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The Messenger

No. 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020

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SPHERE Unveils the True Face of the Largest Main Belt Asteroids
2018 Visiting Committee Report

The ASPECS Survey


ESO, the European Southern Observa- Contents
tory, is the foremost intergovernmental
astronomy organisation in Europe. It is The Organisation
supported by 16 Member States: Austria, Rix H.-W. – The 2018 Visiting Committee Report 3
­Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Barcons X. – Following Up on the Recommendations of the Visiting Committee 5
France, Finland, Germany, Ireland, Italy,
the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Telescopes and Instrumentation
Sweden, Switzerland and the United Schmidtobreick L. et al. – NaCo — The Story of a Lifetime 7
Kingdom, along with the host country of
Chile and with Australia as a Strategic Astronomical Science
Partner. ESO’s programme is focused Vernazza P. et al. – SPHERE Unveils the True Face of the
on the design, construction and opera- Largest Main Belt Asteroids 13
tion of powerful ground-based observing Aravena M. et al. – The ASPECS Survey: An ALMA Large Programme
­facilities. ESO operates three observato- Targeting the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field 17
ries in Chile: at La Silla, at P
­ aranal, site of Pietrzyński G. et al. – The Araucaria Project Establishes the
the Very Large Telescope, and at Llano Most Precise Benchmark for Cosmic Distances 24
de Chajnantor. ESO is the European
­partner in the Atacama Large Millimeter/ Astronomical News
submillimeter Array (ALMA). Currently Patat F. et al. – ESO’s Peer Review Panel Achieves Gender Balance 30
ESO is engaged in the construction of the Saviane I. et al. – Report on the ESO Workshop
Extremely Large ­Telescope. “The Galactic Bulge at the Crossroads” 31
Saviane I. et al. – Report on the ESO Workshop “The La Silla Observatory —
The Messenger is published, in hardcopy From Inauguration to the Future” 36
and electronic form, four times a year. Belfiore F., Thomas R., Navarrete C. – Fellows at ESO 41
ESO produces and distributes a wide Personnel Movements 44
variety of media ­connected to its activi-
ties. For further information, including Annual Index 2019 (Nos. 175–178) 46
postal subscription to The Messenger,
contact the ESO Department of Commu-
nication at:

ESO Headquarters
Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2
85748 Garching bei München, Germany
Phone +498932006-0
information@eso.org

The Messenger
Editor: Gaitee A. J. Hussain
Layout, Typesetting, Graphics:
Lorenzo Benassi, Jutta ­Boxheimer
Design, P­ roduction: Jutta ­Boxheimer
Proofreading: Peter Grimley
­w ww.eso.org/messenger/

Printed by omb2 Print GmbH,


Lindberghstraße 17, 80939 Munich,
Germany

Unless otherwise indicated, all images in


The Messenger are courtesy of ESO,
except authored contributions which are
Front cover: The unique capabilities of the SPHERE instrument on
courtesy of the respective authors. ESO’s Very Large Telescope have enabled it to obtain the sharpest
images of a double asteroid as it flew by Earth on 25 May 2019.
© ESO 2020 While this double asteroid was not itself a threatening object, sci-
ISSN 0722-6691 entists used the opportunity to rehearse the response to a hazard-
ous Near-Earth Object (NEO), proving that ESO’s front-line tech-
nology could play a key role in planetary defence. This artist’s
impression shows both components of the double asteroid 1999
KW4 during its Earth fly-by. Credit: ESO/M. Kornmesser

2 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


The Organisation DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5184

The 2018 Visiting Committee Report

Hans-Walter Rix 1 and history. Looking to the future, the VC challenges are successfully met.
concluded that ESO is indeed set for ESO is aware of those challenges, and
a successful implementation of the ELT if some of them have been emphasised
1
MPIA, Heidelberg, Germany the Organisation — and its Council — in the VC’s recommendations.
address a number of challenges, some of
which are pointed out in this report. ESO should continue to optimise its
ESO’s activities are externally assessed organisational health and efficiency by:
every few years by a Visiting Committee strengthening both strategic planning
composed of a panel of senior external ESO’s strengths and excellence of, and agility in, personnel recruitment
experts who report their findings to the and fostering in-house mobility; amelio-
ESO Council and Director General. The The VC found ESO to be a world-class rating both overbooking and project-­
assessment is based on an extensive science organisation, truly exceptional in multiplexing among individual staff mem-
set of presentations, reports and inter- many respects. It has implemented and bers; ensuring that long-term planning
views with ESO staff conducted during is operating a suite of observatories and security for ELT key expertise remains
visits to all ESO sites. Here we summa- instrumentation that is unrivalled in its feasible within the matrix framework; and
rise the report and recommendations combination of quality and breadth; the continuing to improve the communica-
produced as a result of the latest Visit- success of the Very Large Telescope tion flow, both upwards and downwards,
ing Com­mittee assessment, which took Interferometer (VLTI) with the adaptive-­ within the Organisation.
place at the end of 2018 and was pre- optics-assisted, two-object, multiple
sented to the ESO Council in June 2019. beam-­combiner GRAVITY is just one
example. ESO’s facilities enable its user ELT implementation
community to carry out astrophysics on a
The ESO Visiting Committee (VC) offers par with other world-class facilities. The The VC was very impressed with the
its external assessment of how ESO is VC notes that Atacama Large Millimeter/­ state of the ELT planning and implemen-
complying with its mission to provide submillimeter Array (ALMA) astrophysics tation, as well as ESO’s awareness of
world-class facilities for astronomy and to carried out by the ESO community is truly the complexity and enormity of this ambi-
foster astronomical collaborations. To outstanding at a global level. tious project. In light of the complexity,
this end, the VC considered the competi- the VC recommends that ESO pay even
tiveness of the research carried out by The basic organisational structure within closer attention to two aspects. First, a
the ESO community and evaluated the ESO is suited to its tasks, and it has tightly integrated telescope-instrumentation-
calibre and range of ESO’s observatory a track record of adapting to new chal- operations approach is key to the timely
activities. The VC also looked at ESO’s lenges. ESO can also draw on a deep success of the ELT and an important
organisational health and readiness to pool of talent; the VC found a high level of aspect of mitigating budgetary and
reach its strategic goals, in particular the staff dedication to its mission, and gener- scheduling risks; these three aspects of
implementation of the Extremely Large ally high employee motivation with a posi- the ELT must be tied together even more
Telescope (ELT) programme. tive gradient. closely than in the case of the Very Large
Telescope (VLT). Second, strong and
This report is based on the VC’s two site The VC found that, in looking towards coherent scientific leadership of the over-
visits — carried out between 22 and the future, ESO leadership appears to all ELT effort must be in place throughout
26 October and 19 and 27 November be striking a good balance between its implementation.
2018 in Garching and Chile, respectively ambitious vision, dedication to excellence
— and extensive materials provided in its observatory facilities and moving The VC also considered other aspects
before and during these site visits. The towards healthy planning realism. of ESO, such as its outreach strategy
report was informed by numerous direct and the involvement in the Atacama
interactions with ESO staff at all levels Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) and the
of the Organisation. All of the main rec- Optimising ESO’s organisational Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA).
ommendations reported here reflect con- structure
sensus within the VC.
In light of these strengths, the VC paid Summary of recommendations
The VC came to the conclusion that, particular attention to the question of
at present, not only is ESO fulfilling the whether ESO is ready to implement the Articulating the current ESO strategy
essential elements of its mission ELT in the coming decade while continu-
superbly, but it is also a beacon of sci- ing to maintain its cutting-edge strengths ESO has successfully implemented most
ence in Europe and the world and a at the existing observatories (i.e., the of the strategic vision that was laid out
global leader in astronomy. Internally, La Silla Paranal Observatory) and sus- in 2004. The VC recommends that the
ESO is a strong and largely healthy taining its strong role in ALMA. It is the ESO Council and the Director General
organisation, with strains and issues VC’s view that ESO can accomplish this, develop and formally document ESO’s
at a level that is to be expected for an as there are no obvious show-stoppers, strategic vision for the next decade. The
endeavour of this ambition, complexity and that it will succeed if a number of VC strongly supports ESO’s overriding

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 3


The Organisation Rix H.-W., The 2018 Visiting Committee Report

focus on the implementation of the ELT experienced by some staff; and finding On CTA implementation
while maintaining current strengths. The ways to assure long-term planning
VC therefore acknowledges and supports security for key ELT expertise within the The VC concurs with ESO that CTA is an
the conclusion that any responsible articu­ matrix framework. exciting scientific prospect in collabora-
lation of the current strategy may leave lit- tion with a strong consortium. The VC is
tle or no room for the implementation of also concerned that unforeseen efforts
any other major new programmes in the Strategic and efficient recruitment related to CTA on ESO’s part could dis-
near future. tract from the implementation of the ELT
Among aspects of organisational effi- and strongly recommends that ESO’s pri-
ciency, extensive near-term recruitment oritisation, role and effort in CTA do not
Ensuring the budget envelope for ESO’s of highly qualified personnel will be key grow beyond what is currently planned.
mission to ESO’s mission success in the coming
years. The VC recommends that ESO
The VC appreciates ESO’s current rigour review all aspects and all actors involved On the future of APEX
and realism in determining the resources in efficiently and successfully bringing in
needed for the implementation of the new talent; this is to ensure that recruit- APEX is currently working well and pro-
ELT. It is the VC’s view that, as an organi- ment is both proactive and strategic, as ducing good science. The VC recom-
sation, ESO is robust and efficient well as efficient and rapid in practice. The mends that ESO examine critically
enough to successfully implement the VC also recommends that ESO continue whether APEX will remain scientifically
ELT within the currently forecast resource to improve the effectiveness of in-house indispensable for its user community
need, which strains the contribution career mobility and development. as ALMA matures, beyond the current
envelope of the Member States. The VC contractual arrangement.
strongly encourages the ESO Council
to push for the provision of the required A close telescope-instrumentation-­
(forecast) budget, as this will indeed operations approach for the ELT On education and outreach strategy
ensure ESO’s global leadership in astron-
omy for decades to come. In light of the ELT’s complexity, the VC The VC recommends that ESO clarify
recommends that ESO pay close atten- and strengthen its vision, and implemen-
tion to a very tightly integrated telescope-­ tation, of its education and outreach
Optimising ESO’s organisational health instrumentation-operations approach. effort, with a closer integration and coor-
and efficiency In the VC’s view, this is key to the timely dination of these activities in Europe
success of the ELT and is an important and Chile. In Garching, the VC sees a
The VC found ESO to be a strong, healthy aspect of mitigating budgetary and serious risk that the tremendous potential
and efficient organisation overall, with scheduling risks. Specifically, the VC of ESO’s Supernova will not be realised,
highly talented and motivated staff. recommends that the ELT Programme given its current lean level of staffing.
The organisational strains that will inevita- deepen its connections with both the The VC was unconvinced that augment-
bly result from ESO’s ambitious plans external instrument teams and the future ing the current operations model merely
will require continued and strengthened LPO operations team, in a spirit of close by external fundraising alone would lead
effort towards organisational optimisation. collaboration. to an education and outreach effort that
lives up to ESO’s vision.
Specific recommendations follow:
– The VC recommends that ESO con- Overall science leadership for the ELT
tinue to address or mitigate both Note
the historic and the inevitable political The VC recommends that ESO ensure a
The Visiting Committee 2018 was composed of
­differences in its staff arrangements, strong science leadership of the overall Masimo Altarelli, Rebecca Bernstein (Vice-Chair),
such as aspects of the 50/50–80/20 ELT effort as it will be critical to the ELT’s Sofia Feltzing, Robert Kennicutt, Anne-Marie
science/duty contracts for scientists, or long-term scientific success and impact. Lagrange, Hilton Lewis, Elena Pian, Hans-Walter
aspects of the international/local staff Such leadership is key to fully considering Rix (Chair) and Patrick Roche.
categories among technical and scien- the needs of the telescope, the instru-
tific staff in Chile. ments, the AO and the operations from
– The optimisation of the matrix structure the viewpoint of the ELT’s overall scientific
at ESO Garching, which has gained utility; it will also ensure that appropriate
widespread acceptance, must c ­ ontinue trade-offs are made between performance
by: eliminating or reducing oversub- and capability on the one hand, and
scription of staff resources; addressing budget, schedule and risk on the other.
the extensive project ­fragmentation

4 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


The Organisation DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5185

Following Up on the Recommendations of


the Visiting Committee

Xavier Barcons 1 The ultimate goal of this exercise is to risks and costs of building the ELT and
obtain external and expert guidance bringing it into operation; continuing to
on areas where action needs to be taken, recruit the necessary staff to support
1
ESO at the very least because there is always the ELT — avoiding overloading and pro-
room for improvement. However, as a ject fragmentation in the matrix; intensify-
member of ESO, it is also rewarding to ing the understanding between ELT
Like most scientific organisations, ESO read in the report that in the committee’s ­construction and Paranal operations as
periodically invites advice from an view ESO is fulfilling its mission very well as enhancing ESO’s technical
external expert panel that assesses the well, and that with the support of Council involvement in ELT instrument develop-
performance of the Organisation, and the adoption of a number of recom- ment; empowering and further support-
and formulates a number of recommen- mendations the Organisation is bound to ing the ELT Programme Scientist in over-
dations. The most recent ESO Visiting succeed in its current endeavour, that seeing all scientific aspects of the ELT;
Committee travelled to all of the ESO of building and bringing into operation clarifying the interfaces with CTA-South
sites in the last months of 2018 and the ELT, while maintaining the VLT/I and to ensure that the project develops
delivered its report to Council in June ALMA at the forefront of worldwide without affecting the other projects in
2019. The committee, whose composi- astronomy. It gave me great pleasure to Paranal; discussing the future of the
tion and mandate had been approved convey the congratulations of the Visiting Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX)
by ESO Council, was constituted by Committee to all ESO personnel. in a cost-neutral way for ESO and defin-
a set of internationally renowned scien- ing a communication strategy that capi-
tists who possess complementary A number of actions aligned with the Vis- talises on ESO’s scientific achievements
areas of expertise covering all aspects iting Committee recommendations are and the added value of ESO’s pro-
of ESO’s function. I am extremely grate- now being taken after discussion with the grammes to society.
ful to all committee members for their ESO Council. Updates on these actions
hard work and very careful preparation will be reported to and discussed with I have no doubt that the recommenda-
of their report. An extract of the main Council as they progress. The ongoing tions of the Visiting Committee will
conclusions and recommendations is actions include: support to ESO Council strengthen ESO and increase the likeli-
presented in the preceding article. in discussing an updated strategy; a hood that it succeeds in its mission.
careful and continuous updating of the
ESO/B. Tafreshi (twanight.org)

Paranal Observatory
with the Milky Way
appearing to stretch
directly upwards
from one of the Unit
Telescopes.

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 5


Telescopes and Instrumentation

Enrico Sacchetti/ESO

Inside Antu (Unit Telescope 1) of the VLT. FORS2


(the yellow instrument) is mounted at the
Cassegrain and NaCo — seen here on the right —
is mounted at the Nasmyth B focus, with KMOS on
the left at the Nasmyth A focus.
Telescopes and Instrumentation DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5186

NaCo — The Story of a Lifetime

Linda Schmidtobreick 1 stellar clusters, Solar System objects, The odyssey begins
Nancy Ageorges 2 SN 1987A and several extragalactic
Paola Amico1 sources. We present a short history of Numerous boxes containing the many
Wolfgang Brandner 3 the life and achievements of NaCo from parts of NAOS and CONICA arrived at
Suzana Cerda 1 the viewpoint of the Instrument Opera- ESO’s Paranal Observatory on 24 Octo-
Claudia Cid 1 tion Team, Instrument Scientists, and ber 2001. Astronomers and engineers
Laird Close 4 Instrument Engineers. from ESO and the participating institutes
Eduardo Garces 1 and organisations a, b began the pains-­
Gordon Gillet 5 taking task of assembly on the Nasmyth
Julien H. Girard 6 Introduction B platform of UT4 (see Figure 1). After
Patricia Guajardo 1 days of technical tests and adjustments,
George Hau 7 The Nasmyth Adaptive Optics System working around the clock, the team finally
Wolfgang Hummel 1 (NAOS) was developed by a French con- declared the instrument fit to attempt its
Yves Jung 1 sortium a in collaboration with ESO, and the first-light observation.
Markus Kasper 1 COudé Near-Infrared CAmera (CONICA)
Christopher Lidman 8 was built by a German consortium b in The UT4 dome was opened at sunset on
Lars Kristian Lundin 1 collaboration with ESO. Together they 25 November 2001 and a small, rather
Pedro Mardones 9 form NAOS-CONICA (NaCo) which was apprehensive, group gathered in the VLT
Dimitri Mawet 10 the first instrument with an adaptive Control Room, peering intensively at the
Jared O’Neal 11 optics (AO) system on the Very Large computer screens over the shoulders of
Emanuela Pompei 1 ­Telescope (VLT). It was first installed at their colleagues the telescope and instru-
Ricardo Schmutzer 1 the Nasmyth B focus of UT4 (Yepun), ment operators. As the basic calibrations
Karleyne Silva 12 where it stayed from 2001 through 2013. required at this early stage were success-
Jonathan Smoker 1 In 2014 it was reinstalled on UT1 (Antu) fully completed, the suspense rose, as
Christian Soenke 1 at the Nasmyth A. Early tests and results did expectations as the special moment
Lowell E. Tacconi-Garman 1 from commissioning runs showed that, approached when finally the telescope
Elena Valenti 1 by compensating for a large fraction operator pushed the button that sent the
Javier Valenzuela 1 of the atmospheric turbulence, it could telescope towards the first test object,
Jose Velasquez 1 obtain spatial resolutions close to the an otherwise undistinguished star in our
Gerard Zins 1 8-metre telescope’s diffraction limit. The Milky Way.
AO system was equipped with both visi-
ble and infrared, Shack–Hartmann type, The uncorrected image was recorded by
1
ESO wavefront sensors; the latter enabled the near-infrared imager and spectro-
2
KT Optics GmbH, Germany observations inside regions that are graph CONICA and it soon appeared on
3
MPIA, Heidelberg, Germany highly obscured by interstellar dust and
4
University of Arizona, Tucson, USA therefore unobservable in visible light.
Figure 1. NAOS (light blue) and CONICA (red) are
5
Independent engineer, Antofagasta, For almost 18 years, NaCo provided multi­- attached to the Nasmyth B adapter of UT4 (Yepun).
Chile mode, AO-corrected observations in the The control electronics are housed in the white
6
STSCI, Baltimore, USA 1–5 μm range. ­c abinets.
7
University of Bath, UK
8
Australian National University,
Canberra, Australia
9
Universidad de Valparaiso, Chile
10
Caltech/JPL, Pasadena, USA
11
Argonne National Laboratory,
Lemont, USA
12
Gemini Observatory, La Serena, Chile

NaCo was switched off on 2 October


2019, almost 18 years after its first light.
The last exposure was of the standard
star HD590 as part of the close-out
calibrations. To date, 699 papers have
been published using NaCo data,
including observations of the Galactic
centre, direct images of exoplanets
orbiting their stars, young stellar
objects, brown dwarfs, massive stars,

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 7


Telescopes and Instrumentation Schmidtobreick L. et al., NaCo — The Story of a Lifetime

the computer screen. With a full width Figure 2 (left). The first image with
NAOS-CONICA of a star (V magnitude
half maximum (FWHM) diameter of only
of 8) obtained before (left) and
0.50 arcseconds, it already showed good after (right) the adaptive optics was
image quality, thanks to the atmospheric switched on.
conditions on that night. Then the NAOS Uncorrected AO corrected
image image
adaptive optics system was switched
FWHM: 0.50″ FWHM: 0.07″
on, thereby “closing the loop” for the first
time on a celestial object. As the deform-
able mirror in NAOS began to follow
the “orders” that were being issued 400
times a second by its control computer, Figure 3 (below). The giant planet
the stellar image on the computer screen ­S aturn as observed with the VLT
NAOS-CONICA Adaptive Optics
seemed to pull itself together. What sec- Left: uncorrected Right: corrected
instrument on 8 December 2001.
onds before had been a jumping, blurry
patch of light suddenly became a rock-
steady, razor-sharp and brilliant spot. The
entire room burst into applause with
happy faces and smiles all round. Nowa-
days, we are used to getting these sharp
and steady images whenever the loop
of an adaptive optics system closes. But
at the time of NaCo’s first light, this must
have been a truly magical moment. The
diameter of this first image was measured
as 0.068 arcseconds (see Figure 2).

Even during those early tests and com-


missioning nights, NaCo delivered
impressive astronomical results. Among
the first images to be obtained was one
of the stellar cluster NGC 3603, a high
mass star-forming region. Only with the
new, high-resolution K-band images was
it possible to finally study the elusive
ESO/S. Gillessen et al.

class of brown dwarfs in such a starburst


environment. Another early highlight
was the observation of Io, the innermost
of the four Galilean moons of Jupiter
and the most volcanically active place in
the Solar System (see press release
eso0204 1 for details). And then of course,
there was the “Lord of the Rings”, Saturn
itself, in all its beauty. These observations
were very challenging. CONICA’s field of
view had to be steadied on Saturn, NAOS
had to track the small moon Tethys, the
reference source for the adaptive optics,
and UT4 was tracking a star used for
Figure 4. The central parts of our
determining active optics corrections ­g alaxy as observed in the near-­
and autoguiding. As Figure 3 shows, it infrared with NaCo. By following the
worked. motions of the most central stars over
more than 16 years, astronomers were
able to determine the mass of the
However, the commissioning itself was supermassive black hole in the centre.
also under a lot of pressure. Firstly, there
was strong competition for precious con- and NaCo was supposed to start moni- and it became a key instrument for moni-
sole places because the fibre positioner toring this region. There was a big rush to toring the motions of the stars close to
for FLAMES was being commissioned at get NaCo operational in time for an early the Galactic centre for many years. By
the same time. Secondly, the centre of epoch observation. In fact, NaCo turned measuring these stellar orbits with such
our Galaxy becomes observable in April out to perform excellently (see Figure 4) amazing precision, it was possible to

8 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


conclude that the central invisible object Figure 5. This composite image shows
an exoplanet (the red spot on the
is very likely to be a supermassive black
lower left), orbiting the brown dwarf
hole (Gillessen et al., 2009). 2M1207 (centre). 2M1207b is the
first exoplanet directly imaged and the
first discovered orbiting a brown
dwarf. It was imaged for the first time
The early years
with NaCo on UT4 in 2004.

Not everything worked immediately


though and that’s why NaCo is also a
story of encounters and friendships
between astronomers, amazing engi-
neers and dedicated telescope opera-
tors. From the beginning, the instrument
appeared to have its own moods and
people had to comply with these to
successfully operate NaCo and keep it
observing through the night. Sometimes
it just didn’t work, often it required enor-
mous effort and c ­ ollaboration between
various departments to get it up and
running. Only with time and improved
monitoring were these moods attributed but also very nervously as it was not clear prism which allowed simultaneous spec-
— at least to a large degree — to specific whether Paranal was in the right viewing troscopy from J- to M-band, the installa-
atmospheric behaviour. In this way, NaCo zone. When the event did happen, the tion of order-sorting filters that allowed
also taught us the importance of monitor- tension broke and the visiting astronomer L-band and H+K-band spectroscopy at
ing and recording ambient physical prop- started applauding and kissed his wife. various spectral resolutions, and the
erties as well as instrumental perfor- Afterwards everyone involved celebrated ­Fabry-Perot interferometer to take narrow-
mance, now regular practice with all with excellent French cheese the smell of band observations tunable between
instruments. which lingered until the next day. 2 and 2.5 µm. Also the detector was
upgraded, the new Aladdin III detector
Then there have been all the unforeseen Another of these special moments was having better cosmetics, linear range and
circumstances: when the only NaCo- the observation of 2M1207, a brown readout noise.
trained night astronomer fell sick just dwarf in the young TW Hya association.
before the first visiting observer run, and In a series of NaCo exposures, a tiny red However, the NaCo instrument concept
a colleague had to take over at the last speck of light was discovered only was always considered a flexible one,
minute; when, in the aftermath of NASA’s 0.8 arcseconds away from 2M1207 (see and this triggered new ideas about how
Deep Impact mission 2, NaCo broke Figure 5). The thrill of seeing this faint to extend and optimise the capabilities
down just before the time-critical obser- source of light in real-time on the instru- of NaCo, especially for certain astronomi­
vations, was urgently fixed and was still ment ­display is indescribable. Was this cal applications. For example, exoplanets,
cooling down at the most crucial moment; actually a planet orbiting the brown where for any kind of direct imaging
and when the NAOS field selector broke, dwarf? A spectrum taken with NaCo the main problem is the high contrast
requiring two intensive weeks on the shows the signatures of water molecules between the light of the host star and the
mountain to repair it. The Instrument Sci- and confirms that the object must be light of the planet. Of course, larger plan-
entist at the time also vividly remembers comparatively small, cold and of about ets are easier to observe, as are planets
the time when UT4 was observing with five Jupiter masses. However, to prove around faint stars. It is no surprise that
the Spectrograph for INtegral Field Obser- that it is a planet orbiting the brown dwarf, the first imaged planet was a giant, Jupiter-
vations in the Near Infrared (­SINFONI) more images over a longer time interval like planet around a brown dwarf. To
under wonderful conditions and they had to be obtained. Only a year later, it decrease the contrast between star and
needed to check some NAOS connec- was c ­ onfirmed that indeed NaCo had planet, new modes were invented, such
tion. They opened one of the ­cabinets taken the first image of a planet outside as simultaneous differential imaging
and caused a complete shutdown of the our Solar System (Chauvin et al., 2005). ­(Lenzen et al., 2004), the four-quadrant
telescope — and a shock for everyone phase mask together with a Lyot-Stop
involved. coronograph (Boccaletti et al., 2004),
New observing modes a pupil stabilised mode for Angular Differ-
On the other hand, there have been ential Imaging (Kasper et al., 2009), the
numerous special moments, like the Pluto After several years of operation, a num- Apodising-Phase-Plate coronograph
occultation, when astronomers, opera- ber of previously planned upgrades to (Kenworthy et al., 2010), and the Annular-
tors, engineers and everyone else were NaCo were carried out (Kasper et al., Groove-Phase-Mask (AGPM) corono-
all waiting enthusiastically for the event, 2005). These included the low-resolution graph (Mawet et al., 2013). NaCo served

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 9


Telescopes and Instrumentation Schmidtobreick L. et al., NaCo — The Story of a Lifetime

as a testbed to implement and evaluate Dear outstanding professionals,


all of them.
two nights ago our NACO had the last whisper on sky after observing a bright star.
Other attempts were made to increase
the spatial resolution and get down to It’s been more than 20 years of amazing science and unique achievements!!
the diffraction limit with a well calibrated
point spread function. The interferometric Together we’ve seen things you people wouldn’t believe.
mode using Sparse Aperture Masking Engineers fighting their way through dichroics and wave front sensor. Astronomers
(SAM; Lacour et al., 2011) as well as worshipping a closed loop with seeing 2.0ʺ and coherence time 0.5 ms.
speckle holography (Schödel & Girard, We watched violent storms on Jupiter’s pole, planets orbiting desolate stars,
2012) and speckle imaging without AO Galactic Center glittering in the dark.
(Rengaswamy et al., 2014) served in All those moments will be lost in time, like tears in rain.
this respect and broadened the possibili- Time to die.
ties for NaCo science cases.
Your sincerely,
One of the major changes on Paranal in Antu on behalf of NACO
general but especially for NaCo and
­SINFONI was the installation of the first ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Laser Guide Star (LGS) facility, a collabo-
ration between ESO and MPE. NaCo had Estimados colegas,
to be upgraded for the extended spot
of the LGS. A System for Tip-tilt Removal dos noches atras NACO dio su ultima mirada al cielo.
with Avalanche Photodiodes (STRAP)
was installed, along with a new laser Fueron mas de 20 años de maravillosa ciencia y resultados unicos!!
dichroic and a new wavefront sensor len-
slet array with a larger field of view. The Juntos vimos cosas que ustedes no se pueden ni imaginar.
NaCo upgrade for LGSF was a collabora- Ingenieros enfrentandose con dicroicos y sensores de frente de onda.
tion between the Institut de Planétologie Astronomos cerrando el loop en condiciones proibitivas.
et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) Hemos visto tempestas al polo norte de Jupiter, planetas orbitando estrellas
and ESO, led by Gerard Zins who was at ­desoladas, el Centro Galactico parpadeando en la oscuridad.
IPAG at that time (Kasper et al., 2010). Todos estos momentos se perderan en el tiempo, como lagrimas en la lluvia.
Again, the collaboration made all the dif- Es tiempo de morir.
ference and much fun was had working
with the Garching AO group installing the Cariños,
laser. Even the non-AO astronomers viv- Antu por NACO
idly remember being involved in the first
nights of laser observations. Because the Figure 6. This email was sent by the support astron- needed to get everything up and running.
omers after NaCo’s last night of operation. It shows
automated plane detection software had NaCo’s facilities were drastically reduced
what NaCo means for most of us: lots of emotions,
not yet been approved for safety, every- lots of memories, and wonderful people working — no more spectroscopy and everything
body was helping out with plane spotting, together. had to be done in service mode, since
standing outside with a radio on the tele- Paranal did not have sufficient engineer-
scope platform, watching the sky, and close to the black hole that the extreme ing resources to keep all the modes up
sending the stop-propagation order if a gravity would make the effects of general and running.
plane was getting too close. relativity detectable. For this event, new
instruments like GRAVITY were created, Apart from the regular Galactic centre
but an instrument was needed to actually observations, another main science
The final years follow the star and determine the precise driver was the imaging of planets with the
orbit before and after the encounter. new AGPM mask, and the reduced NaCo
In 2013, NaCo was supposed to be So, in 2014 NaCo was brought back to was of course also offered in open time
decommissioned. However, an important life, this time installed on the Nasmyth A to the community. In 2018, after a major
astronomical event was on the horizon — focus of UT1. Consternation arose when problem with the detector controler, the
the close encounter of the star S2 with it became clear that the CONICA detec- visible wavefront sensor had to be
the black hole in the centre of our Galaxy. tor couldn’t be brought back to life. Luck- decommissioned. At that time, NaCo
As mentioned above, since the beginning ily, ISAAC had been decommissioned required several hours attention to be
of its operation NaCo played a key role a few years before and had also been operational at night and may have become
in monitoring the motions of stars close equipped with an Aladdin detector. So the most cursed instrument on Paranal
to our Galactic centre. Now in 2018, the old ISAAC detector was refurbished but, when working, it delivered spectacu-
one of these stars, S2, which has a highly and put into NaCo. Some long and lar images; the monitoring and astrometry
elliptical orbit, was supposed to get so ­frustrating re-commissioning runs were of the Galactic centre was a great success

10 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


(GRAVITY Collaboration et al., 2018) and Explorer (MUSE) and the Enhanced Kenworthy, M. et al. 2010, The Messenger, 141, 2
Lacour, S. et al. 2011, The Messenger, 146, 18
even in its old age NaCo was still contrib- Resolution Imager and Spectrograph
Lenzen, R. et al. 2004, SPIE, 5492, 970
uting to exciting science results. At the (ERIS) are being operated at Paranal or Mawet, D. et al. 2013, A&A, 552, L13
moment of writing, 699 papers have been will be coming soon. AO techniques will Rengaswamy, S. et al. 2014, The Messenger, 155, 12
published using NaCo data 3. be key for any instrument on the ELT in Schödel, R. & Girard, J. H. 2012, The Messenger,
150, 26
future. All of these operational modes
NaCo’s last night of operation, 1 October were originally tested on NaCo. We are
2019, was cloudy, so a planned last-light continuously improving these techniques Links
image of Io could not be taken. Last light but, to quote a former Instrument Scien-
1
 SO Press Release 0204 showing NaCo image of
E
was instead recorded from the standard tist, “NaCo was instrumental in making
Saturn’s rings: http://www.eso.org/public/news/
star HD590 at 04:22:50 UT on 30 Sep- adaptive optics mainstream”. eso0204
tember 2019. After that last night of oper- 2
N ASA Deep Impact mission: https://www.jpl.nasa.
ation, a very emotional email was sent gov/missions/deep-impact/
3
Acknowledgements Publications with NaCo: http://telbib.eso.org/?-
by the night crew to all colleagues in
boolany=or&boolaut=or&boolti=or&year-
Paranal (see Figure 6), expressing the We acknowledge the extensive use of ESO press to=2020&instrument%5B%5D=naco&boolins=or&-
emotions that we all felt when NaCo was releases, ESO newsletters and ESO images. Many booltel=or&search=Search
finally switched off. people have contributed to making NaCo observa-
4
NaCo’s history: www.eso.org/sci/facilities/paranal/
tions possible. We would like to thank the engineers decommissioned/naco/History.html
and scientists who built the instrument, and those
who developed and installed new modes at later
Beyond NaCo stages, the various commissioning teams, the hard- Notes
ware and software engineers who kept this delicate
a
instrument in good shape, the colleagues in  he French consortium consisted of Office National
T
NaCo leaves a legacy of amazing data
Garching working on instrumental upgrades, pipe- d’Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA),
that are available in the archive. The pipe- line development, quality control and user support, Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (LAOG)
line will be kept alive and updated with all the members of the Instrument Operation Team and Observatoire de Paris (DESPA and DASGAL).
system changes in order to ensure the over the time, and all the support astronomers and The Project Manager was Gérard Rousset
telescope operators using NaCo at UT1 or UT4. Last (ONERA), the Instrument Responsible was François
ongoing use of these data. A history of
but not least, we would like to thank the astronomi- Lacombe (Observatoire de Paris) and the Project
NaCo, in particular a list of events that cal community for their interest and for using NaCo Scientist was Anne-Marie Lagrange (Laboratoire
might influence which calibrations to take to advance their fascinating science cases. d’Astrophysique de Grenoble). It was supported by
for which epoch of observations is availa- the Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers
(INSU) of the Centre National de la Recherche Sci-
ble on NaCo’s webpage 4.
References entifique (CNRS).
b
T he German Consortium included the Max-Planck-
Of course, NaCo is not the end by any Boccaletti, A. et al. 2004, PASP, 116, 1061 Institut für Astronomie (MPIA) (Heidelberg) and the
means. AO continues to evolve, new Chauvin, G. et al. 2005, A&A, 438, L25 Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik
Gillessen, S. et al. 2009, ApJ, 692, 1075 (MPE) (Garching). The Principal Investigator (PI) was
generations of AO instruments like the
GRAVITY Collaboration et al. 2018, A&A, 615, L15 Rainer Lenzen (MPIA), with Reiner Hofmann (MPE)
Spectro-­Polarimetric High-contrast Kasper, M. et al. 2005, The Messenger, 119, 9 as Co-Investigator.
Exoplanet REsearch instrument Kasper, M. et al. 2009, The Messenger, 137, 8
(SPHERE), the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Kasper, M. et al. 2010, The Messenger, 140, 8
ESO/Callingham et al.

The VISIR instrument on ESO’s VLT captured this


stunning image of a newly-discovered massive
binary star system. Nicknamed Apep after an
ancient Egyptian deity, it could be the first gam-
ma-ray burst progenitor to be found in our galaxy.
The triple star system was captured by the
NACOadaptive optics instrument on the VLT.

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 11


Astronomical Science

ESO/M. Kornmesser

This artist’s impression shows the exiled asteroid


2004 EW95, the first carbon-rich asteroid con-
firmed to exist in the Kuiper Belt and a relic of the
primordial Solar System. This curious object likely
formed in the asteroid belt between Mars and
Jupiter and must have been transported billions of
kilometres from its origin to its current home in the
Kuiper Belt.
Astronomical Science DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5187

SPHERE Unveils the True Face of the


Largest Main Belt Asteroids

Pierre Vernazza 1 Mars and Jupiter (typically between Explorer [OSIRIS-Rex], Hayabusa 1 & 2)
Laurent Jorda 1 2 and 3.3 astronomical units [au]). The or from remote imaging with the Hubble
Benoit Carry 2 diversity in their surface composition (for Space Telescope (HST) and adaptive-­
Josef Hanuš 3 example, metallic iron, basalt, mixtures of optics-equipped ground-based tele-
Michaël Marsset 4 silicates such as olivine and pyroxene, scopes (for example, the VLT and the
Matti Viikinkoski 5 water-rich silicates, water ice) — as Keck Observatory) in the case of the larg-
Franck Marchis 1, 6 inferred from spectroscopic observations est bodies.
Miroslav Brož 3 — and their orbital distribution across the
Alexis Drouard 1 main belt (see, for example, Vernazza & The drastic increase in angular resolution
Thierry Fusco 1, 7 Beck, 2017 for a review) have provided (by about a factor of three) with respect
Romain Fétick1, 7 unique constraints to Solar System for- to the HST that is possible with the
Marin Ferrais 1 mation models which could not have new generation of adaptive optics using
& the HARISSA team been derived from observations of the the Zurich imaging polarimeter (ZIMPOL)
giant or telluric planets themselves. on SPHERE indicates that the largest
main-belt asteroids become resolvable
1
 ix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM
A It is now understood that the present- worlds and are thus no longer extended
(Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de day asteroid belt hosts bodies that were point sources. To place this in context,
­Marseille), France 
 formed at large heliocentric distances these asteroids have diameters greater
2
Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de (> 10 au) as well as bodies that may have than 100 km and angular sizes typically
la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire formed close to the Sun (< 1.5 au) and greater than 100 milliarcseconds (mas).
Lagrange, Nice, France 
 that they have ended up at their current With the SPHERE instrument, craters
3
Institute of Astronomy, Charles Univer- location following giant planet migration with diameters greater than approxi-
sity, Prague, Czech Republic (see, for example, the Nice and Grand mately 30 km can now be identified on
4
Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Tack models; Levison et al., 2009; Walsh the surfaces of main-belt asteroids and
Planetary Sciences, MIT, Cambridge, et al., 2011) as well as gravitational inter- the shapes of the largest asteroids can
USA action with the embryos of the telluric be accurately reconstructed (for example,
5
Department of Mathematics and planets (Bottke et al., 2006). Broadly Marsset et al., 2017).
Statistics, Tampere University, Finland speaking, the idea that the asteroid belt
6
SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, is a condensed sample of the primordial To maximise the science return of the
Mountain View, USA 
 Solar System has gradually emerged. SPHERE instrument in the field of aster-
7
ONERA/DOTA, Université Paris Saclay, oid studies, we proposed an ESO Large
Chatillon, France Whereas our understanding of the sur- Programme with the aim of characteris-
face composition of asteroids and its dis- ing the shape, density, internal and com-
tribution across the asteroid belt has positional structure, and surface topo­
Over the past 2.5 years, we have been improved enormously over the last dec- graphy of a statistically significant fraction
carrying out disc-resolved observations ade, see recent reviews by Burbine (2014) of D > 100-kilometre main-belt asteroids
of a substantial fraction of all large and Vernazza & Beck (2017) the same (~ 35 out of ~ 200 asteroids). Our sample
(D > 100 km) main-belt asteroids, moni- cannot be said regarding their internal covers the major compositional classes
toring them at high angular resolution structure, which is best characterised (S, B/C, Ch/Cgh, X, P/D; DeMeo et al.,
throughout their rotation, and sampling by their density. To constrain the density, 2009; DeMeo & Carry, 2013). The survey
the main compositional classes, using one needs to fully reconstruct the 3D started in April 2017 and ended success-
the Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast shape of a body, to estimate its volume fully in September 2019.
Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE) instru- and to determine its mass from its
ment on the VLT. These observations ­gravitational interaction with other aster-
enable us to characterise the internal oids, preferably (whenever possible) with Methods
structure of our targets from their its own satellite(s).
­density as well as their cratering record To achieve our science objectives, we
down to ~ 30 km in diameter. Such This is due to the fact that disc-resolved image our targets with SPHERE/ZIMPOL
infor­mation, in turn, places unpre­ observations of asteroids — contrary throughout their rotation (we collect
cedented constraints on models of the to disc-integrated observations of these images every ~ 60 degrees in planeto-
formation of the Solar System and same bodies (from light curves and/or centric longitude). These images are sub-
the collisional evolution of the main belt. visible and infrared spectroscopy) — sequently reduced and deconvolved
have so far been obtained with sufficient with the MISTRAL algorithm (Fusco et al.,
spatial resolution for only a few bodies, 2003; Mugnier, Conan & Fusco, 2004)
Scientific context either from dedicated interplanetary mis- using a point spread function (PSF).
sions (for example, Galileo, Near Earth At the beginning of our observing pro-
Asteroids are minor planets ranging in Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR), Rosetta, gramme, we were observing a stellar PSF
size from a few metres to a few hundred Dawn, Origins-Spectral Interpretation-­ either before or just after every asteroid
kilometres which are located between Resource Identification-Security-Regolith observation. However, because the

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 13


Astronomical Science Vernazza P. et al., SPHERE Unveils the True Face of the Largest Main Belt Asteroids

deconvolution with the stellar PSF did not


produce systematically satisfactory Phase: 0.00 (2018-05-20T06:41:53:277)
results, we investigated alternative meth-
Lepida (~ 45 km)
ods to increase the sharpness of the
image. We noticed that in several cases Oppia (~ 40 km)
we achieved a better result by using
­stellar PSFs acquired on different nights. Numisia (~ 30 km)
We therefore tested the deconvolution Urbinia (~ 24 km)
process with synthetic PSFs modeled by
Vestalia
a 2D Moffat function. The deconvolution Terra
using a Moffat PSF always converged
towards an acceptable solution by vary- Rheasilvia
ing the Moffat parameters (Fétick et al.,
2019). We therefore started systematically Eusebia (~ 26 km)
using a parametric PSF to deconvolve
our images (for example, Viikinkoski et al.,
Phase: 0.13 (2018-06-08T05:27:05:809)
2018; Fétick et al., 2019). Notably, the
case of Vesta (Figure 1) has confirmed the
accuracy of our image deconvolution
algorithm. Nevertheless, it is clear that Numisia (~ 30 km)
our programme provides a strong motiva-
Vestalia
tion for further development of deconvo- Terra
lution algorithms in order to limit artefacts
with additional priors, incorporate non-
axisymmetric features of the stellar PSF,
and improve convergence and stability.
Aricia tholus

The deconvolved images serve as input


to a 3D shape reconstruction algorithm
(ADAM; Viikinkoski, Kaasalainen & Durech,
2015 or MPCD; Jorda et al., 2016). Even Phase: 0.24 (2018-07-10T01:59:52:994)
though we already have low-resolution,
convex, shape models from existing
light curves for all our targets, the
SPHERE data allow us to drastically Aricia tholus
improve those models by producing more
realistic non-convex shape models, reveal- Octavia (~ 30 km)
ing the topography of individual craters
(D ≥ 30 km). Thus, thanks to SPHERE’s
unique angular resolution, we have been
able to open an entirely new window on
asteroid exploration. Cratering records that
are now available for our targets allow us to
address their global geology, as in the case
of (7) Iris for instance (Hanus et al., 2019). Hereafter, we summarise some of the Figure 1. Comparison of the VLT/SPHERE decon-
volved images of Vesta (left column) with synthetic
main results obtained so far. These
projections of the Dawn model produced with
The methods we employ to derive the results illustrate well the diversity of the OASIS and with albedo information (right column).
physical properties of our targets science questions that can be investi- The main structures that can be identified in both
have been validated in the case of the gated via such an imaging survey. the SPHERE images and the synthetic ones are
highlighted: craters are outlined by squares and
asteroid (21) Lutetia (Carry et al., 2010,
albedo features by circles. Reproduced from Fétick
2012), which is a relatively small object et al., 2019.
(D ~ 98 km) compared to our targets. A bluffing view of (4) Vesta
The asteroid was visited by the ESA tral properties similar to those of Vesta
Rosetta mission in 2010 (Sierks et al., With a mean diameter of 525 km (Russell (Binzel & Xu, 1993). It was understood
2011). With our methods, the inferred spin et al., 2013), (4) Vesta is the second larg- that these bodies originated as fragments
coordinates were accurate to one degree est body in the asteroid belt. In the early from Vesta that had been excavated in
and the absolute dimensions to within 1990s, telescopic observations of small one or more giant impacts. A few years
2 km with respect to those derived from asteroids on similar orbits revealed the later, observations performed with the
the Rosetta fly-by data. presence of numerous bodies with spec- HST revealed the presence of an impact

14 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


crater 460 km in diameter near the south
2017-07-10T09:06:56 2017-08-24T02:57:48
pole of Vesta (Thomas et al., 1997), thus
confirming the collisional origin of the
Vesta-like bodies. Later on, the NASA
Dawn mission characterised the surface
topography of Vesta in detail, revealing
the existence of two overlapping basins
in the south polar region and a central
peak whose height rivals that of Olympus
Mons on Mars (for example, Russell et
al., 2012; Jaumann et al., 2012; Marchi et
al., 2012; Schenk et al., 2012).
Nonza
Our SPHERE images have recovered the (D ~ 75 km)
surface of Vesta in great detail (Figure 1;
Fétick et al., 2019). Most of the main top- Figure 2. SPHERE/ZIMPOL images of (89) Julia oid population and because they enable
deconvolved with the MISTRAL algorithm. Nonza,
ographic features present across Vesta’s investigations of properties and pro-
the likely impact crater at the origin of a small colli-
surface can be readily recognised from sional family, is highlighted. cesses that are often difficult to probe by
the ground. These include the south pole other means. In particular, Earth-based
impact basin and its prominent central observations of binaries and triples pro-
peak, several D ≥ 25 kilometre-sized cra- studies, the future will only get brighter with vide the most powerful way of deriving
ters and also Matronalia Rupes, including the resolving power of the extremely large precise masses and thus densities for a
its steep scarp and its small and big arcs. telescopes (ESO’s ELT, the Thirty Meter substantial number of objects (for exam-
On the basis of our observations, it fol- Telescope [TMT], and the Giant Magellan ple, Descamps et al., 2011; Marchis et
lows that next-generation telescopes with Telescope [GMT]). All-sky surveys using al., 2013). The only other way to constrain
mirror sizes in the range 30–40 m (for the Vera C. Rubin Observatory will surely asteroid masses with similar precision
example, ESO’s ELT) should in principle discover many new small families. The is with dedicated interplanetary missions,
be able to resolve the remaining major follow-­up with adaptive optics observa- either a fly-by for the largest ones (as in
topographic features of (4) Vesta (i.e., tions of their parent bodies may allow us to the case of (21) Lutetia) or a rendezvous
equatorial troughs, north-south crater reconstruct the respective impact craters (for example, the Dawn mission, OSIRIS-
dichotomy), provided that they operate at at the origin of these families. Rex and Hayabusa 1 & 2).
the diffraction limit in the visible.
At the same time, such investigations Direct imaging performed in the course
may help to establish new meteorite- of our Large Programme is a very effi-
A bright future for asteroid family asteroid connections. Indeed, asteroid cient way of discovering new moons,
studies families likely constitute a major source constraining their orbital parameters and
of meteorites. The case of Vesta supports hence the total mass of the system (pri-
Our SPHERE observations of asteroid such a hypothesis, it being likely that mary + secondary). In the case of a small
(89) Julia (Vernazza et al., 2018; Fig- the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) secondary (which is always the case for
ure 2), a D ~ 140 km S-type asteroid and meteorites — achondrite meteorites our targets), the total mass is dominated
the parent body of a small collisional which account for about 6% of falls — by the primary, implying that the mass of
­family that consists of 66 known mem- are derived from its family. In the near the primary can be well constrained (usu-
bers with D < 2.5 km, have revealed the future, it will therefore become possible ally with < 10% uncertainty).
presence of an impact crater (~ 75 km to search for the origin locations of
wide) that could be the origin of this fam- ­individual meteorite falls using their cos- Our programme has allowed us to dis-
ily. In addition, we studied both the mic ray exposure ages — which indicate cover a moon around the C-type asteroid
impact event by means of smoothed par- the time they have been traveling in (31) Euphrosyne (Vernazza et al., 2019).
ticular hydrodynamic simulations and space since being excavated from their With an estimated diameter of ~ 270 km,
the subsequent long-term orbital evolu- parent body — in conjunction with the Euphrosyne is so far the largest known
tion of the asteroid family, to determine its estimated asteroid family ages and main-belt asteroid with a companion.
age (30–120 Myr). It follows that the same high-angular-resolution imaging observa- We have also investigated the composi-
type of science investigation that could tions of the presumed parent bodies. tional structure of the binary asteroid (41)
be performed 20 years ago with the HST Daphne (Carry et al., 2019; Figure 3). Our
in the case of (4) Vesta and the discovery observations imply a density similar to
of its south pole impact basin at the Asteroids with satellites that of CM chondrites, and thus a homo-
­origin of the Vesta family (Thomas et al., geneous internal structure for that object,
1997) can now be performed for many Multiple-asteroid systems (binaries, in agreement with numerical models sim-
D > 100 km main-belt asteroids with VLT/ ­triples) are important because they ulating the early thermal evolution of the
SPHERE. In the field of asteroid-family ­represent a sizable fraction of the aster- parent bodies of CM chondrites.

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 15


Astronomical Science Vernazza P. et al., SPHERE Unveils the True Face of the Largest Main Belt Asteroids

Figure 3. Images of (41) References


Daphne and its satellite. ESO–VLT 2017-05-05 ESO–VLT 2017-05-20
Daphne’s image is dis- SPHERE/IFS 22:51 SPHERE/ZIMPOL 00:52 Binzel, R. P. & Xu, S. 1993, Science, 260, 186B
played in the inner circle YJH Daphne R Daphne Bottke, W. F. et al. 2006, Nature, 439, 821
and the outer region Burbine, T. H. 2014, in Planets, Asteroids, Comets
shows the satellite after and the Solar System, Vol. 2 of Treatise on Geo
halo removal (high- chemistry, ed. Davis, A. M., (2nd ed.; Amsterdam:
lighted by a small circle). Elsevier), 365
Reproduced from Carry DeMeo, F. E. et al. 2009, Icarus, 202, 160
et al. (2019). DeMeo, F. E. & Carry, B. 2013, Icarus, 226, 723
Descamps, P. et al. 2011, Icarus, 211, 1022
Carry, B. et al. 2010, A&A, 523, A94
N
Carry, B. et al. 2012, Planet. Space Sci., 66, 200
0.5ೀ Carry, B. et al. 2019, A&A, 623, 132
E Fétick, R. J. L. et al. 2019, A&A, 623, 6
Fusco, T. et al. 2003, Proc. SPIE, 4839, 1065
Hanus, J. et al. 2019, A&A, 624, 121
Perspectives adaptive-optics imaging of main-belt
Jaumann, R. et al. 2012, Science, 336, 687

asteroids will allow us to resolve craters Jorda, L. et al. 2016, Icarus, 277, 257
New opportunities for ground-based down to ~ 2–5 km in size implying that Levison, H. F. et al. 2009, Nature, 460, 364
asteroid exploration, namely geophysical we shall be able to characterise their Marchi, S. et al. 2012, Science, 336, 690
Marchis, F. et al. 2013, Icarus, 224, 178
and geological studies, are becoming global geological ­history from the ground.
Marsset, M. et al. 2017, A&A, 604, A64
available thanks to SPHERE’s unique Consequently, missions performing cos- Mugnier, L., Fusco, T. & Conan, J.-M. 2004,
capabilities. Also, the present work repre- mochemistry experiments, landing and JOSAA, 21, 1841
sents the beginning of a new era of eventually returning a sample, should be Russell, C. T. et al. 2012, Science, 336, 684

Russell, C. T. et al. 2013, Meteoriti. Planet. Sci.,
asteroid-­family studies. Notably, our preferred at the forefront of in-situ
48, 2076

SPHERE observations using the VLT have exploration. Schenk, P. et al. 2012, Science, 336, 694

demonstrated in a striking manner how Sierks, H. et al. 2011, Science, 334, 487
the gap between interplanetary missions Thomas, P. C. et al. 1997, Science, 277, 1492
Acknowledgements Vernazza, P. & Beck, P. 2017, Planetesimals: Early
and ground-based observations is get-
Differentiation and Consequences for Planets,
ting narrower (Fétick et al., 2019). With Pierre Vernazza, Benoit Carry, and Alexis Drouard (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press),
the advent of extremely large telescopes were supported by CNRS/INSU/PNP. Josef Hanuš 269

(ESO’s ELT, GMT, TMT), the science was supported by the Czech Science Foundation Vernazza, P. et al. 2018, A&A, 618, A154
through grant 18-09470S. Thierry Fusco and Romain Vernazza, P. et al. 2019, CBET, 4627
objectives of future interplanetary mis-
Fétick are partially funded by DGA and ONERA. Viikinkoski, M., Kaasalainen, M. & Durech, J. 2015,
sions will have to be carefully thought out Michaël Marsset was supported by the National A&A, 576, A8
so that these missions will complement, ­Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant Viikinkoski, M. et al. 2018, A&A, 619, L3
rather than duplicate, what will be No. 80NSSC18K0849 issued through the Planetary Walsh, K. J. et al. 2011, Nature, 475, 206
achieved via Earth-based telescopic Astronomy Program. Franck Marchis was supported
by NSF grant number 1743015.
observations. For instance, future ELT
ESO/M. Zamani

Paranal Observatory
at sunset.

16 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


Astronomical Science DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5188

The ASPECS Survey: An ALMA Large Programme


Targeting the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field

Manuel Aravena 1 characterise the evolution of galaxies star formation rate). Instead, imaging
Chris Carilli 2 through cosmic time, a measurement of a significant region on the sky with ALMA
Roberto Decarli 3 their molecular gas content, and its evo- mosaics, as well as scanning in frequency
Fabian Walter 4 lution over cosmic time, is therefore space, yields an unbiased measurement
on behalf of the ASPECS collaboration a ­indispensable. Such a measurement was of molecular gas in a well defined cosmic
one of the three prime directives driving volume. This is due to the fact that the
the ALMA project from its conception. key tracer of molecular gas, the carbon
1
 niversidad Diego Portales, Santiago,
U With this goal in mind, the ALMA Large monoxide molecule (CO), emits radiation
Chile Programme ASPECS, the first extragalac- at distinct frequencies that approximately
2
National Radio Astronomy Observatory, tic large programme approved for ALMA, correspond to multiples of the frequency
Socorro, USA was designed to make an unbiased, of the CO(1–0) ground transition at
3
INAF Bologna, Italy three-dimensional survey of the molecu- 115 GHz (corresponding to a wavelength
4
Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, lar gas content of galaxies in the best of ~ 2.7 mm). These emission lines are
­Heidelberg, Germany studied extragalactic deep field, the then redshifted by the change in the cos-
iconic Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (UDF). mic scale factor for distant sources (Fig-
ure 2). For example, the CO(3–2) line at
The ALMA Large Programme ASPECS ~ 345 GHz will be redshifted to an
(The ALMA SPECtroscopic Survey in Choice of field observed frequency of ~ 100 GHz for
the UDF) set out to measure the dust a galaxy at redshift z = 2.5.
and molecular gas content in distant Choosing the UDF as the prime target for
galaxies in the best-studied cosmologi- this survey (Figure 1) was straightforward. The net observational results of the
cal deep field, the Hubble Ultra-Deep The UDF has the highest quality of obser- ASPECS observations are 3D data
Field (UDF). Thanks to a unique observ- vations in depth and resolution across cubes, the three axes being right ascen-
ing technique, the survey resulted in the electromagnetic spectrum, extending sion, declination and frequency, where
a full census of gas-rich galaxies in the beyond traditional continuum imaging, frequency equates to the line-of-sight
UDF, yielding dozens of detections and is i­deally situated for ALMA observa- distance via the redshift. The areal cover-
in dust continuum and molecular gas tions. Any additional observations, for age of the ASPECS observations is
emission. Their physical properties example, under ASPECS but also other shown in Figure 1, and the frequency cov-
could be accurately constrained thanks ALMA initiatives, add to the legacy value erage in Figure 2. ASPECS covers two
to the unparalleled wealth of ancillary of this deep field. Besides ASPECS, frequency regimes, the 3-mm band and
data, including the most sensitive recent key observations of the field the 1-mm band. This approach was
Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and include major Guaranteed Time Observa- ­chosen so as to maximise the cosmic
VLT/MUSE observations. The data con- tion (GTO) initiatives with the Multi Unit volume for redshifted CO lines, as well as
firm that, on average, the gas mass frac- Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on ESO’s to obtain millimetre continuum images
tions of distant galaxies decreased by VLT — the most sophisticated wide-field of the UDF to unprecedented depths.
an order of magnitude since redshift 2, optical integral field unit available (Bacon
and that the gas depletion times are et al., 2017). The availability of the MUSE
~ 1 Gyr, in approximate agreement with data, from which over a thousand spec- Data products
the local value. The ASPECS deep troscopic redshifts have been derived,
Band 6 continuum map of the field enables ­significant gains in line stacking The primary data products of the
shows that more than 90% of the dust in 3D space. Furthermore, the UDF has ASPECS observations are the Band 3
continuum emission in the field has also been selected as the primary deep and Band 6 data cubes. In Figure 3 we
been resolved in individual galaxies. field for James Webb Space Telescope show 2D renderings of the 3D cubes.
The total CO emission in this well (JWST) guaranteed time programmes, Spectral lines of individual galaxies show
defined cosmological volume is used to and observations are expected early in up as point sources in the 3D cubes,
constrain the evolution of the cosmic JWST’s mission (at the end of 2021). In ­corresponding to CO emission from a
molecular gas density. Together with summary, the UDF will maintain its status galaxy at a given position and redshift. In
previous measurements of the evolution as the state-of-the-art deep survey field the 1-mm cube some linear features in
of the cosmic densities of stellar mass, for the foreseeable future. frequency are also apparent: these fea-
star formation rate and atomic gas, tures arise from dust continuum emission
these measurements provide quantita- from the highest star formation rate gal-
tive constraints of the gas accretion Observational strategy axies in the field. Consequently, these
rate onto the central discs of galaxies. spectral scans also deliver the deepest-­
The observational approach of ASPECS ever dust continuum maps of the Uni-
to studying the molecular gas and dust verse. Taken together, these methods
ASPECS motivation and survey strategy in distant galaxies is unique as it does enable a full characterisation of the molec-
not preselect galaxies from other multi- ular gas and dust in the cosmological vol-
It has been well established that stars wavelength data (for example, through ume probed by the UDF, down to galaxy
form from molecular gas. In order to measurements of their stellar mass or masses that encompass the bulk of the

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 17


Astronomical Science Aravena M. et al., The ASPECS Survey

luminosity and mass out to redshifts ~ 4, Figure 1. Spatial coverage of


ASPECS within the Hubble Ultra-Deep
when the ­Universe was only 1.6 billion
Field (UDF) in Band 3 (region indicated
years old, i.e., 1/8th of today’s age. in blue) and Band 6 (in green). A
17-pointing mosaic was needed for the
The validity of the observational approach Band 3 observations, and 85 pointings
were used for the Band 6 observa-
for the ASPECS Large Programme was
tions. The deepest part of the UDF,
demonstrated by a number of pilot pro- also referred to the XDF, is shown in
grammes, both with the IRAM (Institut yellow. The colours represent a multi-­
de Radio Astronomie Millimétrique) band HST image.
­Plateau de Bure Interferometer (now
called NOEMA; Walter et al., 2014;
Decarli et al., 2014) and ALMA observa-
tions in earlier cycles (Walter et al., 2016;
Aravena et al., 2016a,b; Decarli et al.,
2016a,b; Bouwens et al., 2016; Carilli et
al., 2016). Our frequency scans of a con-
tiguous deep field are complementary to
targeted studies of high-redshift galaxies,
most notably under the IRAM Plateau de
Bure HIgh-z Blue Sequence Survey pro-
jects (PHIBSS1/2; Tacconi et al., 2010, 300 Figure 2. Frequency coverage of the
ALMA Bands 3 and 6 with ASPECS
2013, 2018; Genzel et al., 2015).
(grey regions). Five separate tunings
were required to cover the full ALMA
ALMA 6 Band 3 and eight tunings were needed
The evolution of dust and molecular gas for Band 6. The different bands cover
[C the different rotational transitions of
in the UDF 200 II]
CO as a function of redshift, as indi-
cated by the coloured dashed lines.
One of the core results of ASPECS is to The [CII] line is also covered for galax-
νobs (GHz)

pinpoint which of the many hundreds of C


O
(9
ies at redshift 6 < z < 8 in Band 6. The
data can also be used to construct
C
CO

CO
CO

–8
CO

galaxies visible in the HST observations


CO
C O(2

)
(8
(7
(6

continuum maps in Band 3 and 6. Fig-


(5–
(4–
(3–

–7
–6

of the UDF are rich in molecular gas and


–5

)
4)

)
–1)

ure taken from Walter et al. (2016).


3)

)
2)

dust, i.e., the material that is essential for


star formation to proceed. The ASPECS
survey (including its pilot programme) is 100 ALMA 3
reaching completion, and will eventually
90
result in a total of 17 publications in inter-
national refereed journals 1. We highlight 80
some of the key results here.
0 2 4 6 8 10
Redshift

ALMA band 3 ALMA band 6

Figure 3. ASPECS delivers two 3D


data cubes, one for Band 3 and one
for Band 6, with the following axes:
right ascension, declination, and
frequency. These figures show 2D
Declination
Declination

renderings of the cubes. Individual


line detections of galaxies in the UDF
are clearly visible in the data cube.
In most cases these correspond
y to emission from rotational transitions
Righ uenc
Rig
ht a y t as Freq of carbon monoxide. Linear features
sce enc cen
nsio F requ sion (most prominently seen in the Band 6
n observations) correspond to contin-
uum detections.

18 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


Continuum observations 60
Figure 4. ASPECS Band 6 continuum
map of the UDF (Gonzalez-López et
– 27°46ಿ0.00ೀ al., 2020). The noise reached in this
The unprecedented depth of the ALMA map is ~ 9.5 µJy/beam, making this
1-mm continuum map of < 10 µJy (shown 40 the deepest ALMA continuum map
in Figure 4) obtained by ASPECS over 30.0ೀ of a cosmological deep field obtained
to date. There are 32 unambiguously
the UDF region puts critical constraints
Declination (J2000)
detected dusty galaxies in the field.
on the abundance of dust reservoirs in

µJy beam –1
20

the early Universe. Gonzalez-López et al. 47ಿ0.00ೀ

(2020) report the detection of 32 unam-


biguous dusty galaxies. The cumulative 30.0ೀ
0

number of sources reveals a dearth of


dusty galaxies at decreasing 1-mm flux – 20
densities compared to extrapolations 48ಿ0.00ೀ

from previous surveys. A direct conse- 10ೀ


quence of this result is that deeper 44.00s 42.00s 40.00s 38.00s 36.00s 3h32m34.00s
observations will not yield many more Right ascension (J2000)

new dusty galaxies, i.e., any future,


deeper observations at these wave- 10 6 Figure 5. The solid grey line shows the
Best fit injected distribution ASPECS 1-mm continuum number
lengths will not substantially alter the Popping et al. 2019 (1 < z < 2) counts recovered in the Band 6 con-
budget of dust emission in the UDF as Popping et al. 2019 (2 < z < 3) tinuum map. The coloured solid lines
unveiled by ASPECS. Thus, ASPECS Popping et al. 2019 (3 < z < 4) show the number counts as a function
was able to pinpoint as individual galax- 10 5 ASPECS-LP (0 < z < 1) of redshift. The dashed lines are from
ASPECS-LP (1 < z < 2) the theoretical models by Popping et
N (≥ S 242 GHz ) degrees – 2

ies the population responsible for almost ASPECS-LP (2 < z < 3) al. (2020). There is good agreement
all of the Extragalactic Background Light ASPECS-LP (3 < z < 4) between the models and the observa-
(EBL) at 1 mm in the UDF. tions. Most of the galaxies that are
10 4 detected in dust continuum in the UDF
are located at redshifts 1 < z < 3. Fig-
The comparison of 1-mm dust continuum
ure taken from Gonzalez-López et al.
number counts shown in Figure 5 with (2020).
models (Popping et al., 2020) shows
excellent agreement between model and 10 3
data, even when splitting the sample into
bins of basic galaxy properties (redshift,
stellar and dust masses, star formation
rate [SFR]). These number counts are 10 2
dominated by galaxies in the redshift
10 – 2 10 –1 10 0 101
range 1 < z < 3, and show a lack of dust S 242 GHz (mJy)
reservoirs for less massive galaxies. The
absence of major dust reservoirs in low-
mass galaxies implies that dust obscura- Aside from just pinpointing the galaxies Many of the ASPECS galaxies are
tion is unlikely to be a major concern for that contain most of the cold dust found to be on the so-called galaxy main-­
the many low-mass (dwarf) galaxies seen ­reservoirs in the UDF, the wealth of sequence (for example, Brinchmann et
in the UDF, with important implications for multi-wavelength data available for the al., 2004; Elbaz et al., 2007), but others
calculating the evolution of cosmic star ASPECS/UDF field, which includes deep are classified as starbursts or quiescent
formation rate density from rest-frame HST imaging and MUSE spectroscopy, galaxies. A significant number of galaxies
ultraviolet observations out to the highest enables a full characterisation of the are found in crowded regions, the result
redshifts (Bouwens et al., 2016; in physical properties of the ASPECS galax- of either the presence of companions, or
preparation). ies. We find that almost all CO emitters chance superpositions. The deep optical
have 1-mm dust detections, indicating an spectroscopy from VLT/MUSE (hundreds
obvious connection between molecular of galaxy spectra in the UDF; Inami et al.,
Gas-mass selected galaxies in the UDF gas and dust, yet with varying interstellar 2017), has been used, in some cases,
medium properties. Interestingly, most to unambiguously constrain the CO
The most significant ASPECS CO detec- ASPECS galaxies appear relatively bright transition and hence the redshift of
tions in the UDF are shown in Figure 6, in the HST optical/near-infrared images a galaxy (Boogaard et al., 2019). In most
both as CO spectra and as contours (mF160W < 25 magnitudes), suggesting of the ALMA-detected galaxies more
on top of the HST multi-band imaging. It less obscuration than that observed in than one rotational transition of the CO
is clearly evident from Figure 6 that the prototypical massive, dusty star-forming molecule is detected. These multi-line
gas-selected galaxy sample uncovered galaxies (“submillimetre galaxies”), and observations are used to put first con-
by ASPECS consists of galaxies of differ- implying a lack of “optically/near-infrared straints on the physical properties of the
ent types and environments. dark” galaxies within the ASPECS sample. interstellar medium (for example, density,

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 19


Astronomical Science Aravena M. et al., The ASPECS Survey

46ಿ30ೀ
ASPECS-LP-3 mm.01 4 Amplitude: 1.71 +/– 0.06 mJy beam –1 ASPECS-LP-3 mm.01 46ಿ50.0ೀ ASPECS-LP-3 mm.11 Amplitude: 2.44 +/– 0.58 mJy beam –1 ASPECS-LP-3 mm.11
Frequency: 97.586 +/– 0.06 GHz Frequency: 109.968 +/– 0.001 GHz
32ೀ 4 FWHM: 40 +/– 12 km s –1
3 FWHM: 517 +/– 21 km s –1
52.0ೀ

Fν (mJy b –1)
Fν (mJy b –1)

34ೀ
2 2
54.0ೀ

36ೀ 1
56.0ೀ
0
38ೀ 0
1ೀ 58.0ೀ 1ೀ
40ೀ –1 –2
38.80s 38.60s 38.40s 38.20s 39.60s
97.2 97.4 97.6 97.8 98.8 40.00s 39.80s
109.6 109.8 109.8 110.2 110.4
ν (GHz) ν (GHz)

47ಿ04.0ೀ ASPECS-LP-3 mm.02 Amplitude: 1.38 +/– 0.11 mJy beam –1 ASPECS-LP-3 mm.02 46ಿ24.0ೀ ASPECS-LP-3 mm.12 1.5 Amplitude: 0.45 +/– 0.06 mJy beam –1 ASPECS-LP-3 mm.12
3 Frequency: 99.513 +/– 0.004 GHz Frequency: 96.76 +/– 0.006 GHz
FWHM: 277 +/– 26 km s –1 1.0 FWHM: 251 +/– 40 km s –1
06.0ೀ 26.0ೀ

Fν (mJy b –1)
Fν (mJy b –1)

2
08.0ೀ 28.0ೀ
0.5
1
10.0ೀ 30.0ೀ
0.0
0
12.0ೀ 32.0ೀ
–2
1ೀ
–1 1ೀ

42.60s 42.40s 42.20s


99.0 99.2 99.4 99.6 99.8 100.0 36.60s 36.40s 36.20s 36.00s
96.4 96.6 96.8 97.0 97.2
ν (GHz) ν (GHz)

46ಿ28.0ೀ ASPECS-LP-3 mm.03 Amplitude: 0.88 +/– 0.08 mJy beam –1 ASPECS-LP-3 mm.03 47ಿ00.0ೀ ASPECS-LP-3 mm.13 Amplitude: 0.29 +/– 0.04 mJy beam –1 ASPECS-LP-3 mm.13
2 Frequency: 100.127 +/– 0.006 GHz 1.0 Frequency: 100.21 +/– 0.008 GHz
FWHM: 368 +/– 37 km s –1 FWHM: 360 +/– 49 km s –1
02.0ೀ

Fν (mJy b –1)
Fν (mJy b –1)

30.0ೀ

0.5
1 04.0ೀ
32.0ೀ

06.0ೀ 0.0
34.0ೀ
0
08.0ೀ 1ೀ
36.0ೀ 1ೀ – 0.5
35.80s 35.60s 35.40s
41.40s 41.20s 41.00s 40.80s
99.6 99.8 100.0 100.2 100.4 100.6 99.8 100.0 100.2 100.4 100.6
ν (GHz) ν (GHz)

46ಿ36.0ೀ
4
46ಿ56.0ೀ ASPECS-LP-3 mm.04 Amplitude: 1.44 +/– 0.13 mJy beam –1 ASPECS-LP-3 mm.04 ASPECS-LP-3 mm.14 ASPECS-LP-3 mm.14
Amplitude: 0.64 +/– 0.09 mJy beam –1
4 Frequency: 95.499 +/– 0.007 GHz
3 Frequency: 109.875 +/– 0.011 GHz
38.0ೀ
FWHM: 498 +/– 47 km s –1
FWHM: 355 +/– 52km s –1
58.0ೀ
Fν (mJy b –1)

Fν (mJy b –1)

40.0ೀ
2
2
47.0ೀ
1
42.0ೀ

0.20ೀ 0
0 44.0ೀ
0.40ೀ 1ೀ 1ೀ
–1
46.0ೀ
34.80s 34.60s 34.40s 34.20s
95.0 95.2 95.4 95.6 95.8 96.0 35.20s 35.00s 34.80s 34.60s 109.4 109.6 109.8 110.0 110.2 110.4
ν (GHz) ν (GHz)

46ಿ32.0ೀ ASPECS-LP-3 mm.09 Amplitude: 1.97 +/– 0.19 mJy beam –1 ASPECS-LP-3 mm.09 46ಿ28.0ೀ ASPECS-LP-3 mm.15 Amplitude: 0.62 +/– 0.1 mJy beam –1 ASPECS-LP-3 mm.15
Frequency: 93.517 +/– 0.003 GHz 2 Frequency: 109.966 +/– 0.008 GHz
4 FWHM: 174 +/– 17 km s –1 FWHM: 260 +/– 39 km s –1
34.0ೀ 30.0ೀ
Fν (mJy b –1)

Fν (mJy b –1)

1
36.0ೀ 2 32.0ೀ

34.0ೀ
38.0ೀ 0
0
36.0ೀ 1ೀ
40.0ೀ 1ೀ
36.80s 36.60s 36.40s 36.20s
–1
44.40s 44.20s 44.00s 43.80s
93.0 93.2 93.4 93.6 93.8 94.0 109.6 109.8 110.0 110.2 110.4
ν (GHz) ν (GHz)

46ಿ46.0ೀ ASPECS-LP-3 mm.10 3 Amplitude: 0.85 +/– 0.09 mJy beam –1 ASPECS-LP-3 mm.10 ASPECS-LP-3 mm.16 Amplitude: 0.51 +/– 0.09 mJy beam –1 ASPECS-LP-3 mm.16
Frequency: 113.191 +/– 0.01 GHz
46ಿ 04.0ೀ 1.0 Frequency: 100.504 +/– 0.004 GHz
FWHM: 460 +/– 49 km s –1 FWHM: 125 +/– 28 km s –1
48.0ೀ 2
Fν (mJy b –1)

Fν (mJy b –1)

06.0ೀ
0.5
50.0ೀ 1 08.0ೀ

0 0.0
52.0ೀ 10.0ೀ

54.0ೀ
–1 12.0ೀ 1ೀ –0.5
1ೀ

40.20s 40.00s 39.80s 39.60s


43.20s 43.00s 42.80s
112.8 113.0 113.2 113.4 113.6 100.0 100.2 100.4 100.6 100.8 101.0
ν (GHz) ν (GHz)

Figure 6. Collection of detected CO lines (spectra)


and the corresponding CO emission overplotted as
contours on the HST multi-band images of the UDF.
Our dust/gas-selected sample of galaxies in the UDF
covers a large variety of galaxies in different environ-
ments. Figure taken from Gonzalez-López et al. (2019).

20 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


2

ASPECS Co-based ASPECS Co-based


3 ASPECS MUSE-based
ASPECS MUSE-selected

T18 CO z > 1 PHIBSS1/2 CO


1
9 1 13
Low-z CO
1
7 15
log(SFR) [Mცyr –1]

3 7

log(Mmol /Mstars )
2
15 3
4 0 6 9 log Mstars
13 5 Redshift
8 MP1 11
14 4
3.0
yr 6 8 11.0
1
G
14 yr 16
0. MP1 10 G 2.5 10 5
10 2
MP4 16
2 2.0 MP2 10.5
1
11 –1
MP3 MP2 1.5
10.0
1.0
MP5
yr
G 9.5
1 0.5

0 –2
9 10 11 12 0 1 2 3 4
log(Mmol ) [Mც ] z

Figure 7. Left: Star formation rate (SFR) vs. molecu- UDF cover a similar parameter space tor is known to be metallicity-dependent.
lar gas content of the galaxies in the UDF — the
as do earlier targeted studies (Tacconi et Fortunately, many of the UDF galaxies
ASPECS CO detections are indicated as coloured
symbols. The blue-shaded area is from the CO al., 2013, 2018), albeit with a somewhat have metallicity estimates from the deep
measurements obtained by the PHIBSS1/2 surveys larger scatter. On average, their depletion MUSE UDF initiative. These measure-
(Tacconi et al. 2013; 2018). Overall, the gas-selected time is ~ 1 Gyr irrespective of redshift, ments indicate that most of the galaxies
galaxies in the UDF show properties similar to those
which is similar to the value derived for under consideration are consistent with
of galaxies in previous, targeted studies. The gas
depletion times, defined as Mmol /SFR, are shown as star-forming galaxies in the local Uni- solar metallicities (Boogaard et al., 2019).
dashed lines. Values are typically ~ 1 Gyr, irrespec- verse. In the right panel of Figure 7 the Ultimately, the combined information can
tive of redshift, similar to what is found in the local gas mass fraction, defined as Mmol /Mstars, be used to derive molecular gas (H 2)
universe. Right: Gas mass fraction, defined as Mmol /
is plotted as a function of lookback time. mass functions for the different redshift
Mstars, as a function of redshift. The gas-selected
galaxies in the UDF again show behaviour similar to Our gas-selected galaxy sample confirms bins covered by the observations. In an
that found in previous, targeted studies, albeit with the conclusion based on targeted sam- additional step, the total molecular gas
significant scatter. Overall the gas mass fraction ples, that there is a fundamental change mass can be summed in a specific red-
decreases by about an order of magnitude from red-
in the properties of star forming galaxy shift bin. As the cosmic volume is well
shift 2 to today’s Universe. Figures taken from
­A ravena et al. (2019). over time, namely, that the gas mass defined for each redshift bin through the
fraction decreases by an order of magni- ASPECS setup, the cosmic density of the
tude from redshifts z ~ 2 to today molecular gas can be derived by dividing
temperature). In addition to CO, atomic (Aravena et al., 2019). the total H 2 mass by the volume, as dis-
carbon (CI) is also detected in many cussed below.
sources (Boogaard et al., in preparation).
Together with the dust continuum emis- The cosmic evolution of the molecular Figure 8 shows the cosmic molecular gas
sion, these data provide a number of dif- gas density density as a function of redshift. The key
ferent ways of estimating molecular gas result here is that the H2 gas density
masses, corresponding to the fuel for star The CO emission in the data cubes can peaks at around z = 2 and then declines
formation in galaxies (Aravena et al., 2020). be used to derive CO luminosity func- by almost an order of magnitude to the
tions for the different CO transitions value measured in the local Universe. This
In Figure 7 we present some of the prop- (i.e., redshifts) covered by ASPECS. By behaviour was suggested in previous CO
erties of the ASPECS-selected galaxies assuming empirical relations for the CO deep fields, including the ASPECS pilot
in context with other studies. In the left excitation in galaxies, the expected emis- programme, but the error bars now ena-
panel of Figure 7 we plot the star forma- sion in the rotational ground transition of ble us to firmly conclude that there is
tion rate (SFR) of a galaxy as a function of CO(1–0) can be derived. From that, a an increase and then a decline in the gas
gas mass (Mmol). In such a plot, diagonal molecular gas mass can be assigned density with cosmic time. The results are
lines (indicated as dashed lines) are lines to a galaxy by employing the so-called also consistent with gas masses derived
of constant gas depletion time. The gas- CO-to-H 2 conversion factor (Bolatto, from dust continuum measurements,
mass selected ASPECS galaxies in the ­Wolfire & Leroy, 2013). This conversion fac- including those using the ASPECS

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 21


Astronomical Science Aravena M. et al., The ASPECS Survey

Redshift
10 9 ASPECS Pilot ASPECS LP 4 2 1 0
1
Cosmic dark matter density
10 10

ρ SFR (M๬ yr –1 Mpc – 3 )

Cosmic mass density (M๬ Mpc – 3 )

Cosmic mass density (g cm – 3 )


Cosmic baryon density
ρ H2 (M๬ Mpc – 3 )

Saintonge+17

10 – 32
10 8
0.1 10 8

10 8
10 7
0.01
In galaxies
10 7 ρ bar, gal 10 – 33
ρ stars
ρ HI
ρ H2
ρ HI + H2
0 1 2 3 4 10 6
0.0 2.5 5.0 7.5 10.0 12.5 15.0 17.5 20.0
Redshift Cosmic age (Gyr)

Figure 8. The cosmic evolution of the density of the integral of the cosmic star formation rate Figure 9. The ASPECS measurement of the evolution
molecular gas mass as a function of lookback time. of the molecular gas content, r H2 (blue line) is shown
density (Madau & Dickinson, 2014). The
The results derived from ASPECS are shown as together with other baryonic components that are
red boxes (Decarli et al., in preparation). The meas- density of atomic hydrogen, on the other associated with galaxies. These are: the stellar mass
urements are anchored at z = 0 through the meas- hand, shows little variation as a function (shown in red), and the atomic gas phase (HI, shown
urement by Saintonge et al. (2017). There is an of lookback time. The behaviour of the in green). The sum of atomic gas and molecular
unambiguous decline of the molecular gas density gas is also plotted (yellow line). For completeness,
atomic gas is in stark contrast to the rise
from redshifts z ~ 2 to today by about an order of the cosmic baryon density and cosmic dark matter
magnitude. For comparison, we also show the evo- and fall of the molecular gas density, as density are also shown. The vertical line at redshift
lution of the star formation rate density in purple (see derived by ASPECS. It should be noted z = 0 (top x-axis) indicates the current age of the Uni-
units on the right y-axis, Madau & Dickinson [2014]) that at a cosmic age of about 4 Gyr the verse. A simple extrapolation of the curves shows
that shows a similar decline from the peak of the that as the molecular gas density drops further in
H 2 density reached that of the HI, but
“epoch of galaxy assembly” at z ~ 2 to today. the future, the additional growth in stellar mass in
stays below the HI at all other times. At galaxies will be marginal.
around the same age of the Universe, the
continuum map (Scoville et al., 2017; Liu stellar mass density surpasses that of the approximately c ­ onstant. The star forma-
et al., 2019; Magnelli et al., 2020). This total (cold) gas, as seen in HI + H 2. tion rate density will follow the decrease
peak of H2 density corresponds to the of H 2. In this s­ cenario, today’s Universe
peak in the star formation history (“the The masses/densities of the molecular has entered “Cosmic Twilight”, during
epoch of galaxy assembly”). We next dis- and atomic gas seen at high redshift which the star formation activity in galax-
cuss the implications of the ASPECS imply that their masses are insufficient to ies inexorably declines, as the gas inflow
results for galaxy formation. account for the stellar mass budget seen and accretion shut down.
in today’s Universe. Together with other
measurements, the ASPECS results
The cosmic baryon cycle ­constrain the accretion rates of gas from Other topics addressed by ASPECS
the circum- and inter-galactic medium —
The ASPECS survey allows the determi- the accretion that is necessary to explain For completeness, it should be men-
nation — from an unbiased selection — the stellar mass growth. As such, it pro- tioned that other investigations have been
of the evolution of the cosmic molecular vides constraints on a key component carried out using the ASPECS dataset.
gas density from low redshift out to in the cosmic baryon cycle in galaxies These studies include stacking experi-
within 2 Gyr of the Big Bang. This behav- (Walter et al., 2020). ments, both in the image plane and in
iour can now be put in context with other redshift space (3D), capitalising on
key estimates of galaxy properties, in The current age of the Universe is indi- the rich spectroscopy from deep MUSE
particular the evolution of the cosmic cated by a vertical line at a cosmic age initiatives in the field (Bacon et al., 2017;
density of star formation rate and the of 13.7 Gyr in Figure 9. Under the Inami et al., 2017). These studies showed
build-up of stellar mass. In Figure 9 we assumption of continuity we can use that most of the emission (both in the
compare our ASPECS results for molecu- empirical fitting functions to forecast the dust continuum and CO) in the field is
lar gas with other baryonic phases that evolution of the baryon content associ- accounted for by the detection of individ-
are associated with galaxies, most nota- ated with galaxies over the next few Gyr. ual galaxies (Inami et al., in preparation).
bly the stellar mass and the atomic gas Assuming that our fits can indeed be CO intensity mapping of the field also
(HI). The stellar mass, which is character- extrapolated into the future, the molecu- concluded that the majority of the CO
ised with multi-band optical/near-­infrared lar density will decrease by a factor of emission in the field is detected by the
imaging, constantly builds up over cos- two over the next 5 Gyr, whereas the HI current observations (Uzgil et al., 2019).
mic time, to first order following the time and stellar mass densities will remain We also compare results from ASPECS

22 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


to predictions from two cosmological gal- Acknowledgements Walter, F. et al. 2014, ApJ, 782, 79
Walter, F. et al. 2016, ApJ, 833, 67
axy formation models, the ­IllustrisTNG
ALMA data: 2016.1.00324.L, 2013.1.00146.S, Walter, F. et al. 2020, submitted to ApJ
hydrodynamical simulations and the and 2013.1.00718.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO
Santa Cruz semi-analytic model (Popping ­(representing its member states), NSF (USA) and
et al., 2019). NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), NSC Notes
and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea),
a
in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint  he ASPECS collaboration is led by PIs Manuel
T
ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO Aravena [UDP, Chile], Chris Carilli [NRAO, USA],
Next (observational) steps and NAOJ. Roberto Decarli [INAF, Italy] and Fabian Walter
[MPIA, Germany], and consists of 40 scientists
from 35 institutions in 9 countries, including:
The ASPECS observations were
References ­Roberto Assef (UDP, Chile), Roland Bacon (Univ.
designed to maximise the sensitivity to Lyon, France), Franz Bauer (PUC, Chile), Frank
molecular gas, which in turn did not Aravena, M. et al. 2016a, ApJ, 833, 68 ­B ertoldi (AIfA, Germany), Leindert Boogaard
result in spatially resolved observations. Aravena, M. et al. 2016b, ApJ, 833, 71 ­(Leiden Obs., Netherlands), Rychard Bouwens
Aravena, M. et al. 2019, ApJ, 882, 136 ­(Leiden Obs., Netherlands), Thierry Contini (LATT,
Now that ALMA has pinpointed which
Aravena, M. et al. 2020, submitted to ApJ France), Paulo C. Cortes (JAO, Chile), Pierre Cox
galaxies in the UDF are rich in dust and Bacon, R. et al. 2017, A&A, 608, A1 (IAP, France), Elisabete da Cunha (UWA, Australia),
gas emission, the next step will be to Bolatto, A. D., Wolfire, M. & Leroy, A. K. 2013, Emanuele Daddi (CEA Saclay, France), Tanio
spatially resolve the distribution of molec- ARA&A, 51, 207 Diaz-Santos (UDP, Chile), David Elbaz (CEA Saclay,
Boogaard, L. et al. 2019, ApJ, 882, 140 France), Jorge G ­ onzalez-Lopez (UDP, Chile),
ular gas and dust in individual galaxies
Bouwens, R. J. et al. 2016, ApJ, 833, 72 Jacqueline Hodge (Leiden Obs., Netherlands),
with dedicated high-resolution ALMA Brinchmann, J. et al. 2004, MNRAS, 351, 1151 Hanae Inami (Univ. Hiroshima, Japan), Rob Ivison
observations. A particularly interesting Carilli, C. L. et al. 2016, ApJ, 833, 73 (ESO), Melanie Kaasinen (MPIA, Germany), Olivier
goal is to determine the dynamics of the Decarli, R. et al. 2014, ApJ, 782, 78 Le Fevre (LAM, France), Benjamin Magnelli (AIfA,
Decarli, R. et al. 2016a, ApJ, 833, 69 Germany), M ­ arcel Neeleman (MPIA, Germany),
gas, including rotation, turbulence, infall,
Decarli, R. et al. 2016b, ApJ, 833, 70 Mladen Novak (MPIA, Germany), Pascal Oesch
or outflow. Another goal is to obtain Elbaz, D. et al. 2007, A&A, 468, 33 (Geneva, Switzerland), Gergo Popping (ESO),
ALMA multi-band observations of these Genzel, R. et al. 2015, ApJ, 800, 20 Dominik Riechers (Cornell Univ., USA), Hans-Walter
galaxies in order to further quantify the González-López, J. et al. 2019, ApJ, 882, 139 Rix (MPIA, Germany), Mark Sargent (Sussex Univ.,
González-López, J. et al. 2020, arxiv:2002.07199 UK), Ian Smail (Durham Univ., UK), Rachel
state of the molecular gas (for example,
Inami, H. et al. 2017, A&A, 608, A2 ­Somerville (Flatiron Institute, USA), Mark ­Swinbank
density, temperature). The galaxies in the Liu, D. et al. 2019, ApJ, 887, 235 (Durham Univ., UK), Bade Uzgil (NRAO, USA), Paul
UDF will also be the target of major Madau, P. & Dickinson, M. 2014, ARA&A, 52, 415 van der Werf (Leiden Obs., Netherlands), Jeff Wagg
observing campaigns with the upcoming Magnelli, B. et al. 2020, arxiv:2002.08640v1 (SKA, UK), Axel Weiss (MPIfR, Germany), Lutz
Popping, G. et al. 2019, ApJ, 882,137 Wisotzky (AIP, Germany).
James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).
Popping, G. et al. 2020, arxiv/2002.07180
In this context ALMA will continue to play Saintonge, A. et al. 2017, ApJS, 233, 22
a key role in constraining the physical Scoville, N. et al. 2017, ApJ, 837, 150
properties of galaxies near the peak of Tacconi, L. J. et al. 2010, Nature, 463, 781
Tacconi, L. J. et al. 2013, ApJ, 768, 74
cosmic star formation (z ~ 2), and
Tacconi, L. J. et al. 2018, ApJ, 853, 179
beyond. Uzgil, B. D. et al. 2019, ApJ, 887, 37
Sangku Kim/ESO

ALMA, located in the


Chilean Atacama desert,
is the most powerful
­telescope for observing
the cool Universe —
molecular gas and dust.

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 23


Astronomical Science DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5189

The Araucaria Project Establishes the Most Precise


Benchmark for Cosmic Distances

Grzegorz Pietrzyński 1, 2

J. C. Muñoz/ESO
Dariusz Graczyk 1, 2, 3
Alexandre Gallenne 1, 2, 4, 5
Wolfgang Gieren 2
Ian Thompson 6
Bogumił Pilecki 1
Paulina Karczmarek 2
Marek Górski 2
Ksenia Suchomska 1
Monica Taormina 1
Bartłomiej Zgirski 1
Piotr Wielgórski 1
Nicolas Nardetto 5
Pierre Kervella 7
Fabio Bresolin 8
Rolf Peter Kudritzki 8, 9
Jesper Storm 10
Radosław Smolec 1
Weronika Narloch 1
Mikołaj Kałuszyński 1
Sandro Villanova 2
1%. This is currently the best bench- Figure 1. The Large and Small Magellanic Clouds in
the southern sky.
mark for cosmic distances and it will
1 
Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical therefore impact several fields of astro-
Centre, Warsaw, Poland physics. In particular, it has allowed a component to the matter-energy content
2 
Universidad de Concepción, determination of the Hubble constant of the Universe, the physical explanation
Departamento de Astronomía, with a precision of 1.9%. of the nature of dark energy has become
Concepción, Chile a major challenge for astronomers and
3 
Millennium Institute of Astrophysics physicists. Recent empirical determina-
(MAS), Santiago, Chile Introduction tions of H0 have further complicated our
4 
Unidad Mixta Internacional Franco-­ understanding of the Universe. The most
Chilena de Astronomía (CNRS UMI Since the earliest observations in ancient precise empirical determination of H0 to
3386), Universidad de Chile, Santiago, times to present-day astrophysics, the date is 74.03 ± 1.42 km s-1 Mpc-1 and is
Chile determination of distances to astrophysi- based on Cepheids and Type Ia super­
5
Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, cal objects has been one of the most novae (Riess et al., 2019). The value
Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, important, fascinating and challenging obtained differs by about 4σ from the
CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte dAzur, goals in astronomy. Knowing distances is value predicted by the Planck Collabora-
Nice, France about much more than just knowing the tion et al. (2016), which is based on a
6 
Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, scale; it also means knowing the physical ΛCDM model and the Planck CMB data
USA nature of the objects in the Universe, and (66.93 ± 0.62 km s-1 Mpc-1). This discrep-
7 
LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, each significant improvement in the accu- ancy between the two values of H0 is
Université PSL, CNRS, Sorbonne racy of the distance scale has traditionally sometimes called a crisis, and may indi-
Université, Université Paris Diderot, opened up new fields of astrophysical cate the need for new physics beyond
Sorbonne Paris Cité, Meudon, France research. the standard cosmological model. A sig-
8
Institute for Astronomy, Honolulu, USA nificant improvement in the accuracy of
9 
University Observatory Munich, LMU, Distance determinations to galaxies led the measurement of H0 by the Cepheid­-
Germany to the discovery of the expansion of the supernova Ia method is therefore of para-
10 
Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics, Universe, one the most important break- mount importance for deciding if the cur-
Potsdam, Germany throughs in astrophysics. Since then the rent discrepancy between it and the
precise and accurate measurement of Planck H0 value does indeed exist. This
distances to galaxies provides the basis is critical for cosmology in general, and
In the last 20 years, over the course of for determining the famous “Hubble con- necessary to drive truly significant pro-
the Araucaria project, we have studied stant” (H0) which describes the expansion gress towards the understanding of the
20 very special eclipsing binary sys- rate of the Universe and has become a dark energy phenomenon.
tems in the Large Magellanic Cloud central problem in astrophysics.
(LMC). Based on these systems and our After about 100 years of intensive work
newly calibrated surface brightness­–­ After the detection of the accelerated on the empirical determination of the
colour relation we have measured a dis- expansion of the Universe and the intro- Hubble constant, it is evident that any
tance to the LMC that is accurate to duction of an enigmatic dark energy significant reduction in its uncertainty can

24 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


now only be achieved by improving the The Large Magellanic Cloud as a 2002), and relatively small extinction
accuracy of the absolute calibration of perfect astrophysical laboratory (Gorski et al., 2020). Exquisite period–
the Cepheid method, which constitutes luminosity relations have already been
the largest contribution to the total error The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), which obtained based on the LMC Cepheids in
budget of the H0 determination (see, for can be seen with the naked eye in the both optical and near-infrared bands
example, Riess et al., 2018). southern sky (Figure 1) is our closest (Soszynski et al., 2017; Persson et al.,
neighbour galaxy and provides the road 2004).
Figure 2. The light curve and radial velocity curve to calibrating Cepheids and other dis-
and corresponding residuals obtained for one of our tance indicators. Indeed, it possesses a The LMC is also the perfect laboratory
target eclipsing binaries in the LMC, demonstrating
the high quality of the data. Based on observations
large population of Cepheids (Soszynski et with which to study many different pro-
such as these we obtained stellar physical parame- al., 2017), has a relatively simple geome­­try cesses and objects. Therefore, a precise
ters with a very good precision of 1–2%. (see, for example, van der Marel et al., geometrical distance to this galaxy is
extremely important, not only for cosmol-
0.02 ogy, but also for many different fields of
modern astrophysics. For this reason,
O–C (flux)

0 more than 600 distance determinations


to the LMC can be found in the literature
(with the NED database, Mazzarella & the
– 0.02
NED team, 2007). However, their rela-
1 tively low precision and lack of control of
systematic errors prevent the use of the
LMC distance to significantly improve the
determination of H0.
Normalised flux

0.9

Eclipsing binaries as precise and


0.8 accurate distance indicators

Detached eclipsing double-lined spectro-


0.7 scopic binaries offer a unique opportunity
to measure directly, and very accurately,
stellar parameters like mass, luminosity,
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
and radius, and consequently the dis-
Orbital phase
tance (Graczyk et al., 2014; see also
Kruszewski and Semeniuk, 1999 for
a very detailed historical review).
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
With current observational facilities, and
O–C (km s –1)

the application of an appropriate surface


0 brightness-colour relation, eclipsing bina-
ries have the potential to yield the most
direct (one-step), and the most accurate
–1
300 (~ 1%) distance to the LMC. Indeed, the
distances to individual systems can be
290 obtained from the simple equation:
Radial velocity (km s –1)

280 R(R⊙)
d(pc) = 9.2984 ×
ϕ(mas)
270

260 The linear radii of the components of the


binary systems R are determined from
250 the standard, well known modelling of
radial velocities and photometric light
240 curves, while angular diameters are
derived from the surface brightness-­
230
colour relation. The surface brightness is
220 defined as Sv = V0 + 5 log(ϕ), where V0 is
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 the V-band magnitude corrected for the
Orbital phase reddening and ϕ is the stellar angular

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 25


Astronomical Science Pietrzyński G. et al., The Araucaria Project

Figure 3. The new surface brightness–colour relation- 5.2


ship obtained over the course of the Araucaria project
based on interferometric observations with the VLTI
and PIONIER and photometric data from the litera- 5.4
ture. The rms scatter on this relation is 0.018 magni-
tudes, which corresponds to 0.8% precision in stellar
angular diameters. 5.6
Sv0
diameter. An empirical surface bright- 5.8
ness-colour relation is very well estab-
lished for stars with spectral types later 6.0
than A5, coming from accurate deter-
minations of stellar angular diameters
using interferometry (Di Benedetto, 2005; 6.2
Kervella et al., 2004; Pietrzyński et
al., 2019). 6.4

The only concern in using this approach


was that late-type main sequence bina- 0.1
ries located in the LMC are too faint to
O–C

0.0
secure accurate high-resolution spectra
even with the biggest telescopes. For a – 0.1
long time, it had not been possible to use
the full potential of eclipsing binaries to 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7
determine the distance to the LMC (V–K) 0
because of the lack of suitable systems.
This situation changed when microlens- camera at ESO’s La Silla Observatory angular diameters are measured uni-
ing teams, in particular the Optical (see Figure 2). We then used these data formly and that all stars are at compara-
Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE), together with OGLE photometry to deter- ble evolutionary phases as the compo-
provided an enormous amount of precise mine very precise astrophysical parame- nents of the LMC eclipsing binaries.
photometric data for about 35 million ters for the systems (1–3% masses, radii,
stars in the LMC obtained over around temperatures, etc.). In order to provide a significantly
20 years. Based on these data a few improved calibration of the surface
dozen extremely rare binaries composed In 2013, based on our analysis of eight brightness-colour relation, we carefully
of helium-burning giants were detected eclipsing binaries and applying the selected a sample of 41 nearby red
(Graczyk et al., 2011). The orbital periods surface brightness-colour relation of clump giants, which are in the core
of such systems are very long, typically Di Benedetto (2005) we managed to helium burning phase of stellar evolution.
several hundred days, and the eclipses measure a 2% distance to the LMC We made sure that our sample does not
are very narrow, which explains why they (Pietrzyński et al., 2013). We demon- contain variable stars or binaries. For
are extremely difficult to discover. strated that our result was only weakly our sample stars we collected precise
affected by a number of factors, including near-infrared photometry at the South
reddening, metallicity, gravity, limb dark- African Astronomical Observatory (Laney,
The Araucaria project delivers a 1% ening and blending. Indeed, the method Joner & Pietrzyński, 2012), and angular
geometrical distance to the LMC is very simple and powerful and provides diameters to a precision of 1% using the
a unique opportunity to precisely quantify Precision Integrated Optics Near-infrared
About 20 years ago we began a long- all possible error contributions (Pietrzyński Imaging ExpeRiment (PIONIER) instru-
term study called the Araucaria project et al., 2013; Graczyk et al., 2014). The ment on ESO’s Very Large Telescope
with the aim of improving the calibration total error budget of this measurement is Interferometer (VLTI) (see Gallenne et al.,
of major stellar distance indicators, and, completely dominated by the error in the 2018). These data are complemented
as a result, the determination of the surface brightness-colour relation with high-quality homogenous V-band
Hubble constant (Gieren et al., 2005; of Di Benedetto (2005). The root-mean- photometry (Mermilliod, Mermilliod &
Pietrzyński et al., 2019). The eclipsing square (rms) scatter on this relationship is Hauk, 1997). Based on these exquisite
binaries were a very important part of this 0.03 magnitudes, which translates to 2% data, the following surface brightness-­
from the very beginning. In particular, we precision in the determination of the colour relation was obtained:
selected a sample of binaries composed angular diameter. The observed scatter is
of helium-burning giants in the LMC and mainly caused by observational errors on Sv = 1.330(± 0.017) × [(V–K)0 – 2.405]
we have collected high-quality spectro- the K-band magnitudes. Another very + 5.869(± 0.003) magnitudes,
scopic data with the MIKE, HARPS and important issue while striving for 1%
UVES high-resolution spectrographs, and accuracy of the surface brightness-colour with a rms scatter of 0.018 magnitudes.
near-infrared photometry with the SOFI relation calibration is to ensure that the The relation is presented in Figure 3. It

26 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


two independent geometrical distance tances to nearby eclipsing binaries will
determinations are in an excellent allow a cross-check with Gaia parallaxes
agreement. at the level of 1%, which is extremely
important for evaluating the accuracy of
With the final Gaia parallaxes expected both techniques. Finally, the method pro-
○ a few years from now, a comparison vides an independent precise zero point
between Gaia distances and distances for the extragalactic distance scale and
○ determined for binaries with our surface the calibration of the Cepheid period-­
○ brightness-colour relation will be per- luminosity relation in different environ-
○ ○
○ ○ formed for many eclipsing binaries at the ments, paving the way for a precise
○ ○○ ○ ○○ ○ 1% level. This work will allow us to defini- determination of the Hubble constant
○ ○
○ tively mutually test and verify the accu- from the combined Cepheid period-­
○ racy of our method against Gaia. luminosity relation ­— supernova Ia method.


Indeed our 1% LMC distance has already
A new benchmark for cosmic distances allowed a precise calibration of the LMC
Cepheids and, as a result, a determina-
As can be appreciated from Figure 5, tion of H0 to a precision of 1.9% (Riess et
eclipsing binaries offer us an opportunity al., 2019). Moreover, it has allowed a pre-
Figure 4. Location of our 20 eclipsing binaries in the to determine stellar distances at a similar cise calibration of another interesting dis-
LMC. As can be seen here, all of them are located
level of precision to that of Gaia at 1 kpc tance indicator, the tip of the red giant
close to the centre of the LMC and to its line of
nodes. The final LMC distance derived is only very from the Sun, and to retain that precision branch (Gorski et al., 2018; Freedman et
weakly dependent on the geometry of this galaxy. out to the outskirts of the Local Group of al., 2020). This method was then used
galaxies. With the advent of the new to obtain H0 in an independent way
extremely large telescopes in the near (Freedman et al., 2020).
allows the measurement of angular diam- future, this will be extended even to gal-
eters with a precision of 0.8%, and there- axies far beyond the Local Group.
fore distances to eclipsing binaries with a Summary and future work
precision close to 1%. The precise and accurate distances from
this one-step geometrical method will Eclipsing binaries composed of late-type
We then applied our new surface continue to be very important for several stars have become a unique tool for the
brightness-­colour relation to measuring reasons. They provide the unique possi- precise measurement of distances within
distances to 20 eclipsing binaries located bility of measuring geometrical distances a volume of about 1 Mpc. We would like
in the LMC. The location of the binaries is to nearby galaxies, which is very impor- to highlight the role of interferometric
shown in Figure 4. The individual dis- tant for a wide variety of studies. As we measurements of stellar diameters in
tances are precise to 1.5–2%. Combining already mentioned, independent dis- calibrating the surface brightness-colour
them, the following distance measure-
ment to the centre of the LMC was
obtained: 18.477 ± 0.004 (statistical)
± 0.026 (systematic) magnitudes. With Supernova la
20 precise individual distances we con- (to be calibrated)
strained the geometry of the central parts
of the LMC and convincingly demon- Cepheids P–L
strated that the geometrical extent of the (to be calibrated) Figure 5. The methods
galaxy has no influence on the distance that can be used to cali-
measurement within the quoted errors. brate the Cepheid
Eclipsing binaries SBCR (1%) period­-luminosity rela-
To demonstrate that the method delivers, tion and, as a result,
the brightness of Type Ia
not only precise but also accurate dis- supernovae. Eclipsing
tances, one has to compare results from Gaia binaries, together with
independent methods. Pietrzyński et al. our new relation, offer
(2019) measured the distance to the us the opportunity to
nearby eclipsing binary TZ For at 185.1 (1%) determine distances
competitive in precision
± 2.0 (stat) ± 1.9 (sys) pc using exactly the Astrometric binaries to those with Gaia at
same approach as for the LMC systems. about 1 kpc from the
Galaxy Local group Distant galaxies Sun. Contrary to Gaia
A very precise distance to TZ For of
parallaxes, however,
186.1 ± 1.0 (stat+syst) pc was also they retain their high
obtained based on spectroscopic and 101 10 3 10 5 107 10 9 precision for distances
astrometric orbits (Gallenne, 2016). These Distance from the Sun (pc) up to 1 Mpc.

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 27


Astronomical Science Pietrzyński G. et al., The Araucaria Project

Figure 6. One of the auxiliary telescopes forming the


VLTI; these telescopes were crucial in our project.
Photograph taken by Grzegorz Pietrzyński during
one of the team’s frequent observations of the LMC
eclipsing binaries at ESO’s Paranal observatory.

relation, which is at the heart of this


method. Thanks to this, our method is
completely independent and does not
require any calibrations or assumptions.
It has opened up the opportunity to
measure geometric distances to nearby
galaxies with an accuracy of about 1%,
which is very important for many fields of
modern astrophysics. In particular it
allows the precise calibration of second-
ary distance indicators like Cepheids and
the tip of the red giant branch and, as a
result, to significantly improve the deter-
mination of the Hubble constant.

Despite this significant progress in using


eclipsing binaries as a precise and accu-
rate distance indicator, a lot of work is still
required before we can realise the full
potential of eclipsing binaries and apply
them to measuring cosmic distances on
a larger scale. Our team has been work-
ing intensively on improvements to the
surface brightness-colour relation. We
are working on precision calibration of
the surface brightness-colour relation for
early-type stars (Taormina et al., 2019, The research leading to these results has received References
funding from the European Research Council (ERC)
2020). Eclipsing binary systems com-
under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research Di Benedetto, G. P. 2005, MNRAS, 357, 174
posed of such stars are much easier to and innovation program (Grant Agreement No. Freedman, W. L. et al. 2020, arXiv:2002.01550
discover in nearby galaxies than systems 695099). We acknowledge support from the IdP II Gallenne, A. et al. 2016, Astron. Astrophys., 586, 35
composed of the late-type giants that we 2015 0002 64 and DIR/WK/2018/09 grants of the Gallenne, A. et al. 2018, A&A, 616, 68
Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. We Gallenne, A. et al. 2019, A&A, 632, 31
have studied in the LMC.
also very gratefully acknowledge financial support Gieren, W. et al. 2005, The Messenger, 121, 23
for this work from the BASAL Centro de Astrofisica y Gorski, M. et al. 2018, AJ, 156, 278
We have also been working on a very Tecnologias Afines (CATA, AFB-170002), and from Gorski, M. et al. 2020, ApJ, accepted,
extensive verification of our method. We the Millenium Institute for Astrophysics (MAS) arXiv:2001.08242
of the Iniciativa Milenio del Ministerio de Economía, Graczyk, D. et al. 2011, Acta Astron., 61, 103
have already obtained astrometric orbits
Fomento y Turismo de Chile, Project IC120009. We Graczyk, D. et al. 2014, ApJ, 780, 59
with the VLTI and PIONIER for more also acknowledge support from the Polish National Graczyk, D. et al. 2019, ApJ, 872, 85
nearby eclipsing binaries (Gallenne et al., Science Centre grants MAESTRO UMO-2017/26/A/ Kervella, P. et al. 2004, A&A, 426, 297
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French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR), 49, 561
extended list of eclipsing binaries which
under grant ANR-15-CE31-0012-01 (Project Unlock- Laney, C. D., Joner, M. D. & Pietrzyński, G. 2012,
can be analysed with even greater preci- Cepheids). Sandro Villanova gratefully acknowledges MNRAS, 419, 1637
sion, and for which we expect very pre- the support provided by Fondecyt Reg. No. 1170518. Mazzarella, J. M. & the NED team 2007, ASP Conf.,
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FONDECYT grant 3130361. Grzegorz Pietrzyński Mermilliod, J. C., Mermilliod, M. & Hauck, B. 1997,
Graczyk et al., 2019). These data will
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098.D-0263(A,B), 097.D-0400(A), 097.D-0150(A), Planck collaboration et al. 2016, A&A, 594, 13
097.D-0151(A) and CNTAC program CN2016B-38, Riess, A. et al. 2018, ApJ, 855, 136
CN2016A-22, CN2015B-2, CN2015A-18. This Riess, A. et al. 2019, ApJ, 876, 85
Acknowledgements research was supported by the Munich Institute for Soszynski, I. et al. 2017, Acta Astronomica, 67, 103
Astro- and Particle Physics (MIAPP) of the DFG Taormina, M. et al. 2019, ApJ, 886, 111
First of all, we would like to thank the staff at La Silla, cluster of excellence “Origin and Structure of the Taormina, M. et al. 2020, ApJ, 890, 137
Cerro Paranal, Las Campanas, and the South Universe”. Van der Marel, R. P. et al. 2002, AJ, 124, 2639
African Astronomical Observatory for their profes-
sional support during our frequent observing runs.

28 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


Astronomical News
Photographs taken at the Paranal Observatory
(above) and in Garching (below) in February 2019
to celebrate the International Day of Women and
Girls in Science.

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 29


Astronomical News DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5190

ESO’s Peer Review Panel Achieves Gender Balance

Ferdinando Patat 1 sions on scientific matters is itself community. That fraction has continued
Francesca Primas 1 unbalanced. to grow, and the 50% level was reached
Silvia Cristiani 1 in Period 105. To the best of our knowl-
Dimitri Gadotti 1 The challenges associated with achieving edge, this is the first time this has hap-
Elisabeth Hoppe 1 gender balance intensify when one looks pened in ESO’s history. Lower values
at the more senior levels. The fact that are attained in the composition of the
there are fewer scientists at more OPC-proper (orange line in Figure 1),
1
ESO advanced career levels (see, for instance, which includes only the panel chairs. This
Primas, 2019) can generate a negative reflects the difficulty one faces in recruiting
feedback loop; senior female researchers female scientists at the more senior levels
Gender equality, diversity and inclusion experience more pressure to serve on and for smaller committees, where one or
are very high on ESO’s agenda, and committees, and at some point have to two rejections during recruitment can have
the organisation has undertaken a num- start limiting the numbers of requests a disproportionately large impact.
ber of initiatives in these areas over the they are able to accept, thus inadvert-
past decade (Primas, 2019). The rea- ently and for purely structural reasons The systematic trend seen in Figure 1 is
sons behind these actions are not lim- this increases the imbalance. reassuring but it is certainly not sufficient
ited to addressing the issue internally; to guarantee equality and inclusion over
ESO also aims to raise awareness, with At ESO it is possible to see the impact of the long term. Other measures under
the aim of setting high standards that this during the recruitment of the referees consideration or being actively deployed
will motivate members of the scientific serving on the Observing Programmes include raising awareness about uncon-
community, and hopefully beyond. A Committee (OPC), which is composed of scious bias in peer review panels,
diverse and inclusive environment con- 78 panelists. On average, every semester obfuscating information on proposing
stitutes the most favourable terrain for ESO needs to replace 32 members teams and introducing a dual-anonymous
the growth of ideas, creativity, and the (~ 40%), selecting from the nominations peer review. The recent change requiring
development of original projects — key provided by the Users Committee and the user community to add gender infor-
drivers of success. taking into account a number of con- mation to User Portal profiles 1 will help
straints. Ensuring good gender balance in ESO to closely monitor the effectiveness
the OPC has always been difficult, both of these and other measures.
Although gender balance is not the only because of the imbalance in the commu-
ingredient for ensuring diversity, it is cer- nity and because of the higher rejection
tainly an area which can be closely moni- rate from female candidates. References
tored, and relatively simple corrective Carpenter, J. 2020, PASP, 132, 4503
actions taken. Several large astronomical This notwithstanding, the Observing Pro- Patat, F. 2016, The Messenger, 165, 2
facilities, including the Hubble Space grammes Office (OPO) proactively Primas, F. 2019, Nature Astronomy, 3, 1075
Telescope (HST), ESO and the Atacama addresses this issue during the recruit- Reid, I. N. 2014, PASP, 126, 923
Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, have ment of referees for peer review, aiming
closely scrutinised the processes used by to increase diversity and representation
Links
the peer review committees that allocate on the panels. The result of this continu-
time. While investigating possible biases ing effort is presented in Figure 1, which 1
Announcement requesting users to provide addi-
(Reid, 2014; Patat, 2016; Carpenter, 2020), shows the fraction of female referees tional information in their ESO User Portal profiles:
these studies have consistently revealed over the last eight years, during which https://eso.org/sci/publications/announcements/
sciann17266.html
the presence of systematics — at face 553 referees from 30 different countries
value female scientists are less success- reviewed about 14 000 proposals. As of
ful at getting telescope time. Although Period 99, the overall female fraction has Figure 1. The change in the gender balance on the
the problem is complicated by a number been consistently larger than the 30% Observing Programmes Committee and panels over
of factors, for instance, the difference value which is representative of ESO’s Periods 90–105 (2012–2019).
between the average scientific seniority
profiles in female (F) and male (M) sam-
60
ples, it is clear that the matter cannot be OPC Panels All
dismissed. 50

40
One of the issues resides right at the
Fraction (%)

source, in the lack of gender balance 30


present in the scientific communities that
these organisations serve. In the case of 20

ESO users, the overall female:male ratio 10


is about 30:70 (Patat, 2016). One con­
sequence is that, for instance, the gender 0
90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105
composition of committees taking deci- ESO Period

30 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


Astronomical News DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5191

Report on the ESO Workshop

The Galactic Bulge at the Crossroads


held at Gran Hotel, Pucón, Chile, 14–19 December 2018

Ivo Saviane 1 Authors Title


Manuela Zoccali 2, 3 Kormendy & Kennicutt (2004) Secular evolution and the formation
Dante Minniti 3, 4, 5 of pseudobulges in disc galaxies
Doug Geisler 6, 7 Somerville & Davé (2015) Physical models of galaxy formation
Bruno Dias 3, 4 in a cosmological framework
Bournaud (2016) Bulge growth through disc instabilities
in high-redshift galaxies
1
ESO Brooks & Christensen (2016) Bulge formation via mergers in cosmological
2
Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, simulations
Santiago, Chile Fisher & Drory (2016) An observational guide to identifying pseudobulges
3 and classical bulges in disc galaxies
Instituto Milenio de Astrofísica,
Santiago, Chile Shen & Li (2016) Theoretical models of the Galactic bulge
4
Universidad Andres Bello, Santiago, Naab & Ostriker (2017) Theoretical challenges in galaxy formation
Chile Barbuy, Chiappini & Gerhard (2018) Chemodynamical history of the Galactic bulge
5
Vatican Observatory, Italy
6
Universidad de Concepción, Chile Table 1. A list of recent reviews related to the formation of galactic bulges a.
7
Universidad de La Serena, Chile
successful. Following intense preparatory attempt here to give the current overall
work, coupled with additional fund rais- picture of the Galactic bulge. This over-
The Galactic bulge is of great interest to ing, the meeting started on the afternoon view is of course biased, both because
researchers working in several different of Sunday 9 December 2018, with a wel- only a fraction of the literature was pre-
areas and it has seen a surge of interest come cocktail on the terrace of the Gran sented, and because it is based on
in recent years; indeed, half of the Hotel Pucón. The hotel offers stunning our own interpretation of what was dis-
papers discussed at the meeting were views of the Villarrica lake. Later in the cussed. For a more comprehensive view,
published after 2014. This interest is week, the weather was mostly cloudy, we refer readers to the Zenodo link to the
motivated for several reasons: it is a pri- but interestingly, on Wednesday the sky presentations1, and to the reviews listed
mary component of the Milky Way, cleared just in time to let us enjoy the in Table 1.
comprising ~ 25% of its stellar mass; free afternoon — set apart in the pro-
and all major stellar populations inter- gramme — and the impressive view of Like the Milky Way, most spiral galaxies
sect there, reaching their highest densi- the Villarrica volcano was finally revealed! populating the local Universe are barred
ties, thus making it truly a crossroads. The day after, the weather was cloudy (~ 60%); and if their mass is similar to that
Its formation is intimately related to that again, but in the evening the hotel terrace of the Milky Way, they have an 80%
of the Milky Way, therefore it offers was illuminated by the folklore group chance of having boxy or peanut-shaped
clues to understanding the structure, MasDanza, who provided participants bulges with high levels of cylindrical rota-
formation, and evolution of the Galaxy. with a fascinating show of Easter Island tion. Velocities in the strongest barred
A variety of bulge morphologies are dances, ahead of dinner at the hotel res- galaxies are like those in the Milky Way.
seen in the local Universe, so a com- taurant. The venue hosted five days of In addition, recent integral-field unit
parative study of the properties of the excellent presentations and lively discus- observations of barred discs show
Galactic bulge helps with understand- sions, which started on Monday morning kinematics that are consistent with the
ing bulge formation in general. Finally, with a welcome address by the deputy Galactic bulge. Cosmological simulations
ever more detailed studies of galaxies mayor of the city of Pucón. The healthy are consistent with this picture; their end
at high redshift promise to catch Milky diversity of the participants is also worth products are mostly pseudo-bulges
Way proxies in their infancy, thus stressing, with significant representation formed in situ, with a fraction of them
revealing the initial conditions of bulge from the Chilean astronomical commu- containing a classical component.
formation. All of these aspects were nity, demonstrating its impressive growth
reviewed by invited and contributed in the last few years. The emerging picture of the Galactic
talks, and in poster sessions. bulge is that of three components with
This article presents just a short sum- different metallicities and different cylin-
mary of the main results that emerged drical rotation speeds, which first appear
Motivations during the conference, and their possible as a bimodal metallicity distribution func-
interpretation. This is followed by a dis- tion (MDF) with a metal-poor tail, and
In March 2017, some of the participants cussion of open questions and the scope because the relative fraction of metal-rich
at the conference “On the Origin (and for future research. to metal-poor stars decreases far from
Evolution) of Baryonic Galaxy Halos” met the Galactic plane, a vertical metallicity
over dinner at Puerto Ayora to consider gradient is observed. The two main
the organisation of a conference in The basic facts structures are a spheroidal bar with
Chile to discuss recent progress on the [Fe/H] ~ –0.5 and alpha-enhanced stars,
Galactic bulge. A workshop proposal An impressive array of new observations with relatively slow rotation; and a boxy
was then submitted to ESO, which was  was presented at the conference, so we bar at [Fe/H] ~ +0.3 which can be further

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 31


Astronomical News Saviane I. et al., Report on the ESO Workshop “The Galactic Bulge at the Crossroads”

split into a slower, more metal-poor com-


ponent ([Fe/H] ~ –0.24) and a faster, more
metal-rich component ([Fe/H] ~ +0.18).
The boxy bar hosts stars with solar to
below-solar alpha-enhancement abun-
dances. Furthermore, an X-shaped com-
ponent (a manifestation of a boxy/peanut
structure) becomes more and more evi-
dent as metallicity increases. B/P com-
ponents are thought to be the inner 3D
parts of a longer, flatter bar such as seen
in NGC 4314, which has been detected
by Wegg, Gerhard & Portail (2015).

The run of alpha elements vs. iron indi-


cates that stars in the boxy component
were formed later, and at a lower rate supermassive black hole, which consti- Figure 1. Conference photo.
compared to the spheroidal component. tutes about 15% of the bulge mass.
However, while star formation certainly More support for old ages came from
started more than 10 Gyr ago, as sig- Francisco Nogueras Lara and his survey
naled by blue horizontal branch stars, the Open questions called GALACTICNUCLEUS (Nogueras-­
subsequent star formation history is still a Lara et al., 2018), which uses the High
matter of debate, with some studies find- While there appears to be broad consen- Acuity Wide field K-band Imager (HAWK-I)
ing an age-metallicity relationship extend- sus on the main characteristics of the at the VLT in combination with speckle
ing to 3 Gyr ago. Indeed, cosmological Galactic bulge, it appeared at the confer- holography (Schödel et al., 2013). On the
simulations that can resolve bulges pre- ence that many fundamental questions other hand Francesca Matteucci predicts
dict complex star formation histories, so still remain to be answered. We try to a non-negligible fraction of young stars,
reaching a consensus on the age distri- capture some of the main ones in the fol- by modelling magnesium abundances vs.
bution of Millky Way bulge stars will be lowing paragraphs. iron from Rojas-Arriagada et al. (2017).
essential to validate them and the evolu-
tionary timeline pictured below.
Age of bulge stars How many MDF peaks?
The presence of a pressure-supported,
classical bulge is still debated, but a For several decades the consensus has The metallicity distribution function (MDF)
non-rotating system of 43 confirmed been that bulge stars are as old as those was extensively discussed by Alvio
globular clusters indicates that a relic of of Galactic globular clusters. However, Renzini, Christina Chiappini, Manuela
such a component should be present, some recent studies, (such as those of Zoccali, and Thomas Bensby. While all
even if significantly less massive than the one of the speakers, Thomas Bensby), authors agree on a broad metallicity
others described above. have suggested that younger stars could range of –1.5 < [Fe/H] < +0.5, the details
also be present in those regions. Using of the MDF differ, in particular the number
A small population of metal-poor helium-enhanced isochrones might of peaks and their position, with the
([Fe/H] < –1) stars not belonging to any reduce Thomas’s ages somewhat (Nataf added complexity that the MDF depends
of the above components is also & Gould, 2012; Nataf, 2017), but the on the projected spatial position. The
detected, which could either be another conundrum is not completely solved. greatest variety is seen in the more cen-
signature of a minor classical bulge, or Elena Valenti and Cristina Chiappini sug- tral regions, where either two (GIRAFFE
the inner extension of the Galactic halo. gested that this controversy might be Inner Bulge Survey, GIBS) or three
RR Lyrae stars have metallicities compa- solved by asteroseismology, which could (ARGOS survey) peaks are detected.
rable to those of these stars, but it is yield ages with 20% uncertainties. Away from the centre the Bulge RAdial
unclear whether both belong to the same Velocity Assay (BRAVA) found only one
population; they are not rotating and To stress the difficulty of obtaining ages, peak corresponding to the metal-rich
might be a relic of an accreted system. Elena Valenti pointed out that, even start- population, because the metal-poor one
ing from the same set of Hubble Space is more centrally concentrated. To solve
Finally, there exists a nuclear bulge of Telescope (HST) photometric data, this conundrum, sharing data among dif-
1.4 × 109 M⊙, which consists of an r –2 Renzini et al. (2018) and Bernard et al. ferent groups was suggested, in order to
nuclear stellar cluster at the centre, a (2018) come to different results. The latter understand the origin of discrepancies
large nuclear stellar disc with radius find that most stars were formed earlier and reach a consensus on the MDF vs.
230 pc and scale height 45 pc, and the than 8 Gyr ago, while the former find location.
nuclear molecular disc of same size. that no more than ~ 3% of the metal-rich
And of course, at the very centre sits the component can be ~ 5 Gyr old.

32 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


Abundances:
– Measure abundances (alpha elements
in particular) of RR Lyrae stars, to
understand to which population they
belong.
– Check the extent of the multiple-­
populations phenomenon in the bulge,
by measuring sodium abundances from
high-resolution spectroscopy.
– Confirm the relative fractions of stars
in different metallicity intervals by collect-
ing data for stars closer to the Galactic
plane, where current surveys have a gap.
– Agree on a common abundance scale,
perhaps by giving the same data to dif-
ferent groups and exploring ways to
Figure 2. The local organising committee members using abundance signatures, which were make them converge.
at the kickoff meeting on 16 October 2017.
discussed by several speakers. The con- – Measure [Fe/H] of dwarfs (not micro-
sensus was that the three populations do lensed ones) with future large-aperture
No X-shaped component? differ in the run of abundances vs. iron, telescopes.
but larger stellar samples would help to – Follow up Gaia stars with the 4-metre
The presence of the X-shaped compo- settle this topic (see, for example, talks Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope
nent rests on the assumption that the two by Bensby, Rojas-Arriagada, Barbuy, (4MOST).
clumps seen near the red giant branch in Zasowski). – Measure helium abundances, for exam-
colour-magnitude diagrams represent ple by resuming the R-method, using
helium-burning stars at different dis- detached red giant branch eclipsing
tances. This assumption was challenged Which bulge structures are defined by binary twins, or with Wide Field Infrared
by Martín López-Corredoira and Young- RR Lyrae stars? Survey Telescope (WFIRST)
Wook Lee. The latter recalled that most asteroseismology.
globular clusters host multiple stellar As noted above, MDFs show a tail of
populations, with a fraction of their stars stars that are metal-poor, at [Fe/H] < –1, Extinction:
having enhanced helium abundances. but their numbers are too small to allow – Get 3D extinction maps, using diffuse
Stars with higher helium abundance end them to be reliably associated with one of interstellar bands (DIBs) and proper
up on a brighter red clump compared to the known components. Thus, whether motions from WFIRST, the Multi-­
those with normal helium abundance; RR Lyrae stars and the metal-poor tail of Adaptive Optics Imaging CamerA for
thus if the two red clumps were due to red clump stars belong to the same pop- Deep Observations (MICADO), and
different abundances, and not to different ulation, is still an open question. the Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission
distances, then stars in the two red for INfrared Exploration (JASMINE);
clumps could have come from disrupted Another puzzle is the discrepancy also, higher-­resolution maps of the vari-
globular clusters, and the 3D structure of between the results of the VVV and ations of the extinction law across the
the bulge would be a bar embedded in a OGLE surveys, as shown by Manuela bulge area.
bulge with a more classical origin that Zoccali and Igor Soszynski. While the – As shown by Kathy Vivas and Abhijit
would have formed at high redshift. Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment Saha, use RR Lyrae stars to obtain a
(OGLE) finds a barred spatial distribution reddening map at ~ 0.30 arcsecond
Martín López-Corredoira supported the (Pietrukowicz et al., 2015), the VISTA resolution and use it to recover intrinsic
idea of the absence of an X-shape by Variables in the Via Lactea survey (VVV) colours of all stars in a region of the sky.
showing that only old and metal-rich red finds a spheroidal one (Dékány et al.,
clump stars have an X-shaped distribu- 2013; Gran et al., 2015). High-redshift observations:
tion, while other distance indicators do – Find the time/redshift when the first
not recover it. bars can be seen.
Outlook – As suggested by Natascha Förster-­
Schreiber, exploit the improved spatial
Abundances of bulge vs. thin and In the course of their presentations, many resolution of future instruments to
thick discs speakers listed potential valuable addi- increase the chances of detecting bars
tions that would be necessary to improve (for example, MICADO on ESO’s
Bulge formation scenarios could be con- on our current knowledge about the Extremely Large Telescope will allow
strained by checking whether the bulge bulge. Some of their main ideas are listed a 100-pc resolution at z = 2).
stars could have come from the thin or here. – Observe globular cluster formation —
the thick disc. One way to do this is by as suggested by Renzini (2017) — to

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 33


Astronomical News Saviane I. et al., Report on the ESO Workshop “The Galactic Bulge at the Crossroads”

have a direct view of the origin of one in the bulge stars will be saturated to infer the cosmic star formation rate
of the bulge components. down to the red clump. (SFR), which is about 15 times lower than
–S
 ara Saracino showed the potential of its peak at z ~ 2. At all epochs most star
Morphology: the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive formation happens in galaxies located on
– Prove or reject the existence of the Optics System to obtain high-resolution a main sequence, where the SFR is pro-
X-shaped component with Gaia trigo- imaging in the infrared, which can be portional to the stellar mass, up to a
nometric parallax distances. matched to HST images in the optical. maximum of 1011 M⊙.

Ages: Cosmological simulations show gas flow-


– Measure ages via asteroseismology, Current and future surveys ing to the centre of such a protogalaxy,
to solve the age discrepancy issue. In triggering a starburst. Then, as more gas
addition, it would be interesting to give Livia Origlia presented her view of the is accreted in the outskirts, a disc forms.
Thomas Bensby’s spectra to other future of surveys aimed at the bulge stel- While observations show clumpy proto-
teams and see whether they can repro- lar populations. These will represent a galaxies, in some simulations those
duce his results. large jump in the number of stars with clumps can survive and reach the centre,
measured proper motions (VVV, UKIDSS, whilst in others they disperse quickly, so
Complete census of bulge stellar clusters: JWST, LSST, WFIRST), ages via main their significance in terms of galaxy evo-
–F or a census of clusters gravitationally sequence turn-off photometry (JWST, lution is not clear.
bound to the bulge, we need to get LSST, ELT+MCAO imaging), and turn-off
their 6D kinematics and reconstruct spectroscopy (extensive micro-lensing At z = 6 we start acquiring data on black
their orbits, as noted by Angeles surveys and follow-up high-resolution hole accretion rates, which afterwards
Perez-Villegas. spectroscopy at 8–10-metre-class tele- closely follow the trend in the cosmic
– Felipe Gran’s talk was along the same scopes, and then high resolution spec- SFR. At z = 3.5 we have the first meas-
lines and showed the promise of Gaia troscopy of main sequence stars with the urements of the molecular gas fraction in
proper motions (coupled to the VVV ELT (for example using HIRES). Abun- galaxies, which decreases until today,
survey) to discover new bulge clusters dance and kinematics data will be when 90% of its mass has been con-
(he has already found a new one). obtained at low latitudes with multi-object verted into stars.
spectroscopy and wide fields: for exam-
A wish list: ple, MOONS and later the Maunakea The star formation history of the Milky
– Dante Minniti provided his own list of Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE); and inte- Way can be reconstructed from z = 3
desirable data additions, which include gral-field units in dense fields (for exam- (11.5 Gyr), at which point its stellar mass
Gaia Data Release 3, Vera C. Rubin ple, with MUSE and ERIS on the VLT, and was ~ 109 M⊙, or 2% of the current value.
Observatory observations of the then HARMONI on the ELT). She also Then at z = 2.4 (11 Gyr) the first measure-
Galactic plane and bulge, JWST obser- noted that multiplexing spectrographs will ments of (negative) radial metallicity gra-
vations of bulge RR Lyrae stars, the help with chemical tagging of stars but dients are obtained in the discs of
Multi-­object Optical and Near-infrared will not be enough for detailed chemical (lensed) galaxies.
spectrograph (MOONS) instrument for studies. For these, ELTs will be needed,
the VLT, and a K-band filter for WFIRST. in order to collect significant samples in At z = 2 the mass of the Milky Way would
He would also like to determine the a short time, such as with ELT/HIRES, have grown to ~ 6 × 109 M⊙ or 30% of
specific frequency of globular clusters which she described in more detail. the current bulge mass. Observations
in the Milky Way and compare it to of galaxies of that mass show that they
other galaxies. are clumpy rotating discs, with no bar
Formation detected (clumps are luminous but minor
Exploit current and future high-resolution in mass). Also, they have high velocity
and/or panoramic imagers: With the caveat that many aspects of the dispersion and gas density ~ 150 times
– Roger Cohen highlighted the comple- Galactic bulge are still being investigated, that of a present galaxy with the same
mentary nature of ground and space and thus the scenario will likely change in mass. Larger galaxies show central
observations. Ground-based facilities the future, we propose here a possible density enhancements (bulges) growing
offer higher flexibility, allowing observa- timeline that could link the findings pre- in importance with mass, until 1011 M⊙,
tions in many bandpasses which permit sented above. This overview is based when they are about 60% of the total
spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting on talks by Alvio Renzini, Beatriz Barbuy, mass. Observations at z = 2 have a
and determination of reddening values, Manuela Zoccali, Sandro Tacchella, Juntai 1.5 kpc resolution (for example, with the
followed by multi-object spectroscopy Shen, Victor Debattista, Natascha Förster-­ Wide Field Camera 3 WFC3 on HST),
to characterise large samples of stars. Schreiber, and Ignacio Gargiulo, but any therefore in a galaxy like the Milky Way
Space observatories offer greater sta- misunderstandings are entirely ours! a central primordial bulge might go unde-
bility in the point-spread-function (PSF) tected. Indeed, the presence of globular
thus allowing precise astrometry. This is While galaxy candidates are detected up clusters confined in the centre of the
the promise of the James Webb Space to z = 10, there are only enough of them Galaxy suggests that a classical bulge
Telescope (JWST) with the caveat that below z = 8 (i.e., ~ 13 Gyr-old candidates) must have been created in its early stages.

34 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


After a few hundred Myr, at z ~ 1.5, the formed out of pristine gas and experi- Naab, T. & Ostriker, J. P. 2017, ARA&A, 55, 59
Nataf, D. M. 2017, Publications of the Astronomical
Milky Way progenitor would have reached enced rapid SFR.
Society of Australia, 34, e041
the mass of today’s bulge. Because most Nataf, D. M. & Gould, A. P. 2012, The Astrophysical
of its stars are older than 8 Gyr, if the According to Debattista et al. (2019), Journal Letters, 751, L39
bulge was formed out of that early disc the bar cannot have formed later than Nogueras-Lara, F. et al. 2018, A&A, 610, A83
Pietrukowicz, P. et al. 2015, ApJ, 811, 113
star formation should have stopped soon z = 0.33, so this event must have hap-
Renzini, A. 2017, MNRAS, 469, L63
after z = 1.1. Possibly star formation was pened between 10 Gyr and 3.7 Gyr ago. Renzini, A. et al. 2018, ApJ, 863, 16
not reactivated because equatorial accre- An interesting endeavour would then be Rojas-Arriagada, A. et al. 2017, A&A, 601, A140
tion streams had too high angular to look for the time/redshift when the first Schödel, R. et al. 2013, MNRAS, 429, 1367
Shen, J. & Li, Z.-Y. 2016, in Astrophysics and Space
momenta to feed the bulge, which effec- bars are seen.
Science Library, 418, Galactic Bulges,
tively remained “starved”; feedback from ed. Laurikainen, E., Peletier, R. & Gadotti, D., 233
active galactic nuclei (AGN) could also Somerville, R. S. & Davé, R. 2015, Annual Review of
have a role. On the other hand, some Demographics Astronomy and Astrophysics, 53, 51
Wegg, C., Gerhard, O. & Portail, M. 2015, MNRAS,
studies find evidence for the continuation
450, 4050
of star formation after that epoch, so this Almost one hundred participants
remains an open question. attended (see Figure 1), from 19 coun-
tries, with Chile representing the largest Links
To account for observed correlations fraction (34%). The second-largest popu- 1
Zenodo collection of talks: https://zenodo.org
between metallicity and kinematics, stars lation came from the USA (11%), followed /communities/galacticbulge2018
should form continuously in a kinemati- by Germany, Brazil, Italy, and South 2
Conference programme: http://www.eso.org/sci­
cally cool gaseous disc and acquire large Korea. Attendees from other countries /meetings/2018/gbx2018/program.html
radial random motions with time. There- represented 26% of the total; 32% of the
fore younger, kinematically cooler, and participants were female, and a healthy Note
more metal-rich stars should have co-­ 50% were young researchers (graduate
existed in the z = 2 disc with older, radi- students or post-docs). a
Recommended reading: Galactic Bulges, in
Astrophysics and Space Science Library, 418,
ally hotter, and more metal-poor stars.
ed. Laurikainen, R., Peletier, R. & Gadotti, D.,
According to models, age differences of (Switzerland: Springer).
1–2 Gyr are enough to produce large Acknowledgements
observable differences in the properties We acknowledge financial support from the Millen-
of different [Fe/H] populations. nium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS), Centro de
Excelencia en Astrofísica y Tecnologías Anes (CATA),
If gas in the bulge region was exhausted University of Concepción, University of Padova,
Chinese Academy of Sciences South American
quickly as suggested above, then n-body Center for Astronomy (CASSACA), and the Atacama
models can be used to follow its later Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA).
evolution. Starting from an exponential
stellar disc, these models develop an The success of the conference was largely due to
the efforts of the Local Organising Committee, and
instability that forms a bar, which then in particular María Eugenia Gómez, Paulina Jirón,
buckles into a boxy-peanut structure. Cesar Muñoz, Doug Geisler, and Joyce Pullen; most
Such simulations can also account for of the Local Organising Committee members are
observed vertical metallicity gradients, by shown at the kickoff meeting in Figure 2. Ivo Saviane
would also like to thank all of the speakers who pro-
assuming that the initial axisymmetric vided their slides.
disc had a radial metallicity gradient, or
that the disc sees an increase of radial
velocity dispersion with time. Thus the References
older and more metal-poor stars in the Barbuy, B., Chiappini, C. & Gerhard, O. 2018,
disc, which are kinematically hotter at the ARA&A, 56, 223
time of the bar formation, turn into a Bernard, E. J. et al. 2018, MNRAS, 477, 3507
weaker bar and become a vertically Bournaud, F. 2016, in Astrophysics and Space
Science Library, 418, Galactic Bulges,
thicker box. Stars born later are more ed. Laurikainen, E., Peletier, R. & Gadotti, R., 355
metal-rich and radially cooler and form a Brooks, A. & Christensen, C. 2016, in Astrophysics
strong bar, which is vertically thin and and Space Science Library, 418, Galactic
peanut-shaped. Bulges, ed. Laurikainen, E., Peletier, R. &
Gadotti, D., 317
Debattista, V. P. et al. 2019, MNRAS, 485, 5073
If there were no exchanges between the Dékány, I. et al. 2013, ApJ, 776, L19
disc-turned-bulge, and the later disc, Fisher, D. B. & Drory, N. 2016, in Astrophysics and
then the bulge and disc might have stars Space Science Library, 418, Galactic Bulges,
ed. Laurikainen, E., Peletier, R. & Gadotti, D., 41
with different age and chemical proper- Gran, F. et al. 2015, A&A, 575, A114
ties. On the other hand, abundances Kormendy, J. & Kennicutt, Jr., R. C. 2004, ARA&A,
might be similar, if the later disc was 42, 603

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 35


Astronomical News DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5192

Report on the ESO Workshop

The La Silla Observatory — From Inauguration to the Future


held at Universidad de La Serena, Chile, 25–29 March 2019

Ivo Saviane 1 gigantic steps over La Silla’s history, from History


Bruno Leibundgut 1 single-­pixel detectors to the large arrays
Linda Schmidtobreick 1 in use today. La Silla also experienced The workshop opened with welcome
the transition from photographic plates addresses by the Rector of Universidad
and simple electronic detectors to de La Serena (ULS) Nibaldo Avilés
1
ESO charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and Pizarro, by Mayor of the Higuera munici-
today’s infrared arrays. La Silla also pality Yerko Galleguillos, and by President
hosted the first large submillimetre dish in of the ESO Council Willy Benz. Also in
This five-day workshop celebrated the the southern hemisphere. Different attendance were Vice-Dean of Research
achievements of ESO’s first observa- operational schemes were tested at La and Development of ULS Eduardo Notte,
tory, La Silla, on the occasion of its 50th Silla; some new adventures in running and Director of Research and Develop-
anniversary. La Silla, officially inaugu- observatories included remote observing ment of ULS Sergio Torres.
rated on 25 March 1969, was the culmi- with the NTT and the Coudé Auxiliary
nation of the vision of European astron- Telescope (CAT), and The historical context of astronomical
omers to create a major observatory in the introduction of service observing at observatories in Chile was given by
the southern hemisphere. In the follow- the NTT. Bárbara Silva from the Pontificia
ing decades, La Silla served as a test- Universidad Católica de Chile. The earli-
bed enabling the development of scien- The workshop celebrated the scientific, est astronomical site explorations by US
tific, technical and operational expertise technological, operational and societal astronomers were carried out around the
in the European astronomical commu- achievements over the past half century end of the 19th and the beginning of the
nity, establishing communication — and charted the possible futures of 20th centuries and identified the Atacama
channels with the public at large, and 4-metre-class telescopes in the era of Desert around Copiapó and north of
working to increase interaction and col- extremely large telescopes. Many work- La Serena as potentially excellent
laboration with the host country Chile shop participants had personally experi- sites for nighttime observations. The
as well as with other astronomical facili- enced and participated in the history of International Geophysical Year in 1958
ties in the Andes mountains. Today, the La Silla Observatory. Their reports brought the Chilean sites to the attention
La Silla continues to serve as a superb reminisced on the remarkable changes in of American astronomers again and site
site hosting the ESO 3.6-metre and our understanding of the Universe, galax- explorations by Jürgen Stock — originally
NTT telescopes, as well as a number of ies, stars and planets. At the same time, for the University of Chicago and later for
community-led experiments. the workshop also attracted many young the Association of Universities for
people who presented newer results and Research in Astronomy (AURA) — identi-
their visions for possible future uses of fied mountains around Vicuña as possible
Introduction the La Silla telescopes. observatory sites. After the US National
Science Foundation selected Cerro
La Silla was the main observational The workshop took place in the special Tololo as their southern station, ESO also
resource of European astronomers in the auditorium called El Pentagono on the became interested (through Stock’s for-
southern hemisphere for the first three campus of the Universidad La Serena mer advisor Otto Heckmann, then ESO
decades of ESO’s existence. The (ULS). The site overlooks the city of Director General). This was a rather
observatory’s many telescopes, with a La Serena and the bay of Coquimbo, abrupt change from the original plan to
range of different apertures, provided the which offered a spectacular setting for place the ESO observatory in southern
tools to drive many discoveries. La Silla the workshop. The conference dinner Africa. Within a few years the La Silla
was also the testbed for innovations in was at La Silla and included a tour of the mountain was selected and developed.
telescope and instrument technology. observatory. Silva finished her presentation by display-
The 2.2-metre Max-Planck-Gesellschaft ing a stamp showing the ESO 1-metre
(MPG) telescope with its simple dome telescope, which was issued by the Chil-
and, of course, the many new features Workshop overview ean Postal Office in 1973.
implemented in the New Technology
Telescope (NTT) in 1989 were critical for The workshop programme was built The relationship between Chile and ESO
ESO’s path towards the Very Large around five topics: history, science, was explored by Claudio Melo, stressing
Telescope (VLT). Many new instrument hosted projects, the future, and contrib- the friendly spirit that has guided this
concepts were brought to the La Silla uted talks1. These topics were inter- relationship over the years. Chilean
telescopes. The focal reducer spersed throughout the workshop so that astronomy has expanded tremendously
spectrograph was first introduced with every day covered several aspects. over the past few decades and has made
the ESO Faint Object Spectrograph and Hosted Projects — formerly called the country one of the leading nations in
Camera (EFOSC) instruments and it was “National Telescopes” — are telescopes astronomical research.
copied with the FOcal Reducer/low- and experiments installed on La Silla that
dispersion Spectrograph (FORS) are operated by universities or consortia. Relations between the various observato-
instrument on the VLT and at many other ries in Chile were described by Mario
observatories. Infrared instruments made Hamuy and Leopoldo Infante. Hamuy has

36 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


worked extensively at the Cerro Tololo of the Magellanic Clouds, the identifica- instruments were maintained and
Inter-American Observatory and is a pro- tion of quasar absorbing systems as gal- improved over the years — a critical part
fessor at the Universidad de Chile. A axies and the observation of ultra-­ of the successful operations. An inside
leader of a Chilean Millenium project, he luminous galaxies. A bibliometric analysis view of the construction of the NTT was
was recently head of the Chilean science for results published after 1996, when the given by Sergio Lopriore, who was the
foundation (Comisión Nacional de ESO bibliographic records are complete, project engineer at the time, followed by
Investigación Científica y Tecnológica, lists nearly 6680 published papers based Jason Spyromilio who recounted stories
CONICYT), and as of October 2019 he is on data from La Silla telescopes until of the NTT Big Bang, bringing the NTT up
the representative of the Association of 2018. Among the top results are the dis- to VLT standards. A further legacy of
Universities for Research in Astronomy covery of the accelerated expansion of La Silla is the provision of new technolo-
(AURA) in Chile. Leopoldo Infante is the the Universe, the discovery of the pecu- gies and Cesare Barbieri charted the
director of the Las Campanas Observa- liar gamma-ray burst GRB 980425/ path from the NTT to the Telescopio
tory. They stressed the friendly competi- SN 1998bw, the survey of G dwarf stars Nazionale Galileo (TNG) on La Palma.
tion between the observatories, but also to map the solar neighbourhood, tracing Dietrich Baade reported on the impact of
the assistance they have provided each the nature of the Galactic centre via the remote observing with the NTT, the 2.2-
other, for example, the loan of the first orbits of stars, the connection between metre MPG telescope and the Coudé
CCD detector from Cerro Tololo to host-star metallicity and the probability of Auxiliary Telescope (CAT).
La Silla. hosting a planet, the high fraction of bina-
rity among massive stars, and chemical Instrumentation development for La Silla
The friendly challenge of the “observatory trends in stars in the thin and thick discs. underwent a long and arduous path.
olympics” is held every few years, featur- Originally, many instruments followed
ing competitions in various sports. Doug The historical development of the ESO American developments — in some
Geisler reminded the audience of the joint telescopes was presented by Massimo cases copies of successful instruments
workshops held by the observatories. Tarenghi, who had participated in the were purchased. Other instruments were
Several memorable meetings could be commissioning of the 3.6-metre tele- temporarily installed at La Silla tele-
reported (for example, the structure of the scope and led the construction of the scopes (visitor instruments) to obtain
Milky Way, Galaxy Bulges, SN 1987A). 2.2-metre MPG telescope, the NTT and observations of the southern skies.
A common concern of all observatories is the VLT. He gave an overview of the Sandro D’Odorico described how the
light pollution; for example, the new illu- changing scientific and technical land- 2.2-metre MPG telescope and the NTT
mination of the Panamericana near scapes and the technological advances required new instrumentation that paved
La Frontera leads to light pollution at the which led ultimately to the VLT tele- the way for many VLT instruments.
La Silla and Las Campanas observato- scopes. Michel Dennefeld gave a first-
ries. Guillermo Blanc reported on the hand history of some early developments The prominent NTT instruments, EFOSC,
efforts undertaken by the Oficina de of telescopes and instrumentation. The ESO Multi-Mode Instrument (EMMI),
Proteccíon de la Calidad del Cielo del first large project on La Silla was the SUperb Seeing Imager (SUSI) and Son of
Norte de Chile (OPCC), a collaboration Quick Blue Survey, which provided full ISAAC (SofI) were important stepping
of the observatories and the Sociedad photographic coverage of the southern stones. High-­resolution spectroscopy has
Chilena de Astronomía (SOCHIAS) to sky. The ESO Schmidt Telescope was become a strength of La Silla and Luca
maintain the dark skies in northern Chile. specifically built for this purpose and Pasquini presented its history. The Coudé
Sergio Ortolani gave an account of the Michael Naumann presented some of the Echelle Spectrometer (CES) for the 3.6-
sky brightness above La Silla and its original plates. The objective-prism mode metre and the CAT was followed by the
long-term evolution. He noted that of the ESO Schmidt had been used in Cassegrain Echelle Spectrograph
La Silla has a very dark sky at the zenith spectroscopic surveys, for example the (CASPEC) on the 3.6-metre, which was
and a long-term pattern of cloud cover- Hamburg–­ESO Survey, to search for the only high-­resolution spectrograph
age. About 70% of nights on La Silla are white dwarfs and quasars. Ana Cristina with polarimetric capabilities, as
photometric. Armond presented new plans to take up described by Gautier Mathys. Another
objective-prism spectroscopy with the high-resolution spectrograph, the Fibre-
Jorge Melnick began the scientific dis- SOuthern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) fed Extended Range Optical Spectro-
cussions by offering his list of the top ten telescope. graph (FEROS), was initially mounted at
results obtained with La Silla telescopes. the ESO 1.5-metre telescope and then
He first demonstrated the ever-increasing Gerardo Ihle led us on a journey down moved to MPG 2.2-metre. HARPS on the
demand for La Silla telescopes by show- memory lane, sharing his thoughts about 3.6-metre remains a unique facility for
ing the surge in the number of proposals the development of the Mechanical measuring accurate radial velocities.
from fewer than 100 at the beginning to Engineering Group on La Silla; the high-
nearly 600 proposals for Period 54, light was the design, manufacture, and Christian Gouiffes followed the various
before the start of the NTT Big Bang commissioning of a new M2 unit for the attempts at high-time-resolution photom-
(1995–96) and the introduction of the VLT 3.6-metre telescope, which fixed its etry undertaken at La Silla and gave a
(1999, Period 63). Results from the early image quality issues some 30 years after very nice account of the ESO rejection of
years include many stellar topics, studies first light. The La Silla telescopes and a putative pulsar in SN 1987A found at

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 37


Astronomical News Saviane I. et al., Report on the ESO Workshop “The La Silla Observatory”

another observatory. New instruments


will equip the 3.6-metre telescope (the
Near Infra-Red Planet Searcher, NIRPS)
and NTT (Son Of X-shooter, SOXS) in
connection with large dedications of
observing time for powerful surveys of the
next decade. Colin Snodgrass also pre-
sented a proposal for a high-­resolution
imager (GravityCAM) for the NTT.

Many infrared instruments debuted at


La Silla and Ulli Käufl gave an overview of
infrared instrumentation on La Silla over
four decades. The first instruments were
bolometers, followed by the first spectro-
graphs (IRSPECs) and cameras (IRACs)
and the extension into the thermal infra-
red with the Thermal Infrared MultiMode
Instrument (TIMMI) instruments. The
most prominent TIMMI result came
from following the impact of comet
Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter.
and orbital parameters) were derived. The Figure 1. Conference participants at sunset on
La Silla.
Experiments occasionally came to oldest stars reflect the chemical abun-
La Silla, for example the millimetre-wave dance in the early Universe before chemi-
heterodyne receivers brought to the ESO cal enrichment took place. essentially founding the field of exoplanet
1.5-metre and later the 3.6-metre tele- research as it is conducted today. The
scopes to measure CO(2–1). Thijs de Monique Spite gave a historical introduc- dedication of a large fraction of observing
Graauw took part in these early observa- tion to the recognition of metal-poor stars time over nearly two decades, coupled
tions and recounted how they eventually and their importance in understanding with the exquisite wavelength accuracy
led to ESO’s hosting the Swedish–ESO chemical enrichment. She described the of HARPS, has contributed to the field’s
Submillimeter Telescope (SEST) on contributions by La Silla telescopes, in progressing from the discovery of
La Silla. Lars-Åke Nyman presented the particular the searches by the Hamburg–­ gaseous giant planets to finding rocky
many successes of the SEST during its ESO objective-­prism survey with the ESO super earths and uncovering several
15 years of operation and its important Schmidt telescope and follow-­­up high-­ planetary systems. Radial velocity
role as precursor to the current resolution spectroscopy. These studies searches have been performed over
submillimetre telescopes in Chile. were continued with one of the first VLT many years with the (hosted) Euler tele-
Large Programmes on the “first stars” scope and Stéphane Udry described
with the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph the many successes. By now, planets
Science (UVES). The importance of stellar binarity with orbits of longer than 10 000 days
(and multiplicity) was described by Hans (> 27 years!) have been found. Francesco
Birgitta Nordstrom presented one of the Zinnecker. The ever-improving image Pepe charted the successes of HARPS
most successful programmes that used quality led to the “breaking up” of the most and how it is now part of a suite of instru-
La Silla telescopes, showing how the massive known stars into smaller constitu- ments used to study exoplanets. The
Geneva–Copenhagen Survey of the Solar ents and the La Silla telescopes played an prospects for this field are bright, with
Neighbourhood changed our views of the important role, particularly in resolving the NIRPS on the 3.6-metre opening up the
Milky Way. This project, which lasted for stars in the Tarantula Nebula. Similarly, possibility to search for planets around
over 15 years and required more than the young stars in the Orion star forma- low-mass stars, as presented by Francois
1000 observing nights, collected the tion region are mostly binaries, and it has Bouchy. Thierry Forveille (on behalf of
space motions of over 14 000 F- and since become clear that nearly all mas- Xavier Bonfils) showed how small tele-
G-type stars within ~ 100 pc (complete sive stars are in close binaries. scope projects, like the three robotic ExTrA
out to 40 pc) of the Sun. Distances, hosted telescopes on La Silla, can be
absolute magnitudes, effective tempera- Michel Mayor, the guiding light behind used to search for transiting planets
tures, metallicity, proper motions (from the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet around M dwarfs and to study their
the HIPPARCOS satellite) and radial Searcher (HARPS), presented the evolu- atmospheres. A similar project focusing
velocities for all the stars were deter- tion of exoplanet discoveries with this on the brightest stars is the Multi-­site
mined. About a third (34%) of the stars instrument. Later in the year, Michel All-Sky CAmeRA (MASCARA), which is
are binaries. From these observed values, received (together with Didier Queloz) half run by Ignas Snellen.
several quantities (ages, space motion of the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physics for

38 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


André Maeder presented La Silla’s contri- ray bursts (GRBs). PESSTO and its suc- the Danish 1.5-metre is fully dedicated to
butions to stellar astrophysics. HARPS cessor ePESSTO were presented by photometry and is jointly operated by a
has become the instrument of choice for Rubina Kotak. PESSTO followed a long Danish and Czech consortium. It is regu-
determining stellar abundances and col- tradition of programmes studying super- larly used for exoplanet transit observa-
lecting the time series spectra required novae at La Silla. Masimo Turatto was a tions, and also discovered the rings
for asteroseismology. Combined with key member of those projects and sum- around the asteroid Chariklo via
theoretical progress on modelling rotating marised the many results on supernovae occultations.
stars, our understanding of the interiors obtained with La Silla telescopes. A spe-
of stars has increased dramatically. The cial aspect he emphasised is the impor- One of the first robotic telescopes was
observations of globular clusters have tant role of such programmes in forming TAROT (Télescope à Action Rapide pour
always been central to stellar evolution European collaborations. les Objets Transitoires — Rapid Action
studies and Georges Meylan summarised Telescope for Transient Objects), designed
what is known about cluster kinematics SN 1987A has a special place in La Silla’s to hunt for GRBs; this project was pre-
and dynamics. The line of instruments history. The observations and unique sented by Michel Boër. The REM (Rapid
from CORAVEL (Danish 1.5-metre tele- contributions by the La Silla telescopes Eye Mount) robotic telescope was
scope) to CORALIE (Euler 1-metre tele- were summarised by Patrice Bouchet. in­stalled in 2003 to follow GRBs photo-
scope) and to HARPS at the 3.6-metre The early indication of circumstellar mate- metrically in the infrared. Emilio Molinari
with ever increasing radial velocity accu- rial stemmed from NTT observations and presented the history and successes of
racy was leading the way to resolved was later confirmed by HST. The infrared this telescope. Today, REM focuses on
kinematics and dynamics in globular observations of SN 1987A were led by time-domain astronomy (mostly follow-up
clusters. ESO facilities and they provided impor- of fast triggers like GRBs and kilonovae)
tant results, including monitoring the early but also exoplanet transits and space
Frank Eisenhauer summarised 28 years dust formation and freeze-out at late debris. The TRAnsiting Planets and
of observations of the Galactic centre times. An unbroken observational record PlanetesImals Small Telescope (TRAPPIST)
from La Silla and Paranal, culminating of SN 1987A exists until today and contin- is a robotic 60-cm telescope and was
in the spectacular observations of the ues with the inclusion of VLT and ALMA. presented by Emanuel Jehin. TRAPPIST-­
effects of strong gravity close to the South has now operated for 10 years and
supermassive black hole at the centre of The Galactic bulge has been a favourite is also used for educational purposes in
the Milky Way. La Silla telescopes were target for La Silla telescopes. Beatriz university courses. Its biggest success so
among the first to employ speckle imag- Barbuy reported on the latest results. far is the discovery of a planetary system
ing (for example, the SHARP camera) and The old population of the bulge has been consisting of seven transiting Earth-like
adaptive-optics-assisted observations of confirmed and a clear signal of enrich- planets around an ultra-cool dwarf
the stellar population in the densest part ment of alpha elements by core-collapse (2MASS J23062928-0502285, now better
of our Milky Way. Tracing the orbit of the supernovae is found. The abundances in known as TRAPPIST-1). This is one of the
star S2 around the black hole com- the bulge are comparable to those in the richest and best studied planetary sys-
menced at La Silla. thick disc, while the oldest globular clus- tems so far.
ters are confined to the bar in the inner
Cataclysmic variables and the current Galaxy. After many years of time being offered
status of white dwarf observations were to the ESO community on the MPG
presented by Linda Schmidtobreick and 2.2-metre telescope, the telescope has
Tom Marsh, respectively. La Silla tele- Hosted telescopes now become a hosted telescope on
scopes have contributed to these fields La Silla and is operated by the MPG.
via numerous Target of Opportunity (ToO) La Silla has hosted non-ESO (“national”) The exciting prospects of the BlackGEM
and monitoring programmes. UltraCAM is telescopes for many years. Some of telescope array were presented by Paul
a visitor instrument which provides these operated on a mixed model with Groot. The three 60-cm telescopes are
unique high-time-resolution capabilities observing time available to the ESO com- mainly set up to observe the electromag-
helpful for many of the white dwarf stud- munity. The Danish 1.5-metre telescope netic counterparts of gravitational wave
ies. One of the primary goals of SOXS is began operating in 1978 and Michael events. The installation is well under way
the monitoring of variable sources. Pietro Andersen gave an overview of its scien- and first light was obtained in January
Schipani presented the concept and tific achievements as well as future plans. 2020. Another future telescope is the
goals of SOXS. The wide-band spectro- This telescope was also one of the first ESA TestBed Telescope (TBT), a 1-metre
scopic coverage and the large allocation on La Silla to use a CCD detector. This telescope to continuously monitor the sky
of observing time at the NTT will enable setup was used by a Danish team to dis- for space debris and near-Earth objects.
surveys of transient phenomena on cover the first distant supernovae, which It will be a precursor to the ESA Near
an unprecedented scale. SOXS follows opened up the possibility of observing Earth Object Survey Telescope (NEOSTel)
in the footsteps of the Public ESO the cosmic expansion rate beyond the to survey the sky continuously in order to
Spectroscopic Survey of Transient local Universe. In addition, the telescope detect fast-moving objects.
Objects (PESSTO), which has provided has also made important observations of
new insights into supernovae and gamma-­ GRBs and lensing of exoplanets. Today

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 39


Astronomical News Saviane I. et al., Report on the ESO Workshop “The La Silla Observatory”

The first La Silla telescope, the 1-metre not require 8-metre- or 40-metre-class tem as offered to its community. The
photometric telescope, was installed in telescopes. The time domain will become La Silla observatory offers a prime site,
1966 (even before the official inauguration a major area for 4-metre-class telescopes significant instrumental capabilities and a
of the observatory) and, as presented by in the future. Many science cases requir- versatile operations model. Fifty years
Moni Bidin, since it ceased ESO opera- ing long-term monitoring (for example, after its inauguration the La Silla Observa-
tions it has been used by Bochum exoplanets, transient phenomena) will be tory is still going strong and the promise of
University and the Universidad Católica best served with ESO’s 4-metre-class new scientific discoveries continues.
del Norte. A new high-resolution spectro- tele­scopes. The support role of some
graph (FIDEOS) built by the Pontificia of these telescopes to complement mis- Acknowledgements
Universidad Católica de Santiago was sions such as PLATO was also stressed
installed in 2016 and is used for several times. The organisers would like to thank the University of
exoplanet work. An important aspect of La Serena for the support provided for this workshop.
small (privately-run) telescopes is the
training of astronomers at the start of Demographics Links
their careers. Alessandro Ederoclite
1
described the potential use of small tele- The workshop was attended by 74 regis- T he programme with links to the individual
­p re­sentations: https://www.eso.org/sci/
scopes in the future. Throughout its his- tered participants (see Figure 1), with only meetings/2019/lasilla2019/program.html
tory, La Silla has often served as the first nine female participants (just under 12%).
introduction to professional astronomy for This was lower than the ratio of women
early career researchers, and more to men in the Science Organising
recently this role has been boosted as Committee (3:9). There were only five
the site of several astronomy training women among the 41 invited speakers
schools. Bruno Dias gave an account (also 12%). Of the 18 contributed talks
of the most recent school and Michel only 2 were given by female speakers.
Dennefeld placed this into the wider con- It should, however, be noted that more
text of the Network of European Obser- than half of the participating women were
vatories in the North (NEON) schools. invited speakers. These numbers reflect
in part the demographics during the early
history of astronomy in Europe.
Future

The workshop ended with a general dis- Summary


cussion of the future of La Silla. Andreas
Kaufer gave an overview of the plans for The La Silla Observatory has participated
the next few years to set the stage of the in most of the revolutions in astronomy
discussion. Central to these are the oper- over the past 50 years. The synergies
ation of the 3.6-metre telescope and the with other observatories, in particular
NTT, which will be equipped with new with space-based observations in the
instruments that will be dedicated ultraviolet, in X-rays and in gamma rays,
to specific science topics. Once the have been highly beneficial. The develop-
3.6-metre telescope has been equipped ment of state-of-the-art instrumentation
with HARPS and NIRPS, it will become and the improvement in detector technol-
the primary facility for high-precision ogies reduced the need for larger tele-
radial velocity studies in the optical and scopes for several decades. A further
the near-infrared. SOXS on the NTT will strength of La Silla programmes was (and
focus mainly on the spectroscopy of tran- still is) the large instrument complement
sient objects and will be the primary and the possibility to execute long-term
spectroscopic follow-up facility for future programmes — in some cases lasting
surveys. A third component is the hosting decades. La Silla has been Europe’s flag-
of telescopes run by external consortia to ship facility for three decades and has
enable access to the southern hemi- continued to produce exciting science
sphere at an excellent site. results from surveys during the VLT era.
In the future, it will focus its facilities even
During the discussions a number of more on long-term and survey projects,
points were made. La Silla telescopes which are impossible at larger telescopes
already complement the current flagship given the demands on their time.
facilities, VLT and ALMA, and will become
workhorses for massive surveys of the La Silla telescopes cover an important
brighter sky, targeting all objects that do part of ESO’s integrated observing sys-

40 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


Astronomical News DOI: 10.18727/0722-6691/5193

Fellows at ESO

Francesco Belfiore

The light is different in the Atacama


Desert. I will never forget the colours of
the sunset driving down the road leading
away from the Atacama Large Millimeter/
submillimeter Array (ALMA), after a busy
day’s work attaching cables to electronics
boxes in a crammed space at the back
of the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment
(APEX) telescope. Hosted on the
Chajnantor plateau, at an elevation of
around 5100 m above sea level and right
next to ALMA, the APEX telescope is a
small island of state-of-the-art astronomi-
cal equipment in the middle of a seem-
ingly Martian landscape.

As an ESO fellow I spend part of my


functional duty time as support astrono-
mer for APEX. This experience has
allowed me to perform a wide variety of
observations for scientists from different
ESO Member States, but also given me which brought together so many different I know about observational astronomy I
first-hand experience of the challenges aspects of the physics, from quantum owe to the fantastic group of people in
involved in running a world-class obser- mechanics to cosmology. I felt, however, MaNGA.
vatory — including the mild dizziness that I was missing the thrill that comes
associated with working at more than from experimental verification. I therefore From the time of my PhD, my work has
5000 m above sea level. applied for a PhD in observational astron- been dedicated to studying the chemical
omy. I have to thank my PhD advisor, make-up of galaxies to draw conclusions
I came to astronomy by an indirect route. Roberto Maiolino, at the Cavendish astro- about their origins and evolution. My PhD
At school I liked both acting and mathe- physics group in Cambridge, for giving advisor was instrumental in my long-term
matics. I am still fascinated by the story-­ me the chance to meet this challenge interest in the physics of the interstellar
telling aspect of performing in plays and head on. medium. I am also grateful to Francesca
the adrenaline rush of walking onto a Matteucci and Fiorenzo Vincenzo for
stage. As for mathematics, I admire the Even in the first few months of my PhD, introducing me to the beauty of chemical
logical constructs of Euclidean geometry, Roberto gave me a great amount of free- evolution modelling. The appreciation of
which one of my teachers in high school dom to pursue my own ideas and this theoretical framework has given me
in Catania, Sicily, was particularly good encouraged me to get involved in insight and motivation for my observa-
at presenting. Aged 16 I was awarded a MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at tional work. The long-term goal of my
full scholarship to attend the United APO — APO is the Apache Point research is to trace the history of how
World College of the Adriatic1, an interna- Observatory), a large international collab- disc galaxies assembled by tying their
tional residential high school in Duino, oration with several key members based star-formation histories with their current
Trieste. In Duino I had my first encounter in the USA. The collaboration has been and past chemical abundances.
with experimental science in a well- using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
stocked chemistry lab. To my chemistry (SDSS) 2.5-metre telescope to conduct After seven and a half years as a student
teacher Anne Brearley I owe my decision an unprecedented survey of nearby gal- in Cambridge I was keenly aware that I
to apply to read Natural Sciences at the axies with integral-­field spectroscopy. needed to expand my academic hori-
University of Cambridge in the UK. Joining the SDSS-MaNGA collaboration zons. When Kevin Bundy, the Principal
was a defining event in my professional Investigator of the MaNGA survey, offered
I loved the undergraduate courses and career. I got involved in many aspects of me a job at the University of California,
the student experience in Cambridge. I the survey, from planning and data analy- Santa Cruz (USA), I happily accepted. In
specialised in physics and mostly enjoyed sis, exploring the first datasets, writing November 2018 I moved back to Europe
the theoretical physics courses. For technical documentation and organising and arrived at ESO as a new fellow. I
my masters thesis I approached Paul activities for early career researchers join- immediately felt that I was no longer just
Alexander, who guided me through ing the collaboration. My work was scru- a postdoc, but a valued member of the
a theoretical study of the 21-centimetre tinised by people other than my advisor, observatory team and of the scientific
atomic hydrogen signal from cosmic and sometimes strongly criticised, in reg- community in Garching. I wanted my time
reionisation. I greatly enjoyed the work, ular meetings and telecons. Most of what at ESO to be a learning experience and a

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 41


Astronomical News Belfiore F., Thomas R., Navarrete C., Fellows at ESO

time to expand my skill set. I therefore schools, and include a heavy load of another passion, software development.
decided to split my functional duty time physics, mathematics, and in my case, I learned how to use and write code, and
between outreach at the ESO Supernova engineering science. It is during these since then I have never stopped.
Planetarium & Visitor Centre and working years that I started to consider doing
as an APEX support astronomer. I had research in fundamental science. After From a more personal point of view, this
extremely limited experience of submilli­ these two years, I enrolled in the mag- experience was also amazing. The large
metre astronomy before taking the job at istère of fundamental physics at the team working on this project involved
APEX, but Carlos de Breuck and Palle Université Paris-Sud during the last year people from very different cultures. It
Møller gave me a crash course during my of my bachelor degree. It is at that made me appreciate working in such an
first time in Chile. Overall, ESO combines moment that I started to become inter- environment and I wanted to continue.
many of the aspects I most enjoy about ested in astronomy, at first from a theoreti- After my PhD I flew to Chile, to the
doing astronomy: an open and interna- cal point of view in the fields of cosmology University of Valparaiso, for a two-year
tional environment, an amazing group and general relativity. During my masters postdoctoral position. During these two
of peers, and the ability to draw direct degree, I enrolled in all the available astro- years, I joined the collaboration of
links between ideas, instruments and physics classes. It started to become a another high-redshift galaxy survey,
observations. passion for me, which is why I spent two VANDELS. This collaboration allowed me
internships at the University of La Plata in to go for the first time to the Very Large
Argentina to work on black hole entropy Telescope (VLT) to observe with the
Links and co-authored my first paper! VIsible Multi Object Spectrograph
1
The United World College of the Adriatic:
(VIMOS), which is now decommissioned.
https://www.uwcad.it/ After two years of masters work, I started This first contact with Paranal was like a
a PhD with Olivier Le Fèvre in the dream. I completely fell in love with the
Laboratoire d’Astrophyque de Marseille observatory, and I realised this is the kind
Romain Thomas (LAM) to work on an ongoing high-red- of place I want to work in. So I applied for
shift galaxy survey, the VIMOS Ultra Deep an ESO fellowship and got accepted!
I have always been curious. Since I was a Survey (VUDS). The thesis aimed to study
kid, I have always loved to try to under- when galaxies are born. Those 3+ years I have been at ESO for almost three years
stand how things “work”. That’s why I were a challenge, composed of periods now, and it has been the most thrilling
have always liked science in general and of success, some failures and a lot of experience I could ever dream of. As an
physics in particular. However, unlike sleepless nights. I really enjoyed it ESO fellow, I have 80 days/nights as a
some of my colleagues, the astronomy because this was really about trying to support astronomer, which results in, on
direction came later when I was a young understand what we see in the sky and average, one shift per month. I am always
adult. why it appears as it does. I learnt a lot excited to go to the observatory. The first
about data processing and how to do few months are not easy because there is
After my high-school diploma, I went to scientific analysis. I have always been a lot to learn and to remember but carry-
preparatory classes in physics and tech- amazed by how many different science ing out the observations is really exciting.
nology for two years (classes prépara- areas you can address using the same I always wonder, when looking at the
toires in the French system). These years sample of objects and how you can con- data we gather, what people will make of
are generally preparation for engineering nect them. It is also where I discovered them. Our work is also to make sure that
these data or of the best quality. I am now
support astronomer of both UT1 (Antu)
and UT2 (Kueyen), which mainly use
spectrographic instruments. In parallel
with core operational duties, I am leading
a team writing a system for data visualis-
ation called SCUBA. It is the first time
that I have been in charge of such a large
project and has very much helped me to
understand how the Paranal system and
how each instrument work. The most
challenging part of this fellowship is to
keep up with the science. In the begin-
ning, it is easy to get “swallowed up” by
the duty side of the work, but that
becomes easier over time. I am also for-
tunate to be involved in extensive collab-
orations, which definitely prevent me from
losing track of that aspect.
Romain Thomas

42 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


Camila Navarrete

You might think that my decision to be an


astronomer was straightforward, being
Chilean, and with Chile being the focal
point of a huge fraction of the current tele-
scope light collecting area worldwide.
Nevertheless, during my childhood I had
never heard of astronomy as a potential
professional career. And having grown up
in Santiago — the capital of Chile — I
could never appreciate the night sky.
Although ever since I can remember I was
always really fascinated by physics. I
enjoyed the challenge of solving a physics
problem, identifying the different forces
involved, solving equations and then pre-
dicting what was going to happen to the
object of study as a result.

I remember my physics teacher at high


school was extremely demanding, some-
times asking us to solve problems that
were closer to university level. Instead of
feeling overwhelmed by this, I felt encour- I was so determined to do astronomy that and characterise the variable star popula-
aged to solve these problems, even look- I chose a bachelor’s degree in astronomy tion of the biggest globular cluster in the
ing for higher-level textbooks with my at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Milky Way, Omega Centauri. This cluster
friends. One year before finishing high Chile, which at that time was the only uni- hosts more than 500 known variable
school education I hadn’t decided what to versity in Santiago with direct access to stars of different types, including some of
do next — possibilities included engineer- that field. After four years of classes, the best distance indicators we have in
ing in physics, or a bachelor’s degree in I was most interested in stellar astron- astronomy. In my master’s thesis I recov-
physics or even literature. I had always omy, stellar interiors and variable stars. I ered the variability of more than 300 vari-
loved reading novels and the classics, and started to work on my bachelor thesis ables in infrared bands, comparing their
that was also a secret option at that time. studying Δ Scuti low-amplitude variable amplitude with the amplitude of variability
stars in three open clusters, using infra- in the optical and deriving a very precise
During the summer holidays before my red observations. To find variable stars, distance to Omega Centauri using the
last year of high school, I heard in the several images of the same area have to period-luminosity relation. This relation —
news that the best students in Chile were be collected in order to recover the stellar first discovered by Henrietta Swan-Leavitt
choosing astronomy as a career. My first light variations over time. My first study — relates the period of the pulsation to
reaction was of incredulity and then of was completely disappointing as I the absolute magnitude of the star and is
curiosity. Why astronomy? I didn’t have couldn’t recover any variability despite found in all pulsating stars. When observ-
any education in astronomy in school, so some of the stars in the cluster being ing a variable, you can measure its
I decided to enroll in a month-long sum- known to be variable. But that was not apparent magnitude, and by monitoring
mer school in astronomy directed by the really surprising, variable stars tend to the variability of the star over time you
University of Chile. Frankly, I really just have smaller variations in the infrared can measure its period, thus precisely
wanted to know what astronomy was compared to the optical, where most of estimating its distance using the period-­
about. The campus was near my house the variables have been discovered so far. luminosity relation.
and the classes were just 1.5 hours in
length every afternoon, so it wasn’t a After finishing my bachelor’s degree, I My decision to do a PhD abroad changed
huge sacrifice of my last summer holidays started the master’s programme at my completely after I became the mother of
as a high-school student. After the first former university. At that time, in 2011, my a wonderful daughter. I decided to do the
classes, I was amazed. Why hadn’t I plans were absolutely defined — I would PhD at the same institution, but while my
known about all of these applications of do the two years of a master’s and then daughter was still small, I took the oppor-
the laws of physics before? After four start to apply to do a PhD abroad. During tunity to spend several months abroad
weeks and one visit to the local university my master’s I decided to do a similar but doing part of my research at the Institute
observatory, I had decided. I wanted to much more challenging project; I used of Astronomy at the University of
become an astronomer. several near-infrared observations from Cambridge as part of a big collaboration
the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope aiming to study the stellar halo of the
for Astronomy (VISTA) at Paranal to find Milky Way.

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 43


Astronomical News

My PhD thesis was dedicated to studying stellar streams populating the southern the UT2 (Kueyen) telescope. I execute
the stellar streams and overdensities skies, particularly around the Magellanic programmes on behalf of astronomers
present in this halo, observable from the Clouds — the biggest satellite galaxies of who want to observe with the Ultraviolet-­
southern hemisphere. These stellar sub- our Galaxy, which also contain their own Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES), and
structures are relics of past accretion stellar substructure. the X-shooter and the Fibre Large Array
events from the formation history of the Multi Element Spectrograph (FLAMES),
Milky Way. Most of the previously known Choosing ESO was an easy decision, choosing them based on the weather
stellar substructures were discovered except for the fact that it is located in conditions and scientific priorities, and
from the north, while the southern sky Santiago, where I have been for all of my checking in real time the quality of the
remained relatively unexplored. In my the- career so far. Nonetheless, interacting data we acquire. I also support visiting
sis, I explored data collected by wide- with frequent visitors from all over the astronomers who come to Paranal to
field photometric surveys, like ATLAS, the world, and working with colleagues from carry out their observations. Working at
ESO Public Survey carried out by the VLT many countries, it is easy to forget that I Paranal can be tough as it involves night-
Survey Telescope (VST), as well as varia- am still in my home town. At ESO, I split time work for several nights in a row.
bility and deep photometric surveys. I my time between my own research, some However, it really pays off when you can
also proposed my own spectroscopic outreach activities in Spanish for school see all the stars embedded in the Milky
observations to detect, confirm and students, and my duties at the VLT. Way in the spectacular night sky.
characterise several known and new There, I work as a support astronomer at

Personnel Movements

Arrivals (1 January– 31 March 2020) Departures (1 January– 31 March 2020)

Europe Europe

Brazil, Fiona (UK) Head of Human Resources Fiorellino, Eleonora (IT) Student
Davison, Thomas (UK) Student Guglielmetti, Fabrizia (IT) ALMA Pipeline Processing Analyst
Engler, Byron (NZ) Student Kabátová, Anežka (CZ) Student
Héritier, Cédric Taïssir (FR) Engineering and Technology
Research Fellow
Scibior, Pawel (PL) Electrical Engineer
Wegener, Anna-Lynn (DE) Head of the Department
of Communication

Chile Chile

Arrue, Ricardo (CL) Telescope Instruments Operator Abril Ibáñez, Javier (ES) Student
Dullius Mallmann, Nicolas (BR) Student Alonso, Jaime (CL) Electronics Engineer
Duran, Carlos (CL) Apex Station Manager Bartlett, Elizabeth (UK) Fellow
Houllé, Mathis (FR) Student Ciechanowicz, Miroslaw (PL) Head of Engineering group
Korhonen, Heidi Helena (FI) Operations Staff Astronomer Desbordes, Christine (FR) Head of Logistics
Kundu, Richa (IN) Student Leclercq, Julien (FR) Mechanical Engineer
Lagos, Felipe (CL) Student Reyes, Claudia (CL) Telescope Instruments Operator
Lizana, Vincente (CL) Software Engineer
Megevand, Vincent (CH) Telescope Instruments Operator
Messias, Hugo (PT) Astronomer
Montes, Vanessa (CL) Systems Engineer
Pessi, Priscila (AR) Student
Ramirez, Christian (CL) Optical Coating Engineer
Uzundag, Murat (TR) Student

44 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


Annual Index

A unique opportunity to conduct part of


your PhD research at the
European Southern Observatory

#ESOJOBS
eso.org/studentship
ESO Headquarters, Garching near Munich, Germany
ESO Vitacura, Santiago, Chile
The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 45
Application deadline: 31 May and 15 November, each year
Annual Index 2019 (Nos. 175–178)

Subject Index Meyer, M. J.; Michel, C.; Micheva, G.; Migniau, Orion-KL Observations with the Extended Tuning
J.-E.; Minchev, I.; Monari, G.; Muller, R.; Murphy, Range of the New SEPIA660 APEX Facility
D.; Muthukrishna, D.; Nandra, K.; Navarro, R.; Instrument; Montenegro-Montes, F. M.;
Ness, M.; Nichani, V.; Nichol, R.; Nicklas, H.; Torstensson, K.; Parra, R.; Pérez-Beaupuits, J. P.;
The Oganisation
Niederhofer, F.; Norberg, P.; Obreschkow, D.; Nyman, L.-Å.; Agurto, C.; Azagra, F.; Cárdenas,
Oliver, S.; Owers, M.; Pai, N.; Pankratow, S.; M.; González, E.; MacAuliffe, F.; Venegas, P.; De
Astronomy in Ireland; Ray, T.; Callanan, P.; Parkinson, D.; Paschke, J.; Paterson, R.; Breuck, C.; Bergman, P.; Gunawan, D. S.;
Chernyakova, M; Espey, B.; Hanlon, L.; O’Sullivan, Pecontal, A.; Parry, I.; Phillips, D.; Pillepich, A.; Wyrowski, F.; Stanke, T.; Belitsky, V.; Fredrixon,
C.; Redman, M.; Smith, N.; 176, 3 Pinard, L.; Pirard, J.; Piskunov, N.; Plank, V.; M.; Meledin, D.; Olberg, M.; Strandberg M.;
The ESO Users Committee: Giving Users a Voice; Plüschke, D.; Pons, E.; Popesso, P.; Power, C.; Sundin, E.; Adema, J.; Barkhof, J.; Baryshev, A.;
Cioni, M.-R. L.; 176, 8 Pragt, J.; Pramskiy, A.; Pryer, D.; Quattri, M.; de Hesper, R.; Khudchenko, A.; 176, 20
Andrade Queiroz, A. B.; Quirrenbach, A.; Peering through SPHERE Images: A Glance at
Rahurkar, S.; Raichoor, A.; Ramstedt, S.; Rau, A.; Contrast Limitations; Cantalloube, F.; Dohlen, K.;
Recio-Blanco, A.; Reiss, R.; Renaud, F.; Revaz, Y.; Milli, J.; Brandner, W.; Vigan, A.; 176, 25
Telescopes and Instrumentation
Rhode, P.; Richard, J.; Richter, A. D.; Rix, H.-W.; The Distributed Peer Review Experiment; Patat, F.;
Robotham, A. S. G.; Roelfsema, R.; Romaniello, Kerzendorf, W.; Bordelon, D.; Van de Ven, G.;
4MOST: Project overview and information for the M.; Rosario, D.; Rothmaier, F.; Roukema, B.; Pritchard, T.; 177, 3
First Call for Proposals; de Jong, R. S.; Agertz, O.; Ruchti, G.; Rupprecht, G.; Rybizki, J.; Ryde, N.;
Berbel, A. A.; Aird, J.; Alexander, D. A.; Amarsi, A.; On the Telluric Correction of KMOS Spectra;
Saar, A.; Sadler, E.; Sahlén, M.; Salvato, M.;
Anders, F.; Andrae, R.; Ansarinejad, B.; Coccato, L.; Freudling, W.; Smette, A.; Sani, E.;
Sassolas, B.; Saunders, W.; Saviauk, A.;
Ansorge, W.; Antilogus, P.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Escartin, J. A.; Jung, Y.; Bazin, G.; 177, 14
Sbordone, L.; Schmidt, T.; Schnurr, O.; Scholz,
Arentsen, A.; Arnadottir, A.; Asplund, M.; R.-D.; Schwope, A.; Seifert, W.; Shanks, T.; Bringing the New Adaptive Optics Module for
Auger, M.; Azais, N.; Baade, D.; Baker, G.; Sheinis, A.; Sivov, T.; Skúladóttir, Á.; Smartt, S.; Interferometry (NAOMI) into Operation; Gonté, F.;
Baker, S.; Balbinot, E.; Baldry, I. K.; Banerji, M.; Smedley, S.; Smith, G.; Smith, R.; Sorce, J.; Abad, J. A.; Abuter, R.; Aller Carpentier, E.;
Barden, S.; Barklem, P.; Barthélémy-Mazot, E.; Spitler, L.; Starkenburg, E.; Steinmetz, M.; Stilz, I.; Alonso, J.; Andofalto, L.; Barriga, P.; Berger, J.-P.;
Battistini, C.; Bauer, S.; Bell, C. P. M.; Bellido- Storm, J.; Sullivan, M.; Sutherland, W.; Swann, E.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Blanchard, I.; Bonnet, H.;
Tirado, O.; Bellstedt, S.; Belokurov, V.; Bensby, T.; Tamone, A.; Taylor, E. N.; Teillon, J.; Tempel, E.; Bourdarot, G.; Bourget, P.; Brast, R.; Bristow, P.;
Bergemann, M.; Bestenlehner, J. M.; Bielby, R.; ter Horst, R.; Thi, W.-F.; Tolstoy, E.; Trager, S.; Caniguante, L.; Cerda, S.; Cid, C.; Correa, A.;
Bilicki, M.; Blake, C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, Traven, G.; Tremblay, P.-E.; Tresse, L.; Valentini, Cottalorda, E.; Courtney-Barrer, B.; Darré, P.;
C.; Boland, W.; Boller, T.; Bongard, S.; Bongiorno, M.; van de Weygaert, R.; van den Ancker, M.; Delabre, B.; Delboulbé, A.; Dembet, R.;
A.; Bonifacio, P.; Boudon, D.; Brooks, D.; Brown, Veljanoski, J.; Venkatesan, S.; Wagner, L.; Donaldson, R.; Dorn, R.; Dupeyron, J.; Dupuy, C.;
M. J. I.; Brown, R.; Brüggen, M.; Brynnel, J.; Wagner, K.; Walcher, C. J.; Waller, L.; Walton, N.; Egner, S.; Eisenhauer, F.; Faundez, L.; Fedrigo, E.;
Brzeski, J.; Buchert, T.; Buschkamp, P.; Caffau, Wang, L.; Winkler, R.; Wisotzki, L.; Worley, C. C.; Fischer, G.; Frank, C.; Fuenteseca, E.; Gitton, P.;
E.; Caillier, P.; Carrick, J.; Casagrande, L.; Case, Worseck, G.; Xiang, M.; Xu, W.; Yong, D.; Zhao, Guerlet, T.; Guieu, S.; Gutierrez, P.; Haguenauer,
S.; Casey, A.; Cesarini, I.; Cescutti, G.; Chapuis, C.; Zheng, J.; Zscheyge, F.; Zucker, D.; 175, 3 P.; Haimerl, A.; Haubois, X.; Heritier, C.; Huber, S.;
D.; Chiappini, C.; Childress, M.; Christlieb, N.; Hubin, N.; Jolley, P.; Jocou, L.; Kirchbauer, J.-P.;
4MOST Scientific Operations; Walcher, C. J.; Banerji,
Church, R.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; Cluver, M.; Colless, Kolb, J.; Kosmalski, J.; Krempl, P.; La Fuente, C.;
M.; Battistini, C.; Bell, C. P. M.; Bellido-Tirado, O.;
M.; Collett, T.; Comparat, J.; Cooper, A.; Couch, Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Le Louarn, M.; Lilley, P.;
Bensby, T.; Bestenlehner, J. M.; Boller, T.; Brynnel,
W.; Courbin, F.; Croom, S.; Croton, D.; Daguisé, Lopez, B.; Lopez, M.; Magnard, Y.; Marchetti, E.;
J.; Casey, A.; Chiappini, C.; Christlieb, N.; Church,
E.; Dalton, G.; Davies, L. J. M.; Davis, T.; de Mclay, S.; Meilland, A.; Meister, A.; Mérand, A.;
R.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; Croom, S.; Comparat, J.;
Laverny, P.; Deason, A.; Dionies, F.; Disseau, K.; Moulin, T.; Pasquini, L.; Paufique, J.; Percheron, I.;
Davies, L. J. M.; de Jong, R. S.; Dwelly, T.; Enke,
Doel, P.; Döscher, D.; Driver, S. P.; Dwelly, T.; Pettazzi, L.; Pfuhl, O.; Phan, D.; Pino, A.; Pirani,
H.; Feltzing, S.; Feuillet, D.; Fouesneau, M.; Ford,
Eckert, D.; Edge, A.; Edvardsson, B.; Youssoufi, W.; Quentin, J.; Rakich, A.; Ramirez, A.; Ridings,
D.; Frey, S.; Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Gueguen, A.;
D. E.; Elhaddad, A.; Enke, H.; Erfanianfar, G.; R.; Riedel, M.; Reyes, J.; Rochat, S.; Sanchez, J.;
Howes, L.; Irwin, M.; Klar, J.; Kordopatis, G.; Korn,
Farrell, T.; Fechner, T.; Feiz, C.; Feltzing, S.; Santos Tomás, G.; Schmid, C.; Shchekaturov, P.;
A.; Krumpe, M.; Kushniruk, I.; Lam, M. I.; Lewis,
Ferreras, I.; Feuerstein, D.; Feuillet, D.; Schuhler, N.; Seidel, M.; Soenke, C.; Stadler, E.;
J.; Lind, K.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Mainieri, V.;
Finoguenov, A.; Ford, D.; Fotopoulou, S.; Stephan, C.; Suárez, M.; Todorović, M.;
Martell, S.; Matijevic, G.; McMahon, R.; Merloni,
Fouesneau, M.; Frenk, C.; Frey, S.; Gaessler, W.; Valdes, G.; Verinaud, C.; Woillez, J.; Zins, G.;
A.; Murphy, D.; Niederhofer, F.; Norberg, P.;
Geier, S.; Fusillo, N. G.; Gerhard, O.; Zúñiga-Fernández, S.; 177, 19
Pramskiy, A.; Romaniello, M.; Robotham, A. S. G.;
Giannantonio, T.; Giannone, D.; Gibson, B.; Rothmaier, F.; Ruchti, G.; Schnurr, O.; Schwope, ELT M4 — The Largest Adaptive Mirror Ever Built;
Gillingham, P.; González-Fernández, C.; A.; Smedley, S.; Sorce, J.; Starkenburg, E.; Stilz, Vernet, E.; Cirasuolo, M.; Cayrel, M.; Tamai, R.;
Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Gottloeber, S.; Gould, A.; I.; Storm, J.; Tempel, E.; Thi, W.-F.; Traven, G.; Kellerer, A.; Pettazzi, L.; Lilley, P.; Zuluaga, P.;
Grebel, E. K.; Gueguen, A.; Guiglion, G.; Haehnelt, Valentini, M.; van den Ancker, M.; Walton, N.; Cano, C. D.; Koehler, B.; Marchet, F. B.;
M.; Hahn, T.; Hansen, C. J.; Hartman, H.; Winkler, R.; Worley, C. C.; 175, 12 Gonzalez, J. C.; Tuti, M.; + the ELT Team; 178, 3
Hauptner, K.; Hawkins, K.; Haynes, D.; Haynes, NEAR: First Results from the Search for Low-Mass
4MOST Survey Strategy Plan; Guiglion, G.; Battistini,
R.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Aguayo, C. H.; Hewett, P.; Planets in a Cen; Kasper, M.; Arsenault, R.;
C.; Bell, C. P. M.; Bensby, T.; Boller, T.; Chiappini,
Hinton, S.; Hobbs, D.; Hoenig, S.; Hofman, D.; Käufl, U.; Jakob, G.; Leveratto, S.; Zins, G.;
C.; Comparat, J.; Christlieb, N.; Church, R.; Cioni,
Hook, I.; Hopgood, J.; Hopkins, A.; Hourihane, A.; Pantin, E.; Duhoux, P.; Riquelme, M.;
M.-R. L.; Davies, L.; Dwelly, T.; de Jong, R. S.;
Howes, L.; Howlett, C.; Huet, T.; Irwin, M.; Iwert, Kirchbauer, J.-P.; Kolb, J.; Pathak, P.;
Feltzing, S.; Gueguen, A.; Howes, L.; Irwin, M.;
O.; Jablonka, P.; Jahn, T.; Jahnke, K.; Jarno, A.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Soenke, C.; Fuenteseca, E.;
Kushniruk, I.; Lam, M. I.; Liske, J.; McMahon, R.;
Jin, S.; Jofre, P.; Johl, D.; Jones, D.; Jönsson, H.; Sterzik, M.; Ageorges, N.; Gutruf, S.; Kampf, D.;
Merloni, A.; Norberg, P.; Robotham, A. S. G.;
Jordan, C.; Karovicova, I.; Khalatyan, A.; Kelz, A.; Reutlinger, A.; Absil, O.; Delacroix, C.; Maire, A.-L.;
Schnurr, O.; Sorce, J. G.; Starkenburg, E.; Storm,
Kennicutt, R.; King, D.; Kitaura, F.; Klar, J.; Huby, E.; Guyon, O.; Klupar, P.; Mawet, D.;
J.; Swann, E.; Tempel, E.; Thi, W.-F.; Worley, C. C.;
Klauser, U.; Kneib, J.-P.; Koch, A.; Koposov, S.; Ruane, G.; Karlsson, M.; Dohlen, K.; Vigan, A.;
Walcher, C. J.; The 4MOST Collaboration; 175, 17
Kordopatis, G.; Korn, A.; Kosmalski, J.; Kotak, R.; N’Diaye, M.; Quanz, S.; Carlotti, A.; 178, 5
Kovalev, M.; Kreckel, K.; Kripak, Y.; Krumpe, M.; ELT – Where the Secondary Mirror Becomes a
Giant; Cayrel, M.; Cirasuolo, M.; Tamai, R.; Report on Status of ESO Public Surveys and Current
Kuijken, K.; Kunder, A.; Kushniruk, I.; Lam, M. I.; Activities; Arnaboldi, M.; Delmotte, N.; Gadotti, D.;
Lamer, G.; Laurent, F.; Lawrence, J.; Lehmitz, M.; Haupt, C.; Sqalli, O.; Muller, M.; Dierickx, P.;
Koehler, B.; Marchet, F. B.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Hilker, M.; Hussain, G.; Mascetti, L.; Micol, A.; Petr-
Lemasle, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, B.; Lidman, C.; Lind, K.; Gotzens, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Retzlaff, J.; Spiniello, C.;
Liske, J.; Lizon, J.-L.; Loveday, J.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Tuti, M.; the ELT Team; 176, 13
Leibundgut, B.; Romaniello, M.; 178, 10
McDermid, R. M.; Maguire, K.; Mainieri, V.; Mali, S.; MUSE Narrow Field Mode Adaptive Optics Science
Verification; Leibundgut, B.; Bacon, R.; Bian, F.; MUSE Spectral Library; Ivanov, V. D.; Coccato, L.;
Mandel, H.; Mandel, K.; Mannering, L.; Martell, S.;
Kakkad, D.; Kuntschner, H.; Selman, F.; Valenti, Neeser, M. J.; Selman, F.; Pizzella, A.;
Martinez Delgado, D.; Matijevic, G.; McGregor, H.;
E.; Vernet, J.; Vogt, F.; Wylezalek, D.; 176, 16 Dalla Bontà, E.; Corsini, E. M.; Morelli, L.; 178, 17
McMahon, R.; McMillan, P.; Mena, O.; Merloni, A.;

46 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


Astronomical Science Schnurr, O.; Schmidt, T.; Steinmetz, M.; 175, 54 A.; Rosales, A. J.; Jochum, L.; Jocou, L.;
4MOST Consortium Survey 10: The Time-Domain Kammerer, J.; Karl, M.; Kaufer, A.; Kellner, S.;
4MOST Consortium Survey 1: The Milky Way Halo Extragalactic Survey (TiDES); Swann, E.; Sullivan, Kendrew, S.; Kern, L.; Kervella, P.;
Low-Resolution Survey; Helmi, A.; Irwin, M.; M.; Carrick, J.; Hoenig, S.; Hook, I.; Kotak, R.; Kiekebusch, M.; Kishimoto, M.; Klarmann, L.;
Deason, A.; Balbinot, E.; Belokurov, V.; Bland- Maguire, K.; McMahon, R.; Nichol, R.; Smartt, S.; Klein, R.; Köhler, R.; Kok, Y.; Kolb, J.;
Hawthorn, J.; Christlieb, N.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; 175, 58 Koutoulaki, M.; Kulas, M.; Labadie, L.; Lacour, S.;
Feltzing, S.; Grebel, E. K.; Kordopatis, G.; KLASS – The Role of Low-Mass Galaxies from Lagrange, A.-M.; Lapeyrère, V.; Laun, W.;
Starkenburg, E.; Walton, N.; Worley, C. C.; 175, 23 Lazareff, B.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Léna, P.; Lenzen,
Cosmic Dawn to Cosmic Noon; Fontana, A.;
R.; Lévêque, S.; Lin, C.-C.; Lippa, M.; Lutz, D.;
4MOST Consortium Survey 2: The Milky Way Halo Mason, C. A.; Girard, M.; Treu, T.; Jones, T.;
Magnard, Y.; Maire, A.-L.; Mehrgan, L.; Mérand,
High-Resolution Survey; Christlieb, N.; Battistini, Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Morishita, T.;
A.; Millour, F.; Mollière, P.; Moulin, T.; Müller, A.;
C.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Pentericci, L.; Schmidt, K.; Wang, X.; 176, 33
Müller, E.; Müller, F.; Netzer, H.; Neumann, U.;
Asplund, M.; Barklem, P.; Bergemann, M.; ALMA Resolves the Stellar Birth Explosions in Nowak, M.; Oberti, S.; Ott, T.; Pallanca, L.;
Church, R.; Feltzing, S.; Ford, D.; Grebel, E. K.; Distant Radio-Loud Quasars; Barthel, P.; Panduro, J.; Pasquini, L.; Paumard, T.; Percheron,
Hansen, C. J.; Helmi, A.; Kordopatis, G.; Kovalev, Versteeg, J.; 176, 37 I.; Perraut, K.; Perrin, G.; Peterson, B. M.;
M.; Korn, A.; Lind, K.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rybizki, J.; First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results and the Petrucci, P.-O.; Pflüger, A.; Pfuhl, O.; Duc, T. P.;
Skúladóttir, Á.; Starkenburg, E.; 175, 26 Role of ALMA; Goddi, C.; Crew, G.; Pineda, J. E.; Plewa, P. M.; Popovic, D.;
4MOST Consortium Survey 3: Milky Way Disc and Impellizzeri, V.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Matthews, L. D.; Pott, J.-U.; Prieto, A.; Pueyo. L.; Rabien, S.;
Bulge Low-Resolution Survey (4MIDABLE-LR); Messias, H.; Rottmann, H.; Alef, W.; Blackburn, Ramírez, A.; Ramos, J. R.; Rau, C.; Ray, T.;
Chiappini, C.; Minchev, I.; Starkenburg, E.; L.; Bronzwaer, T.; Chan, C.-K.; Davelaar, J.; Riquelme, M.; Rodríguez-Coira, G.; Rohloff, R.-R.;
Anders, F.; Fusillo, N. G.; Gerhard, O.; Guiglion, Deane, R.; Dexter, J.; Doeleman, S.; Falcke, H.; Rouan, D.; Rousset, G.; Sanchez-Bermudez, J;
G.; Khalatyan, A.; Kordopatis, G.; Lemasle, B.; Fish, V. L.; Fraga-Encinas, R.; Fromm, C. M.; Schartmann, M.; Scheithauer, S.; Schöller, M.;
Matijevic, G.; de Andrade Queiroz, A. B.; Herrero-Illana, R.; Issaoun, S.; James, D.; Schuhler, N.; Segura-Cox, D.; Shangguan, J.;
Schwope, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Storm, J.; Traven, G.; Janssen, M.; Kramer, M.; Krichbaum, T. P.; De Shimizu, T. T.; Spyromilio, J.; Sternberg, A.;
Tremblay, P.-E.; Valentini, M.; Andrae, R.; Laurentis, M.; Liuzzo, E.; Mizuno, Y.; Stock, M. R.; Straub, O.; Straubmeier, C.;
Arentsen, A.; Asplund, M.; Bensby, T.; Moscibrodzka, M.; Natarajan, I.; Porth, O.; Sturm, E.; Valles, M. S.; Tacconi, L. J.; Thi, W.-F.;
Bergemann, M.; Casagrande, L.; Church, R.; Rezzolla, L.; Rygl, K.; Roelofs, F.; Ros, E.; Roy, A. Tristram, K. R. W.; Valenzuela, J. J.;
Cescutti, G.; Feltzing, S.; Fouesneau, M.; Grebel, L.; Shao, L.; van Langevelde, H. J.; van Bemmel, van Boekel, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Vermot, P.;
E. K.; Kovalev, M.; McMillan, P.; Monari, G.; I.; Tilanus, R.; Torne, P.; Wielgus, M.; Younsi, Z.; Vincent, F.; von Fellenberg, S.; Waisberg, I.;
Rybizki, J.; Ryde, N.; Rix, H.-W.; Walton, N.; Xiang, Zensus, J. A.; 177, 25 Wang, J. J.; Wank, I.; Weber, J.; Weigelt, G.;
M.; Zucker, D.; The 4MIDABLE-LR Team; 175, 30 Widmann, F.; Wieprecht, E.; Wiest, M.;
The Physics at High Angular resolution in Nearby
4MOST Consortium Survey 4: Milky Way Disc and GalaxieS (PHANGS) Surveys; Schinnerer, E.; Wiezorrek, E.; Wittkowski, M.; Woillez, J.;
Bulge High-Resolution Survey (4MIDABLE-HR); Leroy, A.; Blanc, G.; Emsellem, E.; Hughes, A.; Wolff, B.; Yang, P.; Yazici, S.; Ziegler, D.; Zins, G.;
Bensby, T.; Bergemann, M.; Rybizki, J.; Lemasle, Rosolowsky, E.; Schruba, A.; Bigiel, F.; Escala, A.; 178, 20
B.; Howes, L.; Kovalev, M.; Agertz, O.; Asplund, Groves, B.; Kreckel, K.; Kruijssen, D.; Lee, J.; An Image of the Dust Sublimation Region in the
M.; Barklem, P.; Battistini, C.; Casagrande, L.; Meidt, S.; Pety, J.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Nucleus of NGC 1068; GRAVITY Collaboration;
Chiappini, C.; Church, R.; Feltzing, S.; Ford, D.; Sandstrom, K.; Usero, A.; Barnes, A.; Belfiore, F.; 178, 24
Gerhard, O.; Kushniruk, I.; Kordopatis, G.; Lind, Bešlić, I.; Chandar, R.; Chatzigiannakis, D.; GRAVITY and the Galactic Centre; GRAVITY
K.; Minchev, I.; McMillan, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Ryde, N.; Chevance, M.; Congiu, E.; Dale, D.; Faesi, C.; Collaboration; 178, 26
Traven, G.; 175, 35 Gallagher, M.; Garcia-Rodriguez, A.; Glover, S.; Spatially Resolved Accretion-Ejection in Compact
4MOST Consortium Survey 5: eROSITA Galaxy Grasha, K.; Henshaw, J.; Herrera, C.; Ho, I.-T.; Binaries with GRAVITY; GRAVITY Collaboration;
Cluster Redshift Survey; Finoguenov, A.; Merloni, Hygate, A.; Jimenez-Donaire, M.; Kessler, S.; 178, 29
A.; Comparat, J.; Nandra, K.; Salvato, M.; Tempel, Kim, J.; Klessen, R.; Koch, E.; Lang, P.; Larson,
E.; Raichoor, A.; Richard, J.; Kneib, J.-P.; Pillepich, Images at the Highest Angular Resolution with
K.; Le Reste, A.; Liu, D.; McElroy, R.; Nofech, J.; GRAVITY: The Case of h Carinae; GRAVITY
A.; Sahlén, M.; Popesso, P.; Norberg, P.; Ostriker, E.; Gutierrez, I. P.; Puschnig, J.;
McMahon, R.; The 4MOST Collaboration; 175, 39 Collaboration; 178, 31
Querejeta, M.; Razza, A.; Saito, T.; Santoro, F.;
4MOST Consortium Survey 6: Active Galactic Nuclei; Precision Monitoring of Cool Evolved Stars:
Stuber, S.; Sun, J.; Thilker, D.; Turner, J.; Ubeda,
Merloni, A.; Alexander, D. A.; Banerji, M.; Boller, Constraining Effects of Convection and Pulsation;
L.; Utreras, J.; Utomo, D.; van Dyk, S.; Ward, J.;
T.; Comparat, J.; Dwelly, T.; Fotopoulou, S.; Wittkowski, M.; Bladh, S.; Chiavassa, A.;
Whitmore, B.; 177, 36
McMahon, R.; Nandra, K.; Salvato, M.; Croom, S.; de Wit, W.-J.; Eriksson, K.; Freytag, B.;
Spatially Resolving the Quasar Broad Emission Line Haubois, X.; Höfner, S.; Kravchenko, K.; Paladini,
Finoguenov, A.; Krumpe, M.; Lamer, G.; Rosario, Region; Abuter, R.; Accardo, M.; Adler, T.;
D.; Schwope, A.; Shanks, T.; Steinmetz, M.; C.; Paumard, T.; Rau, G.; Wood, P. R.; 178, 34
Amorim, A.; Anugu, N.; Ávila, G.; Bauböck, M.;
Wisotzki, L.; Worseck, G.; 175, 42 Multiple Star Systems in the Orion Nebula; GRAVITY
Benisty, M.; Berger, J.-P.; Bestenlehner, J. M.;
4MOST Consortium Survey 7: Wide-Area VISTA Collaboration; 178, 36
Beust, H.; Blind, N.; Bonnefoy, M.; Bonnet, H.;
Extragalactic Survey (WAVES); Driver, S. P.; Liske, Bourget, P.; Bouvier, J.; Brandner, W.; Brast, R.; Probing the Discs of Herbig Ae/Be Stars at
J.; Davies, L. J. M.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Baldry, I. Buron, A.; Burtscher, L.; Cantalloube, F.; Caratti o Terrestrial Orbits; GRAVITY Collaboration; 178, 38
K.; Brown, M. J. I.; Cluver, M.; Kuijken, K.; Garatti, A.; Caselli, P.; Cassaing, F.; Chapron, F.; Spatially Resolving the Inner Gaseous Disc of the
Loveday, J.; McMahon, R.; Meyer, M. J.; Norberg, Charnay, B.; Choquet, É.; Clénet, Y.; Collin, C.; Herbig Star 51 Oph through its CO Ro-vibration
P.; Owers, M.; Power, C.; Taylor, E. N.; The du Foresto, V. C.; Davies, R.; Deen, C.; Emission; GRAVITY Collaboration; 178, 40
WAVES Team; 175, 46 Delplancke-Ströbele, F.; Dembet, R.; Derie, F.; Spatially Resolving the Innermost Regions of the
4MOST Consortium Survey 8: Cosmology Redshift de Wit, W.-J.; Dexter, J.; de Zeeuw, T.; Accretion Discs of Young, Low-Mass Stars with
Survey (CRS); Richard, J.; Kneib, J.-P.; Blake, C.; Dougados, C.; Dubus, G.; Duvert, G.; Ebert, M.; GRAVITY; Davies, C. L.; Hone, E.; Kluska, J.;
Raichoor, A.; Comparat, J.; Shanks, T.; Sorce, J.; Eckart, A.; Eisenhauer, F.; Esselborn, M.; Kreplin, A.; 178, 43
Sahlén, M.; Howlett, C.; Tempel, E.; McMahon, Eupen, F.; Fédou, P.; Ferreira, M. C.; Finger, G.; When the Stars Align — the First Resolved
R.; Bilicki, M.; Roukema, B.; Loveday, J.; Pryer, Schreiber, N. M. F.; Gao, F.; Dabó, C. E. G.; Microlensed Images; Dong, S.; Mérand, A.;
D.; Buchert, T.; Zhao, C.; The CRS Team; 175, 50 Lopez, R. G.; Garcia, P. J. V.; Gendron, É.; Genzel, Delplancke-Ströbele, F.; Gould, A.; Zang, W.;
R.; Gerhard, O.; Gil, J. P.; Gillessen, S.; Gonté, F.; 178, 45
4MOST Consortium Survey 9: One Thousand and
Gordo, P.; Gratadour, D.; Greenbaum, A.; Hunting Exoplanets with Single-Mode Optical
One Magellanic Fields (1001MC); Cioni, M.-.R. L.;
Grellmann, R.; Grözinger, U.; Guajardo, P.; Guieu, Interferometry; GRAVITY Collaboration; 178, 47
Storm, J.; Bell, C. P. M.; Lemasle, B.; Niederhofer,
É.; Habibi, M.; Haguenauer, P.; Hans, O.; Haubois,
F.; Bestenlehner, J. M.; El Youssoufi, D.; Feltzing,
X.; Haug, M.; Haußmann, F.; Henning, T.; Hippler,
S.; González-Fernández, C.; Grebel, E. K.;
S.; Hönig, S. F.; Horrobin, M.; Huber, A.; Hubert,
Hobbs, D.; Irwin, M.; Jablonka, P.; Koch, A.;
Z.; Hubin, N.; Hummel, C. A.; Jakob, G.; Janssen,

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 47


Astronomical News Science & Outreach at La Silla During the Total Solar Fellows at ESO; Yang, C.; 177, 70
Eclipse; Christensen, L. L.; Ávila, G.; Baouchi, External Fellows at ESO; Jethwa, P.; Oikonomou, F.;
The New ESO Phase 1 System; ESO Phase 1 Project W. A.; Boer, M.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Buil, C.; Castillo- 177, 71
Team; 175, 63 Fraile, M.; Denoux, E.; Desnoux, V.; Elmore, D.; Lodewijk Woltjer (1930–2019); Hofstadt, D.; 177, 74
Eymar, L.; Fisher, R. F.; Guirao, C.; Klotz, A.; Klotz,
Fellows at ESO; Sedaghati, E.; Miotello, A.; 175, 63 Personnel Movements; ESO; 177, 75
A. N.; Lecubin, J.; Motl, K. A.; Pérez, D.; Pérez-
External Fellows at ESO; Zhang, Z.-Y.; 175, 66 Ayúcar, M.; van Reeven, W.; Regal, X.; Richaud, Light Phenomena Over ESO’s Observatories IV:
Personnel Movements; ESO; 175, 67 Y.; Sautile, R.; Santerne, A.; Wellington, R.; Dusk and Dawn; Christensen, L. L.; Horálek, P.;
The New ESO Phase 1 System for Proposal Wellington, T.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.; 178, 51
Submission; Primas, F.; Hainaut, O.; Bierwirth, T.; Zender, J.; 177, 47 The ESO Summer Research Programme 2019;
Patat, F.; Dorigo, D.; Hoppe, E.; Lange, U.; Pointing the NTT at the Sun: Studying the Solar Manara, C. F.; Harrison, C.; Zanella, A.; Agliozzo,
Pasquato, M.; Sogni, F.; 176, 41 Corona During the Total Eclipse; Dennefeld, M.; C.; Anderson, R. I.; Arrigoni Battaia, F.; Belfiore, F.;
Report on the ESO Event “20th Anniversary of Koutchmy, S.; Sèvre, F.; Fathivavsari, H.; Auchère, van der Burg, R.; Chen, C.-C. (T. C.); Facchini, S.;
Science Exploration with FORS”; Siebenmorgen, F.; Baudin, F.; Abdi, S.; Sinclaire, P.; Saviane, I.; Fensch, J.; Jethwa, P.; Kokotanekova, R.; Lelli, F.;
R.; Boffin, H.; Derie, F.; 176, 44 Labraña, F.; Schmidtobreick, L.; 177, 54 Miotello, A.; Pala, A.; Querejeta, M.; Rubin, A.;
Wylezalek, D.; Watkins, L.; 178, 57
Report on the ESO Workshop “Linking Galaxies from Report on the ESO Workshop “KMOS@5: Star and
the Epoch of Initial Star Formation to Today”; Galaxy Formation in 3D — Challenges in KMOS Report on the ESO Workshop “Artificial Intelligence
Zafar, T.; De Breuck, C.; Arnaboldi, M.; 176, 48 5th Year”; Sani, E.; Hilker, M.; Coccato, L.; in Astronomy”; Boffin, H. M. J.; Jerabkova, T.;
Ramsay, S.; Evans, C.; Rodrigues, M.; Mérand, A.; Stoehr, F.; 178, 61
ESO Science Ambassadors; Harrison, C.; Arrigoni
Battaia, F.; Moorcraft, L.; 176, 50 Schmidtobreick, L.; Sharples, R.; 177, 56 Report on the IAU Conference “Astronomy
Report on the ESO Workshop “Preparing for 4MOST Education — Bridging Research & Practice”;
Fellows at ESO; Corral-Santana, J.; Agliozzo, C.;
— A Community Workshop Introducing ESO’s Vieser, W.; Johnston, T.; Salimpour, S.; 178, 63
Anderson, R.; 176, 54
Next-Generation Spectroscopic Survey Facility”; Fellows at ESO; Kokotanekova, R.; Facchini, S.;
Gustav Andreas Tammann (1932–2019);
Liske, J.; Mainieri, V.; 177, 61 Hartke, J.; 178, 67
Leibundgut, B.; 176, 58
Report on the ESO Workshop “ALMA Development In Memoriam Cristian Herrera González; ESO;
Personnel Movements; ESO; 176, 59
Workshop”; Mroczkowski, T.; De Breuck, C.; 178, 70
Total Solar Eclipse Over La Silla; Ventura, L.;
Kemper, C.; 177, 64 Personnel Movements; ESO; 178, 71
Melo, C.; Christensen, L. L.; Lyubenova, M.;
Comerón, F.; 177, 43 Report on the ESO Workshop “The VLT in 2030”; Erratum: The Distributed Peer Review Experiment;
Mérand, A.; Leibundgut, B.; 177, 67 Patat, F.; 178, 71

Author Index C Christensen, L. L.; Horálek, P.; Light Phenomena


Over ESO’s Observatories IV: Dusk and Dawn;
Cantalloube, F.; Dohlen, K.; Milli, J.; Brandner, W.; 178, 51
A Vigan, A.; Peering through SPHERE Images: A Christlieb, N.; Battistini, C.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.;
Glance at Contrast Limitations; 176, 25 Ludwig, H.-G.; Asplund, M.; Barklem, P.;
Cayrel, M.; Cirasuolo, M.; Tamai, R.; Haupt, C.; Bergemann, M.; Church, R.; Feltzing, S.; Ford, D.;
Arnaboldi, M.; Delmotte, N.; Gadotti, D.; Hilker, M.; Grebel, E. K.; Hansen, C. J.; Helmi, A.;
Hussain, G.; Mascetti, L.; Micol, A.; Sqalli, O.; Muller, M.; Dierickx, P.; Koehler, B.;
Marchet, F. B.; Gonzalez, J. C.; Tuti, M.; Kordopatis, G.; Kovalev, M.; Korn, A.; Lind, K.;
Petr-Gotzens, M.; Rejkuba, M.; Retzlaff, J.; Quirrenbach, A.; Rybizki, J.; Skúladóttir, Á.;
Spiniello, C.; Leibundgut, B.; Romaniello, M.; ELT Team; ELT – Where the Secondary Mirror
Becomes a Giant; 176, 13 Starkenburg, E.; 4MOST Consortium Survey 2: The
Report on Status of ESO Public Surveys and Milky Way Halo High-Resolution Survey; 175, 26
Current Activities; 178, 10 Chiappini, C.; Minchev, I.; Starkenburg, E.;
Anders, F.; Fusillo, N. G.; Gerhard, O.; Guiglion, G.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; Storm, J.; Bell, C. P. M.; Lemasle, B.;
Khalatyan, A.; Kordopatis, G.; Lemasle, B.; Niederhofer, F.; Bestenlehner, J. M.; El Youssoufi, D.;
Matijevic, G.; de Andrade Queiroz, A. B.; Schwope, Feltzing, S.; González-Fernández, C.; Grebel, E. K.;
B A.; Steinmetz, M.; Storm, J.; Traven, G.; Tremblay, Hobbs, D.; Irwin, M.; Jablonka, P.; Koch, A.;
P.-E.; Valentini, M.; Andrae, R.; Arentsen, A.; Schnurr, O.; Schmidt, T.; Steinmetz, M.; 4MOST
Barthel, P.; Versteeg, J.; ALMA Resolves the Stellar Asplund, M.; Bensby, T.; Bergemann, M.; Consortium Survey 9: One Thousand and One
Birth Explosions in Distant Radio-Loud Quasars; Casagrande, L.; Church, R.; Cescutti, G.; Magellanic Fields (1001MC); 175, 54
176, 37 Feltzing, S.; Fouesneau, M.; Grebel, E. K.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; The ESO Users Committee: Giving
Bensby, T.; Bergemann, M.; Rybizki, J.; Lemasle, B.; Kovalev, M.; McMillan, P.; Monari, G.; Rybizki, J.; Users a Voice; 176, 8
Howes, L.; Kovalev, M.; Agertz, O.; Asplund, M.; Ryde, N.; Rix, H.-W.; Walton, N.; Xiang, M.; Coccato, L.; Freudling, W.; Smette, A.; Sani, E.;
Barklem, P.; Battistini, C.; Casagrande, L.; Zucker, D.; The 4MIDABLE-LR Team; 4MOST Escartin, J. A.; Jung, Y.; Bazin, G.; On the Telluric
Chiappini, C.; Church, R.; Feltzing, S.; Ford, D.; Consortium Survey 3: Milky Way Disc and Bulge Correction of KMOS Spectra; 177, 14
Gerhard, O.; Kushniruk, I.; Kordopatis, G.; Lind, Low-Resolution Survey (4MIDABLE-LR); 175, 30 Corral-Santana, J.; Agliozzo, C.; Anderson, R.;
K.; Minchev, I.; McMillan, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Ryde, N.; Christensen, L. L.; Ávila, G.; Baouchi, W. A.; Fellows at ESO; 176, 54
Traven, G.; 4MOST Consortium Survey 4: Milky Boer, M.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Buil, C.; Castillo-­­
Way Disc and Bulge High-Resolution Survey Fraile, M.; Denoux, E.; Desnoux, V.; Elmore, D.;
(4MIDABLE-HR); 175, 35 Eymar, L.; Fisher, R. F.; Guirao, C.; Klotz, A.;
D
Boffin, H. M. J.; Jerabkova, T.; Mérand, A.; Stoehr, F.; Klotz, A. N.; Lecubin, J.; Motl, K. A.; Pérez, D.;
Report on the ESO Workshop “Artificial Pérez-Ayúcar, M.; van Reeven, W. v.; Regal, X.;
Intelligence in Astronomy”; 178, 61 Richaud, Y.; Sautile, R.; Santerne, A.; Davies, C. L.; Hone, E.; Kluska, J.; Kreplin, A.;
Wellington, R.; Wellington, T.; Yanamandra- Spatially Resolving the Innermost Regions of the
Fisher, P. A.; Zender, J.; Science & Outreach at Accretion Discs of Young, Low-Mass Stars with
La Silla During the Total Solar Eclipse; 177, 47 GRAVITY; 178, 43

48 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


de Jong, R. S.; Agertz, O.; Berbel, A. A.; Aird, J.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Roelfsema, R.; Issaoun, S.; James, D.; Janssen, M.; Kramer, M.;
Alexander, D. A.; Amarsi, A.; Anders, F.; Romaniello, M.; Rosario, D.; Rothmaier, F.; Krichbaum, T. P.; De Laurentis, M.; Liuzzo, E.;
Andrae, R.; Ansarinejad, B.; Ansorge, W.; Roukema, B.; Ruchti, G.; Rupprecht, G.; Mizuno, Y.; Moscibrodzka, M.; Natarajan, I.;
Antilogus, P.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Arentsen, A.; Rybizki, J.; Ryde, N.; Saar, A.; Sadler, E.; Porth, O.; Rezzolla, L.; Rygl, K.; Roelofs, F.;
Arnadottir, A.; Asplund, M.; Auger, M.; Azais, N.; Sahlén, M.; Salvato, M.; Sassolas, B.; Ros, E.; Roy, A. L.; Shao, L.; van Langevelde, H. J.;
Baade, D.; Baker, G.; Baker, S.; Balbinot, E.; Saunders, W.; Saviauk, A.; Sbordone, L.; van Bemmel, I.; Tilanus, R.; Torne, P.; Wielgus, M.;
Baldry, I. K.; Banerji, M.; Barden, S.; Barklem, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schnurr, O.; Scholz, R.-D.; Younsi, Z.; Zensus, J. A.; The Event Horizon
Barthélémy-Mazot, E.; Battistini, C.; Bauer, S.; Schwope, A.; Seifert, W.; Shanks, T.; Sheinis, A.; Telescope collaboration; First M87 Event Horizon
Bell, C. P. M.; Bellido-Tirado, O.; Bellstedt, S.; Sivov, T.; Skúladóttir, Á.; Smartt, S.; Smedley, S.; Telescope Results and the Role of ALMA; 177, 25
Belokurov, V.; Bensby, T.; Bergemann, M.; Smith, G.; Smith, R.; Sorce, J.; Spitler, L.; Gonté, F.; Abad, J. A.; Abuter, R.; Aller Carpentier, E.;
Bestenlehner, J. M.; Bielby, R.; Bilicki, M.; Starkenburg, E.; Steinmetz, M.; Stilz, I.; Storm, J.; Alonso, J.; Andofalto, L.; Barriga, P.; Berger, J.-P.;
Blake, C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Sullivan, M.; Sutherland, W.; Swann, E.; Beuzit, J.-L.; Blanchard, I.; Bonnet, H.;
Boland, W.; Boller, T.; Bongard, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Tamone, A.; Taylor, E. N.; Teillon, J.; Tempel, E.; Bourdarot, G.; Bourget, P.; Brast, R.; Bristow, P.;
Bonifacio, P.; Boudon, D.; Brooks, D.; ter Horst, R.; Thi, W.-F.; Tolstoy, E.; Trager, S.; Caniguante, L.; Cerda, S.; Cid, C.; Correa, A.;
Brown, M. J. I.; Brown, R.; Brüggen, M.; Brynnel, Traven, G.; Tremblay, P.-E.; Tresse, L.; Cottalorda, E.; Courtney-Barrer, B.; Darré, P.;
J.; Brzeski, J.; Buchert, T.; Buschkamp, P.; Caffau, Valentini, M.; van de Weygaert, R.; van den Delabre, B.; Delboulbé, A.; Dembet, R.;
E.; Caillier, P.; Carrick, J.; Casagrande, L.; Case, S.; Ancker, M.; Veljanoski, J.; Venkatesan, S.; Donaldson, R.; Dorn, R.; Dupeyron, J.; Dupuy, C.;
Casey, A.; Cesarini, I.; Cescutti, G.; Chapuis, D.; Wagner, L.; Wagner, K.; Walcher, C. J.; Waller, L.; Egner, S.; Eisenhauer, F.; Faundez, L.; Fedrigo, E.;
Chiappini, C.; Childress, M.; Christlieb, N.; Walton, N.; Wang, L.; Winkler, R.; Wisotzki, L.; Fischer, G.; Frank, C.; Fuenteseca, E.; Gitton, P.;
Church, R.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; Cluver, M.; Colless, Worley, C. C.; Worseck, G.; Xiang, M.; Xu, W.; Guerlet, T.; Guieu, S.; Gutierrez, P.; Haguenauer, P.;
M.; Collett, T.; Comparat, J.; Cooper, A.; Couch, Yong, D.; Zhao, C.; Zheng, J.; Zscheyge, F.; Haimerl, A.; Haubois, X.; Heritier, C.; Huber, S.;
W.; Courbin, F.; Croom, S.; Croton, D.; Daguisé, Zucker, D.; 4MOST: Project overview and Hubin, N.; Jolley, P.; Jocou, L.; Kirchbauer, J.-P.;
E.; Dalton, G.; Davies, L. J. M.; Davis, T.; de information for the First Call for Proposals; 175, 3 Kolb, J.; Kosmalski, J.; Krempl, P.; La Fuente, C.;
Laverny, P.; Deason, A.; Dionies, F.; Disseau, K.; Dennefeld, M.; Koutchmy, S.; Sèvre, F.; Fathivavsari, Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Le Louarn, M.; Lilley, P.;
Doel, P.; Döscher, D.; Driver, S. P.; Dwelly, T.; H.; Auchère, F.; Baudin, F.; Abdi, S.; Sinclaire, P.; Lopez, B.; Lopez, M.; Magnard, Y.; Marchetti, E.;
Eckert, D.; Edge, A.; Edvardsson, B.; Youssoufi, Saviane, I.; Labraña, F.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Mclay, S.; Meilland, A.; Meister, A.; Mérand, A.;
D. E.; Elhaddad, A.; Enke, H.; Erfanianfar, G.; Pointing the NTT at the Sun: Studying the Solar Moulin, T.; Pasquini, L.; Paufique, J.; Percheron, I.;
Farrell, T.; Fechner, T.; Feiz, C.; Feltzing, S.; Corona During the Total Eclipse; 177, 54 Pettazzi, L.; Pfuhl, O.; Phan, D.; Pino, A.;
Ferreras, I.; Feuerstein, D.; Feuillet, D.; Dong, S.; Mérand, A.; Delplancke-Ströbele, F.; Pirani, W.; Quentin, J.; Rakich, A.; Ramirez, A.;
Finoguenov, A.; Ford, D.; Fotopoulou, S.; Gould, A.; Zang, W.; When the Stars Align — the Ridings, R.; Riedel, M.; Reyes, J.; Rochat, S.;
Fouesneau, M.; Frenk, C.; Frey, S.; Gaessler, W.; First Resolved Microlensed Images; 178, 45 Sanchez, J.; Santos Tomás, G.; Schmid, C.;
Geier, S.; Fusillo, N. G.; Gerhard, O.; Shchekaturov, P.; Schuhler, N.; Seidel, M.;
Driver, S. P.; Liske, J.; Davies, L. J. M.;
Giannantonio, T.; Giannone, D.; Gibson, B.; Soenke, C.; Stadler, E.; Stephan, C.; Suárez, M.;
Robotham, A. S. G.; Baldry, I. K.; Brown, M. J. I.;
Gillingham, P.; González-Fernández, C.; Todorović, M.; Valdes, G.; Verinaud, C.;
Cluver, M.; Kuijken, K.; Loveday, J.; McMahon, R.;
Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Gottloeber, S.; Gould, A.; Woillez, J.; Zins, G.; Zúñiga-Fernández, S.;
Meyer, M. J.; Norberg, P.; Owers, M.; Power, C.;
Grebel, E. K.; Gueguen, A.; Guiglion, G.; Haehnelt, Bringing the New Adaptive Optics Module for
Taylor, E. N.; The WAVES Team; 4MOST
M.; Hahn, T.; Hansen, C. J.; Hartman, H.; Interferometry (NAOMI) into Operation; 177, 19
Consortium Survey 7: Wide-Area VISTA
Hauptner, K.; Hawkins, K.; Haynes, D.; Haynes, R.; GRAVITY Collaboration; Abuter, R.; Accardo, M.;
Extragalactic Survey (WAVES); 175, 46
Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Aguayo, C. H.; Hewett, P.; Adler, T.; Amorim, A.; Anugu, N.; Ávila, G.;
Hinton, S.; Hobbs, D.; Hoenig, S.; Hofman, D.; Bauböck, M.; Benisty, M.; Berger, J.-P.;
Hook, I.; Hopgood, J.; Hopkins, A.; Hourihane, A.; Bestenlehner, J. M.; Beust, H.; Blind, N.;
Howes, L.; Howlett, C.; Huet, T.; Irwin, M.; Iwert, O.; E Bonnefoy, M.; Bonnet, H.; Bourget, P.; Bouvier, J.;
Jablonka, P.; Jahn, T.; Jahnke, K.; Jarno, A.; Brandner, W.; Brast, R.; Buron, A.; Burtscher, L.;
Jin, S.; Jofre, P.; Johl, D.; Jones, D.; Jönsson, H.; ESO; In Memoriam Cristian Herrera González; 178, 70 Cantalloube, F.; Caratti o Garatti, A.; Caselli, P.;
Jordan, C.; Karovicova, I.; Khalatyan, A.; Kelz, A.; Cassaing, F.; Chapron, F.; Charnay, B.; Choquet, É.;
ESO Phase 1 Project Team; The New ESO Phase 1
Kennicutt, R.; King, D.; Kitaura, F.; Klar, J.; Clénet, Y.; Collin, C.; Coudé du Foresto, V.;
System; 175, 63
Klauser, U.; Kneib, J.-P.; Koch, A.; Koposov, S.; Davies, R.; Deen, C.; Delplancke-Ströbele, F.;
Kordopatis, G.; Korn, A.; Kosmalski, J.; Kotak, R.; Dembet, R.; Derie, F.; de Wit, W.-J.; Dexter, J.;
Kovalev, M.; Kreckel, K.; Kripak, Y.; Krumpe, M.; de Zeeuw, T.; Dougados, C.; Dubus, G.;
Kuijken, K.; Kunder, A.; Kushniruk, I.; Lam, M. I.; F Duvert, G.; Ebert, M.; Eckart, A.; Eisenhauer, F.;
Lamer, G.; Laurent, F.; Lawrence, J.; Lehmitz, M.; Esselborn, M.; Eupen, F.; Fédou, P.; Ferreira, M. C.;
Lemasle, B.; Lewis, J.; Li, B.; Lidman, C.; Lind, K.; Finoguenov, A.; Merloni, A.; Comparat, J.; Nandra, K.; Finger, G.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Gao, F.;
Liske, J.; Lizon, J.-L.; Loveday, J.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Salvato, M.; Tempel, E.; Raichoor, A.; Richard, J.; García Dabó, C. E.; Garcia Lopez, R.; Garcia, P. J.
McDermid, R. M.; Maguire, K.; Mainieri, V.; Kneib, J.-P.; Pillepich, A.; Sahlén, M.; Popesso, P.; V.; Gendron, É.; Genzel, R.; Gerhard, O.; Gil, J. P.;
Mali, S.; Mandel, H.; Mandel, K.; Mannering, L.; Norberg, P.; McMahon, R.; The 4MOST Gillessen, S.; Gonté, F.; Gordo, P.; Gratadour, D.;
Martell, S.; Martinez Delgado, D.; Matijevic, G.; Collaboration; 4MOST Consortium Survey 5: Greenbaum, A.; Grellmann, R.; Grözinger, U.;
McGregor, H.; McMahon, R.; McMillan, P.; eROSITA Galaxy Cluster Redshift Survey; 175, 39 Guajardo, P.; Guieu, S.; Habibi, M.; Haguenauer, P.;
Mena, O.; Merloni, A.; Meyer, M. J.; Michel, C.; Hans, O.; Haubois, X.; Haug, M.; Haußmann, F.;
Fontana, A.; Mason, C. A.; Girard, M.; Treu, T.;
Micheva, G.; Migniau, J.-E.; Minchev, I.; Henning, T.; Hippler, S.; Hönig, S. F.; Horrobin, M.;
Jones, T.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Morishita, T.;
Monari, G.; Muller, R.; Murphy, D.; Muthukrishna, Huber, A.; Hubert, Z.; Hubin, N.; Hummel, C. A.;
Pentericci, L.; Schmidt, K.; Wang, X.; KLASS –
D.; Nandra, K.; Navarro, R.; Ness, M.; Nichani, V.; Jakob, G.; Janssen, A.; Jimenez Rosales, A.;
The Role of Low-Mass Galaxies from Cosmic
Nichol, R.; Nicklas, H.; Niederhofer, F.; Jochum, L.; Jocou, L.; Kammerer, J.; Karl, M.;
Dawn to Cosmic Noon; 176, 33
Norberg, P.; Obreschkow, D.; Oliver, S.; Kaufer, A.; Kellner, S.; Kendrew, S.; Kern, L.;
Owers, M.; Pai, N.; Pankratow, S.; Parkinson, D.; Kervella, P.; Kiekebusch, M.; Kishimoto, M.;
Paschke, J.; Paterson, R.; Pecontal, A.; Parry, I.; Klarmann, L.; Klein, R.; Köhler, R.; Kok, Y.; Kolb, J.;
Phillips, D.; Pillepich, A.; Pinard, L.; Pirard, J.; G Koutoulaki, M.; Kulas, M.; Labadie, L.; Lacour, S.;
Piskunov, N.; Plank, V.; Plüschke, D.; Pons, E.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Lapeyrère, V.; Laun, W.;
Popesso, P.; Power, C.; Pragt, J.; Pramskiy, A.; Goddi, C.; Crew, G.; Impellizzeri, V.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Lazareff, B.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Léna, P.;
Pryer, D.; Quattri, M.; de Andrade Queiroz, A. B.; Matthews, L. D.; Messias, H.; Rottmann, H.; Lenzen, R.; Lévêque, S.; Lin, C.-C.; Lippa, M.;
Quirrenbach, A.; Rahurkar, S.; Raichoor, A.; Alef, W.; Blackburn, L.; Bronzwaer, T.; Lutz, D.; Magnard, Y.; Maire, A.-L.; Mehrgan, L.;
Ramstedt, S.; Rau, A.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Chan, C.-K.; Davelaar, J.; Deane, R.; Dexter, J.; Mérand, A.; Millour, F.; Mollière, P.; Moulin, T.;
Reiss, R.; Renaud, F.; Revaz, Y.; Rhode, P.; Doeleman, S.; Falcke, H.; Fish, V. L.; Fraga- Müller, A.; Müller, E.; Müller, F.; Netzer, H.;
Richard, J.; Richter, A. D.; Rix, H.-W.; Encinas, R.; Fromm, C. M.; Herrero-Illana, R.; Neumann, U.; Nowak, M.; Oberti, S.; Ott, T.;

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 49


Pallanca, L.; Panduro, J.; Pasquini, L.; I Barkhof, J.; Baryshev, A.; Hesper, R.;
Paumard, T.; Percheron, I.; Perraut, K.; Perrin, G.; Khudchenko, A.; Orion-KL Observations with the
Peterson, B. M.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pflüger, A.; Pfuhl, Ivanov, V. D.; Coccato, L.; Neeser, M. J.; Selman, F.; Extended Tuning Range of the New SEPIA660
O.; Phan Duc, T.; Pineda, J. E.; Plewa, P. M.; Pizzella, A.; Dalla Bontà, E.; Corsini, E. M.; APEX Facility Instrument; 176, 20
Popovic, D.; Pott, J.-U.; Prieto, A.; Pueyo, L.; Morelli, L.; MUSE Spectral Library; 178, 17 Mroczkowski, T.; De Breuck, C.; Kemper, C.; Report
Rabien, S.; Ramírez, A.; Ramos, J. R.; Rau, C.; on the ESO Workshop “ALMA Development
Ray, T.; Riquelme, M.; Rodríguez-Coira, G.; Workshop”; 177, 64
Rohloff, R.-R.; Rouan, D.; Rousset, G.; Sanchez-
Bermudez, J.; Schartmann, M.; Scheithauer, S.; J
Schöller, M.; Schuhler, N.; Segura-Cox, D.;
Shangguan, J.; Shimizu, T. T.; Spyromilio, J.; P
Jethwa, P.; Oikonomou, F.; External Fellows at ESO;
Sternberg, A.; Stock, M. R.; Straub, O.; 177, 71
Straubmeier, C.; Sturm, E.; Suárez Valles, M.; Patat, F.; Kerzendorf, W.; Bordelon, D.; Van de Ven, G.;
Tacconi, L. J.; Thi, W.-F.; Tristram, K. R. W.; Pritchard, T.; The Distributed Peer Review
Valenzuela, J. J.; van Boekel, R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Experiment; 177, 3
Vermot, P.; Vincent, F.; von Fellenberg, S.; K
Patat, F.; Erratum: The Distributed Peer Review
Waisberg, I.; Wang, J. J.; Wank, I.; Weber, J.; Experiment; 178, 71
Weigelt, G.; Widmann, F.; Wieprecht, E.; Wiest, M.; Kasper, M.; Arsenault, R.; Käufl, U.; Jakob, G.; Primas, F.; Hainaut, O.; Bierwirth, T.; Patat, F.;
Wiezorrek, E.; Wittkowski, M.; Woillez, J.; Wolff, B.; Leveratto, S.; Zins, G.; Pantin, E.; Duhoux, P.; Dorigo, D.; Hoppe, E.; Lange, U.; Pasquato, M.;
Yang, P.; Yazici, S.; Ziegler, D.; Zins, G.; Spatially Riquelme, M.; Kirchbauer, J.-P.; Kolb, J.; Pathak, P.; Sogni, F.; The New ESO Phase 1 System for
Resolving the Quasar Broad Emission Line Siebenmorgen, R.; Soenke, C.; Fuenteseca, E.; Proposal Submission; 176, 41
Region; 178, 20 Sterzik, M.; Ageorges, N.; Gutruf, S.; Kampf, D.;
GRAVITY Collaboration; An Image of the Dust Reutlinger, A.; Absil, O.; Delacroix, C.; Maire,
Sublimation Region in the Nucleus of NGC 1068; A.-L.; Huby, E.; Guyon, O.; Klupar, P.; Mawet, D.;
178, 24 Ruane, G.; Karlsson, M.; Dohlen, K.; Vigan, A.; R
GRAVITY Collaboration; GRAVITY and the Galactic N’Diaye, M.; Quanz, S.; Carlotti, A.; NEAR: First
Centre; 178, 26 Results from the Search for Low-Mass Planets in Ray, T.; Callanan, P.; Chernyakova, M.; Espey, B.;
α Cen; 178, 5 Hanlon, L.; O’Sullivan, C.; Redman, M.; Smith, N.;
GRAVITY Collaboration; Spatially Resolved
Accretion-Ejection in Compact Binaries with Kokotanekova, R.; Facchini, S.; Hartke, J.; Fellows at Astronomy in Ireland; 176, 3
GRAVITY; 178, 29 ESO; 178, 67 Richard, J.; Kneib, J.-P.; Blake, C.; Raichoor, A.;
GRAVITY Collaboration; Images at the Highest Comparat, J.; Shanks, T.; Sorce, J.; Sahlén, M.;
Angular Resolution with GRAVITY: The Case of η Howlett, C.; Tempel, E.; McMahon, R.; Bilicki, M.;
Carinae; 178, 31 L Roukema, B.; Loveday, J.; Pryer, D.; Buchert, T.;
Zhao, C.; The CRS Team; 4MOST Consortium
GRAVITY Collaboration; Multiple Star Systems in the
Survey 8: Cosmology Redshift Survey (CRS);
Orion Nebula; 178, 36 Leibundgut, B.; Bacon, R.; Bian, F.; Kakkad, D.; 175, 50
GRAVITY Collaboration; Probing the Discs of Herbig Kuntschner, H.; Selman, F.; Valenti, E.; Vernet, J.;
Ae/Be Stars at Terrestrial Orbits; 178, 38 Vogt, F.; Wylezalek, D.; MUSE Narrow Field Mode
GRAVITY Collaboration; Spatially Resolving the Inner Adaptive Optics Science Verification; 176, 16
Gaseous Disc of the Herbig Star 51 Oph through Leibundgut, B.; Gustav Andreas Tammann (1932– S
its CO Ro-vibration Emission; 178, 40 2019); 176, 58
GRAVITY Collaboration; Hunting Exoplanets with Liske, J.; Mainieri, V.; Report on the ESO Workshop Sani, E.; Hilker, M.; Coccato, L.; Ramsay, S.; Evans, C.;
Single-Mode Optical Interferometry; 178, 47 “Preparing for 4MOST — A Community Workshop Rodrigues, M.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Sharples, R.;
Guiglion, G.; Battistini, C.; Bell, C. P. M.; Bensby, T.; Introducing ESO’s Next-Generation Report on the ESO Workshop “KMOS@5: Star
Boller, T.; Chiappini, C.; Comparat, J.; Spectroscopic Survey Facility”; 177, 61 and Galaxy Formation in 3D — Challenges in
Christlieb, N.; Church, R.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; KMOS 5th Year”; 177, 56
Davies, L.; Dwelly, T.; de Jong, R. S.; Feltzing, S.; Schinnerer, E.; Leroy, A.; Blanc, G.; Emsellem, E.;
Gueguen, A.; Howes, L.; Irwin, M.; Kushniruk, I.; Hughes, A.; Rosolowsky, E.; Schruba, A.; Bigiel, F.;
M
Lam, M. I.; Liske, J.; McMahon, R.; Merloni, A.; Escala, A.; Groves, B.; Kreckel, K.; Kruijssen, D.;
Norberg, P.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Schnurr, O.; Lee, J.; Meidt, S.; Pety, J.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.;
Sorce, J. G.; Starkenburg, E.; Storm, J.; Manara, C. F.; Harrison, C.; Zanella, A.; Agliozzo, C.; Sandstrom, K.; Usero, A.; Barnes, A.; Belfiore, F.;
Swann, E.; Tempel, E.; Thi, W.-F.; Worley, C. C.; Anderson, R. I.; Arrigoni Battaia, F.; Belfiore, F.; Bešlić, I.; Chandar, R.; Chatzigiannakis, D.;
Walcher, C. J.; The 4MOST Collaboration; 4MOST van der Burg, R.; Chen, C.-C. T. C.; Facchini, S.; Chevance, M.; Congiu, E.; Dale, D.; Faesi, C.;
Survey Strategy Plan; 175, 17 Fensch, J.; Jethwa, P.; Kokotanekova, R.; Lelli, F.; Gallagher, M.; Garcia-Rodriguez, A.; Glover, S.;
Miotello, A.; Pala, A.; Querejeta, M.; Rubin, A.; Grasha, K.; Henshaw, J.; Herrera, C.; Ho, I.-T.;
Wylezalek, D.; Watkins, L.; The ESO Summer Hygate, A.; Jimenez-Donaire, M.; Kessler, S.;
Research Programme 2019; 178, 57 Kim, J.; Klessen, R.; Koch, E.; Lang, P.; Larson, K.;
H Mérand, A.; Leibundgut, B.; Report on the ESO Le Reste, A.; Liu, D.; McElroy, R.; Nofech, J.;
Workshop “The VLT in 2030”; 177, 67 Ostriker, E.; Pessa Gutierrez, I.; Puschnig, J.;
Harrison, C.; Arrigoni Battaia, F.; Moorcraft, L.; ESO Merloni, A.; Alexander, D. A.; Banerji, M.; Boller, T.; Querejeta, M.; Razza, A.; Saito, T.; Santoro, F.;
Science Ambassadors; 176, 50 Comparat, J.; Dwelly, T.; Fotopoulou, S.; Stuber, S.; Sun, J.; Thilker, D.; Turner, J.; Ubeda, L.;
Helmi, A.; Irwin, M.; Deason, A.; Balbinot, E.; McMahon, R.; Nandra, K.; Salvato, M.; Croom, S.; Utreras, J.; Utomo, D.; van Dyk, S.; Ward, J.;
Belokurov, V.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Christlieb, N.; Finoguenov, A.; Krumpe, M.; Lamer, G.; Rosario, D.; Whitmore, B.; The Physics at High Angular
Cioni, M.-R. L.; Feltzing, S.; Grebel, E. K.; Schwope, A.; Shanks, T.; Steinmetz, M.; resolution in Nearby GalaxieS (PHANGS) Surveys;
Kordopatis, G.; Starkenburg, E.; Walton, N.; Wisotzki, L.; Worseck, G.; 4MOST Consortium 177, 36
Worley, C. C.; 4MOST Consortium Survey 1: The Survey 6: Active Galactic Nuclei; 175, 42 Sedaghati, E.; Miotello, A.; Fellows at ESO; 175, 63
Milky Way Halo Low-Resolution Survey; 175, 23 Montenegro-Montes, F. M.; Torstensson, K.; Siebenmorgen, R.; Boffin, H.; Derie, F.; Report on
Hofstadt, D.; Lodewijk Woltjer (1930–2019); 177, 74 Parra, R.; Pérez-Beaupuits, J. P.; Nyman, L.-Å.; the ESO Event “20th Anniversary of Science
Agurto, C.; Azagra, F.; Cárdenas, M.; González, E.; Exploration with FORS”; 176, 44
MacAuliffe, F.; Venegas, P.; De Breuck, C.;
Bergman, P.; Gunawan, D. S.; Wyrowski, F.;
Stanke, T.; Belitsky, V.; Fredrixon, M.; Meledin, D.;
Olberg, M.; Strandberg, M.; Sundin, E.; Adema, J.;

50 The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020


Swann, E.; Sullivan, M.; Carrick, J.; Hoenig, S.; W Wittkowski, M.; Bladh, S.; Chiavassa, A.; de Wit, W.-J.;
Hook, I.; Kotak, R.; Maguire, K.; McMahon, R.; Eriksson, K.; Freytag, B.; Haubois, X.; Höfner, S.;
Nichol, R.; Smartt, S.; 4MOST Consortium Survey Walcher, C. J.; Banerji, M.; Battistini, C.; Bell, C. P. M.; Kravchenko, K.; Paladini, C.; Paumard, T.; Rau, G.;
10: The Time-Domain Extragalactic Survey Bellido-Tirado, O.; Bensby, T.; Bestenlehner, J. M.; Wood, P. R.; Precision Monitoring of Cool Evolved
(TiDES); 175, 58 Boller, T.; Brynnel, J.; Casey, A.; Chiappini, C.; Stars: Constraining Effects of Convection and
Christlieb, N.; Church, R.; Cioni, M.-R. L.; Pulsation; 178, 34
Croom, S.; Comparat, J.; Davies, L. J. M.; de
V Jong, R. S.; Dwelly, T.; Enke, H.; Feltzing, S.;
Feuillet, D.; Fouesneau, M.; Ford, D.; Frey, S.; Y
Gonzalez-Solares, E.; Gueguen, A.; Howes, L.;
Ventura, L.; Melo, C.; Christensen, L. L.; Lyubenova,
Irwin, M.; Klar, J.; Kordopatis, G.; Korn, A.;
M.; Comerón, F.; Total Solar Eclipse Over La Silla; Yang, C.; Fellows at ESO; 177, 70
Krumpe, M.; Kushniruk, I.; Lam, M. I.; Lewis, J.;
177, 43
Lind, K.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Mainieri, V.;
Vernet, E.; Cirasuolo, M.; Cayrel, M.; Tamai, R.; Martell, S.; Matijevic, G.; McMahon, R.; Merloni, A.;
Kellerer, A.; Pettazzi, L.; Lilley, P.; Zuluaga, P.; Murphy, D.; Niederhofer, F.; Norberg, P.; Z
Diaz Cano, C.; Koehler, B.; Biancat Marchet, F.; Pramskiy, A.; Romaniello, M.; Robotham, A. S. G.;
Gonzalez, J. C.; Tuti, M.; The ELT Team; ELT M4 Rothmaier, F.; Ruchti, G.; Schnurr, O.; Schwope, A.;
— The Largest Adaptive Mirror Ever Built; 178, 3 Zafar, T.; De Breuck, C.; Arnaboldi, M.; Report on the
Smedley, S.; Sorce, J.; Starkenburg, E.; Stilz, I.; ESO Workshop “Linking Galaxies from the Epoch
Vieser, W.; Johnston, T.; Salimpour, S.; Report on Storm, J.; Tempel, E.; Thi, W.-F.; Traven, G.; of Initial Star Formation to Today”; 176, 48
the IAU Conference “Astronomy Education — Valentini, M.; van den Ancker, M.; Walton, N.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; External Fellows at ESO; 175, 66
Bridging Research & Practice”; 178, 63 Winkler, R.; Worley, C. C.; 4MOST Scientific
Operations; 175, 12
Sangku Kim/ESO

A mirror shows a reflec-


tion of one of the
­telescopes located at
La Silla Observatory,
with an incredible back-
ground view of the
Milky Way galaxy and
the sunrise.

The Messenger 179 – Quarter 1 | 2020 51


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