The Communal History of Hyderabad

Edit Article | Posted: Jul 31, 2008 |Comments: 1 | Views: 1,845 | Share The city of Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh has seen many Communal ups and downs right from the Razakar movement onwards. There have been periods where it has been secular later communal and then secular again. Mostly modern Hyderabad has been relatively peaceful but just as with the rest of India fallen prey to communally divisive politics. The history of Hyderabad began with the Qutub Shahi dynasty when Golconda was established and later the capital was shifted to Hyderabad with the building of monuments like the Charminar. In the history of the later princely state the importance of the Telangana region holds the key to the way the city was formed. The most prosperous region at one point of time is now in the midst of an economic (barring Hyderabad and the Rangareddy districts) and social struggle for an autonomous state.

The Qutub Shahi rulers were quite accepting of the Telugu culture of the region and embraced the language and culture by learning it and patronizing the arts and encouraging telugu literature. The rulers would converse, read and write in Telugu. The classical dance form Kuchipudi was also born during this time. The Qutub Shahi s were benevolent rulers who laid emphasis on inclusive progress and assimilated themselves into the culture. The Muslim kings married into the local people of which the most famous example is that of Bhagmati, which gave rise to the name Bhagyanagar to her subsequent conversion to Hyder Mahal from which the name Hyderabad came to be. The dynasty was also very wealthy as a result of the diamond mining (this was where the Kohinoor was excavated) and this prosperity attracted unwarranted attention from the Mughal Empire. The region had an overwhelming majority of Hindus (around 96%) being ruled by Muslim kings which did not present as a problem for nearly 200 years of their rule.

After Aurangazeb s repeated attacks the dynasty declined and the Mughal inquisition gave rise to the Asaf Jahi dynasty or as they are more popularly known the Nizams of Hyderabad. Under their rule the region of Telangana was the epicentre of the kingdom and Hyderabad was the capital. The Nizam rule saw the rising of the Princely State of Hyderabad and it was some of the most prosperous time for the kingdom. The Hindu population of the state was around 93% but there was not a lot of animosity among the people and the Nizam had signed a treaty with the British Establishment after supporting their annexation of Mysore. So neighbouring Secunderabad and other regions were administered by the British Imperialist forces and the presence of the British Army was a constant. Though the majority population was Hindu it was no secret that the Nizams favoured the Muslims.

Urdu was imposed on the people and Universities (Osmania University) and Schools (Aaliya) established were to enforce Urdu among the Hindus. The administration was also completely dominated by Muslims. This also did not incite any unrest among the people as one of the pillars of the Nizams Sarkar was the support from the Deshmukhs and Jagirdars who were the earlier captured kings from other provinces of India with royal status. All was well till the Nizam demanded dominion status and decided not to join India or Pakistan beginning in 1946. The Hindus (Andhra Mahasaba), Communists and proIndian union Muslims started the join India movement, this had the Nizam worried and thus began the Razakar movement with the Majlis-e-Ittehadhul Musalmeen (MIM, separatist dominion group) which included some dalits. This laid the ground for nearly two years of a virtual siege on the Hindus of the state. This led to the police action and the action of the Indian Government to annexe the state and they succeeded on the 18th of September 1948 with the Nizam becoming the Raj Pramukh

For a city born out of such communal strife and immense religious tension for the years after the struggle the region remained relatively non-communal. There were problems with the violent farmer struggles which grew stronger to the now very evident Naxal problem the contribution of the communists to a peace amongst religions were crucial but laying a virtual siege to official machinery was not (things were non communal even during the Telangana Agitation). Even the rise of Salahuddin Owaisi of the MIM (distanced from the separatist cause) was not the cause of much communal strife. The Babri Masjid demolition changed that and saw the MIM fighting for the rights of Muslims in the city (which made the Owaisis very powerful). This is where the communal harmony in Hyderabad went south. The BJP was making its presence felt like it did in the national arena from 1984 onwards that gave the MIM a slight scare when Badam Bal Reddy almost won (it is alleged that there was massive rigging done to make the MIM win, as a BJP victory would mean a virtual war in the Old City area as it is now known).

The seeds of hatred though had already been laid; Hyderabad after formation of the Andhra Pradesh state saw the worst Hindu-Muslim riots and everything after that became a communal issue. Charminar was basically turned into a MIM bastion and many Hindu traders decided to move out fearing their life. Friday prayer at the Mecca Masjid became the ideal place to start a riot after prayers and anything would set off a stone pelting spree. Then again during the Telugu Desam Party (that was until the alignment with the BJP) and Congress rule in the state there was a lull but very sensitive. During this time many Hindu customs which were earlier welcomed met with opposition and many Muslim practices were deliberately opposed. Both sides wanted to gain political mileage from the communal conflict. Every festival and celebration had to be policed heavily.

Till 1998 Hyderabad had not fully taken off to the current IT city metro status but the division of the Old and New City areas had begun just prior the 90 s. The Babri demolition gave rise to fundamental elements to take advantage of the situation which led to hyper extension of mosques and anti-Hindu tirades at sermons (the most often said thing was to abstain from buying anything from Hindus during Ramzan, now extended to not buy anything from Hindus at any given time). The reactionary response to that was Ganesh Visarjan yatras deliberately causing problems when passing through the Old City or the local Bonalu festival being heavily guarded as the rituals lead to many uncomfortable situations. The MIM was a party to many of these problems but vote-bank politics meant ignorance at best. Islamic fundamentalist elements had permeated locally with an influx of migrants from various parts of the country (plus international influences and migration back and forth).

Sleeper cells of Islamic fundamentalist groups, rise of the RSS now ruled the previously communist (including Maoist Naxal) Telangana. As a result these unchecked happenings eventually led to the Hyderabad Bombings (in Mecca Masjid, Lumbini Park and Gokul Chaat) and the attack of MIM legislators on Taslima Nasreen. The MIM though had shown signs of this when they violently stamped out (there was a shootout where most members were killed, but as always not many clues were found) the opposition from the Majlis-Bachao-Tehreek (MBT) after the death of their leader Amanullah Khan, who had led a successful opposition movement to the MIM. The MIM recently demanded a Muslim state with Warangal as its capital for Telangana, the Communist Party of India had gained significant ground recently as people of the Old City saw through the MIM but the nuclear deal and a passionate speech by Asaduddin Owaisi in support virtually eliminated that near change in thought process. Again Hyderabad is on high alert and the Hindu-Muslim he said-she said will go on but the rising forces of terror will go mostly unchecked in the process. There are enough problems with the Naxal groups now the state has to tackle a combination of problems.

Razakars (Hyderabad)
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Jump to: navigation, search Not to be confused with Razakars (Pakistan). Razakars were a private Muslim militia organized by Qasim Razvi to support the rule of Osman Ali Khan, Asaf Jah VII and resist the integration of Hyderabad State in India. The people of Telangana under the leadership of Swami Ramanand Tirtha formed the Andhra Hindu Mahasabha which sought integration of state with rest of India. This was a non-violent struggle initially but later due to pressure from the razakars, they along with the communists

Jr. driven out and the land was redistributed. Wright. whole-heartedly supported the movement. moved to Pakistan where he resided until his death. 12 (Dec. The State Congress leaders. the Nizam finally entered into a "Stand Still Agreement" on November 29. The growing violence by the Razakars and the Andhra Mahasabha seriously jeopardized law and order.became violent. the military chief of Hyderabad state. The Nizam banned the State Congress. He tried to achieve this ambitious desire with the help of Khasim Razvi of the Ittehadul Muslimeen and its rag tag militia. 1966). They launched the "Join India" movement with the cooperation of a few patriotic Muslims for the integration of the State with the rest of the country. led by Major-General . The rebellion was led by the Communist Party of India under the banner of Andhra Mahasabha. The negotiations between the Nizam's Dominions and the Indian Union proved abortive. the Government of India decided to curb these tendencies by launching a `Police Action' against the Nizam. The Hindus of the Hyderabad State accounted for 93 per cent of its population. This agreement provided the Nizam to gain time to procure military hardware from different parts of the world and smuggle them into Hyderabad. Asian Survey. The activities of the Razakars within the Dominions were posing a serious threat to peace and harmony.. The Communist party instigated the peasants to use guerrilla tactics and around 3000 villages (about 41000 sq. The Nizam Government did not agree to the accession to the Indian Union. After tortuous negotiations. Eventually. 675±682 RAZAKAR MOVEMENT The Nizam was very anxious to become independent and it had been Nizam's ambition to secure Dominion Status for his State. In the meanwhile the Nizam sent a delegation to the United Nations organization to refer the Hyderabad case to the Security Council. 1947. The Indian Army. With the growing violence by the Andhra Mahasabha and the Razakars along with the Nizam's attempts to get himself independent. The were driven out and their lands redistributed among the population. Qasim Razvi. kilometres) came under peasant-rule in Nalgonda alone. pp. the Indian army routed the Razakars and the group was disbanded after hyderabad state joined the Union of India. The mostly Muslim landlords were either beheaded or brutally murdered. with India for one year to maintain status quo. No. 6. the Razakars. Its leaders are forced to conduct their activities from places like Vijayawada and Bombay. [edit] External links y National Integration and Modern Judicial Procedure in India: The Dar-Us-Salam Case Theodore P. This led to the killing and brutal murder of lots of landlords and jagirdars in the telangana region. Vol. The Communists on their part organized village defense squads to protect people from the attacks of the Nizam Police and Razakars. The Government of India tried to persuade the Nizam to sign the Instrument of accession with India. led by Swami Ramanand Tirtha.

M.  Muslims support BJP for the creation of Muslim-dom.. Major-General J. no votes" . Nizam's forces surrendered to the Indian army and Mir Laik Ali...N. a Senior Civil Servant was made the Chief Minister of the State and the Nizam was designated "Raj Pramukh"........Vellodi. o August (4)  Ramzan ka Bakra  What Viqaruddin's confession reveals about the Isl... seriously injure two policem..  DJS terrorists shoot.  Jihadi MIM MLA opens fire in Abids  MIM leaders openly attempt to murder brave feminis. the first popular ministry headed by B.. On September 23. o July (1)  Islamic terrorist Viqar Ahmed captured along with .  Hyderabadi Muslim brides are treated like dirt in .Chaudhuri entered the State from five directions and the military action was a brilliant success. and Khasim Razvi were arrested.  Policeman killed by Muslims as 'Islamic terror' st..  MIM MLA Afsar Khan arrested for assaulting policem.Chaudhuri took over as Military Governor of Hyderabad and stayed in that position till the end of 1949...Muslims threaten Ind.  Even after centuries of living in India. Terror strike... the Prime Minister of the Nizam.. o May (9)  Bin Laden's shadow in Hyderabad  Devout Mohammedan identified in the killing of con. the Nizam withdrew his complaint in the Security Council...  Remember the real Komaram Puli ?  Lashkar terrorist held in Hyderabad..J...N. After the 1952 General Elections. On 18 September 1948. The merger of Hyderabad Dominions into the Indian Union was announced.  "No reservations.  "Pious Muslim" Viqar threatens Kafir prison offici... Jihad in Andhra Pradesh Have we forgotten the lessons of history so soon? Blog Archive y 2010 (24) September (1) o  Lakhs of brave Hindus march fearlessly during Gane... In January 1950. o April (6)  DJS gang of 'Jihadi serial killers' hunted Hindus .Rama Krishna Rao took charge of the State..K. . these Mus.

U.) . 1948) (Picture Source: Wagner. March 25..A compilation Muslim Razakars pose with captured Hindu civilians before killing them in cold blood (Telangana.A: Chelsea House Publishers.  BJP supports the formation of a Muslim-dominated T. People at odds...S..  Peaceful Religionists kill 50 Hindus in Hyderabad  y 2008 (1) o November (1)  Hindus stand up to Islamic Terror Thursday.. 2010 Has Telangana forgotten the Jihadi Razakar atrocities? Heroic Hindu resistance to Islamic terror in Hyderabad (1310 1948) ... March (3)  Muslim men and women undergoing military Razakar t. Heather Lehr.  Has Telangana forgotten the Jihadi Razakar atrocit. 2002. convince ..o Muslims tie up with Naxalite terrorists.

came under Muslim rule briefly when Alauddin Khilji from Delhi defeated the emperor Prataparudra of Kakatiya Dynasty that ruled from Warangal as Capitol. This organization along with . With the encouragement of the Nizam government a blatant communal organization Majlis Ittehadul Muslimeen was formed. Mughal Dynasty of Delhi (1687. including queen Padmini. Village names ending in padu were changed to pahad. and Medak respectively. which became part of Madras province of the British Empire. Liberation: There was an increase in political and cultural awareness among peoples of Hindu religions of Hyderabad State at the end of 19 th century. while Vijayanagar (1336-1678) was the last Hindu empire to fall in the South. It took approximately 7 centuries for Islamic marauders to reach the south from the north-west. Turkman Qutub Shahi dynasty of Golconda kingdom (1512-1687). (Yes. The huge booty carried to Delhi by one thousand camels included the famous Kohinoor Diamaond. the Muslim rule started with the defeat of the last Hindu and Buddhist empires in Afghanistan in early 7th century. In 1911. which fell to Muslims later in 1678 and became part of Golconda state under Mughals. Hyderabad (Golconda) remained part of various Muslim dynasties for 7 centuries uninterrupted: Delhi sultanate (1310-1336). the core of Hyderabad State.) Warangal was taken back from Delhi sultanate in 1336 by Vijayanagar dynasty. Mahaboob Nagar. Nizamabad. and towns like Manukota and Bhuvanagir were renamed as Mahaboobnagar and Bhongir respectively in 1905. However. Induru. During his rule Islamization of Hyderabad State was intensified. Elagandala. 1310. In the North India. independent Bahmani sultanate . Nizam gifted away coastal Andhra to French in 1752. the Rajput women plunged themselves into the fire to escape rape and slavery . As part of Nizam's grand design to counter the growing cultural and political awareness among Hindus (~90% of the total population at the time) in the state.1724) and Nizam dynasty of Hyderabad (17241948). under the leadership of Rani Padmini. on March 19. Telangana. for example. the Telugu names of districts. this is the same Allauddin who plundered Chittorgarh for material and carnal booty. After a heroic resistance against his brutal Muslim onslaught for about eight months.Brief History: Approximately seven centuries of slavery under the Muslim autocracy and 50 years of democracy have influenced the culture of the Hyderabad City and the State. Mir Osman Ali Khan succeeded to the dynasty. East India Company acquired Andhra from the French in 1766.a major Muslim dynasty that ruled central and south India (1345-1512). and Metuku were changed to Karim Nagar. valiant Rajputs were defeated and on the 26th of August 1303. Palamuru. At the same time a proclamation was issued making Hyderabad State an Islamic state.

Kasim Razvi.g." Similarly."Anjuman Tabli Gulistan" inaugurated Tablig movement to convert Hindus to Islam. the Nizam wished to remain independent. This was the first ever University in the last millennium in the Telugu land! The second university established was Andhra University in Andhra region of Madras province under the British raj in 1925. . However.Panduranga Rao Kulkarni On 15 August. believed that he was destined to plant Asafia flag on the Red Fort in Delhi and make the waves of the Bay of Bengal wash the feet of Nizam. The numerous princely states were given option to either accede to India or to Pakistan . Towards Freedom: Final days of the Nizam Raj . Of course. when there exist still 22 million of µDung Worshippers¶ in this country (Hyderabad State). in the Nizam's state of Hyderabad . 1947. When the British left the Indian Continent in 1947. But it was not to be on 15th August. during Milad-un-Nabi celebrations of 1937. " I am pained to see the inertness amongst Muslims. Osmania University was founded to impart higher education in Urdu medium to Muslims and Urdu speaking Hindus in Telangana. Mohammed Ali Jinnah. known as Razakar movement were instigated by the Nizam and Majlis Ittehadul Muslimeen party against popular demand "Join India" to join the Indian Union and overthrow the Muslim autocracy. The Hindu cultures and religions were openly ridiculed. the Nizam dynasty¶s intentions were to annihilate the Hindu languages and cultures. Poor Hindus of Deccan ! They dreamt that Independence meant freedom to them also." ignoring Hindus among the students. slogans of ''Azad Hyderabad Paindabad' rent the air. 1947 as rest of India was shouting 'Bharat Mata ki Jai'. e.. A series of riots and mayhem. while Hindus wanted to join the democratic Indian Union. in an action popularly known as the police action. Prof. Maulvi Nazarul Hassan Gilani openly admonished the Muslims for their failure to convert Hindus to Islam by saying. the president of Majlis Ittehadul Muslimeen in erstwhile Hyderabad State. Finally. the Hyderabad State joined the Indian Union with the help of the Union army in 1948. well ahead by ten months British left India after partitioning it into India and Pakistan . addressed the students of Osmania University as "my Muslim students. father of Islamic State of Pakistan (Islamic Pure State). communal riots between Muslims and Hindus continued due to communal µdivide and rule policy¶ and minority-vote-bank politics of Congress party until saffron clad Nandamuri Taraka Ramarao (NTR) became Chief Minister. In August 1919. Hindu students had to face many hardships and restrictions at the University. He was successful in intoxicating thousands of Muslims of Hyderabad State to enroll as razakars and take pledge to maintain the Muslim supremacy in Deccan and Hyderabad State.

In the meanwhile he sent his men all over the world seeking military and moral assistance for the independent Hyderabad State . Total number of women thus killed on that day .Musalmin. To Nizam and Ittahed the offer looked as an indicator of growing weakness of Indian Government. Munshi would be stationed in Hyderabad as agent-general of India . According to the agreement. released funds for immediately providing blankets to these immigrants as the winter was fast approaching. Immediate attempts were made to absorb these immigrants into jobs in various departments like irrigation. despite the pleadings of their kith and kin. The terror unleashed by the Razakars was coupled with the migration [exodus] of Hindus. In an incident in Errapalem village of Warangal district. and also the state's machinery. To pre-empt such an eventuality. Within two months of declaring Azad Hyderabad. This period was used by the hooligans of Ittehedul Musalmin to systematically terrorise the Hindus by arson and looting of their shops. public works etc. houses. the Nizam dodged signing the accession instrument on one pretext or the other. There was also immigration of thousands of Muslim families from other parts of the country. which seemingly was its climbdown. In the meanwhile the 'Razakar' force of Ittehadul Musalmin swelled to three lakhs members and there were clashes between them and the Swayamsevaks of 'Janata Fouz' formed in the rural side by the Hindus mostly in the border areas. The other group of women had the same fate. The new Government of India was very much concerned with this development. railway. and Zain Yarzung would be in New Delhi as the agent general of Hyderabad . robbing the gold and silver from their women-folk and also their abduction and rape. They had forcible copulation first with twelve of them and there after shot them dead. They dragged the women folk along the streets to the centre place of the village. electricity. which was staggering with shock of post-position riots and bloodshed.The Hyderabadi Hindu was doomed! There was a large scale of migration of Hindus across the border of Hyderabad into the neighbouring Indian provinces. and standing crops. They were eagerly welcomed by the Volunteers of Ittehadul . under the lead of sub-Inspector Chand Khan. There were rumours that Nizam would accede to Pakistan and Pakistan would readily accept it. For several weeks there was bargaining in New Delhi over the contents of the standstill agreement. the state's Muslim population rose by one lakh.M. Even after the lapse of two months. the Indian Government offered a standstill agreement to Hyderabad without accession. thirty five policemen with eighty Razakars of Ittehadul Musalmin looted each and every household including the huts. K. Yet it acted with forbearance because the Nizam's plea to give an extension of two months to sign the instrument of accession was granted. after which ultimately it was signed. The state's Child Welfare Association under Nizam's princess daughter-in-law.

Nehru. Menon sent a formal letter pointing out various violations by Hyderabad of the stand still Agreement and asked Prime Minister Layaq Ali to take steps to rectify the situation or be prepared for consequences. and power and initiative shifted from Kingkoti completely. sugar.P. medicines and innumerable other things.500 gallons per day. Later enquiry revealed that the raiders were Razakars of Ittehadul Musalmin who were supposed to protect the Bank from the imaginary attack of the Indian Armed Forces. The Hyderabad government now manned entirely by the Ittehad people was not inspiring much confidence among the business community resulting in hoarding and block marketing. His inexperience and the overbearing influence of Ittehadul Musalmin upon him. Few weeks earlier to that on 1st February 1948. food-grains. Power alcohol was being produced at the rate of 3. it had become the order of the day for the lecherous Nizam¶s police and the barbaric vagabonds of Ittehedul . There was shortage of petrol. Rajaji and Munshi sitting with novices of street urchin mentality and to talk about the affairs of a state larger than many of the European countries was a new but exasperating experience. This ultimatum is said to have rattled him making him to blurt. . At that time Mir Layak Ali was appointed as the new Prime Minister of Hyderabad at the insistence of Itthehead.Musalmin known as Razakars. took steps to block all the supply routes to Hyderabad . ''What was led to this sudden change?'´.in the village was seventy. 1948 the Home Secretary V. And several factories owned by the Muslims were said to have started producing rifles and Bren guns. He was a Civil Engineer turned Businessman and Industrialist and totally new to political office. News on the other hand of Hyderabad steadily building up the potential of its Army and other ancillary forces was regularly reaching Delhi . killed at least seven persons and decamped with more than 22 lakhs rupees in hard cash. quickened the pace of events. one hundred armed personnel raided the branch of State Bank of Hyderabad in a small town Umri. Qasim Razvi was the sole performer now. Nizam was totally besieged by the Ittehad. the government and armed forces of India . A British Arms dealer named Sydney Cotton was transporting arms from abroad. Yet in the interest of the innocent public of Hyderabad State they underwent this harrowing experience for months together The nation was recovering from the trauma of Gandhiji's death. Stocks of petrol and sulphur were built up. This itself proves the extent of lawlessness created by the Razakars of Ittehadul Muslamin during that time. For the battle hardened leaders like Patel. Prior to that.In fact Layaq Ali was facing embarrassments everywhere due to irresponsible and arbitrary acts and utterings of Qasim Razvi and Razakars of Itthedul Muslamin. kerosene. In fact. The predominantly Hindu population of the state was not to be allowed to pause and recap incessant terrorizing. diesel. cigarettes. Its effects started to be felt. The provincial governments around Hyderabad were getting nervous and sending frantic requests to Patel to take action against Hyderabad 's bellicosity. On 23rd March.

1.C. Hiralal Atal. In it he envisaged an advance of 30 miles per day and assessed to cover the distance from Sholapur to Hyderabad within a fortnight. Home Secretary V.000 strong. What happened to them there is not known to many. except at Naldurg. Later they went to Pakistan with great zeal and hope. Accordingly Major-Gen. Six days later. in an East-West assaultEnd of July. Operation Polo. And the Hindu residents of the Old . Hyderabad 's resistance ended. Gen. the news of Nizam's decision to surrender caused jubilation all over India and also among the people of Hyderabad Qasim Razvi. 1948.P. 1948. The Razakars of Ittehabul-Musalmin were driven mostly by their religious fanaticism. columns of Indian army entered Hyderabad state from various directions. when the Nizam ordered his troops to ceasefire.C.O. which a soldier receives in his military camps. Menon formally wrote to the Prime Minister of Hyderabad requesting him to allow Indian troops to be restationed in Secunderabad in such strength as might be necessary for the prompt and effective restoration of Law and Order. In the after noon of fifth day. Meanwhile Maj.N. and many other leaders of Ittehadul Musalmin were caught and tried. Zahirabad in the Western sector and at Kodad in the Eastern sector. Choudary had succeeded Maj. I Armoured Division of Indian Army had built up enough rations for sixty days for an army 22. J.O. On 15th September. there was no residence offered by the much publicised Hyderabad army. by the first of 13th September 1948. TIME Magazine's John Lubar described it as a 'Happy war'. on their journey to Secunderabad as per the forewarning of Home Secretary. Hiralal Atal. Tuljapu. And Mountbatten the last link of Nizam with Government of India had gone back to his England On 7th September. the Congress Party came to power in Hyderabad . Layaq Ali did not reply. had begun. Sardar Patel was no more. 17 September.Indian government asked its army to be prepared to march to Hyderabad at a shortest notice if necessary. In consonance with the Muslim appeasement policy of the Congress. G. The remnants of the Ittehadul Musalmin changed the name of the Islamic Communal outfit to Majlis-e-Ittehad and later converted it into a political party called Majlis-eIttehadul -Musalmin which still garners enough votes from the Muslim ghettoes of the old city of Hyderabad to send a couple of members of the State Assembly and lone member to the nation's Parliament. As the Indian troops marched on in the territory of Hyderabad . Gen. Qasim Razvi's home town Latur along with Osmanabad. Then religious zeal is no substitute for the regular military training. Bidar. as G. But the irony is that the Ittehad's posterity is neither repentant nor abashed of the monstrosity of their predecessors. 1 Armoured Division. these traitors were allowed the escape with lesser punishments. Aurangabad and Jalna fell to Indian troops. 1948. Armoured Division submitted his plan to the southern Command on 16th April. But by the time their trial concluded. On 18th September.

they were not directly impacted by the events leading up to the independence. Since his family was farmers in a rural village in South India. as was done fifty years ago. <!--[if !ppt]--> <!--[endif]--> My grandfather. Mandadi. was only fourteen when India got its independence on August 15. which is located in the district. they were impacted more by the Razakar Movement. Then that is being defined as secularism. However. Ravinder Singi Reddy was born on January 25. . 1933 in the village. which means grandfather in Telugu. in the [present-day] state of Andhra Pradesh. Mahaboobnagar. Thatha. 1947.City are not yet sure whether the Police will be permitted to act swiftly to rescue them from Muslim attacks.

the Nizam employed storm troopers. To further his cause. separate from India and the Indian Union just as Pakistan had separated from India. The Nizam wanted to completely remove Hindu culture and language from his state. The Razakar Movement began in 1946. This Islamization entailed Hindus being forced to convert or leave the state. My grandfather was a teenager at that time and remembered the terror that the movement created in the minds and hearts of the Hindu people. the Nizam felt more threatened and began to intensify the Islamization that he had begun. a language spoken predominantly by Muslims (Vepachedu). Many peoples¶ property was taken away. when the Nizam countered the cultural and political awareness that was rising among the Hindus around that time (Vepachedu). Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan began his reign and his goal was to have Hyderabad as an independent state. descendents from the Asaf Jah Dynasty. Thatha says he can remember his brother-in-law. and his own army to eliminate the Hindus. In 1911. the Razakars. a neighboring state under the Indian Union. did not experience the conditions that those in the Hyderabad state were going through. were the predominant rulers of Hyderabad from 1724 until 1948. and many were beaten or killed. a doctor. mostly Muslims were taught the Muslims ways and Urdu. The Hindus who started the ³Join Indian´ movement wanted the state of Hyderabad to join the rest of India in the Union. The next seven Nizams. To escape the horrible conditions Devanayak decided to relocate the family to state of Karnool. which means Muslim prince. My grandfather¶s eldest brother. (Karnool. He built universities where students. became head of the family of 14 brothers and sisters.The [present-day] state of Andhra Pradesh [was once known] as the state of Hyderabad which was ruled by the Nizam. Devanayak Reddy. Violence erupted between the two peoples as Muslims began regular offense against the Hindus daily (Moslem attacks). many were removed from their positions is various jobs. Asaf Jah.) . My great grandfather passed away when my grandfather was only 11 years old. who was killed on his way to making a making a house call to see a patient. Since the Hindu population of the state was about 90%.

Whatever money he and his family did bring was somehow smuggled in their clothing. This is only more evidence that goes to show how far Muslims took they desire for their own country in Hyderabad. They had to leave all their belongings and most of their money back home because there were checks at different places where people were searched. New York Times (1857-Current file). They were well respected and liked. his family was very low on money and food because they didn¶t have the income from farming from Mandadi. 2005. January 18. many families suffered injustice in the hands of Muslims who wanted their own state and desperately used any means to rid of Hindus. . Therefore. After finishing high school. After reaching Karnool. Thatha [Grandfather] said that they put money in their shoes. like my grandfather¶s. MetroWest Regional Library. Thatha¶s older brothers returned to the farm but the younger children and he remained in Karnool because Karnool had much better education. The schools in Mandadi were only sufficient for servants and a much lower level education. But many families. finally ending the Nizam rule. This land brought enough profits that despite the size of their family. 4. were able to regain what they had lost. <!--[if !ppt]--> <!--[endif]--> For scholarly references. they lived in comfort and luxury in comparison to the rest of the village. they lived on little food which was quite a change from their former lifestyle. see: http://nhs. though.ma. Thatha recalls the hardships he and his family faced after reaching Karnool.html ³Moslem Attacks Charged´. and wherever else they thought they could conceal it. pg. They adjusted. On September 10. because they had to spend about two years there. Aug 20. the rest of the family slowly drifted back home where things were prosperous once again.k12. ProQuest Historical Newspapers.needham. This NYT article talked about an incident when a group of Muslims surrounded a Hindu Market place and massacred 200 Hindu civilians. 1948. 1948. During the two-year-period of the Razakar movement. the Indian government sent their army to take away the state from Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan and join it with the Indian Union.My grandfather¶s family was the head of the village in Mandadi because they owned most of the land.us/cur/wwII/05/baker05/baker-nspp5-05/India_Independence.

B.hvk. It was the Arya Samaj under Swami Ramanand Tirth which came into the leadership of the anti-Nizam movement .C. has traced the growth of the Arya Samaj in this region.most of the followers of the Arya Samaj joined the Congress by 1946-47. .India for Indians. a princely state refusing to join the India Union. Belive it or not communists were killed by women folks of Telangana. which took up cudgels for the 'Hindu masses' against 'Muslim oppressors'." (page 60) The autocracy of the Nizam undoubtedly had a pro-Muslim.com/viewtopic. The Nizam had given free rein to a group called the Razakars. This was the gentleman with whom the Communists allied. Mahabaleswarappa. anti-Hindu aspect to it." http://www. all are foreigners on the soil of Hindustan .gave needed courage to the Hindus to oust the alien rule of Nizam and face the atrocities of the Razakars. It was said in Warangal and Nalgonda that "the Razakars rule by day and the Communists at night. Hindus were openly killed in Marathwada (also part of the princely Hyderabad). and the Razakars' actions were targeted against Hindus.org/articles/1098/0077. a reader in Gulbarga University. titled "Integration of Hyderabad Karnataka (1946-56)". Their leader Kasim Razvi vowed that "if India invaded nothing but the bones and ashes of 10. Razakars of those days emerged into Majlis Ittehadul Muslimeen (MIM) of today. http://forums.php?t=371&sid=191671946421363f6122c86adc739d4f ============================================================== The anti-Nizam movement in the Kannada.bharatrakshak.html The bad part is communists ( the so-called poor man's supporters ) aligned with Razakars. The leadership of the Arya Samaj gave a communal colouring to the struggle.and Marathi-speaking parts of Hyderabad state is less well documented. Urdu was imposed on his subjects. The Nizam's administration was largely Muslim.Telangana was part of the then Hyderabad state. took over the leadership of the anti-Nizam movement partly owing to the late arrival of the Congress. "The message of the Arya Samaj . until 1940 the Indian National Congress did not take up the people's struggle in the princely state. In his doctoral thesis. on the anti-Nizam and pro-merger movement in the Hyderabad Karnatak region. After that people and even the establishment hated the communists so much that no body dared to talk about communists.5 million Hindus would be found". The Arya Samaj. Except Hindus.

under the leadership of legislator Mohammad Amanullah Khan. The Majlis Ittehadul Muslimeen (MIM). of which the Tehreek is an offshoot. the newly formed Tehreek holds him in high esteem and his portraits adorn the walls of its office at Mogalpura in the city.Majlis plan to glorify the anti-national Razakar movement in Telangana HYDERABAD . as Razvi is known among the old city Muslims. ever since the party was revived in 1957. killing innocent men and women. According to Tehreek sources. Mr Khan will preside over the meeting. is organising a massive public meeting here to pay homage to the friend of Deccan. The newspaper advertisements carrying photographs of Mr Khan and Razvi appealed to the people to participate in large numbers and pay homage to the warrior of Islam (Mujahid-emillat). The anti-national Razvi was given a number of honorifics in advertisements issued by the organising committee in various Urdu newspapers on thursday. Qasim Razvi. who since led it. Razvi had led the infamous Razakar movement in 1947-48 against the Indian Army and let loose a reign of terror in Telengana. the MIM founder and Jihadi zealo . The movement aimed at merger of the then Hyderabad State with Pakistan. Though the MIM discarded the leadership of Qasim Razvi. had never organized public meetings in honour of Qasim. The Razakar movement he started in 1944 became a strong paramilitary force which crushed anyone who raised a voice in favour of the then Hyderabad state merging with Indian Union. The party is observing Friday as "Yaum-e-Siddiq-e-Deccan' (the day of Siddiq-e-Deccan).An attempt seems to be afoot to glorify and extend support to the notorious antinational Razakar movement that left a trail of blood in Telangana in the early years of independence. The Majlis Bachao Tehreek. One advertisement featured Mr Khan with Mr Bahadur Yar Jung. the public meeting has been planned to revive the old glory and honour of the community under the leadership of Qasim Razvi. This is the first time an outlawed person like Razvi is being honoured like this.

They are all allowed to draw ration and avail of medical facilities in the Indian army like other ex-servicemen. The history of Hyderabad began with the Qutub Shahi . It is really sad that these [killers] have been allowed stay in Indian soil. I know of one MIM activist in Houston who got a Green card in Houston (USA) pleading political asylum from Indian persecution in Hyderabad.hindunet. There have been periods where it has been secular later communal and then secular again. 2008 |Comments: 1 | Views: 1. India. The Communal History of Hyderabad Edit Article | Posted: Jul 31.org/alt_hindu/1995_Jan/msg00104.845 | Share The city of Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh has seen many Communal ups and downs right from the Razakar movement onwards. Mostly modern Hyderabad has been relatively peaceful but just as with the rest of India fallen prey to communally divisive politics.html It is a fact that all ex-serviceman from the Nizam's state forces were treated on par with ex-servicemen from the Indian army.Late Qaaid-e-Millat Nawab Bahadur Yar Jung http://www. For this state of affairs I hold each and every Indian responsible who voted for the Congress in the last fifty years.

The rulers would converse. The region had an overwhelming majority of Hindus (around 96%) being ruled by Muslim kings which did not present as a problem for nearly 200 years of their rule. separatist dominion group) which included some dalits. The administration was also completely dominated by Muslims. All was well till the Nizam demanded dominion status and decided not to join India or Pakistan beginning in 1946. So neighbouring Secunderabad and other regions were administered by the British Imperialist forces and the presence of the British Army was a constant. Communists and proIndian union Muslims started the join India movement. After Aurangazeb s repeated attacks the dynasty declined and the Mughal inquisition gave rise to the Asaf Jahi dynasty or as they are more popularly known the Nizams of Hyderabad. The Hindus (Andhra Mahasaba). This laid the ground for nearly two years of a virtual siege on the Hindus of the . In the history of the later princely state the importance of the Telangana region holds the key to the way the city was formed.dynasty when Golconda was established and later the capital was shifted to Hyderabad with the building of monuments like the Charminar. Under their rule the region of Telangana was the epicentre of the kingdom and Hyderabad was the capital. The Hindu population of the state was around 93% but there was not a lot of animosity among the people and the Nizam had signed a treaty with the British Establishment after supporting their annexation of Mysore. read and write in Telugu. The Nizam rule saw the rising of the Princely State of Hyderabad and it was some of the most prosperous time for the kingdom. which gave rise to the name Bhagyanagar to her subsequent conversion to Hyder Mahal from which the name Hyderabad came to be. The most prosperous region at one point of time is now in the midst of an economic (barring Hyderabad and the Rangareddy districts) and social struggle for an autonomous state. The classical dance form Kuchipudi was also born during this time. The dynasty was also very wealthy as a result of the diamond mining (this was where the Kohinoor was excavated) and this prosperity attracted unwarranted attention from the Mughal Empire. The Qutub Shahi rulers were quite accepting of the Telugu culture of the region and embraced the language and culture by learning it and patronizing the arts and encouraging telugu literature. Urdu was imposed on the people and Universities (Osmania University) and Schools (Aaliya) established were to enforce Urdu among the Hindus. Though the majority population was Hindu it was no secret that the Nizams favoured the Muslims. The Qutub Shahi s were benevolent rulers who laid emphasis on inclusive progress and assimilated themselves into the culture. The Muslim kings married into the local people of which the most famous example is that of Bhagmati. this had the Nizam worried and thus began the Razakar movement with the Majlis-e-Ittehadhul Musalmeen (MIM. This also did not incite any unrest among the people as one of the pillars of the Nizams Sarkar was the support from the Deshmukhs and Jagirdars who were the earlier captured kings from other provinces of India with royal status.

The seeds of hatred though had already been laid. as a BJP victory would mean a virtual war in the Old City area as it is now known). Then again during the Telugu Desam Party (that was until the alignment with the BJP) and Congress rule in the state there was a lull but very sensitive. Islamic fundamentalist elements had permeated locally with an influx of migrants from various parts of the country (plus international influences and migration back and forth). Till 1998 Hyderabad had not fully taken off to the current IT city metro status but the division of the Old and New City areas had begun just prior the 90 s. The Babri Masjid demolition changed that and saw the MIM fighting for the rights of Muslims in the city (which made the Owaisis very powerful). The reactionary response to that was Ganesh Visarjan yatras deliberately causing problems when passing through the Old City or the local Bonalu festival being heavily guarded as the rituals lead to many uncomfortable situations. The Babri demolition gave rise to fundamental elements to take advantage of the situation which led to hyper extension of mosques and anti-Hindu tirades at sermons (the most often said thing was to abstain from buying anything from Hindus during Ramzan. This led to the police action and the action of the Indian Government to annexe the state and they succeeded on the 18th of September 1948 with the Nizam becoming the Raj Pramukh For a city born out of such communal strife and immense religious tension for the years after the struggle the region remained relatively non-communal.state. Both sides wanted to gain political mileage from the communal conflict. There were problems with the violent farmer struggles which grew stronger to the now very evident Naxal problem the contribution of the communists to a peace amongst religions were crucial but laying a virtual siege to official machinery was not (things were non communal even during the Telangana Agitation). Charminar was basically turned into a MIM bastion and many Hindu traders decided to move out fearing their life. Every festival and celebration had to be policed heavily. . The BJP was making its presence felt like it did in the national arena from 1984 onwards that gave the MIM a slight scare when Badam Bal Reddy almost won (it is alleged that there was massive rigging done to make the MIM win. This is where the communal harmony in Hyderabad went south. During this time many Hindu customs which were earlier welcomed met with opposition and many Muslim practices were deliberately opposed. Even the rise of Salahuddin Owaisi of the MIM (distanced from the separatist cause) was not the cause of much communal strife. Friday prayer at the Mecca Masjid became the ideal place to start a riot after prayers and anything would set off a stone pelting spree. The MIM was a party to many of these problems but vote-bank politics meant ignorance at best. Hyderabad after formation of the Andhra Pradesh state saw the worst Hindu-Muslim riots and everything after that became a communal issue. now extended to not buy anything from Hindus at any given time).

rise of the RSS now ruled the previously communist (including Maoist Naxal) Telangana. The were driven out and their lands redistributed among the population. Asaf Jah VII and resist the integration of Hyderabad State in India.Sleeper cells of Islamic fundamentalist groups. search Not to be confused with Razakars (Pakistan). the Indian army routed the Razakars and the group was disbanded after hyderabad state joined the Union of India. Qasim Razvi. Razakars were a private Muslim militia organized by Qasim Razvi to support the rule of Osman Ali Khan. Jr. There are enough problems with the Naxal groups now the state has to tackle a combination of problems. Eventually. . Razakars (Hyderabad) From Wikipedia. [edit] External links y National Integration and Modern Judicial Procedure in India: The Dar-Us-Salam Case Theodore P. This was a non-violent struggle initially but later due to pressure from the razakars. the Communist Party of India had gained significant ground recently as people of the Old City saw through the MIM but the nuclear deal and a passionate speech by Asaduddin Owaisi in support virtually eliminated that near change in thought process. The MIM though had shown signs of this when they violently stamped out (there was a shootout where most members were killed. they along with the communists became violent. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. Wright. Again Hyderabad is on high alert and the Hindu-Muslim he said-she said will go on but the rising forces of terror will go mostly unchecked in the process. but as always not many clues were found) the opposition from the Majlis-Bachao-Tehreek (MBT) after the death of their leader Amanullah Khan. As a result these unchecked happenings eventually led to the Hyderabad Bombings (in Mecca Masjid. This led to the killing and brutal murder of lots of landlords and jagirdars in the telangana region. Lumbini Park and Gokul Chaat) and the attack of MIM legislators on Taslima Nasreen. The people of Telangana under the leadership of Swami Ramanand Tirtha formed the Andhra Hindu Mahasabha which sought integration of state with rest of India. The MIM recently demanded a Muslim state with Warangal as its capital for Telangana. moved to Pakistan where he resided until his death. the military chief of Hyderabad state. who had led a successful opposition movement to the MIM.

The merger of Hyderabad Dominions into the Indian Union was announced. led by Major-General J. 1966). 12 (Dec. The activities of the Razakars within the Dominions were posing a serious threat to peace and harmony.Rama Krishna Rao took charge of the State. the Government of India decided to curb these tendencies by launching a `Police Action' against the Nizam. No. the Prime Minister of the Nizam. Its leaders are forced to conduct their activities from places like Vijayawada and Bombay. driven out and the land was redistributed. Vol. On September 23. a Senior Civil Servant was made the Chief Minister of the State and the Nizam was designated "Raj Pramukh". They launched the "Join India" movement with the cooperation of a few patriotic Muslims for the integration of the State with the rest of the country. The Government of India tried to persuade the Nizam to sign the Instrument of accession with India. The mostly Muslim landlords were either beheaded or brutally murdered.. On 18 September 1948. With the growing violence by the Andhra Mahasabha and the Razakars along with the Nizam's attempts to get himself independent. Jihad in Andhra Pradesh Have we forgotten the lessons of history so soon? . The Indian Army. whole-heartedly supported the movement. The Communists on their part organized village defense squads to protect people from the attacks of the Nizam Police and Razakars. This agreement provided the Nizam to gain time to procure military hardware from different parts of the world and smuggle them into Hyderabad.N. M. the first popular ministry headed by B. pp.K. The Communist party instigated the peasants to use guerrilla tactics and around 3000 villages (about 41000 sq. The Nizam Government did not agree to the accession to the Indian Union. 675±682 RAZAKAR MOVEMENT The Nizam was very anxious to become independent and it had been Nizam's ambition to secure Dominion Status for his State.Vellodi. In January 1950. After the 1952 General Elections. the Nizam finally entered into a "Stand Still Agreement" on November 29. led by Swami Ramanand Tirtha.Chaudhuri entered the State from five directions and the military action was a brilliant success. the Nizam withdrew his complaint in the Security Council.N.Chaudhuri took over as Military Governor of Hyderabad and stayed in that position till the end of 1949. 1947. 6. the Razakars. After tortuous negotiations.Asian Survey. kilometres) came under peasant-rule in Nalgonda alone. The negotiations between the Nizam's Dominions and the Indian Union proved abortive. The Nizam banned the State Congress. The rebellion was led by the Communist Party of India under the banner of Andhra Mahasabha. Major-General J. and Khasim Razvi were arrested. The Hindus of the Hyderabad State accounted for 93 per cent of its population. The State Congress leaders. Nizam's forces surrendered to the Indian army and Mir Laik Ali. The growing violence by the Razakars and the Andhra Mahasabha seriously jeopardized law and order. He tried to achieve this ambitious desire with the help of Khasim Razvi of the Ittehadul Muslimeen and its rag tag militia. In the meanwhile the Nizam sent a delegation to the United Nations organization to refer the Hyderabad case to the Security Council. with India for one year to maintain status quo.

o March (3)  Muslim men and women undergoing military Razakar t...  Muslims tie up with Naxalite terrorists.. no votes" . Terror strike...Muslims threaten Ind...  Has Telangana forgotten the Jihadi Razakar atrocit... convince .  DJS terrorists shoot.  Even after centuries of living in India..  "No reservations....Blog Archive y 2010 (24) o September (1)  Lakhs of brave Hindus march fearlessly during Gane..  Muslims support BJP for the creation of Muslim-dom.  Jihadi MIM MLA opens fire in Abids  MIM leaders openly attempt to murder brave feminis..  BJP supports the formation of a Muslim-dominated T... o April (6)  DJS gang of 'Jihadi serial killers' hunted Hindus .. March 25.... 2010 . o August (4)  Ramzan ka Bakra  What Viqaruddin's confession reveals about the Isl..  MIM MLA Afsar Khan arrested for assaulting policem.. o July (1)  Islamic terrorist Viqar Ahmed captured along with . seriously injure two policem.. these Mus..  Remember the real Komaram Puli ?  Lashkar terrorist held in Hyderabad..............  Policeman killed by Muslims as 'Islamic terror' st.  "Pious Muslim" Viqar threatens Kafir prison offici.  Hyderabadi Muslim brides are treated like dirt in .  Peaceful Religionists kill 50 Hindus in Hyderabad 2008 (1) o November (1)  Hindus stand up to Islamic Terror y Thursday. o May (9)  Bin Laden's shadow in Hyderabad  Devout Mohammedan identified in the killing of con.

came under Muslim rule briefly when Alauddin Khilji from Delhi defeated the emperor Prataparudra of Kakatiya Dynasty that ruled from Warangal as Capitol. In the North India. on March 19. It took approximately 7 centuries for Islamic marauders to reach the south from the north-west. 2002.A: Chelsea House Publishers. 1948) (Picture Source: Wagner. Telangana.A compilation Muslim Razakars pose with captured Hindu civilians before killing them in cold blood (Telangana. while Vijayanagar (1336-1678) was the last Hindu empire to fall in the South. the Muslim rule started with the defeat of the last Hindu and Buddhist empires in Afghanistan in early 7th century. valiant Rajputs were defeated and on the 26th of .S. the core of Hyderabad State. After a heroic resistance against his brutal Muslim onslaught for about eight months. 1310. The huge booty carried to Delhi by one thousand camels included the famous Kohinoor Diamaond. including queen Padmini. U. this is the same Allauddin who plundered Chittorgarh for material and carnal booty.) Brief History: Approximately seven centuries of slavery under the Muslim autocracy and 50 years of democracy have influenced the culture of the Hyderabad City and the State. People at odds. (Yes. Heather Lehr.Has Telangana forgotten the Jihadi Razakar atrocities? Heroic Hindu resistance to Islamic terror in Hyderabad (1310 1948) .

) Warangal was taken back from Delhi sultanate in 1336 by Vijayanagar dynasty. and Medak respectively. Induru. when there exist still 22 million of µDung Worshippers¶ in this country (Hyderabad State). At the same time a proclamation was issued making Hyderabad State an Islamic state.1724) and Nizam dynasty of Hyderabad (17241948). This organization along with "Anjuman Tabli Gulistan" inaugurated Tablig movement to convert Hindus to Islam. Elagandala. the Nizam dynasty¶s intentions were to annihilate the Hindu languages and cultures. However. Liberation: There was an increase in political and cultural awareness among peoples of Hindu religions of Hyderabad State at the end of 19 th century. Of course. With the encouragement of the Nizam government a blatant communal organization Majlis Ittehadul Muslimeen was formed. Nizam gifted away coastal Andhra to French in 1752. and Metuku were changed to Karim Nagar. In 1911. for example. In August 1919. Hindu students had to face many hardships and restrictions at the University." . and towns like Manukota and Bhuvanagir were renamed as Mahaboobnagar and Bhongir respectively in 1905. Palamuru. The Hindu cultures and religions were openly ridiculed. Mughal Dynasty of Delhi (1687.August 1303. which fell to Muslims later in 1678 and became part of Golconda state under Mughals. Hyderabad (Golconda) remained part of various Muslim dynasties for 7 centuries uninterrupted: Delhi sultanate (1310-1336). " I am pained to see the inertness amongst Muslims. Turkman Qutub Shahi dynasty of Golconda kingdom (1512-1687).a major Muslim dynasty that ruled central and south India (1345-1512). This was the first ever University in the last millennium in the Telugu land! The second university established was Andhra University in Andhra region of Madras province under the British raj in 1925.g.. e. As part of Nizam's grand design to counter the growing cultural and political awareness among Hindus (~90% of the total population at the time) in the state. independent Bahmani sultanate . during Milad-un-Nabi celebrations of 1937. Mir Osman Ali Khan succeeded to the dynasty. Village names ending in padu were changed to pahad. Prof. the Rajput women plunged themselves into the fire to escape rape and slavery . Maulvi Nazarul Hassan Gilani openly admonished the Muslims for their failure to convert Hindus to Islam by saying. Mahaboob Nagar. which became part of Madras province of the British Empire. During his rule Islamization of Hyderabad State was intensified. the Telugu names of districts. East India Company acquired Andhra from the French in 1766. Nizamabad. under the leadership of Rani Padmini. Osmania University was founded to impart higher education in Urdu medium to Muslims and Urdu speaking Hindus in Telangana.

The new Government of India was very much concerned with this development. Yet it acted with forbearance because the Nizam's plea to give an extension of two months to sign the instrument of accession was . in the Nizam's state of Hyderabad . known as Razakar movement were instigated by the Nizam and Majlis Ittehadul Muslimeen party against popular demand "Join India" to join the Indian Union and overthrow the Muslim autocracy. Finally. When the British left the Indian Continent in 1947. 1947. communal riots between Muslims and Hindus continued due to communal µdivide and rule policy¶ and minority-vote-bank politics of Congress party until saffron clad Nandamuri Taraka Ramarao (NTR) became Chief Minister. believed that he was destined to plant Asafia flag on the Red Fort in Delhi and make the waves of the Bay of Bengal wash the feet of Nizam. father of Islamic State of Pakistan (Islamic Pure State)." ignoring Hindus among the students. Kasim Razvi. Poor Hindus of Deccan ! They dreamt that Independence meant freedom to them also. the president of Majlis Ittehadul Muslimeen in erstwhile Hyderabad State. the Nizam wished to remain independent. the state's Muslim population rose by one lakh. The Hyderabadi Hindu was doomed! There was a large scale of migration of Hindus across the border of Hyderabad into the neighbouring Indian provinces. and also the state's machinery. However. the Hyderabad State joined the Indian Union with the help of the Union army in 1948. slogans of ''Azad Hyderabad Paindabad' rent the air. But it was not to be on 15th August. released funds for immediately providing blankets to these immigrants as the winter was fast approaching. Mohammed Ali Jinnah. while Hindus wanted to join the democratic Indian Union. A series of riots and mayhem. Within two months of declaring Azad Hyderabad. well ahead by ten months British left India after partitioning it into India and Pakistan . in an action popularly known as the police action.Panduranga Rao Kulkarni On 15 August.Similarly. The state's Child Welfare Association under Nizam's princess daughter-in-law. railway. He was successful in intoxicating thousands of Muslims of Hyderabad State to enroll as razakars and take pledge to maintain the Muslim supremacy in Deccan and Hyderabad State. public works etc. 1947 as rest of India was shouting 'Bharat Mata ki Jai'. addressed the students of Osmania University as "my Muslim students. Towards Freedom: Final days of the Nizam Raj . The terror unleashed by the Razakars was coupled with the migration [exodus] of Hindus. electricity. There was also immigration of thousands of Muslim families from other parts of the country.Musalmin. Immediate attempts were made to absorb these immigrants into jobs in various departments like irrigation. They were eagerly welcomed by the Volunteers of Ittehadul . The numerous princely states were given option to either accede to India or to Pakistan .

quickened the pace of events.Musalmin known as Razakars. The other group of women had the same fate. His inexperience and the overbearing influence of Ittehadul Musalmin upon him. houses. after which ultimately it was signed. which was staggering with shock of post-position riots and bloodshed.granted. it had become the order of the day for the lecherous Nizam¶s police and the barbaric vagabonds of Ittehedul . The predominantly Hindu population of the state was not to be allowed to pause and recap incessant terrorizing. They dragged the women folk along the streets to the centre place of the village. At that time Mir Layak Ali was appointed as the new Prime Minister of Hyderabad at the insistence of Itthehead. Nehru. K. which seemingly was its climbdown. Munshi would be stationed in Hyderabad as agent-general of India . Rajaji and Munshi sitting with novices of street urchin mentality and to talk about the affairs of a state larger than many of the European countries was a new but exasperating experience. the Indian Government offered a standstill agreement to Hyderabad without accession. In fact. For several weeks there was bargaining in New Delhi over the contents of the standstill agreement. Total number of women thus killed on that day in the village was seventy. He was a Civil Engineer turned Businessman and Industrialist and totally new to political office. In an incident in Errapalem village of Warangal district. Even after the lapse of two months. According to the agreement. For the battle hardened leaders like Patel. Qasim Razvi was the sole performer now. To pre-empt such an eventuality. and power and initiative shifted from Kingkoti completely. Nizam was totally besieged by the Ittehad. There were rumours that Nizam would accede to Pakistan and Pakistan would readily accept it. robbing the gold and silver from their women-folk and also their abduction and rape. This period was used by the hooligans of Ittehedul Musalmin to systematically terrorise the Hindus by arson and looting of their shops. under the lead of sub-Inspector Chand Khan. To Nizam and Ittahed the offer looked as an indicator of growing weakness of Indian Government. despite the pleadings of their kith and kin.M. and Zain Yarzung would be in New Delhi as the agent general of Hyderabad . the Nizam dodged signing the accession instrument on one pretext or the other. In the meanwhile the 'Razakar' force of Ittehadul Musalmin swelled to three lakhs members and there were clashes between them and the Swayamsevaks of 'Janata Fouz' formed in the rural side by the Hindus mostly in the border areas. They had forcible copulation first with twelve of them and there after shot them dead. and standing crops. Yet in the interest of the innocent public of Hyderabad State they underwent this harrowing experience for months together . In the meanwhile he sent his men all over the world seeking military and moral assistance for the independent Hyderabad State . thirty five policemen with eighty Razakars of Ittehadul Musalmin looted each and every household including the huts.

G.P. Hiralal Atal. 1948.500 gallons per day. diesel. food-grains. Later enquiry revealed that the raiders were Razakars of Ittehadul Musalmin who were supposed to protect the Bank from the imaginary attack of the Indian Armed Forces.C. Armoured Division submitted his plan to the southern Command on 16th April.In fact Layaq Ali was facing embarrassments everywhere due to irresponsible and arbitrary acts and utterings of Qasim Razvi and Razakars of Itthedul Muslamin.P. And several factories owned by the Muslims were said to have started producing rifles and Bren guns. Accordingly Major-Gen. This itself proves the extent of lawlessness created by the Razakars of Ittehadul Muslamin during that time.N. took steps to block all the supply routes to Hyderabad . 1948 the Home Secretary V.C. . Gen. the government and armed forces of India . This ultimatum is said to have rattled him making him to blurt. Stocks of petrol and sulphur were built up. Few weeks earlier to that on 1st February 1948. medicines and innumerable other things. Menon sent a formal letter pointing out various violations by Hyderabad of the stand still Agreement and asked Prime Minister Layaq Ali to take steps to rectify the situation or be prepared for consequences. cigarettes. Gen. kerosene. There was shortage of petrol.The nation was recovering from the trauma of Gandhiji's death.O. one hundred armed personnel raided the branch of State Bank of Hyderabad in a small town Umri. The provincial governments around Hyderabad were getting nervous and sending frantic requests to Patel to take action against Hyderabad 's bellicosity. A British Arms dealer named Sydney Cotton was transporting arms from abroad. as G. Meanwhile Maj. in an East-West assaultEnd of July. In it he envisaged an advance of 30 miles per day and assessed to cover the distance from Sholapur to Hyderabad within a fortnight. Its effects started to be felt. sugar. The Hyderabad government now manned entirely by the Ittehad people was not inspiring much confidence among the business community resulting in hoarding and block marketing. Hiralal Atal. Indian government asked its army to be prepared to march to Hyderabad at a shortest notice if necessary. 1 Armoured Division. Menon formally wrote to the Prime Minister of Hyderabad requesting him to allow Indian troops to be restationed in Secunderabad in such strength as might be necessary for the prompt and effective restoration of Law and Order. Home Secretary V.O. I Armoured Division of Indian Army had built up enough rations for sixty days for an army 22. killed at least seven persons and decamped with more than 22 lakhs rupees in hard cash. On 23rd March. And Mountbatten the last link of Nizam with Government of India had gone back to his England On 7th September. Power alcohol was being produced at the rate of 3. J. 1. Choudary had succeeded Maj. 1948. News on the other hand of Hyderabad steadily building up the potential of its Army and other ancillary forces was regularly reaching Delhi . ''What was led to this sudden change?'´.000 strong. Prior to that.

there was no residence offered by the much publicised Hyderabad army. Qasim Razvi's home town Latur along with Osmanabad. 17 September. TIME Magazine's John Lubar described it as a 'Happy war'. 1948. Later they went to Pakistan with great zeal and hope. But the irony is that the Ittehad's posterity is neither repentant nor abashed of the monstrosity of their predecessors. on their journey to Secunderabad as per the forewarning of Home Secretary. Bidar. On 18th September. In the after noon of fifth day. The Razakars of Ittehabul-Musalmin were driven mostly by their religious fanaticism. when the Nizam ordered his troops to ceasefire. And the Hindu residents of the Old City are not yet sure whether the Police will be permitted to act swiftly to rescue them from Muslim attacks. As the Indian troops marched on in the territory of Hyderabad . the Congress Party came to power in Hyderabad . columns of Indian army entered Hyderabad state from various directions. What happened to them there is not known to many. Aurangabad and Jalna fell to Indian troops. Six days later. Then that is being defined as secularism. which a soldier receives in his military camps. Tuljapu. and many other leaders of Ittehadul Musalmin were caught and tried. Zahirabad in the Western sector and at Kodad in the Eastern sector. the news of Nizam's decision to surrender caused jubilation all over India and also among the people of Hyderabad Qasim Razvi. <!--[if !ppt]--> <!--[endif]--> . except at Naldurg. The remnants of the Ittehadul Musalmin changed the name of the Islamic Communal outfit to Majlis-e-Ittehad and later converted it into a political party called Majlis-eIttehadul -Musalmin which still garners enough votes from the Muslim ghettoes of the old city of Hyderabad to send a couple of members of the State Assembly and lone member to the nation's Parliament. In consonance with the Muslim appeasement policy of the Congress. as was done fifty years ago. by the first of 13th September 1948. these traitors were allowed the escape with lesser punishments. But by the time their trial concluded. Sardar Patel was no more.Layaq Ali did not reply. Operation Polo. Then religious zeal is no substitute for the regular military training. had begun. Hyderabad 's resistance ended. On 15th September.

However. Mandadi. Thatha. they were impacted more by the Razakar Movement. Ravinder Singi Reddy was born on January 25. which means grandfather in Telugu. Mahaboobnagar. Asaf Jah. The next seven Nizams.My grandfather. . Since his family was farmers in a rural village in South India. 1933 in the village. they were not directly impacted by the events leading up to the independence. which means Muslim prince. which is located in the district. The [present-day] state of Andhra Pradesh [was once known] as the state of Hyderabad which was ruled by the Nizam. descendents from the Asaf Jah Dynasty. 1947. in the [present-day] state of Andhra Pradesh. was only fourteen when India got its independence on August 15.

My grandfather¶s eldest brother. the Nizam employed storm troopers. Violence erupted between the two peoples as Muslims began regular offense against the Hindus daily (Moslem attacks). This land brought enough profits that despite the size of their family. mostly Muslims were taught the Muslims ways and Urdu. the Nizam felt more threatened and began to intensify the Islamization that he had begun. Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan began his reign and his goal was to have Hyderabad as an independent state. They were well respected and liked. a neighboring state under the Indian Union. a language spoken predominantly by Muslims (Vepachedu). Thatha recalls the hardships he and his family faced after reaching Karnool. Thatha [Grandfather] said that they put money in their shoes. and . He built universities where students. They had to leave all their belongings and most of their money back home because there were checks at different places where people were searched. a doctor. they lived in comfort and luxury in comparison to the rest of the village. did not experience the conditions that those in the Hyderabad state were going through. The Nizam wanted to completely remove Hindu culture and language from his state. Thatha says he can remember his brother-in-law. became head of the family of 14 brothers and sisters.were the predominant rulers of Hyderabad from 1724 until 1948. My great grandfather passed away when my grandfather was only 11 years old. and many were beaten or killed. To escape the horrible conditions Devanayak decided to relocate the family to state of Karnool. many were removed from their positions is various jobs. The Hindus who started the ³Join Indian´ movement wanted the state of Hyderabad to join the rest of India in the Union.) My grandfather¶s family was the head of the village in Mandadi because they owned most of the land. (Karnool. To further his cause. This Islamization entailed Hindus being forced to convert or leave the state. My grandfather was a teenager at that time and remembered the terror that the movement created in the minds and hearts of the Hindu people. when the Nizam countered the cultural and political awareness that was rising among the Hindus around that time (Vepachedu). separate from India and the Indian Union just as Pakistan had separated from India. and his own army to eliminate the Hindus. In 1911. Devanayak Reddy. Many peoples¶ property was taken away. Since the Hindu population of the state was about 90%. the Razakars. The Razakar Movement began in 1946. who was killed on his way to making a making a house call to see a patient.

This NYT article talked about an incident when a group of Muslims surrounded a Hindu Market place and massacred 200 Hindu civilians. the rest of the family slowly drifted back home where things were prosperous once again. many families suffered injustice in the hands of Muslims who wanted their own state and desperately used any means to rid of Hindus. This is only more evidence that goes to show how far Muslims took they desire for their own country in Hyderabad. 1948. Hindus were openly killed in Marathwada (also part of the princely Hyderabad). they lived on little food which was quite a change from their former lifestyle. because they had to spend about two years there. After finishing high school. They adjusted. a princely state refusing to join the India Union. During the two-year-period of the Razakar movement. <!--[if !ppt]--> <!--[endif]--> For scholarly references. Telangana was part of the then Hyderabad state.ma. pg. 2005. The Nizam had given free rein to a group called the Razakars. ProQuest Historical Newspapers. see: http://nhs. Thatha¶s older brothers returned to the farm but the younger children and he remained in Karnool because Karnool had much better education. Aug 20. Whatever money he and his family did bring was somehow smuggled in their clothing.needham. It was said in Warangal and Nalgonda that "the Razakars rule by day and the Communists at night. Therefore. the Indian government sent their army to take away the state from Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan and join it with the Indian Union." . 1948. 4.html ³Moslem Attacks Charged´. After reaching Karnool. like my grandfather¶s.wherever else they thought they could conceal it. MetroWest Regional Library. This was the gentleman with whom the Communists allied. finally ending the Nizam rule. were able to regain what they had lost.k12.5 million Hindus would be found". But many families.us/cur/wwII/05/baker05/baker-nspp5-05/India_Independence. The schools in Mandadi were only sufficient for servants and a much lower level education. though. January 18. Their leader Kasim Razvi vowed that "if India invaded nothing but the bones and ashes of 10. his family was very low on money and food because they didn¶t have the income from farming from Mandadi. New York Times (1857-Current file). On September 10.

php?t=371&sid=191671946421363f6122c86adc739d4f ============================================================== The anti-Nizam movement in the Kannada.hvk. After that people and even the establishment hated the communists so much that no body dared to talk about communists. and the Razakars' actions were targeted against Hindus. . B. on the anti-Nizam and pro-merger movement in the Hyderabad Karnatak region.and Marathi-speaking parts of Hyderabad state is less well documented.http://www. It was the Arya Samaj under Swami Ramanand Tirth which came into the leadership of the anti-Nizam movement . Mahabaleswarappa.An attempt seems to be afoot to glorify and extend support to the notorious antinational Razakar movement that left a trail of blood in Telangana in the early years of independence. until 1940 the Indian National Congress did not take up the people's struggle in the princely state. Urdu was imposed on his subjects. In his doctoral thesis.html The bad part is communists ( the so-called poor man's supporters ) aligned with Razakars. "The message of the Arya Samaj .org/articles/1098/0077.gave needed courage to the Hindus to oust the alien rule of Nizam and face the atrocities of the Razakars.com/viewtopic. Razakars of those days emerged into Majlis Ittehadul Muslimeen (MIM) of today. Belive it or not communists were killed by women folks of Telangana.India for Indians. The leadership of the Arya Samaj gave a communal colouring to the struggle. which took up cudgels for the 'Hindu masses' against 'Muslim oppressors'. The Nizam's administration was largely Muslim. has traced the growth of the Arya Samaj in this region." (page 60) The autocracy of the Nizam undoubtedly had a pro-Muslim. http://forums. anti-Hindu aspect to it. The Arya Samaj.bharatrakshak. Except Hindus. a reader in Gulbarga University.most of the followers of the Arya Samaj joined the Congress by 1946-47. all are foreigners on the soil of Hindustan .C. Majlis plan to glorify the anti-national Razakar movement in Telangana HYDERABAD . titled "Integration of Hyderabad Karnataka (1946-56)". took over the leadership of the anti-Nizam movement partly owing to the late arrival of the Congress.

the MIM founder and Jihadi zealo . is organising a massive public meeting here to pay homage to the friend of Deccan. killing innocent men and women. who since led it. The Majlis Ittehadul Muslimeen (MIM). under the leadership of legislator Mohammad Amanullah Khan. This is the first time an outlawed person like Razvi is being honoured like this. According to Tehreek sources. of which the Tehreek is an offshoot. the public meeting has been planned to revive the old glory and honour of the community under the leadership of Qasim Razvi. as Razvi is known among the old city Muslims. Though the MIM discarded the leadership of Qasim Razvi. Razvi had led the infamous Razakar movement in 1947-48 against the Indian Army and let loose a reign of terror in Telengana. Qasim Razvi. had never organized public meetings in honour of Qasim. The movement aimed at merger of the then Hyderabad State with Pakistan. The Razakar movement he started in 1944 became a strong paramilitary force which crushed anyone who raised a voice in favour of the then Hyderabad state merging with Indian Union. One advertisement featured Mr Khan with Mr Bahadur Yar Jung. The party is observing Friday as "Yaum-e-Siddiq-e-Deccan' (the day of Siddiq-e-Deccan).The Majlis Bachao Tehreek. the newly formed Tehreek holds him in high esteem and his portraits adorn the walls of its office at Mogalpura in the city. The newspaper advertisements carrying photographs of Mr Khan and Razvi appealed to the people to participate in large numbers and pay homage to the warrior of Islam (Mujahid-emillat). ever since the party was revived in 1957. Mr Khan will preside over the meeting. The anti-national Razvi was given a number of honorifics in advertisements issued by the organising committee in various Urdu newspapers on thursday.

India.hindunet.org/alt_hindu/1995_Jan/msg00104. . They are all allowed to draw ration and avail of medical facilities in the Indian army like other ex-servicemen.html It is a fact that all ex-serviceman from the Nizam's state forces were treated on par with ex-servicemen from the Indian army. It is really sad that these [killers] have been allowed stay in Indian soil. I know of one MIM activist in Houston who got a Green card in Houston (USA) pleading political asylum from Indian persecution in Hyderabad.Late Qaaid-e-Millat Nawab Bahadur Yar Jung http://www. For this state of affairs I hold each and every Indian responsible who voted for the Congress in the last fifty years.

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