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facilities adjacent to and a part of the refinery installations. 7 flight, however,

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plus the cornactness of the target area made bomb spillage in the

refinery w~l1 nigh Thevitable. On 30 Pay 1944,8 the Mediterranean Allied Strategic Air Forces was given Ploesti as a secondary target. On 8 June, an informal communication, subsequently

confirmed officially, from General a aatz to General Eaker, set forth that the primary objective of' the Mediterranean Allied Strategic Air Forces was to deny oil to Germany and that the Fifteenth Air Force wos to have as its first priority the complete destruction of the Rumanian oil refineries. 9 (Extent of dargage to transport facilities during attncc on ricesti appeared to have been severe. The Rimnanian Railway Ministry estiiited that catacity of the railways had been reduced by 45 , locorxtive repair capacity by 70Z.-'"otes on Certain Effects of Bombing RR Transport in Ruimania" - 033, 15 Sept 194+. 830 May 1944, COSSED, No. 117. 9 Personal message from Gen. Spaatz to Gen. Ehr, June 1944.

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DESCRIF'I'ION OF THE TARGET

A. Ploesti.
Ploesti, the chief town of the department of Prahova, allachian plain and is Transylvanian Alps. It lies in the

hedged on the North end the West by the foothills of the is 30 miles north of the capital city of Bucharest and owes its central location amid the hnnanian oil

existence and development primarily to its fields.

A considerable network of rail lines serves the refinery area and rail routes fan out in many directions from Ploesti. Bucharest,
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and to the North a main all-rail route rune to Germcany via Sinais and fraeov
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Concordita 1ega 3

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The Board was unable to ascertain the rnumber of sorties and' directed against any particular target. August 1943, and April 1941+, a large f ind er, offset, or Estimate W4ith the exce vi ,r<

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than

the

regio ardce.

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Ther a

as a

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refinery

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it

of

602 ::

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of

of

fact

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caact

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atak

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gst

it

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10,0

ton

of

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tohep

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in

crde

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a

:

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to

the

reiere

was

immediatelyreflected

in

a

readucio

Sw

t;:e 194

to

14

ep

te

toal5:

thogpt

ef

th

re

3

f s

i are u

r not e

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man

of

the

iniida

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t

e

reiere

a
limi-ed

ee
the

al effct
-cibt

ato

achav
of:

whe ah 1
Auus

not S suj 1943 attack

e

cotiu
primaril0o

ao

aate;

tesacks, thst

"month.0::

S

Vi,

7,

8,

and :

9

aolwn

ahi

sectio:n

tos:er moth
Fr => tons fiin aer

Esiate Ovrl soth base on sut

reinn
ls soures capaiy

caact

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all

reiere
t

in 1
Crud fttl oi

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is5

750,000

caact

som

ae

as enueae beow

prodsctio

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tonnae

fiue
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heei

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in

metric

aapproximately0 tos a ' a: *-

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are
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x:--

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etimtn of Apri of

the -cud

reuto to' Agst moth

in

throughput

resultig

fro

theB

atak
thrupu
from fge
-he

194 :. with a
th th wa-.

t

app ea
reoe 143
quc an for

reasonable as atac
coplt

o
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eve

compare posibl

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cite
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at

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e
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Jan
of Prnial

average
figre
t

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e

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sandrd

verage basedo a:Monthly
Crud

194 aac

Refineri:

(Exhibit-

believed tha

th

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from

whic

oil

lose

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basis.

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wer
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a

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ton

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reul

of

attck
reue

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is

10

11

I2

and

r3)

;

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figures

do relaiel

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refinerie00s5, ar avial

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reinris0uc

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products

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1943,

in

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ve

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e0

C.

Dobestic Consuntion. Domestic consumption in Ruania in 1943 totaled 2,001,713 tons, an average of 167,000 tons a month. This accounted for approximately 40% of the total oil production. The first three months of 1944, Rumania consumed an average of 164,000 tons a month, but April August consumption only averaged 71,000 tons, an estimated decrease of 57%. As discussed previously, this 57% Rhuanian reduction and the overall export reduction of 56% indicate that Germany and Rumania shared their loss of oil on an equal basis. (Exhibit 17).

D.

Oil Shipments. An analysis of rail and barge shipments was made to determine, if possible, the effects on oil shipments of attacks on railroads and marshalling yards and of the mining of the Danube. This investigation was limited to an attempt to determine whether the damage to shipping facilities forced shipping by one means or the other to such an extent that a definite change in method of shipping was established. The 1944 export figures of Rumin were examined. Daily shipments were recorded by the number of tank cars and barges and the country of destination. Tons of petroleum products per tank car or barge were not given. Correspondence of Schenker & Co., subsidiary organization under Rumin which handled all rail shipments, gave sufficient data for an estimated tank car capacity of 16 tons to The tonnage would vary be assumed with reasonable accuracy. somewhat with type of product. Other correspondence which dealt with brge shipments indicated an average barge capacity of 800 A calculation using these averages and actual shipment tons. figures accounted for total exports from Jan. - 23 August 1944, with an overall error of only one percent although two monthly variations on this basis were 9%. In the table below, tank car shipments were based on this.average of 16 tons per car and the balance of each month's exports were credited to barge shipments. Jan. Feb. 100 48% 118732 52%
Mfar. A

June 35936

July
52000

Aug.

Tnk

Car
wports

125824

62144 24%

3616 30% 86682 70%

55T6"i
59% 37636 41%

34384

% Total
Barge

53%
112529

31%
79063

42%
71159

41%
47615

191694 76%

% Total wsorts

47%

69%

58%

59%

Although Intelligence reports and conversations with refinery managers and engineers indicate beyond doubt that many serious difficulties arose in. connection with transportation, due to the and barge facilities, examination of the above attack on ril figures does not seem to indicate that a definite trend toward one method as against the other was established.

1 1 Actual

tonnage shipment figures were available for July and 1-23 August 1944. average was 865 tons per barge and Aug. 800 tons.

July

-

19

-

E.

The Effort and the Cost.

(&.hibits

18 and 19).

A greater effort was expended against Ploesti than any other target area which has been attacked by the Mediterranean Allied Air Forces. With the exception of 142 tons of bombs dropped by

the Ninth Air Force in the attack of 1 August 1943, the entire tonnage was dropped during a period of approximately four and one-half nonths. There were 5,490 effective bomber sorties (including 38 fighter bomber), which accounted for 13,030,12 tons of bombs dropped on the target. There were 3278 effective escort sorties. The following table shows the allocation of effort between USAAF and RAF. Eff . Bomber Missions USA F Ieavy Bombers
Sorties

Non- EPf 3&rties 720 1 721

Erly Returns 710

Tons of Bombs

5266 8j 5304

12,698.50
18.5

USMAF Fighter Bombers otal U8LA.F
RAF iavy Bombers

717

12,717. 00 313.12

186 5490 740

Total
Escort Missions USLAF

754

13,030.12

3278

296

406

The total losses on missions to Ploesti were as follows: U8,AAF Heavy Bombers USAkF Fighter Bombers USAAF Fighters RAF Heavy Bombers Total

276 1012
4912 350

12Dn the fighter bomber attack of 10 June,

ten P-38's carrying bombs and 14 of the escorting P-38 fighters were lost. The fighter escort strafed an airdrome at Gaesti on the return trip home and part of these losses may be attributed to this effort. All of the escort losses, however, were reported as due to enemy aircraft and 8 of the 10 fighter bomber losses were also attributed to enemy aircraft. It is reasonable to assume that the lumjority of the escort losses should be charged to Ploesti.
-

20

-

W-0WOR

<k

it,

p 0:1

-

.,

h

Y_

1

;.
:

i

'

x

?Tyr ,

MONTHLY CRUDE THROUGHPUT
CRUDE OIL REFINED IN THOUSANDS OF METRIC TONS
ASTRA
1 T
I

JULY 1943
ROMANAREFINERY,
r
1

-

AUGUST

1944

200 I

1

r

r

r

1

1

r

200
I

160 120 80 40 0 JUL'43 AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC 123 55 145 164 146 153 NORMAL MONTHLY CAPACITY 146,000 TONS JAN'44 138 FEB 123

160 120 80

MAR 133

APR 17

MAY

JUN II

JUL 82

I1U1AUG 62

40

100 80 60 40 20 0

CONCORDIA

VEGA REFINERY
100

80

60

40

20 JUL'43 AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN'44 63 FEB 63 MAR 67 APR 46 MAY 38 JUN 21 JUL 22 AUG 8

58 22 77 80 70 76 NORMAL MONTHLY CAPACITY 120,000 TONS

150 120 90 60 30 0

ROMANA AMERICANA

REFINERY
ISO

120 90 60
30

JUL'43 AUG SEP . OCT NOV DEC JAN'44 60 109 78 71 64 65 59 NORMAL MONTHLY CAPACITY 92,000 TONS

FEB 66

MAR 60

APR 51

MAY 55

JUN II

JUL 23

AUG 12

50 40 30 20 10 JU '4 0
JUL'43
44

STEAUA ROMANA REFINERY

50
40

AUG I-

SEP

OCT
-

NOV
-

DEC
I

Itt
JAN'44
23

30 20
I

i__
FEB
29

_

_

__I_

__

MAR
30

APR
28

MAY
4

JUN

JUL

AUG

NORMAL MONTHLY CAPACITY 125,000 TONS SOURCE ASSOC. OF RUMANIAN PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES JULY AND AUGUST 1944 FIGURES ARE FROM INDIVIDUAL REFINERIES Echibit 7

AUGUST 1944 FIGURES 1-23 AUGUST

R",P

MONTHLY CRUDE THROUGHPUT
THOUSANDS OF METRIC TONS
60 50 I 40 30 20 IO 0 JUL'43
31
F

CRUDE OIL REFINED IN

JULY 1943-AUGUST 1944

PHOENIX

r

ORION

REFINERY
1

i

50 40 30 20 I0

AUG
5

SEP
19

-OCT
41

NOV
37

DEC
48

JAN'44 FEB
43 40

MAR 37

APR
7

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

0

NORMAL MONTHLY CAPACITY 60,000 TONS CREDITULMINtER REFINERY

40

40

30

30

20

20
10

10

0

JUL'43
36

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

JAN'44

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

0

NORMAL MONTHLY

CAPACITY 45,000 TONS COLUMBIAAQUILA REFINERY

40

40

30

30

20

20

IO 0
.

I0

JUL'43
347-7----

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV
-

DEC

JAN'44
_

FEB

MAR
-----

APR

MAY

JUN
-

JUL

AUG
2

0

9

NORMAL MONTHLY

CAPACITY

45,000 TONS

50 40 30 20 I0 0
a

STANDARD

PETROL BLOCK

REFINERY

50
40

30
20

10
JUL'43 AUG
22

SEP
44

OCT
36-

NOV
32

DEC
30

JAN'44
35

FEB
33

MAR
34

APR
9

MAY
23

JUN
6

JUL

AUG

0

NORMAL MONTHLY

CAPACITY

40,000 TONS

SOURCE- ASSOCOF RUMANIAN PETROLE.UM INDUSTRIES JULY AND AUGUST 1944 FIGURES ARE FROM INDIVIDUAL

8 20 AUGUST 1944 FIGURES A 1-23 AUGUST

REFINERIES

Exhibit 8

MONTHLY CRUDE THROUGHPUT
CRUDE OIL REFINED
JULY

39

IN, THOUSANDS OF METRIC TANS
-I

1943 -AUGUST

1944
i

XENIA REFINERY

20 15

IIILIIEI

-i

20
15

10

0
25 20 15 10 5 0

Ii
15

} 1J

J
SE
22

~JI
JUL '43AU
-

OCT
22

NOV

DEC
20

JAN'44 FEB
22 13

MAR
-

APR
3

MAY
16

119

T!TII11 UG0
10O
7 13
____ __2

NORMAL MONTHLY CAPACITY

18,000 TONS.

UNIREA SPERANTZA REFINERY

__

5
U

_____

__AUG

SEP__

T

NOV

DEC

JAN'44

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

U

NORMAL MONTHLY CAPACITY 21,000 TONS. STANDBY PLANT AND INACTIVE FOR SEVERAL MONTHS PRIOR TO APRIL 1944.

12 I0 8 6 4 2 0 JUL'43 2

____

___ ____DACIA

ROMANA REFINERY

__________I

AUG 8

SEP 7

OCT 6

NOV 2

DEC 9

JAN'44 FEB 4 4

MAR 4

APR
-

MAY 8

JUN 10

JUL *10

AUG *8

NORMAL MONTHLY CAPACITY
____________

15,000 TONS.

PRAHOVA REFINERY_(BUCHAREST)__________

I8 15 12 9 6 3 0

JUL'43

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

JAN'44

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL
*

AUG

NORMAL MONTHLY CAPACITY 17,000 TONS. SOURCE OF RUMANIAN PETROLEUM INDUSTRIES JULY AND AUGUST 1944 FIGURES ARE FROM INDIVIDUAL REFINERIES. Exhibit9

Estimated

-ASSOC.

AUGUST 1944 FIGURES 1-23 AUGUST

4..

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FINAL SUNMARY

'Ploesti', as a campaign, success.

has been concluded with a marked degree of

The operations were conducted in accordance with established doctrine although scientific defenses and counter-measures To suznmarize the campaign and its consequences

for Air Force employment,

hampered the basic operation. as delineated in this report:

1. It is fairly certain that, at the rate the attacks were being carried out against Ploesti, the Germans were rapidly being denied the bulk of Rumanian refined petroleum products. No consideration has been given in this report to synthetic or vegetable oil production from which no high grade lubricants are obtained. Absence of firm estimates of German oil production of all types and the changing nature of the oil situation as German supply lines shortened and operational areas narrowed, makes any further estimates of the effects of the Ploesti Campaign in reducing German oil supplies unreliable. 2. Examination of daily crude throughput figures for the refineries in August 1943 and during the period of the 194 4 ttacks reveals that results of the attack were quickly overcome in the early stage of the campaign. However, as the attacks increased in number and frequency, the recuperative ability of the refineries lessened and daily throughput declined.

3.

A smoke screen protected target, particularly one where antiaircraft defenses forced attacking aircraft to operate at high altitudes, as at Ploesti, offered an operational problem against which countermeasures in use during the campaign were much less effective than usual.

4.

A reconnaissance plane, which flew over the target area ahead of and during an attack to advise and direct successive attack waves towards those targets susceptible to visual sighting, was used during two of the last three attacks on Ploesti. The technique, from the limited observation of its effectiveness, appears to have considerable merit, and it has future place in similar operations.

5.

With the method of attack used, the latter part of the force frequently had to bomb through smoke resulting from hits in the target area caused by the first part of the formation in addition to the artificial screen. This complicated the operational problems involved in the attack and undoubtedly lessened the bombing accuracy of those groups so affected. 6. The accuracy attained by the P-38's in the dive bomber attack of 10 June 1944 was outstanding, and demonstrates use, occasionally, of tactical type aircraft against strategic targets of small size but relative importance. The losses, however, were disproportionately high and, as the Rumanians indicated, (Appendix b), these lowlevel attacks were considered as a good opportunity for the flak areas to bolster their 'score.' The extent of damages consequent to the raid indicates, too, the necessity of hitting particularly vulnerable parts to make these attacks effective. (SeeApepe ti4v e) 7. A study now being completed by the Ordnance Division of the AAF Evaluation Board, MTO, examines in considerable detail each refinery and the results of the aerial attacks as far as physical damage is concerned. That study concludes that:

-

21 -

(a)

In attacks against refineries, the units used directly in processing the crude and its fractions, i.e., the operating units, represent the most vulnerable parts of the refinery system and should be primary targets. Utilities, transportation, and storage facilities, where necessary, should be secondary targets. Bombardment frequently results in fires in the refinery area (despite passive measures against them used in Ploesti) and every effort should be made to induce the maximum number of fires. Nondelay or instantaneous fuzing is recommended for aid in starting fires with a few incendiaries interspersed throughout the target area. A few long delay bombs will keep fire fighters out of the refinery area after the attack. In the absence of factual data on the use of the 250 lb or 100 lb bombs, it is believed that the 500 lb GP is the best weapon, when fuzed for surface detonation.

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

- 22 -

APPENDIX

A.

PHYS ICAL

DAMAGE

TO

REFI] NERIES

AT

PLOESTI

(WITH PHOTOGRAPHS AND Bear FALL PLOTS) A. Be c. D. Be F. A2ITRA EOMAANO STANDARD PflTROL BLOCK CRDITUL

MINIBIR

CONCORDIA VEGA XE IA STEAUA ROMANO ROIAANO-AMdERICANA COIOIZIA

G.
He

Letter designations on each ref~inery top view key into the photographic presentation following discussion on each refinery.

APPENDIX
PHYSICAL DAMAGE

,

Detailed reports of the damage done each refinery attacked during the Ploesti campaign are presented in this appendix. In many instances the Board was only able to estimate the long-term results of the bombing, because other factors combined with

the physical damage to disrupt refinery production. From the middle of July until the middle of September, 1944, repair and restoration of plant facilities were hampered and complicated by a number of factors: Intensity of the attacks, shortage of

replacement parts and equipment, the capitulation, personnel.

closing of refineries at the time of

lack of motor transport and shortage of trained

The estimates of the damage resulting from the raids during that period, as a consequence, are based on the best information available

to the Board up until the time of its departure from Rumania on 16 October 1944.

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The Astra-Romrano Refinery, owned by the Shell Oil interests, is one of the most nmdern and complete installations in Ploesti, It

had a normal charge rate of approximately 125,000 tons per nnth, which by 23 August 1944 had been reduced to 62,000 tons per month. The refinery

was subjected to 16 separate raids, during which 812 bombs hit this refinery. At the time of the Board's inspection (approximately 1 October. 1944) the MdcKee unit could operate at its normal capacity of 3200 tons per day, the Shell still (Battery 1) could operate at 66 percent (1600 tons per day) of its capacity, and the Dubbs cracking unit could operate at 75 percent (1350 tons per day) of its normal capacity. Actually the

throughput on the Mcee unit was limited to 1800 tons per day because of transportation difficulties. Destruction of 75-80 percent of the re-

finery tankage also hampered operations to some extent; however, if adequate transportation were available'the McKee unit could operate at capacity. Charts of bomb plots and a more detailed account of the damage incurred on each attack follows.

-2-

1 August 193 Raid.

On this date a total of 50 bombs fell

in the area.

The

furnaces of the Iiicee Plant were very badly damaged.

The pump house for the Shell

stills was also seriously hit as was the pump house of the Dobbs cracking plant. Several other installations such as a cracked gasoline stabilizer, doctor plant and agitators were damaged. Twelve cays were required to repair the damages to Battery 1;

the I cree unit resumed operations on 1 September and the cracking coils on 8 September. 5 April

1944l

Raid.

At this time 112 bombs, including seven unexploded bombs, The damages inflicted on installations in this and subseIn this particular attack,
-

fell in the refinery area,

quent raids completely closed the refinery until 25 June. Battery No. 1 received severe damage to its pump house,

smoke stack and flue duct. The

Damages to pipe lines and the main pumping system closed down the cKee unit.

DIobbs unit was untouched but was forced to shut down because of lack of reduced crude from the distillation units. Slight damage to the electrical plant and the water It was estimated that the MrcKee unit could

supply and cooling system was sustained.

have been repaired in approximately three weeks; Battery No. 1 would have required about two nmnths. 15 April

Itli. Rid.

Nineteen bombs were dropped in the refinery area.

These

caused only slight damage to auxiliary installations and results were negligible. 21. April on this day.

1944

Rid,

One hundred thirty-four bombs were dropped on the refinery The

Very severe damage was inflicted on the major operating units.

coolers, furnace, and pumps of the McKee unit were severely damaged and an estimated six weeks was required to repair these damages. At Battery 1, six of the twelve Two months

stills were severely da-aged as were a number of the coolers and pu.s. was the estimated recovery period required.

Again the cracking inst llations received

no damage, but there was slight damage to the water supply and electric transmissions system.

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24 Septemb~er

194I'f

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6

APPENDIX

D.

A

T

T

A C K

S

A G A

I N S

T

P

L

o

E S

T I

Two sets of data are included in this Appendix. First, a tabulation by attack dates, showing the number of effective, noneffective, and early return sorties, for bombers and escorts, time and altitude of ettac., total bomb tonnage dropped on each mission, and USAAF and RAY victories ana losses. These data are from USA&F Forms 34 and RAF OPRFS. Second, this section shows estimates of enemy fighter strength in Runania during the 1944 campaign against Ploesti. Included are: 15th AF estirates; the actual nmxoer of enemy fighter sorties; and estin ted encounters from mission reports. These are from 15th AF Fighter appreciation studies and from actual records obtained from the Rumanians after the capitulation.

A LTALJKA3 AGAIN3r PLOESTI
R
o : B r

Date
r"...

Type A/C
,

USAAY

..

Sorties Eff,?Joni &f, & Farly PRot. p

Tonnage on Target
"^_

Bomber

Time of Attack~ 1130-1250
1137-1517

Altitude
____

losses
TinKO in
4

E/A Flak

Total
r

F IG HT E R E S C OR T Escort 1osses De Sorties A/C Ef f,Non Elff, E/A Flak Un- Total Kno . & Early Bet. I
+d .

1 I

C T CH I
P/D

S

LDest

rr.n

*1 Au
j

43

B-24
B-17 B-24

165/0/13

142.0

100-700 21000-24000

5
1
10

18
2
--

31
--

54
3
10

Apr 11

94/9/13
13$/17/55

587.35

- -

39
P-~38 132/4/7 P-47 43/0/5
--

17

1

1

2

~Apr~
21 Apr ! 24 ArL4

B-17

137/43/P
T/33/38
154/5/7

316.4 Recalled

1234-1240

19600-25000

1

2

--

3

P-38 P-51

6 1/0/7
48/0/3
--

B-1?

P-38

0/105/8

3

i6
10

7
14

10
2

A

R-17
3-24

793.5 0

1153-1228

20800-24200
J

K

---

13 (,/7/!4

3 5 P-38

P-t47

90/0/20 49/2/1
38/10/3

F-51
i<: 4)4 3-17 -7 n-24 0,/0/107 1(4/7/4
31,'7/19

1

1

3

--

1

Recalled 1256.50 1356-1452 19000 24500
---

5 !"-

144

5
14

13 P-38 153/11/21 P-51 42/4/2
--

3
1

2
3

2

2

--

9
19
J

3
25

5
3

119

L*ay

")4 B-17
B-21;

33/0/2 173/192/20

493

1100-1137

19000-22000

6

-

--

6

2

5

1

8

6

7

*

9th Air Force Attack.

Detail of Victories Not Available.

All other attacks by ?.editerranean Allied Air Forces.

- 1-

Type

Bomber
Srison

Torna -e Tr.. ;t Tir.'e of ttack
Aliue

~t USAAF, Con 't

DaeAC

/

ris

Alitde

Ionber Ios.,e -'/A Flak Un Total
..

ire

escort

A/C
/Y

cotoseVioie
3/A a' ac n

Sorties 13 1/'6/19 72/12/19

on

~Oal
2
12

- -

--

t-r 1

2

6 '3

~ay 144 B-17 31
B-24

r13/1/2

1115,%3

'D0rO-103F

19000-2'1200~ 1 13 2 1'
Trl

428/24/34

F2, 2/C
)41/)x/1

-

--

2

1

--

1

/, un

44

B-24

310/2 0/31

.ro0 902-O 3N

10

4

I

I

P_38
rTJ 1

93,/5/5

1

-

44/-/4
r 27/21
__ 1-

3

10 3ufl 44

F-3P
B_) 17

3F /1/7

18.50 28 3 .2r

2

P

-

10

3

F-38

214.

21 t'un 44

139/9/11

oor4-lo1

B-24

0/%+1/r o

21 0

00

-25r

0
124/8/4
---

10 7r /3/18
2;6/-/4
1

4

211

un 44

B-~21

135/14/11

32?.

093 1-OC'143

2' Oq l-24200

8

4

2

1J,

rT- 1

11

6

2

3°/3

32 /10

71/c.,/<, 9 "1
I44;

1

r

3
-

3-17
B_24

122"17

(Cor. 0

1103 -1''?

0

210 7D-2x00

-

1

-

1

1

10V9/3

4

'I
__________TrjAt

or~

Torina, e
r : + A C r ~ it m no s n

Attack

A t it de

N /

Bomnb r Looses F ak Un - To al I1k

Tpe
A /

E coxjt

S rt i s

cost Losse
/ A Fl k in E/A Fn knn o a e 2" t ~~

U.3AAiO Cn't.

P-38
P_51
1rJul1

66/9/7
70/1/11 9 2
-

1

4)

2-17
P-21;

45 1/46,/L3

1 5 3 / 4 /p

14Fi ).75

0°55-1116

2 1030-2x 000

-2 -

-

2 1

9

9

3
-

1
1

P-38 P-5 1 22 Jul 1;1;
;x_.24

126/14/10 204/6/20

-

1

1

2

4

-17

132/2/7

327/98/r 2

12314.75

1:55-1210

21300-25300

2

- 5

1

6
19 P-38 P-51
139/6/18 58/3/1

8

9

2F Jul

44

3-17

102/5/27

e41. 75

0957-1;023

22000-27000

-

1

1

2

3-2/E222/13/29

15

3

18
P-38

97/8/10
162/10/28 113/7/10

P-5 1
?1 Jul
S Aucf

44
44

B- 17

1-F/6/8

434.75

lioo-uio6

22400-26000

-

2

-

2 P-38

P51i
P-38 B-17
^,_24

27/0/3 26/0/4

10 Aug

44

12/1/12i

780.39

0947-1107

20000-28500

-

218/17/17

1
10

-3-

Tyrpe
Late

A/C

Bomber Sorties

Tonnage

On

Time of

-ll

Altituce

Bomber Losses E/A Flak Un- Total
W_!rig nwk

Type W/C P_.51 P_.38

Escort

Sorties
142/1/10 82/9/3 187/8/19

Escort lossea E/A'1ZLak tinTal
Known 1
-

itre Dt.P) 5
-

m
-

UHAF, Cn't
1 2
1

17 Aug

44

B-24

2l5/49/31
148/4/10

534.25 628.5

0930-1119 0951 1102

21600-24500 23000-28000
-

-

17

2

19

P_51
-2

-

-

1

1

2

1

-

18 Aug 14 B-17

2 5 1
-

5

P-51 19 Aug

132/7/34
126/0/43
1 1

9
-

1

44

B-17

65/8/6

144925

1049-1054

26300-30000

-

1.

2

P-51

TOTAlS: Heavy Bombers Fighters USAhI

526S/720/710 12698.5

58

150
8

68
--

276
10

165
3278/29 6/1.06 3278/296/40o6 27

96 . ... 5
131

38

38/1117

18 .5

2

2. 1
1

21
21

1

169

702..
108

5304/721/717 12717.0

6o

158

68

286

49

334

-4-

Date

Type A/C ice't -tckKnw

Bomnber Sorties

Tonna ae:bomber on Tirr.e of Ta

Altitude

E/A Flak

Iosses Un- Total

Type A/C

Escort Sorties

Escort lossesVctre E/A 1Flak Unoal Known

tM/

!x

26 Wul c. 27 Jul
I

'e 11. I. . i T-ra 1
"&].1 a

47/'0/6

107.0

2359-0014

Pooo-1c

r~0
-

-

1

1

A11,

10 Au

Lib;
hal.

35 '10/5 21/1/1

120.12

223234,

.1f20-12200

-

-

8
1 2

8
1 2 3

~r /3

c?/_/17

86~.

2)O-211

7? %- o00

-

3

TCT2AL :-AF:

lP' '19''7
r l4nO /r'"O/7r4

1; .12
13030.12

- -

15

15

4630012o 83 158

301

3278/296/406

27

1

21

49

334

131

108

I ('9

ENEMFY LI GHTTF . STKULLI:6TH 15 AlLFiCE LI GI-TLRh

-

hUihN~rh

1.1A E8T!LLTED

hCTU.hL Fi GhT1. .OTIF~ 222 182_

L) TE

TARGET Bucharest liarEilling Yards Floc sti Ploesti and Bucharest

APPLB.FCIATION'
225/2 50 225/250

158 ION XEPORTS 175/200
125/150

4 April
5 A~pril

15 April 16 April 21 April
Z4 ,,pri1

225/2501 200 170/200

169

Era ov

191 154 130 134

45/5 0

f uchar'-st
P'loe:.ti and
Euchr rest

75 /a00 65/x;0
130

170/200 85/130

5

:.Asy

Fioosti and

T1urnu-E ever in 6 May Campin&, Pitesti Craiova, Brasov ,.nd
iurnu-Severin

85/13C 85/130 125/55 125/5 (plus poFible 20/25 from 2d sorties)

131 152 155

110

7 IMay

Buchares t

18 M~av

Ploesti
Ploesti

'31

ay

122

6 Jutne

Floesti 5 Cralova
FiteEti, .r; sov 100/110 123 115

(plus 20/25 poszible 2d sorties)
10 June
11

Ploesti
Giur giu Floesti and Giurgiu

5 0/602 120/150 110/115

1297

50/60

June

192198 161

160/175 110

23 June
24 June

Ploc.sti and
Giurgiu

Annex not available--used previous a! preciation for 4th and 5th April. 2Deto surprise factor in ope~rations it was suggested that the number of aerial encounters would depend on the time available for enemy fight rs to be airborne. The actual numiber of enemy sorties is evidence that the F-38,'s did not approach the target area beneath enemy radar. However, the mission reports account for only 50/60 enemy fighters which may indicate that the renamiing enemy fight?rs had insuf'ficient time to establish contact. 3Fijrure includes enemy sorties against bombers returning from 1-ussia, which operation -was not included in the Intelligence Annex. 4iNo .f hter. appreciation is available for these c~lparations only Craiova was included in the original planning.

1 IntelJ.igence

since

-6-

15 AIR FORCE
FI (G3Ti

DATE 28 June 3 July 4 July 9 July 15 July 22 July

TAR GET Bucharest Bucharest and Giurgiu Pitestdi Brasov Ploesti Ploesti Plo sti, Buzau, Zilistea and

APPRECIATION 100/115

ACTUAL NUMELh EIEiJY FIGHTER SORTIES 106

1.

T1;l

TED

:I COUNXLI FhOiI MiISSION LEPORTS
70)

110/115

93 81

100

110/115 115/145

50

110/125 11 0/12575/85
70/80 gr 100/110
AC

28 July 31 July

Ploesti Ploesti and Bucharest

5c/C c

10 August

Bucharest

60
(plus possible 20/25 from same Russian front)

17 August

Ploesti

40/50 (plus possible 15/20 from S Russian front)
35/40 35/4O0

18 August 19 August

Ploesti and Campina Ploesti

. The above tabulation is based upon material supplied by h._ Fifteenth .,ir The fighter appreciations are taken from the Force (Ref. No. 3940, 2; Nov. 1944). original Intelligence Annexes which are sent to lower echelons on the day preceding each operation by Fifteenth Air Force. The number of enemy sorties is derived from a comThe total number of pilation prepared by the Staff Headquarters, Rumanian Air Force. actual enemy fighter sorties is 3297 as against aggregate Fifteenth Air Force estimates of 3480, representing an over-estimate by Fifteenth Air Force Intelligence of 5.5%.

5 lncluded

in the mission reports were statements that away from our bombers by our fighter .escort.

1,100

enemy aircraft were kept

6 Depending

on availability of enemy fighters from South Russian front (at that time the Caatz area). 7 "Possibly negligible owing to our bustained effort".

nEP 1;iu2. E The Dive Bomber
Attack

of 10 June 19!{.

An attempt to diversify the attacks on Floesti ,

was

made on 1G June L944 when

thirty-e htF P-3S's of the 82nd Fighter Group carried out a dive bombing attack on the Romano Americana refinery. the First Fighter Group. ixty-six percent of the bombers ,5 itery area.. lb. bombs in the -ref of the These dive bombers were escorted by 27 other Lightnings of

38, were: able to drop their 1000

(See Appendix D).

Narrative mission reports submitted

by the Group indicates that there were three aiming points determined and assigned with the following result.: "The 96th Squadron was assigrned to the Main Boiler House Although. well covered with smoke,. the as its target. boiler house was distinguishable largely because of the smoke stacks, one shorter than the other. Hits two tall in the near vicinity are highly probable but the smoke precluded pin pointing any bursts." "The 95th Squadron following in next to bomb the Main DisThis target was seriously obscured by Plant. tillate smoke and bombing was done principally by using the large No adjacent storage tanks to the east as a check point. results of this bombing could be ascertained." "The 97th Souadron bombed last, attacking the Main Cracking Plant which was the easternmost target. One hit was re-. ported on the northwest corner with other bombs falling in the vicinity. This target was clearer of smoke than

the other two."
"The remaining large intact storage tank between the cracking and the rdistillation plants is re_ orted to have been left in flames and there was other evidence of smoke rising from bomb bursts in the general refinery area." altho-:h this dive bombing attack was very effective and resulted in putting the Shell Still Battery, eight days, it the only oerating unit in the refinery, out of operation for

was very costly in that 10 of the dive bombers and 14 of the escorts This was due largely to the fact that the top

were lost to enemy aircraft and flak.

cover was at a low altitude when the entire formation was struck by the German Air Force. The mission did claim victories of 29 enemy aircraft destroyed, six probables

and seven da~maged both on the ground and in the air. In addition to bombing the refineries, rolling stock, motor transport and

gun ositions were strafed. Accurte aj praisal of' the effectivenss o~ hse~

: 'of attack is difficult.

in view of the~ evere the Amc'e

German fihter resistance and the absence of proper top cover

inflicted and the efficiency of the

~ttck

were outtanding.

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