# 1

2.005 Quiz 1 Equation Sheet (Fall 2010)

Vector Operators

Cartesian Coordinates (x, y, z)
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
ˆ ˆ ˆ
y
x z
i j k
x y z
A
A A
A
x y z
x y z
cv cv cv
v
c c c
c
c c
c c c
c v c v c v
v
c c c
V = + +
V· = + +
V = + +

Cylindrical Coordinates (r, Φ, z)

2 2
2
2 2 2
1
ˆ ˆ ˆ
( ) 1 1
1 1
r z
r z
r r z
A
rA A
A
r r r z
r
r r r r z
m
cv cv cv
v m
c cm c
c
c c
c cm c
c cv c v c v
v
c c cm c
V = + +
V· = + +

V = + +

Mach number: / ( Ma velocity speed of sound) =

Constitutive relationships (in specific form, i.e. per unit mass)

Model Specific energy Specific entropy
Incompr. liquid
2 1 2 1
( ) u u c T T ÷ = ÷
2
2 1
1
ln
T
s s c
T
÷ =
Ideal Gas
2 1 2 1
( )
v
u u c T T ÷ = ÷
2 2
2 1
1 1
ln ln
v
T v
s s c R
T v
÷ = +

1
2
1
2
1 2
ln ln
P
P
R
T
T
c s s
p
÷ = ÷
2 2
2 1
1 1
ln ln
v p
P v
s s c c
P v
÷ = +
Solid
2 1 2 1
( ) u u c T T ÷ = ÷
2
2 1
1
ln
T
s s c
T
÷ =

Ideal Gas law: PV = mRT or P =ρRT, Ideal gas specific heats: c
p
= c
v
+ R

2
Conservation Relations for Closed Systems
First law, closed systems: E Q W A = ÷
Second law, closed systems:
gen
Q
S S
T
o
A = +
í

Heat Transfer
Conduction: Fourier’s law: q k T = ÷ V
 

Conduction resistance of a slab: / ( )
cond
R L kA =
Resistance (to radial heat transfer) of a cylindrical pipe:
ln( / )
2
out in
cyl
r r
R
kL t
=
Convection: Newton’s law of cooling: ( )
s s
Q hA T T
·
= ÷

Convection resistance: 1/ ( )
conv c
R h A =

Radiation: heat flux from a small grey object (1) to a large isothermal environment (2):
4 4
12 1 1 2
/ ( ) Q A T T c o = ÷

where o =5.67 x 10
-8
W/(m
2
K
4
) and
1
c the emissivity of (1)

1/
R h A =
3
1
4
r m
h T c o =
1 2
T T ~

Fluid Sta

Force on
centr
F p =

Center of

cp
y
p
= ÷

cp
x
p
= ÷

Centroid

Buoyanc
Metacentr
where I
o
is

atics
a submerge
roid
A
f pressure of
sin
xx
centroid
gI
p A
p u

sin
xy
centroid
gI
p A
p u

location and
y and stabili
ric position: M
s the area mo
ed surface:
f the force:

d moments o
ty
o
submerg
I
MB
V
=
oment of inert
of inertia for
ged

tia of the wate
a (a) rectang
erline area of
gle (b) circle
the floating o
(c) triangle (