Pollution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms.[1] Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat, or light. Pollutants, the elements of pollution, can be foreign substances or energies, or naturally occurring; when naturally occurring, they are considered contaminants when they exceed natural levels. Pollution is often classed as point source or nonpoint source pollution. The Blacksmith Institute issues annually a list of the world's worst polluted places. In the 2007 issues the ten top nominees are located in Azerbaijan, China, India, Peru, Russia, Ukraine, and Zambia.[2]

Air pollution from World War II weapon production in Alabama

1 Ancient cultures 2 Official acknowledgement 3 Modern awareness 4 Forms of pollution 5 Pollutants 6 Sources and causes 7 Effects 7.1 Human health 7.2 Environment 7.3 Environmental health information 8 Regulation and monitoring 9 Pollution control 9.1 Practices 9.2 Pollution control devices 10 Perspectives 11 Greenhouse gases and global warming 12 See also 13 References 14 External links

Air pollution has always been with us. According to a 1983 article in the journal Science, "soot found on ceilings of prehistoric caves provides ample evidence of the high levels of pollution that was associated with inadequate ventilation of open fires."[3] The forging of metals appears to be a key turning point in the creation of significant air pollution levels outside the home. Core samples of glaciers in Greenland indicate increases in pollution

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The development of nuclear science introduced radioactive contamination. al-Tamimi. The pollution of industrial land gave rise to the name brownfield. Ibn Sina (Avicenna). Extreme smog events were experienced by the cities of Los Angeles and Donora. the Clean Air Act. It was the industrial revolution that gave birth to environmental pollution as we know it today. Then a non-nuclear event. when Congress passed the Noise Control Act. The Clean Air Act of 1956. Air pollution would continue to be a problem in England. Ibn Al-Jazzar. killed at least 4000 people. Lake Karachay. Other cities followed around the country until early in the 20th century. after its smoke had become a problem. This same city also recorded one of the earlier extreme cases of water quality problems with the Great Stink on the Thames of 1858. Roman and Chinese metal production. when the short lived Office of Air Pollution was created under the Department of the Interior. 2 of 11 10/11/2010 1:34 PM . named by the Worldwatch Institute as the "most polluted spot" on earth. Second place may go to the area of Chelyabinsk U. and environmental assessments of certain localities. Isaac Israeli ben Solomon. Abd-el-latif. Ibn al-Quff.org/wiki/Pollution associated with Greek. The emergence of great factories and consumption of immense quantities of coal and other fossil fuels gave rise to unprecedented air pollution and the large volume of industrial chemical discharges added to the growing load of untreated human waste. Bad bouts of local pollution helped increase consciousness. Their works covered a number of subjects related to pollution such as air contamination. the free encyclopedia http://en. soil contamination. water contamination. a term now common in city planning.Pollution . Ali ibn Ridwan.wikipedia. the Clean Water Act and the National Environmental Policy Act. Chicago and Cincinnati were the first two American cities to enact laws ensuring cleaner air in 1881.R. Legal proceedings in the 1990s helped bring to light Chromium-6 releases in California--the champions of whose victims became famous. Long-term dioxin contamination at Love Canal starting in 1947 became a national news story in 1978 and led to the Superfund legislation of 1980. Pollution began to draw major public attention in the United States between the mid-1950s and early 1970s. due to radioactive fallout from atomic warfare and testing.[8] Pollution became a popular issue after World War II. especially later during the industrial revolution.S. Qusta ibn Luqa (Costa ben Luca).[4] The earliest known writings concerned with pollution were written between the 9th and 13th centuries by Persian scientists such as Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes). (see reference below) as the "Most polluted place on the planet". and Ibn al-Nafis.Wikipedia. served as a disposal site for the Soviet Union thoroughout the 1950s and 1960s. which can remain lethally radioactive for hundreds of thousands of years. and al-Masihi or were Arabic medical treatises written by physicians such as al-Kindi (Alkindus).S.[5] King Edward I of England banned the burning of sea-coal by proclamation in London in 1272. serving as another public reminder.[6][7] But the fuel was so common in England that this earliest of names for it was acquired because it could be carted away from some shores by the wheelbarrow. which led to construction of the London sewerage system soon afterward. Pennsylvania in the late 1940s.[9] This prompted some of the first major modern environmental legislation. The Great Smog of 1952 in London. solid waste mishandling. and extending into the recent past with the Great Smog of 1952. Ibn Jumay. PCB dumping in the Hudson River resulted in a ban by the EPA on consumption of its fish in 1974. DDT was banned in most of the developed world after the publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring.

Wikipedia. over-illumination and astronomical interference. or fine dust is characterized by their micrometre size PM10 to PM2. motorway billboards. demonstrating diffusion and bioaccumulation after only a relatively brief period of widespread use. includes light trespass. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. liquid spills. Among the most significant soil contaminants are hydrocarbons. which can refer to the presence of overhead power lines. (See alpha emitters and actinides in the environment. Though extreme care is practiced in that industry. Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight. Particulate matter. is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence.) Thermal pollution. Water pollution.org/wiki/Pollution Nuclear weapons continued to be tested in the Cold War. Common gaseous air pollutants include carbon monoxide. One legacy of nuclear testing before most forms were banned has been significantly raised levels of background radiation. open storage of trash or municipal solid waste.[citation needed] International catastrophes such as the wreck of the Amoco Cadiz oil tanker off the coast of Brittany in 1978 and the Bhopal disaster in 1984 have demonstrated the universality of such events and the scale on which efforts to address them needed to engage.[10] herbicides. Radioactive contamination. Littering Noise pollution. aircraft noise. eutrophication and littering. The borderless nature of atmosphere and oceans inevitably resulted in the implication of pollution on a planetary level with the issue of global warming. MTBE. sometimes near inhabited areas. Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground leakage. by the release of waste products and contaminants into surface runoff into river drainage systems. pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Most recently the term persistent organic pollutant (POP) has come to describe a group of chemicals such as PBDEs and PFCs among others. they have been detected in various ecological habitats far removed from industrial activity such as the Arctic. especially in the earlier stages of their development. leaching into groundwater. which encompasses roadway noise. sulfur dioxide. the free encyclopedia [citation needed] http://en.Pollution . Growing evidence of local and global pollution and an increasingly informed public over time have given rise to environmentalism and the environmental movement. heavy metals.wikipedia. Visual pollution. The toll on the worst-affected populations and the growth since then in understanding about the critical threat to human health posed by radioactivity has also been a prohibitive complication associated with nuclear power. such as use of water as coolant in a power plant. the potential for disaster suggested by incidents such as those at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl pose a lingering specter of public mistrust. 3 of 11 10/11/2010 1:34 PM . resulting from 20th century activities in atomic physics. which generally seek to limit human impact on the environment. Light pollution. Though their effects remain somewhat less well understood owing to a lack of experimental data. the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. The major forms of pollution are listed below along with the particular pollutants relevant to each of them: Air pollution.5. such as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research. manufacture and deployment. scarred landforms (as from strip mining). wastewater discharges. industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar.

zinc.Pollution . construction. nuclear waste disposal activity. such as nuclear power plants or oil tankers. can produce widespread and potentially hazardous releases when accidents occur.[20][21] In 2007.[11] Motor vehicle emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution. Russia. There have also been some unusual releases of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins. Humans have ways to cut greenhouse gas emissions and avoid the consequences of global warming. a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). or from pre-1970 landfills that may have been subject to little control in the U. emanating from the wide variety of refuse accepted. representing the work of 2. a major climate report concluded. plastics factories. commonly called dioxins for simplicity. United States. oil refineries. arsenic and benzene. the concentration and the persistence. Ordinary municipal landfills are the source of many chemical substances entering the soil environment (and often groundwater). heavy metals (such as chromium. poultry.500 scientists from more than 130 countries.[15] petrochemical plants. incinerators. Agricultural air pollution comes from contemporary practices which include clear felling and burning of natural vegetation as well as spraying of pesticides and herbicides[16] About 400 million metric tons of hazardous wastes are generated each year. mining. Three factors determine the severity of a pollutant: its chemical nature. In 2001 a series of press reports culminating in a book called Fateful Harvest unveiled a widespread practice of recycling industrial byproducts into fertilizer. especially substances illegally discarded there. according to the final report this year from the UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Air pollution comes from both natural and man made sources. the transition from fossil fuels like coal and oil needs to occur within decades. the free encyclopedia http://en. China has overtaken the United States as the world's biggest producer of CO2. PVC factories. Principal stationary pollution sources include chemical plants. and Japan are the world leaders in air pollution emissions. agriculture and warfare are increasingly significant in the air pollution equation. 4 of 11 10/11/2010 1:34 PM .[19] and generate approximately 30% of world’s waste. large livestock farms (dairy cows. Mexico. said that humans have been the primary cause of global warming since 1950. or EU. metals production factories. resulting in the contamination of the soil with various metals. Larger scale and environmental damage is not uncommon when coastal oil rigs or refineries are involved. But in order to change the climate. MTBE.Wikipedia. but produce roughly 25% of the world’s CO2. etc. such as TCDD. Some sources of pollution.[12][13][14] China.[18] Americans constitute less than 5% of the world's population.[23] Some of the more common soil contaminants are chlorinated hydrocarbons (CFH). and petrochemical spills from ruptured boats or automobiles.org/wiki/Pollution Main article: Pollutant A pollutant is a waste material that pollutes air. hurricanes often involve water contamination from sewage. coal-fired power plants.wikipedia.[24] Pollution can also be the consequence of a natural disaster. gasoline). and other heavy industry. cadmium--found in rechargeable batteries. water or soil.[22] In February 2007. Though globally man made pollutants from combustion.). pigs. For example.S. aviation fuel and still in some countries. and lead--found in lead paint.[17] The United States alone produces about 250 million metric tons.

the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans as CO2 becomes dissolved. Lead and other heavy metals have been shown to cause neurological problems. producing about ninety percent of all unwanted noise worldwide.700 fatalities a year. stress. The emission of greenhouse gases leads to global warming which affects ecosystems in many ways. Water pollution causes approximately 14. Environment Pollution has been found to be present widely in the environment. the free encyclopedia http://en. Mercury has been linked to developmental deficits in children and neurologic symptoms. In India. Soil can become infertile and unsuitable for plants. Children and infants are also at serious risk. mostly due to contamination of drinking water by untreated sewage in developing countries. throat inflammation. This will affect other organisms in the food web. and sleep disturbance. Invasive species can out compete native species and reduce biodiversity. 5 of 11 10/11/2010 1:34 PM . often reducing native species competitiveness.000 deaths per day.[28] Nearly 500 million Chinese lack access to safe drinking water.[25][26][27] Oil spills can cause skin irritations and rashes. cardiovascular disease. There are a number of effects of this: Biomagnification describes situations where toxins (such as heavy metals) may pass through trophic levels. becoming exponentially more concentrated in the process. Noise pollution induces hearing loss. An estimated 700 million Indians have no access to a proper toilet.000. chest pain.[31] Overview of main health effects on humans from some common types of pollution. Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can cause acid rain which lowers the pH value of soil.000 Indian children die of diarrhoeal sickness every day.Wikipedia. and 1. air pollution is believed to cause 527. Carbon dioxide emissions cause ocean acidification.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pollution In the case of noise pollution the dominant source class is the motor vehicle.[29] 656.Pollution . Those with heart or lung disorders are under additional risk. Invasive plants can contribute debris and biomolecules (allelopathy) that can alter soil and chemical compositions of an environment. Ozone pollution can cause respiratory disease.[30] Studies have estimated that the number of people killed annually in the US could be over 50. Chemical and radioactive substances can cause cancer and as well as birth defects. and congestion. Nitrogen oxides are removed from the air by rain and fertilise land which can change the species composition of ecosystems.000 people die prematurely each year in China because of air pollution. Smog and haze can reduce the amount of sunlight received by plants to carry out photosynthesis and leads to the production of tropospheric ozone which damages plants. high blood pressure. Older people are majorly exposed to diseases induced by air pollution. Human health Adverse air quality can kill many organisms including humans.

Practices recycling Pollution control devices Dust collection systems Baghouses Cyclones Electrostatic precipitators Scrubbers Baffle spray scrubber Cyclonic spray scrubber Ejector venturi scrubber Mechanically aided scrubber Spray tower Wet scrubber Sewage treatment 6 of 11 10/11/2010 1:34 PM . Without pollution control. whether they accumulate or disperse. manufacturing. It means the control of emissions and effluents into air. and other scientific and consumer-oriented resources.wikipedia. Main article: Regulation and monitoring of pollution To protect the environment from the adverse effects of pollution. Pollution control is a term used in environmental management. This web site includes links to databases. bibliographies. many nations worldwide have enacted legislation to regulate various types of pollution as well as to mitigate the adverse effects of pollution. TOXMAP uses maps of the United States to help users visually explore data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory and Superfund Basic Research Programs. agriculture. the waste products from consumption.org/wiki/Pollution Environmental health information The Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Program (TEHIP)[32] at the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) maintains a comprehensive toxicology and environmental health web site that includes access to resources produced by TEHIP and by other government agencies and organizations.Pollution . transportation and other human activities.Wikipedia. pollution prevention and waste minimization are more desirable than pollution control. will degrade the environment. TEHIP also is responsible for the Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET®)[33] an integrated system of toxicology and environmental health databases that are available free of charge on the web. mining. the free encyclopedia http://en. heating. TOXMAP is a Geographic Information System (GIS) that is part of TOXNET. tutorials. In the hierarchy of controls. water or soil.

Common examples of fields where practical measurement is crucial include automobile emissions control. For humankind. this older approach predominates practices throughout the world. LD50).org/wiki/Pollution Activated sludge biotreaters API oil-water separators[15][34] Biofilters Dissolved air flotation (DAF) Powdered activated carbon treatment Sedimentation (water treatment) Vapor recovery systems The earliest precursor of pollution generated by life forms would have been a natural function of their existence.Wikipedia. industrial exposure (e. both as an enabler and an additional source of byproducts. human concerns include the range from quality of life to health hazards. In addition.g. the free encyclopedia http://en. The attendant consequences on viability and population levels fell within the sphere of natural selection. exceeding which penalties are assessed or restrictions applied. These would have included the demise of a population locally or ultimately. Such simple treatment for environmental pollution on a wider scale might have had greater merit in earlier centuries when physical survival was often the highest imperative. Short of survival. modern treatment of toxicity or environmental harm involves defining a level at which an effect is observable. medication and radiation doses). But it assumes that the dilutant is in virtually unlimited supply for the application or that resulting dilutions are acceptable in all cases. consideration of pollution is superseded by that of survival. species extinction. is a dictum which summarizes a traditional approach to pollution management whereby sufficiently diluted pollution is not harmful. Furthermore. Processes that were untenable would have resulted in a new balance brought about by changes and adaptations. At the extremes.g. Migration from pollution dilution to elimination in many cases is confronted by challenging economical and technological barriers. Since science holds experimental demonstration to be definitive. and medicine (e. But these are often no longer the case. is neglected. "The solution to pollution is dilution". technologies were simpler and their byproducts more benign. if enforceable. human population and densities were lower.Pollution . The use of statistical methods in evaluating outcomes has given currency to the principle of probable harm in cases where assessment is warranted but resorting to deterministic models is impractical or unfeasible.[35][36] It is well-suited to some other modern. for any form of life. advances have enabled measurement of concentrations not possible before. consideration of the environment beyond direct impact on human beings has gained prominence. It is the basis by which to gauge concentrations of effluent for legal release.g. the factor of technology is a distinguishing and critical consideration. toxicology (e.wikipedia. Main article: Global warming 7 of 11 10/11/2010 1:34 PM . The regressive cases are those where a controlled level of release is too high or. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) PELs). Yet in the absence of a superseding principle. locally scoped applications such as laboratory safety procedure and hazardous material release emergency management.

Pollution .com.co.org/wiki/Pollution Carbon dioxide.org /now/science/smog.links to freely available data. 8. the free encyclopedia http://en. and the possible effects of this on marine ecosystems.html) .htm) .pdf) 3. Retrieved 2010-08-26. ^ David Urbinato (Summer 1994). ^ L.pbs. Historical and projected CO2 emissions by country.September 2007 (http://www. ^ "Pollution .com /dictionary/pollution) . "History of the Clean Air Act" (http://www.epa. http://www.merriam-webster.html.gov/history/topics /perspect/london. American Meteorological Society.htm. Recent studies have investigated the potential for long-term rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide to cause slight but critical increases in the acidity of ocean waters.org/wwpp2007 /finalReport2007. Bethany R. Knorr of Colby College. page 248 5. John D.gov/history/topics /perspect/london. ^ The World's most polluted places.pbs. 7. Retrieved 2006-02-14.ametsoc.epa. 246-249. Retrieved 2006-08-02. ^ 1952: London fog clears after days of chaos (http://news. http://www. Blcksmith Institute . Environment and History 8 (4). such as those of water and air. ^ Spengler.bbc. 9. page 9 4. United States Environmental Protection Agency. because raised levels of the gas in the atmosphere are affecting the Earth's climate. is sometimes referred to as pollution. "Arabic Treatises on Environmental 6. http://www. [37][38] Environmental health Hazardous Substances Data Bank Air pollution Air dispersion modeling Arden Pope Atmospheric Chemistry Observational Databases . 2010-08-13. Fleming. 9-17. Climate change Emission standard Greenhouse gas Soil contamination Environmental soil science List of solid waste treatment technologies List of waste management companies List of waste management topics Water pollution Cruise ship pollution Marine debris Marine pollution Ship pollution Stormwater Wastewater Wastewater quality indicators Other Contamination control Earth Day Externality Genetic pollution Global warming Heat pollution List of environmental issues Noise health effects 1. while vital for photosynthesis. PBS.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories 8 of 11 10/11/2010 1:34 PM . Disruption of the environment can also highlight the connection between areas of pollution that would normally be classified separately. pp.org/sloan/cleanair/) . (1996) "History of Ancient Copper Smelting Pollution During Roman and Medieval Times Recorded in Greenland Ice" Science (New Series) 272(5259): pp. ^ Hong.com /dictionary/pollution. Pollution up to the End of the Thirteenth Century".wikipedia. Merriam-webster.Wikipedia. http://www. ^ James R.Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary" (http://www. Ken (1983) "Indoor Air Pollution: A Public Health Perspective" Science (New Series) 221(4605 ): pp.org /sloan/cleanair/. Source: Energy Information Administration. 475-488. 2003-01-17.ametsoc.org/now/science /smog. Sungmin et al. Retrieved 2006-08-02. ^ "Deadly Smog" (http://www. and Sexton. Gari (2002). 2.merriam-webster. "London's Historic "Pea-Soupers"" (http://www.blacksmithinstitute.

org (http://www. National Geographic News.waterhealthconnection. The New York Times.com/news/2007 /07/070709-china-pollution.nih. 18.com/2007/08/26/world /asia/26china.htm) " ^ "Revolutionary CO2 maps zoom in on greenhouse gas sources (http://news.gov/) . Author.nlm. ^ Silent Spring. "A data base for dioxin and furan emissions from refuse incinerators".1016%2F0004-6981%2887%2990267-8) .gov.org /10.org/26026 /Environmental_Problems/air_pollution__effects.edu /FreePubs/pdfs/uo198.edu /~gs265/society/pollution. 24.thinkquest. ^ "As China Roars. 30.umich. ^ David. 14.nih.edu/x/2008a /080407GurneyVulcan.nlm.environment. The Economist. Consequences and Solutions (http://earthtrends. ^ "A special report on India: Creaking. ^ Chinese Air Pollution Deadliest in World.thinkquest.. ^ "China overtakes US as world's biggest CO2 emitter (http://www. MD.html.oregon.gov" (http://sis.pdf) (PDF). The Boston Globe.psu.nih. June 19.cfm?articleID=299& journalID=49) .wri.co. (http://pubs. 20. ^ waterhealthconnection.html) .gov /enviro. ^ American Petroleum Institute (API) (February 1990). August 31.html) (Australian Government website page) ^ Pollution and Society (http://www.wikipedia. Report Says (http://news.oregon. EPA website ^ Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. 1962 ^ "Pollution (http://encarta. ^ "Global Warming Can Be Stopped.gc.boston.nlm.com/specialreports /displaystory.html.gov /mtbe/water.html) ".nih. ^ Pennsylvania State University > Potential Health Effects of Pesticides.uk/environment /2007/jun/19/china. 2008. the free encyclopedia http://en.html) ". 29.org 9 of 11 10/11/2010 1:34 PM . Retrieved 2006-02-14.cas.nlm.org/updates /node/325) Submitted by Matt Kallman on Wed. http://www. Retrieved 2010-08-26.nationalgeographic.nih.cfm?story_id=12749787) . ^ World Resources Institute: August 2008 Monthly Update: Air Pollution's Causes. Management of Water Discharges: Design and Operations of Oil-Water Separators (1st ed. 11 December 2008.htm) (Transport.purdue. 15.economist.gov/.earthisland.com. SIS.nlm.pdf) by Eric S.nih. Retrieved 2010-08-26. LCCN 67019834. ^ Beychok. July 9.com/news/nation/washington /articles/2006/08 /31/alarm_sounds_on_us_population_boom/) . ^ "Waste Watcher" (http://www. 36.htm) Marisa Buchanan and Carl Horwitz.doi. ^ "Toxnet. Retrieved on April 17. Meinhardt.gov.org. 2009 27. 2007. 12. Retrieved on April 16. Purdue University. 2007. R Carlson. http://toxnet.Pollution .D. Issue: Air Quality (http://www.org/wiki/Pollution 10.guardian.stm) (BBC News) ^ Concerns about MTBE (http://www. Earth Island Institute. 1972 ^ Environmental Performance Report 2001 (http://www. Milton R.S.nlm.cfm?story_id=12749787. and Caroline. 2007.cfm?articleID=299&journalID=49. Canada website page) ^ State of the Environment. American Petroleum Institute. 32.gov /DAS/FAC/docs/ww092001.msn. 21. http://www. http://www.org/eijournal /new_articles. http://sis.nih. "The 'Solution' to Pollution Is Still 'Dilution'" (http://www. August 26. doi:10.uns. 17. 34. Retrieved 2010-08-26.org/chapter3.nih.tc. Aqueous Wastes from Petroleum and Petrochemical Plants (1st ed.nationalgeographic.com /encyclopedia_761570933_2/Pollution. World Climate Experts Say" (http://news. MPH.nytimes. ^ "SIS.gov. (1967).epa. 2006. Guardian.gov" (http://toxnet. ^ "Chapter 23 – Solid. 25. MA.gov/enviro.usnews) ". Toxic. (January 1987).Wikipedia. 2010-08-12. http://library. 13.nlm.edu/oris/cunn06/cs6_23.nationalgeographic. Lorenz. News. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2009. ^ "What is required" (http://www.html. 19.au/soe/2006 /publications/drs/atmosphere/issue/188/index.). Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes (http://www.economist.co.nlm. 2007.html) . Retrieved 2010-08-26.html) ". 16.ca/programs/environment /ems/epr2001/awareness. Library. Toxnet.org/26026 /Environmental_Problems/air_pollution__effects.html) . 35. 23.earthisland.org /eijournal/new_articles.html) . Milton R. 28.gov/DAS/FAC /docs/ww092001.com /news/2007/05/070504-global-warming.uk. University of Michigan ^ a b Beychok.com/specialreports /displaystory.asp) Overview of Waterborne Disease Trends] By Patricia L. 11. Atmospheric Environment 21 (1): 29–36. /december/9/newsid_4506000/4506390.nationalgeographic. and Hazardous Waste (http://zoology. John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved 2010-08-26.htm#concerns) from U. groaning: Infrastructure is India’s biggest handicap" (http://www. 2008-08-20 18:22. 33.). "Air Pollution Effects" (http://library.com/news/2007 /05/070504-global-warming. ^ Gershon Cohen Ph. 22. http://news. ^ Alarm sounds on US population boom (http://www.pdf.1016/0004-6981(87)90267-8 (http://dx. April 7. Michael. 2009 26. 31.muohio.cleanocean.thinkquest.

nih.blacksmithinstitute.do?pid=12049) .pdf) (Table 1.Wikipedia.org/ten.cleanocean.nih.edu/page. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution World's Worst Polluted Places 2007 (http://www. Retrieved 2006-02-14.com/time/specials/2007/article /0.jsp/) Toxic Release Inventory (http://www. Pollution Information from (http://www. Report DOE/EIA-0573.gov/) .html#toxtutor) .wikipedia. 2004.nih.html) National Toxicology Program (http://ntp-server.gov/tri/) .gov (http://www.doe.niehs.010.manages Superfund sites and the pollutants in them (CERCLA).nih.html) OSHA limits for air contaminants (http://www.gov/index.) Well-Sourced: N t l Categories: Pollution | Environmental issues | Environment This page was last modified on 9 October 2010 at 17:30.com /09-carbon_emissions.nieman.harvard.resources to review human toxicology.nlm.com/films/chelyabinsk /index.edu /reportsitem.html) . ^ Carbon dioxide emissions chart (http://rainforests.asp?menuid=240. http://www.28804. Well-Sourced: Complete: Neutral: Readable: Page rating (Results hidden.010) . Energy Information Administration) 38. how they affect people. Gives permits for releasing specific quantities of these pollutants each year.atsdr.html) at Time. the free encyclopedia http://en.cdc.com (a division of Time Magazine) Chelyabinsk: The Most Contaminated Spot on the Planet (http://www.htm) (graph on Mongabay website page based on Energy Information Administration's tabulated data) OEHHA proposition 65 list (http://www.gov/toxmap/main/index.gov/pub/oiaf/1605/cdrom/pdf/ggrpt /057304.gov/superfund/) .asp?menuid=240.php) . Map EPA's Toxic Release Inventory (http://toxmap.gov/enviro /toxtutor. Reports and studies on how pollutants affect people TOXNET (http://toxnet.huffingtonpost.gov/toxmap/main/index. July 20. what USA industries use them and the products in which they are found Toxicology Tutorials from the National Library of Medicine (http://sis. Clean Ocean Foundation.tracks how much waste USA companies release into the water and air.org/wiki/Pollution /index_general.00.Geographic Information System (GIS) that uses maps of the United States to help users visually explore data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory and Superfund Basic Research Programs EPA.from USA National Institutes of Health.mongabay.htm) Documentary Film by Slawomir Grünberg (1996) Kids' Lower IQ Scores Linked To Prenatal Pollution (http://www.wikipedia.oehha.epa.Pollution .org/wiki/Pollution" Your feedback Please take a moment to rate this page below.nih. according to the Blacksmith Institute The World's Most Polluted Places (http://www.nlm.time.NIH databases and reports on toxicology TOXMAP (http://toxmap.gov/SLTC/pel/index.aspx?id=100933) Retrieved from "http://en.nih. Show them. 2009 Nieman Reports | Tracking Toxics When the Data Are Polluted (http://www.ca.jsp) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (http://www.Top 20 pollutants.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist. 37. Give us feedback about this feature.epa. 10 of 11 10/11/2010 1:34 PM .org /index_general.whoi.eia. ^ World Carbon Dioxide Emissions (ftp://ftp.nlm. 2001.com/2009/07/20/kidslower-iq-scores-link_1_n_240541.nlm.nlm.logtv.osha-slc.1661031_1661028_1661020.gov/) .html) by Lindsey Tanner. The Huffington Post. Map the EPA Superfund (http://toxmap.gov/) .

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