Umayyad Caliphs at Damascus

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Muawiyah I ibn Abi Sufyan, 661–680 Yazid I ibn Muawiyah, 680–683 Muawiyah II ibn Yazid, 683–684 Marwan I ibn al-Ḥakam, 684–685 Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, 685–705 al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik, 705–715 Suleiman ibn Abd al-Malik, 715–717 Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz, 717–720 Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik, 720–724 Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, 724–743 al-Walid II ibn Yazid II, 743–744 Yazid III ibn al-Walid, 744 Ibrahim ibn al-Walid, 744 Marwan II ibn Muhammad (ruled from Harran in the Jazira) 744–750

[edit] Umayyad Emirs of Córdoba
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Abd ar-Rahman I, 756–788 Hisham I, 788–796 al-Hakam I, 796–822 Abd ar-Rahman II, 822–852 Muhammad I of Córdoba, 852–886 Al-Mundhir, 886 – 888 Abdallah ibn Muhammad, 888–912 Abd ar-Rahman III, 912–929

[edit] Umayyad Caliphs at Córdoba
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Abd ar-Rahman III, as caliph, 929–961 Al-Hakam II, 961–976 Hisham II, 976–1008 Mohammed II, 1008–1009 Suleiman, 1009–1010 Hisham II, restored, 1010–1012 Suleiman, restored, 1012–1017 Abd ar-Rahman IV, 1021–1022 Abd ar-Rahman V, 1022–1023 Muhammad III, 1023–1024 Hisham III, 1027–1031

The Ummayad dynasty was interrupted by the Hammudid dynasty:
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Ali ibn Hammud al-Nasir, 1016–1018 Al-Qasim ibn Hammud al-Ma'mu, 1018–1021 Yahya ibn Ali ibn Hammud al-Mu'tali, 1021–1023 Al-Qasim ibn Hammud al-Ma'mu, 1023 (restored)

The Ummayad dynasty returned to power:
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Abd-ar-Rahman V, 1023–1024 Muhammad III, 1024–1025 interreign of Yahya ibn Ali ibn Hammud al-Mu'tali, 1025–1026 Hisham III, 1026–1031

Genealogic tree of the Umayyad family. In blue: caliph Uthman, one of the four Rashidun Caliphs. In green, the Umayyad Caliphs of Damascus. In yellow, the Umayyad emirs of Córdoba. In orange, the Umayyad Caliphs of Córdoba. Abd Al-Rahman III was an emir until 929 when he proclaimed

himself Caliph. Muhammad is included (in caps) to show the kinship of the Umayyads with him. List of Abbasid Caliphs

Abu'l Abbas As-Saffah 750 – 754 (132- 136 AH)

Abbasid Caliphs in Baghdad
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Al-Mansur 754 – 775 (136-158 AH) Al-Mahdi 775 – 785 Al-Hadi 785 – 786 Harun al-Rashid 786 – 809 Al-Amin 809 – 813 Al-Ma'mun 813 – 833 Al-Mu'tasim 833 – 842 Al-Wathiq 842 – 847 Al-Mutawakkil 847 – 861 Al-Muntasir 861 – 862 Al-Musta'in 862 – 866 Al-Mu'tazz 866 – 869 Al-Muhtadi 869 – 870 Al-Mu'tamid 870 – 892 Al-Mu'tadid 892 – 902 Al-Muktafi 902 – 908 Al-Muqtadir 908 – 932 Al-Qahir 932 – 934 Ar-Radi 934 – 940 Al-Muttaqi 940 – 944 Al-Mustakfi 944 – 946 Al-Muti 946 – 974 At-Ta'i 974 – 991 Al-Qadir 991 – 1031 Al-Qa'im 1031–1075 Al-Muqtadi 1075–1094 Al-Mustazhir 1094–1118 Al-Mustarshid 1118–1135 Ar-Rashid 1135–1136 Al-Muqtafi 1136–1160 Al-Mustanjid 1160–1170 Al-Mustadi 1170–1180 An-Nasir 1180–1225 Az-Zahir 1225–1226 Al-Mustansir 1226–1242 Al-Musta'sim 1242–1258

Abbasid Caliphs in Cairo
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Al-Mustansir 1261–1262 Al-Hakim I (Cairo) 1262–1302 Al-Mustakfi I of Cairo 1303–1340 Al-Wathiq I 1340–1341 Al-Hakim II 1341–1352 Al-Mu'tadid I 1352–1362 Al-Mutawakkil I 1362–1383 Al-Wathiq II 1383–1386 Al-Mu'tasim 1386–1389 Al-Mutawakkil I (restored) 1389–1406 Al-Musta'in 1406–1414 Al-Mu'tadid II 1414–1441 Al-Mustakfi II 1441–1451 Al-Qa'im 1451–1455
• • • •

Al-Mustanjid 1455–1479 Al-Mutawakkil II 1479–1497 Al-Mustamsik 1497–1508 Al-Mutawakkil III 1508–1517

CHRONOLOGY OF ISLAMIC HISTORY Sixth century (501-600) This is approximately 126 AH – 23 PRE PROPHETIC ERA
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545: Birth of Abdullah, Muhammad's father (approximate date). 570: Birth of Muhammad, Year of the Elephant (approximate date) and death of Abdullah, Muhammad's father. 576: Death of Aminah bint Wahb, the mother of Muhammad (approximate date). 578: Death of Abdul Muttalib, the grandfather of Muhammad (approximate date) 583: Muhammad's journey to Syria with his uncle Abu Talib (approximate date) 594: Muhammad works for Khadija; leads her trade caravan to Syria and back (approximate date) 595: Muhammad marries Khadija (approximate date). 599: Birth of Ali ibn Abi Talib he was born in the Kaaba, in the city of Mecca. The cousin of Muhammad and his son in law.

This century corresponds to approxmiately 23 BH - 81 AH.

605: Birth of Fatimah the daughter of Muhammad. She was the wife of Ali ibn Abu Talib and all of Muhammad's descendants are through her.

PROPHETIC ERA
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610: The first declared revelation of the Qur'an in the cave at Hira. 613: Declaration at Mount Safa inviting the general public to Islam. 614: Persecution of the Muslims by the Quraish. A party of Muslims migrates to Abyssinia 616: Second migration to Abyssinia. 617: Boycott of the Hashemites and Muhammad by the Quraish. 619: Lifting of the boycott. Deaths of Abu Talib and Khadija, Year of Sorrow. 620: Visit to Taif. "Ascension to the heavens". 622: Hijra—migration to Medina. First year of Islamic calendar. 624: Battle of Badr. Expulsion of the Bani Qainuqa Jews from Medina. 625: Battle of Uhud. Expulsion of Banu Nadir Jews from Medina. 627: Battle of the Trench. Killing and enslavement of Banu Quraiza. 628: Treaty of Hudaybiyyah. Battle of Khaybar. Muhammad sends letters to various heads of states. 629: Muhammad pilgrimage to Mecca. Battle of Mu'ta. 630: Conquest of Mecca. Battle of Hunayn. Battle of Autas. Siege of Ta'if. 631: Expedition to Tabouk, Ghassanids. 631 or 632, tribe of Thaqif adopts Islam. 632: Farewell pilgrimage at Mecca. 632: Death of Muhammad. Death of Fatimah, his daughter.

PIOUS CALIPHATIC ERA - ABU BAKAR R.A

632:Abu Bakr is chosen by consensus of the majority of the prophet's companions as caliph. Battles of Zu Qissa. Battles of Zu Abraq. Battle of Buzakha. Battle of Zafar. Battle of Naqra. Campaigns against Bani Tamim and Mosailima. 633: Campaigns in Bahrain, Oman, Yemen, and Hadramaut. Raids in Iraq.Battle of Kazima, Battle of Mazar, Battle of Walaja, Battle of Ullais, Battle of Hira, Battle of Al-Anbar, Battle of Ayn al-Tamr, Battle of Dawmat al-Jandal, Battle of Firaz. 634: Battle of Bosra, Battle of Damascus, Battle of Ajnadin. Death of Abu Bakr.

PIOUS CALIPHATIC ERA - UMAR R.A
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634:Umar ibn al-Khattab assumes power as the second caliph. Battle of Namaraq, Battle of Saqatia. 635: Battle of Bridge, Battle of Buwaib, Conquest of Damascus, Battle of Fahl. 636: Battle of Yarmuk, Battle of al-Qādisiyyah, Conquest of Madain. 637: Conquest of Syria, Conquest of Jerusalem, Battle of Jalula. 638: Conquest of Jazirah. 639: Conquest of Khuzistan. Advance into Egypt. Plague of Emmaus. 640: Battle of Babylon in Egypt. 641: Battle of Nihawand; Conquest of Alexandria in Egypt. 642: Conquest of Egypt. 643: Conquest of Azarbaijan and Tabaristan (Mazandaran). 644: Conquest of Fars, Kerman, Sistan, Mekran and Kharan. Assassination of Umar.

PIOUS CALIPHATIC ERA - USMAN R.A
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• • •

644: Uthman ibn Affan becomes the caliph. 646: Campaigns in Khurasan, Armenia and Asia Minor. 647: Campaigns in North Africa. Conquest of the island of Cyprus. 648: Campaigns against the Byzantines. 650: First conflict between Arabs and Turks. Khazars defeated an Arab force led by Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah outside the Khazar town of Balanjar. 652: Disaffection against the rule of Uthman. 655: Naval battle of the Masts against the Byzantines. 656: Uthman is killed.

PIOUS CALIPHATIC ERA – ALI R.A
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656:Ali ibn Abi Talib becomes the fourth caliph. Battle of the Camel. 657: Ali shifts the capital from Medina to Kufa. Battle of Siffin. 658: Battle of Nahrawan. 659: Conquest of Egypt by Muawiyah I. 660: Ali recaptures Hijaz and Yemen from Muawiyah. Muawiyah I declares himself as the caliph at Damascus.

UMAYYAD PERIOD Muawiyah I
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661: Ali was assassinated by Kharijites. 662: Kharijites' revolts. 666: Raid of Sicily. 669: Hasan ibn Ali, the second imam of the Shiites is poisoned and killed. Husayn ibn Ali becomes Imam of Ali ibn Abi Talib's followers. 670: Advance in North Africa. Uqba bin Nafe founds the town of Kairouan in Tunisia. Conquest of Kabul. 672: Capture of the island of Rhodes. Campaigns in Khurasan. 674: The Muslims cross the Oxus. Bukhara becomes a vassal state. 676: Muhammad al-Baqir, the fifth imam of the Shiites is born. 677: Occupation of Samarkand and Tirmiz. Siege of Constantinople. 680: Death of Muawiyah.

Yazid I

680: Yazid I becomes caliph. Battle of Karbala and Husayn bin Ali is killed along with his companions. Ali ibn Husayn becomes Imam of Ali ibn Abi Talib's followers.

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682: North Africa Uqba bin Nafe marches to the Atlantic, is ambushed and killed at Biskra. The Muslims evacuate Kairouan and withdraw to Burqa. 683: Death of Yazid. Muawiya II becomes caliph. 684: Abd Allah ibn Zubayr declares himself as the caliph at Mecca.

Marwan I
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684:Marwan I becomes the caliph at Damascus. Battle of Marj Rahat. 685: Death of Marwan I.

Abd al-Malik
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685: Abd al-Malik becomes the caliph at Damascus. Battle of Ain ul Wada. 686: Al-Mukhtar declares himself as the caliph at Kufa. 687: Battle of Kufa between the forces of Mukhtar and Abd Allah ibn Zubayr. Mukhtar killed. 691: Battle of Dayr al-Jaliq. Kufa falls to Abdul Malik. 692: The fall of Mecca. Death of ibn Zubayr. Abdul Malik becomes the sole caliph. 695: Kharijites' revolts in Jazira and Ahwaz. Battle of the Karun. Campaigns against Kahina in North Africa. The Muslims once again withdraw to Barqa. The Muslims advance in Transoxiana and occupy Kish. 700: Campaigns against the Berbers in North Africa. By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 1 per cent of the total.

Eighth century (701-800) This century is equivalent to approximately 81 AH – 184 AH.
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702: Ash'ath's rebellion in Iraq, battle of Dayr al-Jamira. 703: Ja'far al-Sadiq, the sixth Imam of shiite is born. 705: Death of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan.

Al-WALEED I
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705:Accession of Al-Walid I as Umayyad Caliph. 711: Conquest of Spain by Tariq bin Ziad and Transoxiana. 712: Conquest of Sind by Mohammad bin Qasim 713: Ali ibn Husayn, the fourth Imam of shiite was poisoned and martyred. Muhammad al-Baqir becomes Imam. Conquest of Multan. 715: Death of Walid I.

Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik
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715: Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik becomes Umayyad Caliph. 716: Second Arab siege of Constantinople. 717: Death of Sulayman.

Umar II
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717: Umar II becomes Umayyad Caliph. Pact of Umar. 720: Death of Umar II.

Yazid II
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720: Yazid II becomes Umayyad Caliph. 723: Al-Kharashi, massacred Turks and Sogdian refugees in Khujand 724: Death of Yazid II.

Hisham

724:Hisham becomes Umayyad Caliph.

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• • •

• • • •

725: The Muslims occupy Nîmes in France. 728: Turgesh Qaghan Suluk defeated Muslim ibn Sa'id 730: Barjik, of Khazar Turks invaded northwestern Iran and defeated the Umayyad forces at Ardabil in 730, killing the Arab governor AlDjarrah al-Hakami and briefly occupying the town 732: The Battle of Tours in France. 737: The Muslims meet a reverse at Avignon in France. 737: Marwan ibn Muhammad (later Caliph Marwan II) poured across the Caucasus and eventually defeated a Khazar army led by Hazer Tarkhan, briefly occupying Atil itself. 740: Shi'a Zaydi Revolt under Zayd bin Ali. Berber revolt in North Africa. Battle of the Nobles. 741: Battle of Bagdoura in North Africa. 742: The Muslim rule restored in Qairawan. 743: Muhammad al-Baqir is poisoned. Jafar al-Sadiq becomes Imam. Death of Hisham.

Al-Walid II
• •

743: Al-Walid II becomes Umayyad Caliph. Shi'a revolt in Khurasan under Yahya ibn Zayd. 744: Deposition of Walid II.

Yazid III

744:Yazid III becomes Umayyad Caliph and his death.

Ibrahim

744:Ibrahim becomes Umayyad Caliph and his overthrow. Battle of Ain al Jurr.

Marwan II
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• • • •

744:Marwan II becomes Umayyad Caliph. 745: Musa al-Kazim, the seventh Imam of Shiite is born. (Ismail bin Jafar is the 7th rightful Imam according to Ismaili Shia.)Kufa and Mosul occupied by the Kharijites. 746: Battle of Rupar Thutha, Kufa and Mosul occupied by Marwan II. 747: Revolt of Abu Muslim in Khurasan. 748: Battle of Rayy. 749: Battle of lsfahan and Battle of Nihawand. Capture of Kufa by the Abbasids.

ABBASIDE ERA Abu'l Abbas As-Saffah 750 – 754 (132- 136 AH)
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749: As-Saffah becomes the Abbasid Caliph at Kufa. 750: Battle of Zab. Fall of Damascus. End of the Umayyads. 751: Conquest of Wasit by the Abbasid. Murder of the Minister Abu Salama. 751: Battle of Talas Abbasid armies defeat Tang Dynasty of China. First Türk-Arap cooperation. 754: Death of Al-Saffah.

Abbasid Caliphs in Baghdad Al-Mansur 754 – 775 (136-158 AH)
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754:Accession of Al-Mansur as the Caliph. 755: Revolt of Abdullah bin Ali. Murder of Abu Muslim. Sunbadh revolt in Khurasan. 756: Abd-ar-rahman I founds the Umayyad state in Spain.

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758: Khazar army under Ras Tarkhan invaded and temporarily occupied parts of Azerbaijan and Arran. 763: Foundation of Baghdad. Defeat of the Abbasids in Spain. 765: Jafar al-Sadiq, who is the sixth imam of Shiite is poisoned. He formulated theology and Shariah of shiite during his life, which called Mazhabe Jafari. Musa al-Kazim becomes Imam. Ali ar Rida the eighth imam was born. 766: Sayram in Central Asia taken from the Nestorians. Evangelical army of Arab Muslims and recent converts led by Abd al-Aziz. 767: Khariji state set up by Ibn Madrar at Sijilmasa. Ustad Sees revolt in Khurasan. 772: Battle of Janbi in North Africa. Rustamid state set up in Morocco. 775: Death or the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mansur,

Al-Mahdi 775 – 785
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775:Accession of Al-Mahdi 777: Siege of Saragossa in Spain. 785: Death of the Caliph Mahdi.

Al-Hadi 785 – 786
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785:Accession of Al-Hadi. 786: Death of Hadi.

Harun al-Rashid 786 – 809
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786Accession of Harun al-Rashid. 788: Idrisid state set up in the Maghrib. Death of Abd-ar-rahman I of Spain, and accession of Hisham I. 792: Invasion of South France. 796: Death of Hisham in Spain; accession of al al-Hakam I. 799: Suppression of the revolt of the Khazars. 800: Musa al-Kazim is poisoned in prison of Harun al-Rashid. Ali al-Rida becomes Imam. Aghlabid rule is established in North Africa. By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 2 per cent of the total (centred around Iraq).

9th century (801-900) (184 AH – 288 AH)
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803: Downfall of the Barmakids. Execution of Jafar Barmki. 805: Campaigns against the Byzantines. Capture of the islands of Rhodes and Cyprus. 809: Death of Harun al-Rashid.

al-Amin 809 – 813
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809:Accession of al-Amin. 810: Muhammad al-Taqi, the 9th Shia Imam was born. 811: Battle of Rayy in Persia. 814: Civil war between Amin and al-Ma'mun. Amin killed.

Ma'mun 813 – 833
• • • • •

• •

814:Ma'mun becomes the Caliph. 815: Shi'a revolt under Ibn Tuba Tabs. 816: Shi'a revolt in Mecca; Harsama quells the revolt. In Spain the Umayyads capture the island of Corsica. 817: Harthama killed. 818: Ali al-Rida dies in Mashhad. Muhammad al-Taqi becomes Imam. The Umayyads of Spain capture the islands of Ibiza, Majorca, and Sardinia. 820: Tahir ibn Husayn establishes the rule of the Tahirids in Khurasan. 822: Death of al-Hakam I in Spain; accession of Abd-ar-rahman II.

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823: Death of Tahir in Khurasan. Accession of Talha and his deposition. Accession of Abdullah ibn Tahir al-Khurasani. 827: Ali al-Hadi, the 10th Shia Imam is born. Ma'mun declares the Mu'tazili creed as the state religion. 833: Death of Ma'mun.

al-Mutasim 833 – 842
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833:Accession of al-Mutasim. 835: Muhammad al-Taqi is poisoned. Ali al-Hadi becomes Imam. 836: Mutasim moves the capital to Samarra. 837: Revolt of the Jats. 838: Revolt of Babak in Azarbaijan suppressed. 839: Revolt of Maziar in Tabaristan. The Muslims occupy South Italy. Capture of the city of Messina in Sicily. 842: Death of Mutasim,

al-Wathiq
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842:accession of al-Wathiq. 843: Revolts of the Arabs. 846: Hasan al-Askari, the 11th Shia Imam is born. 847: Death of Wathiq,

al-Mutawakkil
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847: accession of al-Mutawakkil. 850: Al-Mutawakkil restores orthodoxy. 849: Death of the Tahirid ruler Abdullah ibn Tahir al-Khurasani; accession of Tahir II. 852: Death of Abd-ar-rahman II of Spain;. accession of Muhammad I. 856: Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz founds the Habbarid rule in Sind. 858: Al-Mutawakkil founds the town of Jafariya. 860: Ahmad founds the Samanid rule in Transoxiana. 861: Murder of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mutawakkil;

al-Muntasir
• •

861: accession of al-Muntasir. 862: Muntasir poisoned to death;

al-Musta'in
• • •

accession of al-Musta'in. 864: Zaidi state established in Tabaristan by Hasan ibn Zayd. 866: Al-Musta'in flees from Samarra, his deposition.

al-Mu'tazz

• •

866: accession of al-Mu'tazz; Muhammad ibn Yusuf Al-Ukhaidhir, a descendent of Ali, establishes an independent kingdom in Yamamah. 867: Ya'qub-i Laith Saffari founds the Saffarid rule in Sistan. 868: Ali al-Hadi is poisoned. Hasan al-Askari becomes Imam. Muhammad al-Mahdi, the last Imam of shiite is born. Ahmad ibn Tulun finds the Tulunid rule in Egypt. 869: The Abbasid Caliph Mu'tazz forced to abdicate, his death.

al-Muhtadi
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869: accession of al-Muhtadi. Beginning of Zanj Revolt in Basra. 870: Turks revolt against Muhtadi, his death and

al-Mu'tamid

• • •

• • • • • • •

870: accession of al-Mu'tamid. 873: Tahirid rule extinguished. 874: Hasan al-Askari is poisoned. Muhammad al-Mahdi becomes Imam. He has gone into hiding by the order of Allmighty Allah and will emerge to save mankind and establish Islamic Law all over the world as shiite and muslims believe. Up to 939 only 4 men could communicate with him. Zanji state established at al-Muktara during Zanj revolt in South Iraq. Death of the Samanid ruler Ahmad, accession of Nasr I. 877: Death of Ya'qub-i Laith Saffari in Sistan, accession of Amr bin Layth. 883: End of Zanj Revolt 885: Death of Ahmad ibn Tulun in Egypt, accession of Khumarawaih ibn Ahmad ibn Tulun. 886: Death of Muhammad I the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of al-Mundhir. Death of Abdullah ibn Umar the Habbari ruler of Sind. 888: Death of Mundhir the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Umawi. 891: The Qarmatian state established at Bahrain. 892: Abbasid Caliph al-Mu'tamid death.

al-Mu'tadid
• • • • • •

892: al-Mu'tadid becomes Caliph. Death of the Samanid ruler Nasr, accession of Ismail I. 893: Zaidi Imamate is established in Yemen by al-Hadi Yahya bin alHusayn ibn al-Qasim 894: The Rustamids become the vassals of Spain. 896: Death of Khumarawaih ibn Ahmad ibn Tulun; accession of Abul Asakir Jaish. 897: Assassination of Abul Asakir Jaish; accession of Abu Musa Harun. 898: Qarmatians sack Basra. By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 3 per cent of the total.

10th century (900-999) (288 AH – 391 AH)

902: Death of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mu'tadid;

al-Muktafi
• • • •

902:al-Muktafi becomes Caliph. Death of the Saffarid ruler Amr bin Laith. 903: Assassination of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Said of Qarmatian; accession of Abu Tahir. 905: Abdullah bin Hamdan founds the Hamdanid rule in Mosul and Jazira. End of the Tulunid rule in Egypt. 908: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muktafi; al-Muqtadir

• •

• • • •

908:accession of al-Muqtadir. End of the Saffarid rule, annexation of their territories by the Samanids. 909: Sa'id ibn Husayn, with the help of his chief missionarycommander Abdullah ibn Husayn Al-Shi'i overthrows the Aghlabids and founds the Fatimid rule in North Africa at which time he changes his title to Imam Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah. The Aghlabid Ziyadat Allah is thus expelled from the region, and with him the final remnants of Sunni Islam in North Africa. 912: Death of the Umayyad Abdallah ibn Muhammad in Spain, accession of Abd-ar-rahman III. 913: Assassination of the Samanid ruler Ahmad, accession of Nasr II. 928: Mardawij ibn Ziyar founds the Ziyarid rule in Tabaristan. 929: Qarmatians sack Mecca and carry away the Black Stone from the Kaaba. In Spain, Abd-ar-rahman III declares himself Caliph of Cordoba. 931: Deposition and restoration of the Abbasid Caliph al-Muqtadir. Death of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Tahir;

Abu Mansur
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931: accession of Abu Mansur. 932: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muqtadir; al-Qahir

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932: accession of al-Qahir. 932 : Saltuk Bugra Khan of Karahan Turks embraced Islam. 934: Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph al-Qahir; ar-Radi

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934: accession of ar-Radi. Death of the Fatimid Caliph Ubaidullah; accession of al Qaim; Emad o-dowleh Abol Hasan stablished buwayhid power in Fars. 935: Rukn al-daula conquered Ray and established Buwayhid government of rey. Assassination of the Ziyarid ruler Mardawij; accession of Washimgir. Death of Hamdanid ruler Abdullah ibn Hamdan accession of Nasir al-Daula. 936: By coup, Ibn Raiq becomes the Amir al-Umara under Abbasid Caliph ar-Radi. 938: By another coup, power at Baghdad is captured by Bajkam. 940: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Ar-Radi, al-Muttaqi

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940: accession of al-Muttaqi. 941: Assassination of Bajkam, capture of power by Kurtakin. 942: Ibn Raiq recaptures power in Baghdad. 943: Al-Ba'idi captures power. The Abbasid Caliph al-Muttaqi is forced to seek refuge with the Hamdanids. Sail ud Daula captures power at Baghdad and the Caliph returns to Baghdad. Power is captured by Tuzun and Sail ud Daula retires to Mosul. Death of the Samanid ruler Nasr II, accession of Hamid Nuh I. 944: al-Muttaqi is blinded and deposed, al-Mustakfi

• •

944: accession of al-Mustakfi. 945: Death of Tuzun. Shirzad becomes Amir ul Umra. The Mo'ez odowleh capture power and stablished the Buwayhid of Iraq. Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustakfi. Al-Muti 946 – 974

• • • • • •

• • •

946: Accession of Al-Muti; Death of the Fatimid Caliph A1 Qaim. Accession of Mansur. Death of the Ikhshid ruler Muhammad bin Tughj, accession of Abul Qasim Ungur. 949: Death of the Buwahid shah of Fars, 'Imad al-Daula. Accession of 'Adud al-Daula. 951: The Qarmatians restore the Black Stone to the Kaaba. 954: Death of the Samanid ruler Nuh I, accession of 'Abd al-Malik I. 961: Death of the Samanid ruler 'Abd al-Malik I, accession of Mansur I. 961: Turkish mameluk Alptigin founds the rule of the Ghazanavids. 961: Death of the Umayyad Caliph Abdul Rahman III in Spain; accession of al-Hakam II. Death of the Ikhshid ruler Ungur accession of Abul Hasan Ali. 965: Death of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Mansur; accession of Hasan Azam. Assassination of the Ikhshid ruler Abul Hasan Ali; power captured by Malik Kafur. 967: Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Muiz ud Daula, accession of Azad odowleh Bakhtiar. Death of the Hamdanid ruler Sail ud Daula. 968: Byzantines occupy Aleppo. Death of the Ikhshid ruler Malik Kafur; accession of Abul Fawaris. 969: The Fatimids conquer Egypt.

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972: Buluggin ibn Ziri founds the rule of the Zirids Algeria. 973: Shi'a Sunni disturbances in Baghdad; power captured in Baghdad by the Turkish General Sabuktigin. 974: Abdication of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Muti;

at-Ta'i
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974:accession of at-Ta'i. 975: Death of the Fatimid Caliph al-Muizz. 976: The Buwayhid Sultan 'Izz al-Daula recaptures power with the help of his cousin Azud ud Daula. Death of the Samanid ruler Mansur I, accession of Nuh II. In Spain death of the Umayyad Caliph al-Hakam II, accession of Hisham II. 977: Sabuktigin becomes the amir of Ghazanavids. 978: Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Azad o-dowleh Bakhtiar, power captured by Azud ud Daula who ruled former in Fars. The Hamdanids overthrown by the Buwayhids. 981: End of the Qarmatian rule at Bahrain. 982: Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Azud ud Daula; accession of Samsam o-dowleh. 984: Death of the Zirid ruler Buluggin, accession of Mansur of Zirid. 986: The Buwyhid Sultan Samsara ud Daula overthrown by Sharaf ud Daula. 989: Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Sharaf ud Daula, accession of Baha ud Daula. 991: Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph at-Ta'i, al-Qadir

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991: accession of al-Qadir. 996: Death of the Zirid ruler Mansur, accession of Nasir ud Daula Badis. 997: Death of the Samanid ruler Nuh II, accession of Mansur II. 998: Death of the Samanid ruler Mansur II, accession of 'Abd al-Malik II. Mahmud of Ghaznavid becomes the Amir of Ghazni. 999: Bughra Khan of Karahan Turks capture Bukhara. End of the Samanids. 999: By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 4 per cent of the total.

11th century (1001-1100) (391 AH – 494 AH)
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1001: Mahmud of Ghaznavid defeats the Hindu Shahis. 1004: Mahmud of Ghaznavid captures Bhatiya. 1005: Mahmud of Ghaznavid captures Multan and Ghur. 1008: Mahmud of Ghaznavid defeats the Rajput confederacy. 1010: Abdication of Hisham II in Spain. Accession of Muhammad II. 1011: In Spain Muhammad II is overthrown by Sulaiman II. 1012: In Spain, power is captured by Bani Hamud. Death of the Buwayhid Baha ud Daula, accession of Sultan ud Daula. 1016: Death of the Zirrid ruler Nasir ud Daula Badis; accession of Al Muizz. 1018: In Spain, power is captured by Abd-ar-Rahman IV. 1019: Conshest of the Punjab by Mahmud of Ghaznavid. 1020: The Buwayhid Sultan ud Daula is overthrown by Musharaf ud Daula, Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Hakim, accession of Ali az-Zahir. 1024: In Spain ,assassination of Abd-ar-Rahman IV. 1025: Death of the Buwayhid Mushgraf ud Daula, accession of Jalal ud Daula. 1029: In Spain, death of Mustaft, accession of Hisham III. 1030: Death of Mahmud of Ghaznavid. 1031: In Spain, deposition of Hisham III, and end of the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba. Death of the Abbasid Caliph al-Qadir,

al-Qa'im

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1031: accession of al-Qa'im. 1036: Death of the Fatimid Caliph Ali az-Zahir, accession of Ma'ad alMustansir Billah Toghrül is crowned as the king of the Seljuks. 1037: Seljuk Turks under Tuğrul Bey sack the city of Ghazni. 1040: Battle of Dandanaqan, the Seljuks defeat the Ghazanavids. Deposition of Mas'ud I of Ghaznavid Sultan, accession of Mehmed of Ghaznavid. Al Moravids come to power in North Africa. 1041: The Ghaznavid Sultan Mehmed of Ghaznavid is overthrown by Mawdud. 1044: Death of the Buwayhid Jalal ud Daula, accession of Abu Kalijar. 1046: Basasiri captures power in Baghdad. 1047: The Zirids in North Africa repudiate allegiance to the Fatimid and transfer allegiance to the Abbasids. 1048: Death of the Buwayhid Abu Kalijar, accession of Malik ur Rahim. 1050: Yusuf bin Tashfin comes to power in the Maghrib. 1055: Tuğrul Bey overthrows the Buwayhids. 1057: Basasiri recaptures power in Baghdad, deposes Al-Qa'im and offers allegiance to the Fatimid Caliph. 1059: Tuğrul Bey recaptures power in Baghdad, Al-Qa'im is restored as the Caliph. 1060: Ibrahim of Ghaznavid becomes the Sultan. Yusuf bin Tashfin founds the city of Marrakesh. The Zirids abandon their capital Ashir and establish their capital at Bougie. 1062: Death of the Zirid ruler Al Muizz, accession of Tamin. 1063: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Tuğrul Bey accession of Alp Arslan. 1071: Battle of Manzikert, the Byzantine emperor taken captive by the Seljuk Turks. 1073: Death of Alp Arslan, accession of Malik Shah.

Al-Muqtadi 1075–1094
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1075 Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Qa'im, accession of Al-Muqtadi. 1077: Seljuk Turks found Sultanate of Rum (or seljuks of Turkey) in Turkey. 1082: The Almoravids conquer Algeria. 1086: Battle of Zallakha. The Almoravids defeat the Christians in Spain. 1086: Death of the Suleyman I of Rum, accession of Kilij Arslan I. 1091: The Normans conquer the island of Sicily; end of the Muslim rule. 1092: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah I, accession of Mahmud I of Great Seljuk. 1094: Death of Seljuk Sultan Mahmud I; accession of Barkiyaruq. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Muqtadi,

Al-Mustazhir 1094–1118
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1094: accession of Mustahzir. 1095: The first crusade. 1099: The crusaders capture Jerusalem. By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 5 per cent of the total.

12th century (1101-1200) (494 AH – 597 AH)
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1101: Death of the Fatimid Caliph al-Musta'li, accession of al-Amir BiAhkamillah. 1105: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Barkiyaruq, accession Of Mehmed I of Great Seljuk. 1106: Death of the Al Motavid Yusuf bin Tashfin. 1107: Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Kilij Arslan I, succession of Malik Shah of Rüm. 1108: Death of the Zirid ruler Tamin, accession of Yahya of Zirid. 1116: Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah. accession of Mas'ud of Rüm. 1118: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Muhammad; accession of Mahmud II of Great Seljuk. Death of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustazhir,

Al-Mustarshid 1118–1135

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1118: accession of al-Mustarshid. In Spain the Christians capture Zaragoza. 1121: Death of the Fatimid ruler Al-Amir Bi-Ahkamillah, accession of AlHafiz. 1127: Imad ad-Din Zengi establishes the Zengi rule In Mosul. 1128: Death of the Khawarzam Shah Qutb ud Din Muhammad; accession of Atsiz. 1130: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Mahmud II of Great Seljuk; accession of Toghrül II. 1135 Assassination of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustarshid

al-Rashid
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1135: accession of al-Rashid. Death of the Seljuk Sultan Toghrül II, accession of Mas'ud of Great Seljuk. 1136 Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Rashid,

Al-Muqtafi 1136–1160

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accession of Al-Muqtafi. 1144: Zengi captures Edessa from the Christians, second crusade. 1146: Death of Zengi, accession of Nur ad-Din. 1147: In the Maghrib Al Moravids overthrown by the Almohad under Abd al-Mu'min. 1148: End of the Zirid rule' in North Africa. Siege of Damascus repulsed, thus effectively winning the Second Crusade. 1149: Death of the Fatimid Caliph al-Hafiz, accession of Az-Zafir. 1152: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Mas'ud of Great Seljuk, accession of Malik Shah III. Hamadid rule extinguished in North Africa. 1153: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah III, accession of Mehmed II of Great Seljuk. 1154: Death of the Fatimid Caliph az-Zafir, accession of Al-Faiz. 1156: Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Mas'ud of Rüm, accession of Kilij Arslan II. 1159: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Mehmed II of Great Seljuk, accession of Gulaiman. 1160: Death of the Abbasid Caliph al-Muqtafi,

Al-Mustanjid 1160–1170
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1160: accession of al-Mustanjid. Death of the Fatimid Caliph al-Faiz, accession of al-Adid. 1161: Death of the Seljuk Süleyman of Great Seljuk, accession of Arslan Shah. 1163: Death of the Almohad ruler Abd al-Mu'min, accession of Yusuf I, Almohad Caliph. 1170: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mustanjid,

Al-Mustadi 1170–1180
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1170: accession of Al-Mustadi. 1171: Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al-Adid. End of the Fatimids. Saladin founds the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt. 1172: Death of the Khawarzam Shah Arsalan, accession of Sultan Shah. 1173: The Khawarzam Shah Sultan Shah is overthrown by Tukush Shah. 1174: Saladin annexes Syria. 1175: The Ghurids defeat the Guzz Turks and occupy Ghazni. 1176: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Arslan Shah, accession of Toghrül III. 1180: Death of the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustadi,

An-Nasir 1180–1225

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1180: accession of an-Nasir. Shahab ud Din Ghuri captures Peshawar. 1185: Death of the Almohad ruler Yusuf I, Almohad Caliph, accession of Yaqub, Almohad Caliph. 1186: The Ghurids overthrow the Ghaznavid in the Punjab. 1187: Saladin recaptures Jerusalem from the Christians, third crusade. 1191: First Battle of Tarain between the Rajputs and the Ghurids. 1192: Second Battle of Tarain. 1193: Death of Saladin; accession of Al-Aziz Uthman. 1194: Occupation of Delhi by the Muslims. End of the Seljuk rule. 1199: Death of the Khawarzam Shah Tukush Shah; accession of Ala ud Din. Death of the Almohad ruler Yaqub, Almohad Caliph; accession of Muhammad an-Nasir. Conquest of Northern India and Bengal by the Ghurids. By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 6 per cent of the total.

13th Century (1201-1300) (597 AH – 700 AH)
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1202: Death of the Ghurid Sultan Ghias ud Din; accession of Mahmud of Ghurid. 1204: Shahab ud Din Ghuri defeated by the Ghuzz Turks. 1206: Death of Shahab ud Din Ghuri. Qutb ud Din Aibik crowned king in Lahore. 1210: Assassination of the Ghurid Sultan Mahmud, accession of Sam. Death of Qutb ud Din Aibak, accession of Aram Shah in India. 1211: End of the Ghurid rule, their territories annexed by the Khawarzam Shahs. In India Aram Shah overthrown by Iltutmish. 1212: Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in Spain, end of the Almohad rule in Spain. The Almohads suffer defeat by the Christians in Spain at the Las Navas de Tolosa. The Almohad Sultan Muhammad an-Nasir escapes to Morocco. 1213 Almohad Sultan Muhammad an-Nasir's death. Accession of his son Yusuf II, Almohad Caliph. 1216: The Marinids under their leader Abdul Haq occupy north eastern part of Morocco. The Almohad suffer defeat by the Marinids at the Battle of Nakur. 1217: The Marinids suffer defeat in the battle fought on the banks of the Sibu river. Abdul Haq is killed and the Marinids evacuate Morocco. 1218: Death of the Ayyubid ruler Al-Adil I, accession of Al-Kamil. The Marinids return to Morocco under their leader Othman and occupy Fez. 1220: Death of the Khwarezmid Shah Muhammad II of Khwarezm, accession of Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu. 1222: Death of the Zengid ruler Nasir al-Din Mahmud, power captured by Badr ud Din Lulu. 1223: Death of the Almohad ruler Yusuf II, Almohad Caliph, accession of Abdul-Wahid I, Almohad Caliph. In Spain a brother of Yusuf II, Almohad Caliph declares his independence and assumes the title of Al Adil (Abdallah, Almohad Caliph). In Spain Abu Muhammad of Spain overthrows Al Adil. Al Adil escapes to Morocco and overthrows AbdulWahid I, Almohad Caliph. 1224: Death of the Almohad ruler Abd al-Wahid I, accession of Abdallah, Almohad Caliph. 1225: Death of the Abbasid Caliph An-Nasir,

Az-Zahir 1225–1226
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1225: accession of Az-Zahir. 1226 : death of Az-Zahir .

Al-Mustansir 1226–1242
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1226: accession of Al-Mustansir 1227: Assassination of the Almohad ruler Abdullah Adil, accession of his son, Yahya. 1229: Death of the Almohad ruler Yahya, accession of Idris I. The Ayyubid Al-Kamil restores Jerusalem to the Christians. Abu Muhammad of Spain dies in Spain and is succeeded by Al Mamun of Spain. Al

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Mamun invades Morocco with Christian help. Yahya is defeated and power is captured by Al Mamun. He denies the Mahdiship of Ibn Tumarat. 1230: End of the Khwarezmid Empire. 1232: Death of the Almohad ruler Idris I, accession, of Abdul Wahid II. Assassination of Al Mamun of Spain; accession of his son Ar-Rashid of Spain. 1234: Death of the Ayyubid ruler Al-Kamil, accession of Al-Adil II. 1236: Death of Delhi Sultan Altamash. Accession of Rukn ud din Firuz. 1237: Accession of Razia Sultan as Delhi Sultan. 1240: Death of Ar-Rashid of Spain; accession of his son Abu Said of Spain. 1241: Death of Razia Sultan, accession of Muiz ud din Bahram. 1242: Death of Muiz ud din Bahram, accession of Ala ud din Masud as Delhi Sultan. Death of the Almohad ruler Abdul Wahid, accession of Ali, Almohad Caliph. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mustansir,

Al-Musta'sim 1242–1258
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1242: accession of Al-Musta'sim. 1244: The Almohad defeat the Marinids at the battle of Abu Bayash. The Marinids evacuate Morocco. 1245: The Muslims reconquer Jerusalem. 1246: Death of the Delhi Sultan Ala ud din Masud, accession of Nasir ud din Mahmud. 1248: Death of the Almohad ruler Ali, Almohad Caliph, accession of Umar, Almohad Caliph. Abu Said (??) attacks Tlemsen (??), but is ambushed and killed; accession of his son Murtada. 1250: The Marinids return to Morocco, and occupy a greatar part thereof. 1258: Battle of Baghdad (1258) - The Mongols sack Baghdad. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Musta'sim. End of the Abbasid rule. The Mongols under Hulagu Khan establish their rule in Iran and Iraq with the capital at Maragah (???). Berek Khan the Muslim chief of the Golden Horde protests against the treatment meted out to the Abbasid Caliph and withdraws his contingent from Baghdad. 1259: Abu Abdullah the Hafsid ruler declares himself as the Caliph and assumes the name of Al Mustansir. 1260: Battle of Ayn Jalut in Syria. The Mongols are defeated by the Mamluks of Egypt, and the spell of the invincibility of the Mongols is broken. Baibars becomes the Mamluk Sultan. 1262: Death of Bahauddin Zikriya in Multan who is credited with the introduction of the Suhrawardiyya Sufi order in the South Asia. 1265: Death of Hulagu Khan. Death of Fariduddin Ganjshakar the Chishti saint of the South Asia. 1266: Death of Berke Khan, the first ruler of the Golden Horde to be converted to Islam. The eighth crusade: the crusaders invade Tunisia; failure of the crusade. 1267: Malik ul Salih establishes the first Muslim state of Samudra Pasai in Indonesia. Umar, Almohad Caliph seeks the help of the Christians, and the Spaniards invade Morocco. The Marinids drive away the Spaniards from Morocco. Assassination of Umar, Almohad Caliph; accession of Idris II, Almohad Caliph. 1269: Idris II, Almohad Caliph is overthrown by the Marinids, End of the Almohad. The Marinids come to power in Morocco under Abu Yaqub. 1270: Death of Mansa Wali the founder of the Muslim rule in Mali. 1272: Death of Muhammad I of Granada the founder of the state of Granada. Yaghmurason invades Morocco but meets a reverse at the battle 1273: Death of Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi. 1274: Death of Nasir al-Din Tusi. The Marinids wrest Sijilmasa from the Zayenids. Ninth crusade under Edward I of England. The crusade ends in fiasco and Edward returns to England. 1277: Death of Baibars. 1280: Battle of Hims. 1283: Death of Yaghmurasan. Accession of his son Othman. 1285: Tunisis splits in Tunis and Bougie.

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1286: Death of Ghiasuddin Balban. Death of Abu Yusuf Yaqub. Bughra Khan declares his independence in Bengal under the name of Nasiruddin. 1290: End of the slave dynasty in India Jalal ud din Firuz Khilji comes into power. Othman embarks on a career of conquest and, by 1290, most of the Central Maghreb is conquered by the Zayanids. 1291: Death of Iranian poet Saadi. 1296: Mongol ruler Ghazan Khan converted to Islam.

1299: Mongols invade Syria. The Marinids besiege Tlemsen the capital of the Zayanids. By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 7 per cent of the total.

14th century (1301–1400) (700 AH – 803 AH)
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1301: In Bengal, Ruknuddin Kaikaus, the king of Bengal dies and is succeeded by his brother Shamsuddin Firuz. 1302: In Granada, Muhammad II dies and is succeeded by Muhammad III. 1304: In the Mongol Ilkhanate, Ghazan dies and is succeeded by his brother Khudabanda Oljeitu. 1304: In Algeria, Uthman dies and is succeeded by his son Abu Zayyan Muhammad. 1305: In the Khilji Empire, Alauddin Khilji conquers Rajputana. 1306: In the Chagatai Khanate, Duwa dies and is succeeded by his son Konchek. 1307: In Morocco, the Marinid Sultan Abu Yaqub Yusuf is assassinated; Abu Thabit accedes to the throne. 1308: In the Chagatai Khanate, Konchek is deposed and Taliku takes power. 1308: In Algeria, Abu Zayyan Muhammad and is succeeded by his brother Abu Hammu Musa. In Morocco, Abu Thabit is overthrown by Abu'l-Rabi Sulayman. 1309: In the Chagatai Khanate, Taliku is assassinated and Kebek accedes. 1309: In Granada, Muhammad III is overthrown by his uncle Abul Juyush Nasr. 1310: In the Chagatai Khanate, Kebek is overthrown by his brother Isan Buga. 1310: In Morocco, Abu'l Rabi Sulayman is overthrown by Abu Said Uthman. 1310: In the Khiljis empire, Alauddin conquers the Deccan. 1312: In Tunisia, Abul Baqa is overthrown by Al Lihiani. 1313: The Ilkhanate invades Syria, but the Mongols are repulsed. 1313: In the Golden Horde Empire, Toktu dies and is succeeded by his nephew Uzbeg. 1314: In Kashmir, Rainchan, an adventurer from Baltistan, overthrows Sinha Deva the Raja of Kashmir. Rainchan is converted to Islam and adopts the name of Sadrud Din. 1314: In Granada, Abul Juyush is overthrown by his nephew Abul Wahid Ismail. 1315: In Tunisia, War breaks out between Bougie and Tunis; Lihani is defeated and killed. Abu Bakr becomes the ruler of Bougie and Tunis. 1316: In the Ilkhanate, Oljeitu dies and is succeeded by Abu Said. 1316: In the Khiljis Empire, Alauddin dies and Shahabuddin Umar accedes; Malik Kafur, a Hindu convert, usurps power. 1318: In the Khilji Empire, Malik Kafur is assassinated, Shahabuddin Umar is deposed, and Qutbuddin Mubarak accedes. In the Chagatai Khanate, Isan Buga is overthrown by Kebek. 1320: In the Khilji Empire, Qutbuddin Mubarak is assassinated; Khusro Khan, a Hindu convert, usurps power. Khusro Khan is overthrown by

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Ghazi Malik. End of the Khilji Dynasty. * 1320: In Tunisia, Abu Bakr is expelled from Tunis by Abu Imran. 1320: In the Tughluq empire, Ghazi Malik founds the Tughluq dynasty. 1321: In the Chagatai Khanate, Kebek is succeeded by Hebbishsi, who is later overthrown by Duwa Timur. 1322: In the Chagatai Khanate, Duwa Timur is overthrown by Tarmashirin, who converts to Islam. 1320: In Bengal, Shamsuddin Firuz dies. The kingdom is divided into two parts. Ghiasuddin Bahadur becomes the ruler of East Bengal with the capital at Sonargaon, Shahabuddin becomes the ruler of West Bengal with the capital at Lakhnauti. 1324: In Bengal, Shahabuddin dies and is succeeded by his brother Nasiruddin. 1325: In the Tughluq Empire, Ghazi Malik (Ghiasuddin Tughluq) dies and is succeeded by his son Muhammad Tughluq. 1325: In Granada, Abul Wahid Ismail is assassinated; he is succeeded by his son Muhammad IV, who is himself assassinated. His brother Abul Hallaj Yusuf accedes to the throne. In the Samudra Pasai empire, Malik al Tahir I dies and is succeeded by Malik al Tahir II. 1325: In Bengal, with the help of Ghiasuddin Tughluq, Nasiruddin overthrows Ghiasuddin Bahadur and unites Bengal. 1326: In the Ottoman Empire, Osman I dies and is succeeded by Orhan. Orhan conquers Bursa and makes it his capital. 1327: The Ottoman Turks capture the city of Nicaea (Iznik). 1329: In the Tughluq empire, Muhammad Tughluq shifts the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in the Deccan. 1330: In the Chagatai Khanate, Tarmashirin dies and is succeeded by Changshahi. Amir Hussain establishes the Jalayar Dynasty at Baghdad. In Tunisia, Abu Bakr overthrows Abu Imran, and the state is again united under him. In Bengal, Muhammad bin Tughluq reverses the policy of his father and restores Ghiasuddin Bahadur to the throne of Sonargaon. 1331: In the Marinid Empire, Abu Said Othman dies and is succeeded by Abul Hasan. The Tughluqs annex Bengal. 1335: In the Ilkhanate, Abu Said dies, and Arpa Koun assumes power. In the Chagatai Khanate, Changshahi is assassinated; Burun accedes to the throne. 1336: In the Ilkhanate, Arpa is defeated and killed, and Musa succeeds him. Amir Timur is born. In the Jalayar empire, Amir Hussain dies and is succeeded by Hasan Buzurg. The Ottoman Empire annexes the state of Karesi. In Bengal, the Tughluq governor at Sonargaon is assassinated by an armour bearer, who takes power and declares his independence; he assumes the name Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah. 1337: In the Ilkhanate, Musa is overthrown, and Muhammad becomes the Sultan. In the Sarbadaran Empire, on the disintegration of the IIKhan rule, Abdur Razaq a military adventurer establishes an independent principality in Khurasan with the capital at Sabzwar. In Persia, upon the disintegration of the Ilkhanate, Mubarazud Din Muhammad establishes the Muzaffarid Empire. In the Ottoman Empire, The Ottomans capture the city of Nicomedia (Izmit). In Algeria, Algeria is occupied by Marinids. 1338: In the Ilkhanate, Muhammad is overthrown and succeeded by Sati Beg. Sati Beg marries Sulaiman who becomes the co-ruler. 1339: In Kashmir, Sadrud Din dies, and his throne is captured by a Hindu, Udyana Deva. In the Chagatai Khanate, Burun is deposed by Isun Timur. In Bengal, the Tughluq governor at Lakhnauti, Qadr Khan, is assassinated, and power is assumed by the army commander-inchief, who declares his independence and assumes the title of Alauddin Ali Shah. 1340: The Muzaffarid Empire conquers Kirman. In the Chagatai Khanate, Isun Timur is deposed by Muhammad. 1341: In the Golden Horde empire, Uzbeg dies and is succeeded by his son Tini Beg. 1342: In the Golden Horde empire, Tini Beg is overthrown by his brother Jani Beg.

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1343: In the Chagatai Khanate, Muhammad is overthrown, and power is captured by Kazan. In Bengal, Ilyas, an officer of Alauddin, murders his patron and captures the throne of West Bengal. 1344: In the Ilkhanate, Sulaiman is deposed by Anusherwan. 1345: In the Samudra Pasai Empire, Malik al Tahir II dies and is succeeded by Tahir III. His rule lasts throughout the 14th century. In Bengal, llyas captures East Bengal, and under him Bengal is again united. He establishes his capital at Gaur. 1346: In the Chagatai Khanate, Kazan is deposed by Hayan Kuli. In Tunisia, Abu Bakr dies and is succeeded by his son Fadal. In Kashmir, Udyana Deva dies and the throne is taken by Shah Mirza, who assumes the name of Shah Mir and founds the Shah Mir Dynasty. 1347: The Marinids capture Tunisia. In the Bahmanid Empire, Hasan Gangu declares his independence and establishes a state in the Deccan with the capital at Gulbarga. 1349: In Kashmir, Shah Mir dies and is succeeded by his son Jamsbed. In Algeria, The Zayanids under Abu Said Othman recapture Algeria. 1350: In the Sarbadaran Empire, a revolt erupts against Abdur Razaq. Power is captured by Amir Masud. In Tunisia, Fadal is deposed and succeeded by his brother Abu Ishaq. In Kashmir, Jamshed is overthrown by his step brother Alauddin Ali Sher. 1351: In the Marinid Empire, Abul Hasan dies, and is succeeded by Abu Inan. In the Tughluq Empire, Muhammad Tughluq dies and Firuz Shah Tughluq assumes power. 1352: The Marinids again capture Algeria. Abu Said Othman is taken captive and killed. 1353: The Ilkhanate ends. The Ottoman Empire acquires the fortress of Tympa on the European side of the Hollespoint. The Muzaffarids conquer Shiraz and establish their capital there. 1354: The Muzaffarids annex Isfahan. In Granada, Abu Hallaj Yusuf is assassinated; his son Muhammad V succeeds him. 1356: In the Jalayar Empire, Death of Hasan Buzurg, succession of his son Owaia. 1357: In the Golden Horde Empire, Death of Jani Beg, succession of Berdi Beg. 1358: In the Bahmanid Empire, Death of Hasan Gangu, accession of his son Muhammad Shah. In the Muzaffarid Empire, Death of Mubarazuddin Muhammad; accession of Shah Shuja. In the Marinid Empire, Assassination of Abu Inan, succession of Abu Bakr Said. In Bengal, Death of Ilyas, succession of his son Sikandar Shah. 1359: In the Ottoman Empire, Death of Orhan, succession of Murad I. In the Muzaffarid Empire, Shah Shuja deposed by his brother Shah Mahmud. In Tunisia, Abul Abbas a nephew of Abu Ishaq revolts and establishes his rule in Bougie. In Algeria, The Zayanids under Abu Hamuw II recapture Algeria. In the Marinid Empire, Abu Bakr Said overthrown by Abu Salim Ibrahim. In Granada, Muhammad V loses the throne in palace revolution, succeeded by Ismail. In the Golden Horde, Death of Berdi Beg, succession of Qulpa. 1360: In the Muzaffarid Empire, Death of Shah Mahmud. Shah Shuja recaptures power. In the Chagatai Khanate, Power captured by Tughluq Timur. In Granada, Ismail overthrown by his brother-in-law Abu Said. 1361: In the Ottoman Empire, Murad I conquers a part of Thrace and establishes his capital at Edirne(Hadriaunus) in Thrace. In the Golden Horde empire, Kulpa overthrown by his brother Nauroz. In the Marinid Empire, Abu Salim Ibrahim overthrown by Abu Umar. Abu Umar overthrown by Abu Zayyan. 1362: In the Golden Horde empire, State of anarchy. During 20 years as many as 14 rulers came to the throne and made their exit. In Granada, Abu Said overthrown by Muhammad V who comes to rule for the second time. In Kashmir, Death of Alauddin Ali Sher, succeeded by his brother Shahabuddin. 1365: In the Ottoman Empire, The Turks defeat a Christian army at the battle of Maritza (Sirp Sindigi). The Byzantine ruler becomes a vassal of the Turks.

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1366: In the Marinids empire, Assassination of Abu Zayyan, succession of Abu Faris Abdul Aziz. 1369: Power captured by Amir Timur. End of the rule of the Chughills. Amir Timur captures power in Transoxiana. In Tunisia, Death of Abu Ishaq. Succession of his son Abu Baqa Khalid. 1370: In Tunisia, Abu Baqa overthrown by Abul Abbas under whom the state is reunited. In the Sarbadaran empire, Death of Amir Masud, succession of Muhammad Timur. 1371: In the Ottoman Empire, Invasion of Bulgaria, Bulgarian territory up to the Balkans annexed by the Turks. 1372: In the Marinid Empire, Death of Abu Faris, succession of Abu Muhammad. 1374: In the Marinid Empire, Abu Muhammad overthrown by Abul Abbas. 1375: In the Sarbadaran empire, Deposition of Muhammad Timur, power captured by Shamsuddin. In the Jalayar empire, Death of Owais, succession by his son Hussain. 1376: In Kashmir, Death of Shahabuddin, succeeded by his brother Qutbuddin. 1377: In the Bahmanids empire, Death of Muhammad Shah, succeeded by his son Mujahid. 1378: In the Bahmanids empire, Mujahid assassinated, throne captured by his uncle Daud. 1379: Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Bairam Khawaja found the independent principality of the Turkomans of the Black Sheep and established his capital at Van in Armenia. In the Bahmanids empire, Assassination of Daud; accession of Muhammad Khan. 1380: In the Golden Horde empire, Power is captured by Tokhtamysh, a prince of the White Horde of Siberia. In Amir Timur's empire, Amir Timur crosses the Oxus and conquers Khurasan and Herat. Amir Timur invades Persia and subjugates the Muzaffarids and Mazandaran. 1381: In Amir Timur's empire, Annexation of Seestan, capture of Qandhar. 1384: In Amir Timur's empire, Conquest of Astrabad, Mazandaran, Rayy and Sultaniyah. In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of Shah Shuja, accession of his son Zainul Abdin. In the Marinid Empire, Abul Abbas overthrown by Mustansir. Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Bairam Khawaja, succession of Qara Muhammad. 1386: In Amir Timur's empire, Annexation of Azarbaijan, Georgea overrun. Subjugation of Gilan and Shirvan. Turkomans of the Black Sheep defeated. In the Marinid Empire, Death of Mustansir, succession of Muhammad. 1387: In the Marinid Empire, Muhammad overthrown by Abul Abbas who comes to power for the second time. 1388: In Algeria, Death of Abu Hamuw II, succession of Abu Tashfin. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Firuz Shah Tughluq, succeeded by his grandson Ghiasuddin Tughluq II. 1389: In the Muzaffarid Empire, Death of the poet Hafez Shirazi. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Ghiasuddin Tughluq II, accession: of Abu Bakr Tughluq Shah. Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Qara Muhammad. succession of Qara Yusuf. In Ottoman Empire Murad I fought the Battle of Kosovo against Christian army from Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia, Hungary and Wallachia. Murad I was assassinated at the end of this battle and Yildirim Beyazid I became the new Sultan. 1390: In the Tughluqs empire, Abu Bakr overthrow by Nasiruddin Tughluq. In Bengal, Death of Sikandar Shah, accession of his son Ghiasud. In the Burji Mamluks empire, The rule of the Burji Mamluks rounded by Saifuddin Barquq. In Tunisia, the city of Mahdia is besieged by a French crusader army. 1391: In Amir Timur's empire, Annexation of Fars. In the Muzaffarid Empire, Annexation of the Muzaffarids by Amir Timur. In Granada, Death of Muhammad V, succession of his son Abu Hallaj Yusuf II. 1392: In the Jalayar empire, Death of Hussain, succession of his son Ahmad. In Granada, Death of Abu Hallaj; succession of Muhammad VI.

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1393: Amir Timur defeats Tiktomish, the ruler of the Golden Horde. Capture of the Jalayar dominions by Amir Timur. In the Marinid Empire, Death of Abul Abbas; succession of Abu Faris II. 1394: Amir Timur defeats the Duke of Moscow. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Nasiruddin Tugluq, accession of Alauddin Sikandar Shah. In Kashmir, Death of Qutbuddin. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Qara Othman established the rule of the White Sheep Turkomans in Diyarbekr. 1395: In the Golden Horde empire, Amir Timur defeated Toktamish and razes Serai to the ground. End of the rule of the Golden Horde. Annexation of Iraq by Amir Timur. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Sikandar Shah. Accession of Muhammad Shah. 1396: In the Amir Timur's empire, Destruction of Sarai, and of the rule of the Golden Horde. In the Sarbadaran empire, Principality annexed by Amir Timur. In Ottoman Empire Sultan Yildirim Beyazid I at the Battle of Nicopoli defeated an army of Christian Crusaders. 1397: In the Bahmanids empire, Death of Muhammad Khan. 1398: In the Amir Timur's empire, Campaign in India. In the Marinid Empire, Death of Abu Faris II. In the Tughluqs empire, Invasion of Amir Timur, Mahmud Shah escapes from the capital. In Morocco, Death of the Marinid Sultan Abu Faris II; succession of his son Abu Said Othman. 1399: In the Amir Timur's empire, Campaign in Iraq and Syria. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Saifuddin Barquq, succession of his son Nasiruddin in Faraj. By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 8 per cent of the total.

1400–1409 [edit] Golden Horde
• •

ca. 1400: Temur Qutlugh dies and is succeeded by Shadi Beg. 1407: Shadi Beg is deposed and Edigu installs Pulad Khan as his successor.

[edit] Mamluk Empire

1400: The Burji Mamluks lose Syria to Tamerlane.

[edit] Ottoman Empire

1402 - 1403: Beyazid I is defeated at the Battle of Ankara and taken captive by Tamerlane. An interregnum period begins when the sons of Beyazid I compete for the Ottoman throne.

[edit] Timurid Empire

1405: Tamerlane dies and is succeeded by his son, Shah Rukh.

[edit] 1410–1419 [edit] Golden Horde
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1410: Pulad Khan is deposed in favor of Timur. 1412: Timur is deposed in favor of Jalal ad-Din Khan, the first of Tokhtamysh's sons to take power since his death. 1413: Jalal ad-Din Khan is deposed in favor of his brother, Karim Berdi. 1414: Karim Berdi is deposed in favor of Kebek. 1416: Kebek Khan is deposed in favor of Yeremferden, the brother of Karim Berdi and Jalal Ad-din Khan. 1419: Yeremferden is assassinated; control of the Horde is split between Dawlat Berdi and Olugh Mokhammad.

[edit] Mamluk Empire

1413: Interregnum period ends and Mehmed I becomes Sultan.

[edit] Nogai Horde

1419: Edigu is assassinated by Olugh Mokhammad, who assumes his place as Khan, re-uniting it with the Golden Horde.

[edit] 1420–1429 [edit] Golden Horde
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1420: Dawlat Berdi captures Sarai and expands his sphere of influence beyond Crimea.[1] 1423: Baraq defeats Dawlat Berdi and Olugh Mokhammad and takes control of the Horde. Olugh Mokhammad flees to Lithuania. 1427: With the assistance of Vytautas the Great, Olugh Mokhammad and Dawlat Berdi defeat and kill Baraq.

[edit] Kara Koyunlu

1420: Qara Yusuf dies and is succeeded by his son, Qara Iskandar.

[edit] Morocco

1420: Abu Said Othman is assassinated and succeeded by Abdul Haq, his infant son.

[edit] Tunisia

1424: The Hafsids come to power.

[edit] Uzbeks

1425: Abul Khayr takes control of the Little jüz.

[edit] 1430–1440 [edit] Ak Koyunlu
• •

1434: Kara Osman dies and is succeeded by Ali Beg. 1438: Ali Beg is overthrown by his brother, Hamza.

[edit] Golden Horde
• •

1432: Dawlat Berdi is assassinated and Hacı I Giray conquers the Crimea, founding the Crimean Khanate. 1437: Olugh Mokhammad is defeated by Sayid Ahmad I, who takes control of the Horde.

[edit] Kara Koyunlu

1434: Qara Iskandar is deposed in favor of his brother, Jahan Shah.

[edit] Khanate of Kazan

1438: Olugh Mokhammad founds the Khanate of Kazan.

[edit] Mamluk Empire

1438: Barsbay dies and his son, Jamaluddin Yusuf, is prevented from taking power in a coup orchestrated by Saifuddin Gakmuk.

[edit] Tunisia

1434: Abdul Faris dies after forty years of rule and is succeeded by Abu Abdullah Muhammad.

1435: Abu Abdullah Muhammad is deposed in favor of Abu Umar Othman.

[edit] Uzbeks

1430: Abul Khayr occupies Khwarezmia.

[edit] 1440–1449 [edit] Ak Koyunlu

1440: Hamza is overthrown by Jahangir, a son of Ali Beg.

[edit] Ottoman Empire

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1444: The Anti-Ottoman League of Lezhe in Albania is formed by Scanderbeg. Murad II voluntarily abdicates from his throne in favor of his son Mehmed II after the former's defeat at the hands of crusaders at the Battle of Varma. 1446: Murad II reclaims the throne. 1448: The Ottomans are victorious at the Second Battle of Kossova. Serbia is annexed and Bosnia is made a vassal.

[edit] Timurid Empire
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1446: Shah Rukh dies and is succeeded by Ulugh Beg. 1449: Ulugh Beg dies and is succeeded by 'Abd al-Latif.

[edit] Uzbeks

1449: Abul Khayr captures Farghana.

[edit] 1450–1459 [edit] Ak Koyunlu

1453: Jahangir dies and is succeeded by his son, Uzun Hassan.

[edit] Great Horde

1459: Küchük Muhammad dies and is succeeded by his son, Maxmud.

[edit] Mamluk Empire

1453: Gakmuk dies and is succeeded by his son, Fakhruddin Othman, who is then overthrown by Saifuddin Inal.

[edit] Ottoman Empire
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1451: Murad II dies and is succeeded by his son, Mehmed II. 1453: Constantinople is captured. 1456: Wallachia is made a vassal.

[edit] Timurid Empire

1450: 'Abd al-Latif is assassinated and succeeded by Abu Sa'id.

[edit] 1460–1469 [edit] Ottoman Empire

1462: Albania is annexed.

[edit] Mamluk Empire

1461: Saifuddin Inal died and is succeeded by his son, Shahabuddin Ahmad, who is then overthrown by Saifuddin Khushqadam.

[edit] Great Horde

1465: Maxmud founds the Astrakhan Khanate after he is deposed by his brother, Akhmat Khan.

[edit] Kara Koyunlu

1467: Jahan Shah is killed in a surprise attack arranged by his rival, Uzun Hasan, leader of Ak Koyunlu. Ak Koyunlu then annexes Kara Koyunlu.

[edit] Morocco

1465: Abdul Haq is assassinated, ending the Marinid dynasty. Sharif Muhammad al Jati assumes power.

[edit] Mamluk Empire
• •

1465: Khushqadam dies and is succeeded by his son, Saifuddin Yel Bey, who is then deposed by Temur Bugha. 1468: Temur Bugha is deposed by Qaitbay.

[edit] Uzbeks

1468: Abul Khayr dies and is succeeded by his son Haidar Sultan.

[edit] Ak Koyunlu
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1467: Kara Koyunlu is annexed. 1468: The Timurids are defeated at the Battle of Qarabagh. Ak Koyunlu then becomes the masters of Persia and Khorasan.

[edit] Timurid Empire

1469: Abu Sa'id dies; the Timurid state. In Husayn Bayqarah maintains control of Greater Khorasan.

[edit] 1470–1479 [edit] Morocco

1472: Sharif Muhammad al Jati is overthrown by Muhammad al Shaikh, establishing the Wattasid dynasty.

[edit] Ottoman Empire
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1473: Mehmed II defeats sultan Uzun Hasan of Ak Koyunlu at the Battle of Otluk Beli. 1475: The Khanate of Crimea is conquered and made a vassal state. Venice is defeated and the Ottoman Empire becomes master of the Aegean Sea.

[edit] Ak Koyunlu
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1478: Uzun Hasan dies and is succeeded by his son, Khalil ibn Uzun Hasan. 1479: Khalil Hasan is overthrown by his uncle, Y‘aqub ibn Uzun Hasan.

[edit] 1480–1489 [edit] Great Horde
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1480: Akhmat Khan is assassinated and succeeded by his son, Said Ahmad II. 1481: Said Ahmad II is overthrown by his brother Murtada.

[edit] Ottoman Empire

1481: Mehmed II dies and is succeeded by Beyazid II. Cen Sultan rebels.

[edit] Uzbeks

1488: Haider Sultan dies and is succeeded by his nephew, Shaybani Khan.

[edit] Tunisia
• •

1488: Abu Umar Othman dies and is succeeded by Abu Zikriya Yahya. 1489: Abu Zikriya Yahya is overthrown by Abul Mumin.

[edit] 1490–1500 [edit] Tunisia

1490: Abul Mumin is overthrown and Abu Zikriya Yahya retakes the throne.

[edit] Iberia

1492: Granada is captured by Spain, ending 800 years of Muslim rule in Spain.

[edit] Ak Koyunlu
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1493: Y‘aqub ibn Uzun Hasan dies and is succeeded by his son, Baisonqur ibn Y‘aqub. 1495: Baisonqur is overthrown by his cousin, Rustam ibn Maqsud. 1497: Maqsud is overthrown by his cousin, Ahmad Gövde ibn Muhammad.

[edit] Mamluk Empire
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1496: Qaitbay abdicates and is succeeded by his son, Nasir Muhammad. 1498: Nasir Muhammad is deposed and replaced by Zahir Kanauh.

[edit] Uzbeks

1499: Shaybani Khan conquers Transoxiana.

[edit] Great Horde

1499: Murtada dies and is succeeded by Said Ahmad III.

[edit] Ottoman Empire

1499: the Ottoman fleet defeats the Venetians in the Battle of Zonchio.

16th Century (1501-1600) (906 AH – 1009 AH) [edit] 1500 - 1509 [edit] Persia
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1501: Ismail I establishes the Safavid dynasty, and the Twelve-Imam Shi'ism becomes the state religion. 1507: The Kingdom of Portugal under Alfonso d'Albuquerque establishes trading outposts in the Persian Gulf.

[edit] Golden Horde

1502: The Golden Horde collapses into a number of smaller khanates.

[edit] Ak Koyunlu

1508: Ak Koyunlu is absorbed by the Safavids.

[edit] 1510 - 1519 [edit] Malaysia

1511: D'Albuquerque conquers Malacca.

[edit] Ottoman Empire
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1514: Sultan Selim Iat the Battle of Chaldiran. 1516: Selim I defeats the Mamluks at the Battle of Merc-i Dabik and kills Sultan Kansu Gavri; Syria is conquered. 1517: The Ottoman army crosses the Sinai desert, defeats the new Mamluk Sultan Tomanbai at the Battle of Ridaniye and Battle of Cairo and conquers Egypt. The Sharif of Mecca presented keys to the holy cities of Mecca and Medina to Selim I and is declared their hereditary ruler. Al-Mutawakkil, the last Abbasid caliph, formally surrenders the title of caliph to Selim I.

[edit] 1520 - 1529 [edit] Ottoman Empire
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1520: Selim I dies and the reign of Suleiman I, the Magnificent begins. 1521: Suleiman I conquers Belgrade. 1522: Suleiman I defeats the Knights Hospitallers and drives them from the island of Rhodes. 1526: Suleiman I defeats the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohacs, where Louis of Hungary dies. Buda and Pest are taken by the Ottomans and Hungary is declared a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire. 1529: Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna.

[edit] Mughal Empire

1526: Babur is victorious at the Battle of Panipat in India, and Delhi becomes his capital.

[edit] 1530 - 1539 [edit] Ottoman Empire
• •

1534: Suleiman I conducts a military campaign against Safavid Shah Tahsmab and conquers Van, Baghdad, and Tabriz. 1538: The Ottoman navy under the command of Barbarossa Khayreddin wins a naval victory against a combined Christian fleet at the Battle of Preveza.

[edit] Algeria

1533: Barbarossa Khayreddin is appointed the Admiral of the Ottoman fleet and governor of Algeria.

[edit] 1540 - 1549 [edit] 1550 - 1559 [edit] Ottoman Empire

1550: The architect Mimar Sinan builds the Suleiman Mosque in Istanbul. The rise of the Muslim kingdom of Aceh in Sumatra.

[edit] Khanate of Kazan

1552: The Khanate is conquered by the Tsardom of Russia.

[edit] Indonesia

1550: Islam spreads to Java, the Maluku Islands, and Borneo.

[edit] 1560 - 1569 [edit] Ottoman Empire
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1565: The Ottomans are defeated by the Knights Hospitaller during the Siege of Malta. 1566: The Ottomans gain control of the Aegean islands. 1566: Suleiman I dies and is succeeded by Selim II.

[edit] Spain

1568: Moriscos revolt during the Alpujarra uprising.

[edit] 1570 - 1579 [edit] Ottoman Empire

1571: The Ottomans are defeated at the naval Battle of Lepanto, and their dominance in the Mediterranean is brought to a close.

[edit] Morocco

1578: The Battle of Alcazarquivir at Alcazarquivir in Morocco. King Sebastian of Portugal is killed.

[edit] 1580 - 1589 [edit] Safavid Dynasty

1588: The reign of Abbas I of Safavid begins.

[edit] 1590 - 1599 [edit] Religious

1591: Mustaali Ismailis split into Sulaymanis and Daudis.

17th century (1601-1700) (1009 AH – 1112 AH)
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1601: Khandesh annexed by the Mughals. 1603: Battle of Urmiyah. The Ottoman Empire suffers defeat. Persia occupies Tabriz, Mesopotamia. Mosul and Diyarbekr. Death of Mehmed III, accession of Ahmed I; see Sultans of the Ottoman Empire .

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1604: In Dutch Indonesia, death of Alauddin Rayat Shah, Sultan of Acheh, accession of Ali Rayat Shah III. 1605: Death of the Mughal emperor Jalal-ud-Din Akbar; accession of Jahangir. 1607: Annexation of Ahmadnagar by the Mughals. 1609: Annexation of Bidar by the Mughals. 1611: Kuch Behar subjugated by the Mughals. 1612: Kamrup annexed by the Mughals. 1617: Death of Ahmed I; accession of Mustafa I; see Sultans of the Ottoman Empire. British East India Company begins trading with Mughal India. 1618: Tipperah annexed by the Mughals. 1620: In Ottoman Empire, deposition of Mustafa; accession of Osman II, see Sultans of the Ottoman Empire. 1623: In Ottoman Empire, Mustafa recaptured power. 1625: In Ottoman Empire, deposition of Mustafa, accession of Murad IV, see Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. 1627: Death of the Mughal emperor Jahangir, accession of Shah Jahan. 1628: Reign of Safavid Sultan Shah Abbas I comes to an end. 1629: In Persia, death of Shah Abbas; accession of grandson Safi. 1631: Death of Mumtaz Mahal, wife of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and the lady of Taj Mahal, Agra. 1635: Military campaign of Ottoman Sultan Murad IV against [Iran] and conquest of Erivan castle. Conquest of the castles of Maku, Hoy and Tabriz and destruction of their walls. . 1637: Death of Iskandar Muda in Indonesia; accession of Iskandar II. 1638: In Ottoman, military campaign of Sultan Murad IV against [Iran] and conquest of Baghdad after a siege. 1640: Death of Ottoman Sultan Murad IV, accession of his brother Ibrahim I, see Sultans of the Ottoman Empire. 1641: Ottoman vassal state of Khanate of Crimea capture Azov. In Indonesia, death of Iskandar II; accession of the Queen Tajul Alam. 1642: In Persia, death of Shah Safi, accession of Shah Abbas II. 1645: Start of the long-lasting Ottoman-Venetian War for the island of Crete by the landing of the Ottoman forces there and the conquest of the castle of Khania. 1648: In Ottoman Empire, Ibrahim I deposed; accession of Mehmed IV; see Sultans of the Ottoman Empire. 1656: In Ottoman Empire Mehmed Kuiprilli appointed the Grand Vizier with special powers. 1658: Deposition of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, accession of Aurangzeb. 1661: Death of Grand Vizier of OttomansMehmed Kuiprilli and appointment as the Grand Vizier of his son Ahmed Kuiprilli. 1667: Death of Shah Abbas II; accession of Shah Suleiman. 1668: Conquest of the castle of Candia by the Ottomans concludes the long-lasting Ottoman-Venetian War on the island of Crete. 1673: The Badshahi Masjid was constructed by Aurangzeb in Lahore, Pakistan. 1675: Execution of the Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur. In Indonesia death of the queen Tajul Alam, accession of the queen Nur ul Alam. 1676: Death of the Grand Vizier of Ottomans Ahmad Kuiprilli, appointment of Kara Mustafa. 1678: In Indonesia, death of the queen Nur ul Alam, accession of the queen Inayat Zakia. 1680: Death of Marhatta chieftain Shivaji. 1682: Assam annexed by the Mughals. Aurangzeb shifts the capital to Aurangabad in the Deccan. 1683: The Ottomans put Vienna under siege and are defeated in the Battle of Vienna, marking the end of the Turkish advance into Europe. Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa is executed for the failure of the expedition. 1686: Annexation of Bijapur by the Mughals. 1687: Golkunda annexed by the Mughals. Defeat of the Ottomans by Austria at Second Battle of Mohacs. Deposition of Mehmed IV; accession of Suleyman II; see Sultans of the Ottoman Empire 1688: In Indonesia, death of Queen Inayat Zakia, accession of the queen Kamalah.

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1691: Death of the Ottomans Sultan Suleyman II; accession of Ahmed II, see Sultans of the Ottoman Empire. 1692: Death of the Ottomans Sultan Ahmed II; accession of Mustafa II; see Sultans of the Ottoman Empire. 1694: In Persia, death of Shah Safi, accession of Shah Hussain. 1699: In Indonesia death of Queen Kamalah. 1700: Murshid Quli Jafar Khan declares the independence of Bengal and establishes his capital at Murshidabad. By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 11 per cent of the total.

18th century (1701–1800) (1112 AH – 1215 AH)

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1703: In Ottoman Empire Ahmed III becomes the Sultan. Birth of Shah Wali Ullah. Birth of the religious reformer Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab. 1707: Death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, accession of his son Bahadur Shah. 1711: War between Ottoman Empire and Russia (Russo-Turkish War, 1710-1711). Russia defeated at the Battle of Pruth and Treaty of Pruth signed. 1712: Death of the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah I, accession of Jahandar Shah. 1713: Jahandar Shah overthrown by his nephew Furrukhsiyar. 1715: In Ottoman Empire the peninsula of Morea and other Adriatic fortresses that had been ceded to Venetian Republic are reconquered. 1716: Defeat of Ottoman Empire armies by the Austrians under Prince Eugene of Savoy at Battle of Peterwardein and loss of strategic fortress of Temesvar. 1718: In the war against Austria, Ottoman Empire suffers continuing defeat and loss of fortress of Belgrade. By the Treaty of Passarowitz, Ottomans lost Hungary. 1719: Deposition of the Mughal emperor Furrukhsiyar. Muhammad Shah ascends the throne. In Sind, the Kalhoras came to power under Nur Muhammad Kalhora. In Ottoman Empire start of a long-period of peace, enlightenment and prosperity that was later named the Tulip period. 1722: Saadat Khan found the independent state of Oudh. Battle of Gulnabad between the Afghans and the Persians. The Persians were defeated and the Afghans under Shah Mahmud became the masters of a greater part of Persia. Shah Hussain taken captive, accession of Shah Tahmasp II. 1730: Zanzibar freed from Portuguese rule and occupied by Oreart. In Ottoman Empire Sultan Ahmed III is deposed by Patrona Insurrection which ends the Tulip period. Mahmud I ascends the throne. 1735: Start of war between Ottoman Empire and Russia (Russo–Turkish War, 1735–1739). 1737: Entry of Austria into (Russo-Turkish War, 1735-1739) against Ottoman Empire. 1739: Persian ruler Nadir Shah sacks the Mughal capital of Delhi in India. In Ottoman Empire Austria signs the separate Belgrad Treaty and Russia signs the Treaty of Nissa to end Russo-Turkish War, 17351739 1747: Ahmed Shah Abdali established Afghan rule in Afghanistan. 1752: Death of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, writer of Sassi Pannu, Sohni Mahinwal and Umer Marvo. Ahmed Shah Durrani captured Punjab, Kashmir and Sind. 1754: In Ottoman Empire death of Mahmud I and accession of Osman III. 1757: In Ottoman Empire death of Osman III and accession of Mustafa III. 1761: Death of Shah Waliullah Dehlavi. Battle of Panipat. Ahmed Shah Abdali came to India at the invitation of Shah Waliullah Dehlavi and smashed rising Maratha empire power in the Third Battle of Panipat. 1764: Conversion to Islam of Areadi Gaya, ruler of Futa Bandu State in West Sudan.

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1768: Start of the war between Ottoman Empire-Russia (Russo–Turkish War, 1768–1774) and defeats of Ottoman land armies at various battles. 1770: Burning of the Ottoman fleet at Naval Battle of Chesma by a Russian fleet that has come from Baltic Sea. 1771: Conquest of Crimea by Russian forces and the end of Ottoman dominance over Khanate of Crimea. 1773: Death of Ahmed Shah Abdali. 1774: In Ottoman Empire death of Mustafa III and accession of Abdulhamid I. Defeat of the Ottoman armies by Russians. Signing of the Treaty of Kuçuk Kainarji to end the Ottoman-Russian war (Russo– Turkish War of 1768–1774). Khanate of Crimea nominally gained independence but in fact became a dependency of Russia. 1779: Signing of Aynalikavak Accord between Ottoman Empire and Russia. 1783: End of Kalhora rule in Sind. Russia occupies and annexes Crimea and ends the rule of Khanate of Crimea. 1787: In Ottoman Empire start of war against Austria and Russia (Russo–Turkish War (1787–1792)). Death of Sultan Abdulhamid I and accession of Selim III. 1791: Signing of the Treaty of Sistova that ends the war between Austria and Ottoman Empire. 1792: War between Ottoman Empire and Russia (Russo–Turkish War (1787–1792)) ends with signing of the Treaty of Jassy. 1797: Death of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar, the Shah of Persia. Russia occupied Daghestan. 1798: Landing of the armies of French Republic under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte in Ottoman Province of Egypt. Defeat of the Ottoman provincial army of Mamluks at Battle of Pyramids. Defeat and burning of French Fleet at naval Battle of Aboukir by the British fleet under Admiral Lord Nelson. Alliance of Ottoman Empire – Great Britain – Russia against France. 1799: Defeat of the French expeditionary force from Egypt under Napoleon Bonaparte at Siege of Acre by the Ottoman defenders and retreat of the French back to Egypt. Ranjit Singh declared himself Maharajah of Punjab defeating Afghans. Khoqand declared independent Islamic State. Death of Tipu Sultan, the ruler of Kingdom of Mysore in India. By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 12 per cent of the total.

19th century (1801-1900) (1215 AH – 1318 AH)
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1803: Shah Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud assassinated by a Shi'a fanatic. Shah Shuja proclaimed as King of Afghanistan. 1805: Saud bin Abdul Aziz captured Medina defeating the Ottoman Empire garrison. 1804: Othman dan Fodio established Islamic State of Sokoto in Central Sudan. 1805: Faraizi movement launched in Bengal. Muhammad Ali appointed Pasha of Egypt by the Ottoman Empire. 1806: Khanate of Khiva came into limelight under the rule of Muhammad Rahim Khan. 1807: Darqawi sect revolted against Turkish domination. Tunisia repudiated suzerainty of Algeria. 1811: Birth of Siyyid Mírzá 'Alí-Muhammad known as the Báb, founder of Bábí movement. British occupied Indonesia. 1812: Medina fell to Egyptians. 1812: Treaty of Bucharest between Ottoman Empire and Russia end a war of 6 years 1813: Mecca and Taif captured by Egyptian forces and Saudis expelled from Hejaz. 1814: Iran executed treaty of alliance with the British known as the Definitive Treaty. Death of Saud bin Abdul Aziz. King Othman of Tunisia assassinated by his cousin Mahmud. 1816: British withdrew from Indonesia restoring it to the Dutch. 1817: Birth Of Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. 1822: Death of Maulay Ismail in Morocco.

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1827: Malaya became a preserve of the British according to AngloNetherland treaty in 1824. 1828: Russia declared war against Ottoman Empire. 1829: Treaty of Adrianople.Ends the war 1830: French forces landed near Algiers and occupied Algeria ending 313 years rule of Turks. 1831: Syed Ahmad Barelvi and Shah Ismail leaders of Jihad movement in India fell fighting the Sikhs in Balakot. 1832: Turks defeated in the battle of Konya by Egyptian forces. Sayyid Said, King of Oman, shifted his capital to Zanzibar. 1834: Abdul Qadir of Algeria recognised as ruler of the area under his control by the French. 1839: Defeat of Ottoman Empire by the Egyptians in the battle of Nezib. 1840: Quadruple Alliance by the European powers to force Egypt to relinquish Syria. British free occupied Aden. 1841: State of Adamawa established by Adams adjacent to Nigeria. 1842: Amir Abdul Qadir, ousted from Algeria by the French. He crossed over to Morocco. Shah Shuja assassinated ending the Durrani rule in Afghanistan. 1847: Amir Abdul Qadir surrendred to France under the condition of safe conduct to a Muslim country of his choice, but France violated its pledge and sent him as a captive to France. 1849: Death of Muhammad Ali of Egypt. 1850: The Báb is executed by the Persian government. Táhirih, a renowned poetess and staunch advocate of Bábism also executed. 1852: Release of Amir Abdul Qadir by Napoleon III. He settled in Ottoman Empire. 1856: Treaty of Paris. Ends the war between Ottoman Empire (Turkey) and western allies against Russia. 1857: British captured Delhi and eliminated Mughal rule in India after 332 years. Last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was exiled to Rangoon in Burma. This was also the end of 1000 years of Muslim rule over India. 1859: Imam Shamil laid down arms before Russian forces and the Islamic State of Dagestan became a Russian province. 1860: Maulay Muhammad defeated by Spain. 1860: Masjid-e-Abu Hurairah, established in Cardiff, ist the first mosque in Britain. 1861: Death of Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid I of the Ottoman Empire. 1861: Overthrow of the Bambara Empire by the Toucouleur Empire. 1862: Faraizi movement fizzled out after the death of Dadu Miyan. Overthrow of the Massina Empire by the Toucouleur Empire. 1865: Khanate of Kokand liquidated by Russia. 1869: Jamal al-Din al-Afghani exiled from Afghanistan. He proceeded to Egypt. 1871: Tunisia recognised suzerainty of Ottoman Empire through a firman. 1873: Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva made protectorates by Russia. 1876: Britain purchased shares of Khediv Ismail in the Suez canal and got involved in Egyptian affairs. 1876: Constitutional monarchy in Ottoman Empire (Turkey)(first phase) 1878: Conference of Berlin. Ottoman Empire loses territories to Russia or Balkan countries 1878: Ottoman handed over Cyprus to Britain. 1879: Jamal al-Din al-Afghani exiled from Egypt. Treaty of Berlin. Ottoman lost 4/5 th of its territory in Europe. 1881: France invaded Tunisia and the Bey acknowledged supremacy of France as a result of the treaty of Bardo. Muhammad Ahmad declared himself Mahdi in northern Sudan. 1882: Egypt came under British military occupation. 1883: Death of Amir Abdul Qadir in Damascus. 1885: Muhammad Ahmad declared free Government of Sudan under his rule. Death of Mahdi Sudani five months after the occupation of Khartoum. 1890: End of the Toucouleur Empire.

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1889: Shah Jahan Mosque opened in Woking (England). 1891: Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian claimed to be the promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi, and thus laid the foundation of the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam. 1895: Afghanistan got Wakhan Corridor by an understanding with Russia and British India making Afghan border touch China. * 1897: State of Bagirimi occupied by the French. 1899: Fall of Muhammad Ahmad's Mahdi State occupied by the British and the Egyptians jointly. By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 13 percent of the total.

20th century (1901-2000) (1318 AH – 1421 AH)
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1901: Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud captures Riyadh. French forces occupy Morocco. 1902: Birth of Ruhollah Khomeini, The leader of Islamic revolution and the founder of Islamic Republic of Iran. 1903: Birth of Syed Abul Ala Maududi (Founder of Jamaat-e-Islami). 1904: Morocco becomes a French protectorate under the Algeciras Conference. The Presian constitution is promoted. 1905: Hassan-Al-Banna was born in Alexandria(Egypt),The beginning of the Salafiyyah movement in Paris with its main sphere of influence in Egypt. 1906: All India Muslim league was established in Dhakka (Bengal) 1907: The beginning of the Young Turks movement in Turkey. 1908: Inception of Khilafat-e-Ahmadiyya. 1908: Constitutional monarchy (2.phase) in Ottoman Empire (Turkey) 1911: War of Tripolli between Ottoman Empire and Italy. Treaty of Ouchy 1912: The beginning of the Muhammadiyyah reform movement in Indonesia. 1912: Balkan wars. The coalition of 4 Balkan countries defeat Ottoman Empire (Turkey) 1913: Mohammad Ali Jinnah joined All India Muslim League. 1913: Woking Muslim Mission opened by Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam. 1914: Under Ottoman rule, secret Arab nationalist societies are formed. World War I begins. The Ottoman Empire enters the war allied with Germany. 1915: Ottoman Empire defeats Allies in Çanakkale (Dardanalles) 1916: Arab revolt against Ottoman (Turkish) rule. Lawrence of Arabia leads attacks on the Hejaz Railway. 1917: Britain issues the then-secret Balfour Declaration pledging British support for the creation of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine. 1918: Birth of Gamal Abdel Nasser. After losing virtually their entire empire, the Ottomans capitulate on October 19 and sign the Armistice of Mudros with the Allies on October 30. World War I ends on November 11. Syria becomes a French protectorate. 1919: The first revolution in Egypt led by Saad Zaghlul against British occupation. 1920: Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI signs the Treaty of Sèvres, reducing the Empire to a fraction of its previous size and allowing for the indefinite presence of Allied forces in Turkey. The treaty is rejected by nationalist leaders, who vow to block its implementation. 1920: Emirate of Bukhara and Khanate of Khiva conquered by Bolshevik Russia. 1920-1922: Turkish War of Independence. 1921: Abdullah I of Jordan in made King of Transjordan. His father was the Sharif of Mecca. Faisal I of Iraq is made King of Iraq. His father was the Sharif of Mecca. 1921: Abd al-Karim leads a revolt against colonial rule in Moroccan Rif, and declares the "Republic of the Rif". 1920 : Turkish nationalists defeat Armenia. 1921: Treaty of Kars between Soviet Russia and Turkey. 1922: Armistice of Mudanya. Turkish nationalists under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal seize control of Turkey and abolish the Ottoman

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Sultanate, prompting Sultan Mehmed VI to flee Turkey; the 600 yearold Ottoman Empire officially ceases to exist. 1922: Egypt unilaterally granted independence by the United Kingdom. Berlin Muslim Mission founded by Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam. 1923: Mustafa Kemal secures Allied recognition of Turkey's independence in the Treaty of Lausanne and subsequently declares the Republic of Turkey. The Turkish capitol is officially shifted to Ankara. 1924: The Turkish Grand National Assembly abolishes the Ottoman Caliphate and sends the remaining members of the Ottoman House into exile. 1924: King Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud conquers Mecca and Medina, leading to the unification of the Kingdoms of Najd and Hejaz. 1925: Reza Khan seizes the government in Persia and establishes the Pahlavi dynasty. 1925: Ahmadiyya Mosque Berlin opened by Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam on April 26, 1925. 1926: Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud assumes title of King of Najd and Hejaz. 1926: Fazl Mosque opened by Ahmadiyya Muslim Community on October 23, 1926. 1927: Death of Zaghlul, an Egyptian nationalist leader. 1928: Turkey is declared a secular state. 1928: Hasan al-Banna founds the Muslim Brotherhood, an Islamist movement dedicated to social, political, and moral reform in Egypt. The movement would later spread to other Arab nations and to Pakistan. 1932: Iraq granted independence by League of Nations. 1934: War between King Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud and Imam Yahya of the Yemen. Peace treaty of Taif. Asir becomes part of Saudi Arabia. 1935: Iran ("Land of the Aryans") becomes the official name of Persia. 1936: Increased Jewish immigration leads to an Arab revolt in Palestine in the Great Uprising. 1938: Mustafa Kemal Atatürk died.İsmet İnönü second president of Turkey. 1939: Parliament of ex France protectorate Republic of Hatay decides to join Turkey 1939: World War II. 1941: British and Russian forces invade Iran and Reza Shah is forced to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Shah in Iran. Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi founds Jamaat-e-Islami, the Muslim Brotherhood's South Asian counterpart. 1945: End of World War II. Indonesia declares independence from the Netherlands 1946: Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria are granted independence from Britain and France. 1947: India gains independence from Britain, and Pakistan is created from the region's Muslim-majority areas under the Leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Disputes over the status of Kashmir leads to the first Indo-Pakistani War; Kashmir is divided between India and Pakistan. 1948: Arab countries attack the new state of Israel and suffer defeat in war with Israel. Hundreds of thousands of Palestinians are displaced,Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah was died in Karachi,War of Kashmir. 1949: Hasan al-Banna, leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, is assassinated by Egyptian security forces. Second East Turkestan Republic overthrown and re-incorporated into Xinjiang. 1951: Libya becomes independent. 1952: King Faruq of Egypt forced to abdicate by the free officers led by Gamal Abdel Nasser,Hassan-Al-Banna martyred in Cairo,syed Qutb return to Egypt and join Muslim Brotherhood. 1953: Backed by American and British intelligence agencies, General Zahedi leads a coup against Mohammed Mossadegh, returning the Shah to power. Death of King Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud of Saudi Arabia. The foundation stone is laid to enlarge the Prophet's mosque in Medina. 1954: Algerian War of Independence begins. Hizb ut Tahrir is established in 1953 under the leadership of its founder - the scholar,

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political thinker and judge in the Court of Appeals in al-Quds (Jerusalem), In the Muslim world, Hizb ut-Tahrir works at all levels of society to bring the Muslims back to living an Islamic way of life under the shade of the Khilafah (Caliphate) State following an exclusively political method. 1956: Morocco becomes independent. Tunisia becomes independent. Tripartite Aggression in Egypt caused by nationalization of the suez canal. 1957: The Bey of Tunisia is deposed, and Bourguiba becomes president. Enlargement of the Haram in Mecca begins. The Federation of Malaya, later renamed Malaysia, gains independence from Britain. 1958: October 7, President Iskander Mirza declares Martial Law. General Ayub Khan assumes the powers as Chief Martial Law Administrator. 1960: Mali and Senegal become independent.Great Turk scholar Bediaz-Zaman said Nursi had died in Urfa (Turkey). 1962: Algeria becomes independent. Death of Zaydi Imam of Yemen (Ahmad). Crown Prince Bahr succeeds him and takes the title Imam Mansur Bi-Llah Muhammad. 1965: American Muslim leader Malcolm X is assassinated. The second Indo-Pakistani War results in a stalemate. Malaysia grants independence to Singapore. 1967: In the Six-Day War between Israel and Egypt, Syria and Jordan, Israel seizes control of Jerusalem, the West Bank, Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and the Golan Heights. More Palestinians are displaced. 1968: The enlargement of the Haram in Mecca is completed. Israel begins building Jewish settlements in territories occupied during the Six-day war. 1969: King Idris of Libya is ousted by a coup led by Colonel Qadhdhafi. 1970: Death of Gamal Abdel Nasser, Anwar Sadat becomes president of Egypt and continues preparation of the army for the next war with Israel. 1971: Bengalis in East Pakistan under the leadership of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman begin campaigning for independence from West Pakistan, prompting a heavy-handed military reprisal from Pakistani forces. India enters the conflict, causing the third Indo-Pakistani War which culminates in the creation of Bangladesh. 1972: During the Summer Olympic Games in Munich, West Germany, eleven members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by Palestinian terrorist group Black September in what is known as the Munich massacre. 1973: King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan is overthrown. Yom Kippur War, also known as 1973 Arab-Israeli War, leads to recapture of Sinai peninsula and Golan Heights by Egypt and Syria from Israel. 1974: OIC conference was organised in Lahore,qadyani become declared Kafir in Islamic republic of Pakistan 1974: Turkey launched a military invasion on Cyprus 1974 following the coup d'e'tat engineered by the Greek Junta 1975: Indonesia invades and occupies East Timor. King Faisal of Saudi Arabia is assassinated by his half-brother's son Faisal bin Musa'id. Death of Elijah Muhammad, leader of Nation of Islam among African Americans in North America. Warith Deen Muhammad assumes leadership of Nation of Islam and shifts movement toward Islamic Orthodoxy, renaming it American Muslim Mission. 1978: Imam Musa Sadr, a Lebanese Shi'a leader is apparently assassinated after he disappears on a trip to Libya. As part of the Camp David Accords, Egypt becomes the first Arab nation to recognize Israel. Israel returns the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt. 1979: Years of political tension and unrest in Iran climax as the autocratic Pahlavi regime is overthrown by a popular revolution. In its place, Iranian clerics led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini establish an Islamic government and declare Iran an Islamic Republic. Groups of students loyal to the new regime seize control of the American embassy in Tehran and take 66 officials hostage. Religious students in Saudi Arabia seize control of the Haram of Mecca, sparking a two-week standoff with Saudi security forces. The crisis comes to an end when Saudi forces storm the mosque, killing 237 of the 300 men and

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apprehending the remainder. All surviving conspirators in the plot are publicly executed. The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan. Death of influential Islamist leader Sayyid Abul Ala Maududi. 1980: Iraq invades Iran, beginning the Iran–Iraq War. In a move not recognized internationally, Israel confirms its capital as the united Jerusalem. 1981: The 444-day Iranian hostage crisis comes to an end. Egyptian president Anwar Sadat is assassinated by militants opposed to his autocratic policies and recognition of Israel Succeeded by Muhammad Hosni Mubarak. 1982: Israel invades Lebanon, under false pretext. 1988: The Iran–Iraq War comes to an end following much loss of life. President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq of Pakistan was killed in a plane crash caused by a mysterious mid-air explosion. 1989: Death of Shia religious leader and Iranian head of state Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini; Accession of Ali Khamenei as the Supreme Leader of Iran. The Soviet Union withdraws the last of its forces from Afghanistan. Afghan mujahideen factions begin fighting each other. 1990: Iraq invades Kuwait. North Yemen and South Yemen reunite. 1991: A coalition of United States-led forces attacks Iraq and reverses its attempted military annexation of Kuwait. US-backed economic sanctions are imposed on Iraq. The sanctions are widely blamed for subsequent dramatic increases in famine, birth defects, and infant mortality amongst Iraqis. The Soviet Union collapses. Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, all predominantly Muslim former Soviet republics, become independent. Armenian military occupies one-sixth of Azerbaijani territory expelling over 800,000 ethnic Azerbaijanis from the occupied lands and Armenia proper. Somalia civil war begins 1992: The 400 year-old Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, India is destroyed by Hindu extremists, sparking widespread religious rioting across India. 1992: United Nations Forces, mainly Americans, enter Somalia. 1994: Jordan becomes the second of Israel's Arab neighbors to recognize Israel. 1996: Taliban forces seize control of most of Afghanistan and declare the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan. After leading his Welfare Party to a surprise victory in the 1995 general elections, Necmettin Erbakan becomes the first pro-Islamic Prime Minister of modern Turkey. 1998: Pakistan became the first Islamic republic to have the nuclear power as it successfully conducted five nuclear tests on May, 28. Amidst growing criticism of his economic policies, longtime Indonesian leader General Suharto resigns after over thirty years in power. Pakistan conducts nuclear tests in response to similar tests by neighbor and arch rival India, becoming the first Muslim nuclear power. Former deputy prime minister of Malaysia Anwar Ibrahim, a vocal critic of prime minister Mahathir Mohamad, is arrested and imprisoned on charges of sodomy. 1999: Kargil war broke out between Pakistan and India. Pakistan's Army captured strategic points in Indian occupied Kashmir including the areas of Point 5352, Dalu Nag, Bunker ridge and the Siddle Ridge. Later on Pakistan took control of the entire Kargil District from India but withdraw after intense international diplomatic pressure. However, point 5352, Dalu Nag, Bunker Ridge and Saddle Ridge remains in its control even today. Death of Jordan's King Hussein. King Hussein's son Abdullah is declared king of Jordan. Indonesia relinquishes control of East Timor, which is granted independence under a UN-sponsored act of self-determination. General Pervez Musharraf seizes control of Pakistan after a military coup against the government of Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif. 2000: Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip begin the Al-Aqsa Intifada, prompted by Ariel Sharon's visit to a disputed religious site holy to both Jews and Muslims. President Hafez al-Assad of Syria dies of a heart attack. His son Bashar al-Assad is elected President by Syria's Majlis Al Shaa'b (Parliament). Russia occupies Grozny, the capital of Chechnya.[1][2]

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General Parvez Musharraf overthrows the democratically elected government of Nawaz Sharif in Pakistan.[1] Suicide attack on USS Cole kills 17 US sailors.[1] By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to almost one-fifth (20%) of the total driven by improved healthcare infrastructure.

21st century (2001-2100) (1421 AH–1527 AH) [edit] 2001

Members of Al Qaeda a muslim Jihadi organization, attack the United States. Hijacked commercial airliners are flown into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon building on September 11, 2001, killing upwards of three thousand. The United States subsequently declares a War on terror and invades Afghanistan, whose Taliban regime had given refuge to Al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden. The Taliban are ousted from power, though the fate of bin Laden is still unknown.[1] Earthquake in Gujarat, India at Richter scale of 7.8, 25,000 people died.

[edit] 2002
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The riots between Hindus and Muslims in Gujarat, India. More than 5000 reported killed, most of them Muslims. A terrorist group linked to Al-Qaeda kill more than 200 people in the 2002 Bali bombings.[1] Chechen rebles take 800 hostages in the Moscow theater hostage crisis.[1]

[edit] 2003
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The United States leads the invasion of Iraq, searching for "weapons of mass destruction", starting the second Iraq War.[1] Shirin Ebadi becomes the first Muslim woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize for her efforts in promoting human rights. Truck bombings in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia kills 34.[1] Spanish restaurant and Jewish centres attackted in Casablanca, Morocco, killing 43 people.[1] Attack on hotel in Jakarta, Indonesia kills 10.[1] 52 killed in suicide attacks on British and Jewish targets in Istanbul.[1] Inauguration of the Baitul Futuh Mosque, the largest Mosque in Western Europe in London, UK by the Head (Khalifatul Masih) of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. [2]

[edit] 2004

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A Jihadi group claims responsibility for bombings in Madrid's commuter railway and several trains. The Jihad attack killed 191, and wounded 1,460 others. Nevertheless the Islamists' claim, latest unveilings suggest that perhaps the role of Islamic extremists was less capital than it has been officially presented. The second largest earthquake ever recorded occurs in the Indian Ocean triggering the Asian Tsunami. Indonesia suffers the heaviest damage with 167,736 dead, 37,063 missing and 500,000+ displaced. US troops assault Iraqi city of Fallujah.[1] Israeli civilian deaths from suicide bombings since the Second Intifada passes 500.[1]

[edit] 2005

A radical Muslim group claims responsibility for bombings in the London Underground. The attack kills 52, and wounds over 700 others.
[1]

Bombings in Sharm el-Sheikh, Egypt kill at least 83 and wound hundreds.

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Saudi Arabia's King Fahd dies. Fahd's brother Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdul-Aziz, who had assumed de facto leadership of the country after King Fahd suffered a debilitating stroke in 1994, is declared king. A powerful, 7.6-magnitude earthquake hits Pakistan administered Kashmir, killing upwards of 73,000 people. Israel removed Jewish settlers and military personnel from the Gaza Strip in August 2005. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad wins Iranian presidential election.[1] A high turnout among Sunni Muslims in Iraq parliamentary elections, despite insurgency.[1] US casualties in Iraq passes the 2000 mark.[1]

[edit] 2006
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Israel attempts to invade Lebanon in pursuit of Hezbollah paramilitary forces, but fails. Death of former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein by hanging for crimes against humanity. Muhammad Yunus wins Nobel Peace Prize for successful application of microcredit schemes to poor entrepreneurs in Bangladesh.

[edit] 2007
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Ethiopian forces invade Somalia and routed Islamic Courts from Mogadishu. 2007 Zahedan bombings kills 18 in Iran. February 13, 2007 Bikfaya bombings kills 3 in Lebanon. 2 Muslims carry out the 2007 Glasgow International Airport attack.

[edit] 2008

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Kosovo declares independence and is recognised by the USA and many EU nations with the exceptions of Spain, Slovakia, Romania, Greece and Cyprus. 2008 Issers bombing kills 43 in Algeria. 2008 Bin Salman Mosque bombing kills 15 in Yemen. 2008 United States consulate in Istanbul attack kills 6. Inauguration of the Baitun Nur Mosque, the largest mosque in Canada, by the Head (Khalifatul Masih) of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and the Prime Minister of Canada.[3]

[edit] 2009
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2009 Hotel Shamo bombing kills at least 30 people in Somalia. Islamist rebels carry out the a military ambush in Algeria. 2009 Jakarta bombings kill 9 in Indonesia. Seven men were arrested from the Raleigh jihad group. Several people were arrested as they were suspected of planning bombings in the United States. (See: 2009 U.S. Al Qaeda group) Tourists were attackted in Yemen after Al-Qaeda called for attacks against visitors to the region. 2009 Zahedan explosion kills 20 in Iran. 2009 Guwahati bombings kills 6 in India.

[edit] 2010
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May 2010 attacks on Ahmadi mosques in Lahore killing 86 and seriously injuring over 120. May 2010 Mogadishu bombings kills at least 39 in Somalia. Chechen suicide bombers kill 40 in the 2010 Moscow Metro bombings. 2010 Kizlyar bombings kill 12 in Russia.

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