1

2.005 Quiz 1 Equation Sheet (Fall 2010)

Vector Operators

Cartesian Coordinates (x, y, z)
2 2 2
2
2 2 2
ˆ ˆ ˆ
y
x z
i j k
x y z
A
A A
A
x y z
x y z
cv cv cv
v
c c c
c
c c
c c c
c v c v c v
v
c c c
V = + +
V· = + +
V = + +


Cylindrical Coordinates (r, Φ, z)

2 2
2
2 2 2
1
ˆ ˆ ˆ
( ) 1 1
1 1
r z
r z
r r z
A
rA A
A
r r r z
r
r r r r z
m
cv cv cv
v m
c cm c
c
c c
c cm c
c cv c v c v
v
c c cm c
V = + +
V· = + +

V = + +





Mach number: / ( Ma velocity speed of sound) =

Constitutive relationships (in specific form, i.e. per unit mass)

Model Specific energy Specific entropy
Incompr. liquid
2 1 2 1
( ) u u c T T ÷ = ÷
2
2 1
1
ln
T
s s c
T
÷ =
Ideal Gas
2 1 2 1
( )
v
u u c T T ÷ = ÷
2 2
2 1
1 1
ln ln
v
T v
s s c R
T v
÷ = +

1
2
1
2
1 2
ln ln
P
P
R
T
T
c s s
p
÷ = ÷
2 2
2 1
1 1
ln ln
v p
P v
s s c c
P v
÷ = +
Solid
2 1 2 1
( ) u u c T T ÷ = ÷
2
2 1
1
ln
T
s s c
T
÷ =


Ideal Gas law: PV = mRT or P =ρRT, Ideal gas specific heats: c
p
= c
v
+ R



2
Conservation Relations for Closed Systems
First law, closed systems: E Q W A = ÷
Second law, closed systems:
gen
Q
S S
T
o
A = +
í



Heat Transfer
Conduction: Fourier’s law: q k T = ÷ V
 

Conduction resistance of a slab: / ( )
cond
R L kA =
Resistance (to radial heat transfer) of a cylindrical pipe:
ln( / )
2
out in
cyl
r r
R
kL t
=
Convection: Newton’s law of cooling: ( )
s s
Q hA T T
·
= ÷


Convection resistance: 1/ ( )
conv c
R h A =

Radiation: heat flux from a small grey object (1) to a large isothermal environment (2):
4 4
12 1 1 2
/ ( ) Q A T T c o = ÷

where o =5.67 x 10
-8
W/(m
2
K
4
) and
1
c the emissivity of (1)
Radiation resistance: where when



1/
rad r
R h A =
3
1
4
r m
h T c o =
1 2
T T ~

Fluid Sta

Force on
centr
F p =

Center of

cp
y
p
= ÷

cp
x
p
= ÷








Centroid



Buoyanc
Metacentr
where I
o
is

atics
a submerge
roid
A
f pressure of
sin
xx
centroid
gI
p A
p u

sin
xy
centroid
gI
p A
p u

location and
y and stabili
ric position: M
s the area mo
ed surface:
f the force:

d moments o
ty
o
submerg
I
MB
V
=
oment of inert
of inertia for
ged

tia of the wate
a (a) rectang
erline area of
gle (b) circle
the floating o
(c) triangle (
object about it
(d) semicircle

ts tilt axis.
3
e

closed systems: E  Q  W Q Second law.Conservation Relations for Closed Systems First law. closed systems: S    S gen T Heat Transfer Conduction: Fourier’s law:    q   k T Conduction resistance of a slab: Rcond  L / (kA) Rcyl  ln( rout / rin ) 2 kL Resistance (to radial heat transfer) of a cylindrical pipe: Convection: Newton’s law of cooling: Convection resistance: Radiation:  Q  hAs (Ts  T ) Rconv  1/ (hc A) heat flux from a small grey object (1) to a large isothermal environment (2):  Q12 / A   1 (T14  T24 ) where  =5.67 x 10-8 W/(m2K4) and 1 the emissivity of (1) Radiation resistance: 3 Rrad  1/ hr A where hr  41 Tm when T1  T2 2 .

Fluid Sta atics Force on a submerge surface: ed F  pcentr A roid f f Center of pressure of the force: ycp    gI xx sin  pcentroid A xcp    gI xy sin  pcentroid A Centroid location and moments o inertia for a (a) rectang (b) circle (c) triangle ( semicircle d of gle (d) e Buoyancy and stability Metacentr position: ric MB M  Io Vsubmerg ged where Io is the area mo s oment of inert of the wate tia erline area of the floating o object about it tilt axis. ts 3 .

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