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ON A FAMILY OF LINEAR OPERATORS AND CURVE

TRANSFORMATIONS

SEBASTIAN VATTAMATTAM

Abstract. Given a vector space VF over a field F, charF 6= 2, we introduce


a family of linear operators, defined using two linear functionals, on VF . We
take the n-dimensional vector space Rn as a special case and state and prove
a theorem in Linear Algebra. In the vector space C[0, 1] of continuous curves
in the complex plane, a generalized concept of curve transformations, called
n-curving [3] is introduced. Finally, we define products of vectors, using the
linear functionals, and show how the above linear operators are related to the
resulting algebra.

1. Introducing the Operators


VF is a vector space over a field F, charF 6= 2 and L1 , L2 are two of its linear
functionals such that \
H = L−11 (1F ) L−1
2 (1F ) 6= φ.

Take α, β ∈ H.
Then,
(1.1) Li (α) = Li (β) = 1F , i ∈ {1, 2}
Definition 1.1. Define φα,β : VF → VF by
(1.2) φα,β (x) = x + (L2 (x) − L1 (x))(α − β)
Theorem 1.2. The mapping φα,β is a nonsingular linear operator on the vector
space VF .
Proof: Linearity of φα,β follows directly from its definition.
To prove that φα,β is injective, suppose x 6= 0 such that φα,β (x) = 0. Then,
(1) x = (L1 (x) − L2 (x))(α − β).
(2) Since x 6= 0, L1 (x) 6= L2 (x)
(3) From (1),
Li (x) = (L1 (x) − L2 (x))Li (α − β)
= 0, by(1.1)
(4) (3) contradicts (2) and hence the mapping is injective.
Hence the conclusion.
Example 1.3. Let us take the vector space Rn , n > 2. For ū = (u1 , u2 , · · · , un ), v̄ =
(v1 , v2 , · · · , vn ), in Rn , the inner product
n
X
ū · v̄ = ui vi
i=1
1
2 SEBASTIAN VATTAMATTAM

If ā = (a1 , a2 , · · · , an ), b̄ = (b1 , b2 , · · · , bn ) are linearly independent, then the map-


pings L1 , L2 from Rn to R defined by
L1 (ū) = ā · ū, L2 (ū) = b̄ · ū
are two linear functionals.
H = {ū ∈ Rn : ā · ū = b̄ · ū = 1}
is the solution set of the system of linear equations
a1 x1 + a2 x2 + · · · an xn = 1
b1 x1 + b2 x2 + · · · bn xn = 1
H 6= φ since the vectors ā, b̄ are linearly independent.
Choose ᾱ, β̄ ∈ H. Then, the formula (1.2) becomes
n
X
(1.3) φᾱ,β̄ (ū) = ū + ( (ai − bi )ui )(ᾱ − β̄)
i=1

In the light of the above discussion, we have


Theorem 1.4. For n > 2, consider the following consistent system of linear equa-
tions, over R :
a1 x1 + a2 x2 + · · · an xn = 1
b1 x 1 + b2 x 2 + · · · bn x n = 1
Let ᾱ, β̄ be two of its solution vectors and define φᾱ,β̄ as in (1.3)
Then
(1) φᾱ,β̄ is a nonsingular linear operator on the vector space Rn .
(2) If J is the hyper-plane
n
X
(ai − bi )xi = 0
i=2

then ∀ū ∈ J, φᾱ,β̄ (ū) = ū.


(3) The linear operator φᾱ,β̄ has determinant equal to 1.
Proof: (1) follows from theorem 1.2 and (2) from (1.3). To prove (3), let
ᾱ = (α1 , α2 , · · · αn ) and β̄ = (β1 , β2 , · · · βn ). Then the matrix of the linear operator
φ , with respect to the standard basis, is
ᾱ,β̄ 
1 + (b1 − a1 )(α1 − β1 ) (b1 − a1 )(α2 − β2 ) ··· (b1 − a1 )(αn − βn )
 (b2 − a2 )(α1 − β1 ) 1 + (b2 − a2 )(α2 − β2 ) · · · (b2 − a2 )(αn − βn ) 
 
 ··· ··· ··· ··· 
(bn − an )(α1 − β1 ) (bn − an )(α2 − β2 ) · · · 1 + (bn − an )(αn − βn )
Its determinant can be seen to be
X n
det φα,β = (bi − ai )(αi − βi )
i=1

But, since ᾱ, β̄ are solution vectors of the linear equations,


ā · ᾱ = b̄ · ᾱ ⇒ (ā − b̄) · ᾱ = 0
and
ā · β̄ = b̄ · β̄ ⇒ (ā − b̄) · β̄ = 0
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Therefore,
n
X
(ā − b̄) · (ᾱ − β̄) = 0 ⇒ (bi − ai )(αi − βi ) = 0
i=1
Hence the conclusion.

2. A Space of Curves and n-Curving


The set C[0, 1] of continuous curves in the complex plane C, is a vector space
over the complex field C. A curve γ such that γ(0) = γ(1) = z0 , is called a loop at
z0 .
Define two functions L1 , L2 from C[0, 1] to C by
L1 (γ) = γ(0), L2 (γ) = γ(1)
Then, L1 , L2 are two linear functionals. H is the set of loops at 1.
H = {γ ∈ C[0, 1] : γ(0) = γ(1) = 1}
Choose α, β ∈ H.
Then, the formula (1.2) becomes
(2.1) φα,β (γ) = γ + (γ(1) − γ(0))(α − β)
Theorem 2.1. Suppose α, β are two loops at 1, in the space C[0, 1], and for γ ∈
C[0, 1], φα,β is defined as in (1.3).
Then
(1) φα,β is a nonsingular linear operator on the vector space C[0, 1]
(2) If J is the set {γ : γ(0) = γ(1)} of loops in C[0, 1], then ∀γ ∈ J, φα,β (γ) = γ.
2.1. n-Curves.
Definition 2.2. If γ ∈ H and n is a positive integer, define γn : [0, 1] → C by
(2.2) γn (t) = γ(nt − [nt]),
where [nt] is the greatest integer ≤ nt. The curve γn is called an n-curve.It also is
a loop at 1.
Theorem 2.3. If γ is a function of cos(2πt) and sin(2πt), then
γn (t) = γ(nt)
For, cos(2π(nt − [nt])) = cos(2πnt) and sin(2π(nt − [nt])) = sin(2πnt), as [nt] is
an integer.

2.2. n-Curving. If α, β ∈ H then the mapping φαn ,β , from C[0, 1] to itself, is


given by
(2.3) φαn ,β (γ) = γ + (γ(1) − γ(0))(αn − β)
and it is referred to as n-curving.
Theorem 2.4. The curve γ and its image φαn ,β (γ) have the same end points.
For,
(2.4) Li (φαn ,β (γ)) = Li (γ), i ∈ {1, 2}, since Li (αn ) = Li (β).
4 SEBASTIAN VATTAMATTAM

Example 2.5. Let u denote the unit circle


x2 + y 2 = 1
Its equations, as a curve defined on [0, 1], in the parametric form, are
x = cos(2πt)
y = sin(2πt)
u is a loop at 1. Take u as α as well as β. Let us transform the Cosine Curve χ for
which
χ(t) = 4πt + i cos(4πt), 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.
Note that χ(1) − χ(0) = 4π. The transformed curve φun ,u (χ) has the equations:
x = 4πt + 4π[cos(2πnt) − cos(2πt)]
y = cos(4πt) + 4π[sin(2πnt) − sin(2πt)]
See figures 1 and 2.

Figure 1. The n-Curved Cosine Curve φun ,u (χ)


(a) χ (b) u (c) n = 2 (d) n = 3
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Figure 2. The n-Curved Cosine Curve φun ,u (χ) n = 40

Example 2.6. Denote the curve called Crooked Egg by ε. Its Polar equation is

r = cos3 (θ) + sin3 (θ)

The parametric equations are

x = (cos3 (2πt) + sin3 (2πt)) cos(2πt)


y = (cos3 (2πt) + sin3 (2πt)) sin(2πt)

The Archimedean Spiral σ : ρ = θ has the parametric equations

x = 2πt cos(2πt)
y = 2πt sin(2πt), 0 ≤ t ≤ 1
6 SEBASTIAN VATTAMATTAM

The n-curved Archimedean Spiral φεn ,u has the equations


x = 2πt cos(2πt) + 2π[((cos(2πt))3 + (sin(2πt)).3 ). cos(2πt) − cos(2πt)]
y = 2πt sin(2πt) + 2π[((cos(2πt))3 + (sin(2πt)).3 ). sin(2πt) − sin(2πt)]
See figures 3 and 4.

Figure 3. The n-Curved Archimedean Spiral φεn ,u (σ)


(a) σ, (b) ε (c) n = 1, (d) n = 2

3. VF as an Algebra
Let VF be the vector space in section 1, with the linear functionals and the set
H. We shall define the products of vectors in VF so that it turns into an algebra.
Fix a vector β ∈ H. For x, y ∈ VF define
(3.1) x ∗ y = L1 (x)y + L2 (y)x − L1 (x)L2 (y)e
With this definition of products, VF becomes a non-commutative algebra with
unity β, called Functional Theoretic Algebra.[1]. An element x ∈ VF is regular if
L1 (x)L2 (x) 6= 0 and in that case
(L1 (x) + L2 (x))β − x
(3.2) x−1 =
L1 (x)L2 (x)
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Figure 4. The n-Curved Archimedean Spiral φεn ,u (σ) n = 20

The set G of regular elements in VF is a non-Abelian group under multiplication.


We state without proof the following results:
(1) Li , i ∈ {1, 2} are the only multiplicative functionals of the algebra VF .
(2) Mi = kerL T i , i ∈ {1, 2} are the only maximal ideals.
(3) M = L1 L2 is the radical.
(4) K = {x ∈ G : L1 (x) = L2 (x)} is a normal subgroup of G, and H is a
subgroup of K.
See [1] and [2]. For x, y ∈ H, it can be verified that
(1) x ∗ y = x + y − β
(2) x−1 = 2β − x
For α ∈ G, define Tα : VF → VF by
(3.3) Tα (x) = α ∗ x ∗ α−1
8 SEBASTIAN VATTAMATTAM

Theorem 3.1. The mapping Tα is an automorphism of the algebra VF , and Tα |G


is an automorphism of the group G.
Linearity of Tα follows from the definition 3.1. Tα is injective since α ∗ x ∗ α−1 =
0 ⇒ x = 0. Finally, we have to show that Tα preserves multiplication.
Tα (x ∗ y) = α ∗ (x ∗ y) ∗ α−1
= α ∗ (x ∗ α−1 ∗ α ∗ y) ∗ α−1
= (α ∗ x ∗ α−1 ) ∗ (α ∗ y ∗ α−1 )
= Tα (x) ∗ Tα (y)
Hence the conclusion.

If α ∈ H then it can be verified that Tα = φα,β .


In Rn of example 1.3,M1 = (ā)⊥ , the space of vectors orthogonal to ā, and
M2 = (b̄)⊥ . M is the space of vectors orthogonal to both ā and b̄.
In C[0, 1] of section 2,M1 is the space of curves starting at the origin, and M2 is
the space of curves ending at the origin. M is the space of loops at the origin.

4. Conclusion
This paper is of an exploratory nature. The properties of the curve transfor-
mation, called n-curving, are not examined. In the definition of φα,β , α has been
restricted to be a loop. What will happen once that restriction is taken of ? Many
such questions are left unanswered.
Any way, this author has been impressed by the beauty of many families of curves,
of which two are given as examples, derived by n-curving.

References
[1] Vattamattam Sebastian and Sivaramakrishnan R,“Associative Algebras via Linear Function-
als”, Proceedings of the Annual Conference of K.M.A. and International Seminar on Mathe-
matical Tradition of Kerala, January, 17-19, 2000, pp.81-89.
[2] Vattamattam Sebastian, “Non-Commutative Function Algebras”, Bulletin of Kerala Mathe-
matics Association, Vol.4, No.2, December 2007.
[3] Vattamattam Sebastian, “Transforming Curves by n-Curving”, Bulletin of Kerala Mathemat-
ics Association, Vol.5, No.2, December 2008.

Mary Bhavan, Ettumanoor-686 631


E-mail address: vattamattam@dataone.in