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aberration An optical defect in a lens 50mm lens on a 35mm camera is The anti-halation backing dissolves
which causes unsharp or distorted approximately 45 degrees and as from the film during developing.
images. While a lens with an this is considered to be close to the aperture The opening in the lens which
aberration may still make sharp angle of view over which the human is used to regulate the amount of
images, the defect might be in the eye sees a sharply defined image, light which reaches the film. The
way it renders colour due to what is this lens is referred to as a “normal” amount of light reaching the film is
called chromatic distortion. lens. Actually the human eye’s controlled by the iris. The actual
abrasion marks on lens coatings These peripheral vision can take in a much aperture is expressed as an f
can be caused by the careless greater angle than this. However, number. The smaller the number,
polishing of the front or back the greater the film size, the greater the larger the aperture. This number
elements of a lens the angle of view. So for instance on is arrived at by dividing the
a 6x7cm film a 50mm lens is diameter of the aperture into the
abrasion marks on negatives or actually a wide-angle lens.
transparencies These can be caused focal length of the lens. Therefore
by poor storage, grit in the camera anamorphic scaling disproportionate an aperture of F2 on a 50mm lens
or a damaged camera pressure plate. scaling of a digital image which is has a diameter of 25mm. You do not
They are difficult to remove but can caused by uneven enlargement of have to know this but it helps if you
sometimes be reduced in printing by one or other axis of a picture in understand the relationship of
using a diffusion enlarger, by using relation to another. The result is aperture to light transmission. Each
“nose grease” or by digitally distortion of the image. larger aperture number represents a
retouching the image in a computer anti-aliasing smoothes out the jagged halving of the amount of light to the
and making the print on an inkjet lines which can sometimes occur in proceeding number. That is f11 lets
printer. a digital image by surrounding the in half the light of F8, F16 lets in
jaggies with shaded pixels. See half the light of F11 and so on.
acutance a measure of image sharpness
jaggies aperture priority is where the automatic
agitation The movement of a solution function of a modern 35mm camera
in developing to ensure that fresh anti-halation backing This is the
coating on film which on exposure is set so that when you set the
chemistry remains in touch with the camera by taking control of the
emulsion of a film. Regular, but not prevents light from passing through
the emulsion in the camera. Without aperture, the camera automatically
too violent agitation ensures even sets the shutter speed.
development. it light would be reflected back onto
the film after passing through it, by Archival scan a unmanipulated high
angle of view Simply put, this is the the pressure plate, and cause resolution scan usually in TIFF
angle which a lens on a camera fogging or halation and a resulting format used as the basis for storing
“sees”. The angle of view of a lack of contrast and unsharpness. an image for later processing.

artifact any non-image related inclusion lens automatically focuses itself to bag bellows Soft flexible sleeve used
in a digital picture file such as dust, the correct distance required for a on large-format cameras in place of
scratches or digital noise picture. standard bellows when using wide
artificial light This is the term used to autowinder The detachable or inbuilt angle lenses.
describe any light other than light motor which winds and rewinds the bare bulb The use of a flash tube
from the sun. Artificial light also film in most modern cameras. As without a reflector so that the light is
includes flash lighting but because opposed to a motor-drive which can dispersed in all directions.
this is daylight balanced this make multiple exposures when the barn doors Hinged panels on either side
presents no problems in the shutter is released an autowind of a light to control the direction of
rendition of colour. Other types of usually only makes a single the light
artificial light such as tungsten exposure with each pressure of the
lighting, fluorescent light, quartz shutter. barrel distortion A common lens
halogen lighting present special aberration causing the corners of the
B setting Standing for “Bulb”, the B picture to appear to bend inwards.
situations that either require special setting enables a photographer to
films or filtration in order to render hold the shutter open for as long as batch numbers The manufacturers
an accurate colour rendition. he or she holds down the shutter number used to identify a single
Formerly called “ASA”, the batch of film made from the same
ASA The now superseded measure of button or cable release.
sensitivity rating of a film is sensitivity of a film. ASA stands for emulsion.
back focus Actual distance between the
now described as ISO. American Standards Association but batch scanning The ability of a scanner
rear lens element and the film when
has been replaced by the the lens is focused at infinity. to scan a number of images at one
Internationals Standards time. Most scanners will handle
Organisation (ISO) rating. To all back lighting Light coming from between four to six pictures at a
intents and purpose both are the behind the main subject to produce a time, but some makes have
same. light fringe or halo effect. attachments that will allow
Additional exposure is usually automatic scanning of up to 50
automatic exposure The exposure required for such a scene, and some
system in cameras where the camera pictures
automatic cameras have a
is designed to automatically set the "backlight" button to include this bayonet mount The type of lens mount
appropriate aperture or shutter speed compensation automatically. most commonly in use today in
to provide correct exposure of the which an interchangeable lens is
film. back projection Projection of a picture inserted into a camera body and then
onto a translucent screen behind the locked into place with a partial turn.
automatic focussing A system using main subject to give the illusion of a
internal servo-motors whereby a location shot in the studio.

bellows Collapsible light-tight sleeve the light over your shoulder and used with a sturdy tripod this
fitted between the lens and the film back into the ceiling corner. minimises the possibility of camera
holder. Used with nearly all large- bracketing When you are doubtful shake.
format and some medium format about exposure it pays to bracket camera movements A system of
cameras, the use of bellows with your shots. That is to make adjustments, generally in large-
35mm cameras is normally to permit exposures either side of the format cameras, which allow the
extremely close focusing with indicated exposure, usually in half film and lens planes to be moved
standard lenses. stop increments. That way you will independently of one another. This
between the lens shutter Shutter ensure that you have a transparency has the effect of moving the image
normally consisting of a number of of optimum density. plane (see Sheimpflug principle)
blades or leaves, placed within the bromide paper A term used to describe enabling a more creative use of
elements of a lens photo-sensitive paper such as selective focus and the elimination
35mm film cassette (or exaggeration) of distortions
blur Blur can be as much an asset as a standard black and white printing
fault. Blur in a photograph can be papers which rely on silver-bromide caused by viewing angles.
caused by using too low a shutter for their light sensitivity. camera shake Movement of the camera
speed so that you get camera or bulk loader A light-tight device into during slow shutter speeds which
subject movement. However, the which a 30 metre bulk roll of film will introduce blur into your
creative photographer can often can be loaded, for the daylight pictures. To prevent it you need to
make use of this to show movement spooling of individual cassettes. If use either a faster shutter speed, a
or speed. you are careful, bulk-loading of film tripod and a cable release.
bounced flash If using portable flash can be a good way to cut costs. The cassette The standard 35mm film
always avoid direct flash if you can. average 36 exposure length of film cartridge, usually loaded with film
It is much better to bounce the light is about 1.8 metres so you could in lengths of either 36, or 20
from a light ceiling or other surface expect to get around 16 rolls from a exposures though some amateur
so that you get a soft, even diffused 30 metre length of film. emulsions are available in loads of
light that approximates “natural” burning in Method, in printing, of 24 or 12 exposures.
lighting. With colour though, you giving extra localised exposure to catadioptric lens Lens generally of
must avoid coloured ceilings as the areas of a print which would long focal length constructed with
film will end up with a colour cast, otherwise appear too light. the use of internal mirrors enabling
from the reflected light. Good flash the light path to be "folded", so that
bounce in a white or light coloured cable release Flexible cable used for
releasing the camera shutter without the physical size of the lens is much
room can be achieved by bouncing less than its focal length would
touching the camera itself. When

suggest. This system of lens centre-weighted exposure meter A incorporated into the silver halide
construction is also widely used in through-the-lens exposure meter emulsion coated onto a plastic base.
astronomical telescopes. Also designed to give more importance to A slide enlarged onto this print
known as a mirror lens (q.v.). the centre of the picture than to the material creates a negative latent
catch light A small highlight in an eye edges when determining the correct image. This is developed and then
created by the reflection of a bright exposure. bleached to remove the processed
light source. Portraits without such changing bag A black lightweight silver and the accompanying dyes.
catch-lights can look lifeless and cloth bag designed to permit the What is left after this dye
dull. reloading of dark slides or handling destruction is the positive image of
of film in daylight conditions. A dyes which were unaffected by the
CC filters Colour compensating filters light. These Azo dyes are
used both in colour photography and changing bag is like a miniature
cloth darkroom, with sleeves so that particularly noted for their stability.
colour printing. These filters are
available in a range of densities in the arms can be inserted. Film, dark circles of confusion Because the
the three primary colours (red, green slides or cameras can be inserted average human eye is unable to
and blue) and the three into the changing bag via a light- distinguish between a true point of
complementary colours (cyan, tight zippered opening. light and a disc of light, as long as
Kodak gelatin color correction magenta and yellow). Thus a chemical fog A veil of metallic silver the diameter of the disc is very
small, areas in front of and behind
filers. The filter shown is a CC30M filter is a magenta filter deposited over the negative.
the plane of sharp focus in a picture
CC20G(reen) with a density of 0.3 to green light, Excessive fogging is usually caused
and is commonly used to counteract by overactive or prolonged will also appear sharp. Once the
the overall green cast associated development, but a certain amount circles of light begin to appear as
with pictures taken under of fogging always takes place during circles, they will be perceived as
fluorescent lighting. development. being unsharp. See depth of field.
CCD Charged Coupled Device is a type chromatic aberration The inability of CMYK The four process colors used in
of electronic solid-state a lens to resolve different colours in printing: cyan, magenta, yellow, and
semiconductor device that is the same plane, resulting in colour black. Why “K”? Well the
extremely sensitive to light. fringing, particularly with white originators of this acronym thought
Basically the CCD is what replaces objects close to the edges of the that “B” might be confused with
the film in the camera. The higher frame. blue.
the number of sensors on the CCD Cibachrome A positive-to-positive coated lens The surfaces of modern
the higher the resolution of the colour printing process. In a lenses are nearly always coated with
images. Cibachrome print Azo dyes are a thin layer of a transparent material

such as magnesium fluoride. The daylight or tungsten light. To obtain result in predominantly "cool" blue
purpose of this coating is to reduce a more accurate colour balance with tones.
light loss caused by the reflection of tungsten film in daylight, for colour temperature meter A meter
light moving from air to glass or example, an 85 series filter would be designed to measure colour
glass to air within a lens. This light used. temperature. Some of these will
loss occurs at every glass-air colour head The head or light source measure only colour temperature,
interface, and if uncorrected can of an enlarger fitted with the range which is in the amber-blue
cause overall fogging of the film, of colour filters for colour printing. spectrum, while the best meters will
thereby reducing contrast. also measure in the magenta-green
colour temperature In theory, the
cold cathode enlarger Enlarger using a temperature to which an inert body spectrum. This is particularly useful
fluorescent light source which is would have to be heated to glow at a when photographing under light
particularly suitable for the purpose particular colour. This is expressed sources such as fluorescents which
by virtue of its low temperature in degrees Kelvin. The lower the have a so-called discontinuous
Complementary colours operation and its even illumination. colour temperature of the source, the spectrum.
Because it can be used without richer it is in the red and yellow rays compact camera A small easily-
condensers, this form of of the spectrum, the higher the portable and self-contained camera,
illumination is particularly suited to temperature the richer in the blue- usually 35mm
5x4 or bigger enlargers. green end of the spectrum. In Compact Flash cards a type of
collage Composition made out of practice every light source has a removable memory card used for
pieces of paper, cloth, photographs colour temperature, and colour films storing digital images in cameras.
or other miscellaneous materials are balanced to take this into See Memory cards
juxtaposed and pasted onto paper or account. Daylight film is balanced
fabric, often combined with original for a colour temperature of 5500 K, complementary colours A colour is
artwork. which is considered to be the mean said to be the complementary of
temperature of the noon sun. another when the light of the two
colour conversion filters Filters used added together makes white light.
to alter the colour temperature of Tungsten film is balanced at 3200
K. It is possible to use a film other The term is usually applied to the
light for different films. These filters colours cyan, magenta and yellow as
are available in a variety of than in its designated setting to give
a desired effect, so using daylight they are the complementary colours
strengths designated by letter: thus to the three primaries red, green and
80A, B C etc or 85 series. film under tungsten light will give a
pleasing "warmth" to the picture. blue.
Transparency films are balanced for
different light sources, mainly Conversely using Tungsten- Compression ratio the ratio a digital
balanced film under daylight will picture file is compressed expressed

in relation to the original raw file covering power Term used to describe
cameras whereby the slide is
size. E.g. a file of 2mb compressed the optical coverage of lenses. A
withdrawn allowing the film to be
from a 20mb file would be lens may be thought of as projecting
compressed at a ration of 10:1 a circular image backwards towards
the film plane. As long as this circle data back An interchangeable back for
compression the packing of a digital
is larger than the film size used, the a camera (mainly 35mm) which
image to create a smaller file
lens may be said to have sufficient allows the imprinting of information
compression, lossless file coverage. However if the lens is onto the film.
compression that makes a file moved off axis as with a perspective daylight film Colour film intended for
smaller without degrading the image control lens or a large format use with a light source with a
compression, lossy this refers to any camera the lens needs to be colour temperature of 5500K. This
compression of a picture file that designed with a greater circle of is considered to be a mean average
reduces the size of the file by coverage. It is seldom possible to daylight colour temperature,
discarding data. JPEG compression use lenses designed for one format although in practice wide variances
does this, replacing pixels on an on a larger format, as they do not can be expected from daylight. A
approximate basis when the file is normally have the covering power late evening light can be closer to
re-opened. Lossy compressions required for the bigger film size. that of tungsten (3200K) while the
A contact print. The un- usually result in a loss of quality and cropping The exclusion of unwanted light of the Australian sky can be as
enlarged images are used as some image degradation. picture areas in printing to improve blue as 15000K
reference for selection and contact print A print made on composition. dedicated flash A flash-gun designed
editing. photographic paper by exposing the cut film A term used to distinguish specifically for use with a particular
paper to light with the negatives in sheet film from roll film. For camera or range of cameras, Such a
contact with the print. Naturally example 5x4 cut film is in sheet flash will link automatically to the
these images are same-size. format 5 inches by 4 inches and is electronics of the camera to control
contrast The difference in brightness loaded into large format cameras exposure and shutter speed.
or density between adjacent areas of using dark slides. definition Term used to indicate the
tone. The control of contrast is an cyan Blue-green colour fineness of detail in a photographic
important part of photography and is complementary to red. print or transparency. Definition is
affected by a number of different a result both of the resolving power
factors. The inherent subject dark slide A light tight device for the
of the lens and the ability of the
contrast, the use of lighting, type of handling of cut film. Dark slides
material used to render fine detail.
material and processing can all be containing two sheets of cut film are
used to control the end result. loaded into the back of large format

density The light-absorbing power of a film is still wet, or can usually be DIN Deutsche Industrie Normen
processed photographic image. The removed with ferricyanide reducer. (German Industrial Standards). A
amount of silver deposited after a diffraction The bending and scattering method of expressing film speed,
film has been processed can be of light rays around an opaque now superseded by ISO
measured quantitatively by a object, particularly one with a sharp (International Standards
densitometer. 100% transparency is edge. In a photograph this may be Organisation) rating.
expressed as a density of 0 seen as the blurring of a sharp edge diopter Unit used to express the power
while .01% transparency is a density of shadow, while in the camera it of a lens. In photography, this unit
of 4.0 may adversely affect image quality is generally used to express the
depth of field This term defines the when a lens is stopped down below strength of an accessory close-up
extent of acceptable sharpness its optimum aperture. lens, or an eyepiece correction lens.
behind and in front of the point of diffusion The scattering of light in all dispersion The breaking up of white
focus of the lens. While a lens may directions when passed through a light into its component colours by
only be truly focused in a single translucent (but not transparent ) passing it through a material having
plane, the inability of the eye to material. This has the effect of a refractive index which varies
differentiate between a point and a softening the light source. So-called according to the wavelength of the
disc (see circles of confusion) means diffusion filters may also be used on light, or in other words bending the
A diffusion filter has been that an area on either side of this the front of a camera lens to soften rays of some colours more than
used here to soften this plane may be rendered acceptably the image. others. All lenses will exhibit this
portrait sharp, generally in a ratio of 1/3 in property to some extent or another.
front of the plane and 2/3 behind. digital zoom the ability of a digital
camera to “zoom” an image by The better lens designs use different
This area of apparent sharp focus glasses to try to cancel out its effects
may be increased by the use of a cropping the picture in the camera.
smaller aperture. It offers a much lower image quality distortion An alteration in the shape or
than a true optical zoom. Unlike an proportions of an image which may
diaphragm An arrangement of blades optical zoom, the digital zoom takes occur at any point in the
or leaves within a lens used to the central portion of the camera photographic process. A lens
control the aperture or lens opening. sensor's image to achieve the effect suffering from distortion produces
dichroic fog Veil of metallic silver of a zoom. The existing data is not straight lines away from the centre
deposits on negatives which looks enhanced or added to, only of the image as curves. These may
purplish by transmitted light and displayed at a lower resolution, either curve inwards (pin-cushion
greenish by reflected light. Caused thereby giving an illusion of an distortion) or outwards (barrel
by faulty processing, these deposits enlarged image. distortion). Other types of
can often be wiped off while the

distortion may be deliberately dye transfer process A process of print through a liquid in which they
introduced for effect. making in which the dyes from three remain suspended without
dodging Method, when printing, of separately prepared images are dissolving. A photographic
holding back exposure on localised transferred to a single sheet of paper emulsion is a suspension of silver
areas which would otherwise appear to form the colour print. This halide grains in gelatin
too dark. method of printing is considered to endoscopic photography An
be the most accurate in terms of endoscope is a device for viewing
double exposure The superimposition colour rendition, the most
of one exposure onto another in the and photographing in small and
controllable and the most long- inaccessible places, normally within
camera. Modern cameras do not lasting. It is also, unfortunately, by
normally allow this to happen the human body. It usually consists
a very long way the most expensive. of a tube of fibre optics with a lens
dynamic range the gradations of light at one end, together with some form
Dpi dots-per-inch; term used to and dark that a digital camera or of light source, and a camera
describe the resolution of a digital scanner can capture where details attachment at the other end.
picture or the resolution capability are neither washed out by light nor
of a camera or scanner enlarger A device for the production
concealed by shadows. The greater of photographic prints from
dry mounting Method of attaching the dynamic range of the hardware negatives or transparencies, by
prints to a mount with shellac tissue the greater the range of contrast the projecting them onto sensitised
Durst M670 enlarger (or similar), using a hot iron or a camera or scanner can handle. paper or other materials. Generally
press. Ektachrome Proprietary name of a the prints produced are larger than
dupe A colloquial term used to range of colour transparency films the original negative or
describe either a duplicate negative in a variety of film speeds for both transparency, although most
or transparency i.e. a duplicate of professional and amateur enlargers have the facility to make a
the original. While they can be of photographers from Kodak. Present- print smaller than the original.
very high quality they will almost day Ektachrome films are all existing light Term used to describe
never match the original image, developed using the E-6 process photography in generally poor
there being a loss of quality in the electronic flash Artificial light source lighting conditions without the aid
copying process. which uses the discharge of a high of artificial lights. Also referred to
DX coding Coding placed by the film voltage pulse of electricity through a as available light photography
manufacturer on the outside of the gas-filled tube. expiry date Date printed on most film
film cassette which can be read by emulsion A stable mass of finely cartons before which the material
the camera, enabling the film speed divided particles evenly spread should be processed. The
to be set automatically.

manufacturer's guarantee will not exposure settings for a camera. This lens is equal to its focal length
normally extend beyond the expiry measurement may occur in a divided by its effective aperture - in
date, but in practice storage number of ways. Most common is other words a 50mm lens with a
conditions can have a great effect on the measurement of reflected light maximum aperture of f 2 will have
the useful life of sensitised from the subject, which is the an aperture of diameter 25mm.
materials. method used by in-camera exposure Each higher f-number halves the
exposure Exposure is a measure of the meters. Also available are incident size of the effective aperture.
quantity of light reaching a film or light meters that measure the fast film A film with an extreme
printing paper, controlled by the amount of light falling on the sensitivity to light. Such films have
aperture through which the light subject. Such meters are potentially high ISO numbers.
passes and the length of time for more accurate as they do not take
into account the tones of the subject, fast lens A lens with a large maximum
which it travels, controlled by the aperture. Such lenses have low f-
shutter speed or enlarger timer. but rather base their readings on an
18% grey. Other meters commonly numbers.
exposure factor Number by which the used are spot-meters, which measure field camera A large-format camera,
exposure of a scene must be the light reflected from a 1° spot on often of wooden construction, which
multiplied to compensate for the the subject. These allow the can be folded flat for easy transport
absorption of light by the use of building up of an extremely accurate on location.
extension bellows or extension picture of an exposure before ever
rings. In practice most through-the- fill-flash The use of flash to lighten
taking a photograph, and are often
lens metering systems will shadow areas created by a strong
used in large-format photography.
automatically make this adjustment main light source (often the sun
but a painstaking photographer extension tubes Metal tubes inserted outdoors). A means of reducing
should still be aware of the fact that between the lens and the camera, overall contrast in a photograph, the
compensation is required.. thus increasing lens-to-film distance flash is often set to give 1/2 to 1 stop
A Gossen exposure meter and enabling close-up photography. less than the main light so that the
exposure latitude The amount by Performing a similar function to overall effect remains close to the
which a negative or transparency extension bellows, extension tubes original.
may be over- or under-exposed and are in practice much easier to use in
still yield an acceptable result with fill-light Any light used to fill in
the field, but with a trade-off in
normal processing shadow areas in a photograph.
terms of flexibility.
exposure meter An instrument for film Photographic material consisting
f number A numerical expression of
measuring light intensity and of a flexible acetate base coated
the relative aperture of a lens at its
translating it into a range of with a light-sensitive emulsion.
different stops. The f-number of a

film base The flexible base onto which from different parts of the spectrum. photography today. "Portable"
the film emulsion is coated. Two fixed focus lens Lens set at a fixed electronic flash units weighing
kinds of base are in normal use - distance from the film plane, around 14-18 kg began to make
cellulose tri-acetate for the more offering no adjustment. Such lenses their appearance in the 1940s. All
flexible films such as 35mm or roll are generally found on cheaper of these have one aim in common -
film, and polyethylene teraphthalate cameras, where they are combined to produce a brief burst of intense
or polyester for sheet film which with a small aperture, typically light for the purpose of illuminating
requires a greater stiffness. around f11, to render everything a photographic subject.
film speed The speed of a film is a from approximately 2m to infinity Flash card a non-volatile memory card
measure of its sensitivity to light. acceptably sharp. used to store pictures in a digital
This is normally expressed as an fixer Chemical solution which removes camera for later transfer to a
ISO rating - the higher the number undeveloped silver halides from computer. Non-volatile means that
the faster the film, or the greater the processed film or paper and renders the picture data remains stored on
sensitivity. the images contained on the material the card when the camera power is
filter Transparent material attached to a permanent under white light switched off.
camera lens or a light source with flare Reflections inside the lens or the flashing Method of giving a brief burst
the intention of changing the way in camera causing image degradation, of even light to sensitised material
which the light reaches the film. often caused by the inclusion of a in order to reduce the contrast
Camera filters are normally made light source in the picture. Flare can floodlight Artificial light source with a
A modern tilt head flash out of glass, plastic or gelatin, and be minimised by the use of coated large shallow reflector giving a soft,
unit with secondary fill are available in a vast range of (particularly multi-coated) lenses even light
colours and styles.
flash below the main and the use of a lens hood fluorescent light Type of vapour
head. filter factor Number by which the flash The use of artificial light sources discharge lamp in which ultra-violet
exposure of an unfiltered scene must is as old as the history of light is converted into visible light.
be multiplied to compensate for the photography itself. The forerunner The inside of a mercury vapour tube
absorption of light by a filter. In of today's electronic flash unit was is coated with substances that
practice most through-the-lens the use of burning magnesium, fluoresce, or convert some parts of
metering systems will automatically either in the form of ribbon, foil or the spectrum to a longer wave-
make this compensation, but a powder. Magnesium powder was length. By a suitable choice of
painstaking photographer should used in a glass bulb for the first time coating materials a number of
still be aware of the reactions of in 1925, giving rise to the disposable different "daylight" colours can be
different metering systems to light flash bulb, which still has a place in produced. However, as a

fluorescent light source does not focusing cloth Opaque cloth, often frame counter Built in mechanism to
contain all the colours of the lined with black velvet, which is determine the number of frames
spectrum, filtration is normally draped over the viewfinder of a taken on a film.
required to create a correct colour large-format camera and the head gel Commonly used term for
balance. and shoulders of the photographer to photographic filters made from
focal length An optical term for the shield the focusing screen from gelatin. These filters are
distance between the rear nodal extraneous light manufactured by dissolving suitable
point of a lens and the focal plane, focusing hood Folding metal hood dyes in gelatin, which is then coated
when the lens is set at infinity. In used mainly with medium format on glass, allowed to dry and then
photographic terms, the focal length reflex cameras to shield the focusing stripped off. Optically flat and
of a lens determines the degree of screen from extraneous light. Most accurately coloured, these filters are
image magnification - a longer focal focusing hoods also incorporate a easily marked and must be handled
length lens will have a greater fold-away magnifying lens to aid with great care to prolong their lives
degree of magnification and a focusing gelatin A naturally occurring protein
smaller angle of view focusing screen Ground glass or which is used as the medium for
focal plane The plane in which a lens plastic screen on which an image holding silver halide crystals in
brings an image to sharp focus, can be accurately focused suspension to form the most
when correctly focused. fog Any visible deposit or density in common photographic emulsions.
The focal plane shutter of a focal plane shutter Shutter consisting the negative or print not forming ghost image Unwanted image of a
of one or more curtains of either part of the photographic image. bright light source caused by a
Nikon F4s. The focal plane fabric or metal with a variable slit to Fogging may be caused by light, by double reflection within the lens. A
shutter is so called because pass light, located just in front of the development causing excess silver type of flare producing an actual
it is located just in front of film plane. The length of the deposits, or by other chemical image, generally distorted.
the focal plane of the lens. exposure is determined by the size means. GIF Graphic InterFace: a digital image
of the slit. format Size and shape of a negative, format devised by Compuserve for
focal point The point in a lens at transparency or print or the camera using pictures online. GIF images
which all the rays of light used to produce them. The most are the most commonly used image
transmitted by an object intersect. common use of the term is to define format on websites.
focusing Adjusting the distance cameras as being small or miniature glossy paper Printing paper with a
between the lens and the film plane (35mm), medium format (6x4.5, smooth shiny finish to maximise
to bring the image in front of the 6x6, 6x7, 6x8, or 6x9) or large detail and tonal range. Because the
camera into sharp focus. format (5x4in or 10x8 in).

glossy surface has no surface texture absolutely evenly distributed on which a visible image is formed.
it is invisible like the surface of a throughout the image some of these It is used to make focusing screens
mirror. It is therefore able to show silver deposits will clump together for large format and reflex cameras.
up all the detail in the photograph. to form visible grain. In general guide number An indication of the
Because the smooth surface does not faster films are more susceptible to power of a flash unit, by which the
scatter light, it is also able to this phenomenon, as the larger the appropriate aperture may be
reproduce much deeper blacks, and silver halide crystals the more determined. A guide number is
so can show a greater brightness sensitive to light, and the greater the normally specified in both feet and
range than a matt print, or one on a tendency to clumping. meters, and is given for a specific
textured surface. grey card A card with the equivalent of film speed. The guide number of the
gradation Term referring to the tonal an 18% grey tone, which may be flash unit is divided by the flash-to-
scale or contrast range found used for taking accurate reflected subject distance to give the aperture.
throughout an image. An image that light meter readings, by reading the halation A bright light source in a
shows a large range of grey tones light reflected from it. An 18% grey photograph may often be
between extreme white and extreme has been determined as an average surrounded by a diffuse ring. This
black is said to have a soft reading from an average scene, so-called halation is caused by the
gradation. An image showing a when reduced to black and white. light from the subject penetrating
restricted range of tones is said to grey scale Print or transparency the emulsion and being reflected
have a hard gradation. consisting of a series of grey tones back from the film base. This
grade Classification of the contrast of regular increasing depth from phenomenon has largely been
inherent in black and white printing white to black. Such a scale is used eliminated by the use of anti-
papers. Lower numbers (0-1) are in sensitometry, and for determining halation dyes between emulsion and
soft, higher numbers (4-5) very accurate colour balance when film base.
hard. making three colour separation hardener Chemical used to harden the
grain When a photographic image is negatives. gelatin emulsion and make it less
developed, silver halide crystals Greyscale image Term used to describe susceptible to scratching or rubbing.
within the emulsion are converted to a black and white picture consisting Normally such hardeners are now
metallic silver, which then appears of up to 256 levels or grey, with 8 incorporated into the fixer,
This is a greyscale, black. The density of these silver bits of colour data per pixel particularly for fixing negatives.
showing a range deposits determines the lightness or ground glass Sheet of glass which has high-key Photograph in which the
darkness of the tones in a negative. been etched on one side to create a lighter tones predominate.
from pure white However, because the silver is not
through to a solid translucent , light-arresting surface

Histogram this is a graph of the as the hyperfocal point, the depth of the light reflected from it. It can be
brightness range of a digital image. field will reach from half the measured with an incident light
By adjusting the histogram one is distance to the point, to infinity on meter.
able to influence the exposure of a the other side. Obviously this will infinity Mathematical term for a
picture. Most professional cameras change according to the aperture dimension or quantity of sufficient
have built-in histogram displays and employed. The distance from the size to be unaffected by finite
most image editing software camera to the hyperfocal point is the variations. In practice a position
programs use a histogram for hyperfocal distance. marked "∞" on the lens which
adjusting pictures in the computer. hypo Colloquial term for fixer, derived brings the lens to its rearmost
hot shoe Accessory shoe built into the from hyposulphite of soda, a name position and into focus on very
camera with the electrical contacts incorrectly given to sodium distant objects, 1000 meters or so
necessary to trigger a flash-gun. thiosulphate. from the camera.
Most modern 35mm cameras which hypo eliminator Solution for the infra-red Infra-red is the band of
are part of a larger system will also removal of small traces of "hypo" invisible rays beyond the red end of
have flash guns available with a from negatives and prints, thereby the visible spectrum. Some of these
variety of different functions linked drastically reducing washing times. rays may be used to record on
through the hot shoe, such as setting suitably sensitised film.
the appropriate shutter speed on the image fall-off The failure of a lens to
camera when the flash is to be used, resolve satisfactorily to the outer inspection development Technique
Usually positioned on top of setting the flash output for a corners of a negative, transparency now largely superseded of
the reflex prism of an SLR, particular aperture or even or print. All lenses project a circular developing orthochromatic film by
determining when the flash is image onto the film, but only the inspection under an appropriate
the hot shoe is used for centre of this circle is actually used. safelight. Orthochromatic films
required for daylight fill-in.
mounting a flash unit However some lenses have have now mainly been replaced by
hue The quality that distinguishes one insufficient covering power when panchromatic film which is sensitive
colour from another. Each hue can used wide open to cover the frame to light throughout the visible
vary over a continuous range of properly, causing a fall-off of both spectrum.
saturation, thus determining the light intensity and image quality at
apparent vividness of the colour. interchangeable backs The more
the corners of the frame. This can popular medium format SLRs
hyperfocal distance A lens focused at generally be improved by stopping feature removable backs which may
infinity has a depth of field which the lens down. be changed without the removal of
reaches significantly closer to the incident light Incident light is the light the film, enabling greater versatility
camera. When the lens is then falling on a subject, as opposed to when shooting.
focused at this closer point, known

internegative Negative, generally resizing, renaming or converting JPEG popular digital camera file
made on a special film, for from one format to another. format that uses lossy compression
producing colour prints from colour Available from: www.irfanview. (see Compression, lossy) to reduce
transparencies. com file sizes. The file algorithm was
Interpolation is the process where the ISO Initials of the International developed by the Joint
software calculates the new value of Standards Organisation. Normally Photographic Experts Group, hence
a pixel based on an examination of used to indicate the speed of the name
the surrounding pixels. JPEG photographic materials. Kelvin Scale Units of the absolute
compressions work in this way with Jaggies the stair-like lines that appear scale of measurement, which uses
the software stripping out inessential in a digital image where there the same increments as the Celsius
information to compress a file, then should be smooth straight lines or scale but has as its zero point -273°
replacing it with pixels matched to curves. Jaggies can occur for a C, or absolute zero. Used to
those nearby when the file is de- variety of reasons; the most indicate colour temperature.
compressed. Because the software common being that the output key A photograph does not have to
can only make an educated guess on device (display monitor or printer) include a full range of tones to be
the colour of the pixels that were does not have enough resolution to acceptable. An image which uses
there before, there is a loss of image portray a smooth line. In addition, either the lighter or the darker range
quality. jaggies often occur when a bit- of tones is said to be in either a high
inverse square law In practical terms mapped image is converted to a or a low key.
the inverse square law refers to the different resolution. The effect of key light The dominant or principal
Jaggies. The pixel pattern relationship of light to the subject jaggies can be reduced somewhat by light illuminating the subject.
that occurs when a digital and the distance between them. If a graphics technique known as
the distance from a light source is antialiasing. Antialiasing smoothes Kodachrome For many years the
image is enlarged too standard by which all other colour
doubled, the light falling on the out jagged lines by surrounding the
much. subject is reduced to a quarter. At jaggies with shaded pixels. Some film was judged, Kodachrome uses
three times the distance the light is inkjet printers jaggies with a a system which put simply adds the
reduced to one-ninth. technique known as smoothing. colour in the processing rather than
having it integral in the film
IrfanView a superb little freeware Joule Unit of energy equal to 1 watt-
program for simple picture second. The joule is used to lamphouse Light -tight container of a
manipulation. Especially useful for measure the energy provided by light source in either a projector or
batch processing of large numbers electronic flash, particularly studio an enlarger.
of images where they may require units.

large format camera Term for a designed by Oskar Barnack in 1913 which the glass elements of a lens
camera using sheet film of 5x4in or to use the standard film for movie are held. A lens mount may also
larger photography. Production of the incorporate a between-the-lens
latent image Exposure to light in a LEItz CAmera began in 1924. shutter and/or an iris diaphragm.
camera does not normally bring lens Optical device capable of bending Lens mount is also the term used to
about visible changes in a sensitised light to form an image.. A lens is describe the way in which
material. It does, however, cause simply a glass or plastic disc interchangeable lenses are attached
invisible changes which can be through which light passes, and as it to the camera body.
revealed by development. The does so it is bent in such a manner light The visible part of the electro-
image waiting for development is as either to converge at a point or to magnetic spectrum. Visible light
the latent image. diverge as though coming from a has a range of wavelengths from
latitude The amount by which a point closer than the subject. Nearly approximately 400 to 720
A 5x4 large format negative or transparency may be all lenses used for photographic nanometers, a tiny part of the whole
over- or under-exposed and still purposes consist of more than one spectrum.
Toyoview studio element, or piece of glass, all of
yield an acceptable result with light box A box with an internal source
camera which work together to bring an
normal processing of illumination and a translucent
image into sharp focus at a plane side for the viewing of
LCD screen Liquid Crystal Display ( the film plane). While lens design
screen used on most digital cameras transparencies and negatives
and construction has improved
to allow previewing or reviewing of enormously with the advent of the line film Film of such high contrast
images. The screen also often serves computer and the use of special that it is only capable of rendering
as a display for the camera controls. glasses, many modern lenses can black and white without
leaf shutter Shutter consisting of a trace their design back to the intermediate tones. Used for
number of leaves or blades which beginning of 35mm photography copying line drawings.
open and close to expose the film. lens hood Device, normally a metal or Lossless compression see
Leaf shutters are normally mounted rubber tube, fitted to prevent Compresssion, lossless
within the lens. extraneous light from falling on the Lossy Compression see Compression,
LED Light-emitting diode, commonly lens. While light from just off-axis lossy
used for in-camera display of may not directly fall upon the film,
LZW Compression a non-lossy
information concerning exposure, it may set up internal reflections
compression used in conjunction
focus etc within the lens causing flare
with TIFF images to produce a
Leica The first modern 35mm camera, lens mount The metal housing within smaller file size. While nowhere

near as efficient as JPEG SLR cameras, but bulk magazines can be removed and another card
compression in redicing files, it does containing up to 250 exposures are inserted. The memory on these cards
not discard data and therefore available for some 35mm cameras. is non-volatile- that is, the images
retains the integrity of the original magenta Purplish-red colour, the remain on the card when it is
image. complementary colour to green. removed from the camera. The
macro lens Lens designed for use in images can be later downloaded
magnification Relationship between from the card, either direct from the
macrophotography without any the size of the subject and the size of
additional attachments or camera or by using a card reader.
the image. When the images are erased from
supplementary lenses. In practice a
name given to any lens with a close- masking Method, when printing, of the card it is ready to be reused.
focusing facility allowing reducing the quantity or quality of There are four types of memory
photographs with a reproduction the light forming an image. In cards at this time: Compact Flash,
ratio of about 1:4, or a quarter life- monochrome masking this is Smart Media, Intel Miniature
size. Most specifically-designed normally done to control the mercury vapour lamp Arc lamp in
focusing macro lenses will allow contrast range of a negative, while which the glowing arc is contained
focusing to a ratio of at least 1:2 in colour the technique is more often in a tube of vaporised mercury,
while a true macro lens must be used to alter the relative colour giving a bluish light.
Digital memory used with an extension bellows, but saturation of the different colours.
microphotography The production of
card. The “film” will allow focusing to a ratio as masking frame Adjustable holder for very small photographs, to be
used for the great as 20:1. printing paper, used to keep the viewed with special equipment such
macro-photography Macro- paper in position on the enlarger as a microfilm reader. The term
storage of images easel.
in digital cameras. photography is normally considered should not be, but often is, confused
to be photography of subjects from matte Term used for a non-reflective with photomicrography which is
life-size (1:1) down to ten times life- surface without a visible texture. taking photographs of very small
size (10:1) In practice any form of Also used to describe the cardboard objects through a microscope.
close-up photography is often mount used to frame a print mirror lens Lens generally of long
referred to as macro-photography. focal length constructed with the use
Megapixel a digital image or image
magazine Light-tight container for film sensor (CCD) made up of over a of internal mirrors enabling the light
which can be attached or detached million pixels path to be "folded", so that the
from the camera body, allowing physical size of the lens is much less
Memory cards the removable storage
instant interchangeability of film. than its focal length would suggest.
card in a digital camera that acts as
Normally used with medium format This system of lens construction is
the “film”. When the card is full it

also widely used in astronomical front or lens standard and a rear making more than one exposure on
telescopes. Also known as a standard in which the film holder is a single frame. Most modern SLR
catadioptric lens mounted. A monorail camera is cameras have a facility for allowing
mirror lock Many modern SLR normally capable of extension by multiple exposures.
cameras have the facility for locking the inclusion of intermediate negative Processed photographic
the instant-return mirror up out of standards and additional bellows, or image with reversed tones, so that
the light path by means of a mirror of wide-angle photography using a light becomes dark and dark light .
A colour print film negative lock. This technique is often used to bag bellows. In colour negative, colours are
minimise vibration with slow shutter montage Technique of combining a represented by their comp-
speeds or extreme close-ups. number of photographs on a lementaries, although this is not
monochromatic Literally, single- common base, often for the purpose always as easy to see because of the
coloured. The term is most often of panorama or aerial survey overall orange masking of most
used to define black and white photographs. colour negative film.
photography, but may also be motor-drive Device, usually battery- negative carrier Metal or plastic frame
applied to photographs taken with powered, for automatically used to hold the negative flat in an
an absence of strong colours. advancing film through a camera. enlarger between the light source
Monochromatic illumination is the Unlike an autowinder, which is and the lens.
use of a light source containing only normally only capable of making a Newton's rings Rings of coloured light
a single wavelength, in order to single exposure each time the often seen when two or more
A black and white negative eliminate chromatic aberration , shutter release is pressed, a motor- transparent surfaces are not quite in
mainly in scientific photography drive is normally able to make contact. Newton's rings are often
monopod An extendable tube used as a continuous exposures. seen in glass negative carriers and
camera support. While never as MPEG A digital video format glass slide mounts, where the
stable as a tripod, a monopod is developed by the Motion Pictures sandwich of glass and film in not
often useful in situations requiring Expert Group tightly squashed together. Special
maximum possible stability with multigrade paper Paper used for black glass, lightly etched with acid, may
extreme portability. and white printing which has a be used to get rid of these rings.
monorail camera A large format variable contrast range controlled by NiCad (batteries) rechargeable nickel
camera based around a long rail, to the use of coloured filters, instead of cadmium batteries. NiCad batteries
which standards to hold lens and the more traditional single grades of are useful, but suffer from a
film are attached and linked with a paper contrast. “memory” problem. If recharged
Positive print from the black bellows. The standards consist of a before they are fully discharged,
and white negative multiple exposure Technique of

they will no longer accept a full top corner, the emulsion is face up. overdevelopment Processing fault
charge. opacity A measure of the light- which increases density and contrast
NiMH (batteries) rechargeable Nickel transmitting characteristics of a in a negative, caused either by
metal-hydride batteries excellent for material. The greater the opacity, processing for too long, at too high a
use in digital cameras or other the less light is transmitted. temperature, or by too much
equipment with high-energy demand agitation. For a print
open flash A technique of firing the overdevelopment is seldom a
nodal point The nodal point of a lens flash while the shutter is held open. serious problem
is the point at which all the rays of This technique allows the use of
A pan & tilt tripod head light passing through it converge for repeated firing of the flash to "paint" overexposure The result of giving a
the rear nodal point, or from which the subject with light. sensitised material too much
all the rays of light appear to come exposure to light. An overexposed
optical glass Modern lens design negative will be excessively dense
for the front nodal point. Although demands the use of extremely pure
each individual element of a lens in the highlight areas, and a print
glasses of different characteristics. from such a negative will be
will have its own nodal point, in The main reason for this is the
practice the nodal point is treated as generally flat and lacking in
reduction of aberrations, mainly contrast.
the combined points of all the chromatic aberration, which is
different elements. achieved by using glasses of oxidation Chemical reaction which
noise any unwanted data that occurs in different refractive indexes and increases the proportion of oxygen
a digital image whether caused by different dispersion characteristics. or similar electro-negative
exposure problems, aliasing or components of a chemical
optical resolution the actual resolution compound. Photographic
signal problems. Noise can be of a digital imageas opposed to
likened to static in a radio signal. developers are prone to oxidation,
interpolated resolution which reduces their effective
notches Sheet film for large format orthochromatic Orthochromatic film is working life, and should therefore
cameras needs to be handled in sensitised to all the colours of the be stored in sealed bottles.
complete darkness. Because it is visible spectrum except for deep
difficult to tell the front of the film pan and tilt head Tripod attachment
orange and red. Before the which allows the camera to be
from the back simply by feel, introduction of modern
notches are cut into one corner of rotated through 360° and tilted
panchromatic black and white films, vertically up and down, or in the
the film. These notches are coded which have a balanced sensitivity to
with different shapes to differentiate case of a 3-way pan-and-tilt head
all colours, "ortho" was the from side to side about its axis as
one film from another. When the standard. The characteristic look of
notch of the film is in the right hand well . The camera may then be
this film is to show reds as blacks.

locked in any position. a hypo clearing agent should be which projects an image. The
panchromatic Sensitised materials that used, and washing should be as quality of the image will largely be
respond equally to all colours of the extensive as time and water will determined by the size of the hole,
visible spectrum. allow. The removal of all silver and within the limits of its
compounds may be tested for with a sharpness, depth of field runs from
panning Technique of swinging the sodium sulphide solution. the front of the camera to infinity.
camera with a moving subject, in
order to record a sharp image of the photoflood Tungsten light source Pixel an abbreviation of “picture
subject but a blurred background. designed to run at a higher voltage element”; a single dot within the
than normal in order to burn display of a computer monitor or in
panorama camera Special type of brighter. Thus the lamp is over-run a digital image
camera designed to take pictures when used on the normal household
over a wider than normal horizon. Pixelation, pixelisation the blocky
current. The extra brightness is effect which occurs when an image
The lens rotates around its rear obtained at the expense of
nodal point while the film is is enlarged to a size where the pixels
longevity - a photoflood will become obvious
transported past a slit, the size of normally only work for a few hours
which determines the exposure. In before burning out. plate camera Camera designed to take
some versions of panorama camera pictures on sensitised glass plates.
the whole camera moves around the photogram Word used to describe a Nowadays the term is used to
axis, while the film is transported in photographic image made without describe any large-format camera
the opposite direction. the use of a camera. Normally taking single sheet film.
photograms are made by placing
parallax error The inability of a twin- opaque or semi-opaque objects polarised light Light is considered to
lens or rangefinder camera to line up directly onto printing paper which is be a wave form vibrating in all
PhotoShop tool menus the viewfinder exactly with the directions about its axis. If the light
then exposed to light and processed.
taking lens. Parallax error does not can be made to vibrate in one
exist with single-lens reflex cameras PhotoShop the industry standard photo direction only it is said to be
because you are viewing directly manipulation software program polarised. Most reflective surfaces
through the taking lens. created by Adobe. There are a will polarise light to some extent.
number of programs that come close
permanence Film or paper after to the capabilities of Photoshop, but polarising filter A polarising filter is
developing and fixing contain a it is considered the best and the designed to reduce the reflection of
number of chemicals which must be price reflects that. polarised light from reflective
removed by washing, otherwise the surfaces. Used outdoors they may
image will deteriorate very quickly. pinhole camera Camera without a also darken sky, which is polarised
For maximum archival permanence lens, but with a very small hole

with the sun at a certain angle, and camera, where a prism is much more than photographic exposure is a
may generally enhance the richness efficient than a mirror in that it loses result of allowing light of a certain
of other colours virtually no light. intensity to fall on sensitised
Ppi abbreviation for pixels-per-inch push-processing or pushing Pushing is material for a specific time. Thus if
the intentional extending of the the intensity is halved the time must
Prescan initial low-resolution digital be doubled for the same exposure.
scan performed by a scanner to development of a film to increase its
provide a thumbnail image to which speed and contrast. Pushing is often reciprocity failure The failure of film
the scanner operator can adjust and a useful technique in dim flat to respond to reciprocity law. In
crop the final scan beforehand lighting conditions practice film subjected to extremes
rangefinder Device for determining of shutter speed (either very short or
primary colours The primary colours very long exposures) will require an
of light are red, green and blue, the distance of a camera from its
subject, utilising two reference adjustment of exposure. With
which when mixed together in equal colour materials this failure may
quantities will form white. points at the camera. The accuracy
of such a system depends largely on differ for the different colour layers,
prime lens Lenses of fixed focal length the base length of the rangefinder, or resulting in a colour shift.
are referred to as prime lenses, as the distance between the two red-eye The reflection of a flash from
opposed to zoom lenses (variable reference points, and becomes the blood vessels at the back of the
focal length). While zoom lenses increasingly less accurate as the retina of the subject's eyes. Red-eye
have the advantage of flexibility, subject moves further away. Many may be avoided by getting the
many photographers prefer to use single-lens reflex cameras subject to look at a bright light
“Red-eye” is caused by prime lenses as they believe them to incorporate a variation on this source just before you shoot, by
flash reflecting back from be optically superior. Prime lenses system within their focusing moving the flash off axis, or by
also normally have greater screens, with a split image which giving a brief preliminary flash
the blood cells on the back maximum apertures than zoom
of then eyeball, when the lines up only when the subject is causing the subject's pupils to
lenses. accurately focused. contract.
pupils are dilated under low prism Transparent glass or plastic Raw data the uninterpolated digital data reflector Any surface from which light
light conditions. block with plane polished surfaces collected by a scanner or camera’s can be reflected. A reflector used
which are not parallel to one CCD before any processing occurs with a light source may completely
another. These can be used to alter the characteristics of the light,
reflect, refract or diffuse light. The RAW image format digital image data
as it comes from the CCD sensor making it harder or softer as
most common use in photography is required. Alternatively folding
as a reflecting prism in the without any processing interference.
reflectors are often used to reduce
viewfinder of a single-lens reflex reciprocity law Reciprocity law states

harsh shadows from sunlight on measured in pixels, or dots per inch. rim lighting A lighting set-up which
location. A picture taken with a 6 megapixel places a light source directly behind
reflex camera Camera using a mirror camera at its highest setting is far the subject, giving the effect of
system to produce an upright image more detailed than a picture taken outlining it with a rim of light.
in the viewfinder. In the single-lens with a 1.0-megapixel camera and rising front Mechanism found in most
reflex this is combined with the use can be enlarged much more than the large format cameras allowing the
of a prism to give an image which is smaller file. front of the camera to be raised or
correctly oriented from side to side. reticulation Formation of minute cracks lowered from the normal position.
refraction The change of direction of on the surface of an emulsion, Some medium format cameras have
light rays as they pass from one usually caused by extremes of a similar mechanism and a few
transparent medium to another of temperature in processing. Modern specialised lenses to achieve the
different density film bases are usually very resistant same result are available in 35mm.
to reticulation. The main use for this technique is to
resample to change the resolution of a prevent converging verticals when
digital image. Resampling down retouching Retouching is work carried
out on a print or negative after photographing buildings, or to give
discards pixel information in an a better apparent perspective when
image; resampling up adds pixel processing. Most prints contain tiny
flaws caused by dust or other marks photographing objects from above.
information through interpolation.
on the negative, and these can often roll film Refers to 120/220 film, which
resin-coated paper Modern printing be improved by careful spotting is used in medium format cameras,
120 roll-film paper is often made with a water- with coloured dyes. Even better or, with the use of a suitable holder,
resistant base. This allows it to be results are sometimes possible by in large format cameras. In spite of
processed faster, being particularly working on the negative, but 35mm the popularity of 35mm, rollfilm is
effective in cutting down washing negatives are generally too small for still very popular with professionals
times compared to more traditional the precision necessary. because of the larger size of the
fibre-based paper. Purists still image produced.
insist, however, that the quality reversal film Reversal materials are
obtained from traditional papers is those designed to produce a positive safelight Darkroom light of a particular
superior to that of so-called "plastic" image after processing, without the wavelength to which the sensitised
paper. use of an intermediate stage such as material being used is not sensitive.
a negative. In the case of black and white
resolution the resolving power of a lens printing the appropriate safelight is
or film in terms of sharpness. In RGB Red, green, blue. The standard
colour system used for display on an orange or olive green.
digital imaging this refers to the
picture detail or sharpness, computer monitors. sandwiching Combination of two or

more negatives when printing, or usually not with as high a resolution printing them in register in a process
two or more transparencies within as a film scanner such as the dye transfer method.
the same mount. Screen resolution this refers to the While it is possible to use this
saturated colour A colour at its most resolution of a standard computer method with a still life subject, the
intense, without any white or grey monitor, it is usually considered to excellence of modern materials
dilution, is said to be saturated. be 72 dpi means that it is seldom used in such
a manner, but more often for the
scanner a device to digitally scan secondary colours An alternative name production of dye transfer prints
transparency negatives or prints so for the complementary colours, from transparencies.
that they can be stored, transmitted cyan, magenta and yellow.
and manipulated on a computer. sheet film Film for large format
selenium cell Type of cell used in cameras cut into individual sheets
Flatbed scanners are used to scan many older-style exposure meters.
prints and film scanners to scan rather than in roll form. Sheet film
The selenium cell differs from most has a stiffer base than rollfilm, and
A Nikon film scanner negatives or transparencies. Film other cells in that it generates
scanners offer the highest resolution is available in a very wide range of
electricity in proportion to its emulsions
and are the most common way to exposure to light, and therefore does
scan pictures for the professional not need a battery, unlike other shutter Mechanical device to control
photographer. meter cells which alter their the amount of time during which the
Scanner, drum high-end scanner that resistance to an existing current film is exposed to light.
depends on the rotation of the according to the amount of light shutter priority Feature of some
transparency to produce the highest falling on them. cameras offering automatic
quality scans available. With a drum self-timer A delayed action mechanism exposure, whereby the photographer
scanner the print or transparency is to trigger the shutter. A self-timer is selects the shutter speed and the
rotated past the sensor attached to a often used to include oneself in a camera automatically selects the
drum photograph, but is also very useful exposure.
Scanner, film specialised high- for exposures with the camera on a Signal to noise ratio the ratio of the
resolution scanner designed to scan tripod where camera shake may usable digital data to unusable noise
from direct from film (negatives or otherwise be a problem in any image. In imaging, this
transparencies) separation film It is possible to represents the quality of the scan.
Scanner, flatbed a scanner designed to produce a full colour print by skylight filter Filter, usually a very
scan flat art such as photos or other photographing a colour original pale pink in colour, which is used in
paper-based images. Some flatbed through filters of the three primary colour photography to correct for
scanners can also scan film but colours in black and white, and then

the blue cast of the sky. In practice reversal of an image caused by normally using a reflector, a lens
a skylight filter is often left in place extreme overexposure. For practical and some sort of focusing
on a lens for protection of the front purposes, however it is the term mechanism to produce a bright
element used to describe the Sabattier effect, controllable ring of light.
slave unit A slave unit is a device which is the partial image reversal spotting The use of coloured dyes to
connected to an auxiliary flash unit caused by the exposure of a negative remove pinholes, dust spots and
which is triggered by the firing of to light during development, and other blemishes from a print, using a
the main unit. then allowed to continue to develop fine brush.
in the normal way.
snoot Cone-shaped device fitted over sprocket holes Regular perforations
an artificial light source in order to spectrum Term normally applied to the along the edges of 35mm film which
direct the light in a particular visible spectrum separated into its engage with the film advance
A flash slave unit direction. component colours. mechanism.
used to trigger a flash soft box Lighting attachment in a box specular reflection Reflection of light standard lens Lens which
without cabling to the shape consisting of a reflective from a glossy or shiny surface, approximates the "normal" angle of
material stretched over a metal where the light rays reflected retain view, about 45°. The common
camera. their direction relative to one
frame, with a diffusing panel at one method of determining the normal
end and a mounting bracket at the another. lens for a particular format is to use
other to enable it to be mounted on a speed The term given to indicate the the length of the diagonal of the
studio flash head. Such boxes may relative sensitivity of photographic film; thus for 35mm film the "true"
vary in size up to a meter square or emulsions. Speeds are now normal would be a lens of
more, and in shape from squares to normally given in ISO numbers approximately 45mm focal length.
oblong strips. (formally ASA) where the higher step ring A step ring or stepping ring
soft focus The deliberate diffusion of the number the greater the allows the use of a filter of a certain
an image, often in portraits to sensitivity. thread size to be used on a lens of a
disguise minor blemishes. A large spot meter Meter designed to read different thread size. It is normally
number of supplementary lens reflected light from a small portion advisable to use a larger filter on a
attachments, and even some lenses of the subject (typically a one smaller lens rather than the other
specifically designed for the degree spot). A spot meter correctly way around, to avoid image cut-off.
purpose, are available to achieve used allows a very accurate stop bath Chemical bath used in
soft focus of an image. assessment of a picture to be made processing to arrest the action of the
Solarisation Technically speaking, before any film has been exposed. developer.
solarisation is the reversal or partial spotlight Artificial light source,

stopping down The use of a smaller camera around their vertical axis in without a change in viewpoint. The
aperture, or stop, to reduce the order to control perspective and construction of a telephoto lens is
amount of exposure and to increase focus. such that the physical length is
the depth of field. synchronisation This refers to the need smaller than the focal length, by
Storage cards see Memory cards of the flash to fire at the same time virtue of having a short rear focus.

strobe light Low-powered flash as the shutter is open. In normal test strip A test strip is a strip of
pulsing at regular intervals. practice the shutter is used to trigger printing paper on which a number of
Colloquial term also used for any the flash either through a synch cord different exposures are made from
flash unit. or through a hot shoe. It is the same negative for comparison
important in the case of a focal purposes when printing.
stroboscopic flash Electronic flash unit plane shutter that a speed is selected
designed to fire repeatedly at high Thumbnail a term used to describe a
Telephoto lens. A fast at which the slit which governs the small low-resolution digital image
frequencies, often up to thousands exposure time is fully open across
Nikkor 300mm F2.8 of times per second. The main (often as big as the average
the film plane, otherwise a portion thumbnail) used for reference much
telephoto on a Nikon F2. applications of this type of flash are of the negative or transparency may in the way a contact print is used in
The wide maximum for analysing motion or for stopping be unexposed by the flash. conventional photography.
aperture makes this type of high-speed action.
T setting Stands for "time", on the T thyristor A thyristor is an electronic
telephoto lens ideal for studio camera While the term studio setting the shutter is opened and device used in the construction of
sports photography and camera may be applied to any remains open until the shutter
camera used in the studio, it is most automatic flash units. Its function is
other work in low light release is pressed a second time. to quench the flash when sufficient
normally taken to mean a large
conditions. format monorail camera mounted on teleconverter An optical device which exposure has been given to the
a heavy-duty tripod or a camera is fitted between the prime lens and subject and to save the energy
stand. the camera body to increase the remaining, in order to speed up the
focal length. The most used recycling time
supplementary lens A supplementary teleconverter is the 2x, which
lens is a lens added to the front of TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) a
doubles the focal length of the lens popular file format for digital
the prime lens to provide a special in use. The disadvantage is the loss
effect. The most common images. The advantage over other
of light, which with a 2x formats such as JPEGs are that TIFF
supplementary lenses are close-up teleconverter is 2 f-stops.
lenses. files are lossless. However, they can
telephoto lens Lens of long focal be subjected to minor compression
swing back/front The movement of the length, giving a bigger image of a (LZW) only
front or rear panels of a large format subject than the standard lens

tilt back/front The movement of the toner Chemicals used to change the tungsten film a film designed to give
front or rear panels of a large format colour of the black silver image in a natural colour when exposed under
camera around their horizontal axis print. The original image is first tungsten lighting.
in order to control perspective and bleached than redyed. Sepia toning tungsten lighting Artificial light
focus is perhaps the best known form of source using lamps with a tungsten
time and temperature development The toning, but blue, gold, copper and filament, which glows with the
fundamentals of processing exposed other colours may be used passage of electric current. Then
sensitised materials. The exposed depending on the result required. ordinary household lamp is a
material is immersed in a chemical transparency Positive image produced tungsten filament lamp. The colour
bath of a specific strength, at a on transparent film in colour or balance of this type of bulb is
specific temperature and for a black and white, normally intended towards the red end of the spectrum,
specific time, and given a specific to be viewed by transmitted light or which is why tungsten balanced
amount of agitation. Under these projected on a screen. films are biased to blue to
conditions the resulting processed Transparency scanner see, Scanner, compensate.
material will be the same every film, and scanner, drum TWAIN an image acquisition interface
A 35mm colour transparency, time. Once consistency can be developed by a consortium of
obtained with time and temperature tripod Three-legged support for a
also referred to as a colour slide development, variations may be camera. Tripods come in a range of software developers as a standard
sizes and weights, normally with for communications between
included to suit the subject matter or scanners, imaging devices and now
the particular requirements of the individually extendable legs for
precise adjustment, and often with digital cameras and the computer
photographer. software. It is the TWAIN interface
an additional centre column for
TLR The twin-lens reflex camera, with extra height. that let’s your computer “talk” to
one lens for viewing and a matching your scanner and vice-versa.
lens for taking. Viewing is normally TTL Through-the-lens metering, a
method which uses light-sensitive type A film Type of colour transparency
through a focusing hood, giving an film, now no longer available,
image which is the right way up but cells within the camera body to take
readings of the reflected light falling balanced for Photolamps at a colour
laterally reversed. Most twin-lens temperature of 3400 K.
reflex cameras use roll film, either on the subject, exactly as seen by
in 120 or 220 format, and represent the taking lens. In automatic type B film Colour transparency film
a comparatively inexpensive way of cameras these readings are balanced for tungsten light at a
moving from 35mm to a larger translated directly into apertures colour temperature of 3200 K.
format. and/or shutter speeds. ultraviolet light Invisible rays from
beyond the blue end of the

spectrum, from around 400nm down underdeveloped negative, an vignette Printing technique in which
to 1nm . Most photographic underexposed negative will the edges of the print are gradually
materials are sensitive to UV light normally be totally lacking in faded out to leave a soft white
within the range 400-300nm, and shadow detail. Of course border. Vignetting may also occur
this may cause increased haze in underexposure may be partly on film when using a lens of
distant views or at high altitudes. A remedied by push-processing insufficient covering power or a lens
UV or skylight filter may be used to Unsharp masking is a process where shade of an inappropriate shape. The
reduce this haze. by the perceived sharpness of an latter will appear as a darkening of
umbrella An umbrella with a white or image is enhanced by increasing the the corners of the picture
silver inside surface is often used as contrast along the edges where wetting agent Chemical used in very
a reflector for an electronic flash different tones meet, or between small amounts to reduce the surface
unit. The purpose of this is to pixels tension of water when washing
increase the size of the light source, up-rating A technique where the negatives. This has the effect of
which has the effect of softening the recommended film speed is improving the drainage, speeding up
light. An alternative type of exceeded, giving deliberate the drying time and reducing the
umbrella is the "shoot-through", underexposure which is then risk of streaking.
which is translucent, but has a compensated for by White balance the setting of the
Flash umbrellas are used to similar effect. A variety of different overdevelopment or pushing, in highlight tone on a camera so that it
bounce and soften the light sizes and shapes of umbrella are order to increase both speed and records as a true white under
available. contrast. varying lighting conditions.
from an electronic flash or
underdevelopment Fault in which the
other light source. USM unsharp masking wide-angle camera Camera built
developer did not act for long specifically for wide-angle
enough on the material being variable contrast paper Black and
white printing paper in which the photography using either optical or
processed, or the temperature was mechanical means to achieve this.
not maintained correctly. An contrast grade is controlled by the
use of filters of different colours. While all panorama cameras are
underdeveloped negative lacks both wide-angle cameras, not all wide-
density and contrast. viewfinder Device for viewing an angle cameras are panorama
underexposure Fault caused by image before photographing, for cameras.
inadequate exposure, either from the composition and/or focusing. Types
of viewfinder include direct vision, wide-angle lens A wide-angle lens is
selection of an incorrect aperture or one which takes in an angular field
an incorrect shutter speed. While optical, ground glass screen or
reflex. of 60° or more across the diagonal
the effects are similar to those of an of the film. A wide-angle lens gives

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Zone system A method of combining bring you the latest, most up-
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maximise the range of tones in black
and white photography. The Zone happen ing in the world of
system is based upon a range of nine photography.
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previsualised by accurate metering. You will also be automatically
The subject may then be over- or
under-exposed by a predetermined notified when new e-Books
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