17 views

Uploaded by Sebastian Vattamattam

Methods of transforming plane curves using the principles of Functional Theoretic Algebra.

- Fundamental Formulas for 11st (1st Year)
- Karnataka MCA PGCET
- Optimization by Vector Space (Luenberger)
- Laboratorio Computacion Numerica Unsch 03
- alg_notes_1_14
- ON THE REGULARITY OF BERNOULLI MORPHISMS.pdf
- STEPCOL.xls
- ProE advanced fillet
- Final Review C
- Control
- Spherical Means
- Additional Work Book 10
- 3BMAS 2012 Resource Rich Test 4 and Form Sht
- Mathematics for Chemistry WikiBook
- The Differences Between Affine Space and Vector Space
- 02-lin-fcts
- Graphing Past Paper Qstns 4HR
- Further Differentiation
- Syllabus
- 2 Kuliah Gaya Penjumlahannya

You are on page 1of 8

TRANSFORMATIONS

SEBASTIAN VATTAMATTAM

a family of linear operators, defined using two linear functionals, on VF . We

take the n-dimensional vector space Rn as a special case and state and prove

a theorem in Linear Algebra. In the vector space C[0, 1] of continuous curves

in the complex plane, a generalized concept of curve transformations, called

n-curving [3] is introduced. Finally, we define products of vectors, using the

linear functionals, and show how the above linear operators are related to the

resulting algebra.

VF is a vector space over a field F, charF 6= 2 and L1 , L2 are two of its linear

functionals such that \

H = L−11 (1F ) L−1

2 (1F ) 6= φ.

Take α, β ∈ H.

Then,

(1.1) Li (α) = Li (β) = 1F , i ∈ {1, 2}

Definition 1.1. Define φα,β : VF → VF by

(1.2) φα,β (x) = x + (L2 (x) − L1 (x))(α − β)

Theorem 1.2. The mapping φα,β is a nonsingular linear operator on the vector

space VF .

Proof: Linearity of φα,β follows directly from its definition.

To prove that φα,β is injective, suppose x 6= 0 such that φα,β (x) = 0. Then,

(1) x = (L1 (x) − L2 (x))(α − β).

(2) Since x 6= 0, L1 (x) 6= L2 (x)

(3) From (1),

Li (x) = (L1 (x) − L2 (x))Li (α − β)

= 0, by(1.1)

(4) (3) contradicts (2) and hence the mapping is injective.

Hence the conclusion.

Example 1.3. Let us take the vector space Rn , n > 2. For ū = (u1 , u2 , · · · , un ), v̄ =

(v1 , v2 , · · · , vn ), in Rn , the inner product

n

X

ū · v̄ = ui vi

i=1

1

2 SEBASTIAN VATTAMATTAM

pings L1 , L2 from Rn to R defined by

L1 (ū) = ā · ū, L2 (ū) = b̄ · ū

are two linear functionals.

H = {ū ∈ Rn : ā · ū = b̄ · ū = 1}

is the solution set of the system of linear equations

a1 x1 + a2 x2 + · · · an xn = 1

b1 x1 + b2 x2 + · · · bn xn = 1

H 6= φ since the vectors ā, b̄ are linearly independent.

Choose ᾱ, β̄ ∈ H. Then, the formula (1.2) becomes

n

X

(1.3) φᾱ,β̄ (ū) = ū + ( (ai − bi )ui )(ᾱ − β̄)

i=1

Theorem 1.4. For n > 2, consider the following consistent system of linear equa-

tions, over R :

a1 x1 + a2 x2 + · · · an xn = 1

b1 x 1 + b2 x 2 + · · · bn x n = 1

Let ᾱ, β̄ be two of its solution vectors and define φᾱ,β̄ as in (1.3)

Then

(1) φᾱ,β̄ is a nonsingular linear operator on the vector space Rn .

(2) If J is the hyper-plane

n

X

(ai − bi )xi = 0

i=2

(3) The linear operator φᾱ,β̄ has determinant equal to 1.

Proof: (1) follows from theorem 1.2 and (2) from (1.3). To prove (3), let

ᾱ = (α1 , α2 , · · · αn ) and β̄ = (β1 , β2 , · · · βn ). Then the matrix of the linear operator

φ , with respect to the standard basis, is

ᾱ,β̄

1 + (b1 − a1 )(α1 − β1 ) (b1 − a1 )(α2 − β2 ) ··· (b1 − a1 )(αn − βn )

(b2 − a2 )(α1 − β1 ) 1 + (b2 − a2 )(α2 − β2 ) · · · (b2 − a2 )(αn − βn )

··· ··· ··· ···

(bn − an )(α1 − β1 ) (bn − an )(α2 − β2 ) · · · 1 + (bn − an )(αn − βn )

Its determinant can be seen to be

X n

det φα,β = (bi − ai )(αi − βi )

i=1

ā · ᾱ = b̄ · ᾱ ⇒ (ā − b̄) · ᾱ = 0

and

ā · β̄ = b̄ · β̄ ⇒ (ā − b̄) · β̄ = 0

PAPER3 3

Therefore,

n

X

(ā − b̄) · (ᾱ − β̄) = 0 ⇒ (bi − ai )(αi − βi ) = 0

i=1

Hence the conclusion.

The set C[0, 1] of continuous curves in the complex plane C, is a vector space

over the complex field C. A curve γ such that γ(0) = γ(1) = z0 , is called a loop at

z0 .

Define two functions L1 , L2 from C[0, 1] to C by

L1 (γ) = γ(0), L2 (γ) = γ(1)

Then, L1 , L2 are two linear functionals. H is the set of loops at 1.

H = {γ ∈ C[0, 1] : γ(0) = γ(1) = 1}

Choose α, β ∈ H.

Then, the formula (1.2) becomes

(2.1) φα,β (γ) = γ + (γ(1) − γ(0))(α − β)

Theorem 2.1. Suppose α, β are two loops at 1, in the space C[0, 1], and for γ ∈

C[0, 1], φα,β is defined as in (1.3).

Then

(1) φα,β is a nonsingular linear operator on the vector space C[0, 1]

(2) If J is the set {γ : γ(0) = γ(1)} of loops in C[0, 1], then ∀γ ∈ J, φα,β (γ) = γ.

2.1. n-Curves.

Definition 2.2. If γ ∈ H and n is a positive integer, define γn : [0, 1] → C by

(2.2) γn (t) = γ(nt − [nt]),

where [nt] is the greatest integer ≤ nt. The curve γn is called an n-curve.It also is

a loop at 1.

Theorem 2.3. If γ is a function of cos(2πt) and sin(2πt), then

γn (t) = γ(nt)

For, cos(2π(nt − [nt])) = cos(2πnt) and sin(2π(nt − [nt])) = sin(2πnt), as [nt] is

an integer.

given by

(2.3) φαn ,β (γ) = γ + (γ(1) − γ(0))(αn − β)

and it is referred to as n-curving.

Theorem 2.4. The curve γ and its image φαn ,β (γ) have the same end points.

For,

(2.4) Li (φαn ,β (γ)) = Li (γ), i ∈ {1, 2}, since Li (αn ) = Li (β).

4 SEBASTIAN VATTAMATTAM

x2 + y 2 = 1

Its equations, as a curve defined on [0, 1], in the parametric form, are

x = cos(2πt)

y = sin(2πt)

u is a loop at 1. Take u as α as well as β. Let us transform the Cosine Curve χ for

which

χ(t) = 4πt + i cos(4πt), 0 ≤ t ≤ 1.

Note that χ(1) − χ(0) = 4π. The transformed curve φun ,u (χ) has the equations:

x = 4πt + 4π[cos(2πnt) − cos(2πt)]

y = cos(4πt) + 4π[sin(2πnt) − sin(2πt)]

See figures 1 and 2.

(a) χ (b) u (c) n = 2 (d) n = 3

PAPER3 5

Example 2.6. Denote the curve called Crooked Egg by ε. Its Polar equation is

y = (cos3 (2πt) + sin3 (2πt)) sin(2πt)

x = 2πt cos(2πt)

y = 2πt sin(2πt), 0 ≤ t ≤ 1

6 SEBASTIAN VATTAMATTAM

x = 2πt cos(2πt) + 2π[((cos(2πt))3 + (sin(2πt)).3 ). cos(2πt) − cos(2πt)]

y = 2πt sin(2πt) + 2π[((cos(2πt))3 + (sin(2πt)).3 ). sin(2πt) − sin(2πt)]

See figures 3 and 4.

(a) σ, (b) ε (c) n = 1, (d) n = 2

3. VF as an Algebra

Let VF be the vector space in section 1, with the linear functionals and the set

H. We shall define the products of vectors in VF so that it turns into an algebra.

Fix a vector β ∈ H. For x, y ∈ VF define

(3.1) x ∗ y = L1 (x)y + L2 (y)x − L1 (x)L2 (y)e

With this definition of products, VF becomes a non-commutative algebra with

unity β, called Functional Theoretic Algebra.[1]. An element x ∈ VF is regular if

L1 (x)L2 (x) 6= 0 and in that case

(L1 (x) + L2 (x))β − x

(3.2) x−1 =

L1 (x)L2 (x)

PAPER3 7

We state without proof the following results:

(1) Li , i ∈ {1, 2} are the only multiplicative functionals of the algebra VF .

(2) Mi = kerL T i , i ∈ {1, 2} are the only maximal ideals.

(3) M = L1 L2 is the radical.

(4) K = {x ∈ G : L1 (x) = L2 (x)} is a normal subgroup of G, and H is a

subgroup of K.

See [1] and [2]. For x, y ∈ H, it can be verified that

(1) x ∗ y = x + y − β

(2) x−1 = 2β − x

For α ∈ G, define Tα : VF → VF by

(3.3) Tα (x) = α ∗ x ∗ α−1

8 SEBASTIAN VATTAMATTAM

is an automorphism of the group G.

Linearity of Tα follows from the definition 3.1. Tα is injective since α ∗ x ∗ α−1 =

0 ⇒ x = 0. Finally, we have to show that Tα preserves multiplication.

Tα (x ∗ y) = α ∗ (x ∗ y) ∗ α−1

= α ∗ (x ∗ α−1 ∗ α ∗ y) ∗ α−1

= (α ∗ x ∗ α−1 ) ∗ (α ∗ y ∗ α−1 )

= Tα (x) ∗ Tα (y)

Hence the conclusion.

In Rn of example 1.3,M1 = (ā)⊥ , the space of vectors orthogonal to ā, and

M2 = (b̄)⊥ . M is the space of vectors orthogonal to both ā and b̄.

In C[0, 1] of section 2,M1 is the space of curves starting at the origin, and M2 is

the space of curves ending at the origin. M is the space of loops at the origin.

4. Conclusion

This paper is of an exploratory nature. The properties of the curve transfor-

mation, called n-curving, are not examined. In the definition of φα,β , α has been

restricted to be a loop. What will happen once that restriction is taken of ? Many

such questions are left unanswered.

Any way, this author has been impressed by the beauty of many families of curves,

of which two are given as examples, derived by n-curving.

References

[1] Vattamattam Sebastian and Sivaramakrishnan R,“Associative Algebras via Linear Function-

als”, Proceedings of the Annual Conference of K.M.A. and International Seminar on Mathe-

matical Tradition of Kerala, January, 17-19, 2000, pp.81-89.

[2] Vattamattam Sebastian, “Non-Commutative Function Algebras”, Bulletin of Kerala Mathe-

matics Association, Vol.4, No.2, December 2007.

[3] Vattamattam Sebastian, “Transforming Curves by n-Curving”, Bulletin of Kerala Mathemat-

ics Association, Vol.5, No.2, December 2008.

E-mail address: vattamattam@dataone.in

- Fundamental Formulas for 11st (1st Year)Uploaded byAbbas Warsi
- Karnataka MCA PGCETUploaded byFasna Niyas
- Optimization by Vector Space (Luenberger)Uploaded byLucas Pimentel Vilela
- Laboratorio Computacion Numerica Unsch 03Uploaded byCesar Ulloa
- ON THE REGULARITY OF BERNOULLI MORPHISMS.pdfUploaded byIsirium
- alg_notes_1_14Uploaded byAnuj Dhorajiwala
- STEPCOL.xlsUploaded byNguyen Duc Cuong
- ProE advanced filletUploaded byZvonko Kostovski
- Final Review CUploaded byFennec Baptiste
- ControlUploaded byMANOJ M
- Spherical MeansUploaded byshaz_don
- Additional Work Book 10Uploaded byMuhammad Samhan
- 3BMAS 2012 Resource Rich Test 4 and Form ShtUploaded byAli Al-Asadi
- Mathematics for Chemistry WikiBookUploaded byMellony Manning
- The Differences Between Affine Space and Vector SpaceUploaded byconmec.crpl
- 02-lin-fctsUploaded byPablo Valenzuela Toledo
- Graphing Past Paper Qstns 4HRUploaded bysajeev
- Further DifferentiationUploaded byknoxmaths
- SyllabusUploaded byVikas Gupta
- 2 Kuliah Gaya PenjumlahannyaUploaded bywildanhariry
- IBSL Circular Functions and Trig QsUploaded byJashkirat Virdi
- intro to trig worksheetUploaded byapi-262621710
- calg t5 3Uploaded byapi-261379705
- Incline BallUploaded byjungdjudf
- 9709_s10_qp_31Uploaded byroukaiya_peerkhan
- VijayKUploaded byHellena La
- 200307-Trig-Cheat-SheetUploaded byTimothy Betts
- 51549-0131469657_ISM_8.pdfUploaded byMoranJosueEduardo
- Complex Theory3Uploaded byprevrtljivac
- RreseUploaded byAbhinandan Dubey

- Complete Bibliography of Sebastian KappenUploaded bySebastian Vattamattam
- Churchact Act (Malayalam)Uploaded bySebastian Vattamattam
- Ruthm Masika September 2015(Malayalam)Uploaded bySebastian Vattamattam
- On Prof. I Isthak (MalayalamUploaded bySebastian Vattamattam
- Logical Foundations of GeometryUploaded bySebastian Vattamattam
- Solved Problems in Linear EquationsUploaded bySebastian Vattamattam
- Marxism: Varthamaana Prasakthi Prof. I Isthak (Malayalam)Uploaded bySebastian Vattamattam
- Is Catholic Church Perishing?(Malayalam)Uploaded bySebastian Vattamattam
- My Beautiful Curves: Family 1Uploaded bySebastian Vattamattam
- Christianity and India's DevelopmentUploaded bySebastian Vattamattam
- THE MAX-FLOW MIN-CUT THEOREMUploaded bySebastian Vattamattam

- Hyundai Elevator Planning GuideUploaded byFERNS
- Parts Per Million converstionUploaded byPower Power
- Date a Live - Volume 11 - Tobiichi DevilUploaded byJinno Veldad
- Crack the IELTS - EssayUploaded byNikunj Patel
- The Three Dimensions of Universal Medicare in CanadaUploaded byNavin Gamage
- Flotador de Nivel LLSSUploaded byMiguel Callata
- A Beginners Guide to Flux Cored Arc WeldingUploaded byEduardo Taguiam
- abapUploaded byramaeco539
- PRIVACY IN CONTEXT: TECHNOLOGY, POLICY, AND THE INTEGRITY OF SOCIAL LIFEUploaded byPætur Magnussen
- HOUSING CORPORATIVE SOCIETY CONSORTIUM: A VERITABLE SOURCES FOR LOW-INCOME HOUSING DELIVERY IN NIGERIA.Uploaded byIJAR Journal
- Walchem Pump LKN Series ManualUploaded byPromagEnviro.com
- DLL Grade 5 Q3 Week 1Uploaded byBella DeLuis De Tomas
- Grouping Similar Types of Equipment by Resource_SPDUploaded byLarry Sherrod
- 7107cplUploaded bybluefaith
- Newsletter Oktober 2010 EnglischUploaded bykcim
- assignment MOTOR CTRLUploaded byhady_mirza
- Business requirements and system requirementsUploaded byapi-3756170
- Lecture 2 Water ResourcesUploaded byCj Barcelon
- oven nordson electronicUploaded byDanijela Ko
- Eec 115 Practical- Electrical EngineeringUploaded byVietHungCao
- f ballinger-hw499-resume-finalUploaded byapi-238801444
- Entrance PhysicsUploaded byBikram Shah
- PROJECT SYNOPSIS on Agency Business Model of Insurance Companies “CompetitiveUploaded byvinayaiyappa
- SS2-AGV200-0001-13Uploaded byThoriq Septa Vallahangga
- D1 L5 Project ManagementUploaded byArvind Singh Chauhan
- 316907453-Ducati-Energia-Dat-Manual-140128-1813-Datpiu-User-Manual-Eng.pdfUploaded byPiero Aguilar
- DetailsUploaded byveda
- Acute Coronary Syndromes - M. Brizzio (Intech, 2012) WW.pdfUploaded byFamilia Nițulescu
- Grundfos literatureUploaded byRadu_IS
- MDSW-Meghalaya07Uploaded byminingnova1