ABSTCSESP | Anti Lock Braking System | Tire

# ABS/TCS/ESP TRAÌNÌNG GUÌDE

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ABS/TCS/ESP
TRAINING GUIDE

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CONTENTS

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HYDRAULIC
FUNDAMENTALS

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1. HYDRAULIC FUNDAMENTALS

1.1. PASCAL@S LAW

Ìn the early seventeenth century, Pascal, a French scientist, discovered the hydraulic lever.
Through controlled laboratory experiments, he proved that force and motion could be transferred
by means of a confined liquid. Further experimentation with weights and pistons of varying size,
Pascal also found that mechanical advantage or force multiplication could be obtained in a
hydraulic pressure system, and that the relationships between force and distance were exactly the
same as with a mechanical lever.
From the laboratory data that Pascal collected, he formulated Pascal's Law, which states :
"Pressure on a confined fluid is transmitted equally in all directions and acts with equal force on
equal areas.¨ This law is a little complex to completely understand as it stands right now. The
following illustrations and explanations break down each concept and discuss them thoroughly
enough for easy understanding and retention.
1.2. FORCE

A simplified definition of the term force is : the push or pull exerted on an object. There are two
major kinds of forces : friction and gravity. The force of gravity is nothing more than the mass, or
10 kgf
100 kgf
Area : 1m
2

Area : 10m
2

P1=10kgf/m
2

Hydraulic fluid
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weight of an object. Ìn other words, if a steel block weighing 100 kg is sitting on the floor, then it is
exerting a downward force of 100 kg on the floor. The force of friction is present when two objects
attempt to move against one another. Ìf the same 100 kg block were slid across the floor, there is
a dragging feeling involved. This feeling is the force of friction between the block and the floor.
When concerned with hydraulic valves, a third force is also involved. This force is called spring
force. Spring force is the force a spring produces when it is compressed or stretched. The
common unit used to measure this or any force is the kilogram (kg), or a division of the kilogram
such as the gram (g).

1.3. PRESSURE

Pressure is nothing more than force (kg) divided by area (m
2
), or force per unit area. Given the
same 100kg block used above and an area of 10m
2
on the floor ; the pressure exerted by the
block is : 100kg/10m
2
or 10kg per square meter.

1.4. PRESSURE ON A CONFINED FLUID

Pressure is exerted on a confined fluid by applying a force to some given area in contact with the
fluid. A good example of this would be if a cylinder is filled with a fluid, and a piston is closely fitted
to the cylinder wall having a force applied to it, thus, pressure will be developed in the fluid. Of
course, no pressure will be created if the fluid is not confined. Ìt will simply "leak¨ past the piston.
There must be a resistance to flow in order to create pressure. Piston sealing, therefore, is
extremely important in hydraulic operation. The force exerted is downward (gravity) ; although, the
principle remains the same no matter which direction is taken.
The pressure created in the fluid is equal to the force applied ; divided by the piston area. Ìf the
force is 100 kg, and the piston area is 10m
2
, then pressure created equals 10kg/m
2
= 100kg/10m
2
.
Another interpretation of Pascal's Law is that : "Pressure on a confined fluid is transmitted
undiminished in all directions.¨ Regardless of container shape or size, the pressure will be
maintained throughout, as long as the fluid is confined. Ìn other words, the pressure in the fluid is
the same everywhere.
The pressure at the top near the piston is exactly same as it is at the bottom of the container, thus,
the pressure at the sides of the container is exactly the same as at top and bottom.

1.5. FORCE MULTIPLICATION

Going back to the previous figure and using the 10kg/m
2
created in the illustration, a force of
1,000kg can be moved with another force of only 100kg. The secret of force multiplication in
hydraulic systems is the total fluid contact area employed. The figure shows an area that is ten
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times larger than the original area. The pressure created with the smaller 100kg input is 10kg/m
2
.
The concept "Pressure is the same everywhere¨, means that the pressure underneath the larger
piston is also 10 kg/m
2
. Reverting back to the formula used before : Pressure = Force/Area or P
= F/A, and by means of simple algebra, the output force may be found. Example : 10kg/m2 = F(kg)
/ 100m
2
. This concept is extremely important as it is used in the actual design and operation of all
shift valves and limiting valves in the valve body of the transaxle. Ìt is nothing more than using a
difference of area to create a difference in pressure in order to move an object.

1.6. PISTON TRAVEL

Returning to the small and large piston area discussion. The relationship with a mechanical lever is
the same, only with a lever it's a weight-to-distance output rather a pressure-to-area output.
Referring to following figure, using the same forces and areas as in the previous example ; it is
shown that the smaller piston has to move ten times the distance required to move the larger
piston 1m. Therefore, for every meter the larger piston moves, the smaller one moves ten meters.
This principle is true in other instances, also. A common garage floor jack is a good example. To
raise a car weighing 1,000kg, an effort of only 25kg may be required. But for every meter the car
moves upward, the jack handle moves many times that distance downward.
A hydraulic ram is another good example where total input distance will be greater than the total
output distance. The forces required in each case are reversed. That is, very little effort is required
to produce a greater effort.

1.7. HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Now that some of the basic principles of hydraulics have been covered and understood, it is time to
explore hydraulic systems and see how they work. Every pressure type hydraulic system has
certain basic components. This discussion will center on what these components are and what
their function is in the system. Later on, the actual systems in the transaxle will be covered in detail.
The figure reveals a basic hydraulic system that can be used in almost any situation requiring work
to be performed. The basic components in this system are : Reservoir, Pump, Valving, Pressure
lines, Actuating mechanism or mechanisms.

1.8. THE FLUID RESERVOIR

Since almost all fluids are nearly incompressible, the hydraulic system needs fluid to function
correctly. The reservoir or sump, as it is sometimes called, is a storehouse for the fluid until it is
needed in the system. Ìn some systems, (also in the automatic transaxle), where there is a
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constant circulation of the fluid, the reservoir also aids in cooling of the fluid by heat transfer to the
outside air by way of the housing or pan that contains the fluid. The reservoir is actually a fluid
source for the hydraulic system. The reservoir has a vent line, pressure line, and a return line. Ìn
order for the oil pump to operate correctly, the fluid must be pushed up from the reservoir to the
pump. The purpose of the vent line is to allow atmospheric pressure to enter the reservoir. As
the pump rotates, an area of low pressure results from the pump down to the reservoir via the
pressure line. The atmospheric pressure will then push the oil or fluid up to the pump due to a
pressure difference existing in the system.
The return line is important because with a system that is constantly operating, the fluid has to be
returned to the reservoir for re-circulation through the system.

1.9. THE PUMP

The pump creates flow and applies force to the fluid. Remember flow is needed to create pressure
in the system. The pump only creates flow. Ìf the flow doesn't meet any resistance, it's referred to
as free flow, and there is no pressure built up. There must be resistance to flow in order to create
pressure.
Pumps can be the reciprocating piston type (as in a brake master cylinder) or, they can be of the
rotary type. The figure shows three major types of hydraulic oil pumps employing the rotary design.
The internal-external type of pump design is used almost exclusively in today's automatic transaxle.

1.10. VALVE MECHANISM

After the pump has started to pump the oil, the system needs some sort of valving, which will direct
and regulates the fluid. Some valves interconnect passages, directing the fluid where to go and
when. On the other hand, other valves control or regulate pressure and flow. The pump will pump
oil to capacity all the time. Ìt is up to the valves to regulate the flow and pressure in the system.
One important principle to learn about valves in automatic transaxle hydraulics is that the valves
can move in one direction or the other in a passage, opening or closing another passage.
The valve may either move left or right, according to which force can overcome the other. When
the spring force is greater than the hydraulic force, the valve is pushed to the left, closing the
passage.
When the hydraulic force builds up enough force to overcome the spring force, the hydraulic force
will push the valve to the right compressing the spring even more, and re-directing the fluid up into
the passage. When there is a loss of pressure due to the re-direction of oil, the spring force will
close the passage again. This system is called a balanced valve system. A valve that only opens
and closes passages or circuits, is called a relay valve.

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1.11. AN ACTUATING MECHANISM

Once the fluid has passed through the lines, valves, pump, etc., it will end up at the actuating
mechanism. This is the point where the hydraulic force will push a piston causing the piston to do
some sort of mechanical work. This mechanism is actually the dead end that the oil pump flow will
finally encounter in the system. This dead end causes the pressure to build up in the system.
The pressure works against some surface area (piston) and causes a force to be applied. Ìn
hydraulics and transaxle technology, the actuating mechanism is also termed a servo. A servo is
any device where an energy transformation takes place causing work as a result. The clutch
assemblies found in the alpha automatic transaxle are actually servos, but they are termed "clutch¨
for ease of identification

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ABS GENERAL

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2. ABS GENERAL

2.1. A BRIEF HISTORY OF ABS

· 1952 ABS for aircraft by Dunlop
· 1969 Rear-wheel-only ABS by Ford & Kelsey Hayes
· 1971 Four-wheel ABS by Chrysler & Bendix
· 1978 Mass production of Bosch ABS Systems with Mercedes Benz
· 1984 Ìntegrated ABS system by ÌTT-Teves
· Since the early 1990s
ABS began to be offered on the mid-size and compact cars due to a significant cost reduction
and increased efficiency of the system

2.2. ADVANTAGES OF ABS

Anti-lock Brake Systems are designed to prevent wheel lockup under heavy braking conditions on
any type of road condition.
The result is that, during heavy braking, the driver :· retains directional stability(Vehicle Stability)
· stops faster (Shortened Stopping distance, except gravel, fresh snow..)
· retains maximum control of vehicle (Steerability)

' Ìf the front wheels lock
 it is no longer possible to steer the car ' Ìf the rear wheels lock
 the car can become unstable and can start to skid sideways BRAKING AT CORNERING

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Ìf a car on the different conditions of surface brakes, the wheels on the slippery surface easily lock
up and the vehicle begins to spin. But ABS provides vehicle stability until it stops.
<Braking without ABS> <Braking with ABS>

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2.3. ABS TYPES

2.3.1. 4-SENSOR 4-CHANNEL TYPE
This type is generally used for FF(Front engine Front driving) car which has X-brake lines. Front
wheels are independently controlled and rear wheel control usually follows a select-low logic for
vehicle stability while ABS operation.
2.3.2. 4-SENSOR 3-CHANNEL TYPE
This type is generally used for FR(Front engine Rear driving) car which has H-brake lines. Front
wheels are independently controlled and rear wheels are controlled together by on brake pipe on
the basis of select-low logic.
2.3.3. 3-SENSOR 3-CHANNEL TYPE
Front wheels are controlled independently but rear wheels are controlled together by one wheel
speed sensor(ex. On the differential ring gear).
2.3.4. 1-SENSOR 1-CHANNEL TYPE
Only control the rear wheel pressure by one sensor.

2.3.5. SYSTEM EVALUATION
S Sy ys st te em m T Ty yp pe e
B Br ra ak ke e
I Ii in ne e
C Co on nt tr ro oI I L Lo og gi ic c E Ev va aI Iu ua at ti io on n I It te em m
<Braking without ABS>
<Braking with ABS>
Low Ģ
High Ģ
Low Ģ
High Ģ
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S St te ee er ra ab bi iI Ii it ty y S St ta ab bi iI Ii it ty y
S St to op pp pi in ng g
D Di is st ta an nc ce e
4-Sensor 4-Channel X line
All wheels independent control Good Fair Good
Front : Ìndependent control
Rear : Select Low
Good Good Fair
4-Sensor 3-Channel H Line
Front : Ìndependent control
Good Good Fair
Rear : Select Low
3-Sensor 3-Channel H Line
Front : Ìndependent control
Good Good Fair
Rear : Select Low
1-Sensor 1-Channel H Line Rear : Select Low No Fair No

1) 4-Sensor 4-ChanneI type ( Independent controI type )
This type has four wheel sensors and 4 hydraulic control channels and controls each wheel
independently. Steering safety and stopping distance maintains optimum condition on the
However, on the split-Ģ road surface, uneven braking force between left wheels
and right wheels
generates a Yawing
Moment of the
vehicle body
resulting in vehicle
instability. Therefore,
most of vehicles
with a 4 channel
ABS incorporates a
select low logic on
rear wheels to maintain the vehicle stability at any road conditions.

<FF car, X-line brake system>

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2) 4-Sensor 3-ChanneI type (Front wheeIs: independent controI, Rear wheeIs: SeIect Iow
controI )
Ìn case of FF(Front engine Front driving) car, most vehicle weight concentrated on front wheels
and the center of the mass of vehicle also moves forward while braking allowing almost 70% of
braking force to be controlled by front wheels.
This means that most braking power is generated by front wheels and to get a maximum braking
efficiency while ABS operation, independent control of front wheels is necessarily required.
However, rear wheels which performs relatively less braking force are very important to guarantees
vehicle safety while braking. That is, while ABS operation of rear wheels on the split road surface,
independent control of rear wheel generates uneven braking force resulting in vehicle yawing
moment.
To prevent this yawing and to maintain vehicle safety with ABS operation on any kinds of road
surface, rear wheel braking pressure is managed according to the wheel which shows more lock-
up tendency. This control concept is called 'Select-low control'.

3) 4-Sensor 3-ChanneI type (Front wheeIs;indendent controI,Rear wheeIs ; SeIect contnroI )
Vehicle with H-bake line system has this ABS control system. 2 channels are for front wheels and
the other one is for rear wheel control. Rear wheels are controlled together by a select low control
logic.
Ìn case of X-brake line system, 2 channels (2 brake ports in the ABS unit) are required to control
rear wheel pressure because each rear wheel belongs to different brake line.

4) 1-Sensor 1-ChanneI type ( Rear wheeIs: SeIect Iow controI )
Vehicle with H-bake line system. Only controls rear wheel pressure.
One wheel speed sensor is installed on a rear differential detecting rear wheel speed. Front wheels
are locked up while heavy braking, vehicle loses its steering stability and stopping distance on a
low-Ģ road surface also increases. This system helps vehicle have a straight stop.

ABSCM
ABS consists of wheel speed sensors which detects a wheel lock-up tendency, on the basis of
wheel speed sensor signal a ABSCM(Control Module) which outputs control signal and
HCU(Hydraulic Control Unit) which supplies brake pressure to each wheel according to the
ABSCM output signals.

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ABSCM(CONTROL MODULE)
From the wheel speed sensor signals, ABSCM calculates an estimated acceleration, deceleration
and slip ratio. This controls solenoid valves and return pumps to prevent a wheel lock-up. Moreover,
ABSCM manages a system monitoring circuit and turn off itself to protect the system if a system
faulty is detected. Driver can recognize a system malfunction when ABS warning lamp comes on.

1) Basic Composition of ABSCM
Once ABS fails, ABSCM should inhibit the system operation to guarantee the system safety.
Because abnormal solenoid valve operation can affect the brake pressure on wheels. With this
reason, ABSCM can analyze and prepare all kinds of possible faulty causes.
To install the ABSCM directly on the HCU(Hydraulic Control Unit), semiconductors inside ABSCM
should resist at the temperature range of ÷40 ~ +125 degrees Celsius. Owing to the enhanced
technology on semiconductor and size reduction, Ìntegrated type (ABSCM+HCU) is popularly used
worldwide. For example, Bosch ABS version 5.0 or higher, version MK-20i or higher of TEVES
and EBC 325 of Kelsey Hayes are representative integrated ABS.
All inputs are double-monitored and double-calculated. Ìnputs are also double-monitored. Moreover,
to prevent a improper operation of ECU, two microprocessors compare and monitors their results
And ECU is additionally monitored by SAS(Safety Assurance System) or intelligent Watch-Dog to
prevent a ECU's wrong operation. One ÌC controls solenoids at each channel and a Power
MOSFET with a very reliable protect circuit is substituted for relays which handled solenoid
operation and big current while motor operation. Furthermore, motor speed control is being
employed to reduce excessive pumping and Kick-Back. 16 bit of microprocessor is used for the
better ABS performance and wheel speed calculation which requests around 5msec of one cycle
operating time.
ABSCM consists of several basic circuits below
a) WheeI Speed Sensor Input AmpIification circuit
From each wheel speed sensors installed each wheel, alternating current waveforms in proportion
to the vehicle speed come in the circuit. The waveforms are amplified and converted into the
square waveforms, and are sent to the Microcontroller. According to ABS types, the number
ofwheel speed sensors changes and the number of amplification circuit also changes.

b) MicrocontroIIer
From each wheel speed information, this calculates a Reference Speed, Slip Ratio,
Acceleration/Deceleration rates and performs solenoid valve & motor operation. This circuit detects
the wheel speed sensor waveforms generated by the teeth of sensor rotor at every moment.
Microcontroller calculates a reference speed by integrating a momentary wheel speed and then
compares the reference speed and a momentary wheel speed to estimate a slip ratio and an
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acceleration/deceleration rates.
Solenoid valve activation circuit outputs pressure dump, hold, increasing signals to the lock-up
wheels' solenoids according to the estimated control signals like a slip ratio, acceleration/deceler-
ration rates.
c) SoIenoid VaIve activation circuit
This circuit controls the solenoid valve current and turns it on or off on the basis of the pressure
dump, hold, increasing signal from the Microcontroller.
d) VoItage ReguIator, Motor ReIay & FaiIsafe ReIay Driver circuit, Lamp Driver circuit,
Communication circuit
Monitors the supply voltage(5V, 12V) being used for ABSCM is stable within the threshold voltage
range. This detects a system failure and activates valve relay, motor relay. System faulty is
detected, ABS system is down because a valve/motor relay comes off and ABS warning lamp turns
on to inform the driver of system failure. While ABS failure, normal braking is available.

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ABS ECU BIock Diagram

8L3
|CN|T|0N
\CC
8 L \a|ve 0(|ve(
Red.
P(ocesso( 2
|8o|l)
3o|ero|d
wree| 3erso(s
A83 w/L
E80 w/L
- Aß8 E6U ß|ock 0|agram
P(ocesso( 1
|1êo|l)
FR 3peed 0ul
K-L|re
|nterface 6|rcu|t
wree| s|dra| cord|l|or|rd C|(cu|l 3Wl|cr Corl(o|/C|arp C|(cu|l
Corrur|ca|or C|(cu|l
Larp 0(|ve( C|(cu|l
Volo( (e|av & F3R 0(|ve( C|(cu|l
A/0 Vor|lo( C|(cu|l
ßATT 2
ßATT 1
Volo(
Re|av
M
\a|ve
Re|av

BTCS ECU BIock Diagram

2) Safety Circuit
|CN|T|0N
Red.
P(ocesso( 1
|1êo|l)
P(ocesso( 2
|8o|l)
3o|ero|d
A83 w/L
8TC3 Larp
K-L|re
E80 w/L
\CC
- ßT68 E6U ß|ock 0|agram
8L3 wree| 3erso(s FR 3peed 0ul
8 L \a|ve 0(|ve( 2 L \a|ve 0(|ve(
|nterface 6|rcu|t
wree| s|dra| cord|l|or|rd C|(cu|l 3Wl|cr Corl(o|/C|arp C|(cu|l
Corrur|ca|or C|(cu|l
Larp 0(|ve( C|(cu|l
Volo( (e|av & F3R 0(|ve( C|(cu|l
A/0 Vor|lo( C|(cu|l
ßATT 2
ßATT 1
Volo(
Re|av
M
\a|ve
Re|av
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Ìgnition switch turns on, ABSCM performs a self-test until the vehicle speed reaches certain speed
and also monitors system while driving. When a system failure is detected, firstly stops the ABS
function and illuminates ABS warning lamp to inform the driver of system breakdown. Even in case
of an ABS breakdown, conventional brake is still available. After turn the ÌG off and turn it on, if a
system faulty is not detected, warning lamp turns off and system comes normal.

a) InitiaI SeIf-Testing after the IG on,(vehicIe stops)
When the ÌG switch turns on and the voltage comes in ABSCM, followed procedures performs.
· Microprocessor function check
Makes an Watchdog Error and check if the error is detected
Checks the ROM data
Checks the RAM data whether data reading, writing is normal
Checks the A/D(Analog /Digital) Converter operation
Checks the communication between two microprocessor
· Valve Relay function check
Activates a valve relay and check the operation
· Fail Memory function check
Checks the fail memory circuit of a microprocessorb) InitiaI SeIf-Testing whiIe a vehicIe
begins to move
A vehicle begins to move, ABSCM performs actuators' function test.
· Solenoid Valve function test
Checks the solenoid valve function and monitors its operation
· Motor function test
Operates a motor and check its condition. According to the ABS makers, the self-testing
time of motor can be considerably different. But mostly, self-testing is performs at the
beginning of vehicle driving or at the end of ABS operation.
· Wheel Speed Sensor signal check
Checks whether all wheel speed sensor signals

c) System test whiIe driving
After completing the initial self-test, ABS system is check by two microprocessor and other circuits
surrounding. Ìf a faulty is detected, microprocessor finally confirms it and the corresponding error
code is memorized in ABSCM.
· Voltage test (12V, 5V)
Checks the supplied 12 voltage and 5 voltage inside ABSCM is normal. But the momentary
voltage drop caused by ABS operation or motor operation is considered while monitoring
12 voltage.· Valve Relay operation test
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While ABS operation, valve relay is activated. ABSCM watchdogs a valve relay operation.·
Calculation Result comparison between two microprocessor
Usually, there are two microprocessors inside ABSCM and they perform the same
operation at the same time. They compare their results each other and identify their
sameness. This comparison concept guarantees the system trust and can detect the
system failure at an early stage.
· Microprocessor operation test
Monitors microprocessor's normality.
· ROM Data check
Performs a Check Sum of ROM data and confirms the program's normality.
d) DispIay SeIf Diagnosis
When a system faulty is detected by a safety circuit, ABS function stops illuminating the ABS
warning lamp. ABSCM displays trouble codes via a scan tool. With the scan tool, activates
solenoid valves and motor.

2.4. TYPICAL ABS CONTROL CYCLES

2.4.1. BRAKING CONTROL ON A HIGH-GRIP ROAD SURFACE (HIGH BRAKING FORCE
COEFFICIENT)
During initial braking, the brake pressure in the wheel brake cylinder and the each wheel
deceleration increase.
At the end of phase 1, the wheel deceleration exceeds the set threshold (-a). As a result, the
corresponding solenoid valve switches to the "pressure hold¨ position. The brake pressure
must not be reduced yet, because the threshold(-a) could be exceeded in the stable range of
the braking force coefficient/ brake slip curve. At the same time, the reference speed is reduced.
The value for the slip switching threshold 1 is derived from the reference speed.
The wheel speed falls below the 1 threshold at the end of phase 2. The solenoid valve then
switches to the "pressure drop¨ position, with the result that the brake pressure is reduced until
the wheel deceleration has exceeded the threshold (-a).
The speed falls below the threshold(-a) again at the end of phases 3 and a pressure hold
phase of a certain length follows. The wheel acceleration increases within this time to such an
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extent that the threshold(+a) is exceeded. The pressure remains constant. At the end of phases
4, the acceleration exceeds the relatively high threshold(+A). The brake pressure then
increases as long as the threshold(+A) is exceeded.
Ìn phase 6, the brake pressure is kept constant again because the threshold(+a) is exceeded.
At the end of this phase, the peripheral wheel acceleration falls below the threshold(+a). This is
an indication that the wheel has entered the stable range of the braking force coefficient/brake
slip curve and is slightly under-braked.
The brake pressure is now built up in stages(phase 7) until the wheel deceleration exceeds the
threshold(-a)(end of phase 7). This time, the brake pressure is decreased immediately without
generation of a 1 signal

2.4.2. BRAKING CONTROL ON A SLIPPERY ROAD (LOW BRAKING FORCE COEFFICIENT)
With this surface condition, slight pressure on the brake pedal is often sufficient to make a wheel-
up on a slippery road and the wheels require much more time to accelerate out of a phase of high
slip again.
The logic circuit in the ECU recognizes the prevailing road conditions and adapts the ABS
characteristics accordingly.
v
F
Vehicle speed,
V
ref
Reference
speed,
v
R
wheel speed,

1
Slip switching
threshold,
A, a Threshold of
wheel acceleration,
-a Threshold of
wheel deceleration,
-Čp
ab
Brake
pressure decrease.
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Ìn phase 1 and 2, braking control occurs in the same way as for high braking force coefficients.
Phase 3 commences with a pressure holding phase of short duration. The wheel speed is then
very briefly compared with the slip switching threshold 1. Since the wheel speed is less than the
value of the slip switching threshold, the brake pressure is reduced for a short, fixed time. This is
followed by a further short pressure hold phase. A renewed comparison between the wheel speed
and slip switching threshold 1 is then made, and this leads to a pressure drop during a short,
fixed time period. The wheel accelerates again in the following pressure hold phase and its wheel
acceleration exceeds the threshold(+a).
This leads to further pressure hold until the acceleration is below the threshold(+a) again (end of
phase 4). This is followed in phase 5 by the step-type build-up in pressure familiar from the
previous section until a new control cycle is initiated by pressure reduction in phase 6. Ìn the
previously described cycle, the controller logic recognized that a further two pressure decrease
steps were necessary to accelerate the wheel again after the reduction in pressure initiated by the
signal(-a). The wheel runs in the range of high slip for a relatively long time, and this is not optimal
for driving stability and steerability. Ìn order to improve both of these factors, a comparison is made
continuously between the wheel speed and slip switching threshold 1 in this and also the
following control cycles.
Consequently, the brake pressure is constantly reduced in phase 6 until the wheel acceleration
exceeds the threshold(+a) in phase 7. Owing to the constant decrease in pressure, the wheel runs
with high slip for only a brief period, thus increasing vehicle stability and steerability compared with
the first cycle.
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2.5. PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES
2.5.1. TIRE FORCE
Forces which act on a moving vehicle are gravity, air force(air resistance) and tire force (rolling
resistance).
A desired movement or change in movement can be achieved
only via the tire force. The tire force consists of the following
components:
- driving force F
D
caused by the drive,
- lateral force F
S

caused by the steering, and
- normal force F
N
as a result of the vehicle weight.
v
F
Vehicle speed,
V
ref
Reference
speed,
v
R
wheel speed,

1
Slip switching
threshold,
a wheel
acceleration,
-a wheel
deceleration,
Slip
-Čp
ab
Brake
pressure decrease
Figure1>
F
N
F
S
F
D
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The lateral force F
S
transfers the steering movement to the road and makes the vehicle turn. The
normal force F
N
is determined by the vehicle weight and its load, that is, it is the weight component
acting perpendicularly on the road. The degree to which the forces can actually come into effect
depends on the condition of the road and tires and on the weather condition, that is, on the friction
force between the tires and road surface.

2.5.2. RELATIONSHIP AMONG FORCES

The relationship between frictional force, side force, braking force and driving force can be
expressed using a "friction circle¨. The friction circle assumes frictional force between the tire and
road surface to be identical in all directions. Ìt can be used to visualize the relationship between
side forces, braking force, and driving force.
While cornering at a fixed speed, for example, all of the tire's frictional force is the side force that is
turning the vehicle. When brake are applied during cornering, however, part of the frictional force of
the tire is used for braking force, which reduces the size of the side force. Conversely, turning the
steering wheel while applying the brakes reduces braking force, because part of the tire frictional
force normally used for braking becomes cornering force.

2.5.3. FRICTION CIRCLE

Driving force
Side force Side force
Braking force
Fractional force
generated at tire patch
Portion of frictional force
acting as braking force
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2.5.4. RELATIONSHIP AMONG FORCES

2.5.5. FRICTION FORCE
The friction F
R
is proportional to the normal force F
N
:
F
R
= Ģ
B
x F
N
The factor Ģ
B
is the braking force coefficient (or Frictional coefficient). The factor can be
influenced by the characteristics of the different tire/road material pairings. The braking force
coefficient is thus a measure of the transferable braking force. For vehicle tires, the braking force
coefficient reaches its maximum values on a dry and clean road surface and its lowest on ice.

Cornering force(F
y'
)
Cornering
resistance(F
x'
)
Friction force(F)
Side force(F
y
)
Self aligning torque
Vehicle
traveling
direction

y

y
(a: Side slip angle)
F

0 10 30 50 70 90
Side slip angle () - Bias
tire
C
o
r
n
e
r
i
n
g

f
o
r
c
e

[
k
g
f
]

Cornering force
Side force
<Example>
Road condition Braking force
coefficient(Ģ
B
)
Dry concrete 0.8 ~ 1
Wet asphalt 0.2 ~ 0.65
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The braking force coefficient depends greatly on the vehicle speed. When braking at high speeds,
and under certain road conditions, the wheels may lock if the braking force coefficient is so low that
the grip of the wheels to the road surface can no longer be available

2.5.6. SLIP

While vehicle driving or braking, complex physical forces occurs in the tire's contact area with the
road. The tire's rubber elements become distorted and are exposed to partial sliding movements,
even if the wheel has not yet locked. The measure of the sliding components of the rolling
movement is the slip :

= (V
V
- V
W
)/ V
V

: SIip Ratio

Where V
v
is the vehicle speed and V
W
is the circumferential speed of the wheel.
The formula shows that brake slip occurs as soon as the wheel starts to rotate more slowly than
the wheel speed which corresponds to the driving speed. Braking forces can be generated only in
this condition.
Figure 1 [Braking force coefficient as a function of brake slip for straight-ahead braking] applies to
straight-ahead braking where no lateral forces occur so that the whole friction available between
the tire and road surface can be used for braking. The braking force increases steeply from a brake
slip zero, and reaches its maximum between about 10% and 30% brake slip, depending on the
road and tire conditions. The rising part of the curves shows a stable area, while the falling part
represents the instable area. When driving straight ahead, ABS prevents a vehicle entering this
Maximum braking force ~ Approximately 10~30% Slip
This means that some tire rotation is necessary to achieve maximum braking.
The optimum slip value decreases as tire-road friction decreases.
Slip Ratio = (V
V
- V
W
)/ V
V
k 100 V
V
: Vehicle Speed V
W
: Wheel Speed
0% ~ When a tire is rolling freely
100% ~ When a tire locks up completely
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Tire shape when
vehicle is cornering
instable area during braking.
2.5.7. LATERAL FORCE (SIDE FORCE)
Ìn addition to the braking force and driving force acting on the contact area in the direction that the
tire is rotating, there is also a "Lateral force¨ that acts laterally on the tire. Side force is the basic
force that occurs when the vehicle turns. The basic force during cornering by a vehicle is the force
of the part of the tire in contact with the road surface wanting to return its normal shape from its
currently deformed state. This force pushes the tire sideways against the road surfaces, and is
therefore called "Side force¨. And the moment generated at the deformed tire is called " Over
turning moment

2.5.8. UNDERSTEERING AND OVERSTEERING

Keeping the steering wheel turned at a fixed angle and traveling at a fixed speed causes the
vehicle to move in a circle with a fixed radius. Ìncreasing the vehicle's speed at this point causes
the vehicle to move either outside the original circle due to "Understeering¨, or inside the original
circle due to "Oversteering¨. The actual steering characteristic (Understeering or Oversteering)
produced by a particular vehicle depends on the interrelationship between the weight distribution
between its front and rear wheels, tire specifications, suspension characteristics, and drive system
(FF or AWD).

Tire shape when vehicle
is traveling straight
Tire overturning moment
Side force
Normal force
Point of acceleration
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[Figure 1]

2.5.9. BRAKING FORCE COEFFICIENT AS A FUNCTION OF BRAKE SLIP FOR STRAIGHT-

2.5.10. BRAKING FORCE AND LATERAL FORCE COEFFICIENT AS A FUNCTION OF BRAKE
SLIP

1.Radial tires on dry concrete

2.Bias-ply tires on wet asphalt

3.Radial tires on snow:
(a lock-up wheel pushes a wedge of
snow in front of it which increases
the braking force.)

4.Radial tires on wet ice
(Ìce to freezing point)
a: Stable range
b: Unstable range
A: No slip (Free rolling)
B: 100% slip (Blocked)

The lateral force coefficient is the
maximum value when a brake slip is
zero. With increasing brake slip, it falls
slowly reaching the lowest point when
the wheel is locked.
At the lowest point, vehicle no longer
has any cornering forces.
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2.5.11. BRAKING FORCE AND LATERAL FORCE COEFFICIENT AS A FUNCTION OF BRAKE
SLIP AND SLIP ANGLE ĝ WITH ABS CONTROL RANGES

During curve braking, the braking forces increases so quickly that the overall braking distance is
only slightly longer than for straight-ahead braking under the same condition.

2.6. SELECT LOW CONTROL FOR THE REAR WHEEL

Most vehicle with ABS system, whether it has a 4-channel system or a 3-channel system,
incorporates a Select Low Control logic for rear wheels while ABS operation. That's because to
guarantee the vehicle stability which can be easily obtained by avoiding the rear wheel lock-up.
One of the ABS benefits is to get an optimal braking force at all kinds of road conditions and a
braking situation. For this, independent control of the front wheels is necessary. Because, firstly,
front wheels generate almost 70 % braking power while braking, therefore independent control can
provide a short stopping distance while ABS control. Secondly, uneven grip of each front wheel
doesn't make a serious vehicle stability problem while ABS operation comparing with the problem
from rear wheels.

ABS
control ranges
As the two curves for braking force
coefficient Ģ
B
and lateral force
coefficient Ģ
S
, the ABS control range
must be extended for larger slip angle
ĝ = 10L (that is high lateral force
owing to high lateral acceleration of the
vehicle) compared with the small slip
angle ĝ = 2L.
The ABS permits increasingly greater
slip values in accordance with the
degree by which the speed and thus
lateral acceleration decrease during
lateral braking.
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When there is a differential in braking force between the left and right tires, the vehicle tends to
swerve in the direction of the stronger
braking force. When there is uneven
left-right braking force in the front
wheels, the vehicle can be kept in a
straight line relatively easily by turning
the steering wheel.
Ìn the case of rear wheels, however, it is
much difficult to compensate for left-right
braking force differential by turning the
steering wheel, so vehicle handling
become quite unstable.
To counteract this, ABSCM reduces the
brake pressure to the other rear wheel
as well as rear wheel beginning to lock.
This maintains the side force of the tires
are their current levels while equalizing
the left-right braking force to provide
better stability.

Uneven braking force
High frictional surface Low frictional surface
Equal braking force
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2.7. ABS GENERAL CONSTRUCTION

SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION

2.8. WHEEL SPEED SENSOR

1 Electronic Cable
2 Permanent Magnet
3 Housing
4 Winding
5 Pole Pin
6 Tone Wheel
1 Electronic Cable
2 Permanent Magnet
3 Housing
4 Housing Block
5 Pole Pin
6 Winding
7 Air gap
8 Tone wheel
[SECTÌON1] [SECTÌON2]

HCU
ABSCM
G-Sensor (with 4WD)
Proportioning valve
(Without EBD)
1
2
4
5
6
3
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When the Tone Wheel rotates, the magnetic field changes and induces a voltage in the winding.
- Permanent magnetic  produce a voltage
- Higher speeds  produce a higher frequency
- Lower speeds  produce a lower frequency

1 Magnet
2 Winding
3 Tone Wheel
4 Rotates
5 High Speed
6 Low Speed
7 Air Gap
WAVE FORM 3 (At high speed)
WAVE FORM 2 (At Iow speed) WAVE FORM 1 (Minimum P-P voItage)
150mV or more at 10km/h (MGH-10),

20km/h(Nisshinbo,TEVES)
120mV or more at 12km/h (Bosch 5.3)
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2.9. FEATURE OF G-SENSOR

ABS control for 4WD uses the signal of G-sensor to solve the problems that is early all wheel-lock
on L2 and that late response in case of 2 change of road surface. G-sensor signal is got every
7ms, and filtered. ABSCM sets 2-flags (High, Medium, Low) to calculate detailed gradient of
reference velocity and control threshold compared with 2WD.

2.9.1. GENERAL SPECIFICATION
Rated voltage DC 12 V
Operating voltage DC 8 ~ 16 V
Operating temperature range -30HC ~ +85HC
Storage temperature range -40HC ~ +100HC
Current consumption 10 mA MAX.

2.9.2. G SENSOR OPERATION

The four wheels of an AWD(All Wheel Drive)/4WD vehicle are linked by the center differential, so
the engine brake acts on all the wheels. Because of this, in case that any of the tires of an AWD
vehicle begin to lock-up, the control torque of the tire that is beginning to lock-up is distributed to
the other tires, making the rotation speed of all the tires virtually identical. Since the signal being
sent to the ABSCM from the four ABS sensors at this time are almost similar, the reference vehicle
speed calculated by the ABSCM is less than actual vehicle speed. Using the calculated result as a
basis for ABS control would result in error that would increase the danger of wheel lock-up.
Ìn order to overcome the problem described above, an AWD vehicle is equipped with a G sensor,
which is used to determine the friction between tires and the road surface. For example, if a driver
slams the brake pedal on the ice making all wheels lock-up, the vehicle begin to slide and the G
value(deceleration) will be low. Because all wheels lost their grip on the the ice and they cannot
make a frictional force which increase the G value. Therefore the ABSCM can recognize all wheel
lock-up tendency by referring to the low G value. Ìn other case, even if all wheel speed is reduced
because of one wheel or two wheels' lock-up, if the G sensor value remains high, ABSCM corrects
the reference vehicle speed that comes from only wheel speed information. So, ABS control can be
more accurate.

2.9.3. G SENSOR FUNCTION FOR 4WD VEHICLE
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When driving in 4WD, all four wheels are mechanically locked, so all wheel speed decrease with
almost same rate in many case. This phenomenon is more notable when driving on low Ŧ(friction)
road, so ABS control become unstable. To prevent this happening, G sensor is installed.With this
signal, ABSCM recognize that the vehicle is now stopping on a low Ŧ road or high Ŧ road,
thereby modifying the ABS operating cycle(algorism). That is,
Small(or Great) G braking ; G value Low (or High) ; Low (or High) Ŧ road detected ;
ABSCM advances(or delays) to decrease hydraulic pressure ; Wheel lock is delayed(or
advanced) ; Stopping distance increases(or Decreases).

2.9.4. INSTALLATION
Ìnstall the G-sensor with the arrow mark facing forward direction.

Control torque of tire that is locking up is
distributed to other tires, making rotation
speed of all tires virtually identical
Tire beginning to lock
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Error!

2.9.5. SENSOR INSPECTION
1. Connect a T-connector to the G-sensor and
check the voltage
2. Turn 'ÌG ON' and check the output voltage of
G-sensor on the plane
- Standard vaIue: 2.5 V3. Measure the output
voltage while leaning the sensor forward or
backward. And make sure the output value
varies normally.

2.9.6. CHARACTERISTICS CURVE

Wheel speed
Dummy vehicle speed
When G sensor is not equipped
Vehicle speed
Dummy vehicle speed
When G sensor is not
equipped

Arrow mark faces forward

[Performance Output]
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2.10. SYSTEM LINE-UP

CAlNl\AL(K\-2| KEL\$EY HEYE\$ ELC 4`J
MGH-1J
MGH-2J
TE\E\$ MK l\-G 98MY
MANDO(TE\E\$| MK2Ji 98MY
TE\E\$ MK l\-G
Nl\$\$HlNLO NT2J\$2 99.J5
MANDO MGH-1J
lVAL
1 cbannel -
1 s ens or
· lVAL (lear Vbeel
Anti-Lock|
ELC `25
MANDO MGH-1J
CAlEN\$(l\$ F/ L| MANDO MGH-2J AL\$. LTC\$
CAlEN\$
llO
JJ.J6
MANDO MGH-1J JJ.J6
MANDO(TE\E\$| MK2Ji AL\$. LTC\$. FTC\$ J2.J8
AL\$. LTC\$. FTC\$
\$lOlTAGE(\$G-2|
CLAlU\$
KEL\$EY HEYE\$
Nl\$\$HlNLO NTY1
4 cbannel -
4 s ens ors
AL\$
\$lECTlA
OlTlMA/ MAGENTl\$
4 cbannel -
4 s ens ors
CAlNl\AL(GQ|
` cbannel -
` s ens ors
\$ElHlA(\$D|
MANDO
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INTEGRATED ABS

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3. INTEGRATED ABS

3.1 HYDRAULIC CONTROL UNIT (HCU)

3.1.1 HCU CIRCUIT.

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3.1.2 CHECK VALVE
The check valve allows the flow of brake fluid in a single direction. When the brake pedal is
depressed, brake fluid flows through solenoid valves to the wheel cylinders. At this time the check
valve is closed. When the brake pedal is released, wheel cylinder brake fluid opens the check
valve, which cause the wheel cylinder brake fluid to return to the master cylinder through the check
valve and solenoid valves. Check valve operation allows wheel cylinder brake fluid to bypass the
narrow passage of the solenoid valves and return to the master cylinder more quickly.

Master cylinder
Check valve
HPA(High Pressure Accumulator)
LPA
(Low Pressure Accumulator)
RL Wheel Cylinder FR Wheel Cylinder FL Wheel Cylinder RR Wheel Cylinder
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3.2 HCU OPEATION

3.2.1 NORMAL BRAKING

As well known from the conventional brake
system, the pedal force applied by the
driver is assisted by a vacuum booster.
Actuation of pedal is built up in the brake
circuits.
Out of ABS range, no current flows from the
ABSCM to the inlet and outlet solenoid
valves. The braking pressure from the
master cylinder is delivered to each wheel
cylinder via the inlet solenoid valve.
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3.2.2 PRESSURE HOLD

3.2.3 PRESSURE DUMP

When a wheel lock-up begins, the
ABSCM sends electrical current to the
inlet solenoid valve. This allows the
valve to overcome the spring force
closing the inlet port and cutting off the
passage between the master cylinder
and the wheel cylinder.
This time outlet valve is not activated
remaining it closed. Therefore Brake
fluid pressure acting on the wheel
cylinder is hold at its current level.
Wheel speed decreases further while
brake pressure is held at its current level,
the ABSCM sends electrical current to the
outlet solenoid valve as well as the inlet
solenoid valve. Outlet port remains open
and the passage between the wheel
cylinder and the low pressure
accumulator. Brake fluid inside the wheel
cylinder flows out to the low pressure
accumulator, reducing brake pressure in
the wheel cylinder. The fluid in the low
pressure accumulator dumps out to the
master cylinder by the plunger pump.
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3.2.4 PRESSURE INCREASE

Wheel speed start to increase during the
brake fluid pressure hold or after the
pressure decrease, the ABSCM assumes
that there is no possibility of wheel lock-up,
and so it turns off current to the inlet
solenoid and outlet solenoid. This cause
both vales to be returned to their home
position by their springs, opening the inlet
port and closing the outlet port. Since the
inlet port is open and the outlet port is
closed, the brake fluid pressure of the
master cylinder reaches the wheel cylinder
just as with normal braking, so wheel
cylinder brake fluid pressure increases.
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3.3 EBD OPERATION

3.3.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE EBD SYSTEM
The EBD system (Electronic Brake force Distribution) as a sub-system of the ABS system is to
control the effective adhesion utilization by the rear wheels.
Ìt further utilizes the efficiency of the highly developed ABS equipment by controlling the slip of the
rear wheels in the partial braking range. Brake force is moved even closer to the optimum and
controlled electronically, thus dispensing with the need for the proportioning valve.
The proportioning valve, because of a mechanical device, has limitations to achieve an ideal brake
force distribution to the rear wheels as well as to carry out the flexible brake force distribution
proportioning to the vehicle load or weight increasing. And in the event of malfunctioning, driver
cannot notice whether it fails. EBD controlled by the ABS Control Module, calculates the slip ratio
of each wheel at all times and controls the brake pressure of the rear wheels not to exceed that of
the front wheels. Ìf the EBD fails, the EBD warning lamp (parking brake lamp) lights up.

Error!

 CONCEPT
- Utilization of the existing ABS components
- Function achieved by software extension
 SAFETY CONCEPT
- Failure recognition by warning lamp
- Base brake system layout
- No back-up device in case of an EBD system failure

- (load sensitive) proportioning valve may be omitted
- increase of rear axle contribution to brake-force
- Approach to ideal brake-force distribution
- (straight-ahead and bend driving)
- Constant brake-force distribution during vehicle live time
- Monitoring of EBD-function
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3.3.2 IDEAL BRAKE FORCE DISTRIBUTION CURVE

3.3.3 EBD OPERATION (PRESSURE HOLD)

NO VALVE : ON
NC VALVE : OFF
CLOSE
MOTOR : OFF
PRESSURE HOLD
WS/V ÌN: ON - CLOSED
WS/V OUT: OFF ÷ CLOSED
WPUMP: OFF
Front Brake pressure
Ìdeal distribution curve Distribution line of Front and
Rear wheel
Rear Brake
pressure
EBD Start Point
Cut in point
At high friction
At low friction
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3.3.4 EBD OPERATION (PRESSURE DUMP)

3.3.5 EFFECT OF EBD
- Stopping ability is enhanced
- Front brake pad wear and temperature are reduced
- Vehicle stability increases while braking in curve
- Cost reduction is possible removing a proportioning valve

3.3.6 FAILSAFE CONCEPT
F FA AI IL LU UR RE E C CA AU US SE E
S SY YS ST TE EM M S SR RI I
A AB BS S E EB BD D A AB BS S E EB BD D
None O O X X
1 Wheel speed sensor failure X O O X
Pump malfunction X O O X
Low Voltage X O O X
2 or more WSS failure
Solenoid valve failure
ABSCM malfunction
Other failure
X X O O

NO VALVE : ON
NC VALVE : OFF
PRESSURE DUMP
WS/V ÌN: ON - CLOSED
WS/V OUT: ON ÷ OPEN
WPUMP: OFF
MOTOR : OFF
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3.4 ACTIVE CIRCUIT AND PASSIVE CIRCUIT

- ACTIVE CIRCUIT
: Warning lamp is turned on due to the activation of transistor, which is energized by ABSCM, on
the cluster. And even in case that ABSCM connector is removed, warning lamp can turn on by
cluster circuit.

- PASSIVE CIRCUIT
: ABSCM directly controls warning lamp on the cluster and the warning lamp comes off when
ABSCM connector is removed .

3.4.1 REQUIREMENT OF ACTIVE CIRCUIT
For the integrated type of ABS system a substitute is required to energize warning lamp circuit
even in case that ABSCM is disconnected. An active circuit is the substitute.

- ABS & EBD lamp is controlled through 1 line. (low pass filter)
- The circuit is Ìnserted behind the cluster circuit board

3.4.2 FUNCTION OF ACTIVE MODULE
- ABS, EBD, TCS Off warning lamp are controlled
- When the warning lamp circuit is disconnected, SRÌ "ON¨
- ABS & EBD warning lamp are controlled through 1 line

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3.4.3 ABS & EBD WARNING LAMP CIRCUIT

ABS and EBD warning lamp are controlled by ABSCM through one wire.

3.4.4 ABS & EBD WARNING LAMP CONTROL SIGNAL
G GN ND D G GN ND D O OF FF F S SI IG GN NA AL L R RE EM MA AR RK K
ABSCM
control signal
( #16 pin )

: 200ŀ
: 7Ł
143ō
ABS W/Lamp OFF ON ON
EBD uses a
Low Pass Filter
EBD W/Lamp OFF ON OFF

There are three cases of the warning lamp control done by ABSCM
1. ABS & EBD both lamps remain off.
When the terminal #16 of the ABSCM is grounded, current from the ÌG switch directly flows to the
#16 terminal. The transistors of both warning lamps can not be activated. Therefore, both lamps
are off.
2. ABS & EBD both lamps stay on.
Ìn case that the terminal #16 is grounded-off, the current from the ÌG switch activate the
transistors of both lamps, so both lamps come on.
3. Only ABS lamp comes on.
Ground-on/off control of the terminal #16 performs with a high frequency. Then the ABS warning
lamp looks like staying on but the EBD warning lamp is off because a low pass filter blocks the
current flow coming from the ÌG switch.
1
ƀ
Ɓ
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1. ABS & EBD warning lamp AOFFB

2. ABS & EBD warning lamp "ON¨

3. ABS warning lamp "ON¨, EBD warning lamp "OFF¨

IG
ABS Lamp EBD Lamp
ABSCM
LPF
* LPF: Low Pass Filter
ÌG +
ABS Lamp EBD Lamp
ABSCM
LPF
* LPF: Low Pass Filter
ÌG +
ABS Lamp EBD Lamp
ABSCM
LPF
* LPF: Low Pass Filter
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3.4.5 LOW PASS FILTER
Ìf a ground on/off frequency from the ABSCM is high, the low pass filter inside active module
blocks the current flow coming from the ÌG switch to a TR for the EBD warning lamp. Therefore the
EBD warning lamp comes off, however the ABS warning lamp looks like remaining on.
Low Pass Filter only allows low frequency signals.

#16
#16
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MGH-10
(Mando, with EBD)
- JOICE, CARENS(00.06~)
- SPECTRA(00.06~), CARNIVAL(GQ)
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4. MGH-10 (Mando, with EBD)

4.1 SPECIFICATION
PARTS ITEM SPECIFICATION
SYSTEM
TYPE SOL/SOL TYPE
MODE ABS + EDD
ABSCM
OPERATÌNG VOLTAGE 10V ~ 16V
OPERATÌNG TEMPERATURE -40 ~ 110
WARNÌNG ABS OPERATÌNG VOLTAGE 12V
LAMP EBD CURRENT CONSUMPTÌON 80

PARTS ITEM VALUES REMARKS
HYDRAULÌC UNÌT
WEÌGHT 2.5Ľ
LPA : LOW PRESSURE
ACCUMULATOR
MOTOR 12V, 35A
MOTOR PWR 180W
PUMP CAPACÌTY 5.0ı6.,
HPA : HÌGH PRESSURE
ACCUMULATOR
CAPACÌTY
LPA : 3.0ı
HPA : 6.0ı
SOLENOÌD NO, NC
12V NO : NORMAL OPEN
25A NC : NORMAL CLOSE

4.2 COMPONENTS
- HCU (Hydraulic Control Unit )
- ABS Control Module
- Wheel Speed Sensor : 4EA
- Warning lamp relay : 2EA (One for ABS, the other for EBD warning lamp)
- ABS warning lamp
- EBD warning lamp

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4.3 HCU (HydrauIic ControI Unit)

4.4 ABS CONTROL MODULE

- One unit with HCU
-
- Motor relay, valve relay integrated type

* TOP VÌEW
V/C
3EC0N0ARY
M/C
PRÌMARY
CONNECTOR
ABSCM RL
FR
RR
V0T0R
Mot
Solenoid
valve
Motor Power
supply
A : ÌNLET VALVE (FR)
B : ÌNLET VALVE (RL)
C : ÌNLET VALVE (RR)
D : ÌNLET VALVE (FL)
E : OUTLET VALVE (FR)
F : OUTLET VALVE (RL)
G : OUTLET VALVE (RR)
H : OUTLET VALVE (FL)
J : MOTOR (GND)
K : MOTOR(M+)
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4.5 LOCATION OF ABS UNIT

4.6 COMPONENTS OF HCU (HydrauIic ControI Unit)
COMPONENTS QUANTITY
NO SOLEOÌD VALVE 4EA
NO SOLEOÌD VALVE 4EA
DC MOTOR 1EA
PLUNGER PUMP 2EA
LPA (Low Pressure Accumulator) 2EA
HPA (High Pressure Accumulator) 2EA

Under the master cylinder
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4.7 CONSTRUCTION OF HCU COMPONENTS

4.8 HYDRAULIC DIAGRAM
Error!

M
MCP MCS
RL FR FL RR
NO NO
NC NC
NO NO
NC NC
HPA
LPA
ABSCM
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4.9 FUNCTION OF HCU

1) NO SOLENOID VALVE CONSTRUCTION

- Wheel pressure control
(NO solenoid valve, NC solenoid valve)
- Pumping out brake oil to the master
cylinder (Motor & Pump)
- Enhanced ABS operation feeling and
noise (HPA & HPA-ORÌFÌCE)
- Temporary brake oil reservoir (LPA)
An NO solenoid valve controls a
brake pressure increase by
controlling the brake oil inlet amount
of a caliper cylinder.
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2) NC SOLENOID VALVE CONSTRUCTION

3) LOW PRESSURE ACCUMULATOR CONSTRUCTION

An NC valve controls a brake pressure
decrease by controlling the brake oil outlet
amount of a wheel cylinder.
An LPA temporarily reserves brake oil from a
wheel cylinder when a NC solenoid valve is
activated.
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4) PUMPCONSTRUCTION

5) MOTOR CONSTRUCTION

6) HIGH PRESSURE ACCUMULATOR CONSTRUCTION
A pump highly pressurizes brake oil sucked
from a LPA and supplies it to the master
cylinder and NO solenoid valves.
Motor supplies a mechanical energy to
ABS pumps.
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4.10 FUNCTION OF COMPONENTS

While a pump operating, the pressure of a
poured out brake oil changes steeply
generating a noise. A HPA reduces this
noise.
INLET SOLENOID VALVE (NO VALVE)
This valve connects or disconnects the hydraulic path
between master cylinder and the wheel cylinders.
Ìt remains open normally but it is closed when the dump
and hold mode begins during ABS operation.
Check valve is to help the brake fluid returning from the
wheel cylinder to the master cylinder when the brake
pedal is released.
OUTLET SOLENOID VALVE (NC VALVE)
This valve is normally closed but it is opened to re
wheel cylinder pressure when a dump mode begin
LOW PRESSURE ACCUMULATOR
Ìt temporarily reserves the brake fluid flowing out from the
wheel cylinder when NC valve is opened during a dump
mode.
Chec
k
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MOTOR PUMP
Motor Pump dumps the brake fluid in the LPA during a
dump mode of the ABS operation and supplies the fluid to
the HPA.
HPA
ORÌFÌCE
HIGH PRESSURE ACCUMULATOR
Brake fluid spouted from the pump is kept in a HPA. HPA
also functions as a damping chamber reducing the brake
pedal pulsation and the noise caused by the pump
actuation.
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4.11 DIAGNOSIS

1) Overvoltage
- 16V or more for over 49 msec
- Valve relay off, System down
(Both warning Lamps are on, ABS & EBD inhibited)
- System comes normal after being initialized, in case of voltage normalized.

2) Undervoltage
- 9.5V or less for over 500 msec
- ABS is inhibited (Warning Lamp on), EBD function is available

3) ABS Warning Lamp ON
- For 3 seconds after the ignition switch is on
- ABS malfunction (ABS only inhibited)
- System-down mode (ABS & EBD inhibited)
- While communicating with a scan tool

4) EBD Warning Lamp(Parking Brake Lamp) ON
- For 3 seconds after the ignition switch is on
- System-down mode (ABS & EBD inhibited)
- A parking brake switch is on
- The level of a brake reservoir is low

5) Pump motor self-checking
- When the vehicle speed reaches 20 km/h at first time.
- Performs a motor test turning a motor relay on through a control module ÌC.

6) Diagnostic interface
- Detects a system failure.
- Detected failure codes are memorized on the EEPROM.
- Memorized codes can be shown and erased by a scan tool.

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4.12 DTC LIST
C CO OD DE E C CO OD DE E D DI IS SP PL LA AY Y & & D DE ES SC CR RI IP PT TI IO ON N
C1101 Battery voltage over volt : > 16 volt
C1102 Battery voltage low volt : > 8.5 volt
C1200 FL wheel sensor : open or short to GND
C1201 FL wheel sensor : speed jump or damaged exciter
C1202 FL wheel sensor : air-gap error or wrong exciter
C1203 FR wheel sensor : open or short to GND
C1204 FR wheel sensor : speed jump or damaged exciter
C1205 FR wheel sensor : air-gap error or wrong exciter
C1206 RL wheel sensor : open or short to GND
C1207 RL wheel sensor : speed jump or damaged exciter
C1208 RL wheel sensor : air-gap error or wrong exciter
C1209 RR wheel sensor : open or short to GND
C1210 RR wheel sensor : speed jump or damaged exciter
C1211 RR wheel sensor : air-gap error or wrong exciter
C1604 ECU hardware : ECU failure or valve failure
C2112 Valve Relay : valve relay or fuse failure
C2402
Motor - Electrical : open or short to battery, motor
relay, fuse or motor failure

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4.13 WIRING DIAGRAM (CARNIVAL)

30A

25
9
18
4
16
11
1
2
19
20
5
6
23
22
7
8
24
+ -
WARNÌNG
MODULE
ÌGN
FL
FR
RL
RR
K-LÌNE
30A
BRAKE LAMP
ABS W/LAMP
EBD W/LAMP
BRAKE LAMP SW
ABS WL
EBD WL
FL-
FR+
FR-
RL+
RL-
RR+
RR-
DÌAG
GND1
MOTOR GND
BATT1
BLS
ÌGN
BATT2
PARKÌNG
BRAKE
BRAKE OÌL LEVEL
ÌGN
10A
FL+
M
PUMP
MOTOR
+
-
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MGH-20
(Mando, with EBD)

- CARENS F/L
- CARNIVAL (GQ) 2002.07~
- CERATO

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5. MGH-20 (Mando, with EBD)

5.1 ABS
Model MGH-20 incorporated for CERATO, CARENS F/L and CARNÌVAL F/L (SEDONA) is
manufactured by MANDO. Comparing with the MGH-10 applied to CARENS and SPECTRA, it is
smaller and lighter in size and weight. And the operation noises and the kick-back while ABS
operation are reduced in functional aspect.
The ABS is the standard specification in Europe, however, in the other areas, it is an option item.

5.1.1 BRAKE SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION

5.1.2 LAYOUT OF ABS : ABS unit WheeI Speed Sensors
CBS
Booster & Master Cylinder
Caliper Brake (Front)
Drum Brake (Rear)
Wheel Speed Sensor (x4)
ABS unit
Disc brake (Rear)
ABS
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5.1.3 SPECIFICATION OF MGH-20

ABS
1.8Ľ / 1.6Ľ
W118H81L127
TCS
2.1Ľ
W118H96L127
Motor
250W / 180W,
120W

5.1.4 ABS CONSTRUCTION

[MGH-20]
Master Cylinder
Front Speed Sensor
Front Speed Sensor Rear Speed Sensor
Rear Speed Sensor
ABS unit
(Hydraulic Control Unit + Control module)
EMS
ENGÌNE
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Error!

5.1.5 ABSCM

5.1.6 TCSCM
Solenoid ABSCM
Valve ABS Unit
A : ÌNLET VALVE (FR)
B : ÌNLET VALVE (RL)
C : ÌNLET VALVE (RR)
D : ÌNLET VALVE (FL)
E : OUTLET VALVE (FR)
F : OUTLET VALVE (RL)
G : OUTLET VALVE (RR)
H : OUTLET VALVE (FL)
M : MOTOR (+)
N : MOTOR(GND)
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5.1.7 COMPARISON
MGH-20 vs. MGH10

A
E
B
F
C
G
D
H
J K

[MGH-20] [MGH-10]

Features Description
A : ÌNLET VALVE (FR)
B : ÌNLET VALVE (RL)
C : ÌNLET VALVE (RR)
D : ÌNLET VALVE (FL)
E : OUTLET VALVE (FR)
F : OUTLET VALVE (RL)
G : OUTLET VALVE (RR)
H : OUTLET VALVE (FL)
Ì : TRACTÌON VALVE(TCR)
J : TRACTÌON VALVE(TCL)
L: MOTOR(+)
K: MOTOR(GND)
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Lay out Size & Weight 35% Size down, More efficient installation
HCU Hydraulic Parts & circuit
Small sized solenoid valve
Small sized components with better performance
Enhanced motor connector installation process
ECU ECU part & H/W design
More reliability by Dual Micom application
Shortened stopping distance,
Enhanced stability while braking,
Reduced pedal pulsation
Reduced noise by motor speed control

5.1.8 FUNCTION OF ABSCM & TCSCM

5.1.9 ABSCM BLOCK DIAGRAM
A AB BS S C Co on nt tr ro oI I
T TC CS S C Co on nt tr ro oI I
- - B BT TC CS S: : B Br ra ak ke e c co on nt tr ro oI I
- - F FT TC CS S: : E En ng gi in ne e t to or rq qu ue e B Br ra ak ke e c co on nt tr ro oI I
E EB BD D C Co on nt tr ro oI I
- - R Re ea ar r w wh he ee eI I p pr re es ss su ur re e c co on nt tr ro oI I
W Wa ar rn ni in ng g L La am mp p C Co on nt tr ro oI I
F Fa ai iI Is sa af fe e C Co on nt tr ro oI I
- - A AB BS S, , T TC CS S O OF FF F, , E EB BD D w wa ar rn ni in ng g I Ia am mp p c co on nt tr ro oI I

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8L3
|CN|T|0N
\CC
8 L \a|ve 0(|ve(
Red.
P(ocesso( 2
|8o|l)
3o|ero|d
wree| 3erso(s
A83 w/L
E80 w/L
- Aß8 E6U ß|ock 0|agram
P(ocesso( 1
|1êo|l)
FR 3peed 0ul
K-L|re
|nterface 6|rcu|t
wree| s|dra| cord|l|or|rd C|(cu|l 3Wl|cr Corl(o|/C|arp C|(cu|l
Corrur|ca|or C|(cu|l
Larp 0(|ve( C|(cu|l
Volo( (e|av & F3R 0(|ve( C|(cu|l
A/0 Vor|lo( C|(cu|l
ßATT 2
ßATT 1
Volo(
Re|av
M
\a|ve
Re|av

5.1.10 ABSCM OPERATION
1) Switch on procedure
The control module shall be put into operation by switching on the operating voltage (ÌGN). On
completion of the initialization phase, the control module shall be ready for operation.

2) Operating mode
Ìn the operating condition, the control module shall be ready, within the specified limits (voltage and
temperature), to process the signals offered by the various sensors and switches in accordance
with the control algorithm defined by the software and to control the hydraulic and electrical
actuators.

3) SoIenoid VaIve ControI
When one side of the valve coil is connected to the positive voltage that is provided through the
valve relay and the other side is connected to the ground by the MOSFET, the solenoid valve goes
into operation.

4) SoIenoid VaIve Checking
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The electrical function of the solenoid valves is always monitored by the valve test pulse under
normal operation conditions.

5) Pump Motor Checking
The control module performs a pump motor test at a speed of 20km/h once after ÌGN is switched
on.

6) VoItage Iimits
' Overvoltage
When overvoltage is detected(above 16V), the control module switches off the valve relay and
shuts down the system. When voltage is returned to operating range, the system goes back to the
normal condition after the initialization phase.
' Undervoltage
Ìn the event of undervoltage(below 10V), ABS control shall be inhibited and the warning lamp shall
be turned on. When voltage is returned to operating range, the warning lamp is switched off and
the control module returns to normal operating mode.

7) ABS Warning Lamp moduIe
The active ABS warning lamp module indicates the operating condition of the ABS.
The ABS warning lamp shall be on:
- During the initialization phase after ÌGN ON. (3 seconds).
- Ìn the event of inhibition of ABS functions by failure.
- When the system ECU is shut down even though ÌG power is applied.
- During diagnostic mode.

8) EBD Warning Lamp moduIe
The active EBD warning lamp module indicates the operating condition of the EBD. However, in
case the Parking Brake Switch is turned on, the EBD warning lamp is always turned on regardless
of EBD functions.

The EBD warning lamp shall be on:
- During the initialization phase after ÌGN ON. (3 seconds).
- When the system ECU is shut down even though ÌG power is applied.
- When the Parking Brake Switch is ON or brake fluid is low level.

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9) FTCS Lamp moduIe
The passive FTCS warning lamp module indicates the operating condition of the FTCS
The FTCS warning lamp is turned on under the following conditions :
- During the initialization phase after ÌGN ON. (3 seconds)
- Ìn the event of inhibition of BTCS functions by failure.
The FTCS warning lamp blinks under the following conditions :
- When the FTCS functions are operating. (Blinking - 2Hz)

10) WheeI Sensor signaI processing
The control module shall receive wheel speed signal from the four inductive wheel sensors. The
wheel signals are converted to square wave by the signal conditioning circuit and given as input to
the µ- processor. The sensor connections shall be monitored for short-circuit and interruption and
then in the event of 2 sensor failure, the control module shall be shut down the system.

11) Diagnostic Interface
Malfunctions or failures are encoded on the control module stored in a EEPROM and read out by
diagnostic equipment when the ignition switch is turned on.
The diagnosis interface can also be used for testing the control module and for actuating the HCU
in the test line of manufactories (Air-bleeding line or Roll and Brake Test line).

5.1.11 WHEEL SPEED SENSOR
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A Wheel speed sensor is an inductive type. There are 4 wheel speed sensors are installed on the
wheels.

* SENSOR CHECK FLOW

* SENSOR OPEN/SHORT CHECK (under 7km/h)
0 10 20 30 40 50 kph
Sensor H/W
Air-gap Check
Air-gap Check(10kph or more)
Speed Jump Check
(100g, 25km/h for
Wrong Exciter Check
Long Term ABS Mode Check (ABS operation for 36
7
Min. ABS operating speed
(7kph)
25
Speed Jump Check
(40g, 10km/h for 7ms)
Front Rear
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* SENSOR AIR-GAP FAILURE

4V
1V
3V
Voltage(V)
140ms
140ms
Short to Battery
Time(t)
Short to Ground,
Sensor Open
Error
Detected
Error
Code
Error
Detected
Error
Code
- Error code: C1200(FL), C1203(FR), C1206(RL), C1209(RR)
V4
V3
V1 or V2 : Defected wheel
12s
t
Under 4km/h
10 km/h
2 km/h
Wheel
Speed
- Error code: C1202(FL), C1205(FR), C1208(RL), C12011(RR)
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* SENSOR AIR-GAP FAILURE (Under 0.4G)
- Error code: C1202(FL), C1205(FR), C1208(RL), C12011(RR)

* SENSOR AIR-GAP FAILURE (Over 0.4G)
- Error code: C1202(FL), C1205(FR), C1208(RL), C12011(RR)

5.1.12 ACTUATOR MONITORING

10 km/h
2 km/h
V4
V3
V2
V1
Under 4km/h
or
Over 4km/h
154 ms
t
Wheel
Speed
0.4 G
* Defected wheel: V1
10 km/h
2 km/h
V3
V4
V1, V2
5s
t
Wheel
Speed
0.4 G
* Defected wheel: V1, V2
V3
V4
V1, V2
120s
t
V4
V3
V2
V1
120s
t
0.4 G
10 km/h
2 km/h
Wheel
Speed
10 km/h
2 km/h
Wheel
Speed
0.4 G
* Defected wheel: V1 * Defected wheel: V1, V2
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* MOTOR/SOLENOID CHECK

5.1.13 HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

5.1.14 ACTIVE WARNING LAMP MODULE

0 5 10 15 20kph
InitiaI check(3sec)
Sol coil open/short to GND, Short to battery ,Fuse
open: Error after 56msec
Fuse open, Motor short to GND, Motor Open: Error
after 200msec
Motor Iock check :
Motor voltage check for 84msec after Motor
PWM operation
Motor short to battery: Error after 49msec
Motor Relay Open: Error after 49msec
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ACTIVE CIRCUIT (ABS/EBD warning Iamp)
: Warning lamp is turned on due to the activation of transistor, which is energized by ABSCM, on
the cluster. And even in case that ABSCM connector is removed, warning lamp can turn on by
cluster circuit.

ABS & EBD Warning Lamp

ABS & EBD WARNING LAMP CIRCUIT

1. ABS & EBD warning Iamp "OFF"
ABS W/L
EBD W/L
16
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2. ABS & EBD warning Iamp AONB

ÌG +
ABS Lamp EBD Lamp
ABSCM
LPF
* LPF: Low Pass Filter
ÌG +
ABS Lamp EBD Lamp
ABSCM
LPF
* LPF: Low Pass Filter
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3. ABS warning Iamp AONB, EBD warning Iamp AOFFB

LOW PASS FILTER
Low Pass Filter is located on the EBD Warning Lamp circuit. Ìf the frequency of the signals from
ABSCM is high, ABSCM can only turn ABS WL on, remaining EBD WL off. Because Only low
frequency signals are allowed to pass the Low Pass Filter. ABS Warning Lamp is continuously on
because it is off only for 300C100 Ģs.

#16
#16
300 ±100 µs
7
ÌG +
ABS Lamp EBD Lamp
ABSCM
LPF
* LPF: Low Pass Filter
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CASE 1)
ABSCM(#16 terminal) is grounded, and both lamps are off.
: When the terminal #16 of the ABSCM is grounded, current flows from the ÌG switch to the #16
terminal. So, voltage to operate the transistor of the each warning lamp is 0 volt. Therefore, both
lamps are off.

CASE 2)
ABSCM(#16 terminal) sends signals to the both lamps, and ABS WL is on but EBD WL is off.

CASE 3)
ABSCM(#16 terminal) is not grounded, and both lamps are on.
(Ìn case that the terminal #16 is not grounded, voltage from the ÌG switch operates transistor and
both lamps are on.)

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5.2 TRACTION CONTROL SYSTEM (BTCS/FTCS)
There are two kinds of the MGH-20 TCS applied to the CERATO according to the engine. The 1.6
Alpha engine and the 2.0 Diesel engine are installed with the BTCS (Brake Traction Control
System) optionally, the 2.0 Beta engine using CAN communication are installed with the FTCS
(Full Traction Control System) optionally. For Carens F/L, BTCS is only available.

5.2.1 TCS PRINCIPLE
Vehicle acceleration on the low frictional road surface such as snow or ice depends on the friction
force between the road surface and the tyres. And that amount of engine torque is used for traction
and the rest torque generates unnecessary slip of the driving wheels.
As shown in the picture below, excessive slip of the driving wheels results in the decrease of
traction force coefficient and worsens the driving force as well as vehicle stability caused by lateral
force coefficient decrease.
Therefore, to get an enhanced vehicle traction and stability by controlling the slip ratio of the driving
wheels is the purpose of TCS control.
Slip ratio is,
(Vw ÷ Vv)/Vw L 100 (%) (Vw : Wheel speed, Vv : Vehicle speed)

Ìf during acceleration one of the driven wheels has the tendency to spin caused by excessive
engine torque, pressure in the wheel cylinder will be increased to prevent spinning. Spinning
tendency will be detected by the wheel speed sensors.
F
r
i
c
t
i
o
n
a
I

C
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t

[Traction and lateral force Characteristic according to the slip ratio]
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To increase pressure, the TC solenoid valve will be closed and the pump starts to run. Ìt sucks
volume out of the accumulator and pumps it via the solenoid valve to the caliper. The caliper of the
spinning wheel will be pressurized.
As in the ABS pressure modulation concept, the caliper pressure is controlled to prevent spinning
wheels and achieve maximum traction and stable vehicle behavior.

5.2.2 SAFETY CONCEPT
TCS components as well as the ABS components are continuously monitored by the control
module.
The safety concept always has priority to brake function. TCS valves are incorporated in the
hydraulic circuit in such a way that braking of non-driven wheels is always possible.
For prevention of excessive brake temperature caused by TCS function, the temperature of the
brakes is calculated at any time when the vehicle is being driven. TCS function will be switched off
when brake temperature exceeds a certain limit.

5.2.3 TCSCM BLOCK DIAGRAM

|CN|T|0N
ßATT 2
ßATT 1
Volo(
Re|av
Red.
P(ocesso( 1
|1êo|l)
P(ocesso( 2
|8o|l)
M
3o|ero|d
\CC
8L3 wree| 3erso(s FR 3peed 0ul
TC3 3W|lcr
8 L \a|ve 0(|ve( 2 L \a|ve 0(|ve(
|nterface 6|rcu|t
3Wl|cr Corl(o|/C|arp C|(cu|l
Corrur|ca|or C|(cu|l
Larp 0(|ve( C|(cu|l
Volo( (e|av & F3R 0(|ve( C|(cu|l
A/0 Vor|lo( C| (cu|l
CAN_l CAN_L
\a|ve
Re|av
CAN
A83 w/Larp
TC3 0ll Larp
K-L|re
E80 w/Larp
TC3 F/Larp
wree| s|dra| cord|l|or|rd C|(cu|l
TCS
TCS
TCS
TCS
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5.2.4 TCS CONSTRUCTION : TCS unit WheeI Speed Sensors CAN

5.2.5 TCS CONTROL TYPE
To reduce an excessive moving slip when a vehicle starts and accelerates on the low frictional road,
ETCS that controls engine torque and BTCS that controls brake pressure are available. An recently
FTCS, the combination of ETCS and BTCS, is increasing its share.

1) ETCS: Engine torque controI
 Direct control type: Throttle valve control
 Ìndirect control type: Ìgnition timing control, Fuel injection control
: Ìncorporated in the most vehicle owing to cost reduction

2) BTCS: Brake pressure controI:
: Ìndependent control of each driving wheel

3) FTCS: ETCS BTCS

5.2.6 COMPARISON
CAN
TCS unit
Master Cylinder
Front Speed Sensor
Front Speed Sensor Rear Speed Sensor
Rear Speed Sensor
EMS
ENGINE
EMS
ENGÌNE
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BTCS restricts the driving force by the brake application. Ìndependent control for a slipping wheel
is available. BTCS control has a speed limitation. Ìt is available until around 50km/h.
FTCS performs a brake control as well as the engine torque control through the CAN
communication. Once wheel slip from one or both of the wheels is detected by the control module,
torque reduction for the both driving wheels is performed.

BTCS vs. ETCS
Homo-Ģ SpIit-Ģ

- Better traction force (ETCS)
- Trace control at high speed
- Comfortable (No vibration & noise)
- Better traction force (BTCS)
- Speed limitation(BTCS)
- Not comfortable (vibration & noise)

5.2.7 TCS HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

BTCS

ETCS
Low-Ģ Low-Ģ
High-
Engine
Torque
Brake
Torque

BTCS

ETCS
Low-Ģ Low-Ģ
Traction
force
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Ìt includes the ABS function and comprises of the eight solenoids for the ABS control as well as the
two more solenoid valves for TCS and the two Hydraulic Shuttle Valves (HSV).

5.2.8 TCS HYDRAULIC UNIT
1) HS (HydrauIic ShuttIe) VaIve
When the TCS operates, the brake fluid is supplied to the motor pump
from the M/C via HSV.
This valve is closed and blocks the passage when a brake pedal is
applied.

2) TC (Traction ControI) VaIve
TC valve is only for the front wheels One side of this valve is connected with the
master cylinder and the other side is connected with the HPA.
Ìn case of a normal condition, this valve remains open and the brake pressure
from the M/C can be applied to the front wheel via TC valve
When a front wheel spin occurs, TC valve is closed and the brake pressure is
applied to the front wheel by the motor actuation.
TC valve includes a relief valve and a check valve. When excessive pressure is supplied from the
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motor, relief valve is opened and the pressure is relieved.

5.2.9 TCS OPERATAION

 NORMAL MODE

SOLENOÌD
VALVE
N.O OFF
N.C OFF
MOTOR OFF
TC VALVE OFF

Ìn the normal driving condition, TC valve (normally open) is the passage between the master
cylinder and the each wheel cylinder.
When brake pedal is applied, brake pressure is delivered to the wheel cylinders via NO-TC valve
and all solenoid valves inside the hydraulic unit are deactivated.
Ìn case of TCS malfunction it does not affect brake operation.

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 PRESSURE INCREASE MODE

SOLENOÌD
VALVE
FRT
N.O OFF
N.C OFF
RR
N.O ON
N.C OFF
MOTOR ON
TC VALVE ON

Ìf a front wheel spin is detected, TCS begins a brake control to decrease a wheel spin.
HSV is opened.
Brake fluid is supplied from the master cylinder by motor operation to the spin wheel via HSV.
TC valve is closed (ON).
Brake pressure generated from motor pump is delivered only to the front wheel.
Ìnlet valve remains open to deliver the brake pressure generated from motor pump to the spinning
wheels

 PRESSURE DUMP MODE
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SOLENOÌD
VALVE
FRT
N.O ON
N.C ON
RR
N.O ON
N.C OFF
MOTOR ON
TC VALVE ON

When the wheel deceleration is under the threshold and the wheel spin is reduced under a slip
threshold, applied brake pressure is reduced to get a optimum traction force. Outlet valve is open
to release the brake pressure and inlet valve is closed to block the pressure increase from the
motor pump. HSV remains opened, TC valve is ON. Motor is ON, to dump the brake fluid being
released from the lock-up wheel.

 PRESSURE HOLD MODE

SOLENOÌD
VALVE
FRT
N.O ON
N.C OFF
RR
N.O ON
N.C OFF
MOTOR ON
TC VALVE ON
5.2.10 TCS WARNING LAMP
'TCS OFF' lamp is a TCS warning lamp. When the TCS system fails, TCS OFF lamp remains on.
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'TCS' lamp is a TCS function lamp. This lamp flashes while TCS operation.

5.2.11 SYSTEM INPUT & OUTPUT

5.2.12 CAN (ControI Area Network)

A AB BS S & & T TC CS S
C CO ON NT TR RO OL L
M MO OD DU UL LE E
BRAKE SWÌTCH
WSS
DÌAGNOSÌS - K
ÌG Voltage
ABS & EBD LAMP
TCS SWÌTCH
TCS LAMP
CAN- Low (FTCS)
CAN- High (FTCS)
TCS W/L
TCS F/L
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5.2.13 TROUBLESHOOTING
1) DTC LIST (FTCS)
C1101 OVER VOLTAGE C1211 RR SENSOR - AÌR GAP ERROR
C1102 LOW VOLTAGE C1604 ECU SOFTWARE ERROR
C1200 LF SENSOR - OPEN OR SHORT C2112 VALVE RELAY OR FUSE FAÌL
C1201 LF SENSOR - SPEED JUMP C2380 SOLENOÌD VALVE FAÌL
C1202 LF SENSOR - AÌR GAP ERROR C2402 PUMP-MOTOR
C1203 RF SENSOR - OPEN OR SHORT C2227 DÌSC OVERHEAT
C1204 RF SENSOR - SPEED JUMP C1503 TCS SWÌTCH ERROR
C1205 RF SENSOR - AÌR GAP ERROR C1604 ECU SOFTWARE ERROR
C1206 LR SENSOR - OPEN OR SHORT C1605 CAN HARDWARE ERROR
C1207 LR SENSOR - SPEED JUMP C1616 CAN BUS OFF ERROR
C1208 LR SENSOR - AÌR GAP ERROR C1611 CAN TÌME OUT EMS
C1209 RR SENSOR - OPEN OR SHORT C1612 CAN TÌME OUT TCM
C1210 RR SENSOR - SPEED JUMP C1613 CAN TRANSMÌSSÌON UNMATCH

2) CAN COMMUNICATION ERROR

CAN
BUS

ABS
&
TCS

PCU
TCS operate signal
Gear shift
Engine torque
Engine rpm
Engine type
Gear shift
No. of fuel cut cylinder
Required engine torque
TCS operate signal
Engine torque
Engine rpm
Engine type
No. of fuel cut cylinder
Required engine torque
TCS operate signal
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NO ITEMS
DETECTED
CONDITIONS
ERROR
CODE
ABS
W/LAMP
EBD
W/LAMP
TCS
W/LAMP
1
CAN L SHORT TO CAN H
BUS OFF for 100ms C1616 CAN H SHORT TO CAN GND
CAN L SHORT TO CAN BAT
2
CAN L SHORT TO OPEN
EMS Message
missing for 500ms
C1611 CAN H SHORT TO CAN GND
CAN L SHORT TO CAN BAT
3 TCU TÌME OUT ERROR
TCU Message
missing for 500ms
(EMS=AUTO T/M)
C1612
4
TCU DATA UNMATCHÌNG
ERROR
TCU Message
transmission for
500ms
(EMS=MANUAL T/M)
C1613
5 CAN H/WARE ERROR CAN H/WARE failure C1605

C1605 CAN HARDWARE ERROR
: when CAN ÌC in the TCSCM malfunctions.
C1616 CAN BUS OFF ERROR
: When CAN communication line is open.
C1611 CAN TÌME OUT EMS
C1612 CAN TÌME OUT TCM
: TCSCM, ECM, TCM sends its own conditions through CAN bus line.
Ìf the signal from the ECM or TCM is not received for 500msec, then the corresponding
trouble code is read and TCS warning lamp comes on.
C1613 CAN TRANSMÌSSÌON UNMATCH
: TCSCM is informed of transmission type from ECM.
Ìf TCSCM receives manual transmission information from the ECM and at the same time
it gets TCM data through CAN line, the trouble code above is read.

3) DTC LIST (BTCS)
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C1101 OVER VOLTAGE C1211 RR SENSOR - AÌR GAP ERROR
C1102 LOW VOLTAGE C1604 ECU SOFTWARE ERROR
C1200 LF SENSOR - OPEN OR SHORT C2112 VALVE RELAY OR FUSE FAÌL
C1201 LF SENSOR - SPEED JUMP C2402 PUMP - MOTOR
C1202 LF SENSOR - AÌR GAP ERROR C2227 DÌSC OVERHEAT
C1203 RF SENSOR - OPEN OR SHORT
C1204 RF SENSOR - SPEED JUMP
C1205 RF SENSOR - AÌR GAP ERROR
C1206 LR SENSOR - OPEN OR SHORT
C1207 LR SENSOR - SPEED JUMP
C1208 LR SENSOR - AÌR GAP ERROR
C1209 RR SENSOR - OPEN OR SHORT
C1210 RR SENSOR - SPEED JUMP

5.2.14 EXTERNAL DIAGRAM (ABS)
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* EXTERNAL DIAGRAM (BTCS)

M
A
Ì
N

C
O
N
N
E
C
T
O
R
PUMP-
PUMP+
Wheel Speed Out(FR)
Top View
MAÌN
CONNECTOR
MGH-20 ECU
P
U
M
P

M
O
T
O
R
M
10
16
15
14
13
12
11
MUT
25
11
15
13
7
6
22
5
20
19
2
1
M-
M+
14
12
3
17
16
4
18
9
Wheel
Sensor (FL)
23
BAT2
STP
BAT1
WLP
FR_OUT
FR-
FR+
FL-
FL+
RL+
RR-
RR+
RL-
DÌAG
3
0
A
3
0
A
B
r
a
k
e

Ì
g
n
i
t
i
o
n
1

S
w
i
t
c
h
1
0
A
1
0
A
Brake
Lamp
Wheel
Sensor (RR)
Wheel
Sensor (RL)
Wheel
Sensor (FR)
BATTERY
8
24
GND 2
GND 1
1
7
6
5
4
3
2
9
8
17
23
22
21
20
19
18
24
25
PBS
ABS EBD
10
21
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* EXTERNAL DIAGRAM (FTCS)

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CAN L
CAN H
P
U
M
P

M
O
T
O
R
M
MGH-20 ECU
10
16
15
14
13
12
11
Top View
MAÌN
CONNECTOR
MUT
25
12
15
13
7
6
22
5
20
19
2
1
M-
M+
14
10
3
17
16
4
18
9
Wheel
Sensor (FL)
23
BAT2
STP
BAT1
WLP
Ì
GN+
FR_OUT
FR-
FR+
FL-
FL+
RL+
RR-
RR+
RL-
DÌAG
PUMP-
PUMP+
3
0
A
3
0
A
B
r
a
k
e

Ì
g
n
i
t
i
o
n
1

S
w
i
t
c
h
1
0
A
1
0
A
Brake
Lamp
Wheel
Sensor (RR)
Wheel
Sensor (RL)
Wheel
Sensor (FR)
BATTERY
M
A
Ì
N

C
O
N
N
E
C
T
O
R
8
24
GND 2
GND 1
1
7
6
5
4
3
2
9
8
17
23
22
21
20
19
18
24
25
Wheel Speed Out(FR)
PBS
ABS EBD
TCS W/Lamp
TCS SW
11
21
TCS F/Lamp
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MK-20 (TEVES)
- OPTIMA
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6. MK-20 (TEVES)

6.1 ABS (OPTIMA)
6.1.1. DESCRIPTION
OPTÌMA ABS, as an integrated control unit, is composed of the HCU and the ABSCM in one unit.
The HCU modulates wheel pressure by controlling inlet / outlet solenoid valves according to the
ABSCM monitoring the four wheel speed sensors. HCU has an aluminum block in which ABS
pumps, ABS regulation valves, low pressure accumulators, high pressure accumulators are
integrated. And an electric motor is positioned just above the block.
ABSCM is directly attached at the bottom of a hydraulic control unit. And motor relay & solenoid
relay are inside ABSCM, therefore, active warning lamp module is incorporated to flash ABS SRÌ &
EBD SRÌ in case that ABSCM is disconnected with warning lamp circuit.

6.1.2. SPECIFICATIONS

3) ABS CONTROL MODULE
OPERATÌNG VOLTAGE RANGE 10 = 16V
CONTROL FUSE 10A
OPERATÌNG TEMPERATURE RANGE -40=

1) HYDRAULIC UNIT AND CONTROL MODULE
- Weight : 3.0Kg
- Motor : 12V, 35A
- Motor power : 180W
- Pump capacity : 5.5cc/sec
- LPA capacity : 3.0cc

2) VALVE
- NO : Normal open
- NC : Normal close
- TC : Traction control
- HS : Hydraulic shuttle
Operation voltage : 12V
Operation current : 25A
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4) SERVICE REMINDER INDICATOR
OPERATÌNG VOLTAGE 12V
CURRENT CONSUMPTÌON 80
SRÌ FUSE 10A

5) HYDRAULIC CONTROL UNIT
RATED VOLTAGE 12V
CURRENT CONSUMPTÌON MOTOR: 35A, VALVE: 25A
MOTOR POWER 180W
MOTOR/SOLENOÌD FUSE 30A
OPERATÌNG TEMPERATURE RANGE - 40=

6.1.3. HCU & ABSCM

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6.1.4. SPECIFICATIONS OF WHEEL SPEED SENSOR
MODEL AIR GAP RESISTANCE TEETH VOLT
P.P

OPTÌMA
FRONT
0.2~1.1
1275~1495 C 47
150Ņ
REAR
0.2~1.3
1000~1200 C 44

6.1.5. LOCATION OF WHEEL SPEED SENSOR

6.1.6. ABS HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

3
5
6
1
7
8
9
4
2
F FR RO ON NT T W WS SS S R RE EA AR R W WS SS S
1. ABSCM
2. NO (front)
3. NC (front)
4. NC (rear)
5. NO (rear)
6. LPA
7. Pump motor
8. HPA
9. Booster & Master Cylinder
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6.1.7. CONTROL MODULE (ABS & TCS)

6.1.8. FUNCTION OF CONTROL MODULE

1) ABS controI
2) TCS controI
v SLIP CONTROL TYPE 2.0 & 2.4 DOHC : BTCS (Brake controI)
2.5 V6 DOHC : FTCS (Brake Eng A/T controI)
3) EBD controI : Substitute for a mechanicaI proportioning vaIve
4) CAN communication
5) WARNING LAMP controI: ABS, EBD, TCS, TCS OFF Iamp
6) FaiIsafe

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6.1.9. ABS HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT

6.2 FTCS (OPTIMA)

6.1.1. CONTROL TYPE
To reduce an excessive moving slip when a vehicle starts and accelerates on the low frictional road,
TCS that controls engine torque and BTCS that controls brake pressure are available. An recently
FTCS, the combination of ETCS and BTCS, is increasing its share.
1) ETCS: Engine torque control
Direct control type: Throttle valve control
Ìndirect control type: Ìgnition timing control, Fuel injection control
: Ìncorporated in the most vehicle owing to cost reduction
2) BTCS: Brake pressure control
: Ìndependent control of each driving wheel
3) FTCS: ETCS + BTCS
* OPTÌMA 2.0 & 2.4 DOHC: BTCS,
2.5 V6 DOHC: FTCS

6.1.2. OPTIMA TCS TYPE
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a) BTCS (Brake-intervention Traction Control System)
- 2.0 & 2.4 DOHC
- Brake control
b) FTCS (Full Traction Control System)
- 2.5 V6 DOHC
- Brake + Eng + Auto T/A
- CAN communication
- Brake control

6.1.3. TCS OPERATION
The concept of TCS is to regulates the brake pressure of the drive wheel by actuating the motor
pump. The ABSCM calculates the vehicle speed and the acceleration / deceleration amount of the
four wheels monitoring the sign waves coming from the each wheel sensor. Ìf the front wheel spin
is excessive comparing with the vehicle speed, TCS mode begins. ABSCM switches on the TC
valve (normally open) and this valve is closed cutting off the passage between the M/C and the
front wheel cylinder. Brake fluid taken from the master cylinder is circulated to the front wheel
cylinder via HSV (Hydraulic Shuttle Valve) by the motor pump actuation.
Ìn addition to that, the ABSCM requests through the CAN BUS line that the ECM reduces a engine
torque and the ATCM holds the present shift position.
After key on, the ABSCM diagnoses the system failure.
Ìf system failure is detected, ABSCM informs the driver of the system failure through the TCS
warning lamp.

6.1.4. HYDRAULIC CIRCUIT
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6.1.5. HYDRAULIC UNIT

1) HS (Hydraulic Shuttle) Valve
When the TCS operates, the brake fluid is supplied to the
motor pump from the M/C via HSV.
This valve is closed and blocks the passage when a brake
pedal is applied.
2) TC (Traction Control) Valve
TC valve is only for the front wheels One side of this valve is
connected with the master cylinder and the other side is connected
with the HPA.
Ìn case of a normal condition, this valve remains open and the brake
pressure from the M/C can be applied to the front wheel via TC valve.
When a front wheel spin occurs, TC valve is closed and the brake
pressure is applied to the front wheel by the motor actuation.
TC valve includes a relief valve and a check valve. When excessive
pressure is supplied from the motor, relief valve is opened and the
pressure is relieved.
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6.1.6. OPERATION
1) Control frequency: 7msec
2) BTCS control steps
- Phase0: outside of BTCS
- Phase1: pressure increase
- Phase2: pressure hold
- Phase3: pressure dump
- Phase4: pressure hold
- Phase5: pressure increase

3) Control factors
: Wheel speed, Wheel acceleration & deceleration, Slip
4) Basic TCS control
: The basic control example is shown next page

· Phase0 - Phase1: When the wheel spin
tendency is detected.
· Phase1 - Phase2: When the wheel spin
tendency is reduced.
· Phase2 - Phase3: When the wheel
deceleration is under the threshold and the
wheel spin is reduced under a slip threshold.
· Phase3 - Phase4: When the wheel speed
is within the slip threshold.
· Phase4 - Phase5: When the wheel
acceleration is over the threshold and the
wheel spin is over the slip threshold.

The procedure above is repeated to control
the wheel and the slip threshold is modified
according to the low-Mu level to get
maximum acceleration.
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6.1.7. TCS OPERATION
 NORMAL MODE

While braking, brake fluid from the master cylinder is
supplied to the rear wheel directly and to the front
wheel via TC valve.
HSV is moves against spring force by the brake fluid
pressure from the master cylinder.

 INCREASE MODE

Ìf a front wheel spin is detected, TCS begins a brake
control to decrease a wheel spin. HSV is opened. Brake
fluid is supplied from the master cylinder by motor
operation to the spin wheel via HSV. Brake pressure
generated from motor pump is delivered only to the front
wheel.

SOLEOÌD
VALVE
N.O OFF
N.C OFF
MOTOR OFF
TC VALVE OFF
SOLEOÌD
VALVE
N.O OFF
N.C OFF
MOTOR ON
TCVALVE ON
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 DUMP MODE

Ìf a front wheel lock-up is detected, dump mode is on.
Ìnlet valve is closed and outlet valve is opened to
release the brake pressure of the wheel. Motor is ON,
to dump the brake fluid being released from the lock-up
wheel. HSV remains open, TC valve is ON.

 HOLD MODE

SOLEOÌD
VALVE
N.O ON
N.C ON
MOTOR ON
TCVALVE ON
SOLEOÌD
VALVE
N.O ON
N.C OFF
MOTOR ON
TCVALVE ON
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6.1.8. TCS SELECT SWITCH

6.1.9. BTCS INPUT & OUTPUT (OPTIMA)
Error!

3. CanceIIation of TCS controI
4. TCS Iamp on
1. Sporty driving
2. ManuaI seIection

ABSCM
Wheel speed sensor
DLC output
ÌG. Voltage
DLC input
Solenoid valve
Motor
TCS Off switch
TCS function lamp
TCS Off & SRÌ
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6.1.10. FTCS INPUT & OUTPUT (OPTIMA)

Error!

6.1.11. CAN (ControI Area Network) COMMUNICATION

CAN
BUS
ABS
&
TCS
Eng.
ECU
TCU
TCS operate signal
Gear shift
Engine torque
Engine rpm
Engine type
Throttle open angle
Gear shift
No. of fuel cut cylinder
Required engine torque
TCS operate signal
Engine torque
Engine rpm
Engine type
Throttle open angle
No. of fuel cut cylinder
Required engine torque
TCS operate signal

ABSCM
Wheel speed sensor
DLC output
ÌG. Voltage
DLC input
Solenoid valve
Motor
TCS Off switch
TCS function lamp
TCS Off & SRÌ
CAN - Low
CAN - High
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6.1.12. WARNING LAMP

1) ABS warning lamp
ABS lamp on for 2 seconds after ÌG on
System failure
While communication with Hi-scan
ABSCM connector open

2) EBD (P/Brake) lamp
For 3 seconds after ÌG key on
Parking brake switch on
Brake oil shortage
Control module connector open
EBD failure

3) TCS OFF warning lamp
TCS Off mode selected
TCS has malfunction
Control Module is disconnected

4) TCS operating lamp
During TCS operation

5) TCS operating lamp (warning lamp function)
Normally off
TCS switch is selected
While TCS control
Control module connector open
TCS failure

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6.1.13. TCS WARING LAMP

6.1.14. ACTIVE WARNING LAMP MODULE

TCS or TCS OFF warning Iamp AOFFB

TCS Lamp or TCS OFF Lamp
TCSCM

ÌG +
1
TCS warning lamp is on when # 15 is off-
grounded and it comes off the terminal is
grounded.
Warning lamp come on if the circuit is open or
main connector is disconnected.
Moreover, when a system failure is detected or
TCS OFF switch is on, TCS OFF warning lamp
comes on and the TCS can not be performed.
During TCS operation, TCS warning comes on
and off. (3Hz)
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TCS or TCS OFF warning Iamp AONB

6.1.15. TROUBLESHOOTING

Ìn electronic control systems, momentary problems can occur in electronic circuits and input and
output signals. This can result in temporary trouble symptoms or a diagnosis code being recorded
by means of ABSCM self-diagnosis.
Ìf the cause of the problem is continuous, the location of the abnormality can be discovered by
checking according to the troubleshooting chart classified by the trouble symptoms.
However, the symptoms of some transient problems may return to normal by themselves, so there
is a possibility that the cause of the problem will be unclear. The cause of problems in vehicles
which are malfunctioning "temporarily¨ (When trouble symptoms do not reoccur) are mainly
vibration, heat/cold and excess electrical resistance.
By carrying out inspection according to the simulation method given next page, the trouble
symptom can be made to reoccur.

2) SIMULATION METHOD
Test by the following method to check if the problem reoccurs.
TCSCM
ÌG +

TCS Lamp or TCS OFF Lamp
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a. When the main cause is probably vibration
- Gently shake the connector up, down and to the left and right.
- Gently shake the wiring harness up, down and to the left and right.
- Gently shake other moving parts (wheel bearings etc.)
Ìf any wires are bent or are pulled a little bit too hard, the re-connection should be made with new
ones. The vehicle speed sensors in particular are subject to temporary open/short circuits due to
the movement of the suspension while driving, and therefore it is desirable that a driving test be
conducted while monitoring the sensor signals.

b. When the main cause is probably excess electrical resistance
 Turn all electrical switches, including the headlamp and rear defogger switches, ON.
Ìf the trouble symptom does not reoccur even after carrying out the above inspections, the
problem should be left for a while, for it to reoccur naturally (Ìntermittent problems will always get
worse with the time, not better)

3) INSPECTION BY HI-SCAN
a. Connect the Hi-scan both to the battery power and to the Data Link Connector, turn the ignition
ON and select vehicle diagnosis mode. (The ABS warning lamp illuminates, during system
diagnosis mode) Ìf it does not go into the Diagnosis mode, check the ABSCM power circuit and
the harness between the ABSCM and diagnose check terminals.
b. Read the diagnostic trouble codes.
c. Ìf the memory can not be erased, the function is being stopped by a problem that is currently
displaying a problem code. Ìf the memory can be erased, then the problem was only temporary,
or it is a problem that can only be detected while driving.
d. Ìf the diagnostic trouble code is not erased, or if the ABS function is stopped by a repeated
driving test and a malfunction code occurs, inspect according to the DTC charts.
When repairs are completed, the diagnosis code memory should be erased. When the ABSCM
function is stopped, the failure code memory cannot be erased.

4) DTC DISPLAY METHOD
The codes are displayed as follows depending on the system problem.
a. Ìn case of no-current-problem but previous problem:
- Sporadic fault code stored
b. Ìn case of current problem but no previous problem:
- Current fault code is displayed.
c. Ìn case of current problem and previous problem:
- Current fault code and sporadic fault code is displayed.
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5) INSPECTION CHART BY TROUBLE SYMPTOMS
' When ignition key is turned ON, ABS SRI does not iIIuminate
The cause of the lamp not illuminating is probably an open circuit in the lamp power circuit, a blown
lamp bulb or an open circuit between the ABSCM and the ABS warning lamp circuit.

Probable cause
- Blown fuse
- Burnt out ABS warning lamp
- Broken wire, disconnected connector
- Malfunction of ABS warning lamp circuit

' ABS operation is abnormaI
This varies depending on the driving conditions and the road surface conditions, so troubleshooting
is difficult. However, if no failure code is memorized, carry out the follow inspection.

Probable cause
- Ìmproper installation of wheel speed sensor
- Bad contact of wheel speed sensor harness connector
- Malfunction of wheel speed sensor
- Malfunction of tooth wheel
- Foreign material adhered to wheel speed sensor
- Malfunction of wheel bearing
- Malfunction of ABS HCU or ABSCM

Long brake pedaI traveI
External leakage and mechanical defects must be visually inspected. Air in brake system can only
be confirmed by bleeding. Outlet valve leakage can only be confirmed by Hi-scan actuator function
test.

Probable cause
- External leakage Ìnspect all hydraulic connectors and torque them
- Outlet valve leakage Replace ABS unit
- Air in brake system
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- Disc runout Replace brake disc

Hard brake pedaI
Check for correct fitment of trim and carpet. Booster and brake pedal movement must be checked
as with conventional braking system. Ìncorrect inlet valve operation can only be confirmed by the
Hi-scan actuator function test.
Probable cause
- Booster problem Check for booster and brake pedal movement
- Ìncorrect inlet valve operation Carry out actuator function test and Replace ABS unit if
necessary

No diagnosis output (Communication with Hi-scan not possibIe)
When communication with the Hi-scan is not possible, the cause is probably an open circuit in the
ABSCM power circuit or an open circuit in the diagnosis output circuit.

Probable cause
- Blown fuse
- Broken wire, disconnected data link connector or ABSCM connector
- Malfunction of ABSCM
- Malfunction of Hi-scan or un-matching software card of Hi-scan

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6) CONNECTOR PIN ASSIGNMENT (OPTIMA)
PIN NO PIN ASSIGNMENT PIN NO PIN ASSIGNMENT
1 SENSOR LEFT FRONT 13 TCS OFF SWÌTCH
2 SENSOR LEFT FRONT GND 14 TCS OPERATÌNG LAMP
3 SENSOR LEFT FRONT OUTPUT 16 ABS & EBD WARNÌNG LAMP
4 ÌGNÌTÌON (+) 17 TCS OFF LAMP
5 SENSOR LEFT REAR 18 BRAKE LÌGHT SWÌTCH
6 SENSOR LEFT REAR GND 19 SENSOR RÌGHT FRONT
7 DLC ÌNPUT/OUTPUT (K-LÌNE) 20 SENSOR RÌGHT FRONT GND
8 GROUND 22 SENSOR RÌGHT REAR GND
9 BATTEY - SOLENOÌD 23 SENSOR RÌGHT REAR
10 CAN - L (for TCS) 24 GROUND - MOTOR
11 CAN - H (for TCS 25 BATTERY - MOTOR

7) DTC LIST
PIN NO PIN ASSIGNMENT PIN NO PIN ASSIGNMENT
C1103 VOLTAGE RANGE-UNDER/OVER C1503 TCS SWÌTCH ERROR
C1200 LF SENSOR - OPEN ORSHORT C1604 ECU SOFTWARE ERROR
C1201 LF SENSOR - SPEED JUMP C1605 ABSCM CAN HARDWARE ERROR
C1202 LF SENSOR - AÌR GAP ERROR C1610 CAN BUS OFF ERROR
C1203 RF SENSOR - OPEN ORSHORT C1611 CAN TÌME OUT EMS
C1204 RF SENSOR - SPEED JUMP C1612 CAN TÌME OUT TCM
C1205 RF SENSOR - AÌR GAP ERROR C1613 CAN TRANSMÌSSÌON UNMATCH
C1206 LR SENSOR - OPEN ORSHORT C1700 PARAMETER ERROR
C1207 LR SENSOR - SPEED JUMP C2112 VALVE RELAY ORFUSE FAÌL
C1208 LR SENSOR - AÌR GAP ERROR C2114 DÌSTURBANCE - VALVE FAÌLURES
C1209 RR SENSOR - OPEN ORSHORT C2402 PUMP - MOTOR
C1210 RR SENSOR - SPEED JUMP
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C1211 RR SENSOR - AÌR GAP ERROR
8) CAN COMMUNICATION ERRORS
C1605 TCSCM CAN HARDWARE ERROR
: when CAN ÌC in the TCSCM malfunctions.
C1610 CAN BUS OFF ERROR
: When CAN communication line is open.
C1611 CAN TÌME OUT EMS
C1612 CAN TÌME OUT TCM
: TCSCM, ECM, TCM sends its own conditions through CAN bus line. Ìf the signal from
the ECM or TCM is not received for 500msec, then the corresponding trouble code is
read and TCS warning lamp comes on.
C1613 CAN TRANSMÌSSÌON UNMATCH
: TCSCM is informed of transmission type from ECM.
Ìf TCSCM receives manual transmission information from the ECM and at the same time it gets
TCM data through CAN line, the trouble code above is read.

NO ITEMS
DETECTED
CONDITIONS
ERROR
CODE
ABS
W/L LAMP
EBD
W/L LAMP
TCS
W/L LAMP
1
CAN L SHORT TO CAN H
BUS OFF for 100Ł
C1610 CAN H SORT TO GND
CAN L SHORT TO BAT
2
CAN L OR CAN H OPEN
EMS Message
missing for 500Ł
C1611 CAN L SHORT TO GND
CAN H SHORT TO BAT
3 TCU TÌME OUT ERROR
TCU Message
missing for 500Ł
(EMS=AUTO T/M)
C1612
4
TCU DATA UNMATCHÌNG
ERROR
TCU Message
For 500Ł
(EMS=MANUAL T/M)
C1613
5 CAN H/WARE ERROR CAN H/WARE failure C1605

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9) CAUTIONS BEFORE DIAGNOSIS
Phenomenon EpIanation of phenomenon
System check sound
When starting the engine, a thudding sound can sometimes be heard
from inside the engine room, but this because the system operation
check is being performed, and is not an abnormality.
ABS operation sound
a. Sound of the motor operation
b. Brake pedal pulsation during ABS operation
c. When ABS operates, sound is generated from the vehicle chassis due
to repeated brake application and release. (Thump sound from
suspension, squeak sound from tires)
ABS operation
(Long braking distance)
For load surface such as snow-covered roads and gravel roads, the
braking distance for ABS equipped vehicle can sometimes be longer
than that for other vehicle.

10) EXTERNAL WÌRÌNG DÌAGRAM

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BOSCH 5.3 ABS/TCS
(with EBD)
- SORENTO
- OPTIMA (2002 ~)
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7. BOSCH 5.3 (with EBD)

7.1 ABS 5.3 (OPTIMA F/L)
7.1.1. BOSCH ABS 5.3
1) HECU

2) ASCM Construction

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3) HydrauIic Unit Section

4) ABS HydrauIic EIements

Outlet valve
(Normally closed)
Accumulato
Pump
Ìnlet valve
(Normally open)
Dampe
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5) Specification
a. System
- BOSCH ABS 5.3
- 4Sensor 4Channel
- BRAKE Line : X Split
- ABS with EBD Control

b. Hydro-Electronic Control Unit (HECU )
- Hydraulic Modulator : Size(84 X 118 X 170mm), Weight(2.6Kg)
- Motor : Large Size(180W)
- Solenoid Valve : Sol-Sol Type(Ìnlet/Outlet)
- ECU : Attached ECU

c. Wheel Speed Sensor
- Ìnductive Sensor(Passive Type)
- Minimum P-P voltage : 120mV (2.75KPH)
ECU
Operating volt. 8 ~ 16V
Operating Temp. -40 ~ 120
Reverse volt. -13.5V
HECU
(HUECU)
Weight 2.7 Kg

Pump capacity 4.8 cc/sec
Power consum. 230W
SoIenoid
VaIve
Resistance
Ìnlet Valve (EV):
8.54U C 0.5U

Outlet Valve (AV)
:4.29UC0.25U
Return
Pump
Motor
Operating current
45A or less
(10.5V C 0.5V, 23 C5)

Max. current
145A or less
(16V C 0.1V, 23 C 5)
WheeI
Speed
Sensor
Coil resistance 1600U C 10%
- Air Gap
Front : 0.3~1.2 mm
Rear : 0.3~1.2 mm
Ìnsulation resist.
1MU
Tone wheel 48 EA

MOTOR PUMP

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6) HECU

7) HECU Appearance

8) ABSCM Housing
 Never disassembles the HECU

 valve seat coil assembly
a Ìnlet valve (RR)
b Ìnlet valve (FL)
c Ìnlet valve (FR)
d Ìnlet valve (RL)
e Outlet valve (RR)
f Outlet valve (FL)
g Outlet valve (FR)
h Outlet valve (RL)
ABS 5.3
Top view
Bottom view
ECU connector
Accumulator
Damping
Chamber
Motor Power line
RR RL MC1 MC2
FR
FL
ECU connector
ECU housing
Return pump
Connecting bolt
Pump Motor
a
b
c d
f
e h
g
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9) EBD ModuIation
* EBD control example

10) FaiIure Matri of EBD Rev.4

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Power-suppIy reversible -> low voltage 9,4V > Uz > 6X X X
WSSwheel speed sensor ohm
non-ohm (FDFP)
2 WSS-failures
reversible -> high-frequenzy
BLS brake light switch X
PM pump motor failure X X
MR motor relay failure X X
VR ventil relay sticking X X
G-Switch sensor failure X
ABS disabled, EBD enabled(Keep Alive Function)
ABS and EBD disabled
ABS and EBD enabled
X not possible
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11) DTC LIST
Group of DTCs FauIt path
C1103 Battery voltage out of range
C1200 FL wheel sensor : Open or short to ground
C1201 Range/Performance : Exciter or speed jump error
C1203 FR wheel sensor : Open or short to ground
C1204 Range/Performance : Exciter or speed jump error
C1206 RL wheel sensor : Open or short to ground
C1207 Range/Performance : Exciter or speed jump error
C1209 RR wheel sensor : Open or short to ground
C1210 Range/Performance : Exciter or speed jump error
C1604 Hardware
C2112 Main Relay, fuse
C2114 Disturbance (Ìncluding Valve failures)
C2402 Electrical (Pump motor)
C1245 Wheel speed frequency error
C1161 Brake light switch

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7.1.2. ABS 5.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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7.2 ABD 5.3 (BTCS - OPTIMA F/L)

7.1.1. BOSCH ABD 5.3
1) ABD HydrauIic Unit Section

2) GeneraI Introduction of ABD
The vehicle normally shall offer driver safe handling and stable driving quality means that vehicle
shall be able to retain full control under driver demand.
However at some critical acceleration situations such as launch on slippery road surface (low-3)
and on split-3 roads, the excessive slip will be generate between the tires and road surface and
that cause vehicle loss traction and stability. The Automatic Brake Differential (ABD) in the brake
system make additional contributions to driving safety and quality.
On split-3, ABD improves the traction on slippery road by braking the wheel which is spinning and
transfer the torque to the wheel on the high 3 side.
Ìn case both driven wheel slip on homogeneous low-3 then brake intervention to both wheels are
necessary and that support vehicle to keep stable. Nevertheless, in order to achieve optimal
traction slip on both wheels and improves the vehicle@s directional stability, ABD function must be
extended to full TCS which is with brake and engine intervention.

Ìnlet valve
Outlet valve
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3) ControI AIgorithm
The input speed signal for the ABD control are the filtered wheel speed signal from the ABS speed
processing. According the wheel speed signals different, ABD system can recognize split-3 or
homogeneous 3 situation.
ABD is using the slip threshold to decide when shall it actuate. The slip threshold depends on the
vehicle speed which is extended at low speed and remains constant at higher speed. Then ABD
calculate the slip difference of driven wheel, so called control deviation (RA) and compare it to slip
threshold. When RA bigger than slip threshold (RA 0), vehicle speed less than ABD start speed
(Sonata/Optima case 35 kph) and calculate brake disc temperature less than a figure
(Sonata/Optima case 250 HC) then control begin. As soon as the speed difference between two
driven wheels less than slip threshold and bigger than ABD reference speed that means vehicle on
the homogeneous 3 situation then individual control is actuated and synchronous pressure
increase to both driven wheel is also possible.

Control will terminate in case the following conditions fulfill:
a. Normal end of control
System response: After the last reduction pulse, the USV extension is start for a certain time
(Sonata/Optima case 2500 ms)
The solenoid valve remain on Apressure holdB.
b. Vehicle speed higher than ABD control speed (Sonata/Optima 40 kph)
System response: There is a pulsed pressure decline after last reduction pulse train.
c. The calculate brake temperature higher than 400 HC
System response: Shut off when the ABD control to the wheel which calculate brake
temperature higher than 400 HC and allow ABD actuate again until the
temperature of this wheel is lower than 250 HC.
d. Terminated by brake light switch (BLS)
System response: When BLS apply, the motor relay is switch off and the solenoid valves are
switched to the Abrake operationB position.
e. Terminated if failure is detected such as valve, ECU failure
System response: At the end of control and after execute the last reduction pulse, USV and
ASV are switch to the Apressure holdB position.
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4) Pressure ModuIation
The pressure modulation at the driven wheels is done by ASV (ABD solenoid valve on pump inlet
side) and USV (ABD solenoid valve on pump outlet side) valves.
ABD control start with a continuous filling pulse to cover the system-induced dead time, i.e. fill
pump, brake calipers normally it need large volume. This filling pulse is executed at the beginning
of control with at least 250 ms at Sonata/Optima case in the wheel with RA 0. After fill pulse,
there is a hold phase.
Another pressure increase may be modulated via continuous pressure increase or via a pressure
increase pulse. After that, there is pressure hold or another pressure increase depending on the
driving situation. When RA greater than a specific speed then pressure reduction will be initialed
via the reduction pulse train. Ìn split-3 situation, if high 3 wheel instability occurs, a reduction pulse
is immediately carried out on the low 3 wheel.
Ìn additional, if the high 3 wheel spin then pressure increase and pressure modulation are done at
this high 3 wheel.
Normally, during BTCS control with ASV and USV valve, the EV and AV valve of this wheel do not
actuate. The EV for other wheels while ABD control are close in order to avoid pressure increase.
The pressure in both wheels are calculated/estimated by a mathematical model and control the
optimal pressure for both driven wheel under consideration of traction and comfort.

5) Temperature over heat detection
The brake temperature logic is applied in order to avoid over heat the brake of driven wheel during
ABD control. The brake disc temperature is calculated by a mathematical model for each driven
wheel separately. After ignition on, the calculation starts with 30 HC and then calculate the disc
temperature separately.
Ìf the calculated temperature is higher than 400 HC, ABD will switch off temporary for this wheel. Ìt
is functional again, if the temperature down lower than 250 HC. During this period, the ABD
Ìnformation lamp will light on and the failure message ABrake OverheatingB will store into ECU.
During application, the calculated brake disc temperature and the gradient of temperature increase
and decrease are tuned as close as possible to the actual brake disc temperature on ABD
operation, brake, and cooling phases.

6) TCS OFF switch & TCS information Iamp
TCS-off switch is allow driver to switch off ABD operation manually. Ìt apply for whole speed
range. After ignition ON, TCS-off switch is available. Press the switch, ABD is passive and ABD info.
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lamp light on. Press it again then ABD is functional again and TCS info. Lamp off.
The ABS/ABD 5.3 system has three lamps: an ABS warning lamp, EBD lamp and ABD Ìnformation
lamp. The ABD information lamp will blinking while ABD operation and light on when system failure,
over temperature, EBD failure.

7) Lamp concept
Ignition ABS ABD
Jn Jperation Jperation
ABS 3s JN for JFF JFF
LAMP lamp check
ABD 3s JN for JFF Blinking
Info. Lamp check
EBD 3s JN for JFF JFF
LAMP lamp check

EBD ABS/ABD ABD passive
failure system failure due to temp. model
ABS JN JN JFF
LAMP
ABD JN JN JN
Info.
EBD JN JN/JFF JFF
LAMP (JFF; in case 1
Jr 2 WSS Failure)

EBD ABS warning ABD/EBD warning
operation lamp failure lamp failure
ABS JFF JN JFF
LAMP
ABD JFF JFF JFF
Info.
EBD JFF JFF JFF
LAMP

ECU power EV or/and AV ASV or/and USV
Brake valve failure valve failure
ABS JN JN JN
LAMP
ABD JFF JN JN
Info.
EBD JN JN JN
LAMP

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8) DTC LIST
Group of DTCs FauIt path
C1103 Battery voltage out of range
C1200 FL wheel sensor : Open or short to ground
C1201 Range/Performance : Exciter or speed jump error
C1203 FR wheel sensor : Open or short to ground
C1204 Range/Performance : Exciter or speed jump error
C1206 RL wheel sensor : Open or short to ground
C1207 Range/Performance : Exciter or speed jump error
C1209 RR wheel sensor : Open or short to ground
C1210 Range/Performance : Exciter or speed jump error
C1604 Hardware
C2112 Main Relay, fuse
C2114 Disturbance (Ìncluding Valve failures)
C2402 Electrical (Pump motor)
C1245 Wheel speed frequency error
C1161 Brake light switch
C0931 Output stage overeat fault

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7.1.2. BOSCH ABD 5.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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7.3 ASR 5.3 (FTCS - OPTIMA F/L)

7.1.1. BOSCH ASR 5.3
1) GeneraI Introduction of TCS
The Traction Control System (TCS) incorporate with two independent control algorithms, drive
moment control (AMR) and brake moment control (BMR), that can be applied simultaneously to
improves traction and keeps the vehicle in line and it apply on all road surface with the whole
speed range. TCS is developing on the basis of ABS in order to ensure the wheels neither lock-up
during braking, nor should they spin when driving off.

2) CAN Interface
During TCS operation, TCS system need communicate with different system control unit such as
EMS (Engine Management System) and TCU (Transmission Control Unit) to share the important
message as list below in order to ensure TCS performance and comfort.

3) ControI AIgorithm
The TCS control algorithm has two independent control algorithms, drive moment control (AMR)
and brake moment control (BMR).
TCS evaluated the filtered wheel speed signal from ABS speed processing to recognizes when a
wheel is going to start slipping.
As soon as wheel(s) spin was detected, BMR will intervene automatically in the brake system to
increase traction and AMR intervenes in the engine function to reduce engine torque and keep
vehicle stable via connected to EMS ECU by CAN data bus.

4) Brake Moment ControI (BMR)
The BMR increases the pressure actively in the brakes either to generate a brake differential effect
by means of pressure increase in one wheel on split-3 situation or on homogeneous 3, to reduce
quickly the wheel spin and stabilize the car by increase pressure in both rear wheels
simultaneously.
Ìn order to compensate the clearance of the brake, BMR control starts with a filling pulse. The
following control algorithm is on the basis of comparison between slip threshold and control
deviation (RA), the slip difference of driven wheel. The slip threshold is calculated depends on the
vehicle speed, acceleration, driving condition such as driving straight or in the curve, split 3 or
homogeneous 3 road surface.
Pressure modulation will be applied by pressure increase or decrease pulse to satisfy the different
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control condition that dependence of control deviations, wheel acceleration and driving condition.

5) Drive Moment ControI (AMR)
The AMR controls the engine torque by means of spark retard and ignition cutoff.
The control concept and the calculation of slip threshold of AMR is similar to that of BMR. However,
the threshold values of AMR and BMR are different, but tuned to each other.
Whenever the wheel slip is higher than the slip threshold value then AMR calculated the optimal
engine torque reduce value and transmitted it via CAN bus to the EMS.
Then EMS will response to reduce engine torque accordingly by spark retard and/or ignition cutoff.
AMR will request EMS to increase torque as long as the wheel slip value is lower than slip
threshold.

6) TCS Iamp concept
Ignition ABS TCS
Jn Jperation Jperation
ABS 3s JN for JFF JFF
Lamp lamp check
TCS 3s JN for JFF Blinking
M. Lamp Lamp check
EBD 3s JN for JFF JFF
Lamp lamp check

EBD ABS/TCS EBD
failure system failure operation
ABS JN JN JFF
Lamp
TCS JN JN JFF
M. Lamp
EBD JN JN/JFF JFF
Lamp (JFF; in case 1
Jr 2 WSS Failure)

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ABS warning ABD/EBD warning ECU power
lamp failure lamp failure brake
ABS JN JFF JN
Lamp
TCS JFF JFF JFF
M. Lamp
EBD JFF JFF JN
Lamp

EV or/and AV ASV or/and USV
valve failure valve failure
ABS JN JN
Lamp
TCS JN JN
Info.
EBD JN JN
Lamp

7.1.2. BOSCH ASR 5.3 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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7.1.3. BOSCH ASR 5.3
Group of DTCs FauIt path
C1103 Battery voltage out of range
C1200 FL wheel sensor : Open or short to ground
C1201 Range/Performance : Exciter or speed jump error
C1203 FR wheel sensor : Open or short to ground
C1204 Range/Performance : Exciter or speed jump error
C1206 RL wheel sensor : Open or short to ground
C1207 Range/Performance : Exciter or speed jump error
C1209 RR wheel sensor : Open or short to ground
C1210 Range/Performance : Exciter or speed jump error
C1604 Hardware
C2112 Main Relay, fuse
C2114 Disturbance (Ìncluding Valve failures)
C2402 Electrical (Pump motor)
C1245 Wheel speed frequency error
C1161 Brake light switch
C1605 CAN Hardware error
C1236 EMS indicates invalid engine speed
C1611 CAN timeout EMS
C1256 EMS indicates CAN engine torque intervention fault
C1241 EMS indicates CAN engine torque intervention plausibility fault

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BAS
(Brake Assist System)
- CERATO with ABS

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8. BAS (Brake Assist System)

8.1 BOOSTER

N Ne ec ce es ss si it ty y o or r B Br ra ak ke e A As ss si is st ta an nt t S Sy ys st te em m
C Ca ar r a ac cc ci id de en nt t p pr ro oo of f e ef ff fe ec ct t o of f A AB BS S v ve eh hi ic cl le e i is s
u us se el le es ss s a ac cc co or rd di in ng g t to o t th he e r re es se ea ar rc ch h f fr ro om m N NH HT TS SA A. .
S Su ur rv ve ey y f fr ro om m a ag ge e o of f 1 18 8 ~ ~ 7 70 0
d dr ri iv ve er rs s 2 20 08 8, ,
a at t 4 47 7% % c ca as se es s, , A AB BS S d di id dn n' 't t o op pe er ra at te e
a at t p pa an ni ic c s si it tu ua at ti io on n
T TO OY YO OT TA A
S Si im mi il la ar r r re es su ul lt t
a as s T TO OY YO OT TA A s su ur rv ve ey y
N NÌ ÌS SS SA AN N
9 90 0% % o of f d dr ri iv ve er rs s w wi it th h A AB BS S
m ma ak ke e i in ns su uf ff fi ic ci ie en nt t b br ra ak ki in ng g
B BE EN NZ Z
A AB BS S n no ot t o op pe er ra at te ed d
i in ns su uf ff fi ic ci ie en nt t P Pe ed da al l
o op pe er ra at ti io on n
8 80 0' 's s A AB BS S
s su up pp pl ly yi in ng g r ra at te e : : 2 2% %
1 19 99 94 4, , A AB BS S
s su up pp pl ly yi in ng g r ra at te e: : 5 56 6% %
[2-Ratio Booster]
[Conventional Booster]
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8.2 2-RATIO BOOSTER

BAS Mechanism
* 1. 2-Ratio Booster Unique Parts: Control spring, Plunger, Spring Retainer, Pin
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1) PLUNGE ASSEMBLY

2) COMPONENTS
COMPONENTS FUNCTIONS
CONTROL SPRÌNG
Deliverers input force to plunger
Spring deforms when the input force over its setting value
2-RATÌO function can be available
SPRÌNG RETAÌNER
Support a control spring
Delivers input force to a control spring
PLUNGER
Delivers the input force to a reaction disc
PÌN
Hold a plunger and spring retainer

3) OPERATING PRINCIPLE
PLUNGER
CONTROL S/P
PÌN
SPRÌNG
RETAÌNER
Lap Gap
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- Jump in stage continues until a reaction disc fills in the Lap Gap
<Jump Ìn Stage: 40kgf>
Conventional Booster
2-Ratio Booster
A
B
C
D
Ìnput force
O
u
t
p
u
t

f
o
r
c
e

2-Ratio Booster
Conventional Booster
6.5kgf
40kgf
<After Knee Point Stage>
A
B
C
D
Ìnput force
O
u
t
p
u
t

f
o
r
c
e

2-Ratio Booster
Conventional Booster
<Boosting Stage>
2-Ratio Booster
B : 1st Boost Ratio Stage C : 2nd Boost Ratio Stage
7~7.5:1
2nd stage
Above 0.3G
10.5~11:1
- Control spring is not compressed and
moves together at Normal range (B)
- Ìncrease pedal force ~ Control spring is
compressed ~ Air valve opens more~
Boost ratio increase
Conventional Booster
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4) PURPOSEOF 2-RATIO BOOSTER
To reduce input force at high pressure range by increasing a booster ratio
Ìncrease the braking response while sudden braking

Reduction of stopping distance while heavy
braking (10~15%)
Less input effort at high pressure applying
range while heavy braking

- Less knee point

- Control spring adheres to a retainer, 1:1 ratio
F
out

F
in
' < F
in
ÌNPUT
OUTPUT
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5) COMPARISON OF CONSTRUCTION

ITEM

CONVENTIONAL

2-RATIO

PLUNGER

AIR V/V AREA

77mm
2
102 mm
2
(32% UP)

FEATURES

1. AÌR V/V AREA UP (32% UP)
2. ROOM FOR CONTROL ASS'Y
3. 2-RATÌO FUNCTÌON

A
Ì
R

V
/
V

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ESP
(EIectronic StabiIity Program,
TEVES MK25)

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9. ESP(EIectronic StabiIity Program)
9.1 GENERAL
ESP is based on the MK25 ABS Hydraulic System of Continental Teves. ESP recognizes critical
driving conditions, such as panic reactions in dangerous situations, and stabilizes the vehicle by
wheel-individual braking and engine control intervention with no need for actuating the brake or the
gas pedal.
ESP adds a further function known as Active Yaw Control (AYC) to the ABS, TCS, EBD and EDC
functions. Whereas the ABS/TCS function controls wheel slip during braking and acceleration and,
thus, mainly intervenes in the longitudinal dynamics of the vehicle, active yaw control stabilizes the
vehicle about its vertical axis. This is achieved by wheel-individual brake intervention and
adaptation of the momentary engine torque with no need for any action to be taken by the driver.
ESP essentially consists of three assemblies: the sensors, the electronic control unit and actuators.
Sensors measure the position of the steering wheel, the pressure in the master brake cylinder, the
yaw velocity ('yaw rate') and the acceleration transverse to the vehicle (lateral acceleration). This
makes it possible to compare the driver's intention with the momentary vehicle behavior so that in
the event of interfering deviations with adverse affect on driving safety the electronic control unit
can initiate appropriate corrective action.
The electronic control unit incorporates the technological experience accumulated in connection
with the MK20 system, but has been substantially expanded in terms of capacity and monitoring
concept in order to permit the additional sensor signals and arithmetic operations to be processed
and converted into corresponding valve, pump and engine control commands. Tow 16-bit
processors and one 8-bit processor, which monitor each other, cooperate to handle these
requirements.
Of course, the stability control feature works under all driving and operating conditions. Under
certain driving conditions, the ABS/TCS function can be activated simultaneously with the ESP
function in response to a command by the driver. Ìn the event of a failure of the stability control
function, the basic safety function, ABS, is still maintained.

AppIication

L GL L GL L GL GL L GL
ESP O S O S #O S S O S
BAS O S O S #O S S O S
AREA &
TRÌM
LEVEL
GENERAL M/EAST EUROPE USA

* O: Option, S: Standard, * #O: Germany only 'S'
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ABS in 'add on design (Integrated type)
With these systems, a hydraulic ABS control unit is inserted into the hydraulic braking system
between tandem master cylinder and the wheel brakes. By adding wheel sensors with gear wheels
and an electronic ABS control unit, the system is converted into an electronic anti-lock braking
system.
The system consists of the following conventional components:
Brake booster
Tandem master cylinder
Wheel brakes (disc or drum)
Hydraulic ABS control unit
Electronic ABS control unit
Wheel sensors with tone wheels

[Anti-Iock Brake System construction]
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Traction ControI System (BTCS/FTCS)
This system is an extension of the well-known ABS function to incorporate BTCS (Brake
Ìntervention Traction Control System) and FTCS (Full Traction Control System) which controls
engine torque.

ESP (EIectronic StabiIity Program)
Combines the ABS and TCS components with additional sensors monitoring yaw, lateral
acceleration and the driver's intention (steer angle sensor).

* * E ES SP P: ABS TCS A AY YC C (A Active Y Yaw C ControI)

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9.2 BASIC PHYSICS OF DRIVING DYNAMICS

Stopping distance
The stopping distance depends on the vehicle weight and the speed at which the vehicle travels
when the brakes are first applied.
This also applies to vehicles equipped with ABS. Although ABS attempts to adjust an optimum
braking force at each wheel, the forces which take effect between tires and road surface are so
high that even wheels equipped with ABS may squeal and leave rubber on the road. The skid mark
produced by an ABS brake application may clearly show the tread pattern of the tire.
However, in the event of an accident, the speed at which the vehicle was traveling cannot be
concluded from the skid mark of an ABS vehicle because any such mark will be clearly visible at
the start of brake application only.

Braking force
Depressing the brake pedal causes the braking force to rise until it reaches a maximum, after
which it drops until the wheel locks.

Braking force at a wheeI
The maximum braking force that can be achieved at any wheel depends upon the load on the
wheel and the frictional grip between tire and road surface, which is expressed as the 'coefficient of
adhesion'. Ìf the coefficient of adhesion is low, the braking force that can be achieved is very low.
You will probably be familiar with this situation from driving on winter roads. With a high coefficient
of adhesion on a dry road, the braking force that can be achieved is substantially higher. The
maximum braking force that can be achieved can also be calculated.

Maimum braking force
FB
max
= wheel load F
wheel
x coefficient of adhesion Ģ
However, the calculated braking forces do no provide a
sufficiently accurate description of what happens during
braking.
The calculated values are only valid if the wheel does not
lock. Ìf a wheel locks, adhesion changes to sliding friction,
which exerts less deceleration. Ìn technical literature, this
loss of friction is described as 'slip'.
F
wheeI
Brake force on a wheeI
FB

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Cornering force
The cornering force is highest when the wheel is rolling freely with no slip. Braking causes the
cornering force to drop to zero when the wheel locks (slip=100%).

SIip
Brake slip is the difference between the vehicle speed and the circumferential speed of the wheel.
The slip is highest (100%) when the wheel locks and lowest (0%) when the wheel rotates unbraked.
While vehicle driving or braking, complex physical forces occurs in the tire's contact area with the
road. The tire's rubber elements become distorted and are exposed to partial sliding movements,
even if the wheel has not yet locked.
The slip can be calculated from the vehicle speed V
vhc
and the wheel speed V
whl
using the
following equation:
S = (V
vhc
- V
whl
) / V
vhc
x 100%

TypicaI sIip curves
The picture shows coefficients of adhesion for various road surfaces. The typical shape of the
curves is always the same, with one exception: the curve for new snow rises when the slip reaches
100%.

Concrete
(dry)
Concrete
(wet)
Snow
Ìce
Concrete
(dry)
Concrete
(wet)
Snow
Ìce

On a vehicle without ABS, the wheel locks when
braked, causing a wedge of loose surface
material or new snow to build up in front, resulting
in a higher resistance and a shorter stopping
distance.
Ìf the vehicle is equipped with ABS, the stopping
distance cannot be reduced because the wheel
will not lock. On loose surface material or new
snow, the stopping distance of a vehicle with ABS
is longer than that of a vehicle without ABS. This
is a physical phenomenon for which the anti-lock
braking system as such cannot be blamed.
However, as already mentioned, ABS is not
concerned with stopping distance, but with
steerability and driving stability, permitting you to
steer around an obstacle. A vehicle without ABS is
not steerable when the wheels lock.
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ABS working range

The working range starts just before the braking force reaches its maximum and ends when the
maximum is reached, because this is the point where the unstable range starts in which control is
no longer possible. ABS controls pressure modulation in such a manner that the braking force
always stays below a limit where a sufficiently high proportion is still available for cornering. With
ABS, only truly reckless driving can move us out of the Kamm circle.

Kamms circIe

Before we discuss the Kamm circle, you should know that a tire cannot transmit more than 100%
of the forces to which it is subjected. For the tire it is all the same whether you need the 100% in
the braking direction or in the effective direction of the lateral force during cornering, for example. Ìf
you enter a bend too fast and the tire needs the full 100% which it can transmit as cornering force,
B
R
C
Longitudinal force
Lateral force
Kamm's frictional force

ABS working range
100 0
Slip (%)
B
r
a
k
i
n
g

a
n
d

c
o
r
n
e
r
i
n
g

f
o
r
c
e
C
o
rn
e
rin
g
fo
r
c
e
B
ra
k
in
g
fo
rc
e
ABS working range
100 0
Slip (%)
B
r
a
k
i
n
g

a
n
d

c
o
r
n
e
r
i
n
g

f
o
r
c
e
C
o
rn
e
rin
g
fo
r
c
e
B
ra
k
in
g
fo
rc
e

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it cannot transmit an additional braking force. The car will leave the road in spite of ABS. Kamm's
circle helps us to visualize the relationship between barking force (B) and cornering force (C). To
demonstrate our point, we place a road wheel into the circle:
As long as the acting forces and the resultant force (F) stay within the circle, the vehicle is
directionally stable. Ìf one force leaves the circle, the vehicle leaves the road.

Oversteering
When the rear tires lose traction before the front tires, a car is oversteering. Recovery from an
oversteer situation must be quick since directional control can be lost.
Oversteering causes the tail end of the vehicle to swerve toward the outer side of the band (typical
of rear wheel drive vehicles).

Understeering
When the front tires lose traction before the rear tires, a car is understeering. Ìnstinctively, a driver
will compensate for understeer simply by turning the steering wheel further.
Understeering pushes the front wheels toward the outer verge of the bend (typical of front wheel
drive vehicle).

SIip angIe
Slip angle is the deviation of a wheel between wheel deflection (steer angle) and actual course.

SidesIip angIe
Sideslip angle (attitude angel) is the deviation of the vehicle from its longitudinal axis is the
direction of travel.

Yaw rate
The yaw rate is a measure of the speed with which a vehicle turns about its vertical axis (swerving).

Point of acceleration
Oversteering
Understeering
Center point
Point of acceleration
Oversteering
Understeering
Center point

[Oversteering & Understeering]
Ìncreasing the vehicle's speed at this
point causes the vehicle to move either
outside the original circle due to
"Understeering¨, or inside the original
circle due to "Oversteering¨
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LateraI acceIeration
Lateral acceleration acts at right angles to the direction of travel and occurs during cornering. Ìt is a
measure of the cornering speed.

Steering angIe
The steering angle equals the wheel deflection and represents the course desired by the driver.

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9.3 HYDRAULIC BRAKE ASSIST SYSTEM

Purpose
The purpose of the HBAS(Hydraulic Brake Assist System) is to assist the driver in emergency
barking situations with active pressure build-up in the brake system. The ABS control should be
reached as quickly and safely as possible.

Construction

Design
The HBAS has the function to generate brake pressure by using the ESP unit without additional
parts. The hydraulic brake assist system is based on the components of the ESP MK25.
The following components are used by HBAS:
inlet valve
outlet valve
Electric shuttle valve
TCS valve
2 pressure sensors in the master cylinder
brake-light switch
vehicle speed
The function of the HABS is integrated in the software of the ESP control unit.

[Tandem booster + Mater cylinder
with the pressure sensors]
[ESP hydraulic unit]
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Operating condition
ESP control module monitors the brake pedal applied speed by monitoring the pressure increase
rate of the pressure sensors in the master cylinder.
While BAS operation, ESP control module operates the motor and increase brake pressure rapidly
to obtain the maximum brake force.
To operate BAS, following 3 conditions should be met simultaneously.
Braking pressure should exceed 20 bar, pressure increase rate is more than 1100 bars per second
and the vehicle speed exceeds 7 km/h.

ControI fIow Iogic

HECU
lres s ure
\$ens or
HECU
lres s ure
\$ens or

- over 20 bar
- over 1100 bar/sec
- over 7 km/h
Emergency condition occurs
Detect emergency
(M/C pressure sensor)
Execute an emergency
decision logic (ECU)
Ìncrease brake pressure
until the wheel slip occurs
Execute an ABS control logic
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HydrauIic operation

When the HBAS control logic recognizes that there is an emergency braking situation, the block
valve is opened and the TCS valve is closed. The ESP pump starts up and increases the braking
pressure in a split second to the locking pressure level above the level set by the driver. The ABS
then keeps the individual wheels from being overbraked.
Only 2 wheels are depicted in the illustration, but the HBAS works on all 4 wheels.

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9.4 ESP CONTROL MODULE

The necessary relays (master relay and electric motor relay) are mounted on the circuit board of
the electronic control unit as solid state relays.

AppIications of the ESP controI unit
The signal produced by the sensors are evaluated in the electronic control unit. From the
information received, the control unit must first compute the following variables:
*yaw rate, *longitudinal acceleration, *lateral acceleration, *pressure in hydraulic system,
*wheel speed, *reference speed, *deference speed, *slip

Reference speed
The reference speed is the mean, i.e. average speed of all wheel speeds determined by simple
approximation.

SimpIified ABS controI
Ìf, during braking, one wheel speed deviates from the reference speed, the ABS control unit
attempts to correct that wheel sped by modulating the brake pressure until it again matches the
reference speed. When all four wheels tend to lock, all four wheels speeds suddenly deviate from
the previously determined reference speed. Ìn that case, the control cycle is initiated again in order
to again correct the wheel speed by modulating the brake pressure.

The ESP control module performs the following functions:
· controlling the ESP, ABS, TCS, EBD functions
· continuous monitoring of all electrical components
· diagnostic help during servicing in the workshop
Ìn the integrated control unit, the coils of the solenoid
valves are integrated into the control unit housing.
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9.5 BASIC FUNCTIONS OF ESP

What triggers an ESP intervention?
A criterion for ESP intervention exists when the yaw rate sensor senses an oversteering or
understeering tendency of at least 4°/s (threshold depends on speed). Ìf the plausibility analysis
shows the same situation, action is taken to stabilize the driving condition.

In the event of oversteering
Braking intervention takes place at the wheels on the outside of the bend. Most of the braking force
is introduced via the front wheel, which is caused to slip up to 50% so that the centrifugal force
contributes to stabilizing the vehicle. Ìn this case, the ABS logic is blotted out by ESP for the
wheels with ESP intervention.
Ìf over-steering begins to start while turning, vehicle moves far inward. Then, over-steering control
activates. When the braking force is applied to outer wheels, yaw moment in opposite direction is
generated to compensate the over-steer. Therefore, vehicle moves as the driver intends.
Compensating
yawing moment
Compensating
yawing moment
Brake force
Brake force

[In the event of understeering]
Ìf the car is understeered with the front wheels
pushing outward, a compensating yawing
moment which returns the car body to the
desired curse is built up by braking the rear
wheel on the inside of the bend.
[In the event of oversteering]
Ìf a swerving tail end shows that the car is in
danger of oversteering, the front wheel on
the outside of the bend is braked. The
compensating yawing moment, which now
acts in the clockwise direction, turns the car
back into the desired direction.
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In the event of understeering
Braking intervention takes place at the wheels on the inside of the bend. Ìn this case, the greater
force is introduced via the rear wheel so that the lateral force is selectively reduced in exact does
to stabilize the vehicle. The ABS logic is again blotted out by ESP for the wheels with ESP
intervention.
When under-steering begins while the vehicle turning, vehicle slips outward regardless of driver's
intention. Then, under-steering control starts. The control module generates the braking force at
the inner wheel of the vehicle and yaw moment generates, in which vehicle tries to turn to inner
side of the road. Then, vehicle moves as the driver intends.

FL wheel braking
Non-control
Control
Normal
direction
Generated Moment
FL wheel braking
Non-control
Control
Normal
direction
Non-control
Control
Normal
direction
Generated Moment

Without control
Control
RR wheel braking
Generated Moment
Normal
direction
Without control
Control
RR wheel braking
Generated Moment
Normal
direction

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9.6 HYDRAULIC CONTROL UNIT

The pump itself is a silenced two-circuit pump driven by an electric motor. The solenoid valves
which modulate the pressuring during ESP control are also integrated.
Peculiar things to MK25 ESP hydraulic are that shuttle valve is changed to solenoid type from
hydraulic type and TC valve is repositioned. This is because ESP system controls the brake
pressure of 4 wheels respectively while driving unlike the TCS which controls the brake pressure of
2 driving wheels in operation.
For a diagonal brake circuit split (K), four pairs of valves (4 inlet valves, 4 outlet valves) are
provided for modulating the pressure at the wheels plus two isolating valves and two electrically
operated shuttle valves.
The common housing furthermore accommodates a low-pressure accumulator and a silencing
chamber for each brake circuit.

HydrauIic circuit

Ìn the hydraulic control unit of the MK25 system,
· pump
· valve block
Are grouped together in one housing, forming one
compact unit with the electric motor.
The pump and valve concepts are largely identical with
the proven MK20 ABS production system.
InIet soIenoid vaIve (NormaIIy open)
This valve connects or disconnects the hydraulic path between master cylinder and the wheel
cylinders. Ìt remains open normally but it is closed when the dump and hold mode begins during
ABS operation.
Check valve is to help the brake fluid returning from the wheel cylinder to the master cylinder
when the brake pedal is released.

OutIet soIenoid vaIve (NormaIIy cIosed)
This valve is normally closed but it is opened to release the wheel cylinder pressure when a
dump mode begins.
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ShuttIe vaIve
The valve type is changed to the solenoid valve type for MK25 model from the hydraulic valve
type that is used in MK20i model for Optima TCS.
When the ESP is in operation, the brake fluid should be supplied to the motor pump from the
M/C via the shuttle valve to generate the brake pressure.
This solenoid valve is closed and blocks the passage when a brake pedal is applied.

Traction ControI vaIve (TC vaIve)
Ìn case of a normal condition, this valve remains open and the brake pressure from the M/C can
be applied to the front wheel via TC valve.
While TCS or ESP in operation, TC valve is closed and the generated pressure by motor
delivers to wheel cylinders without returning to the master cylinder.
TC valve includes a relief valve and a check valve. When excessive pressure is supplied from
the motor, relief valve is opened and the pressure is relieved.
[MK25 ESP hydraulic circuit] [MK25 TCS hydraulic circuit]

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HydrauIic circuit difference between ESP and TCS
ESP system controls the brake pressure of 4 wheels respectively while driving unlike the TCS
which controls the brake pressure of 2 driving wheels in operation.

HydrauIic shuttIe vaIve and eIectric shuttIe vaIve (SoIenoid vaIve)

a. Differences between the hydrauIic shuttIe vaIe used for ABS/TCS and the eIectric
shuttIe vaIve used for ESP:
· Like the hydraulic shuttle valve of an Optima TCS system, the electric shuttle valve is located
between the suction side of the pump and the master cylinder.
· With the braking system depressurized, the hydraulic shuttle valve is open and closes as
soon as a pressure between 1.5 and 2.5 bar is reached in the braking system. The hydraulic
shuttle valve opens automatically when the pressure drops below 1.5 bar.
· The electric shuttle valve is closed at all times, regardless of the pressure applied. Ìt can only
be opened by the electronic control unit.

EIectric
shuttIe vaIve
[MK25 ESP hydraulic circuit] [MK20i Optima TCS hydraulic circuit]
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b. Why the change from the hydrauIic shuttIe vaIve to the eIectric shuttIe vaIve:
· When an ESP intervention is required, the ESP pump delivers brake fluid under
pressure to that brake caliper which is to contribute to stabilizing the driving condition.
The electric shuttle valve is required when an ESP intervention happens while braking
on driving.
Ìn the case of TCS operation a hydraulic shuttle valve is enough without an electric
shuttle valve because it is open while TCS operation and it is closed while braking
due to the braking pressure from the master cylinder.
However ESP intervention can start even while braking. Ìf a hydraulic shuttle valve is
incorporated for ESP system, the braking pressure from the master cylinder makes
the shuttle valve closed restricting the oil supply from the master cylinder to the motor.
That is why we incorporates an electric shuttle valve instead.

Motor pump

Air bIeeding in the workshop Iocation
When the ESP hydraulic unit is replaced in the workshop, no special action is required because
replacement parts are always delivered prefilled so that the pump circuit need not be bledBe aware
that ESP warning lamp may turn on due to the pressure difference between the pressure sensors
which are located in the master cylinder primary and secondary while air bleeding of the brake
system. So, delete the trouble code after air-bleeding.

Suction
Dump
Suction (right side of pump)
The pump piston moves to the left and the
suction valve opens and brake fluid is sucked in.

Pressure increase (Ieft side of pump)
The left piston moves to the left and the pressure
valve opens and pressure is built up.
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HydrauIic fIow

In braking position
Ìn this position, the inlet valve and the TCS
valve are open, the outlet valve and the
electrically operated shuttle valve remain
closed.

In ESP controI (pressure increase)
Ìn this position, the inlet valve is driven in a
pulsed cycle. The TCS valve is closed. The
outlet valve remains closed. The electrically
operated shuttle valve is opened. The
hydraulic pressure is led to the wheel brakes
which are to be applied for a brief period of
time..
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9.7 LOCATION OF ESP COMPONENTS

9.8 INPUTS AND OUTPUTS

Sensor cIuster
Pressure sensor 2EA
Brake switch
ESP / TCS OFF S/W
Motor pump
SoIenoid vaIves
ABS,EBD W/L
TCS/ESP F/L
CAN communication
with ETCM
E
S
P
C
M
WSS (FL)
WSS (FR)
WSS (RL)
WSS (RR)
Steering angIe sensor
TCS/ESP W/L
Inputs Outputs

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9.9 INPUTS

Active wheeI speed sensor (Magnetoresistive sensor)

a. Function of the active sensor system
When moving, the sensor gear touches two of the resistors, disrupting the measuring bridge,
and we generate a sinusoidal signal. The evaluation electronics converts the sinusoidal signal
into a square wave signal. The signal can be processed directly by the ABS control unit.
Generated output current from the sensor is 7mA or 14mA. So in order to check the sensor
function, the output current needs to be check. Ìf the current measurement is not available, the
output voltage waveform can be checked.

b. Checking routing for the active wheeI sensor
The wheel sensors are constantly checked electrically by the control unit. Ìn addition, the
sensor signal is checked while the vehicle is running. Ìf there is a malfunction or a non-
plausible physically possible signal, the ABS is switched off and the ABS warning lamp is
switched on.

[When the ignition key on] [WhiIe driving]
13.3V
13.6V
12V

V
Design of the active wheeI sensor
1. 4 resistors which can be changed
magnetically
2. evaluation electronics
3. voltage supply
4. booster/comparator
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c. Specification
· Type: MR(Magnetic Resistance) type
· Supplying power: DC 12V
· Output current: Ì
L
= 7mA, Ì
H
= 14mA
· Air gap: cannot be measured and adjusted:
Front: 0.0945~1.245 mm, Rear: 0.045~0.9545 mm
· Teeth of tone wheel: 49

d. Active sensor eIements
The sensor element consists of the actual sensor
element itself and a small supporting magnet.

e. InstaII Iocation

Supporting magnet
Sensor eIement

[Front wheeI speed sensor] [Rear wheeI speed sensor]
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f. Comparison between the passive wheeI sensor and the active wheeI sensor

Sensor cIuster (Yaw rate sensor LateraI acceIeration sensor)

a. Function of yaw rate sensor
- AppIication:
Detect the yawing motion of the vehicle, triggering an
ESP control intervention if the yaw velocity reaches round
about 4°/s (= full circle in 90s)
- InstaIIation position:
· Tuning forks vertical
Dull (frequency change)
Max.: 3.0mm
Sensitive (V
out
1/(gap)
2
)
Max.: 1.3mm
Air-gap
Sensitivity
Nearly 0 KPH
(Ìntelligent Type)
Cannot be detected at low speed ( 3km/h
or less)
Zero Speed
Smaller
(possibly smaller by 40~50%)
Larger Sensor Size
Good Poor Anti-noise
-40 ~ +150 -40 ~ +125 Temp.
Good Medium Mass production
Good Ìmpossible One Chip
Active sensor Passive sensor Ìtem
Dull (frequency change)
Max.: 3.0mm
Sensitive (V
out
1/(gap)
2
)
Max.: 1.3mm
Air-gap
Sensitivity
Nearly 0 KPH
(Ìntelligent Type)
Cannot be detected at low speed ( 3km/h
or less)
Zero Speed
Smaller
(possibly smaller by 40~50%)
Larger Sensor Size
Good Poor Anti-noise
-40 ~ +150 -40 ~ +125 Temp.
Good Medium Mass production
Good Ìmpossible One Chip
Active sensor Passive sensor Ìtem

The lateral acceleration sensor and the yaw rate
sensor are important components of the ESP.
The cluster links these sensors to an on-board
computer unit and to a CAN interface, incased in a
sturdy housing, that is mounted on the chassis. Ìts
modular concept allows the integration of further
sensor functions.

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· Required accuracy of position: ma. ±3° toIerance to
maintain full comfort
· Failure to maintain the specified installation position will
result in asymmetrical control
- Design and function
The yaw rate sensor relies on the action of microscopic
tuning forks. The plane in which these forks vibrate shifts
when the car turns about its vertical axis. This shift is
evaluated electronically.
- FaiIsafe
A faulty yaw rate sensor produces an output signal of 0V.
- Specification
· Supply voltage : 4.75 ~ 5.25V
· Zero position : 2.5V
· Operation : 27mV (°/s)

b. Function of IateraI acceIeration sensor
- AppIication
Sense the lateral acceleration of the vehicle
- Design
Ìn the interior of the sensor, a small mass element
is attached to a movable lever arm which is
deflected by lateral acceleration.
- Function
· Between two electrically charged stationary plates
having the same polarity, an electrically charged
silicon element having the opposite polarity is
attached to the end of a cantilever arm.
· Between these three plates, two electric fields are
generated by the capacitances C1 and C2.
· The capacitances C1 and C2 change in response
to lateral acceleration. This change can be used
to calculate the direction and amount of lateral

11.3 MHz
11 MHz

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acceleration acting on the vehicle.
· The same sensor can also be used as longitudinal acceleration sensor if it is installed in
the direction of travel.
· For 0g lateral acceleration, the sensor produces an output signal with a voltage of 2.5V.
- Other
· The signal of the lateral acceleration sensor alone cannot trigger an ESP intervention. The
sensor is mainly used for estimating the coefficient of friction.
· The installation location of the lateral acceleration sensor is more critical than that of the
yaw rate sensor(lever arm).
· The installation location may not be changed after repairs.

c. Hi-scan data

[Current data] [CAN communication signaI]
[Yaw rate whiIe turning Ieft]
[Yaw rate whiIe turning right]
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Steering angIe sensor

[LateraI G acceIeration to the Ieft] [LateraI G acceIeration to the right]
[When the sensor is open] [DTC when the sensor is open]
AppIication
- Location: Ìnside steering wheel
- Calculate the steering amount and direction
- 3 Ìnput Signals (ST 1, ST 2, ST N)
- ST N detects the neutral position of steering wheel

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Hi-can data

STN
Specification
- Sensor type : Photo interrupt type
- Sensor output type : Open Collector Type
- Output pulse quantity :45pulse (Pulse cycle 8)
- Duty ratio : 50C10%
- Phase difference of outputs : 2.0 C0.6
- Supply voltage :ÌGN1(8~16V)
- Output voltage :1.3V
OL
2.0V,
3.3V
OH
4.0V
- Maximum rotational velocity : 1,500/s
ST1
ST2
ST1
ST
[Steering sensor output, ST1/ST2] [Steering sensor output, ST1/STN
[When the sensor is open] [Current data when the sensor is open]
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Pressure sensor

AppIication
· Sense the driver's braking intentions
(braking while an ESP intervention is in
progress)
· Control the precharging pressure
Design
The sensor consists of two ceramic disks, one of which
is stationary and the other movable. The distance
between these disks changes when pressure is applied.
FaiIsafe
Guaranteed by redundant installation
InstaIIation
The sensors are mounted on the TMC (primary and
secondary circuits)
ss

s
1
s
1

Function
· The pressure sensors operate on the principle
of changing capacitance.
· The distance (s) between the disks and, thus,
the capacitance changes when pressure is
applied to the movable disk by a braking
intervention.
· The characteristic of the sensor is linearized.
· The fluid displacement of the sensor is
negligible.
· Max. measurable pressure: 170 bar
Specification
Supply voltage : 4.75 ~ 5.25V
Zero position : 0.5V
Operation : 23mV/bar
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ESP switch

· This facilitates
- rocking to free the vehicle in deep snow or loose surface material
- driving with snow chains
- operation of the vehicle on a brake test bench
· The ABS function is fully maintained.
· The system is reactivated by actuating the ESP a second time.
· With the ESP switch, the ESP system can only be deactivated when the vehicle is stationary or
traveling at low speed. The system cannot be deactivated while an ESP intervention is in progress.

t
4. ¨5
J. 25
Output|(\| Upper fault area
lower fault area
ze ro point
5. J
J. J
J. 5
t
4. ¨5
J. 25
Output|(\| Upper fault area
lower fault area
ze ro point
5. J
J. J
J. 5

[Pressure sensor characteristics] [Pressure sensor output signaI]
Sensor 1
Sensor 2

· The ESP switch deactivates the ESP and TCS
functions.
· The ESP switch is located in the center console of the
vehicle. The system is generally active after each new
start and is only deactivated by actuating the ESP
switch.
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9.10 OUTPUTS

Warning Iamp controI

a) EBD warning Iamp controI

b) ABS warning Iamp controI

a) EBD warning Iamp controI b) ABS warning Iamp controI
c) TCS/ESP OFF warning Iamp controI d) TCS/ESP function Iamp controI
The EBD warning lamp is on :
- During the initialization phase (3seconds)
- Ìn the event of inhibition of EBD functions
- Depending on the warning lamp module, when the controller is switched off as long as
voltage is applied at the ignition terminal (ÌG1)
The ABS warning lamp is on :
- During the initialization phase (3seconds)
- Ìn the event of inhibition of ABS functions (include ECE-ABS mode)
- Depending on the warning lamp module, when the controller is switched off as long as
voltage is applied at the ignition terminal (ÌG1)
- During diagnostics
a)
b) c) d)
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c) TCS/ESP OFF warning Iamp controI

d) TCS/ESP function Iamp controI

· The ESP warning lamp lights up briefly when the ignition is turned on and is extinguished as soon
as the peripherals have been checked.
· During an ESP/TCS control cycle, the ESP function lamp flashes to show the driver that the
system is active and that the vehicle is at the limit of its physical capabilities.
· Detection of the fault in the ESP system causes the ESP warning lamp to light up and remain on.
The ESP system is then inactive, the ABS function is fully maintained.

9.11 FAILSAFE
The TCS/ESP warning lamp is on :
- During the initialization phase (3seconds)
- Ìn the event of inhibition of TCS/ESP functions
- During diagnostics.
The TCS/ESP function lamp is on :
- During the initialization phase (3seconds)

The TCS/ESP function lamp is blinking :
- During TCS/ESP control
- At the ESP off mode depending on ESP off switch, ESP control is available and ESP
function lamp is blinking only when brake is turned on by driver.
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BIock diagram

Safety concept of the ESP controI unit
Ìn an emergency, it is vital that all ESP components function with absolute reliability. For this
reason, various safety options must be available which guarantee the function of the system. The
most important of these safety options are:
· self-test of the electronic control unit
· peripheral test of the connected assemblies

Safety and monitoring system
Turning on the ignition activates a self-test of the electronic control unit. After staring, all electric
connections are monitored continuously.
During the trip, the solenoid valves are checked at regular intervals by means of passive test

[EIectronic controIIer for ABS, TCS and ESP]
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pulses. Ìn addition, all sensor signals are monitored continuously. The separation of brake circuits
enables the ABS function to be maintained if one brake circuit should fail. This means that the
driving stability of the vehicle is maintained during critical braking maneuvers.
For workshop diagnosis, all faults detected are stored in a nonvolatile memory in the ESP control
unit for retrieval in the workshop location.

System monitoring
a. The foIIowing items are controIIed by the ECU:
· 12 valves
· Booster (solenoid valve)
· ABS pump
· ABS/ESP warning lamps

b. The foIIowing items are monitored by the ECU:
· electronic control unit (include pump and valves)
· wheel speed sensors
· yaw rate sensor
· lateral acceleration sensor
· longitudinal acceleration sensor (all-wheel drive vehicle only)
· pressure sensor
· onboard voltage
· CAN bus communication
The steering wheel angle sensor monitors itself and signals its state to the electronic control unit
via the CAN bus.
The warning lamps, the brake light switch and the ESP on/off switch are not monitored.

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DTC Iist

DTC Trouble location
C1235 Pressure sensor (primary) ÷electrical
C1236 Pressure sensor (secondary) ÷electrical
C1237 Pressure sensor ÷other
C1259 Steering wheel sensor ÷electrical
C1260 Steering wheel sensor ÷signal/other
C1282 Yawrate & lateral G sensor ÷electrical
C1283 Yawrate & lateral G sensor ÷signal/other
C1101 Battery Over voltage
C1102 Battery Under voltage
C1513 Brake lamp switch
C2402 Motor
C1616 CAN Bus off
C1611 CAN timeout EMS
C1612 CAN timeout TCU
C1503 TCS/ESP Switch
C2227 Excessive temperature of brake disk

DTC Trouble location
C1604 ECU Hardware
C1700 Variant no coding
C1200 Wheel speed sensor front left ÷electrical
C1201 Wheel speed sensor front left ÷extrapolate
C1202 Wheel speed sensor front left ÷other
C1203 Wheel speed sensor front right ÷electrical
C1204 Wheel speed sensor front right ÷extrapolate
C1205 Wheel speed sensor front right ÷other
C1206 Wheel speed sensor rear left ÷electrical
C1207 Wheel speed sensor rear left ÷extrapolate
C1208 Wheel speed sensor rear left ÷other
C1209 Wheel speed sensor rear right ÷electrical
C1210 Wheel speed sensor rear right ÷extrapolate
C1211 Wheel speed sensor rear right ÷other
C2112 Valve relay

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ESP wiring diagram

Pressure
sensor 1
Sensor cIuster
Pressure
sensor 2
Steering sensor

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0 57088:70 3 90 00 .33 9 ...3/0784/.3/9000.8907..:770390..07..70.947  70/:.:993 411 90 5.90/ 702..8907 .. ..998.\$!%#&    !#\$\$&#    03 .:77039 94 90 309 84034/ .0 .947  7.88.3/ 90 4 57088:70 .38 4503 ..0  %8 .:2:.01:/ 38/0 90 00 .947 /:258 4:9 94 90 2.9.:770390.3/07 .8 90 309 84034/ .3/ 90 5.97..3/07 .8 0 . 00 4.93 43 90 00     .:770399490 4:909 84034/ .3303907 57088:70 .483 90 3095479 ..88.0 .48 90 .3/07 148 4:9 94 90 4 57088:70 ..3.998. :5 -038  90 \$ 803/8 00..057088:7080/.3/07  %0 1:/ 3 90 4                  43.480/  %0701470  7..0  90\$803/800..:2:..0 -09003 90 2..0 1:/ 57088:70 ..3/07-905:3075:25  .3%0..420 90 8573 147.3/07   %8 920 4:909 .0 -09003 90 00 ..97.0%7..:2:.0 8 349 .0  :909 5479 702.3 -7.0     !#\$\$&#&!   00 8500/ /0.808 1:7907 0 -7.3/ .\$07....0 94 4.

 \$.

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70.1907 90 57088:70 /0.:77039 94 90 309 84034/ .8907 ..3/07    :89 .480/  90 -7.3/07-7.70..3.. :5  .08 90 00 ..\$07.3/ 84 9 9:738 411 .80 /:73 90 -7.3  84 00 .0 1:/ 57088:70 41 90 2.79 94 3. -7.3/ 4:909 84034/  %8 .0 1:/ 57088:70 4/ 47 .01:/57088:703.483 90 4:909 5479  \$3..808              43.990708345488-941004.:80 -49 .\$!%#&    !#\$\$&##\$  00 8500/ 89.80  90 \$ .08 94 -0 709:730/ 94 907 420 548943 - 907 85738  45033 90 309 5479 .0%7.3%0.70.3/ .0 90 309 5479 8 4503 .8 9 3472.88:208 9.3/07 70.3/ 90 4:909 5479 8 .3303907 .

 \$.

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0/897-:943   897.700903843 \$% !% .0 147..94 410.07 .3/0..4397-:94394-7.. :5/0./.3.9743..0 147..0.0 /897-:943 5745479433 94 90 .439740/-90\$439744/:0 .25 98:5   '%\$  7747           4.439740/00.0 5745479433.0.:8041.0920 43947341 1:3.-042990/ 3.1:3.0/-8419.425430398 :3.8 .00/9.9743.0.057088:70419070.-7.9433  /7.\$!%#&    !#%      \$#!%  %\$\$% %0  88902 0..7008  91:7907:90890011.0 4.804170.733.-7.8 90.0  %05745479433.9 .0.0/897-:943/:73./3.7 008 3 90 5.94/0.0 .43974900110.8 ./ 47 09 3..0%7. 9:8/850383990300/147905745479433.0 147.4190/0.0.73-7.3/-03//7.77 4:9 90 10-0 -7.0..9.03.0...43/9438 4389.0 /897-:943 94 90 70..829...83  3/ 3 90 0.59..3349349.0 147.00.94341900893\$.9.9208.03 .4807 94 90 4592:2 .3 7.0 5574.0 147.3  /.0..733...0.3/ . -7. 7.70.30  7.7008349940.:7070..943894.80-7.3303907 .8 0 .:70             43.039 41 2.0/ 0.088902.03.43974890-7.25 5..43974390854190 70..0 8 24.943..0 897-:943  .7 008 ./80389..43943-./0.02..3%0.0450/\$06:52039-.0 147.094/11070394.0..20.8 94 .79.0090791.:.943-9070.90890857.0 -0.943  !% &9.941 9017439008   1901./0843:9.8041.0 147. 8:- 88902 41 90 \$ 88902 8 94 .25 .3/.3.39-7.70.4:9 \$'%\$ 4-.7.\$07.3889021.

 \$.

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/897-:943.943 /0.0 57088:70 #0.:7.0 \$9.700 917.77.943 9417.3/ #0.\$!%#&    # #\$%#&% &#'   897-:94330417439.057088:70       !#%  !#\$\$&#     ''  ''   % #   \$ !#\$\$&#  W\$.79!439 :935439 74397.

'   \$ W\$.

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 \$.

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\$!%#&     !#%  !#\$\$&#&!   ''  ''   % #  !#\$\$&#&! W\$.

'   W\$.

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 \$.

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90/ 950 41 \$ 88902 .:98908:-899:90   \$ .3303907  \$ .:98380790/-03/90.439740/974:30 .25 .70.7. 8:-899:90 8 706:70/ 94 03070 .25.:8907.733.:8907 .25.0%7.9.7..\$07.803070/-\$ 43 90.:9 0...0/       #"&#% %'#&% 47 90 3907.733.733 .25 .258.7.439740/974:30  45.4330.90/ 3.39:7343- .9.3%0.7.:9-4.0.7..4330.70.94787024.733 .7.439748 .25.4330.3/ 90 .733 .033.0/ .94787024..2589:730/43/:09490.439740/ 0390.3..:8907 3/0.7/     &%  %' & \$  %\$ 11.4208 411 03 \$.25.:98/8.4330.9\$.9 ..733.25 43 90 .033.:8907.9\$8/8..\$!%#&   %'#&%!\$\$'#&%  %'#&% .733.809.881907  %0.733.9434197.90/ \$#                         43.:9   !\$\$'#&%  \$ /70.809.388947 .

 \$.

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.25 .

25         :808 .  8 74:3/0/ 411  90 ....25.9.3411   039090723.258702.8084190..4190\$874:3/0/ .88907  %070.43974/430-\$  \$ -49..258 .388947841-49.25.3349-0.420843  74:3/ 43.91489490 90723.709700.43  3 .:77039 1742 90  89.90 90 97.258.42043    3\$.9. %097.733. .388947841-49.258./70..25889.90/ %0701470 -49. 4  !..258 84-49.80 9..70411   \$ -49.9 90 90723.733.:7703917429089.

258411-0.45.43974419090723.3%0.0%7.411.3303907 .\$07.:80.733. %0390\$.507147289.1706:03.343-:990.25448089.42317429089.733 ..881907-4..             43.:7703914..890 .3.

 \$.

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 \$.

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 74:3/ 43.\$!%#&     !\$\$%# 1 .

890.254480702.83.9.0 24/:0 -4.\$07.88 1907 38/0 .8                    43..8890743.3%0..4841706:03.%#14790.:7703914..94.0790\$.411 1706:03.3.0%7.25 %070147090 .3303907 .733.25.42317429089. 1742 90 \$ 8   90 4 5.733.733.4208411 40.3343  4!.

 \$.

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3%0.3303907 .3.\$!%#&            ..0%7.\$07.3/4 9    #\$ =            \$!%# = #' "            43..

 \$.

%\$.

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.733.3.\$07. !  !   '    # !  # \$ !!#\$\$&# &&% # &&% # '&\$ ##\$ \$        ! %\$  & /7.:.3%0.0%7.25              43.43974&39   \$439744/:0 00\$500/\$03847 ...2570.\$ %! \$   '='  =  '    !#%\$ %  % #  % #!# !&!!% #&&% !% %    ! !#\$\$&# '     6.25 .733. \$.3303907 .25   30147\$ 904907147.733.733.

 \$.

%\$.

\$!%#&    & /7.:.43974&39  \$ # # .

..0 ## .  !## \$4034/ .

3%0..90/950                43. .3303907 .0%7...3..  \$ # 4947!407  % #  % # 8:55  49      \$ %#  & % !' %''  #  %''  #  %''  ##  %''     &%%'' #   &%%'' #   &%%'' ##      &%%''    % #    % #   30:399&  494770.3907.070.\$07.

 \$.

%\$.

3%0.:2:.0%7.3/07        ! %\$ & /7.:.947  "&%%                          43.\$07..947  ! !7088:70.:2:.3.43974&39   ! %\$  \$  ''  \$  ''  % # !&#!&! ! 4!7088:70.8907.3303907 ..\$!%#&     %  \$&% &3/07902...

 \$.

%\$.

\$!%#&     \$%#&%  & ! %\$              ## # #   !     !        \$ !   #&# 7747          \$             43.3.3303907 ...0%7.3%0.\$07.

 \$.

%\$.

8907 .\$07.3.0 57088:70 3.24:39 41.0   !:253 4:9 -7..47 !        \$  '' \$%#&%  3   84034/ .43974     84034/.0 .3303907 .3%0.0/ \$ 4507.3/ 3480 ! ! #  %02547..0%7..439748 ..0470807.70.0 4 309 .0 84034/.\$!%#&    &%  & 0057088:70...7-7..3.3/07 4947 !:25   3..0 4 94 90 2. -7.439743 90 -7.80 - .507..3/07                43.943 1003 ..

 \$.

%\$.

.439748 .0%7.041742.0 8 . 00 .9..044:909 ...3.43974390-7.70.00.3/07 03.770807.\$07.90/                 43. -7.\$!%#&    \$  '' \$%#&%   3  .3303907 .3%0.  84034/ .0 57088:70 /0..0 .3/07        !#\$\$&#&&% # \$%#&%  3!902547.24:3941...08-7..80-.

 \$.

%\$.

..0 4 8:.3/07.3.\$!%#&    !&! \$%#&%    5:25  57088:708 -7.3/ 84034/. 0307 94 \$5:258      !#\$\$&#&&% # \$%#&%             43.3/ 8:5508 9 94 90 2. 20.3%0.3303907 .8907 ..\$07.. ! .08      % # \$%#&%  4947 8:5508 .0%7..0/ 1742 .3..

 \$.

%\$.

93 .9890/7.5:254507.0%7..:.0 4 .3.\$!%#& 0.3/07.8700..08 98 3480      &%   ! %\$  %\$  ''  ''   %8.308 89005 0307.943  0..480/-:99845030/947 00.3/4/24/0-038/:73\$4507.3/07 03 90 -7.\$07. 54:70/ 4:9 -7.80/        !#\$\$&#&&% # 9902547.8907 . 3480   ! 70/:..3%0..93 9057088:7041........3303907 ..01:/1434:9174290 24/0   &%%\$  '' ''    %8.3/9000.-:998.770807.4330.0 50/.3/07 03  .3845033472.5.0.   00 .3/07 94 90 2.01:/709:733174290 00 .9 -090032.3/0757088:7003.08940590-7.0890-7.480/0390/:25  ./:2524/0-0   0.083472.9847/8. /:25                 43.3/078  9702.8907.4330.0 8 45030/ /:73.

 \$.

%\$.

943                   ! #            43..3..3/8:5508901:/94  90!     !#\$\$&#&&% # 7.8.943.3303907 .943 .390-7.841:3.9438./.\$!%#&    % #!&! 4947 !:25 /:258 90 -7.01:/854:90/1742905:2580593.. 5:8.:80/ - 90 5:25 .9:..0 1:/ 3 90 ! /:73 .3%0.3/ 90 3480 .253.  /:2524/04190\$4507.2-0770/:.\$07.! !  ..0  50/.0%7.

 \$.

%\$.

733.0  '470881474..4784   !:2524947801 ..939..07280.73-7.-7.\$!%#&    \$\$    .089.07 280.25   4780.0 '4724701474.737.07.0/     &3/07.0.08500/70..43/8.08 2.943 \$433-90/  \$8902 /4324/0 \$ 3-90/  0.1:3.733.-0   \$.422:3.9438..49.843 %00.3944   .843 \$2.49.43/8.258. \$83-90/ .2543 1:3.3 0390..0.843 \$8902 /4324/0 \$ 3-90/   5.1907-0339.0..7043 \$ 3-90/  \$8902.733. '.25  4780.8..25 !.733.041.0/ 3.49.070.03472.42083472.070807.411 \$8902/43    49.8041.190790394389..190790394389.

.3.4397424/:0    .4/08.4/08.3944               43.98.0 090.:70..70202470/4390!#   02470/.\$07.80/-.43974:.3-0843...2494790899:733..90/1.3489.889021.3303907 .39071.3%0.2494770.8.0%7.3/07..:70  090..91789920   !0714728.

 \$.

%\$.

49     .2.           450347847994-.49 .49.507747477430.04.070.:70 '..2.49.0/0.3303907 .0#0.907 ##00803847          .0%7.9907.               .:70                         43.\$07.0/0.9907 24947  70.70            &1..2.0/0.907 &.:7047.907 #00803847          450347847994 #00803847          8500/:2547/.07.3.7 ..507747477430.04.2. 1:8047249471...01.9907.907 00803847          .907 #00803847          .\$!%#&   %\$%                                    \$! \$#!%  .507747477430.7 ..:70 4947 0.907 #00803847          450347847994 #00803847          8500/:2547/.7 .49   .471:801.97.7 .907 #00803847          .7/.0/0..49 00803847          450347847994 00803847          8500/:2547/..3%0.507747477430.907 ##00803847          450347847994 ##00803847          8500/:2547/.

 \$.

%\$.

\$!%#&   ## #'                                     43...0%7.3.3%0.3303907     #!\$ #!       %%  %%  \$   \$.\$07.

! .

! # ' #   &  \$               !# #   !&!  % # #  #    #  # ##      #  #  ##   ##        % # .

 \$.

%\$.

3/4 9   #\$.\$!%#&         .

0%7.3%0.3.3303907 .. #' "   = #%                   43.\$07..

 \$.

%\$.

47547.90/ 147 #%  #\$ .3/4 9     \$ 4/0    3.\$!%#&      .

 .3/ #' .

0 #0.07 3904907.70.9433:7450 40.3303907 .0 7439  7:27..7070/:.550/94#\$.3%0. \$   8  2.850.3:1.1.89073/07  8.7           &% \$\$:39 00\$500/\$038478            43.9:70/- 425.3/\$!%# 98 82.0/31:3.943.9   %0\$89089.5077.345943902      #\$\$% \$%#&%   \$ \$ 448907 .7  00\$500/\$03847   \$:39 .8 98.\$07.3/ 09  3/ 90 4507.3.0%7.-7.07 ..3/ 90 .3/..3/ 907 3 80 ..0 #0. -..943.943 34808 ..7/850.73990  . 0 \$ 4507.

 \$.

%\$.

7\$500/\$03847      .7\$500/\$03847 \$  \$:39  /7.:.43974&39 4397424/:0         \$!%      7439\$500/\$03847 #0.89073/07 7439\$500/\$03847 #0.\$!%#& .

   \$       %\$    4947  .

        (       \$ \$%#&%              43.3303907 .3%0..3.0%7..\$07.

 \$.

%\$.

\$07.0                 \$  %''  #  %''  #  %''  ##  %''     &%%'' #   &%%'' #   &%%'' ##   &%%''    % #      %\$   % #   \$4034/ \$            43.3.3%0.\$!%#& 7747 \$&39 '.3303907 ..0%7...

 \$.

%\$.

9:708 08.3.3303907 .\$07.\$!%#& %''  #  %''  #  %''  ##  %''     &%%'' #   &%%'' #   &%%'' ##   &%%''   %#% '' %#  %#% '' %   % #   % #          !#\$    .8                (                                          (     0..0%7.3%0.75943            43..

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.0 #0..07 %% %% '.\$!%#&  \$&4.07.7.08847   -9  !74.0 #0  \$4034/ %   L'.07.:9 ..08847   -9  39071. !74..2  ' '49.

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3/ 00./ 9390850.08 3 .43574.9324/0 3904507.\$07..0/:70 %0 .3/9049078/08.3%0..09.70 .49.3/ 902507.3303907 ./1474507.4 8.043974 03 430 8/041 90 .3 43 90 4507.-070.9435.3/ 89...43974 90 /7.943    \$4034/'.4397424/:08.00..93..43974 ..0.:9  30 00\$038478 #\$500/ :9 \$      \$ !#%   \$9..47/.4330.97./0/ 974: 90 .10/298 ...90/ 9490 5489..4330.943     507.49.9 8574.43974 24/:0 8.4250943419039.4792 /0130/ - 90 8419.3/ 94 .0408 3944507.93 ...43/943 90.74:8 8038478 ..0 .90/949074:3/-90 \$% 9084034/.0 9 90 .0%7. -0 5:9 394 4507.:.0   3 .80 90.4397424/:08. .943 - 89.-070.9:70  94 574..3.49.8 411070/ - 90 .9478    \$4034/'..3            43.9:.088 90 83...070.3.0 . .257.

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14728  743.9070.   2. \$500/:250.

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 '  2.

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  8 2.

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\$!%#& %'#&% \$.

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 \$.

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258..0 57088:70 .057088:70870/:.3/ 90 00 853 8 70/:.007.3%0.4592:297.. 90 57088:70 3.80/1742904..943 8 :3/07 90 97084/ .733..%\$.25 0390%\$889021.0 8 .8 %\$ .80 90 -7.\$!%#&        \$   '' ##    % # %''    #%           03 90 00 /0.943147.0%7.0  :909.25702..70..3/ 309 .3.01:/-03 700.480/ 94 -4.3303907 .0/9409.0 8   4947 8   94 /:25 90-7.\$07..3843              43.80 1742 90 249475:25  \$' 702.3845030/  % ... :500    !#\$\$&#           \$   '' ##    % # %''    #%            %\$#! %\$  . 85 97084/ .084503 94 700.0/ :3/07 .550/-7.

 \$.

%\$.

943.8080%\$4507.\$!%#& %\$ .258.251.%\$1:3.25 %8.943               \$\$%!&%  &%!&% %\$.

 %\$.

3%0.3303907 .0947             43..0%7.3.  '49.\$07..0    #\$%  \$ %\$  %#  %\$\$%  & %\$!  4 %\$     %\$    \$\$  \$\$ \$ !         4397470.

 \$.

%\$.

3.  %\$4507.3/07 #06:70/03309476:0 %\$4507.:9.7819       &\$ 4 411:0.\$!%#& 3309476:0     \$  %\$ 4 411:0.:9.9083. 3309476:0 330752 330950 0.3303907 .3/07 #06:70/03309476:0 %\$4507...9083.  0.\$07.0%7.3%0.7819 330752 330950       !&       %# &\$  %\$% %\$                            '#' %  ' % \$\$ #  ! #\$ #% \$\$ # \$!&! \$\$ # #!## # #\$\$ #  ! #\$ #% #\$\$ # \$!&! #\$\$ # #!## # #\$\$ #  ! #\$ #% #\$\$ # \$!&! #\$\$ # #!## # ##\$\$ #  ! #\$ #% ##\$\$ # \$!&!                    ##\$\$ # #!## # &\$ %### # ''# #&\$ \$  '' !&!  % # \$ '#% %\$\$%## # &\$ %### # #### # &\$ ## # % &%\$ % &%% %#\$\$\$ &% %    &% ## #            43.9083.

 \$.

%\$.

\$!%#& %%  % \$ ## #   \$  %\$ .

! .

! .

0  2883147 28      %&% &%## # %&088.!   %\$ \$ #%%   \$ #%%  \$ #%% % \$ #%%  ! &\$ 147 28      \$ #%%  \$ #%% % \$088.0 2883147 28 \$&% %.

 %&088.0  97.3828843147   28 \$&%.

 .

#1.:70      %&%&%  ## #      .

9433084503     % &%\$    % &%% %\$  %803/89843.420843     %#\$\$\$ &% %\$8314720/4197.3/.0%7.3%0.4/0870. 90390.1:3..0.43/9438974:-:830    19083.\$07.382884331472..9438     &\$ ## # 03./      %\$% %\$             43.733.20920 9   098%/.3:.9.38288439501742   1%\$70.-4.0/147 280.17429047%834970.943174290.4/0.### #           #### # 03390%\$2.25.47708543/3 974:-0.422:3..9908.3303907 .974:30 90974:-0.97.3/%\$.0870.3.082.0./.

 \$.

%\$.

\$!%#&                           '#' %  ' % \$\$ #  ! #\$ #% \$\$ # \$!&! \$\$ # #!## # #\$\$ #  ! #\$ #% #\$\$ # \$!&! #\$\$ # #!## # #\$\$ #  ! #\$ #% #\$\$ # \$!&! #\$\$ # #!## # ##\$\$ #  ! #\$ #% ##\$\$ # \$!&!                ##\$\$ # #!## # &\$ %### # ''# #&\$ !&!  % # \$ '#%                                 %## \$              43..3.\$07.3%0..0%7.3303907 .

 \$.

%\$.

3.  % % \$%!      7.25     % #     !&!  !   % # & !  !&!            \$ ! !\$      &%   00\$500/ :9 # 00 \$03847  00 \$03847 # 00 \$03847 # 00 \$03847 ## #* &%   # # # # ## ##                    &                  %45'0   % #       %## %\$              43..3%0.0%7..\$!%#&    94   3 3 \$ 9.3303907 .\$07. %%#  0 7.0 .

 \$.

%\$.

.3303907 .\$07.0%7.\$!%#&                         %## %\$              43.3%0..3.

 \$.

%\$.

25    % #        !&!  !   % # &!  !&!    \$    ! %\$.\$!%#&  94    3 3 \$ 9.0  % % \$%!   7.  %%#  7.0 .

25 !\$ %\$..

3303907 .0%7.25     %\$\$ &% 00\$500/ :9 # 00 \$03847  00 \$03847 # 00 \$03847 # 00 \$03847 ##    #* &%   # # # # ## ##                  &                        %45'0       % #                    43.3%0.\$07.3....

 \$.

%\$.

3303907 .\$!%#&        %'\$   !%            43..\$07.3%0.3..0%7.

 \$.

%\$.

43974:39 8.439743 309 .908 00 57088:70- .8.\$!%#&      %'\$     \$ !%      \$#!%  !%\$ .90/.3/90\$3430:39   %0 & 24/:.33907.425480/4190&.

.... .47/3 94 90 \$ 2439473 90 14:7 00 8500/ 8038478   & .300.4330.4:909 84034/ .7.2494785489430/:89.:2:.943 .:2:.5....9.2524/:083...97.-4.9 .90/ 3/.  84034/ 70.8\$\$#  \$#3.  \$ 8/70./7.9.08  4 57088:70 .43974 :39  3/ 24947 70.25...:23:2 -4.990-49942 41 .47547.0.3 .8 .0/ .70 3907.. \$ 5:258  \$ 70:.733.:9       \$!% \$  #&&% %#  &   09    4947'     49475407    !:25. 3 .90/941.7038/0\$ 90701470 .90/9.9478 .090-4.733...9\$8/8.:.99.9478   57088:70 .08...809.

4503 472.5.   ''  472..9 ..:.   !.43974 \$/7...943..80.480 %%7.8:990  \$ %#  & !#%' %#  %# &\$ !#%%!#%&##  ='    =.

.

 507.49.3.943.943.:77039              43.0' 507.3303907 .0%7.\$07..3%0..

 \$.

%\$.

\$!%#&  \$#'##% # !#%' % &##% \$&!%  \$#&\$ '       #& %# &% #%' % &##% \$&!%   % #! #  % #.

\$07..\$  &\$ !#%%!#%&## '  % # ''      =       & \$                  43.3303907 .0%7..3.3%0.

 \$.

%\$.

89073/07                      43.3..7      70..0%7.\$07.\$!%#&     \$!% \$ \$!\$\$ #   # % !% ##       %  \$!\$\$ # =   =   #! =  #\$\$% = %%    ' %! ! # % \$\$ ## \$\$       \$#&#&%     \$     17439     17439     70.3303907 .3%0.7    !    !:2524947   !   448907 .

 \$.

%\$.

43974  %\$.43974 v \$! %# %!         %\$ 7.\$!%#&      %#  & \$ %\$        &%   %#  &                \$.43974        ' %\$ 7.0 3 .0.

43974\$  %\$ %\$ .%.3.43974   .3303907 .\$07...10             43.5745479433..0%7.20.422:3.3..8.43974\$:-899:90147.25  .0  .3%0..943  #!...

 \$.

%\$.

.089.088.3%0.943.943..057088:70.007.74.43974 70.057088:70.0.47547.04394..039 %\$ 90.024.439748-7.70.9.9.43974950%74990.0%7.3/%\$ 83.0.70...3303907 ./  %\$9.3.43974410.43974 3/70.43974   3.\$07.798..9084390417.43974 :030.\$!%#&     \$#&#&%      %\$  !%       %# %! %470/:.-0 370../7.70   %\$3309476:0.90/3902489.9.0.943  %\$7.43974803309476:0.30.9.300  %\$%\$ %\$                       !%    %\$     ' %\$      !%%\$%!            43.439749503943923.3/%\$9.43974 3/0503/039....0.38503.42-3.83988.94341%\$.48970/:..3/.

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99070/:.3/07 8 .3/ 90 17439 00 .3%0.07 41 90 88902 1.:.9 90\$706:0898974:90&\$309.3/07  7..\$07.90/  \$ 314728 90 /7..733..:70 974: 90 %\$ .:70  1 88902 1.0 -90249475:25.90/ 94 90 17439 00 . .0%7..3303907 .0330 9476:0.\$:990'.3/07.8907 .3.08.:70 8 /090.943   3.0 1:/ 9.\$' /7.3480890889021.//943949.25                  #&#&%             43.7.3/90%4/8905708039819548943  1907043 90\$/.:.03 1742 90 2.9:..

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3.8907 .0 57088:70 0307.0 ..3%0..4397494/0.00853 \$'845030/ 7.3  -7.0%7.3/07 8 8:550/ 94 90 70.0 1:/ 8 8:550/ 1742 90 2. -7.0 - 90 -7.80..070/43949017439 00        % # %'' \$   ''                     43.90/  %\$ -038 .8907.\$07.3/07 - 24947 4507.8907 .3303907 .70..0  \$' 8 24.. 17439 00 853 8 /090.3/ 94 90 17439 00.90/1742249475:258/0.0 1:/ 57088:701742902.3/07  \$   ''  % # %''            #\$   1 .9 .0 1:/ 1742 90 2.\$!%#&     %\$ !#%    #    0 -7.943 94 90 853 00 ..389 8573 147.7 00 /70..08 . \$'  7.%.

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.:9..3303907 .7819 %&  %\$4507.0        35:9 %\$ 1189.0%7.9083.0947  &%  3309476:0 3309476:0 330752 330950 %749904503. 330752 330950 %749904503.9083.943.3/07  &\$ #06:70/03309476:0 %\$4507.0 7747 !%      4947 \$4034/.\$07. 0.25 %\$ 11 \$#  4   4:95:9       4397470.3/07 #06:70/03309476:0 %\$4507.30 3  &  0..9083.:9.\$!%#&     %\$!&%  &%!&%   '49.3.3%0. 008500/803847   \$ %\$1:3.30 \$    %\$ 4 411:0..                 43.7819 4 411:0.

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3.2547%\$ .25 %\$               43.420843 .25 A B     %\$.:708/090.25 8 43 03   8 411 74:3/0/ ..733.25.733.3/ 9 .\$07.843 %\$ .42043190..420843.0%7.4330.3349-050714720/  :73%\$4507.\$!%#&     %\$#! %\$ .90/47 %\$ 89.733.7.4208 411 90 90723.733 .4330.90/  4704.:98450347 2.3/90%\$.889021.3%0.07 03.943 %\$.9478/8.3303907 .25 .733.. 8 74:3/0/  .3.3/411          %'#! &  %\$47%\$ .

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0.-9!747.07 83903943 89007.43974                               43.943 43974 \$8902  .425430398 9 .943.\$9...//943.2  42-308 90 \$ .943 43974 \$8902  ..3/90/7. 8038478 2439473 .3303907 .9.47547.  . .30803847   \$!\$ %\$  .0 3907..907.%\$  %8 88902 8 .439748 03309476:0             \$! 0.3%0.007.90 %\$ 7.. .3/ %\$ : %7.3.0%7.943 94 3.3 0903843 41 90 0 343 \$ 1:3.3/ %\$ .\$07.03943 %7..9743.

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