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Music is an art in which ‘Swara’ and ‘Rhythm’ are utilized by man to express his feelings. In the common usage, music is taken as singing. However, in fact, song, instrument and dance are together called music. In fact, all these three skills are independent but still come under the territory of each other, in other words all three arts are inter-dependent. Singing is not possible without playing musical instrument and playing instrument is cannot be possible without singing, at the same time dance requires both the arts together. *The word ‘sangeet’ is made of the word ‘geet’ by adding a prefix-‘sam’. The word ‘sam’ means ‘with’ and ‘geet’ means something, which is sung. So any work done with singing is called music*. In other words, when all these three arts together function, then the music comes into existence. ‘Sangeet’ is a gift of God to man. Dance performed daily, the beauty of body is increased, ‘singing’ develops the mind of a man, and at the same time playing instruments develops mind and body both. In other words, all these three activities help human beings in forgetting one’s sorrows and sufferings. The threefold arts of music, namely the art of singing or vocal music, the art of playing on instruments of music commonly known as instrumental music and the art of gesticulations based on rhythm called dance, it is termed by all scholars as “sangeet”. Sangeet, the music of all nations is mainly of two types, namely the spiritual or religious, i.e. the music of holy place like the church, and the sensual or the music for the amusement of all men,** termed by the scholars of the bygone ages as “margi” and “desi” sangeet respectively.**
1. Margi-Sanget: The vedic hymns, the music of the Pauranik ages and also
the music sung or played by the great saints of all nationals for selfrealization and salvation, was known as margi sangeet or the music that leads one to heaven by making them free from the bondage of worldly affairs-similar to the Gospels of the Holy Bible and church songs of the countries of the west.
2. Desi-Sangeet: The music that is composed and set to tune by the expert
musician composers of all times and places, to meet the common needs of all mankind and also to satisfy their physical and mental needs is called as “desi-sangeet” which has numerous forms and verities. * Swara Nidhi pg. 1
** Techniques of Sitar by S.Bandyopadhyaya pg. 35
Definition of music according to different scholars
1. According to Shakespeare: *Every living thing has some feelings, and
the sound, which expresses these emotions, is called music. It means in which sound, man expresses his feelings that sound is called music. Besides, the man, who has no music in his heart; who has no effect of melodies is called as traitor. Do not trust that person in your life*.
2. According to Martin Luthar: **Music is not considered as a part of
human life but a part of the whole world. According to him who gives divine beauty to the world is music. **
3. According to Sangeet Darpan: ***It has been said in Sangeet Darpan
while defined music that in reality whole universe is full of music. Varna originated from naad, word from Varna, sentence from word and language from sentence. Nature is controlled by language so whole nature is dependent on naad and naad is a form of music. ***
According to Pandit Sharangdev: ****Pandit Sharangdev has written in his musical scripture that the combination of three arts i.e. Singing, Musical instruments and Dance together known as music. So the accommodation of these three arts together makes music. ****
* History of Indian music Ch-07 ** Music of North and South India *** Sangeet Darpen Shloka-14 **** Sangeet Ratnakar
Origin of music
From ancient time to present time, there occurred so many changes in this world but music is such a word, which has same meaningfulness and usefulness as earlier. Constantly, on hearing the word music, our body feels some strange types of vibrations. There will be no exaggeration to say that music is present in every corner of this universe. Music is present in running of streams, blowing of winds, thundering of clouds and the different sounds of birds and animals. One question that arises in our mind after studying all these concepts is that where was music born although it had a universal quality. How did man receive music, now we will study this through the different point of view of scholars?
1. From religious point of view and Religious scriptures: *If we carefully
study the culture of India then we would find that in India everything is related with religion whether it is music. Religion and music are interrelated. If we carefully observe then we will find that every God and Goddess has one instrument in his or her hands. According to scholar, Brahma Ji was first who has created music. “Natya Shastra has justified this point. First Brahama Ji originates music, Saraswati Ji gained this knowledge from Brahama and Narad ji gained this knowledge from Saraswati. After that Narad ji taught music to Gandharv, then the music starting flouring in whole universe*.
2. Role of nature in music: According to an African scholar Ifari, ** when
first man and woman are each other while swimming in a beautiful pond then they started coming forward for union and their hands and feet started moving in the water of pond, this movement created different sounds which gave them inner inspiration. As a result, both wanted to unite each other and from their union form of sounds became constant and both realize the importance of music in life. In this way, they first get the knowledge of music. ** * History of Indian music by Dr. Sunita Sharma ** History of Indian music by Dr. Shri Dhar Ch-01
** * Sangeet Ratnakar Exolanation by Kallinath ** The Stage of music by Jacobil pg. Since it can be said that music has been there since times immortal and it can be proved with the help of many other facts. But it can be said that when man did feel hungry he might have felt a curious sound in his stomach. Indeed it is difficult to say that when did it firstly arise. 01 4 . This curious sound can be related to music.* 4. Music is infinite: **A famous scholar Jacobil in his book ‘The Stage of Music’ has written that it has always been under discussion that how and when man came to know about music. Pancham from koel. there is no doubt that man attained the knowledge of other arts. Origin of music from birds and animals: *Famous scholar Shri Kallinath agreed that music born from different sounds of birds and animals like “Shadaz originated from sound of Peacock. Nevertheless. Rishabh from chatak. Gandhar from goat. Madhyam from crow.3. Dhaivat from frog and Nishad from elephant.
there was similarity in their respective music also. From these three only. Therefore. By studying ‘Vedas’. These mantras were interwoven with the tempo. there was a great importance of ‘Swara’ as well as ‘taal’. and ‘Swarit’. There were only three ‘swaras’ used in music. after we study them. These instruments formed the foundation in the development of music. In ‘Sam Veda’. New instruments were born from these instruments only. By the study of ‘Rig Veda’. ‘Anudat’. other ‘swaras’ were originated and new revolution was born in the field of music. In these shlokas and mantras. If we do analytical study of ‘Sam Veda’. 5 . there was a similarity between ‘North’ and ‘South’ Indian people. ‘Atharva Veda’ and ‘Yajur Veda’ give us the knowledge of music. we come to know that in that age. the deities were worshipped by singing shlokas and mantras. All these three swaras formed the foundation of ‘modern swaras’. From ‘Vedas’ only. we came to know that the songs of praise of gods were chanted based on fixed ‘swaras’.Development of Music: Vedic era In the development of music. we come to know that ‘swaras’ are called ‘Yam’. They were known as follows: ‘Udaat’. ‘Vedas’ have played an important role. then there will be no exaggeration. If we address ‘Vedic age’ to be the golden period of music. then we come to know that in ‘Sam Veda’ there is description of scholars as well as ‘mantras’.
In the age of Mahabharata. His two other famous works. new style of dance also emerged. drama also progressed along with music. A lot of development also took place in the field of singing. In the age of Ramayana. Lord Shri Krishna was famous for playing flute. The age of Mahabharata. In this time. scriptures were written. reveals that the number of musical instruments exceeds the weapon of war. Middle Age In this age. Instrument and Dance. music was also used. In the ancient time. Madahvsingh and Mansingh. His Sadragachandrodaya was written at this juncture. It is said that before the war of Mahabharata. which shows that what the real state of music was that period. folk dance was also at its peak along with classical dance. he moved to Rajasthan and was supported by two chieftains. At that time. The word ‘Ghungroo’ was coined in the age of Ramayana. instrument as well as singing was in practice. under the plays. When he returned on earth along with the knowledge of dance. There are twenty eight thousand shalokas in Ramayana. only the practice of folk song and folk dance also got a boost. playing musical instruments and dance. Ragamala: Pundarik Viithal was a prominent musicologist of the mid-sixteenth century. an instrument like ‘Ravan htha’ ( ) was discovered which is present even today’s times.Ancient era In this age. Later. Ramayana is an epic. 1. many types of Purana and Epics were created out of which the main are Ramayana and Mahabharata. was developed to its peak. At the same time. He perfected the art of singing. The word ‘Geet’ can also be seen at many places in Ramayana that is directly related the music. there have been many such scholars who encouraged the music a lot and also many types of musical. In this age. there was no difference between the methodology of music between North and South. brought some musical instruments also. This age is also known as ‘Muslim Age’ also. In this age. who hailed from Karnataka initially. sought patronage under Burhankhan (Khandesh. Pundarik. Maharashtra). Arjuna visited ‘Inver-lok’ for learning art of using new weapons. 6 . As a result.
Ragamala and Ragamangari has written in same period. amazingly closed to what Pt. He described Komal and Teevra swara and classified Raga-Ragini pattern. 2. Pandit ji has written very famous musical scripture Ragavibodh. 3. As a result of which plays included English dance. V. Indian music reached foreign countries also. Modern Age When British came to India. The same patterns of gamaka are still being used by modern musicians in Hindustani classical music. N. So strong was Lochan desire to project relevant music of that era. then. 4. Sangeetparijat: This musical scripture was created by Pandit Ahobal. He has given RagaRagini classifacition in same period. English musicians also put their efforts to understand Indian music and they wrote many books on Indian music. He defined fifteen types of ‘Gamaka’. Bhatkhande did in early twentieth century. English plays are in great practice now days. ‘Harmonium’ and ‘Hawian Guitar’ are the live example of this formation. Indian artiest saw the western instruments and moulded them according to their requirement and adopted than in an Indian style. Whenever they welcome any official. In this musical scripture he worked on ‘Gamaka’. Ragatarangini: Pandit Lochan has done remarkable work in music. who visited India. in that culture only he can grow and develop up to his full extent. The most important feature of his work is the way he has identified precise positions of musical notes by locating them on vibrating strings. It was greatly followed by many other modern musicians. Due to this reason. Ragavibodh: Pandit Somnath is yet another southerner who contributed to Hindustani music. But we should never forget that a man is born in a particular culture. 7 . they did so with their musical band. they brought musical instruments to India. He classified Ragas in to eleven That-s. He wrote the famous epic Ragatarangini in middle age. He defined Gamaka and discussed nineteen types of Gamaka which are still very important from classical music’s point of view.
After independence, Indian music started getting telecast on television also. Through radio and television people could listen to the musical programmes sitting at home and watch them. In the modern age many musicians were born who too music to the heights. Pandit V.N Bhatkhande is an example of this. He created Indian Notation system and reached the music to the common masser. As a result, music was available in written form for reading purpose, so it was written as well as read at that point of time. All the three arts i.e. Singing, Playing musical Instrument aand dance were recognized as three distinct entities. All three filds of arts were performed on deifferent platforms. A number of schools and colleges of music were established and music has become an essentral part of education. Due to this, along with other subjects, music subject is also gatting poularity among students. It is too difficult to learn music of any kind only through books. Although all types of vocal and instrumental music of these days is made available on discs and recorded tapes, they cannot serve the purpose of a teacher or a guide. Therefore, one should bear in mind that the only way for anyone to learn music is to create and establish between himself and his preceptor the unique relationship of the teacher and the taught, which belongs to Indian culture in all its phrases. Hence, one should enter into the inner spirit and must adopt many of the outer conventions of Indian life and such studies must continue until he or she can improvise the nuance and subtlety of the terminology of musical terms and the phraseology of the musical compositions meant for playing of sitar in the cultural background of this country strictly following the artists temperament to the entire satisfaction of all connoisseurs of Indian music. One must also have an ear sensitive to microtonal inflections. If all the conditions stated above are fulfilled by a foreign student of sitar or vocal music, then there is every hope and scope for them to acquire proficiency in the art of playing on sitar.
Definition of Swara- Any sound, which is vibrating continuously and is still on particular place, is called svara. Along with this we can say that it is soothing to ear and heart touching and you feel happy while you hear swara. Swara is a combination of two words sva+ra where sva means oneself and ra means, good in itself. Bharatmuni described the svara as ( ) means that sound which is good in itself is called swara. According to Pandit Sarngdeva-: The sound witch comes immediately after the Shruti and gives pleasure to the listener heart is called Swara. Ragas arise out of Swara and Swara arise out of Shruti History of Svara-: In olden times we were not using seven swara as we are using in modern era. That time three svara were commonly used they were “Udhath, Anudhath, & Swarit” If we use one swara in composition then it is called Archaic, when two Swara are used then its Gaathik and when all Swara are used then it is Sabhik. According to Pandit Ahobal: “There are 22 shruti on seven Swara, based on Chatush Chatush Chev rules. He decided seven shuddha Swara and five vikrit Swara. Shuddha Swara are –SA RE GA MA PA DHA NI Vikrit Swara are – RE, GA, MA, DHA, NI. So according to Pt. Ahobal the total number of Swara are twelve with Shuddha and Vikrit forms of Swara and he described the scientific relation between Swara and Shruti. Shuddha Swara: The second name of Shuddha Swara is Natural Swara. According to old Musicians those Svara which arise from nature and established on its original Shruti are called Shuddha Swara. Fixed Swara (Achal Swara) is the part of Shuddha Swara, Example of Shuddha swara are SA RE GA MA PA DHA NI.
Fixed Swara: The second name of Fixed Swara is Achal Swara. Achal is the word of Hindi language it means fix. Those Swara which fixed on there original shruti are called fixed Swara. According to Pt. Sharang there are two fixed swara for example SA and PA. Vikrit Swara: The second name of Vikrit Svara is moveable Swara or Chal Svara. Those Swara which can move (Back and forward) on their particular place and deviates from its original shruti. Vikrit Swara are divided in two part 1. Komal Swara 2.Teevra Swara, According to Indian classical music there are five Vikrit Swara, for example – Re Ga Ma Dha Ni. Komal Swara: Those Swara which can move backward on their particular place and established on lower shruti that’s Swara called komal Swara. According to Indian musicians there are four Komal swara, For example- Re Ga,Dha, Ni. Teevra Swara: Those Swara which can move forward on their particular place and established on higher shruti that’s Swara called Teevra Swara. According to Indian musicians there is one Teevra swara, for example - Ma According to Matanga: Pt. Matanga Muni has also sported Pt. Sharang Dev and declared seven swara. He has given the significance of the name of these seven swara. According to him:
1. Shadja (SA) is so called because it is the precursor of the six other notes. 2. Rishabha (RE) is called because it quickly appeals to the heart. 3. Gandhara (GA) is so called because it has the ability to delight 4. 5. 6. 7.
Gandharvas. Madhyama (MA) is so called because it is the centre of the scale and three svara are on either side of it. Panchama (PA) is so called because it is the fifth from the basic note. Dhaivata (DHA) is so called because it is representative of sensitive mind and comes on sixth place. Nishada (NI) is so called because with this note scale come to an end.
According to Pt. Nikhil Banerjee Swara play a dominant role in Indian classical music. Swara are the bases of Indian classical music because of Swara Ragas are creating and swara are so important to understand the sentiments of ragas. In modern time all musicians are fowling same statement. Whole world is using twelve swara in music.
Anuvadi swara means assonant note. Anuvadi swara: Besides vadi and samvadi swara. Mandra saptak means low octave. Vadi swara Samvadi swara Anuvadi swara Vivadi swara 1. Because they follow vadi and samvadi swara. 4.According to scholars there are four fold of swara. The essence of the raga lies in vadi swara. The meaning of saptak is octave. Samvadi. Chart of Svara 11 . Vivadi swara means dissonant note. Vadi swara: Vadi swara means sonant note. Those four fold play vital roles in Indian classical music. 2. Anuvadi and Vivadi are often compared to King. 2. These swara when played or sung in three register are respectively called mandra saptak. 3. other swara applied in a raga called anuvadi swara. 1. Samvadi swara: Samvadi swara means consonant note. According to theory of ragas every raga has samvadi swara. Vadi is the swara which is most frequently used in any raga. Madhya saptak and Tara saptak. 3. According to theory of ragas every raga has vadi swara. minister. 4. general public and enemy respectively in a kingdom. It is most prominent swara in any raga. Samvadi swara is the second most prominent swara in raga. Madhya saptak means middle octave and tata saptak means high octave. Application of vivadi swara destroys the mood of the raga. Vivadi swara: The swara which is not applied in raga is called vivadi swara. These four categories of swara Vadi.
DHA. DHA. MA. GA. NI Chal Swara RE. NI Teevra Swara MA SHRUTI 12 . MA. PA.Swara SA. PA. NI Achal Swara SA. GA. MA. GA. GA. PA. DHA. RE. NI Shudha Swara SA. PA Komal Swara RE. DHA. RE.
like this Shruti also get transformed into Svara. it is free from Echo in the first instent. Ahobal was the founder of Shrutis. According to old Scholers rule of distributions of Swara in Shrutis 13 . Sharang Dev. He told the whole world that there are 66 shrutis in one octave which can audible but only 22Shrutis can be use in music. According to Pt. In other words Shruti can be defined as that range of sound which is audible. It is originated from the word “SHRU” which means to hear. These twenty –two grades are knows as Shrutis. that.Swara are differentiated in to twenty-two grades.Human hearts has 22 slanting veins. Every Shruti has a link with these veins. He also described 22 Shruti in numbers. which is heard or audible is called shruti. Therefore. According to Pandit Ahobal-: The sound which is audible is called Shruti. where snake is to be considered as Svara and kundali as Shruti. According to him the relation between Shruti and Svara is the same as that between as snake and his kundali. All swara based on these 22 Shrutis according to Chatush-Chatush-Chav reles. He described the scientific relation between Svara and Shruti. According to Mantanga Muni-: Just as milk gets transformed into curd. This means that these 22 Shruti are produced by these 22 veins. So that’s why we have 22 Shrutis in number. Shruti is derived from Sanskrit language. He also described 22 Shruti in numbers. According to Kallinath-: When the sound breaks on the first stroke. Thus he considers Shruti to be that audible sound which is free from Echo.So he described 22 Shruti in numbers and followed the Chatush-Chatush-Chav rules and whole old scholars were following him. According to history of Indian music.
According to other scholars Shrutis are successively higher and higher in pitch.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni According to Pt.Nikhil Banrege: The musical sound which is clearly audible and which we can discriminate. Shrutis are to perceive clearly in the throat as well as in the brain. and which can be clearly identified is called Shruti instead of this the sound which we use in music is known as shruti. Even 14 . Scholars views that each swara may have one particular Shruti and each belonging to a different category signification of its character. According to new Scholars rule of distributions 0f Swara in Shrutis 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Entire scholars are following Chatush-Chatush-Chav rules for distributions of Swara in Shrutis. They also to mark out 22 Shrutis in number and following the ChatushChatush-Chav reles but according to them Sa is on first Shruti.
They have also attributed different names of each of them. 8. 21. which according to them are 22 (Twenty two). 13. 2. 9. 20. According to them all swara are fixed on particular shrutis. 14. Shrutis numbers Name of Shrutis According to old scholers According to New Distributions of swara Distributions of swara scholers 1. are unanimous in respect of the exact number of shrutis. 19. But old scholars are keeping Sa on Chhandovati (4th) Shruti and new scholars are keeping Sa on Tivra (1st) Shruti. Tivra Kumudati Mandra Chhandovati Dayavati Ranjani Raktika Raudri Krodhi Vajrika Prasarini Priti Marjini Kriti Ratika Sandipani Alapini Madanti Rohini Ramya Ugra. 6. 5. 22. 7. 11. 3. 12. not only the past but also of the present. The great scholars of music. NADA 15 . 4. 17. 16. 18. 10. 15. Shrobhini Sa Sa Re Re Ga Ga Ma Ma Pa Pa Dha Dha Ni .they have given name of each Shruti.
the sound which is already present in the universe is called Anahata Nada. That which is produced by regular and fixed vibrations is called musical and which produced by unfixed vibrations is called unmusical sound or noice. Ahata Nada has two kinds – musical and unmusical. Importance of Nada— 16 .g.Nada is a sound on which the whole world is based. For e. Ahata Nada 2. that sound is called Nada.. and words creates sentence which is basic of communication (Sound) and sound controls human behavior. Secondly this Nada originates from the knowledge of inner self. But in music the sound which has fixed vibrations and soothing to ears is called Nada. if we are playing sitar we have to use mizrav and struck the strings then sound will come. Anahata literally means ‘unstruck”. The word of Nada has been originated from two words. The letters of the alphabet from words. Nada is very essence of music According to Pt. He describes it as: Nada makes the letters of the alphabet. Secondly Nada is a way to reach the God. Types of Nada .In general language the meaning of Nada is sound which we can hear. Nada is basic element of music structure.. According to Sarngdeva if we will worship of Nada God will worshiped. Ahata Nada – Ahata is the word of Hindi language. This Nada relieves us from our body and transcends deep in our soul. Nada has two forms 1. Anahata Nada – Anahata word comes from Hindi language. That Nada is called Anahata Nada. if we close are ears with hands and move are hands slowly then sound will come. This Nada is worshiped by the saints to free themselves from the maya of this mortal world. Anahata Nada 1.. Da means Dakar which represents fire . For e. Ahata Nada is originated from friction of two things. Then Ahata nada will originates. This means Struck. “Na”+ “Da”. 2.When both unites then we gets one sound.g.Na means Nakar which represents life or air. sarngdeva: .
7. Thata 17 . Even they are using nada in spirituality but they can’t use noise in spirituality. Comparison between Nada and noise 1. Noise has not any fixed and continuous vibration. animals. Noise have not any sweetness. 5. We were using this word in past time also but noise is not historical word and we are not having any history of noise. and instruments. According to audible – Nada are absolutely audible we may be clearly listens nada. According to vibration – Nada has fixed and continuous vibration. not a swara can be originated. 4. 3.According to musical scriptures nada are two types but noise has only one type. According to music – According to history of Indian music nada is the musical word and we are using this word in music. 8. we can’t get knowledge of worship and can’t prosper in music. Noise is absolutely different from nada. 6.1. Nada controls the volume of sound (higher or lower octave). According to spirituality -. 3. Without a Nada a song can not be composed. We can hear Nada but it can’t be seen 4. According to history—According to musical scriptures nada is a historical word. 2. But in noise we can’t audible any thing. 2. Noise has not any scope in music we can’t use noise in music. Nada helps us to discriminate between the sounds of human.Nada is worshiped by the saints to free those selves from the maya of this mortal world. According to sweetness – Nada are sweet sound and nada must be sweet. According to please – When we hear nada its gives please and give happiness to listeners but noise can’t give please and happiness to the listeners. According to types -.
By the end of seventeen century controversy surfaced among experts about the number of thata. 18 . the classification of ragas becomes popular. This is how Hindustani music experts left Karnataka music system and started followed 10 (ten) thata. Modern musician late pandit Vishnunaryana Bhatkande had organized new raga . He also advised to remember carefully the following points related to thata. According to him thata are the parent of raga. Then “Pandit Vayankattmukhi” with the help of his mathematical calculation propagated the number of thata to be 72 (seventy two). During seventeen century according to thata. But Hindustani music experts were not considering seventy two thata in number. Even Karnataka music experts were not influenced by this calculation. Thata must have seven swara in proper order of the scale.Parijaat and “Raga-Vibodh.In the end of fifteen century most famous musician “Pundit Lochan” had described “Thata” word first time in his book “Raga – tarangini”. In the opinion of some experts that the number of thata were 23 (twenty three) while few considered it to be 20 (twenty) and few others thought it to be 19 (nineteen). According to pandit Vishnunaryana Bhatkande the series of seven swara is called thata. 1. Without thata even one raga can’t be originated. Audav 2. He selected 10 (ten) thata out of 72 (seventy two) thata and classified all ragas on basis of 10 (ten) thata. 1. This is how 10 (ten) thata become popular amd were followed by all music experts. Shadav 3. This new thata system was fully followed and adopted by all Hindustani musicians. But only 36 (thirty six) raga most popular and in used.ragini system in north India music. According to music scriptures it’s true that in past approximately 16000 (sixteen) thousand ragas were there. “Pundit Lochan” had described in his book that during past time approximately 16000 (sixteen) thousand ragas were there and gopies used to performs that raga in front of Lord Krishna. During same century “Pandit Shrinivas” explained while defining thata that raga originated from thata and described three forms of thata. Sapuran. It is clearly depicted in the famous scriptures of the contemporary time that is “Sangeet.
According to musical scriptures the word Bhairav thata came from the name of Bhairav raga. 2. But raga Khamaj is main representative of Khamaj thata. Kaphi 8.g. We can not sing or play thata. 4. The famous ragas of this group are raga Bilwal. 4. SA RE GA MA PA DHA NI SA. Yaman.g. Kalyana thata – Scholars are using teevra Ma (Madhayam) and rest of the shudha swara in Kalyana thata. Asavari 9.g. 3. Here the names of ten principal thata are given below: 1. 2. 3. Bhairavi 10. Raga Yaman is main representative of Kalyana thata. SA RE GA MA PA DHA NI SA. Here the sequences of seven swara of every thata are giving below: 1. raga Bihag. 5. Maarva 7.Todi All 10 (Ten) thata are having 7 (seven) particular swara and some particular main phrases. Because musicians are using all shudha swara in Bilwal thata for e. raga des and raga Tilakkamod. Because the word Bhairav and raga 19 . These musical notes must come in there successive order. 5. 4. Bilwal thata – Second name of Bilwal thata is shudha thata. Bhairav that . Thata have only ascending order there is no requirement of descending order in thata. Khamaj thata – Scholars are using NI (Nishad) komal and rest of the shudha swara in Khamaj thata for e. Because of that we can identify that very easy. 3. Kalyan Bilwal Khamaj Bhairav Purvi 6. A thata need not be necessarily sweet and please the listeners.2. But raga Bilwal is main representative of Bilwal thata. Which ragas are having teevra Ma (Madhayam) and rest of the shudha swara they comes in Kalayana thata for e. raga deshkaar. The famous ragas of this group are raga Khamaj. The sequences of seven swara of Kalyana thata is SA RE GA MA PA DHA NI SA.
But raga Asavari is main representative of this group. NI (Nishad) komal and other shudha swara in Asavari thata for e.g. 9.g. The famous ragas of this thata are raga Asavari.This thata is also one of the difficult thata. Maarva thata – In Marva thata musicians are using Re (Rishab) komal. Scholars are using Re (Rishab) and Dha (Dhavat) komal and rests of the swara are shudha for e. Rage Bhairav. raga Kaphi and raga Dhanashree. SA RE GA MA PA DHA NI SA. Kaphi thata -. Dha (Dhavat). Dha (Dhavat) komal. Popular ragas like raga Todi. and Ma (Madhayam) teevra and rests of the swara are shudha for e. 10. 8.Bhairav directly came from Lord Shiva mouth.g. Scholars are using Re (Rishab). Todi thata -. SA RE GA MA PA DHA NI SA. Ga (Gandhar). Asavari thata – In Asavari thata musicans are using Ga (Gandhar).g. Raga Bhairavi and raga Malkauns comes in this thata.Scholars are using Ga (Gandhar) and NI (Nishad) komal and other shudha swara in Kaphi thata for e.g. SA RE GA MA PA DHA NI SA. raga Vibhas comes in Bhairav thata. 5. Ten thata of Hindustani music with sing 20 . The swara sequences of this thata are SA RE GA MA PA DHA NI SA. Scholars are using Re (Rishab) and Dha (Dhavat) komal. Purvi thata – Purvi thata is one of the difficult thata. raga Puriya and raga Sohaani comes in Maarva thata but raga Maarva is main representative of Maarva that. SA RE GA MA PA DHA NI SA. Popular ragas like raga purvi. raga Darbari and raga Adana. The famous ragas of this thata are raga Bhimplasi. raga Multaani comes in this group but raga Todi is main representative of Todi thata. raga Lalit. 7. raga Ramkali. 6. raga Puriya comes in Purvi thata but raga Purvi is main representative of Purvi that. Famous ragas like raga Marva.g. Ma (Madhayam) teevra and rests of the swara are shudha for e. But raga Kaphi is main representative of Kaphi that. SA RE GA MA PA DHA NI SA. But raga Bhairav is main representative of Bhairav that. Bhairavi thata – According to musical scriptures the other name of this thata is komal thata because musicians are using all 4 (four) komal swara in this thata. Ma (Madhayam) teevra and rests of the shudha swara for e. SA RE GA MA PA DHA NI SA.
KALYANA THATA BILWAL THATA KHAMAJ THATA BHAIRAV THATA PURVI THATA MARVAA THATA KAPHI THATA ASAVARI THATA BHAIRAVI THATA TODI THATA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA RE RE RE RE RE RE RE RE RE RE GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA GA MA MA MA MA MA MA MA MA MA MA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA PA DHA DHA DHA DHA DHA DHA DHA DHA DHA DHA NI NI NI NI NI NI NI NI NI NI SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA SA Dissimilarity between Ragas and Thata 21 . 6. 7. 2. 5. 3. 9.1. 10 . 4. 8.
4. 2. According to time theory – Thata are not having any time theory but 8. 6. All ragas have proper time for their performances.Thata must have seven swara in proper order of the scale. Till today we are not having any solid proof that who had originated dhrupad. They are singing as well as playing ragas. every raga must have feeling as well as different mood. According to their ascending and descending order they have one particular jati. But ragas must have minimum five swara. Ragas may be not having sequences of swara in proper order. 5. All ragas must be sweet and please the listeners. Dhrupad Dhrupad is a word who is having lot of controversies. According to some 22 . 9. According to feelings and mood – Even one thata has not having any feeling as well as any mood. According to notes avoid. According to swara. Its means we can’t sing as well as play thata. According to jati – Thata ae not having any jati but according to history of ragas all ragas have different jati.A thata need not be necessarily sweet and please the listeners but ragas are not following this rule. Thata have only ascending order but all ragas must have ascending as well as descending order. According to performance – Musicians can’t perform thata. according to history of Indian music we are following the time theory in every raga.1. According to sweet and please . According to swara sequence – Thata have all seven swara in proper sequences but this rule is not Appling for ragas. Musicians are performing ragas.There is no requirements for descending order in thata. 3. According to ascending order --. This rule is not applicable for ragas. According to history of ragas. 7. According to musical scriptures we can’t avoid even one musical note in thata but according to history of ragas we may be avoid maximum two musical notes in raga.
Sthayi 2. Antra begin. Sthayi: It means base or foundation. Dhrupad name is derived from the Sanskrit word Dhruva. According to Bharat. we had seen this word dhrupad in music scriptures “Natya Shastra”. Maximum scholars had described these terms: 1. Japh taal. Different types of laykari are presented in the form of Dugun (Double). Abhog: It is the part which joins stahyi and antra. Sul tala etc. But some have given their opinion that dhrupad has originated during 15th century by Raja Maan singh Tomar. Dhrupad has four parts 1. Swami Haridas. Dhrupad are usually performed in char taal. First time. Sthayi is that part of raag on which the super structure stands. 23 . Abhog. Upto 17 th century dhrupad was very popular among all musicians. Each raga has Antra. Dhrupad performance is the singing of slow composition. He was very great musician as well as very good dhrupad singer. dhrupad had originated during 13th century. According to some scholars. It is not necessary that Sthayi should be only in Mandra saptak (Lower Octave). Generally. After the ending of Sthayi. In other words Sthayi is the face of ragas. It is the foundation. Sarangdev the slow composition that is having 3-4 lines is called dhrupad. lot of dhrupad singers were there like Miyan Tansen. the regular slow composition that is tied with some rules is known as dhrupad. Sanchari 4. Tigun (Triple) and chaugan (four times). 2. Sanchari: It is the last portion of the compostion and all the movements of the raag. The word Sathayi is derived from place. 3. Beju Banwara and Ram das etc. It is accompanied by tabla and pakahvaj. The meaning of Dhruva is stable. that Dhrupad is the combination of two words “Dhru + Pad”.scholars. Antra: It is the portion which is higher in pitch than Sthayi. The meaning of Dhrupad is a composition that has stable position. 4. According to Pt. In the court of King Akbar. It can be in Madhya (Middle) or in tar (high) saptak (Octave) also. Antra 3. the first line of raag known as Sthayi.
Khayal 24 .
A chota kahayl allows more scope for tan-s and boltan-s on account of its fast tempo. all the musical ornaments are used in it. khayal may be defined as a form of vocal art music in which a song. This is a composition in the same raga as of the bada khayal. small khayal). Therefore. 1. in contrast to the customary four of the dhrupad. Origin of Khayal 1. in fifteenth and sixteenth century. a khayal is sung in madhyalya. and then it reaps advantages of both words: it can include slower elaborations as well as faster ones. Against this background. All the words of the composition taken together are described as bol-s. sthayi and antara. According to scholars. However. 25 . Contemporary khayal features two parts. imagination is done at one’s own will by keeping in mind the rules and regulations. According to some scholars. It is only a type of ‘song’ in which imagination plays a special role. ‘Khayal has two types. The numbers of lines vary from two to six but there is no fixed rule about it. but at a faster tempo. many a musician finds it difficult to strike a balance between the two words. Chota Khayal A bada khayal is normally followed a chota khayal (a short. composed in one or many raga-s and in one or many tala-s. Bada Khayal 2. In ‘khayal’. Sometimes. the scholars have termed this type of song as ‘khayal’. Sultan Husain Shah discovered it and made it popular. I it. is to be elaborated further according to the accepted norms of developing the themes inherent in the raga.‘Khayal’ is a Persian word which means imagination. a special emphasis is done on ‘swara’ and ‘taal’. In a case composition has three parts (which happens sometime) the middle part is called is manjha. It is sung in tala-s such as teentala or ektala which are capable of being played at faster tempi without any loss of their essential character. Each line of the composition is called charan. The oftrepeated part of the opening line is called mukhda.
Thumri 26 . In ‘Dhrupad’. who devised thousands of khayals and taught them to their disciples. Other than this Mugal Badshah. ‘Dhrupad’ is a forceful and masculine song. Dhrupad has four parts wheres. Khayal has two parts. Those khayals are popular till today. 4. they are not that long but short. ‘Dhrupad’ is sung in the ‘raga’ of serious mood whereas ‘Khayal’ is sung in all types of ‘ragas’ 5.2. ‘Dhrupad’ is an old song whereas ‘Khayal’ is a modern song. 6. 3. Sadarang and Adarang. wheres Khayal is a light and melodious song. Difference between ‘Dhrupad’ and ‘Khayal’ 1. Muhammad Shah’s court was adored by two famous scholars. wheres these two plays an important role in Khayal. 2. the poems are quite long whereas in ‘Khayal’. In Dhrupad there is no alaap and taan.
Bhairavi. not bound by the constraints of prosodic rules. It says “replete with love-sentiments.D. Thumri compositions are mostly in raga-s such as Kafi. Khamaj. the rhythm-oriented jhumri is sung by dancing females. From all historical references.” Further on.D. Contemporary thumri has reached its present state through a gradual growth of the musical tendencies and cultural needs of a society which listened to music with more and wider expectations. 400) which describes a musical presentation called chalkiya consisting poetry. irrespective of the compositions involved. jhumri is strikeing. connected with dance. as there are earlier references to strings of thumri. it would be more appropriate to praise him for having an encouraging attitude towards the form and giving unstinted patronage to its practitioners. Sangitdamodara(A. nearly absent in the tala-s used in khayal. It favours tala-s such as Deepchandi. However.1500) refers to a genre called jhumri. Addha and Punjabi. In the medieval Manasollasa (A. sweet as a wine. Pilu and Pahadi. 1131) tripadi. evocative lovepoetry and folk songs of Uttar Pradesh. These tala-s are characterized by a special lilt. a term with much narrow connotation). Roopak. thumri too has two parts. since they do not depend for their identity on rigidly formulated tonal sequences.The term is derived from the Hindi verb thumakna which means ‘to walk with dancing steps so as to make the ankle-bells tinkle’. dance and dramatic gestures. a musical form is described as “treating themes of love and separation. thus. Jogiya. what is later described as. equally restrained abhinaya (not to be considered synonymous with acting. dramatic gestures. one may say that they have a built-in provision for mixing raga-s for moving out of the raga actually presented in order to add colour to the proceedings. It is customary to give credit to Wazid Ali Shah of Lucknow (18221887) for having invented the form. and music which has a gentle and feminine eroticism as its moving spirit. 27 . Rajatarangini of kalhana discusses dombika gayan and its similarly with. In fact.D. It is possible to maintain that thumri had its prototype in the ancient Harivamsha (A. a three-line composition sung by women who embellish the song to bring out shades of meaning. though there are regional variations. Structure: As in khayal. the sthayi and the antra. A common feature of these and other such raga-s is the free movement they allow the artist. Later. The form is. mild eroticism. it becomes clear that the form is distinguished by moderate and suggestive dance movements. perhaps.
Bol-banav: evoking subtle shades of moods through combinations of words and melodic phrases. 3. An effective use of one or more of these strategies enables artists to achieve an important entirely different from that of khayal though a number of khayal-s has thematic content and texts. After some melodic variations in the dugun the singer returns to the original tempo. 2. thus. Tarana 28 . almost interchangeably. The three well-known strategies are: 1. and the thematic trust. which are delicate and sprightly rhythmic patterns woven in order to electrify and arouse the audience. similar to that of thmri-s. Bol-bant: distributing words of the selected composition in rhythmic frameworks to create lilting patterns. temperament of the singer. This is normally achieved by including graceful dancing as well as gestures along with the thumri and intermittently falling back on the words of the composition. as also to allow the singer some respite. Utilizing certain modes of non-verbal expression. thumri singers prefer three strategies of presenting the form though there are variations according to the composition selected. Singing in double tempo is known as dugun. to deepen a particular mood of sentiment. generating dramatic overtones.By and large. After elaborating the chosen compositions a singer enters the final phase by doubling the tempo of the tala and inviting the tabla-accompanist to employ special compositions known as laggi-s.
It uses tala-s and theka-s which are conductive to the general character of the music that tappa projects. It is so popularized that it is used in films also. the tappa is characterized by jumpy. He sang many Hindustani ragas by wining many meaningless words. Here the speed of the taal is increased gradually and it is ended by reaching the maximum speed. ‘raga’ and ‘taal’ are especially kept in mind. there are such words which carry no meaning.all with a considerable capacity to surprise listeners. the singer sings ‘tarana’ after a ‘chota khayal’ (Fast composition). The form has proved attractive enough to get a combined expression with khayal the result being a compositional genre known as tapkhayal. There is no meaning of words in the singing of ‘Tarana’. flashy. Tappa This form has reportedly been inspired by the folk songs of camel-drivers in the Punjab area. In modern times. ‘Tarana’ was originated by Amir Khusaro’ came to Hindustan. In the singing of ‘Tarana’. Couched in Punjabi and pushtu languages and set in raga-s generally used for other ‘lighter’ forms of vocal music such as thumri. The main aim of tarana is preparation and rhyming for showing this. In it. and quick tonal movements. The recurring melodic embellishments are jamjama. then they got afraid of the Sanskrit language of this land. Tose meaningless words are known as ‘tarana’. There has been a grave reason behind that Amir Khusaro was a great scholar of Arabian language. According to scholars.‘Tarana’ is a type of ‘geet’ only. khatka. gitkari. In ‘Tarana’ there are two parts ‘sathayi’ and ‘antra’. Dadra 29 . amd murki.
The parallel case of dhamar would come to mind. the reference is to form of light vocal music in dadra tala. However. the term brings to mind a lilting tala of six beats. in the present context. In other respects. through dhamar is from the category of art music.Normally. popular in music of many types and climes. irrespective of the category under discussion MEANINGS OF RAGAS: 30 . It may not be far fetched to suggest that forms of music named after tala-s seem to be complementary to some other major forms they are usually coupled with. logical that the form should always be coupled with thumri in the performing tradition. such as importance of words. dhamar is always coupled with dhrupad. It is. As already explained. freedom taken with the raga-outlines or the raga-s chosen to render the composition the form resembles thumri. therefore.
The history of Indian classical music is based upon the ragas system. drama without music is like a picture without colors. Bhatkhande has defined ragas in his book”lakshya Sangeet” as ragas are different series of notes within the octave. Without Raga drama does not have any feeling or sentiments. In modern time all musicians are following same statement of Pandit V. During same century in SANGEET PARIJAT by Pandit Ahobal has defined raga as pleasant feeling which we obtain while playing and hearing Swara.Indian classical music based on Raga system. The sequence of particular Swara who gives filling to the mind is called Ragas. which from each other by the prominence of certain fixed notes and by the sequence of particular notes. Ragas are most prominent feature of Indian classical music. consisting of musical notes. feelings and sentiments. According to Bharata: he wrote in “Natya Shastra” in third century that. Raga is originally an important aspect of Indian music. in whole world. And he define that those swara who give filling to listeners are called raga. which possesses VARNA and furnishes gratification of the senses. Raga has been originated from the word “Ranja” ( ). RULES OF RAGAS: 1. The second meaning of raga is melody which gives you pleasure. which beautifies and enlightens the heart of listener. Raga must belong to thata. Ragas are always originated from Thata. The foundation of Indian music is totally originated from the ragas. is called Raga. Scholars are having different opinions about ragas. Without ragas we can’t think about classical music. The other meaning of Ranja is to please. Bhatkhande. 31 . According to musicians the second name of ragas are fillings or sentimental. Ranja is the word of Sanskrit language which means to give happiness or to let feel happy. Hence the special sound of the composition has svara and varana. During seventeen century pandit Somnath has describe ragas in his Granth “Rag—Vibodh”as: Raga is an arrangement of sound.
The jatti of ragas can be categorized in to three sub divisions1.April May -. Raga must have swara and Varna. Without swara and varna ragas can not be originated.2. for example: Raga Jogiya Bahar Dardari Adana Khamaj Mood Sorrow Joy Gravity Valour Love Rasa Kaurna Shringara Karuna Veera Shringara 10. 4. Ragas are played as well as sung also. 7. Ragas must have mood and Rasa.February Ragas Hindol Deepak Megh Bhairav Shree Malkauns Jati of ragas According to scholars the numbers of notes of ragas decides the jati of ragas.October November --. it is not called raga. Without SA we can not accept ragas.June July --.December January ---. 9. Odav Jati Ragas 32 . Every Raga must have one Vadi and one Samvadi Swara.August September -. 5. Ragas must have jati and proper time. 8. 6. It is essential for ragas to have swar and varna. Ragas must have name and clearly defined ascending and descending order of notes. If any raga has less than five notes then 3. Ragas are depend on their time theory means every raga has particular time for sing and play and they also related seasons for example: Months March -. Ragas must have five notes.
Sampurna Jati Ragas 1.If Raga has five Swara in ascending order and all in descending order then jati of raga will be Odhav.The meaning of Odhav is 5 (Five).The meaning of Shadav is 6 (six).Sampurana.2. (B) Odhav.Shadav-.Shadav (C) Odhav. Shadhav Jati Ragas. Odav Jati Ragas.Sampurana (A) Odhav.Odhav (B) Odhav.Odhav. If six swara are used in ragas than it is called Shadav Jati Ragas. If five svara are used in ragas than it is called Odhav Jatti Ragas.Shadav Odhav. Odhav Odhav. There are three categories in Odav Jati ragas. Sadava Jati Ragas 3.Sampurana-.Odhav – If Raga has five Swara in ascending order and five in descending order then jati of raga will be Odhav. 2. (C) Odhav. Shadhav Jati Ragas also have three categories. Shadav 33 .If Raga has five Swara in ascending order and six in descending order then jati of raga will be Odhav.Sampurana (A) Odhav.Odhav Odhav.Shadav.
Shadav (C) Shadav – Sampurana (A) Shadav .If Raga has six Swara in ascending order and six in descending order then jati of raga will be Shadav .Odhav – If Raga has six Swara in ascending order and five in descending order then jati of raga will be Shadav .Odhav.Odhav.Odhav (B) Sampurana .Sampurana-.Odhav (B) Shadav . 3.Shadav – Odhav Shadav – Shadav Shadav – Sampurana (A) Shadav.Shadav-.Shadav (C) Sampurana – Sampurana (A) Sampurana. Sampurana Jati Ragas also have same three categories.Sampuran is also the word of Sanskrit language which means all.Odhav.If Raga has six Swara in ascending order and all in descending order then jati of raga will be Shadav . Sampuran Ragas. If all swara are used in ragas than it is called Sampurana Jati Ragas. (B) Shadav . 34 .If Raga has all Swara in ascending order and five in descending order then jati of raga will be Sampurana .Shadav.Sampurana. (C) Shadav . Sampurana Sampurana – Odav Sampurana – Shadav Sampurana – Sampurana (A) Sampurana.
Shadav.Sampurana.If Raga has all Swara in ascending order and same in descending order then jati of raga will be Sampurana . The classifications of Jati of ragas are very important in modern time also.Shadav-. Introduction of Raga Yamana 35 . But main thing in this catagories it is also to be noted here carefully that “SA” (Shadaj) the fixed Swara of the octave or Thata can never be dropped one at a time. (C) Sampurana . SA swara is very important notes of any raga.If Raga has all Swara in ascending order and six in descending order then jati of raga will be Sampurana .(B) Sampurana .Sampurana-.
There is some controversy between raga yamana and kalayana. According to Persian language the meaning of Amen is prosper.Thata Vadi Samvadi Jati Time Nearest Raga Notes Avoided Swara Ascent Descent Main phrase ----------------------- Kalyana Ga (Gandhar) Ni (Nishad) Sampurna-Sampurna Night (First Prahara) Yamana kalayana. According to Hindustani raga sangita Yamana raga is the creation of “Amir Khushro”. Introduction – Raga Yamana is main representative of kalayana group and directly comes from the kalyana thata. Ni Re Sa. Some scholars say that Yamana name comes from Karnataka raga Yamuna kalayana. Shyama kalayana. The word Amen is originated from Persian language. Yamuna is the name of Holy River also. The meaning of prosper is kalayana and kalayana is the word of Sanskrit language so according to musical epics kalayana is main representative raga as well as thata. Re Ga Ma Pa Re. During mom dens period the mom dens who transformed the Hebrew word “Amen” in to “Imana” but both words (Amen and Imana) have same meaning prosper. According to Hindu scriptures Yamuna was the sister of Lord Yamraj. Ni Re Sa. In yamana kalyana 36 . None Ma Teevra Ni Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni SA SA Ni Dha Pa Ma Ga Re SA Ni Re Ga Re Ga. In Hindustani music musicians deny this thing according to them Yamana kalyana and yamana is different ragas. But some scholars pretend it’s originally comes from Persia and the oldest name of yamana was Amen.
Sa Re Ga Ma pa Dha Ni Sa. Razakhani. But there is some controversy about ascent and descent order. According to time theory of music the time of raga yamana is first part of night. Even this raga is very famous in filmy music as well as light music.g. Ni Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa. light music as well as filmy music. Musicians are using teevra madhyama in raga yamana and both Madhyama in raga yamana kalyana so that’s way yamana kalayana is nearst raga of yamana but because of Madhyama we can identify both ragas. Fast compositions ( ) are there in this raga. Introduction of Raga Kafi Thata -Kafi 37 . Some musicians are avoiding Pa (Pancham) in ascent order. Even after controversy this raga is very famous. In classical music (Vocal & Instrumental) raga Yamana is very detail raga. According to there gharana musicians are using ascent and descent order. Vadi swara in raga yamana is Ga (Gandhara) and Samvadi swara is Ni (Nishad). But others musicians are starting ascent order with Sa (Shadaj) for e. In ascent and descent order there are using Swara so that’s way the jati of this raga is Sampurna-Sampurna. Lot of filmy songs are there in this raga. Some musicians are starting ascent order with Ni (Nishad). Musicians are using this raga in modern time also they are using this raga in classical music. Lot of Maseetkhani gat & slow compositions ( ). For e.musicians are using both Madhyama (Shudha Ma and Teevra Ma) but in Yamana raga they are using only teevra Ma (Madhyama). In modern era raga yamana is known as Imana also.g.
They sing hori during holi festival which we are using modern time also. The nearest raga of kafi is Bhimplasi but in raga Bhimplasi we are avoiding Re and Dha in ascent order but in Kafi raga we are not avoiding any Swara we are using all swara in ascent order. Some scholars pretend that mom duns has originated Kafi raga. According some musicians any time we can sing as well as play this raga. Because of ascent order we can make different between both ragas. This raga was very popular during mom duns period. But according to time theory of music the particular time of this raga is mid night. They use this raga very much during there festival. Musicians are using Ga and Ni komal and rest of the swara are shudha. That’s way the jati of this raga is sampurna – sumpurna. MA PA GA RE Introduction – Raga Kafi is main representative raga of kafi group and directly comes from the kafi thata.Vadi Samvadi Jati Time Nearest Raga Notes Avoided Swara Ascent Descent Main phrase --------------------- MA ((Madhayam) SA (Shadaj) Sampurna-Sampurna Mid Night Bhimplasi None Ga & Ni (Komal) SA RE GA MA PA DHA NI SA SA NI DHA PA MA GA RE SA SA RE GA MA PA. 38 . According to musicals scripture raga kafi is one of the oldest and famous raga.
Hori in this raga. Lots of filmy songs are there in this raga and artists are performing Dadra. Some artists are using both Ga (Shudha & Komal) in this raga. Thumri. They are using this raga in classical music. Razakhani. Fast compositions ( ) are there in this raga.In modern era still musicians are using Kafi raga. slow compositions ( ). Introduction of Raga Jounpuri 39 . light music as well as filmy music. Even this raga is very famous in filmy music as well as light music. In classical music (Vocal & Instrumental) raga Kafi is very detail raga. Lot of Maseetkhani gat. But they are calling them Mishar Kafi.
Raga Jounpuri is not main representative raga of Asavari thata but it comes in Asavari Group. Musicians are using same Swara in raga Asvari and Jounpuri but they are avoiding Ni (Nishad) in ascent order and using komal Re in raga komal rishabh Asvari. The nearest raga of raga Jounpuri is Asvari. DHA & NI (Komal) SA RE MA PA DHA NI SA SA NI DHA PA MA GA RE SA RE MA PA SA. DHA PA GA. In Jounpuri raga instead of Ni (Nishad) they are avoiding Ga (Gandhar). Artist are avoiding Ga in ascent order and using all Swara in decent order so that’s why the jati of this raga is ShadavSampurana. Musicians are using Ga Dha and Ni komal and rest of the Swara are shudha. RE MA PA Introduction. 40 .Thata Vadi Samvadi Jati Time Nearest Raga Notes Avoided Swara Ascent Descent Main phrase ---------------------- Aswari DHA (Dhavat) GA (Gandhar) Shadav-Sampurna After noon Asawari GA in ascent GA. But some scholars pretend that the King Husain Sharki originated raga Jounpuri and sung this raga first time. He was one of the great vocalist and king of Jounpur so that’s way the king kept the name of raga Jounpuri on the behalf of his kingdom name Jounpur. So because of ascent order we are able to make different between both ragas.Raga Jounpuri directly originated from Asavari thata.
Musicians are using this raga in modern time also they are using this raga in classical music, light music as well as filmy music. In classical music (Vocal & Instrumental) raga this is detail raga. Lots of Maseetkhani gat, slow compositions ( ) Razakhani, Fast compositions ( ) are there in this raga. Even this raga is very famous in filmy music as well as light music. Lots of filmy songs are there in this raga.
Introduction of Raga Malkauns
Thata Vadi Samvadi Swara Notes Avoided Jati Time Nearest Raga Ascent Descent Main phrase
Bhairavi MA (Madhayam) SA (Shadaj) Ga, Dha & Ni (Komal) Re (Rishabh) and Pa (pancham) both In ascent and decent order Audav- Audav Mid Night (Third part) Chanderkauns & Bhairavi SA Ga Ma Dha Ni Sa SA Ni Dha Ma Ga Sa DHA NI SA MA, GA MA GA SA
Introduction- Raga Malkauns originated from Bhairavi thata. This raga is not main representative raga of Bhairavi group. Musicians are using Ga (Gandhar) Dha (Dhaivat) and Ni (Nishad) komal and rest of the Swara are shudha. They are avoiding Re (Rishabh) and Pa (pancham) both in ascent and decent order so that’s way they are keeping in raga in Audav- Audav jati. According to time theory of ragas the time of this raga is Mid Night (third part). The nearest raga of Malkauns is Chanderkauns. But in Chanderkauns raga musicians are using shudha Ni (Nishad) and in Malkauns they are using komal Ni (Nishad). According to scholars if we will use shudha Ni in raga Malkauns it will become Chanderkauns raga itself so because of only Ni (Nishad) we can make different between both raga. Some musical artiest believe that the other nearest raga of Malkauns is Bhaiavi. It’s true that in raga Bhairavi musicians are using Ga (Gandhar) Dha (Dhaivat) and Ni (Nishad) komal. But they are using komal Re (Rishabh) in Bhairavi raga and shudha Re (Rishabh) in Malkauns. So because of only Ni (Nishad) we can make different between both ragas.
According to musicals scripture it’s true that Malkauns raga is the one of the oldest raga but raga Malkauns had lots of name. The oldest name of this raga was Bhalkauns and some called Maalkans also. But in modern era this raga is famous with the name of Malkauns only. Musicians are using this raga in modern time also they are using this raga in classical music, light music as well as filmy music. In classical music (Vocal & Instrumental) raga Malkauns is very detail raga. Lot of Maseetkhani gat & slow compositions ( ), Razakhani, Fast compositions ( ) are there in this raga. Because we have to avoid Pa (Pancham) in ascent as well as decent order so vocalist and instrumentalist are tuning their Pa (pancham) string of instrument with Ma (Madhayam). Even this raga is very famous in filmy music as well as light music. Lot of filmy songs are there in this raga.
Introduction of Raga Alhaiya Bilaval
SA NI DHA NI DHA PA Introduction – Raga Ahlaiya Bilaval is originated from Bilaval thata but this raga is not main representative raga of Bilval group. According to time theory of ragas the time of this raga is morning (First part).Vadi Samvadi Jati Time Nearest Raga Notes Avoided Swara Ascent Descent Main phrase --------------------- Dha (Dhavat) Ga (Gandhar) Shadav-Sampurna Morning (First part) Bilaval MA in ascent NI (Nishad) both (Shudha &Komal) SA RE GA PA DHA NI SA SA NI DHA NI DHA PA MA GA RE SA GA PA DHA NI. According to scholars if we will use both Ni (Nishad). Musicians are using this raga in modern time also they are using this raga in classical music. (Shudha &Komal) raga Bilaval it will become raga Ahlaiya Bilaval itself. light music as well as filmy music. The nearest raga of Ahlaiya Bilaval is raga Bilaval. Musicians are avoiding Ma (Madhayam) in ascending order but using all swara in descending order so that’s way the jati of raga Ahlaiya Bilaval is ShadavSampurna. (Shudha &Komal) we can make different between both ragas. But in Bilaval raga musicians are using shudha Ni (Nishad) and in Ahlaiya Bilaval they are using both Ni (Nishad). (Shudha &Komal). It’s true that raga Ahliya Bilaval is very famous in modern time. In classical music (Vocal & 44 . Musicians are avoiding Ma (Madhayam) in ascending order in both ragas. Because of popularity of this raga some people say that Ahilya Bilval and Bilval is name of one raga. So because of with Ni (Nishad). But it’s not true both are different ragas.
Even this raga is very famous in filmy music as well as light music. slow compositions ( ) Razakhani gat. Lots of Maseetkhani gat. Introduction of Raga Des Thata -Khamaj 45 . Fast compositions ( ) are there in this raga. Lots of filmy songs are there in this raga.Instrumental) raga this is detail raga.
This raga is played at second part of night. Difference of opinion regarding the Vadi and Samvadi notes is still there. So less of Maseetkhani gat. Musicians are using this raga in modern time also they are using this raga in classical music. MA GA RE GA NI SA Introduction of raga Des: Des raga is derived from Khamach thata.Vadi Samvadi Notes Avoided Jati Time Swara Ascent Descent Main phrase ------------------ Re (Rishabh) Pa (Pancham) Ga (Gandhar) and Dha (Dhaivat) in ascent Audav-Sampurna Mid night Ni (Nishad) both (Shudha in ascent & Komal in Descent) SA RE MA PA NI SA SA Ni DHA PA MA GA RE SA RE MA PA NI DHA PA. light music as well as filmy music. slow compositions ( ) are there in this raga. Even this raga is very 46 .but lot of Razakhani. In classical music (Vocal & Instrumental) raga this is not a detail raga. Fast compositions ( ) are there in this raga. Musicians are using Ni (Nishad) both (Shudha in ascent & Komal in Descent) in this raga. In this raga use of GA (Gandhar) and DHA (Dhaivat) while ascending is not allowed so that’s way the jati of this raga is Audav-Sampurna. Some are opinion of RE (Rishabh) and PA (Pancham) as its Vadi and Samvadi notes and the others say PA (Pancham) and RE (Rishabh) its Vadi and Samvadi notes.
Composition in Raga ragas Composition in Raga Yamana 47 .famous in filmy music as well as light music. Lots of filmy songs are there in this raga.
Raga Yamana Maseet Khani Gat (slow composition) in Teen Taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Sthayi Bol of Mizrav GA DA GA DA GA RA RERE DIR GA DA MAMA PA DIR DA MA RA GA DA RE DA SA RA GAGA RE SASA NI RE DIR DA DIR DA RA Antara Bol of Mizrav GAGA RE MAMA PA NI DIR DA DIR DA RA SA SA DA DA SA RA SASA DIR NI DA DHADHA PA DIR DA MA GA RA DA RE DA SA RA Raga Yamana Raza Khani Gat (Fast composition) in Teen Taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 48 .
Sthayi -Bol of Mizrav -GA GAGA RE DA DIR DA SA RA GA DA MAMA PA DIR DA MA RA DHA DA PAPA MA GA DIR DA RA NI RERE GA DA RE RA DA DIR Antara-Bol of Mizrav -GA GAGA RE DA DIR DA SA RA GA DA MAMA PA DIR DA MA RA DHA DA NINI RE DIR DA SA RA NI DHADHA PA MA DA DIR DA RA Raga Yamana Raza Khani Gat (Fast composition) in Teen Taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Sthayi 49 NI RERE GA RE .
GARE -RE DA DIR DA RA DA DIR DIR DIE SA MA PAPA DHA DA DIR DA NI RA DA$ RADA $RA DA Composition in Raga Kafi Raga Kafi Maseet Khani Gat (slow composition) in Teen Taal 50 .Bol of Mizrav GA DA -$ GA DA RE RA GA MAMA PAPA MAMA MA.GARE -RE DA DIR DIR DIR DA$ RADA $RA SA DA DA DIR DA RA Antara Bol of Mizrav SA NINI DHA PA MA PAPA MAMA GAGA MA.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Sthayi Bol of Mizrav PA DA PA DA PA PADHA NI RA DIR DA NINI DIR DHA DA MA RA GA DA RE DA SA RA RERE GA RESA GA MA DIR DA DIR DA RA Antara Bol of Mizrav RERE NI DHANI PA MA DIR DA DIR DA RA DHA DA NI DA SA REGA RA DIR RE NINI DHA DA DIR DA MA RA GA DA RE DA SA RA Raga Kafi Raza Khani Gat (Fast composition) in Teen Taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 51 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .
RE SA SA DA RERE GAGA RERE GA.RE SA PA DA PAPA MA GA DHA DHADHA NI SA DIR DA RA DA DIR DA RA DA DIR DIR DIR DA$ RADA $RA DA Composition in Raga Jounpuri 52 .GARA.GARA.SA DIR DIR DIR RE DA$ RADA $RA DA DA$ RADA $RA DA Antara Bol of Mizrav NI DHADHA NINI PAPA GA.GASA.Sthayi Bol of Mizrav PA DA -$ MA DA PA RA GA.
Raga Jounpuri Maseet Khani Gat (slow composition) (Teen Taal) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Sthayi Bol of Mizrav SASA RE MAMA PA NI DIR DA DIR DA RA DHA DHA PA PAPA DHA MAMA NI DA DA RA DIR DA DIR DA PA RA GA DA RE DA SA RA Antara Bol of Mizrav MAMA GA PAPA DHA NI DIR DA DIR DA RA SA SA DA DA SA SASA NI RA DIR DA NIDHA NI DIR DA PA RA GA DA RE DA SA RA Raga Jounpuri Raza Khani Gat (Fast composition) in Teen Taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 53 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .
GARE -RA SA DA DIR DIR DIR DA$ RADA $RA DA Composition in Raga Alhaiya Bilawal 54 .DHAPA –MA PA DIR DIR DIR DIR DA$ RADA $RA DA GA DA -$ RE DA SA RA RE DA MAMA PA DHA DIR DA RA Antara Bol of Mizrav NI DHAPA MA PA RE DA DIR DA RA DA MAMA DIR PA DHA DA RA MA PAPA DHANI RESA GA.Sthayi Bol of Mizrav SANI RESA NISA DHANI DHA.
Raga Alhaiya Bilawal Maseet Khani Gat (slow composition) in Teen Taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Sthayi Bol of Mizrav GARE GA PAPA DHA NI DIR DA DIR DA RA SA DA SA SA SASA DA RA DIR NI DA DHANI DHA DIR DA PA RA GA RE DA DA SA RA Antara Bol of Mizrav GAGA MA PAPA DHA NI DIR DA DIR DA RA SA DA GA DA RE RA SASA NI DIR DA DHANI DIR DHA DA PA GA DA RE DA SA RA RA Raga Alhaiya Bilawal Raza Khani Gat (Fast composition) in Teen Taal 55 .
DA $RA DA RA DA Composition in Raga Malkauns 56 .DA $RA DA DA DIR DA RA SA DA -$ DHA DA NI DHA PA RA RA DA Antara Bol of Mizrav SA DA -$ DHA DA NI DHA PA RA DHA NI SASA RERE NINI SASA NI.GA.RE -RE SA PA PAPA DHA NI DIR DIR DA$ RA.HA -DHA PA DA RA DIR DIR DIR DIR DA$ RA.NID.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Sthayi Bol of Mizrav GAGA MAMA GA.
Raga Malkauns Maseet Khani Gat (slow composition) in Teen Taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Sthayi Bol of Mizrav GAMA GA SASA DHA NI DIR DA DIR DA RA SA DA MA MA GAGA MA DHANI DHA DA RA DIR DA DIR DA MA GA RA DA RE DA SA RA Antara Bol of Mizrav ˚ SA DA GAGA MA MAMA DHA NI DIR DA DIR DA RA SA DA SA NISA RA DIR DHA DA NINI DHA DIR DA MA RA GA RE SA RA DA DA Raga Malkauns Raza Khani Gat (Fast composition) in Teen Taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 57 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .
DHA –DHA MA DA RA DIR DIR DIR DIR DA$ RA.DA $RA DA DA DIR DA RA Antara Bol of Mizrav NI SA GAGA SASA NINI SASA DHA.NI.DA $RA DA SA DA -$ DHA DA NI DHA RA DA MA RA Composition in Raga Des 58 .NI -NI SA GA MAMA DHA NI DIR DIR DA$ RA.Sthayi Bol of Mizrav SA DA -$ DHA DA NI DHA RA DA MA RA GAGA MAMA GA.GA.
Raga Des Maseet Khani Gat (slow composition) in Teen Taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Sthayi Bol of Mizrav NISA RE MAMA PA NI DIR DA DIR DA RA SA DA SA SA SASA DA RA DIR RE DA NINI DIR DHA DA PA RA GA DA RE DA SA RA Antara Bol of Mizrav MAPA NI SASA RE RE DIR DA DIR DA RA GA DA RE DA SA RA NINI DHA DIR DA PAMA DIR PA DA MA RA GA RE DA DA SA RA Raga Des Raza Khani Gat (Fast composition) in Teen Taal 59 .
GA.GA.DA $RA DA TAAL Tala is an important concept and play vital role in Hindustani music as well as Karnataka music.RE -RE SA RE MAMA PAPA DHADHA MA PA NI NI DA DIR DIR DIR DA RA DA RA RA DA$ RA.DA $RA DA RA DA$ RA. 60 .RE -RE SA DHA MAMA PAPA NINI GA.RE -RE SA DA DIR DIR DIR DA$ RA.GA.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Sthayi Bol of Mizrav SA DA -$ DHA DA PA MA. In importance and evoluction.DA $RA DA Antara Bol of Mizrav SA DA NINI DIR DHA DA PA MA. tala is at par with raga in music.
Entire music is based on these two pillars. who takes decision of bestowing quality of time by differentiating musical time for other two varieties. Go a long way in distinguishing Indian music from other system of the world.According to scholars. Musicians can’t compose any thing without tala. Further they in themselves do not have value or quality attached to them. the melodic and the rhythmic means ragas and tala. ragas and tala taken together. a feature which distinguished it from musical time because the musicians creates and manipulates his time and gains control over it. So meaning of tala is to strike with plums. In performing arts tala plays a vital role. refer to the past. After that Lord Ganesha the son of Lord Shiva played tala first time. Clock time can not be manipulated. For example clock time enables us to count seconds. According to Sanskrit language the meaning of Tal is base. According to musical scripture when Shivji played his Damru. Tala is providing base to Indian music. as an idea. the sound that comes out is called as tala. Ta means taandav dance. when Lord Shiva happy he use to perform taandav dance and La means lasya dance. According to others scholars Tala combination of two words Ta + La. Then we have “psychological time” which seems to shorten hours of happiness and lengthen minutes of sorrow. minutes and hours. which means the dance that was performed by Parvati. According to some scholars the meaning of Tal is palms. is embedded in the concept of time which of course has many varieties. done with complete involvement. Tala gives proper base to singing. These two varieties of time are clearly beyond our control. When Ta and La come in close context with each other then originates the tala. Early musicians easily are imagined to have employed claps or palm strokes to mark time in dance. vocal music as well instrumental music. As the case of raga it is the creator. Here the definitions of tala which scholars had given. In entire world there are two major dimensions in music. imagining a beginning to and a divided flow of time as the first step. present and future. as it were. 61 . Musician creates time by thinking out. Tala. The term tala is derived from the Sanskrit root word Tal. Scholars had given different definitions about Tala. playing instruments and dance.
62 . many melodic compositions can charm only when certain theka-s are employed and discerning music lovers and artists make it a point to note when such theka-s are employed. No rules are laid down for the order in which the tempo is to be employed.According to Bharata. possible to introduce minor but aesthetically satisfying variation with the help of soundsyllables employed in the ‘language’ of rhythm instruments. Vilambit. Madhya and Drut Tempo: Generally. instrumental music and dance. This definition of tala was given in “Sangeet Ratnakar” by pandit Sharangdav. It is also known that each tala is given certain syllables as its vocabulary. however. Tala gives joy and happiness to the listener. The meaning of Theka is. In other words tala gives proper arrangements to music. Every student of music has to take knowledge of taal. During modern time Theka is very important part of any Taal. the normal movement towards climax in most of the presentation is form slow to fast. no objective forms are followed in quantifying the tempi. Tala is the grammar of music. It is also compulsory to learn Theka of Taal for students of music. Madhya (medium) and drut (fast) are used according to requirement. However. depending on the instrument it is played on. In music the measurement of time unit is called tala. Tradition is delightfully vague on the issue! For example. Bhatkhande has defined tala in his book”lakshya Sangeet”—Tala is the foundation of Indian classical music. Tala gives base to vocal music. tala is an abstract concept of aesthetically patterning time for the purpose of providing rhythm in music. Keeping the same fundamental pattern of time division it is. Without knowledge of taal music students can not do any thing in music. Further. These variations on the original tala-s are known as theka-s. three kinds of tempo (Speed) vilambit (slow). he wrote in “Natya Shastra” in third century that– Every language needs grammar without grammar we can not speak any language like the same way without tala we can not think about music.
Dadra Taal Single bool of Dadra Taal 63 . the answer is “half of the drut”! In another word. section or even larger segments of melodic and rhythmic progressions three times. but once this is decided the other two tempi are automatically fixed. A very attractive. and when one enquires about the measures of Madhya. Tihai: It is very important part of Taal. easily recognized and frequently used music-making unit. In Indian classical music Tihai play very vital role during performance of performer. Tihai is the word of Hindi language and combination of two words “Tih + Ai” means which comes three times is called Tihai. one has the freedom to decide what one’s Madhya is. the tihai is to consecutively employ a phrase.it tells us that the Madhya is twice the vilambit.
Both divisions have same 3 beats. 64 .1 Dha 2 Dhin 3 Na 4 Dha 5 Tin 6 Na Double bool of Dadra Taal 1 Dha Dhin 2 Na Dha 3 Tin Na 4 Dha Dhin 5 Na Dha 6 Tin Na Triple bool of Dadra Taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 Dha Dhin Na Dha Tin Na Dha Dhin Na Dha Tin Na Dha Dhin Na Dha Tin Na Introduction of Dadra Taal – There are six beats in Dadra taal and two divisions ( ). st th There are clap ( ) on 1 beat and 4 beat is blank ( ). Classical musicians are using this taal for dhun and fast composition. Dadra is the name of singing type also. Lot of bhajan. In modern time musicians are using Dadra taal in light music as well as in filmy music. gazal and filmy songs are there in this taal.
According to scholars Dadra taal is very suitable for Dadra singing.But Dadra taal and Dadra singing are totally different. Rupak Taal Single bool of Rupak Taal 65 .
There are seven beats and three divisions in rupak taal. 66 . The 1st (first) division has three beats and 2nd (second) and 3rd (third) divisions have two-two beats.1 Tin 2 Tin 3 Na 4 Dhin 5 Na 6 Dhin 7 Na Double bool of Rupak Taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Tin Tin Na Dhin Na Dhin Na Tin Tin Na Dhin Na Dhin Na Triple bool of Rupak Taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 TinTinNa DhinNaDhin NaTinTin NaDhinNa DhinNaTin TinNaDhin NaDhinNa Introduction of Rupak taal. There are claps ( ) on th th st 4 (fourth) and 6 (sixth) beat and blank ( ) on 1 (first) beat.
In light music they are performing lot of gazal and bhajan in this taal. light music and filmy music. Instrumentalists are giving there solo performances in Rupak taal and using tabla to give there performances.g. In classical music they are composing dhun and first composition ( ) Razakhani gat in this taal. teen taal. Rupak taal different taal from others taal. The similar taal of Rupak taal is Teevra taal. They are using this taal in classical music. Rupak taal is very famous but difficult taal. Char taal ect. Because greenly others taal are having clap ( ) on 1st (first) beat for e. Teen Taal Single bool of Teen taal 67 . Teevra taal is also having seven beats and three divisions and also having three beats in 1st (first) division and two-two beats in 2nd (second ) and 3rd (third) division. But Rupak taal is having blank ( ) on 1st (First) beat. Dadra taal.During modern era musicians are using this taal very much. Ek taal.
There are claps ( ) on 1st (first) 5th (fifth) and 12th (twelfth) beats and blank ( ) on 9th (ninth) beat. slow compositions ( ) Razakhani gat. Even lots of filmy songs are there in this taal. There are 16 (sixteen) beats and four divisions in Teen taal. Tabla players are giving there solo performance in Teen taal even classical dancers are using Teen taal frequently to give there dance performances. They are using this taal in classical music. The second name of Teen taal is king taal. Fast compositions ( ) are there in this taal.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Dha Dhin Dhin Dha Dha Dhin Dhin Dha Dha Tin Tin Ta Ta Dhin Dhin Dha Double bool of Teen taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Dhadhin Dhindha Dhadhin Dhindha Dhatin Tinta Tadhin Dhindha Dhadhin Dhindha Dhadhin Dhindha Dhatin Tinta Tadhin Dhindha Introduction of Teen taal: Teen taal is the one of the oldest taal and one of the basic taal in Indian classical music. In modern time Teen taal is very popular taal. In modern era musicians are using this taal very much. Every division has four beats. 68 . According to scholars because we are using Teen taal very much in classical music and Teen taal is basic taal in classical music so that’s way the second name of this taal is king taal. Lots of Maseetkhani gat. light music as well as filmy music. In classical music (Vocal & Instrumental) Teen taal is very important taal. In light music lots of thumri gazals and bhajans are there in this taal.
Tilwada taal is also having 16 (sixteen) beats and four divisions and every division has same four beats. According to famous tabla player pandit Chottelal Mishra the modern musician pandit Anokhelal Mishra was the magician of Teen taal.The nearest taal of Teen taal is Tilwade taal. Some musicians are using Teen taal in Karnataka music and using others instruments to perform this taal. Tilwada Taal Single bool of Tilwada taal 69 .
Fast compositions ( ) are there in this taal. slow compositions ( ) as well as Razakhani gat. In modern era the important thing of this taal is musicians are using this taal very much in classical music only. Every division has four beats. Musicians are not using this taal In light music. Teen taal is also having 16 (sixteen) beats and four divisions and every division has same four beats. There are 16 (sixteen) beats and four divisions in Teen taal. There are claps ( ) on 1st (first) 5th (fifth) and 12th (twelfth) beats and blank ( ) on 9th (ninth) beat.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Tikit 11 12 13 14 15 16 Dha Tirkit Dhin Dhin Dha Dha Tin Tin Ta Dhin Dhin Dha Dha Dhin Dhin Double bool of Tilwada taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Dhatirkit Dhindhin Dhadha Tintin Tatikit Dhindhin Dhadha Dhindhin Dhatirkit Dhindhin Dhadha Tintin Tatikit Dhindhin Dhadha Dhindhin Introduction of Tilwada taal: Tilwada taal is the one of the oldest taal and one of the main taal in Indian classical music. In classical music (Vocal & Instrumental) Teen taal is very important taal. Till date no filmy song has been composed in this taal. Lots of Maseetkhani gat. The nearest taal of this taal is Teen taal. Japh taal Single bol of Japh taal 70 .
But according to number of divisions both are dissimilar. The nearest taal of this taal is Sulfakta taal. 71 . Sulfakta taal is also having 10 (ten) beats. 1st (first) division and 3rd (third) division have two-two beats and 2nd (second) and 4th (fourth) divisions have three-three beats.1 Dhin 2 Na 3 Dhin 4 Dhin 5 Na 6 Tin 7 Na 8 Dhin 9 Dhin 10 Na Double bol of Japh taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Dhinna Dhindhin Natin Nadhin Dhinna Dhinna Dhindhin Natin Nadhin Dhinna Triple bol of Japh taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Dhinnadhin dhinnatin Nadhindhin Nadhinna Dhindhinna Tinnadhin Dhinnadhin Nadhindhin Natinna Dhindhinna Introduction of Japh taal— There are 10 (ten) beats in japh taal and four divisions. Japh taal is having 4 (Four) divisions but there are 5 (Five) divisions in Sulfakta taal. There are claps ( ) st rd th th on 1 (first). 3 (third) and 8 (eighth) beats and blank ( ) on 6 (Sixth) beat.
Lots of Maseetkhani gat. In classical music (Vocal & Instrumental) this taal is one of the famous taal. Keharva Taal Single Bol of Keharva 72 . slow compositions ( ) as well as Razakhani gat. Fast compositions ( ) are there in this taal.In modern era the important thing of this taal is that musicians are using this taal very much in classical music only.
Classical musicians are using this taal for dhun and fast composition. Both divisions have same 4 st (Four) beats. There are clap ( ) on 1 (First) beat and 5th (Fifth) beat is blank ( ). In modern time musicians are using Keharva taal in light music as well as in filmy music. 73 .1 Dha 2 Ge 3 Na 4 Ti 5 Na 6 Ka 7 Dhin 8 Na Double Bol of Keharva 1 Dhage 2 Nati 3 Naka 4 Dhinna 5 Dhage 6 Nati 7 Naka 8 Dhinna Triple Bol of Keharva 1 Dhagena 2 Tinaka 3 4 5 Nakadhin 6 Nadhage 7 Natinna 8 Kadhinna Dhinnadha Genati Introduction of Keharva Taal – There are 8 (Eight) beats in Keharva taal and two divisions ( ). gazal and filmy songs are there in this taal. Lot of bhajan.
According to scholars Keharva taal is very suitable for folk music as well as Dhol and others rhythmic instruments. Ek Taal Single bol of Ek Taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 74 8 9 10 11 12 .
The nearest taal of this taal is Char taal. Both taal are having claps and blanks on same number of beats. Char taal is also having 12 (Twelve) beats and six number of divisions. Every division has same two-two beats. There are claps ( ) on 1st (First). Fast compositions ( ) are there in this taal. 5th (Fifth). Char Taal Single bol of Char Taal 75 . slow compositions ( ) as well as Razakhani gat. In modern era the important thing of this taal is that musicians are using this taal very much in classical music only. 9th (Ninth) and 11th (Eleventh) beats and blank ( ) on 3 rd (Third) and 7th (Seventh) beats. In classical music (Vocal & Instrumental) this taal is one of the famous taal.Dhin Dhin Dhage Tirkit Tu Na Kat TA Dhage Tirkit Dhin Na Double bol of Ek Taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Dhindhin Dhagetirkit Tuna Katta Dhagetirkit Dhinna Dhindhin Dhagetirkit Tuna Katta Dhagetirkit Dhinna Introduction of Ek taal— There are 12 (Twelve) beats in Ek taal and six divisions. Lots of Maseetkhani gat.
Every division has same two-two beats. slow compositions ( ) as well as Razakhani gat. In modern era the important thing of this taal is that musicians are using this taal very much in classical music only. The second name of this taal is Chau taal. Dhamar Taal Single bol of Dhamar Taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 76 9 10 11 12 13 14 .1 Dha 2 Dha 3 Dhin 4 Ta 5 Kit 6 Dha 7 Dhin 8 Ta 9 Tit 10 Kat 11 12 Gade Gan Single bol of Char Taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Dhadha Dhinta Kitdha Dhinta Titkat Gadegan Dhadha Dhinta Kitdha Dhinta Titkat Gadegan Introduction of Char taal— There are 12 (Twelve) beats in Char taal and six divisions. 9th (Ninth) and 11th (Eleventh) beats and blank ( ) on 3 rd (Third) and 7th (Seventh) beats. Both taal are having claps and blanks on same number of beats. Ek taal is also having 12 (Twelve) beats and six number of divisions. 5th (Fifth). Fast compositions ( ) are there in this taal. In classical music (Vocal & Instrumental) this taal is one of the famous taal. There are claps ( ) on 1st (First). The nearest taal of Char taal is Ek taal. Lots of Maseetkhani gat.
According to scholars Dhamar taal is one of the oldest and difficult taal. Dipchandi Single bol of Dipchandi Taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 77 9 10 11 12 13 14 . Musicians are using Tabla and Pakawach instruments for performing this taal. This taal is use in only classical music. 6th (sixth) and 11th (Eleventh) beats and blank ( ) on 8th (Eight) beat. There are claps ( ) on 1st (First). But Dhamar taal and Dhamar singing are totally different.Ka Dhi Ta Dhi Ta Dha S Ga Ti Ta Ti Ta Taa S Double bol of Dhamar Taal 1 2 3 4 5 Tita 6 Tita 7 TaaS 8 9 10 11 Sga 12 Tita 13 Tita 14 TaaS Kadhi Tadhi Tadha Sga Kadhi Tadhi Tadha Triple bol of Dhamar Taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Kadhita Dhitadha $gati Tatita TaaSka Dhitadhi Tadha$ Gatita Titataa $kadhi Tadhita Dha$ga Titati Tataa$ Introduction of Dhamar Taal— there are fourteen beats in and four divisions in Dhamar taal. According to scholars Dhamar taal is very suitable for Dhamar singing. Dhamar is the name of singing type also.
4th (Fourth) and 11th (Eleventh) beats and blank ( ) on 8th (Eight) beat. Classical musicians are using this taal for dhun and fast composition. Both taal are having same numbers of beats and divisions but Zumra taal is not popular like Dipchandi taal. In this taal 1st (First) and 3rd (Third) divisions have three – three beats and 2nd (Secound) and 4th (Fourth) divisions have four – four beats. gazal and filmy songs are there in this taal.Dhin Dhin $ Dha Ga Tin $ Ta Tin $ Dha Ga Dhin $ Double bol of Dipchandi Taal 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Dhin$ DhinDhin $Dha GaTin $Ta Tin$ DhaGa Dhin$ DhinDhin $Dha GaTin $Ta Tin$ DhaGa Introduction of Dipchandi Taal. In modern time musicians are using this taal in light music as well as in filmy music. Lot of bhajan. There are claps ( ) on 1st (First).There are fourteen beats and four divisions ( ) in this taal. This taal is very famous in folk music. According to scholars the nearest taal of Dipchandi is Zumra taal. Comparison between Teen Taal and Tilwada Taal Similarity between Teen Taal and Tilwada Taal 78 .
e. 3.Both taals are having clap on same number i. According to slow & fast composition. 3. According to music. According to classical music. 2.It’s true that both taals are having same number of beats and divisions.In modern time musicians are using both taals in classical music.1.Its true that scholars are using both taal in classical music but they are using teen taal in light composition as well as film songs but till date no film song has been composed in tilwada taal so according to music both are different. but both taals are having different boals in every division.Musicians are using slow as well as fast composition in teen taal but in tilwada taal mostly they use slow composition Comparison between Ek taal and Char taal Similarity between Ek Taal and Char Taal 79 . According to boal. According to clap and blank.Both taals are having 16 beats and 4 divisions (vibhag) and every division has 4 beats so according to number of beats both are same. Dissimilarity between Teen taal and Tilwada taal 1. 5th and 13th beat and blank on 9th beat so according to clap and blank both are same. They are performing slow compositions as well as fast compositions in both taals so according to classical music both are same. 1st. so according to boal both are different. According to beats. 2.
According to boal.In modern time musicians are using both taals in classical music. According to slow & fast composition. Dissimilarity between Ek Taal and Char Taal 1. Comparison between Ek Taal and Japh Taal Similarity between Ek Taal and Japh Taal 80 . According to classical music.Both taals are having 12 beats and 6 number of divisions (vibhag) and every division has 6 beats so according to number of beats both are same.Both taals are having clap on same number i. 1st. 3.1. so according to boal both are different. According to beats. 5th. 2.Musicians are using slow as well as fast composition in Ek taal but in Char taal mostly they use fast composition. According to clap and blank. 3.It’s true that both taals are having same number of beats and divisions. According to music.Its true that scholars are using both taal in classical music but they are using teen taal in light composition as well as film songs but till date no film song has been composed in tilwada taal so according to music both are different. They are performing slow compositions as well as fast compositions in both taals so according to classical music both are same. 9th and 11th beat and blank on 3rd and 9th beats so according to clap and blank both are same.e. 2. but both taals are having different boals in every division.
2. According to Instruments: musicians are using tabla instrument for performing both taal so according to instrument both taal are same. In classical music all the musicians are performing slow compositions ( ) as well fast compositions ( ) . So according to claps and blanks bot are dissimilar. Some Major Theoreticians and Their Contributions in Music 81 . but both taals are having different boals in every division.1. According to bol: It’s true that musicans are using both taals are using in classical music. so according to bol both are different. so according to music both are same. 3. So according to papularty both taals are same. 5th. 9th and 11th beat and blank on 3rd and 9th beats but Japh taal is having claps on 1st (first). Dissimilarity between Ek Taal and Char Taal 1. 4. 2. According to classical music: musicians are using both taal in classical music. 3rd (third) and 8th (eighth) beats and blank ( ) on 6th (Sixth) beat. 3. According to divisions: Ek taal is having six number of divisions but Japh taal is having four number of divisions so according to number of divisions both are dissimilar. According to beats: Ek taal is having twelve beats but Japh taal is having ten beats even both taals are having different divisions. According to popularty: Its true that both taals are very old taal but in modern era both taal are popular among the musicians. According to claps and blanks: Ek taal is having clap on 1st. So according to beats both are dissimilar.
Some critics rely his life duration from 1532 century to 1585century or 1589 century. who was born in a Hindu family at Behat near Gwalior in the MadhyaPradesh state. It has passed nearly 750 years to his death but it seems that he died just few days before. who was one of the nine jewels or navaratnas in the court of Emperor Akbar. Makarand Pande. is regarded as the greatest of all musicians India has ever produced till date. Read on to know more about Tansen. he is said to have played a pivotal role in crating the classical genre of north Indian music we know today.Miyan Tansen. was a poet and had originally named his son Ramtanu. Normally referred to as just Tansen.1506 Death-1589 There would be not any person in India who has not heard the name of Tansen. Some people called ‘Pande ji’ and ‘Mishra’. Achievements . the father of Tansen. The real name of Tansen was Tana Mishra and his father’s named was Markand Pande. who was one of the nine jewels or navaratnas in the court of Emperor Akbar. Some scholars pretend that Tansen lived from 1506 to 1589 century. But others think that Tansen lived from 1540 to 1610 century. He has composed several ragas and is said to have played a pivotal role in crating the classical genreofnorthIndianmusicweknowtoday.Miyan Tansen Born. this boy started taking a musical training under the legendary Swami Haridas from the Indian holy city of Brindavan and later became a singer in the court of King 82 . Having an inclination towards music from childhood. Miyan Tansen. is regarded as the greatest of all musicians India has ever produced till date. There are varied views about the life duration of Tansen.
Tansen could beckon the rains by Raga Megh Malhar and light up fires with Raga Deepak. which have continued to remain cornerstones in the Indian classical music repertoire ever since. Miyan ki Sarang and Rageshwari.Ramchandra of Reva. Tansen is said to have no equal during his time. Almost every gharana or school strives to trace its origin to him. Infact his voice was so melodious that it's often said to have created miracles while Tansen was singing. though some try to go further back to poet Amir Khusrau. The title Miyan was conferred upon Tansen by Emperor Akbar and he embraced Islam at the hands of the great Sufi mystic Shaykh Muhammad Ghaus of Gwalior. Miyan ki Mand. And it was here that the life history of Miyan Tansen changed forever. Miyan ki Todi. he was passed on to the court of Emperor Akbar as a gift. 83 . who acted as both his teacher and spiritual guide. The legendary Miyan Tansen is said to have composed numerous ragas. Apart from his own guru. Miyan ki Malhar. For instance. Darbari Todi. Some of them are Miyan ka Bhairav known today as Bhairav. From here. Darbari Kanada.
the art had undergone several changes. an art which had been propagated earlier for a few centuries mostly through oral traditions. He later learned vocal music from Raojiba. and Putra (children). rendering the raga grammar documented in scant old texts outdated.Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande (August 10. Later he served a short stint as a lawyer in the High Court in Karachi. a musical circle in Mumbai. Ragini (female). During those earlier times. He graduated with a degree in Law in 1885 and joined the legal profession in 1887. Bhatkhande began learning sitar playing from Vallabhdas. Ragas used to be classified into Raga (male). Career 84 . Bhatkhande reclassified them into the currently used Thaat system. During his college days. Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande was born in 1860. He was educated at Elphinstone College in Mumbai and Deccan College in Pune. He became a member of Gayan Uttejak Mandali. Mumbai. into a Chittapawan Brahmin family in Walkeshwar. and Vilayat Hussain Khan. He also trained in other aspects of classical music under Belbagkar. 1936) was an Indian musicologist who wrote the first modern treatise on Hindustani Classical Music (The north Indian variety of Indian classical music. a Dhrupad singer. He explained the ragas in an easy-to-understand language and composed several bandishes which explained the grammar of the ragas. He noted that several ragas did not conform to their description in ancient Sanskrit texts. 1860 – September 19. Ali Husain Khan. He borrowed the idea of lakshan geet from the Carnatic music scholar Venkatamakhin.
Asgar Ali Khan. in Sanskrit. D. was a booklet containing detailed descriptions of all prevalent ragas. under the pseudonym 'Chatur-pandit'. and Rampur.Bhatt.C. Ratanjankar's disciple K. meeting with ustads and pandits. G. A recently developed notation system Ome Swarlipi 85 . Bhatkhande abandoned his legal practice and devoted the rest of his life to systematizing the prevailing forms of Hindustani music and building on that system a coordinated theory and practice of music. an indispensable starting point for any student of Hindustani Classical Music. In 1909.Research in music Bhatkhande traveled throughout India. S. Music notations developed by Bhatkhande After the death of his wife and his daughter. Vinayak Narayan Patwardhan and Pt. V. Ginde. Gwalior. Ram Ashrey Jha 'Ramrang' and Sumati Mutatkar are among the notable scholars who followed in the footsteps of Bhatkhande. and researching music. he published commentary on his own Sanskrit grantha in Marathi over a span of several years. Omkarnath Thakur introduced their improved versions. It suffered a setback with onset of desktop publishing. During his travels in India.R. it was published over four volumes bearing the title: Hindustani Sangeet Paddhati. His disciple S N Ratanjankar. His notation system became standard and though later scholars like Pt. he published Shri Mallakshaya Sangeetam. famous musician Shri Dilip Kumar Roy. it remained a publisher's favorite. Paluskar. books carrying compositions yielded to theoretical texts. These volumes form today the standard text on Hindustani music. which found inserting marks above and below Devanagari text cumbersome. as a result. Ustads like Mohammad Ali Khan. he spent time in Baroda. and Ahmed Ali Khan of Jaipur gave him more than 300 precious compositions of the Manarang Gharana. Swar Malika. He began the study of ancient texts such as the Natya Shastra and Sangeet Ratnakara. To make this cultural heritage accessible to the common man. an unverified claim says he collected some works of Tansen. Bhatkhande's first published work.
they do cover the vast majority. The thaat structure corresponds to the melakarta system of raga arrangement in Carnatic music. The college is now renamed Bhatkhande College of Hindustani Music. 86 . he reorganized the Baroda state music school. 1961 a commemorative stamp containing his portrait. Rai Umanath Bali and his nephew Dr. called thaats. now known as Bhatkhande Music Institute (Deemed University). Preparation of that course material was a landmark achievement of Bhatkhande since musical knowledge used to be passed on orally in earlier times from Gurus and Ustads to their disciples. After travelling widely and having discussions with practitioners of various schools. Death Bhatkhade suffered paralysis and a thigh fracture in 1933. Though the thaats do not encompass all possible ragas. In 1916. and later. Bhatkhande prepared the Hindustani Sangeet Karmik Pustak Malika as a series of textbooks. Bhatkhande but uses symbols instead of Devanagari alphabets. Bhatkhande preparing the course material. with the help of the Maharaja of Gwalior. The Post and Telegraph Department of India paid homage to Bhatkhande by releasing on September 1.follows the logical structure introduced by Pt. Rai Rajeshwar Bali. In 1926. Bhatkhande arranged all the ragas of Hindustani classical music across 10 musical scales. the south Indian variety of Indian classical music. He also started the tradition of the All India Music Conferences to provide a common platform for discussion between Hindustani and Carnatic classical musicians. established the Madhav Music College in Gwalior. Bhatkhande started schools and colleges in India for systematic teaching of Hindustani music. He died in 1936 on Ganesh Chaturthi day. Bhatkhande wrote all of his works under one of the two pseudonyms. Vishnu Sharma and Chaturpandit. then education minister of United Provinces established Maris College of Music in Lucknow. and are a key contribution to Indian musical theory.
During a Hindu festival called Datta Jayanti. 1931) was a Hindustani musician. His father. The king of Miraj recognising the talent in the boy put him under the guidance of Balakrishnabuwa Ichalkaranjikar. a fire-cracker burst near his face damaging both his eyes.Pandit Vishnu Digambar Paluskar Pandit Vishnu Digambar Paluskar (August 18. Concerts by musicians were always given in palaces or temples but never in public. a small town falling under the Deccan division of Bombay Presidency during British rule. 1872 – August 21. Digambar Gopal Paluskar. He sung the original version of the bhajan Raghupati Raghava Raja Ram. Career After that Paluskar began touring the country and studied the musical traditions in each part of Northern India. was a singer of Kirtan—a religious song. But tragedy struck Paluskar at an early age. Paluskar trained under him for 12 years till in 1896 the relations between the teacher and student became strained. presently in Maharashtra. a learned musician. there was no immediate treatment available and Paluskar lost his eyesight. But he broke a long standing tradition of Indian music by giving a public concert in Saurashtra and charging a nominal fee. Early life and background Vishnu Digambar Paluskar was born in Kurundwad. He went to a local school in Kurundwad for primary education. He went from place to place and visited many royal families in cities like Baroda and Gwalior. He studied 87 . Being a small town. well known for their patronage of musicians.
a school to impart formal training in Indian classical music. He used to attend the conventions of the Indian National Congress and sing his own composition of Vande Mataram. spoken at Mathura. As the work-load increased. in Raga Kafi. The school was a challenge to the traditional teacher-student method of training music where a student lived under the roof of the teacher. He also composed a variation of the patriotic song Saare Jahan Se Achcha. his creditors attached his properties and auctioned off the school. 88 . when he was on a concert tour in 1924. To accommodate all the students. It was a school open to all and one of the first music schools in India to run on public support and donations rather than the patronage of the royalty. They started treating musicians with respect which was not associated with the profession earlier.Brijbhasha. a dialect of Hindi. This was Mahatma Gandhi's favourite Bhajan and was sung daily by the satyagrahis during the famous Dandi March. He worked very hard and gave several concerts in public places but could not gather sufficient funds to pay his debt. Gandharva Mahavidyalaya On May 5. Lokmanya Tilak and Mahatma Gandhi. Paluskar was asked to perform at the Royal Garden of Lahore. Finally. the national song of India. Paluskar was a master of taking old religious songs and setting them into classical tunes. Political career Paluskar came in contact with leaders of the Indian independence movement like Lala Lajpat Rai. Paluskar shifted the school from Lahore to Bombay. he took loans and built a new building for the school and built hostels for the students. Many students from his early batches became respected musicians and teachers in North India. Such was his fame that when King George V came to India. Paluskar reached Lahore in 1901 where he decided to settle down and establish a music school. Paluskar composed the tune of the devotional song Raghupati Raghava Raja Ram. This brought a change in the way people looked at classical musicians. In September 1908 Paluskar went to Bombay (now Mumbai) to establish another branch of the school. This was a big blow to Paluskar. When Lala Lajpat Rai was arrested in 1907 he sang a composition of the famous song Pagree Sambhal Jatta. 1901 Paluskar founded the Gandharva Mahavidyala. He met Pandit Chandan Chaube and learnt Dhrupad music from him.
His son Dattatraya Vishnu Paluskar (D. Shankarrao Vyas. became renowned classical singers and teachers. Death and legacy Paluskar died on August 21. and B. Government of India paid homage to Pandit Paluskar by releasing a commemorative stamp. is known for uplifting Hindustani classical music. with much fervor & respect. Deodhar. and also written 18 volumes on ragas. Today Paluskar is seen as the musician who brought respect to the profession of classical musicians and took Hindustani classical music out from the traditional Gharana system to the masses of India. Omkarnath Thakur. On 21 July 1973. He has written a book on music called Sangeet Bal Prakash in three volumes. but is well known for singing the famous hymn of the lord "Raghupati Raghava Raja Ram. to Mahatma Gandhi (Mohan Das Karamchand Gandhi) & instructed him to spread the name of the lord. Paluskar) was also trained in classical music and carried on the mission of his father. the India Today magazine named Pandit Paluskar to be one of the 100 people who shaped India. In 2000.Famous Compositions Pandit Vishnu Digambar Paluskar. throughout the country. He gave this hymn. 1931. 89 . the Posts and Telegraph Department.V. His disciples like Vinayakrao Patwardhan.R. His hymn is still sung throughout the world. the father of Indian Classical Music. & is said to arouse bhakti & true love for the lord. Narayanrao Vyas. Pateeta Pavan Seeta Ram". as the lord's name only has the power of liberating the country (India).
Human hearts has 22 slanting veins. revered the wise people. Even the king also regarded Sharangdev so he was educated in the palace itself. His father Shri Sodhlal was a very intelligent. All swara based on these 22 Shrutis according to Chatush-Chatush-Chav reles. That is why it is known as base for both types of music. At every step there is a reference of this Grantha. ji worshipped all gods. while whole India used to follow the same pattern in music and there was no division between North Indian music and South Indian music. Sharang Dev. According to Pt. This grantha was created almost seven hundred years ago in 13th century. Nobody knows the exact date of birth of Sharangdev but it is sure that he was born in beginning of thirteenth century. visited many placed learnt lot of things and he wrote the Grantha ‘Sangeet Ratnakar’. Every Shruti has a link with these veins.Introduction of Pt. He describes it as: Nada makes the letters of the alphabet. Pt. so very few people can understand it. It is well known that this Grantha has been written in Sanskrit language. The 90 . Some historians say that he was born after the year 1210. Sharangdev’s creation ‘Sangeet Ratnakar” Every North Indian Music student is more acquainted with the musical scripture ‘sangeet Ratnakar’ than its creator Sharangdev. wise and soft natured who was employed as an officer in the court of king Millabh. It is because this Granth is considered to be the foundation of Indian music. This means that these 22 Shruti are produced by these 22 veins. His ancestors were Kashmiris who later on established in Devgiri. So that’s why we have 22 Shrutis in number. studied all the Shastras. sarngdeva: . Contributions in Music Pandit Sarngdeva has given various definitions in music. Sharangdev was the creator/writer of an ancient and famous Grantha ‘Sangeet Ratnakar’ is the crown of available musical Ratnas. Ragas arise out of Swara and Swara arise out of Shruti According to Pt.Nada is a sound on which the whole world is based. According to Pandit Sarngdeva-: The sound witch comes immediately after the Shruti and gives pleasure to the listener heart is called Swara.
91 . sarangdev has defined varna in musical scriptures ‘Natya Shastra’ that varna is the act of singing and is of four kinds: 1. Sharangdev. Sanchari According to them Shuddha Tanas are those which have the same scale as Shuddha Murchchanas.letters of the alphabet from words. Gandhar Gram. But he specifically mentioned that ‘Gandhar Gram’ is created by Gods and Goddesses so it is found only in heaven. According to Sarngdeva if we will worship of Nada God will worshiped.e. and words creates sentence which is basic of communication (Sound) and sound controls human behavior. Avrohi 4. Madhyam Gram. Sarangdev: Pt. Shadaj Gram. Arohi 3. Gram is such a group of ‘Swara’ where ‘Murchhna’ is independently created. In other way the quiver moments of Swara which gives pleasure to the listener is called Gamaka. Sarangdev the slow composition that is having 3-4 lines is called dhrupad According to pandit Sarngdeva which he described in Sangeet Ratanakar that -: A specific arrangement of swara patterns is called Alankara According to Pt. According to Pt. According to Pt. He has described three types of ‘Gram’ in his book i. Sthayi 2. Pandit Sarngdeva has defined Gamaka: the grace that please the mind of the hearer is a Gamaka. Secondly Nada is a way to reach the God. Pandit Sharang Dev in his book “Sangeet Ratnakar” while describing Murchana says that grama is that group of Swara which gives birth to Murchana.
Ahobal the total number of Swara are twelve with Shuddha and Vikrit forms of Swara and he described the scientific relation between Swara and Shruti. Ne. in the history of music this Granth has a very vital role.So he described 22 Shruti in numbers and followed the Chatush-Chatush-Chav rules and whole old scholars were following him. Dha. His father’s name was Shri Krishna who was an eminent Pandit of Sanskrit. He stayed in Dhanbad and he was employed in the court of king Shahjhan. According to Pandit Ahobal. According to him the relation between Shruti and Svara is the same as that between as snake and his kundali. After getting specialization in Sanskrit and music Pt. Shuddha Swara are –Sa. Ne. based on Chatush Chatush Chev rules. So according to Pt. He described the scientific relation between Svara and Shruti. According to history of Indian music. He was the founder of ‘Shruti’ and he combined ‘Shruti’ with scientific measures. Pa. Contributions in Music Pandit Ahobala has given various definitions in music. Vikrit Swara are – Re. Re. Ahobal was the founder of Shrutis.Parijaat 92 . Ahobala was a resident of South India. According to Pandit Ahobal-: The sound which is audible is called Shruti. the classification of ragas becomes popular. Dha. “There are 22 shruti on seven Swara.Pandit Ahobala Introduction: Pt. ‘Sangeet parijat’ became so popular that it was translated in Persian language in 1724 by Shri Deenanath and in Hindi language by Shri Kalinda in 1974 which was published by Sangeet Karyalya ‘Hathras’. Ga. He told the whole world that there are 66 shrutis in one octave which can audible but only 22Shrutis can be use in music. There he wrote a Granth ‘Sangeet Parijat’ in 1650. Ma. Ga. He decided seven shuddha Swara and five vikrit Swara. Ahobala shifted to North India. It is clearly depicted in the famous scriptures of the contemporary time that is “Sangeet. During seventeen century according to thata. where snake is to be considered as Svara and kundali as Shruti. Ma.
According to him also ‘gandhar gram’ has disappeared According to Pandit Ahobal in “Sangeet Parijat”. He also agrees on three grams only. Pandit Ahobal writes in ‘Sangeet Parijaat’ that a group of swaras is called ‘Gram’.when there is an ascending and descending order of swara then occurs Murchana. Pandit Onkar Nath Thakur in his book ‘Pranav Bharati’ mentions about only two grams. According to Pt.During seventeen century in SANGEET PARIJAT by Pandit Ahobal has defined raga as pleasant feeling which we obtain while playing and hearing Swara. Ahobala: has clearly mentioned in Sangeet Parijat (name of book) that song in which all description of swar is given is called varna. According to him. among three grams ‘shadaj Gram’ is the best. 93 .