytic decomposition of water.5 . hydrogen generation is an important safety issue . When more than one phenomenon occurs in a system. The lower limit of hydrogen flammability in air is about 4% by volume . detection. (1980). A detonation (burn front moving as a compression shockwave at super sonic speed into unburned gas) is possible if the hydrogen volume con centration is above 13% by volume . When restrictions are too cumbersome to manage in a single test. it could produce pressures beyond the design values of all existing contain ments . such accidents lead to core temperatures above 1400°C and steam reaction with Zircaloy cladding. if postulated. Upscaling of data from a scalemodel experiment to the fullsize system is accomplished with non dimensional variables. with resulting high pres sures. 1 Hydrogen Production During Postulated Core Degradation Accidents If sufficient loss of core cooling occurs. 1 1 . Thus. which also are preserved . core overheating and damage would result and some amount of hydrogen production could take place within the RPV Results from studies on the behavior of hydrogen during hy pothetical accidents in light water reactors have been summarized by Sher man et al. If all of the postulated hydrogen burned in the containment without substantial cooling. 1 1 . exists if the volumetric concentration of hydrogen is much above about 8% by volume in a dry containment and an ignition source exists. These studies address questions of hydrogen generation.000 m3 ) of hydrogen in a BWR. Only in highly degraded conditions are large amounts of hydrogen ex pected to be produced in BWRs . it is desirable to study separate effects . which sometimes restricts the range of scale sizes achievable.
0 1 . or some halogenated hydrocarbons (e . but once mixed. adiabatic combustion of hydrogen and air in terms of the initial hydrogen volumetric concentration. g . The intro duction of nitrogen. subsequent mixing with air would be slower. < (!l :§ o F U R N O ' S DATA � 0 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 H Y D R O G E N C O N C E N T RATI O N ( VO L U M E p ercent) 8 22 o I 16 I 24 I 32 I 40 I 48 " % C L A D O X I DAT I O N Fig. 1 1 3 3 Pressure rise versus hydrogen. Significantly. Halon 1301) can be employed to make inert an atmosphere containing hydrogen and air. except in the case where it is mixed with a condensible gas such as steam .. Figure 1 1 33 gives the calculated and experimental pressure resulting after constant volume. Figure 1 1 34 gives flammability limits of hydrogen in air that is diluted with either carbon dioxide or nitrogen .2 38 1 2 5 1 721 1 . 4 50 THEORETICAL P C O M PLETE C O M B U ST I O N 40 30 'iii E o. . the hydrogen would not stratify. If hydrogen were intro duced near the top or rose to the top as a warm columnar plume without complete mixing during its transit.8 1 1 1 . It can be seen that com bustion requires volume concentrations of 60% and 75% . the amount of hydrogen generated from a severely degraded BWR core could result in a detonatable mixture when released to the containment. respectively. Nevertheless. for carbon dioxide and nitrogen inerting of a hydrogenair mixture . hydrogen does not separate from air and stratify near the top of the containment once the two are mixed . 20 10 o I o / / 2 / / / / / / / / / //JO A 3 (OC) To (atm) Po IN ITIAL H2O ( p ercent) 2 o 1 00 0 60 \1 3 8 � 71 1 . spark igniter. The resul ting pressures are much higher for detonations . 6 0 r. . An inert condition implies that a burning front cannot be sustained .PRESS U R E S U PPRESS I O N CONTA I N M E N T SYSTEMS 61 1 bulence . carbon dioxide. Moreover.!!! w a: ::> (/) (/) w a: a..
. nitrogen. even . which absorbs sufficient thermal energy to prevent propagation of a flame front. Containment inerting is widely used in MARKI and MARKII containments since entry is not required during plant operation . However. If a containment overpressurization failure occurred. Nevertheless. it would be expected to fail the wetwell air space at the top boundary.Z :r w Z O w >u :r 20 a: u. g . rather than the drywell. 1 1 34 Flammability limits of hydrogen in air diluted with C02 and N2. Additional cooling of the containment may be required to control the temperature and pressure if this procedure is adopte d . i t would b e most likely to occur outside the drywell above the suppression pool . of which about 31 % volume concentration stops combustion by removal of certain free radicals generated in the burning process . CF3 Br. The inerting property of carbon dioxide. these containments could be rapidly inerted by carbon diox ide or Halon if core degradation were expected following an accident. Consequently.612 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S O F A BWR PERCENT O F OXYGEN IN M I X T U R E O F D I LU E N T G A S AIR 14 w a: a: _ 12 + 8 2 0 70 60 50 � Ul ::I <t �+ (!) W 0 ::1 u. containments that must be entered frequently by workers during power operation (e . steam condensation in the pool would prevent a steaminerted condition in the wetwell air space . MARKIII) would normally contain air. it would require a 60% volume percentage of steam for inerting .a: 0 0 z l wZ z (!) a: = <t 40 30 >. An alternative to hydrogen inerting is to burn it with hydrogen igniters as it is generated to prevent concentrations from reaching the detonation limit . �O 10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 PERCENT O F D I LU E N T G A S I N M I XT U R E O F D I LUENT G A S + A I R Fig. In the unlikely event o f hydrogen combustion. Another possible inerting substance is monobromotrifluoromethane. In contrast. (!) 0 0 I. and steam is due to the additional heat capacity.
1984) ./2) '/2. Figure 1135 shows sketches traced from enlarged highspeed movie frames that depict large bubble shattering. Studies have shown that a subcooled pool introduces decontamination factors (i .) 'h ( D.lgc • Since the bubble gas pressure is essentially uniform. The pool provides a barrier or scrub bing medium for retaining radioiodines and other fission products. discharge of airborne fission products to the pool is accomplished either by SRV discharge or vent discharge . 1981 . It follows that regardless of the initial bub ble size. the early stages of breakup will occur on a normalized time scale of t(2gID. e . the ratio of incoming to outgoing fission product flows) of at least 100 for elemental iodine and 1000 for cesium iodide and particulates .P R E SS U R E S U P P R E S S I O N C O N TAI N M E N T SYSTEMS 61 3 under extremely degraded conditions. and as a fission product filter. and inertial deposition from bubble gas internal circulation. 1 1 . 8. 1 1 . As discussed in detail in Sec ./(2g D. Bernoulli's law requires that the bottom surface overtake the top at an approximate velocity of.2. If a degraded core condition should occur. the fission products are scrubbed by many mechanisms. it may undergo rapid shattering into a duster of small bubbles.5 . . and rise velocity plays a key role in the effectiveness of bubble scrubbing. is quadrupled. It has been observed (Marble./2) lh ( D. induding sedimentation. 6.. (2gc ilplp/t' (2g D. = = = = = . the initial breakup will take twice as long. as bubbles rise through the pool. the suppression pool would be re tained as a heat sink. which could be generated from a degraded core . Since the Taylor rise velocity of a large bubble is about (gD. A saturated pool introduces a decontamination factor of at least 30 for elemental iodine and 100 for cesium iodide and particulates. Moody. diffusiophoresis.) 'I2 The overtaking time is about t D.1 Bubble Sha ttering When a relatively constant submerged gas discharge rate occurs into a liquid. singlebubble growth occurs until buoyancy causes it to break loose from the charging source. the rise distance. 1983) that large bubble shattering can occur if the initial bubble is charged at nearly the local hydrostatic pressure .5. a source of water for core cooling. if D. The nature of bubble size. 2 Fission Product Scrubbing in the Suppression Pool The pool of a pressure suppression containment is highly effective in ab sorbing fission products that could be released following a degraded core accident (Rastler. when such a bubble is released. The change in hydrostatic pressure in surrounding water vertically across the bubble is about ilp P lg D. shape. except noble gases. Large bubble shattering is relatively complete when the bottom surface of the bubble reaches the top surface . However.)'h Thus. and another bubble begins to grow in its place . for the bottom to overtake the top is Y ( g D./2g )'I./2g t. Y.8.
.�b: � ��t �'.80 1 . � � ��::. r 1 35 IS a fmlte dif l rence solution relatively of a ga � bubble released m an Inviscid qUld .61 4 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A B W R SKETC H E S CALCU LAT I O N 1 . Viscous e llec · b uni mportant durin the growth. lation u pwaro nea< the vertical axis and d own ward cIrculation near the . and initial b ted to giv a o ere lore. IqUId as an ap pWlOmate s p h encal cluster O I bubbles with in ternal circu .2 ..0 0.5 . 1 1 . detac � ent.45 Fig. In FIg . . .!�� .. ' . Also shown. . .1j2 . su rface overtakes l rises. . the comput pwcess in water. ����� '.. 1 1 35 Large bubble shattering. 1 That is YID I .0 I I t "'97R = 0.2 . : ::::� ' Bubble Clus ter R Ise Velocity . �: ���: � . le description 01 h ' u s attermg distance f r a ll scal es IS given e en tha t . . by �� J Iveness 0 f f'Ission prod uct scrubbing is d Irectly proportional t0 The effect' ' ' t ransit time 0 f gas through th e water poo I m a press UTe su ppression containment system ' r Bubbles fo rmed Irom the shatte rmg 01 a large bubble rise th rough the .
the cluster '! density is.52. Since P l' « PI . The observed circulation pattern resembles a Hill's vortex (Pan ton. Eqs . 1136. The cluster void fraction is Vvl( Vv + V. If the mass center of a discharged gas volume V rises a distance Y during the initial breakup process. and Rc is the cluster radius. 152) where Pc is the liquidbubble mixture density in the cluster. 1945): E = (10/7)7T Pc v�R�/gc (1 1 . 151) If the liquid volume entrained in the cluster. estimated from slow motion ob servations (Marble. 1984) . the cluster rises with constant kinetic energy and velocity. Although fluid inside a bubble cluster circulates. and the clu ster radius is Rc == Ralo: ' where Ra is the initial bubble radius. with the discharged gas volume written as V = (4/3)7TR�. If the liquid energy is completely transferred to that in the Hill's vortex.O:) PI. 151) and (1 1 . Another estimate of the cluster void fraction is obtained by assuming that the initial bubble entrains a volume of liquid equal to 27TR�/3. the kinetic energy in the rising Hill's vortex is (Lamb. Vc is the cluster rise velocity in stationary liquid. the bubbles are rising by buoyancy relative to the cluster liquid so that the buoyant work on each bubble is continuously dissipated by its drag work. Measured diameters of the initial bubble released from a 15cm hori zontal vent and the resulting bubble cluster after breakup are given in Fig .). corre sponding to its translational virtual mass.5. V" is assumed to be homo geneously mixed with the small bubbles formed. This value of void fraction is consistent with idealized shattering by sinusoidal interface wave growth . 154) This value is more consistent with the actual interface breakup by Taylor instability where round fingers of gas penetrate into the liquid and narrow liquid spikes penetrate into the gas. 1983).97Y [ 0:/(1 . therefore. (1 1 . which yields a void fraction of = 0: = [ 4 3 37TRa 37TRa + 3'lTRa 4 3 2 3 ] = 3 2 (1 1 . Therefore.0:)]g Y (11 . pc == (1 . appears to be about 0. The dashed correlation line joins the measured initial bubble di . which roughly corre sponds to closepacked spheres with 0: 0. to give: Vc = 0. resulting in less liquid entrainment than an idealized sinusoidal interface . 152) can be equated. the energy transferred to the liquid is. (1 1 .P R E SS U R E S U P P R E S S I O N C O N TA I N M E N T SY ST E MS 61 5 boundary. 153) The void fraction of bubble clusters. with a continuous throughflow of liquid .
'I / .. o I N ITIAL BUBBLE D I A M ETER BUBBLE CLUSTER D I A M ETER O L________________�________________� o 25 50 G A S CHARG I N G RATE ( l iters/s) Fig.J a:I a:I ::J a:I .. " . 1 1 36 Bubble and resulting cluster diameters. C Z <t w ...J 20 <t f= � / 0/ J./ � / / ... I N ITIAL B U B BLE DIAMETER t:..616 T H E RMAL H Y D R A U L I C S OF A B WR 40 a: w I en ::J .J U ::!: <t is en a: w I w E B " "U . . / \ C O R R E LATI O N U N E .il." ..
The bubble rise velocity in a plume relative to a laboratory frame of reference can be roughly estimated by considering a column of average area..68 0: 1/2 0.. 0. Cluster diameters were calculated for the correlation line. where the closepacked limit of 0: = V2 tends to follow the lower boundary of the data . A.3 B ubble Plumes Although large bubbles shatter and rise as clusters. spherical gas bubble. o 0 . using void fractions of V2 and 213. ( 1 1 . 153) that Vc probably would lie between O Vc IVgD.5. 1 1 . is employed.. The transit time of bubbles rising in plumes is also important to the fission product scrubbing process. § "iii A 2 5 em H O R I Z O N TA L V E N T 1 5 em H O R I Z O N TA L V E N T o > W If) it: B U B B L E D I A M E T E R (em) Fig.2. 707Yg O i (Davies and Taylor. containing bubbles rising through .· = I { 0. If the estimated breakup distance.97 0: = 213 = (1 1 . a continual discharge of gas from spargers or other distributing devices forms bubble plumes.J W >l e::. 1950). as shown in Fig . and results shown as solid lines are seen to bound the measured values .E!.P R E S S U R E S U P P R E S S I O N CONTA I N M E N T SYSTEMS 61 7 3 r./2. Figure 1137 shows that a void fraction of 213 gives a more uniform prediction of the measured bubble cluster rise velocity.. 1 1 3 7 Cluster rise velocity . Y = 0. 155) The lower limit is a close ap oximation to the rise velocity of a large . 1 138. it follows from Eq. ameters .
is obtained by writing a = v[dv[ldy . a pool of depth. Fb = ( PI . The average void fraction of the plume is a .J1 . Newton's second law yields..£.aY H y<2 H 2ga > .a)H/2 Thus. (1 1 . Aa !i gc 2 The fluid mass in the lower half of the plume is ( 1 1 . Liquid upward velocity VI is zero both at the bottom of the plume and again at the pool surface . the liquid must accelerate to its maximum velocity at approximately H/2. H. 156) MI = P IA(1 . 159) . 158) a = dvddt = gcFblMI = ga/(1 .m a x  Jzg.aY . 1 1 38 Bubble plume . and then decelerate in the upper half.pv)( glgc )Aa( H/2) = PI . The buoyant force of bubbles in the lower half of the plume is given by.618 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S O F A BWR Fig. y 2 1 (11 . Thus. 157) (1 1 .a) The average liquid velocity. and VI = VI . integrating to obtain: VI.
E . . Mtg. et aI . . "Some Observations on Near Limit Flames. 375 (1950) . W. Bilanin. ANS CONF 770708. References Abramson. Full Scale Test Program Final Report. 87. 200. W . The average liquid velocity. "Evaluation o f FluidStructure Interaction Effects o n BWR Mark I I Containment Structures. . T. 1979) . Conduction of Heat in Solids. . 161) Bubble velocity relative to the laboratory frame is. and B. et aI. 5 . 2 (May 1965) . L. and G. "The Mechanics of Large Bubbles Rising through Extended Liquids and through Liquids in Tubes. 1978) . ." J. 3 ( 1 977) . 163) The parameter QIAvgl/ is a Froude number. The total gas volume flow rate is Q = Aavg so that. Hemisphere. "A General Model for Unconfined Bubble Plumes from Extended Sources. . Chao. Similarity Methods in Engineering Dynamics. c. 593599 (1971 ) . and Dodge. W G . (1 1 ." NEDO24539. 499521 (1980) . et aI . Taylor. Carslaw. Combustion Inst. Anderson. Fitzsimmons. Florsheutz. G . which was shown to be nearly constant (Chesters et al . Furno. . Topl. J . ." Proc. Clarendon Press. VI = yal(l . W ." NEDO21936. Davies. . General Electric (Aug. P Ed . Chesters. . Multiphase Flow. Vg = VI + Vgl/ where Vg/I is bubble velocity relative to the liquid. . Oxford (1947) . on Combustion. W. 162) (vdVgl/) 2 (l + v/lvgl/) QIAVg/I = 2 ( gH18Vgl/) + (v dvgl/) 2 (1 1 . ]. pp. Sun Valley. Roy. H. . F. . "The General Electric Mark III Pressure Suppression Containment System Analytical Mode!. . which governs the coarse struc ture of a plume. "Small Scale Modeling of Hydrodynamic Forces in Pressure Suppression Systems: Tests of the Scaling Laws. L. T. New York (1985) . max occurs at y = H/2. General Electric (Aug. Baker." In t. Thermal Reactor Safety. . is estimated (1 1 . K . Light Water Reactor Safety Analysis. General Electric. Vol . R. Jaeger.a) ygH/2/2 'ih. . London. "Mark I Containment Program. 160) (1 1 ." NEDO20533. P 5 . Westine. A. 6. and J . Heat Transfer.P R E S S U R E S U PPRESS I O N C O N TAI N M E N T SYSTEMS 61 9 where as VI. A. M . 1980) . "On the Mechanisms of Vapor Bubble Collapse. New Jersey (1 973) . General Electric aune 1974} . Hayden Book Company. Soc." Proc. et a I . I. Pittsburgh." 13 th Symp.
Reynolds. Nucl. Incompressible Flow. L . Nariai. 1 980) . A . Jr. Wiley." MSR39. ASME Publication HTD." Trans." NEDO24520. R. Patton. D. Bodega Bay Atomic Park. McCready. J . . and R. Am. New York (1984) . . Trans. D ." NEDO3001 7. J . R. F. . Honolulu ( 1 983) . McGrawHili. et aI. J r . C. J . "Liquid Surface Motion Induced b y Accelera tion and External Pressure. 34 (1984) . Unit No. Interactive Fluid Structu ral Dynamics Problems in Power Engineering (1 981 ) . . "Trial Air Test Results for the 115 Scale Mark I BWR Pressure Suppression Experiment. and G . "Steam Vent Clearing Phenomena a n d Structural Response of the BWR Torus (Mk I Containment). Lahey. and Drew. Soc . Rastler. Moody. K. General Electric Ouly 1 974) . T . J . W. Moody." ASME Paper No. . 62 ( 1 990) . J . D. B. F. J . M . . . J . 3 5 (1980) . . "Unsteady Condensation and FluidStructure Frequency Dependence on Parameters of Vapor Quench Systems." Proc. Marks. M . Moody.620 T H E RMAL H Y D RA U L I C S OF A BWR General Electric." Pacific Gas and Electric Company (1962) . . T ." Basic Aspects of TwoPhase Flow and Heat Transfer. . General Electric (198 1 ) . Ser. "MSCINASTRAN Users Manual. ." EPR! NP. W ." . ASME. J . Dover. . Nucl. "Fifth Quarterly Progress Report: MARKIII Confirmatory Test Program. New York (1945) . . "General Electric Standard Safety Analysis Report (GESSAR II) for BWR6. 1 . "Tables of Hydrodynamic Mass Factors for Translational Motion. et aL . J . General Electric (Mar. Moody. . Khalid. 1973). General Electric (Sep .TBE. and I . E. PG&E Report. P M . ASMEJSME Thermal Engineering Joint Conference. Lamb. General Electric ( 1 983) . 1 979) . 1972) . Myers. L . "Analytical Model for Estimating Drag Forces on Rigid Sub merged Structures Caused by LOCA and Safety Relief Valve Ramshead Air Discharges. . F. General Electric (Apr. "Preliminary Hazards Summary Report. S . 65WA/UNT2 (1965) . Z. and W C . Sir Horace. Vol . . . McCormick. ANS Topl ." NEDO20550." NEDO21471 . Andeen. W . Lahey." UCRL52371 . Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (1 977) . S ." ASME SP PVP46. . Moody. "An Analysis of Chugging Loads in Containment Systems. MacNeal Schwendler Corporation (Apr. Mtg.. "Chugging and Condensation Oscillation Tests. Marble. Lahey. "Suppression Pool Scrubbing Factors for Postulated Boiling Water Reactor Accident Conditions. Panton." NRC Docket No .1 1 67. . F . "Interphase Thermal and Mechanical Dissipation o f Acoustic Dis turbances in GasLiquid Mixtures. T. Pitts. Ed . . and L. "Oscillation Frequency of Condensation Oscillation Induced by Steam Condensation into Pool Water. Mark III. 94. "The Analysis of Vent Clearing. H. New York ( 1 965) ." NEDO1 0859." Trans. Aya. R . Electric Power Research Institute (Sep . and Ice Beds in Fission Product Retention in Containment. 1979) . McIntyre. T. e t aI . 1977) . . "Preliminary Report on the Fission Product Scrubbing Pro gram. 3 (Sep . Hydrodynamics. and J . Sprays. "The Importance of Pools. Kline. J . H. F. Fission Product Behavior and Source Term Research (1 984). Similitude and Approximation Theory." Proc. Am. . STN 50447. Soc. L . Appendix 3B. McCauley.
Shapiro. "Hydrodynamics of a Subsonic Vapor Jet in Subcooled Liquid. General Electric (Sep. A. . 1 976) ." NEDO1 3456. M . Soc. . I . . Sandia National Laboratories (Aug. H . Sherman. Vol." Proc. "Tests of a Full Scale 1148 Segment of the Humboldt Bay Pressure Suppression Containment. P . C." NUREG/CR1561. . The Ronald Press. E . "Mark 1 1112 Scale Pressure Suppression Tests.P R E SS U R E S U PPRESS I O N C ON TA I N M E N T SY ST E MS 62 1 Robbins." J. Chan. 201. 192196 (1950) . NEDO20942. G . Simpson. et aI. . Valandani. J . K. General Electric (May 1 975) . SAND 801495 R3. et a I . "The Instability of Liquid Surfaces when Accelerated in a Direction Perpendicular to their Planes. and C. . 1980). A. The Dynamics a n d Thermodynamics of Compressible Flu id Flow. P . 104." GEAP3596. Heat Transfer. Roy. "The Behavior of Hydrogen during Accidents in Light Water Reactors. M . New York (1953) . Torbeck. Taylor. "Safety Relief Valve Discharge Analytical Modeling. E . . 271278 (1 982) . H. . I. General Electric ( 1 960) .
.
86 Average power range monitors (APRM). 1 24 curve. 388 APRIL. 364 Aramand parameter. 1 84. 1 42. 401 Air clearing. 1 04. 570 Advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR). 4 ASEAATOM pressure suppression system. 22 Boiling boundary. 138. 564 Availability function. 82. 50 injection. 401 deposition. 137 peaking factor. 363 Accumulator. 103. 401 . 84. 501 Bowring's analysis. 273. 598 Acoustic instabilities. 269 shear stress. 258 . 55 BakerJust model. 433 Boiling water reactor cycles. 40 unsteady form. 373 Appendix K. 85 minimization of. 76. 552 force. 89 Boiling process. 124. 73 loss. 404 transport. 258. 1 20 Bernoulli equation. 229 Bennet correlation. effect on force. 146 Atomic Energy Commission. pressure. 489 ATLAS heat transfer facility. 1 50. 8 1 . 1 3 Batch process. 47 Acoustic damping. 18. 274 Baseloaded service. 320 Adiabatic bubble oscillation. 1 37. 575 Block diagram. 1 1 5. 429. 326 Activation energy. 65 doubleended. 1 85. 1 04 transition. 244 Baroczy's multiplier. 83 boundary. 59 Axial heat flux. 500 Bodega Bay. 1 04 heat flux. 5. 239. 331 . 374 Bottom en try control rod drive. 23 Annular flow. 4 1 7. 363 Accident evaluations. 487.I N DEX Abnormal operating conditions. 399 coagulation. 22 Asymptotic jet area. 72. 42. 329. 387 Bankoff void model. 1 19. 5 1 3 Argonne l o w power reactor (ALPR). 3. 1 04 film. 149. 40 Bounded pipe segment. 364. 1 17. 424 crisis. 4 1 7 Accidents. 1 87. 336 Boiling heat transfer. 5 Aerosol. 232. 335. 208. 7 Automatic depressurization system (ADS) 16. analysis. 354 Blowdown. 373. 1 04 nucleate. 6 Borax experiments. 460 Active coolant. 395. 4 Boron ca rbide. 260 heat transfer coefficient. 245 Area change. 77 Available power. 388 A n t i c i p a t e d tra n s i e n t s w i t h o u t scra m (ATWS). 241 ANS 20 percent curve. 369. 18. 1 25. 233.
227 Bubbly/slug flow regime. 1 2 1 . 7 Continuity equation.624 I N DEX Break discharge flow. 587. 365 COBRA. 551 Contamination. 95 Bubbles. 1 37 Centrifugal pump. 32 Corium. 320 Core coolant flow decrease. 226 Buckingham Pi theorem. 221 . 1 38 Chugging. dropout. 223 Center of momentum velocity. 6 1 0 convective h e a t transfer. 265 Computational mesh. 610 sprays. 589 Clausius/Clapeyron equation. 90 Contact temperature. 376 hydraulics. 308 Bypass flow. 6 1 7 shattering. 45 effects. 64 Coolable geometry. 588 ringout. 408 Condenser vacuum. 366 Coreconcrete interaction. 395 C o u n tercurre n t fl ow limitation (CCFL) 1 08 1 12. 107 equation. 29 spray. 36 Convected energy. 294 Containment configurations. isolated. 208. 304 Consumer's Power. 15 Contact problem. 27. 214. boiling. 365 Core flooding. 614 collapse. 242. 6 1 7 Bubble. 20. 226 Bubbly flow. 581 cluster. 1 86 Bulk boiling. 83 inclination. 23. 49 Control valves. 21 response. breakthrough. 1 8 1 formulation. 54 Burnout. 6 1 3 cluster rise velocity. 372 Countercurrent jets. degraded core. 244 Burnable poison. 1 59 Jfactor. 437 flow. 330 Chen correlation. 1 29. equilibrium. 582 impulse frequency. 105 CrankNicolson method. 320 Carnot efficiency. loss of. 4 1 2 Cesium (Cs). stability. 1 1 7 correlation. 330 Cocurrent flow. 27 power distribution. 248 Condensate storage tank. method of characteristics. 314 Centre Informazioni Studi Experienze (CISE). 142. 99 Closed loop transfer function. 1 22 Chernobyl. 77. 364 Chevron vanes. 320 Core plate. 1 34. 29. 1 70 Collapsed water level. 398 Channel. 363 Control rod withdrawal. 23. 3 1 9 Critical. radioactive. 364 Conductivity integral. enthalpy. 55 shroud. 50. 1 8. 1 0 Bubble. 124. boiling length. 1 1 8 Cold patch experiments. 223 Central difference technique. 51 Control room. 1 1 5. 203 Control malfunction. 1 64 Control rod drive. 8 1 Cavities. 407 Choppedcosine. 369 Condensation oscillation. 568 transit time. 47 Control rods. 3. 42 Contact a ngle. 1 05. 439 heat flux (CHF). 6 1 4 stability. 568 plumes. 20 BWR 4 fuel temperature. 1 4 systems. 1 24. 328 BWR loop schematic. frequency of phase change. 355 BWR types. 303. 1 38 discharge rate. 9 8 Center o f mass. 43. 584 Condensation/evaporation aerosol deposition. 44 positioning. 344 stability. 581 . 370 Brown's Ferry. 492 Concentration parameter. 232 Characteristic. 571 oscillation. 41 heatup. 6 1 3 . 270 Colburn equation. 35 ChiltonCollburn analogy. 1 6 systems. 429 . presssure suppression.
9 Excursive instability. 77 overall plant. 40. 426. 2 1 0 Fauske/Henry models. 365. 322 Enthalpy. area. 64 rise. 388 Demineralized water. 231 void concentra tion. 437 Critical quality. 145 Film boiling. 155 Deposition. 148 DougallRohsenow correla tion. 1 2 1 . mass flux. 87 Eddy di ffu sivity. 443 Feed water. 246 Diffuser. 1 30 front. 104 dryout. 552 Doublehumped profile. jet pump. 1 6 1 Downcomer. 374 End of life temperature distribution. 3 3 1 . 13 Dissipation. 202 Droplet fluidization. 284 volumetric. 1 25 Drywell. 1 28. 27 Dryout. 2 1 3 wave oscillation. 235 mechanisms. 552 Design break accident. 555 venting. 364 Figures of merit. 1 22 Densification. 102 Eccentric annuli. two phase. 365. 1 48. 326.I N DEX 62 5 heat flux ratio (CHFR). 1 58 Doubleended blowdown. 1 4 1 . 74 principle of increase. in core. 145. B W R steam supply. 7. 389 Decontamination factor. 68. 4 Eulerian viewpoint. 1 34. 465 Decay heat. 36. 200 homogeneous. in pipes. 1 74 Economic improvements. 199 saturated. 518 Efficiency. 369 Dresden reactor. 6. 1 25. 407 Darcy friction factor. 10. 439 Energy equation. 1 5 Drift flux. 1 6. 1 55. 73. 204 Eutectic mixture. 1 79 Eddy enhancement model. 4 Exponential power excursion. 5. 1 6 1 . 1 84 Edward ' s water d e c o m p ression experi ment. 387 Expanded jet. 328. of liquid. 393 Evaporation force. 128. 2 1 6 Evolution. 368 Emergency diesels. 554 Dualcycle BWR. 228 Drift velocity. 367. 1 3 Dynamic instability 326 Ebullition (su rface boiling). 147. 41 Carnot. 232 Equilibrium quality. 47 Exothermic reaction. 142. 353 Departure from nucleate boiling (DNB). critical flow. 1 49 power ratio (CPR). 552 pressurization rate. 1 74. 1 65 Cunningham correction factor. 181 Entrainment. 294 Density. 201 momentum. 63 density. 1 39. 1 1 7. 1 24. 1 40. 143. 4 1 7 pressure ratio. 93 Ergodic hypothesis. homogeneous flow. 8. 1 24. 90 mechanical. 16. 432 Fanning friction factor. 37 Diffusiophoresis. 1 5 Dryer. 1 1 7. 1 35 . 72 thermal. 351 . 308 Energy. 329 Exhaust header. 1 1 2. 406 Direct cycle BWR. 496. 72 Emergency core cooling ( ECC). 220. of aerosols. 1 46. 4. 5. 1 05 Dry containment. center of mass. 398 Design basis LOCA. 370 Emergency procedure guidelines (EPG). 509 pressure. 429 flow decay. 363 Entha lpy. 1 29. 8. interphase. 3. 199 crosssectional average. 143 Critical Weber nu mber. 1 66 Entropy. 563 Diabatic system. 127. 197 ESADA Vallecitos experimental superheat reactor. 74 Eotvos number. 205 Engineered safeguards. 484 DittusBoelter correlation. 6. 73 flow ra te. 406 Dalton's law. 284 Distu rbance property. 72. jet pump. 613 Degraded core. 5 1 0 Experimental B W R (EBWR). 45 DenglerAddoms correlation. 144 power. loss of heating.
3 1 4 Garigliano (SENN). 6 1 5 Holdup. 295. 106 Fin heat transfer. 63 balance. droplet. 1 0 1 Fractional analysis. CCFL. 369 High temperature condensation instability. 370 Gundremmingen (KRB) 7 Haling strategy. 1 04 in rod bundles. 215. 530 ramplflat. 6 1 0 Hygroscopic effects. 1 98 Gravitational settling. 54 nuclear. 299. 1 1 7 Heating. 364 Geometric scaling. 238 InconelX. plant. 153. 1 89 Flow quality. 307 rate. 330 Friction effects. 609 Gibbs equation. 594. 548 Fluidstructure interaction (FSI). 298. 152. 462 Friction factor. 2 9 . 124 circulation. 83. 1 4 Flow diversion para meter. 393 similarity. 56 Halon 130 1 . 1 6 1 Guide tubes. 347 Hydraulic supply system. 224 induced instabilities. safety/relief valve. 82 HenchLevy limit lines. 72 sink. 1 05 stability. igniters. 309. 19 Hydraulic inertia. 1 54 Generator trip. 266 multiplier. 61 1 HAMBO. 318 GE BWR product lines. equilibrium. 1 22 Fourier's law. 1 04 F1uidtofluid modeling. 1 85 Frequency domain. 243 Global volumetric flow fraction. 198 Horizontal flow. 291 . 529 Gaussian elimination. 399 G KSS. force. 92. 322 Firstorder relaxation process. 375 Heat transfer. S. 462 Fission product scrubbing. 378 Groeneveld correlation. aerosols. 1 1 8 Frictional pressure drop. 108 Flow control line. passive. 50 rod bundles. 599 Freon modeling. 1 70 Hanging film. Heat. 7 ForsterZuber correlation. 58 Gap conductance. 306. 132 slumping. 557 Horseshoe vortex. 45 weighting term. 234 Flow stoppage. 243. 405 Grey enclosure. 1 84 Fluidization. 235 instability. 612 inerting. 302 shaping. 151. 69 exchanger. 45 Hydrodynamic. 1 57. 1 53 Henry/Fauske model (critical flow). 105 Flux. 244 Flow regime. 9 GE critical quality boiling length (GEXL). 1 6 Heat capacity temperature limitation (HCTL). 355 Hydrogen. 32. 84 generation ra te. 54 Gamma radiation. 7 Gas discharge. 240 vents. 85. 547 pressure. 90. coefficient for boiling. 599 . 225. 89 flow. 595 Fluid/surface parameter. 267 Fuel assemblies. 80 First law. liquid. 529 instantaneous. 561 sink. 458 High pressure core spray (HPCS). 36 Guillotine break. 90 Gibbs free energy. 613 Flammability limits. 3 1 1 . 312. 82. boiling curve. 1 86. 24 Global slip. 78. 63. 61 1 production. 1 35 Foam drainage. depression factor. 54 Gadolinium. 1 96 Homogeneous nucleation. 612 Flooding. 27. pipe discharge. 2 1 8. 402 Inception of entrainment. 1 30 Humboldt Bay. 326 map. 23 Hill's vortex. 229 Forced convection.62 6 I N DEX heat transfer coefficient.
II. 365 Low pre s s u re coo l a n t injection system (LPCI). 553. 27. 4 1 8 Maximum drywell pressure. 1 32 Local density. 327 hydrodynamic. 2 1 8 pressure. 27 Integral concept. 18. 1 32 I nterface. 48 Loss coefficient. 1 1 9. 1 29 Index tube. 1 5 1 Japanese containment. 327 . 371 inventory. 34 Internal thermal energy. 388 Maximum critical power ratio (MCPR). 56 Internal genera tion. 325 Instrumentation. 46 drive. 2 1 JensLottes correlation. 30. 240 MartinelliNelson two phase multiplier. 367. 1 82. 1 53 Local power range monitors (LPRM). normalized. 405 Initial discharge properties. 204. 533. 443 Levy's void model. 97 Leakage flow. III containments. 340 MAAP. configurations. 43 Krypton (Kr). 2 1 5 . 459 MARCH. analysis of. 485 pressure. 370 Load following. 149. 24. 563 Interfacial. 56 Local pressure drop. 40 opera ting principles. 1 64 Linear system instability. 565 Low pressure core spray. 249 Liedenfrost point. 32 Lower plenum. 6 Kinetic energy. 243 Inertial deposition. 1 08. 24 JanssenLevy limit lines. 249 parameter. 436 event. critical flow. 575 Martinelli correlation. 94 Latent energy of evaporation. 557. friction factor. 71 rate. 508 Jet pump. 1 24. 326. 92 force. 200 Material derivative. 43. 42 MARKI. 498 pressure. 38. 63 Internals. 364 Main steam lines. 200 Local peaking factor. 42. 398 KWU. 1 4 Local conditions hypothesis. 277 Loss of coolant accident ( LOCA). 327 Levy model. 1 50. 271 Marviken.I N DEX 627 Ideal gas. 68 Ideal machine. 1 1 8. 330 Liquid line breaks. 563 In termediate range monitoring (IRM). 1 0 Load rejection. 232 Iodine (I). 502 Insert signal. 63 Kirchhoff's law (radiation). 553 Maximum steam/water flow rate (Moody JAERI Laboratory. 49 Instability. 1 5 Lagrangian viewpoint. 1 05 thermalhydra ulic. 36 assembly. 55. 47 Indirect cycle BWR. force. 221 Laminar sublayer. 371 Jones' flow effect. aerosols. 21 1 shea r stress. 2 1 0 jump condition. 488. 1 77 Internal steam separa tor. 273 KAHL Reactor. 76 Isokinetic probe. 203 Matrix L. 18. 275 Locking piston. 364 Mass flux. 321 Ledinegg instability. 1 20. 74 Isolation valves. 266. 239 Intermediate break accident (IBA). 27 Inverse viscosity. forces. 1 0. 38 efficiency. 30 tie plate. 24 LaCrosse. vessel. 1 0 1 LaPlace equation (su rface tension). 1 2 1 . 45. 52 Lumped parameter model. 27. 5 Inertia force on bubble. 398 Irreversibilities. 72 Impingement. water. 16. 3 1 9 Maximum axial planar linear heat generation rate (MAPLHGR). 39 suction uncovery. l 22 Jet. 19. 488 Incipient dryout. 1 71 Isolated system.
385 Metastability. 204 Lagrangian form. U02 fuel. 55. 32 Neutron monitoring system. 4 Orifice flow rate. 1 0 Moving normal shock. 98 Nodal conservation laws. 157 heat transfer. 454 Nyquist plot. 1 07. 22. 580 swell. 394 Memory effect. 605 Momentum density. 379 Plant heat ra te. 63 Power distribution. 441 Mean film thickness. 1 03. 99. 1 03 Multivent geometry. 491 Meyers' form. 1 32. 151 Mist flow. 484. 1 62. 331 Oncoming wave. 5. 1 6 1 . 213. 1 79 two phase. 606 draining. 433 Pool scrubbing. 355 Partial load rejection. 453 Method of characteristics (MOC). 357 Pipe flow. 93 Mechanistic model. 602 Nonequilibriu m conditions. reaction forces. 160. 400 Molten debris. 1 58. 29 Pellets. parallel channel. 9 1 . 7 convection. 2 1 6 Metalwater reaction. 240 Mechanical energy equation. 55 flattening. 535 Mratio. 40. 89. 485 transients. 41 Nuclear fuel. 98 time. 1 04 Negative feedback system. 253 spontaneous. 256 Melt propagation. 330 Neutron detector. 155. 301 Normal shock. 1 55. 1 1 2 curve. 577 suppression. homogeneous flow. 524 No slip boundary. 607 cooling. 1 63. 165 Potential energy. 489 Pipe maximum discharge ra te. 1 02 Minimum critical heat flux ratio (MCHFR). 97. 250 Motor/generator sets. 608 Multirod flow bOiling.628 INDEX model). 508 Pacific Gas & Electric (PG&E). 357 theorem. 462 Piping. 1 8 1 Model coefficients. 384 Pressure accu mulator. 1 66. 57 Neutron thermalization. unsteady. 453 Nonhomogeneous flow. 1 04 Nucleation. 298 parabolic. 484 Plank mean absorption coefficient. 524 properties. 98 Nondimensional groups. 72 Pool boiling critical heat flux. 242 . 1 83 Nratio. conservation equations. 575 M1 integral (diffusion theory). 56. 47 Natural circulation. 299 normalized. 206 Mechanical equilibrium. 1 2 function. 2 1 5 liquid/vapor phases. 3 1 . 50 Perfect gas. 125. 1 6 Positive reactivity insertion. 369. 214. 1 75 Noncondensible gases. moving. 156 Post dryout (PDO). a rrival at drywell shell. 50 Nucleate boiling. 224 Microconvection. 14 Partial pressure. 513 Operating curve. 365 Post boiling transition. 602. 99 Phasors. 1 57 Mixing length. 2 1 2 separated flow. 505 Momentum equation. 95. 298 Precursory cooling. 356. 56 Pedestal. 21 Operation Sunrise. 483 w hipping. 242 effects. 1 1 5 pool boiling. 603 spreading. 99 Passive heat sink. 1 35 Mershcherskiy force. 100 criterion. 1 6 Peaking factors. 97 cavity. 209 Momentum exchange model. 40 Multiphenomena scale modeling. in core. 409 structure impact. 1 9 Parallel channel instability. 1 80. 602 Molecular mass.
381 Rayleigh equation. 29 head. 221 pool boiling critical heat flux. 1 86. decom pressive. 370. 42. 27. 199 thermodynamic equilibrium. 599 Seismic accelera tion. 1 5. in rod bundles. 23 direct acting. 602 sequence analysis (SASA). 231 Reliability. 77. 527 flooding. 369 Semiimplicit finite difference formulation 317 Separated flow. 536 submerged piping. 7 1 . 282 Pressure suppression containment. 410 Segment scaling. 364 pump siezure. 570 Rupture disk. 498 Reactor. 1 0 system. 1 22 Reynolds stress. 525 clearing. core. 326 rise. 3. 55 Radial pressure gradient. 1 77. 2 1 7 Set point pressure. energy. falling film. inadvertent start. 37 Rod bundles. 3 heat removal (RHR). 1 82 turbulent. 1 0 heat transfer. 349 Pumping action (in boiling). 228. 220 Pump. 19 Pressurized water reactor (PWR). external. centrifugal. 5 Single failure criterion. 562 vessel. 1 99 flow. 263 Pseudo densities. 29 Recirculation. 231 Slug/froth flow. 1 06 Reynolds number. 207 static. 370 systems. 538 Shroud. 493. 108 point. 7 Radiolytic decomposition of water. 563 Sodium pentaborate. 441 Slug flow. 496 Simplified BWR (SBWR). 226 Smallbreak accident (SBA). 391 Profile fit. 1 57 propagation equation. two phase. 1 9 Safety relief valve (SRV). 42 Settle signal. 209 Riemann solution. 394 RungeKutta solution. 90.I N DEX 629 Pressure drop. 73 Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). 390 Shear stress. 374 Sonic speed. 376 Radioactive contamination. 568 Reaction forces. 210 Shock. 388. 214. 4 1 8 Reicha rdt's data. equilibrium. 363 Slip ratio. 420 pump. 46 valves. 370 head. 1 8 Second law. 75 Sedimentation velocity. 72 Rewetting. 6 1 0 Radiosity. 97 Quality. 72 operational formulation. 1 1 7 Romie multliplier. 16. 492. 598 Scram. 49 Severe accident. 3 Residual heat removal (RHR). 523 force. 67 compressive. 1 05 Scale modeling procedu res. postulated. 1 8 Radial peaking factor. 89 Pure substance. 494 . 551 tests. 78. 497 Ringout. 1 64 temperature. trip. 45 coastdown. 181 . 1 66. 266 losses. 532 pressure. 79 oscillation. 1 98. 1 7 designs. 279 Rubble bed formation. 49 Scrubbing. 1 9 pool. 589 Riser pipe. 382 hea t flux. 2 1 1 Radiation. 531 . 1 98. 36 pump. stea m. 32 Simple waves. 526 Saturated equilibrium. configu rations. 27. 1 7. 1 79 Relative velocity. 3 Principle of entropy increase. 1 5 7 Quenchers. equilibrium. 244 Slip flow models. 367 Single operator error. 1 8 Reversible process. 68.
1 80 Twophase Reynolds number. 1 04. 331 . 85. 330 Transient forces. 259 liquid. 326 map. 242. 69 Steam condensation. evolution. 63 Thermodynamic equilibrium. 206 enthalpy. 1 79 Turnkey plants. 327 Steam supply. 428 Static instabilities. 374 Turbulent mixing. 438 Standby liquid control system (SLCS). 197 Superhea ted vapor. 3 Thermalhydraulic analyses. 374 Startup transient. 506 friction effect on. 278 Superficial velocity. 297 Temporal acceleration. 325 flow excursion. 398 Temperature instability. 33. 231 of vapor phase. 1 99 Steady blowdown force. 1 66. 355 Stagnation enthalpy. 257 Thermophoresis. 398 Tarapur reactors. 454 Unsteady pipe flow.630 I N DEX Source range monitoring (SRM). 90. 86 dryer. 237. 310 Transition boiling. 1 99. 526 Stuck open relief valve (SORV). 1 1 5. containment. 1 76 mixing length. 34 quenchers. 280. 507 with restriction. 266 Terminal rise velocity of bubbles. 1 8 separators. 207 Thermal equilibrium. 42. 7 Taylor instability. 567 Sudden expansion. 29 Suppression factor. 266 derivative. 3 1 7 drift gradient. 27 Transfer function. 64 properties. 1 68. 364 resonance. 27. 558 Tellurium (TE). 575 Support skirt. 61 1 Spatial acceleration. 1 34 Top guide. 568 Submerged structure loads. 1 73. 68 Superposition of point sou rces. 251 Subcooled liquid blowdown. 281 multiplier. 214. 268 dissipation factor. vessel. 575 Submerged water jets. 1 64 Sprays. 283 Spark igniter. 51 1 Steady state heat balance. 542 Stroke time. 291 Thermal radiation. 2 1 4 Specific enthalpy. 280 quality. 50 Thermal circuit. on pipe. 97. 1 79 phenomena. 562 Subchannel analysis. 92 efficiency. 23 Temperature. 1 1 8 twophase friction multiplier. 64 Specific heat. 370 isolation. 483 Transient conduction analysis. 35 internal. 258. 253. 364 Tong Ffactor. 1 95 density. 230. 489 . 314 Thermodynamics. 1 88 Subcooled boiling. steady state in fuel. 358 margin. 243. 122 Undershoot. 392. 201 Spinoidal point. 243 Theoretical density. 406 Stop valve closure. 472 Submerged air discharge. 67 void fraction. 407 Thom correlation. 252 energy equation. 251 . 593 Thermal energy equation. 1 57. 1 22. 9 1 . 325 Static quality. 3 2 . 318 Turbine trip. 1 73. 67 Specific volume. 1 6 cooling. 566. 1 1 7. 451 Twophase flow. 369 Surface tension. 1 23 Suppression pool. 1 7 Stability a nalysis. 1 24 Transverse mass flux. 1 1 Two equation model. 270 Twophase mixing. 364 without bypass. 306 Thermal damping. 9 Stefan velocity. 272 Three Mile Island. 63 performance. 56 Spacer pressure drop. 348 Steam line break. 1 78 Tridiagonal matrix.
254 drift shear stress. 580 loads. 251 Wave force. 227 Viscous force. 1 6 dearing. 201 reactivi ty feedback. 96. safety/relief. 1 6 1 . chevron. 577 force. 559 in drywell. 1 1 Zircaloy. 2 1 3 Vent system. 335 Zero power kinetics transfer function. 43 tra nsients. 4 Valves. 292. 1 6. 196 flow. 1 65 Wetwell. 353 Zimmer Power Station. 226 . 558 Virtual mass. 227 volume para meter. 52 Upstream memory effect. vent expulsion. 294 Zirconium oxide. S . 291 thermal properties. center of volume. 2 1 6 Velocity. 261 Wall voidage. 557 Vessel. 563 Vallecitos BWR. 29 blowdown. 50. 1 32. drift. 54 Water plug expulsion. 306 ZuberFindlay drift flux. 352 Volumetric average. 55 Zircaloy 2. 1 7. 483 Van der Waals equation. 197 fraction. 598 Weber number. 1 97 vapor generation term. Atomic Energy Commission. 201 quality relationships. 293 Upper tie plate. 1 96. 243 Void. 18 Waterhammer. 554. 16. 1 35 U . 35 Vapor momentum equation. 42 isolation. 398 Zero level operator. 552. 1 1 Vacuum breakers. 531 Water pool. 233 critical. 395 Water gap s. 500 WASH 1 400. 1 64 Vanes. 1 95. 50. 1 77 ensemble average. 1 83 departure criterion. 257. 63 Xenon (Xc). 562 air compression. 2 1 6 Vapor thrust. 487. 473 Virtual length. reactor.I N DEX 63 1 U02 pellets. 16. 209. 1 86. 565 Work. 7. 1 74. 1 72. 42.