NASA

SP-225

MARl NER-MARS

1969

A PRELIMI NARY REPORT

Scienti_c OFFICE NATIONAL

and Technical OF

In[ormation

Division 1969 ADMINISTRATION Washington, D.C. AND SPACE

TECHNOLOGY AERONAUTICS

UTILIZATION

NATIONAL

AERONAUTICS

AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
Scientific and Technical $3.00 Information

For sale by the Clearinghouse Springfield,

for Federal Virginia

22151

- Price

Foreword
MARZNER-MARs reconnaissance tration. patched Mars findings both Two launch February of the yet 1969 mounted 24 and Their first could transmitted to gauge the could imagery historic Mars tantalizingly was by carrying March arrivals be used pages a wealth pace give and equivocal us, and of Mars though received the they by solar the the most improved 27, near ambitious sensors and and successful and and were Space end timed highly miles then telemetry, planetary Adminiswere of the so that rewarding; to Earth. back the a best of of this at an Mars from begin pertechSpace toward The venture, in new for the the dis1969 the scien-

National

Aeronautics the beginning planet the second mission data proved

spacecraft, window.

at the distant to reprogram attest, the of scientific excitement images reproduced the werethe big

for maximum

tific return. One few years that our from Earth rapid rewarding

As the following way

spacecraft at the

60 million times that with Another quality antenna were

of our of Mars these here.

is to look the

telescopes television rate 4about are back the learning In detailed

to contrast pictures with

scientifically indication in 1965 amount during

of advance

is to compare

that the

we received and

Mariner

information encounter. We increasing will send tive maps then ceive years nology Task the in record this point when about that and Group objective transmitting

Goldstone the

about 1971 two photos

system,

neighborhood placed from which surface and

of man, about

pace.

automated of the entire be prepared. machines on Our it. what each

spacecraft globe And

in orbit

the first authoritatwo years and sensors from of Mars other imprecise President's as a Nation century." those planetary planet

of the red planet first precursor back surface follow, science

will

it will be only

descend their new But schedules the and before years

to the biological are

information conditions. in part that because preceded "... Mars space only when

necessarily must forward end our from like first of the

advance language move the after

derive

is explicit:

we will plan landing age, when a few

of a manned in the have to the come day

of this

of progress volume clearly

achievements set forth solar

summarized

man will

his home

odysseys

to explore

the vast reaches

of the O.

system.

THOMAS November 3, 1969 National

PAINE, Administrator and Space Administration ill

AeronaTLtics

Contents
INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 .................................................................................................... Summary of Results .................................................................. Constants ...................................................... Atmosphere .................................................. 1 5 6 6 9 12 13 21 27 29 30 31 33 34 35 37 38 38 43 48 49 49 51 52 52 56 56 57 57 62 62

Astronomical The Martian

The Martian Surface ............................................................ The Question of Life on Mars ............................................ CHAPTER 2 CHAPTER 3 CHAPTER 4 The Program and Its Spacecraft ................................................ The Flights .................................................................................. Scientific Payload ...................................................................... Television Cameras ............................................................ Infrared Ultraviolet Infrared Celestial CHAPTER 5 Television Spectrometer Spectrometer Radiometer Mechanics ...................................................... .................................................... .......................................................... ............................................................ .......................................................... From Mariners 6 and 7 ........................

S-Band Occultation

Observations

Experiment Design and Camera Operation ...................... Television Subsystem Design .................................... Mission Design and Television Data Return .............. Camera Operation and General Observations ........ Atmospheric Features ........................................................ Aerosol Scattering .................................................... Blue Haze .................................................................. Shading of South Polar Cap ...................................... North Polar Phenomena ............................................ Diurnal Brightening .................................................. Search for Local Clouds and Fog .............................. Surface Features ................................................................ Cratered Chaotic Featureless Terrains Terrains ...................................................... ........................................................ ..................................................

Terrains

MARINER-MARS1969

South Polar-Cap Relationship Significance Implications Inferences Concerning Age Implications

Features .......................................... Processes and Surface History of Cratered Terrains of Terrain ........

65 66 69 69 69 71 71 73 74 76 76 77 77 77 78 78 78 80 81 83 83 84 84 87 91 91 95 96 96 97 98 99 103

of the Terrain to Light and Dark Markings of the Absence of Earthlike Forms .......... ...................... ...................... of Modification

CO2 Solid/Vapor Process .......................................... H._,O: Processes Suggested by Brightening Phenomena Data Biological Inferences .................................................. Potentialities ............................................................ Stereoscopy Planetary .............................................................. Radii ..........................................................

Cartography .............................................................. Satellites .................................................................... Photometric Comparison Anomalies Studies .................................................... of Pictures With and Height Radar Scattering Data ..................................

Summary and Conclusions ................................................ References .......................................................................... Acknowledgments CHAPTER 6 Infrared Spectroscopy .............................................................. ................................................................ ...................................................... Near 3_, Recorded Over

Instrument

Description

Infrared Absorptions

the Polar Cap ................................................................ Results ........................................................................ Discussion Conclusion Upper .................................................................. .................................................................. Dioxide in the ........................................................

Evidence for Solid Carbon Atmosphere

Further Interpretations ...................................................... References .......................................................................... Acknowledgments CHAPTER 7 Ultraviolet Spectroscopy Rationale .............................................................. ............................................................ ........................................................ and Analysis Technique ..................

Instrument Experiment Preliminary vi

Description

Results ............................................................

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 8

Infrared Radiometry .................................................................. References .......................................................................... Acknowledgments .............................................................. ....................................................................

105 109 109 111 112 115 125 125 127 130 133 134 135 143 145

CHAPTER 9

S-Band Occultation

Data Acquisition ................................................................ Results ................................................................................ References .......................................................................... Acknowledgments CHAPTER 10 Celestial Mechanics .............................................................. .................................................................... .......................................................... .............................................................. .................................................................. 1969 Mission .................. ........................

Mass Determination References Acknowledgments APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX A B C Preliminary Investigator Mariner-Mars Portraits

..........................................................................

Teams for Mariner-Mars 1969 Management

Organization

vii

Introduction
N. W. CUNNINGHAMAND H. M. SCHURMEIER

The edge

Mariner-Mars surface after the and

1969

mission

was undertaken of Mars and

to enhance a firm The 4 and two

man's basis flights

knowlfor an were

of the

atmosphere program

to provide

imaginative, authorized Despite origins of the of the Voyager

long-range Mars universe,

of Martian flight

exploration. of Mariner

the successful Landing recent the many

1964-1965 Program. impressive solar system,

the cancellation capabilities, to intrigue the and

additions and life

to human will continue

mystify many more most of the world's about and the origin

generations astronomers universe and for

of men. The and indicated by further needed helped to develop

findings from Mariner 4 surprised that much more could be learned study the of the red the technology aboard planet. needed Mariners an ultraviolet Mariners strategy for further 6 and 7 6

of the the

7 obtained

information

to determine

most

effective

to pursue in the future, explorations. The included instruments two television

the

scientific

experiments

cameras,

an infrared

spectrometer,

specand an also con1 of flights, each

trometer, and an infrared radiometer. S-band occultation experiment, which ducted. A summary of results report. from this preliminary and the instruments; experiment. SPACECRAFT To meet DESIGN the requirements Chapters

A celestial mechanics experiment required no instruments, were is presented the preliminary 4 describe give the spacecraft, results

these experiments 2, 3, and

as chapter the from

the final six chapters

for these

experiments

in a way that

would

maxi-

mize the scientific ever undertaken profile however, The it differed entirely

returns from the missions was one of the most challenging tasks by a team responsible for an unmanned vehicle. The mission ways, similar Numerous to the major scientific profiles of previous and were planetary needed. by Dr. Homer knowledge, of the hardmissions; during drastically planet-oriented in design, philosophy, innovations payload, implementation selected

was, in some

the encounter

operations.

Newell in 1966, called not only for an ambitious advance in scientific but also for major advances in the design, fabrication, and operation

MARINER-MARS1969

ware period

used.

Problems in the both

encountered following scan of the

and

solved with

during two

the spacecraft-development of freedom, infrared 35 times designed of 1.57× (Mariner which, heart minute capable instruments, greater 108 bits, 4 had only than and one), of its science from a of

resulted

changes: degrees both sensors. requirements capacity for this program: cameras, to meet of the

(1) A redesigned accommodating the ultraviolet (2) A data those on Mariner an analog digital and recorder recorder

platform television and

spectrometer, storage 4. Two with

two planet

subsystem

tape recorders an equivalent with and

were especially digital three

with a capacity subsystem rate data

of 2.3 × 10 r bits. channels from in flight, almost 6. of Mariner 81_ to 16 200 bps. subsystem, at the last because of the to benefit proved to be the

(3) A telemetry a telemetry (4) capability effort. A central of being Mariner and

increased

computer reprogramed

sequencer

7 was

reprogramcd

the knowledge MISSION

experience

OPERATIONS with spacecraft spacecraft and earlier flights, the the and Mariner-Mars that within a 5-day period. 2 to 3 days before to Earth to Earth data during met--almost of the on the rate. the encounter, 7. returns with follows: all data requirements spacecraft be of Mariner reachup to a miniin real time from pictures be returned 16 200-bps reprograming than planet transmit 1969 mission was both

Compared novel and bold. (1) Both (2) BotL ing the planet mum during (4) processed These far exceeded the actual For the pictures were of 4½

For example, start the start data data from from

it was required television to tape both

encounter

operations

continue

hr before

of encounter spacecraft at the to permit were of the

operations.

(3) All science Television and and the data related

the near-encounter sufficiently original return television originally

operations Mariner analyzed requirements expectations. from four

6, especially more

A comparison experiments

experiment, 16 far-encounter planned. The actual returns pictures and 67 analog and the

and 48 near-encounter were 147 analog and 2414 510 digital near-encounter of 288 pairs. measurenear-

digital far-encounter pictures. For encounter For 2 the the infrared

spectroscopy was more radiometry

experiment, than met with experiment,

requirement far-encounter

spectral

pairs

600 spectral 350 000

infrared

INTRODUCTION

ments

of the

planet

were

obtained, 3000

although measurements experiment, and and

only

270 000 planet

had

been

planned. and

During the obtained. For the ments encounter The cause experiment The acclaimed and surface and in which 9 days, planet alined tion

near-encounter ultraviolet were

of the

were

sought

spectrometer were required, experiment effects, by much from addition Two required,

81 000 far-encounter were obtained;

measure920 however, nearbe-

(Lyman-alpha) spectra S-band

93 000 data portion data.

1000 obtained. yielded as planned; of the celestial already mechanics have been 1971, up to

occultation

of nongravitational was limited scientific as a historic properties. Viking in the two spacecraft findings

the planetary unusable to man's programs the Mariner-Mars

1969 flights of the

knowledge in orbit

Martian

atmosphere

more

are scheduled: around first attempt Neptune, which 6 and 7.

Mariner-Mars Mars for periods to land and the

are to be placed that Jupiter, planets

1973, which payload 1970's, favorable distant

will be NASA's will include Saturn, Uranus, tour,"

on another will way be as it

a survivable Late in a manner regarding those during

life-detection

instrumentation. Pluto same would permit informa-

for a "grand

to be obtained of Mariners

in much

was obtained

the encounters

3

CHAPTER

1

Summary
Scientific detailed from and Mariner During of Mars tures tures were

of Ct esults*
experiments comprehensive 4, the only the approach obtained. known taken and The light on Mariners understanding previous mission 6 and of the dark that times to late encounter track and took The 6 and 7 provided than of the planet. flights, 1100 and 200 pictures digital picpicof the the of cameras; data had for been a far more

of Mars to that sequences 7 television crossed

obtained

by the Mariner the Mariner which cap. noon

also were taken many

24 wide-angle equatorial

narrow-angle The down track

during 7 cameras, course,

6 encounter

zones of the planet, a roughly across dark area

including Mariner north-south Martian Meridiani conditions The

features of Mariner were

of its surface. pictures, 6 and obtaining pictures spectra designed swept

33 encounter

intersecting

continuing to cross the a range during channel from

south from

polar near

two tracks afternoon

Sinus infrared

at different spectroscopy Spectral

of day,

thus

of lighting area. 6 the encoun-

for taking obtained

of the same

experiment

ters of both Mariners did not operate. measurements length sweep band down the spacecraft, in a 10-sec scanning from through

6 and 7, although information The interval.

the long-wavelength was obtained spectroscopy

on Mariner provided

in the region

1.9 to 14.3t_

ultraviolet

experiment

of emission relative

features upper atmosphere. The wavee in the Martian 1100 to 4300 A was scanned in a 3-sec interval. The motion of to Mars, then past caused the dark infrared from by the carried experiment. the fields of view of the The spectrometers across scanning intervals at altitude ultraviolet of view The of four in instruatmostimes to the atmosphere provided toward samples the surface of the ultraviolet spacecraft across the Martian and of Mars, the bright

side of the disk, and increments spectrometer. the vertical ment phere pointing

side of the planet. spectrometer

of the two spectrometers The direction

atmosphere 20 km for the field the on range. a total

of 60 km for the projected varied through being of the

size of the of the Mariner

spectrometer allowed

20 to 30 km, depending ultraviolet finally spectrometer

capability before phase

Martian

to be swept

in this manner atmosphere

disk to complete

the lower-

* Results

from

these

experiments

are

covered

in more

detail

in

chapters

5 through

10.

MARINER-MARS1969

The insure resolution. the dark

infrared Like side the

radiometer spectrometers, planet. occultation obtained at a point near

was

boresighted the radiometer

with

the areas

television photographed to take Martian Mariner location

cameras data

to

surface

temperature of the were

measurements

of those

at high across

continued of the

In the S-band and pressure the occultation tude behind pole. tude pica from ratios and the Mariner near between the at about zone planet

experiment, at [our locations Meridiani corresponding

profiles above Sinus. and zone region

temperature 6 entered from north of 4 ° N latiemerged near the

the surface. The

to a surface

356 ° E longitude at about polar 7 entered south

spacecraft and

79 ° N latitude cap light in the and areas

84 ° E longitude of Hellespontus. near and Arcadia.

the occultation

at 58 ° S latitude

30 ° E longispacecraft Nix Olym-

The

emerged

38 ° N latitude

212 ° E longitude of Amazonis

the crater

the classical

The celestial mechanics experiment made use of ranging and tracking data Mariners 6 and 7 to determine astronomical constants. Computations of of the mass of the Earth to that of the Moon and the mass of Mars to that of have the been by completed. On this mission, accelerations In unfortunate the the value by of the near-Mars of the data data gas were several

the Earth was bottles further on

degraded degraded

spacecraft by the

introduced spacecraft

blowdown 7, the that

infrared

spectrometer.

case of Mariner anomaly

occurred

days before

encounter. CONSTANTS of analysis of 3 months of ranging and tracking data from

ASTRONOMICAL On Mariners the ratio the basis

6 and 7, it was determined by the celestial mechanics experiment that of the mass of the Earth to that of the Moon is 81.3000, with an uncerthe ratio of the mass of Mars to that of the Earth is is

tainty of 0.0015; and 0.1074469±0.0000035. The and 3374 radius km of Mars, miles) (2096 from 3394 km (2108 (12 miles)

as determined the equator at the the shape exit

by the S-band at the entry point (79 ° N). surface than

occultation point This

experiment,

around miles) that dynamic

of Mariner difference more obtained

6 (4 ° N), of 20 km to the optical

indicates

of the

conforms to that

closely from

value obtained measurements. THE MARTIAN As expected, ments 6 returned

measurements

ATMOSPHERE the infrared of data spectroscopy on atmospheric and ultraviolet composition; spectroscopy experi-

a wealth

temperature/pres-

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

sure

profiles

were experiment

deduced also

from yielded

the

S-band significant

occultation information

experiment about the

data.

The

television atmosphere.

M.artian

Initial analyses of the data from consistent with a Martian atmosphere and COs + as the dominant of the emission atmosphere ion in the above altitude features

the ultraviolet spectroscopy experiment are consisting of CO 2 as the major constituent ionosphere. with The relative distribution that with COs indicates the scale height of the ultra-

associated

of the neutral

130 km is about

23 km. Comparison

violet spectra of Mars of the emissions from

with similar spectra atomic, molecular,

taken on Earth indicates the absence and ionized molecular nitrogen. The

absence of these emissions indicates that molecular nitrogen comprises less than 1 percent of the total Martian atmosphere. The 1304-_ emissions from atomic oxygen observed spectra indicate to have were that a small from amount exosphere the gamma data that on of the indicates exists bands the the in the upper atmosphere. absent from from the signal shorter Mars the is a hydrogen analysis experiment more or corona. Notably disk Mars

emissions

of nitric Martian reflected as one

oxide. ultraviolet tends to waveultraviolet approaches

Preliminary spectroscopy be dominated

by atmospheric

scattering

lengths in the ultraviolet. Optically thin atmospheric scattering to 1950 A, where the absorption due to CO2 becomes apparent. of the intensities, the existence of particulate as well matter as the wavelength matter to account dependence in the Martian for the scattered of small particulate necessary

is observed down The magnitude indicates amount is small The

of the intensity, atmosphere. light intensity

and would not cause appreciable obscuration at visible wavelengths. The optically thin nature of the ultraviolet intensity down to 1950 _ indicates that any loosely bound molecular species such as ozone, and sulfur dioxide would be shortlived percentage characteristic The Mars, could thin, except consist layer of the television of clouds of the filter planetary cameras disk found absorption for a few of haze in the views picture the blue particles sequence. than of aerosol. feature ill-defined or fog. There illuminated The through nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, in this radiation environment. by the centered detected sequence of the planet nitrous oxide, In the small

observed of ozone, no regions trace

ultravioleto spectrometer, the at 2600 A, has not been found. in the polar-cap of a deep, of Mariner at the suggesting thickness brighter start atmosphere area, 7 pictures of the when that of the but extremely and nearof which in the

of cloudiness however,

is evidence, limb

final far-encounter apparent

tangential encounter through of small

haze is somewhat that the

viewed layer 7

the red and green,

it consists haze

It is estimated

MARINER-MARS1969

ranges from ment

from provide

8 to 16 km (5 to 10 miles) a probable times identification of solid

and

that from

its height haze. An limb

above infrared

the surface reflection derived

varies experipeak, from

16 to 50 km (10 to 30 miles). three shows

Results

the infrared

spectroscopy

of the

recorded altitudes,

in the atmosphere

off the bright CO 2 at high

of Mars at intermediate Profiles conditions at vertical teleeven "blue when haze" this presto large in the conno

the presence

altitudes.

S-band occultation data show that the temperature and pressure high altitudes are favorable for the formation of solid CO2. Because vision taken above views through Mars of the the planet filter, when the data CO 2. None as no greatly of four 6 and were the viewed effect profiles, other the of the 7 mb was (0.06 and from not affected Surface light, by the features of any thin haze premission in blue hypothesis of an obscuring seen

layer,

is considered a surface

disproved.

as albedo

variations

lost their

contrast

as in Earth-based atmospheric experiment

observations; constituent. to obtain was assumed

is considered sure this and

not a result

In reducing be 90 percent assumption, to affect out between Three the range pressure Earth. which siderably high (which peaks, The was enough

the S-band

occultation the other were S-band measurements

temperature

the composition from of the and constituents findings pressure (0.09 the psi),

of the atmosphere experiments in occultation taken equivalent in the that television (60 miles) surface. occultation radiometry temperature are not consistent surface region were indicated

of the results

contradicted quantities experiment. consistent, atmospheric ft) above is raised Because

0.10 psi),

to the

at an altitude only above 3.8 mb the

of 30 500 to 35 000 m measurement suggesting

(100 000

to 115 000

sole exception mean were plateau, higher deduced measurements but

of Hellespontus,

Hellespontus of Mars. that pictures across

gravitational identifiable around than the from the shapes processes from

potential in the point),

as such, a large

of Hellespontus the area and at 58 ° S 4 to in in standing were essential either

did not include

the occultation

it is thought

is possibly

100 km the the

5 km (2 to 3 miles) Temperatures agreement troscopy determination with experiments,

surrounding S-band infrared of the profiles

experiment and profiles, atmosphere, with infrared

spec-

of the circulation

in the Martian

are not yet radia-

certain. At present, the temperature tive balance or convective balance. Ionospheric noon, was 450 ° K. Several about electron 1.5×10 density

at an altitude a, and the

of 130 km (80 miles), the plasma spectroscopy

in the afterabout in

_ electrons/cm results from

temperature experiment,

preliminary

infrared

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

addition Martian (1) ammonia, viously (2)

to the detection atmosphere. Infrared but Broad undiscovered. absorption and spectral

of high-altitude features have near been

solid

CO2, are of interest first ascribed

relative to methane of solid or,

to the and

3t_ were

subsequently

shown

to be absorptions H20 (as a fog)

CO2 preto at all These of of

attributable absorptions near polar that the

to solid of carbon

perhaps,

surface hydrates, latitudes. (3) (4) solid part solid Broad Over

sharp

monoxide near give

were the dark

detected limb.

absorptions and of the either or that most

12_ were cap, polar the cap

recorded spectra

are as yet unassigned CO._, requiring of the CO 2. surface

may or may not relate the polar

to the

atmosphere. positive by a thin identification CO2 covering fog or cloud of solid

cap is composed is shrouded

THE MARTIAN Pictures was heavily Mariner of the between of Martian (1) km area, varies (300 6 and Martian Mars

SURFACE taken cratered by the and Mariner resembled cameras, confirm Moon. distinguished. is prevalent; and It includes regions and it includes one the of Mars. can surface, (Nix The south many polar craters craters cap but and the 50 to 75 km as 500 by plot at least Olympica) can as large that 4 camera that which revealed Moon. but that the surface taken 20 times distinct pictures, three of Mars by the more types

of the covered

Pictures

7 television surface, and the are

approximately reveal of the

discovery,

differences

In preliminary

studies

terrain Cratered miles) slope,

terrain in diameter. equatorial and that

(30 to 45 miles) as well distinctly

in diameter,

its boundary Martian

as the from

be classified in modifying

size, depth, processes

characteristics, of the lunar exemplified

be plotted, implying

differences desert

or materials. terrain, by the bright The of Hellas, any terrain craters part appears of the on observed appear as high as smooth covers as 300 m (1000 as terrestrial 1900 km ft) to be a fiat floor, miles) of surface. unlike No

(2) Featureless in resolutions Moon, Hellas. impacts impacts than but in Hellas

dry lake beds. (1200

featureless

at least

Because there by meteorites, have been obtained

is no way in which it is estimated that, more rapidly by the cameras

Hellas could have been sheltered from by some process, the effects of meteoroid Pictures of higher resolution could reveal 9 6 and 7, however,

erased

in that area.

those

on Mariners

MARINER-MARS1969

small readily Mars.

craters than

in the surface that other The Martian made

of Hellas, materials

but

there

should

be large

ones

in evidence. more exist relative map km. on to

It is hypothesized An observation of the

the material

comprising

the floor of Hellas processes spectrometer CO2 gave

responds

to whatever

of erosion

by the infrared of gaseous altitude into in two that, with

is of interest a topographic of about ±0.3 drop

this problem. the track

2t, absorption

along As the

field of view

sensitivity Hellas, Mariner

field of view passed from elevation was observed. (3) described 2 million Chaotic terrain, landslide. terrain.

Hellespontus discovered

a substantial

in surface pictures, is

6 narrow-angle of the Martian

as irregular,

jumbled

topography, as much

reminiscent in a specific

slumped area sq miles) observed

aspect of about may by the has solar cap, the that meters of polar a

of a terrestrial consist of chaotic

It is estimated As recorded

km 2 (772 000 sq miles),

as 108 km 2 (386 000 radiometer, over the area

by the infrared

the only fluctua-

tion not correlated television cameras These been system. three

to albedo variation was found to have chaotic terrain. types of terrain of the television and solar radiation, show Moon, view that and

the evolutionary may possibly

history be unique of the south

of Mars in the polar by

different

from

that

In a narrow-angle many process the white features, the dark in thickness. polar cap is observed craters are visible, of absorbing polar cover

of one that the slopes thin from

boundary "snow" slopes

it is evident shaded due

has been better though could not

removcd, It is believed certain be a few the south

by the

illuminated

Sun, and retained

on the relatively consists as being studies of the noted

of the craters.

of a very of the

substance, of material, have observers. spectroscopy

observed evidence to have

if interpreted Preliminary collar

to drifts

pictures

provided experiment is bright

by Earth-based ultraviolet

However,

by means

polar collar at ultraviolet violet even at wavelengths The mine crossed radiometer values sure The cap, 10 (around infrared indicating primary the boundary dropped than are higher purpose the composition

wavelengths. Thecpolar as short as 1950 A. of the infrared polar cap, leveled the cap from

cap itself

in the ultrawas to deterAs Mariner of the infrared prespolar 75 ° S ° F). These at the over the atmosphere. 7

radiometry temperature off at about of pure admitted recorded

experiment readings carbon for the between

of the south of the polar abruptly the and frost also

its temperature. 150 ° K (-193 dioxide Martian

temperature made

6 rob, or 0.09 spectrometer that average

psi) generally temperatures

temperature

measurements

61 ° S and

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

latitude are 6 rob. After infrared with the

above those at which CO 2 could correcting for stray light collected the the polar over polar cap, lowest temperature but recorded over of the the low by the radiometer. entire cap surface, can the be made. This The area,

cover the ground outside the field was about value is still statement if outcrops at those provide the frost point evidence

completely at of view of the for CO2 the represent material raise carbon the commeasfrom 230 ° K temcould for

spectrometer, value

150 ° K, in agreement too high readings of solid points of pure regarding

condensation constitution average occur dioxide. position urements Earth-based (-45 from in the the terrain. The tion near a possible Sharply telescopic television evidences pictures distinctive tures In "canals." of what alinements There Earth, ability The within The of the

a tentative and

instrument

temperatures temperature polar

a considerable higher

temperatures above thus CO 2. radiometry hemisphere nightside correspond radiation. variation

the average

readings

for the area measured

temperatures

cap as predominantly the infrared in the daytime edge. In the

Elsewhere

on the planet, work, i.e., about polar-cap detected not the

experiment close to those at the

provided expected and

of temperatures

290 ° K (62 ° F) at noon

equator measured.

° F) at the

at the

equator,

unobservable The variations mentioned, over chaotic of absorp-

temperatures of the surface infrared with infrared 9t,. This clue defined observations pictures. of color

as low as 200 ° K (-100 in daytime to absorb solar to albedo experiment recorded ascribed of light are

° F) were

perature only

fluctuations fluctuation

to the large-scale As previously was found

correlated

spectroscopy albedo

also shows

an anticorrelation limb in that on a broad area. maps based

temperature

it measured

at 2.5_. close to the bright silica long and or silicate surface splotchy delineated of the dark, material, providing on

spectrometer has been areas Although variations different evidence where regarding

to solid and

the composition of Mars, diffused

in the near-encounter

it is not possible at this time to determine the colors, in surface features have been found in comparing filters. of seasonal the observed are craters patches, darkening character "wave in the of darkening" structures floors; have the television revealed takes pictures; by the place. with seem classical alinements to be linear significance no pichas been

taken

with

is no

topographic only Some appear a few

or physiographic instances

in the regions

surficial with dark

identified of quasi-linear others some physical

of these

are considered dark

to be the result which may

to be impact

of diffuse

yet undetermined. 11

MARINER-MARS1969

THE QUESTION Nothing exists known observed remains Earth-based spectroscopy ever, of the known retically that could there planet. on Mars, on Earth it is almost

OF LIFE ON from

MARS Mariners Limiting evident factor possibly is water states exist to make amount 6 and 7 encourages that for Martian The Mars. the life belief that life form the also from infrared howand no life

in the data although include serious ccrtainly

the results the limiting and there stable could

do not lack to the for

exclude factors

possibility. nitrogen scarcity As findings stable vapor

If it exists, in any and of water

microbial.

of atmospheric surface. life on in the liquid on very or ice. Mars dry

hard a very

ultraviolet experiments experiment, The only species however, water

penetration

determined of the atmosphere; on or ice, It

confirmed vapor to make of water in that of vapor

by the

Martian water are

is not a sufficient

the surface is theo-

terrestrial possible, utilize

environment.

evolutionary

extensions

of terrestrial

in the form

12

CHAPTER

2

The Program
Authorization December Administrator of the Jet The (1) 22, 1965,

and Its Spacecraft
for Mariner-Mars Science and 1969 message (JPL), were to make exploratory particularly for succeeding the investigations those Mars relevant missions objective were of Mars to the experiments, needed as a project from H. to W. was given by NASA then on

in a teletype Laboratory of the program flyby missions

E. Newell, Institute

Associate Director

for Space Propulsion

Applications, California

H. Pickering,

of Technology.

objectives To conduct

that will set the basis for future search for extraterrestrial life (2) To The (I) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) The planet; acquired To formance, required. gather craft's first the by and For Mars planetary Responsibility ing, and Network mission (DSN), Tracking space vehicles distances. and develop the technology

scientific Television Infrared Infrared Ultraviolet S-band Celestial four last the

experiments spectroscopy radiometry spectroscopy mechanics investigations two the required and mission capacity time, tracking occultation

selected

to achieve

primary

required no data

onboard

instruments but used

that radio

viewed tracking

the data perwere would spacetest-

instruments, system functional to those would later. and

equipment. capability, of any previous instrument Mariner mission the second fabrication, Deep

achieve the data

objectives, superior one just that 5 days spacecraft

power first

of a dual-spacecraft be used to benefit design,

and experience encounter operations which for project

management of the would from

for the spacecraft

two identical for two-way Earth,

was assigned by the with

to JPL. Space unmanned

communications is the network 10 000 miles

be accomplished communication and beyond,

traveling

to interplanetary

13

MARINER-MARS

1969

The munications

main

elements

of the DSN which connects

are the Tracking all parts

Stations;

the Ground

Comteletype,

Facility,

of the DSN

by telephone,

and high-speed data lines; and the Space Flight Operations Calif., which is thc command and control center. Mission SFOF Center of the three The axes, immediately successfully flights. spacecraft built for Mariner-Mars of providing the 380 The 1969 spacecraft kg (840 two-axis for the were were were could lb) scan scientific larger. after the Unmanned the Launch and Operations remains launches spacecraft,

Facility, in Pasadena, control switches to the of the Kennedy there attitude for the Space duration on from more conthat and of 2-2.) eight

stabilized

solar-powered,

capablc in operation;

continuous

telemetry be commanded considerably

transmis-

sion, and fully automatic Earth, when necessary. Mariners than their siderably Mariner electronics ner 4, owing there were cuitry inore Mariner 4. The voltaic during distance requirement from solar more 4, and 6 and predecessors capability the solar

7 weighed (table and panels

about 2-1). and flexibility

each,

platform payload

provided than

antennas spacecraft and wide parts

(See figs. 2-1 6 and than circuitry. parts those

Despite

the increased bays in the base to improved 40 percent than doubled power fewer

functional of each packaging the source to Mars, latter 2-I).

capabilities

of Mariners no larger

7, the

of MariAlthough ciron flown

use of integrated in Mariners

electronic number

6 and discrete

7, integrated

of equivalent 6 and

primary most

for Mariners provided to allow 14-kg

7 was a total cells, above cell which Earth the

of 17 472 photofaced the Sun and 450 W at the power resulting storage

cells,

covering The (table

an area

of 7.7 m 2 (83 ft2). The provided The a margin (31-1b)

of the flight

800 W near for solar

of Mars. flares

maximum silver-zinc

of 380 W at encounter

degradation

rechargeable

Table

2-1.--Cam

>arison Marincr

of Mariner 2 1962)

spacecraft Mariner (Mars, 4

parameters Mariner (Venus, 5 1967) Mariners 6 and 7 (Mars, 1969) 380 450 59 58 8× 10 s

l_aralnclcr

(Venus,

1964-1965)

Spacecraft Electric Instrument

separated power supplied weight,

weight, kg

kg W

204 180 19 4

261 194 23 16 5.2×108

245 198 14 15

at planet, kg bits

Science support Mars encounter

equipmcut, data return,

14

THE

PROGRAM

AND

ITS

SPACECRAFT

LOW-GAIN

ANTENNA

_NTENN

A

I

F,__ '_

_.7 _

c_.,,,,__.. ANOSENsoRPUS

so
i - PROPULSION NOZZLE LOW-GAIN ANTENNA _._

CONTROL

LOUVERS

SUBSYSTEM

\

AT'rlTUOE CONTROL IY GAS JETS II I

.IG.-GAIN ANTENNA
d

SOL

_OE-ANGLE I_"-

_
l_ INFRARED SPECTROMETER NARROW-ANGLE TELEVISION CAMERA

SPECTROMETER--

SCAN PLATFORM THERMAL BLANKET NOT

SHOWN

Figure

2-1.-

Spacecraft

configuration

for

Mariners

6

and

7.

15

MARINER-MARS

1969

÷

I

-r X ÷

0

b.O

0

N

b

I e,i
I N -r U Z

0
N

0
i

o
U

/
I !

\
\ X i

16

THE PROGRAM AND ITS SPACECRAFT

battery and intended a backup

on each

spacecraft the solar

provided panels were power

power turned throughout during

during

launch,

midcourse The and This failed

maneuver, battery true was as of the

whenever source

away from encounter.

the Sun.

to be kept

at full charge

the mission 7, which channel,

to be available proved a few days before

of emergency

Mariner 6 battery, encounter. Where Mariner

but not of the one on Mariner 4 had only one telemetry

used

alternately

for scien-

tific and engineering porated on Mariners used for the first time. bps; channel B carried scientific data

data at 8_ or 33_ bps, three telemetry channels were incor-/ 6 and 7. A maximum transmission rate of 16 200 bps wa_ Channel scientific A carried engineering data at either 8_ or 3._1/' 3 data at either 66% or 270 bps; channel C carried Because only two of these channels could be used were chantransmission missions. 6 and mission involved by a factor transmissions measengiof most 1-m 7

at 16 200 bps.

at one time, the workable nels A and B or channels of scientific The resulted (see table of 2000 designing, from the and high-rate in a large 2-I), (33 and dB) engineering

combinations for simultaneous telemetry A and C, which were used for real-time data in data during return the over encounter developed that phases for (HRT) system

of the Mars system

telemetry increase over that

Mariners

of the previous of the telemetry of the could receive

an improvement and operating at the each by dual from

in the capability 4. Development equipment rate that of 16 200 bps. Consisted and

of Mariner

developing, Mariner obtained data 6 and data telemetry

spacecraft

Engineering urements neering operating and gave suitable (40-in.) stored to-digital the ground the largest complex and

spacecraft

of about transmitted

90 different over the

continuously channel. 7 carried the

transducers

Mariners

traveling-wave-tube These could from could amplifiers the of selecting

amplifiers, provided transmitting low-gain tape through however, depended, on the

capable redundancy power the antenna.

at an output mission to the circular television

of 10 or 20 W. option The antenna signal or the

operators high-gain bit rate The in the of the data

circumstances.

be transmitted the analog subsystem be used, (fig. 2-3) rate to provide

through recorder,

omnidirectional

When

the high converter. receiver antenna array

was used, telemetry 64-m DSN. data

data rate of the had

which when Calif., too, on a

only, was fed to the telemetry top was the (210-ft) Use that antenna

an analogonly

at Goldstone,

16 200-bps

of digital

computers

on the ground been

bit synchronization spacecraft,

reconstruction

block-encoded

17

MARINER-MARS I969

FKORV 2-3. - Tlic 61-m (210-ft) antenna a t ihe Goldstone, CaliL, tracking station. T h i s is the mo\t sensitive comniunications antenna in the world and has the capability of comniutiicating with a spacccraft at the edge of the solar system.

converting it back to a serial bit stream of 16 200 bps and recording it on magnetic tapes. T h e HRT prototype system was designed, tested, and performance verified by late January 1968. T h e first of two field sets was installed at Cape Kennedy in November 1968. After the Mariner 7 launch, both field sets were moved to the Goldstonc tracking station to support operations at encounter, for together the field sets provided a complete, redundant ground system. A new central computer and sequencer (CCPCS), which for the first time could be reprogramed in flight, was added to Mariners 6 and 7. T h e primary purpose of this first-generation piece of equipment was to actuate specific events at precise

18

THE PROGRAM AND ITS SPACECRAFT

times fixed before manded in flight sidered this action of the mission sequences not The

launch and stored in its memory. to actuate any event in real time desirable, and could hav.e its memory able

The CC&S could be comif mission controllers conchanged at the discretion flight, Mariner major 7 farduring the

controllers, who were thus planned before launch. mission to try and controllers to gain sequence capability

to program, to reschedule

CCScS enabled

encounter picture during the flight. The modifying difficulties. The in which from as power spacecraft which CC&S

time were

lost used and

when

problems the

developed mission by

flexibility after

to enhance to correct there

the encounter spacecraft the spacecraft it could and to become turn-on

sequences design

launch

for several should

inflight

system could

philosophy by the same deployment. one mode.

was that means--with This The a dry with

be no state such for the also misa conat the only

be placed, panel in any

by ground

command made flexibility run both

or CCg:S command, a few exceptions, it impossible of the design

not retreat solar stuck

gave mission controllers the option of making sion event before it was timed to occur. The servative the high new CC&S was programed The and standard would The from would only other condition availability time of the a fixed provide at launch would extensive

of any

programed and

a standard its scientific coverage would

mission. bit rate

mission conservative

transmit photographic mission

findings during provide

far-encounter eight approach 270 bps. Both sion would needed sion been under problem the encounter The

sequence. pictures missions

backup

each spacecraft, and would be automatic once initiated, if commanded than that of each of the Mariner sequencer from supplied 64-m Earth; by the at (210-ft)

play back the data at but the standard misthe conservative CC_:S. the Choice which computer, redundancy. maneuver, maneuver returned have the beginning mission of misof had far not

be executed signal on on the the

no starting depended and completed normal with

spacecraft 4 mission.

antenna,

at the

CC&S contained circumstances, either of the have

and a programable providing midcourse firing, have could alone

which, If with would to cruise a

worked during and the or the

in tandem, any step of the rocket spacecraft sequencer

occurred command aborted

exception

to terminate

automatically

would

condition. Either the computer the midcourse maneuver.

commanded

19

CHAPTER

3

The Flights

At Launch Centaur, a liquid azimuth after At the 8400

01:29:02 Complex a 2_-stage

G.m.t.

on

February Kennedy, that consists The then

24,

1969,

Mariner Atlas Centaur

6 was

launched booster The engine panels the

from and 38 sec cutoff. of about were began of its

36B at Cape vehicle

Fla., using restartable booster burned

as a launch

vehicle stage.

the Atlas/ launch

of a 1 ½-stage

SLV-3C

oxygen/liquid the Centaur

hydrogen-fueled main stage separation, about shadow. star

was 108 ° east of north. time of spacecraft m/sec from mode. (25000 and Sun the search Canopus point. the thereby of bias The

was jettisoned min before had achieved launch. than after launch attitude biased The the 2 min

4 min and a velocity solar after

launch;

for 7½

the Centaur 14 min occurred Four Canopus after less hours

mph) Earth's

deployed, emerged cruise a programed Mariner final aiming stage nor encounter, direction

acquisition for the

spacecraft

spacecraft stabilization

to achieve

was acquired injected spacecraft the by

in 17 min. into a trajectory could the desire be away from by imposed the the the desired the Centaur planet by NASA. during The small to insure captured quarantine to keep capacity corrections, identify precision by the velocity to roll the burn, in.) the firing 78.72 Canopus that neither

6 was initially unsterilized violating was

bias was precautionary biological (50-1b)-thrust two trajectory tracking data gyro-controlled followed necessary -23.44 the motor particles. cm (0.001 deg, the

dictated

midcourse

correction

maneuver well hydrazine-fueled Each the required trajectory Canopus hydrazine Mariner rocket sensor, bright it within The

within the 220-N rocket motor. could make Precise involves cruise motor to gain accuracy.

of the spacecraft's if necessary, spacecraft's turns of increment. from the On sensor would that location

spacecraft correction reference rocket

to achieve orbit. the March indicated the as appear would from spacecraft's 1, to fire its A Sun-

attitude, to pitch dust

6 was instructed motor a shiny "saw" sunlit

deg, and

for 5.35 sec. During particle only correction 0.003

it apparently

(At a distance

of 1.2 m (4 ft) from

in diameter

as Canopus.) midcourse about put Mariner 6 on a trajectory of the preferred place Mars. 21 440 km (about 260 miles)

MARINER-MARS1969

A few days later, platform again not one mode on which was distracted the star when be tolerated channel

when by bright the

explosive particles,

valves and 26 Inin valves on inertial unlatch what angle. about

were were the were later.

actuated mounted, spacecraft Because actuated before

to unlatch the this Canopus situation

the

scan sensor lock could of This relay to a plan

the scientific

instruments

lost roll-control to initiate encounter, Mars flyby. for the 7. to be a sticking would ground be unable cooling

on Canopus;

was reacquired explosive spectrometer spacecraft

of the infrared to place during tracker, May, star both

35 min guidance Mariner the

was devised In late follow the

was used

the platform 6 developed and in cone

on that

Mariner

was believed tracker several However,

in its Canopus to the spacecraft At 22:22:01 Complex cra[t give up to injection lock on

it was feared

as it moved

commands from the instructed Sirius, thus reduced avoidits was comto fire about (about arc, this Launch spaceto before

conquered the difliculty. G.m.t. on March 27, 1969, Mariner Kennedy. high Canopus Starting and by the This The and the Atlas/Centaur On roll April to acquire with the star of the pitch maneuver. accuracy.

7 was launched again 8, Mariner a new Sirius The delivered 7 was star,

36A at Cape

the midcourse the magnitude ing certain manded rocket 4 m/sec represented To avoid transients spacecraft returned already sequencer encounter the view scan the were

maneuver necessary

from geometry.

orientation spacecraft °, and spacecraft 190 km

roll turns Sun

to the to roll

maneuver, -12.8 of the about

problems to pitch for

posed -35.6 and desired with 7.6 sec.

maneuver orientation, increased its flyby At than the one

° from corrected

engine

the point part

velocity to within

(14 ft/sec) of the

120 miles)

location. of better

distance when

of the explosive

trajectory squibs platform, Mariner commands,

an accuracy problems observed gyro Mariner

in 3 million. unlatched bright but the 7 soon which and and on May scan coded 8. Several

the Canopus 7 was placed the The

sensor

the scan platform,

on gyro control unlatching following sent of the day,

during control; mode. and the

was under to normal had been and platform planet (CC&S),

its attitude 6, were updating approach, enabling center camera

was not disturbed. to the central encounter

cruise sent modifying up

to Mariner

computer for cruise mode. sensor the Mars.

the control gyro-controlled the the

parameters

setting

automatic closest

On July

29, 50 hr before to point and to track

Mariner far-encounter thus

6 CCg:S commanded planet keeping at to The high-

at Mars, the television

of brightness, pointed

resolution

(narrow-angle)

accurately

22

THE FLIGHTS

CCg:S then genic cooling

activated of the camera area near distances

all scientific infrared and

instruments continuing pole. These from After (210-ft)

except for 20 hr

the

drive

motor the

and

cryo6

spectrometer. thereafter, taken km analog Mariner except interto of the planet, all of which was visible at 37-rain (771 000 had been

Beginning narrow-angle for a small vals which the data bit rate. series began (349000 apart lites, from

2 hr later,

took 33 pictures its northern ranging downward

33 pictures, 1 240800

miles) obtained, at the

724 990 km (451 000 miles), takes television were The to take miles) played tape back was

were recorded only. 64-m to the and km

on the spacecraft's the last picture antenna for 17th that The

tape recorder, high

information then

at Goldstone receiving from and the narrow-angle

erased, encounter,

in preparation at distances miles). had been

a subsequent camera km frames 2 min satelabout was picthe 561 000 eighth

of 16 complete 22 hr series eastern miles), about

pictures before of approach to record limb

a fractional

ranging seventh programed one

to 175000

(108000 pictures the rising second to the

of this second on the The 24 km recorded, ture tion the back for spacecraft's the before the radiator Thirty-five viewed ing cooling aboard the limb, starting vision (15 photographs

to be taken

in an attempt best

of Phobos, series best After

of the two Martian pictures was

of the planet. of the of approach the last picture tape erased. This at deep one the start infrared 1 did range. not selected The recorder During maneuver space two resolution of Earth-based played this telescopic the

resolution of about

in contrast 7 hr before and

160 km (100 miles). encounter, the phase infrared before of Mars, of channel however, 6-to-14t_ data and tape

of this series period, also

the analog was again mission.

to Goldstone, CC&S had plate near near-encounter

commanded

the scan platform of the spectrometer closest thus 1 on channel spectral approach, the

to slue to its proper

orientapointed its

of the

to facilitate planet and

cooling

encounter. of the sensors initiatof triggering of the motor sufficiently scientific portions since

minutes limb failure, in the taking phase. later, cooling

bright

cryogenic system had

spectrometer. cool other

Because to permit instruments earlier the planet's July recorded data, 31

measurements far-encounter Twenty initiating both data,

been

transmitting narrow-angle sequence tape form

in

minutes the

the second the digital

Mars gate viewed at 05:03 the G.m.t. former scientific on

near-encounter and recorded

by tele-

the analog the latter

recorders; all other

in digital

plus every

23

MARINER-MARS1969

seventh of the This data. angle in each

picture high-rate high-rate The widepictures region scan

element. telemetry telemetry and overlapping of overlap. platform

The mode

digital

data

were and primary

transmitted after the time method pictures were

in real time of digital with of return centered of the mounted

by means recording. digital widesurfrom the

before,

during, was the the cameras two cameras the

of the

narrow-angle and The on which according have been during 6 passed but

shuttered

alternately,

narrow-angle two cameras

successively Martian moved

took 24 pictures computer-program camera range across 3431 as the tape km (2131 spacecraft recorder in real measurements

face. The one angle areas that maintained 05:19:07 The tor to the spectral of the

to another, would not G.m.t., analog nightside These

to the within the swath within the

sequence, to cover if the instruments had At nearest miles) crossed continued on the on the time the approach, terminadark side of Mars. to acquire high-rate

a fixed angle Mariner tape

the planet.

recorder of Mars, data

was stopped digital afterward,

data planet.

for 6 or 7 min

to obtain transmitted

also were

telemetry channel. Eleven minutes Mars, and radio contact with Earth experiment tion zone. After next 64-m tape the tape was conducted exit from

after encounter, Mariner 6 passed behind was lost for 25 min. The S-band occultation entered tape tape station and exited data were bps. which 270-bps analog of the station, from were the occultaback The to the analog 6 hr, as

as the spacecraft the digital Madrid

occultation, and data of the

recorder stations recorder at 16200 at the

played rate. the almost

to the Goldstone, day, the (210-ft) recorder digital recorder Only tracking in the that ner 7. The final subsystems transmitter

Woomera,

tracking

at a 270-bps transmitted After lasted rate. however, playback television

television antenna had

on the analog Goldstone two complete

concluded

playbacks,

tape

recorder

resumed and

its playback another

As soon

the spacecraft at the high

was once again was interrupted bit rate to insure before

in view of the Goldstone complete recovery the command on sudden the successful Mariner reported and

the digital was made data. the Mariall

a few hours station spacecraft updating logical failed

6 began

its near-encounter (SPAC) Mariner sequence. team 6 and Because either lock, then

sequence, on

in South

Africa

loss of telemetry

performance of the

was involved it was believed the high-gain was first The

CC&S memory near-encounter

in rechecking

for the approaching explanation or the from had

the most

for the signal spacecraft had the high-gain

loss was that Canopus to the low-gain

lost

a command

sent to Mariner

7 to switch

antenna.

24

THE FLIGHTS

command Mariner

brought 7 at that

a response distance. that the The and had or the producing by the respect of the

within telemetry spacecraft anomaly struck infrared erroneous discovery to Earth

10 min,

the round-trip garbled

transmission and that

time

to

It was found were missing the Canopus Although either such leaking seemed radial as the

was partially signal was the

15 channels twice before that antenna. was had of Mariner, failed, at first slightly in meas-

entirely. cause

was lost and switched initial or that cooling signals. velocity 7 had

acquired speculation some This part gas system, decreased

was reacquired a micrometeorite battery gases and velocity

the transmitter

to the

high-gain

unknown, spacecraft

spectrometer electrical that (the only

conjecture directly

to be verified with

Mariner

increment

urable by Doppler tracking) during the silent 7 hr. After the spacecraft had been recovered, the change in velocity slowly increased over the next 24 hr to at least 8 cm/sec and approximate) When were Martian possibly as much as 50 cm/sec before leveling off. instruments order. been had were The upset working which pictures G.m.t. device (the measurements are necessarily that they

the scientific

turned

on, it was discovered for pointing them at the was quickly as a substitute its first series The

in acceptable regions,

desired lost

in the anomaly, range)

recalibrated for the far-encounter 33 pictures first series of of 25 pictures

using television telemetry. At sequence during during 09:32:33 each

of Mars on

(at extreme 2, Mariner The 20-hr periods,

August

7 began and a third approach. from from third Each

of approach a 17-hr period

photography. ending

narrow-angle closest

camera

took

of two subsequent

5 hr before

pictures was taken at distances ranging miles to 1 340 000 km (840 000 miles); (742 000 miles) the Goldstone Analysis should Mariner to order lighted the recorder be made additional side of Mars. 7 flyby now to 707 000 km station of the km (330 000 miles)

downward the second the

1 716 000 km (1 065 000 ranges of 1 196 000 km from series showed cap. ranges of 532 000 back to was played that Shortly

(439 000 miles); bit rate

to 127 000 km (78 600 miles). at the high Mariner additional sequence, Nine than be full more during before 6 far-encounter pictures operators pictures that near-encounter of Mariner complete

as soon as it was completed. pictures reprogramed and additional pictures passage over an attempt after the 7 CC&S on the during tape the dark of the polar

to obtain

6 near-encounter

the Mariner scientific were the the dark data obtained

near-encounter

Mariner would

6. Because

digital side,

25

MARINER-MARS 1969

side science out the tape more Thus, instruments the ated radiometer correctly The trajectory east. The just (2130 backs Mariner The neering in orbit Milky before miles) atmospheric the 6-to-14_ strategy spacecraft also

data

would

have changes

to be received Reprograming

by the high-rate of the sluing from resulted

telemetry

mode

withfor of the

recorder southerly orbit.

redundancy. instrument

Mariner angles the

7 near-encounter to compensate perturbation

involved

in scan-platform track that

in the Mariner received shared data. on spectral so that The this more

7 encounter, data than increased

as it actually originally polar on

occurred, The and infrared

all of the scanning spectrometers obtained spectrometer spectra Mariner southand 3430 the km playtrack of each engiwhile of the through made and operin 7 additional

planned. coverage, the acquisition the anomaly was Mariner after from digital cruise and six both tape

in the

cryogenic encounter,

equipment permitting from

of valuable altered the

range. resulting at closest was delayed At closest surface. each encounter, data to the forin to the complete spacecraft, recorder high-rate one aboard was moved about 130 km (about slightly beyond 7 flew 80 miles) the estimate within

change spacecraft

in velocity altitude point

the flyby point

approach

increased,

time of arrival the

at that of the

a few seconds

anomaly. Martian following recorder

approach,

Immediately of analog and tests, around Way Periodic the point theory and the analog

near-encounter was transferred in digital were The

information played spacecraft the then

back

at 270 bps. mode scientific included ultraviolet called travel 1969-B. around the Sun a check on Einstein's for additional operations tests, operations by the

returned performance scientific and scans

communications Sun. cameras is planned with

a star-photography spectrometer

test of the

television tracking

of an area

containing Earth

a comet in an attempt

as the spacecraft

of opposition

to make

of general

relativity.

26

CHAPTER

4

Scientific
The Mars, Mariner (1) in a later and (2) of which (3) The basic is extremely Has stage

'Payload
4 flyby with been surface on July a surface 15, 1965, is heavily less answers state pressure the first cratered than to such have and successful and 0.01 that that space of as ages, or is it atmosphere planet, some the flight to

Mariner that thin, Mars liquid

revealed

the planet's

surface to provide that

its atmosphere Earth.

4 was not designed of an evolution

questions geological

in its present water?

throughout included dark

may once of the light

a denser of the exist

perhaps

What show Does

is the significance seasonal life of any changes kind

areas

in albedo exist

and

possibly

in color? there? further the basis or not and to exist

on Mars, to Mars with those

or did it ever in 1969 were the intent could those permit

objectives and experiments, or present to Mars.

of the missions particularly environment necessary

(1) to explore of establishing whether forms life

the surface for future the past

atmosphere

of the planet of Mars

that would

determine experiments the first

(2) to develop ing missions Of the were designed The Different aiming that the and km point region. thaw Hellas, (1860 to provide August because good the planet.

the technology six scientific to yield purpose aiming (- 10°<0<0 coverage for A southerly on

to conduct selected

for succeedobjective, properties equatorial 6 in of cap; available date polar five of data.

experiments data points on the were of the sixth °) with of the aiming Mariner

to achieve chemical, and

physical, selected

thermal 6 and

experiment for and date light

was to refine Mariners dark of July

astronomical 7. An

arrival many point

31 was chosen surface features °) with of the cap was

for Mariner arrival

(-300<0<-20 coverage which after approach the feature)

5 was chosen regions it appears which miles)

7 to permit

south starts altitude

its edge; to darken

Hellespontus, immediately bright surface as the closest

particularly

interesting to recede; of 3000 spacecraft,

polar to Mars

is a classic was chosen

A nominal

for both

1 The settled into

spring its

season normal

had

just

begun cycle.

in

the

southern

hemisphere

ot

Mars,

and

the

south

polar

cap

had

recession

27

MARjNER-MARS 1969

in contrast to the Mariner 4 altitude of 9844 km (61 18 miles) at closest approach. Thus, the spacecraft could investigate about 20 percent of the surface of the planet from near-encounter altitudes, in contrast to the little more than 1 percent coverage by Mariner 4, and could obtain data on the Martian geography and climate. Both spacecraft carried identical scientific instruments (fig. 4-1): two television cameras, one of medium resolution (wide angle), and the other of high resolution (narrow angle); an infrared spcctrorneter; an ultraviolet spectrometer; and an infrared radiometer. T h e instruments were mounted on a single scan platform, which could be driven through 215" of clock angle and 69" in cone angle. T h e combined weight of instruments and platform was about 75 kg (165 lb). These instruments are discussed in more detail in the following paragraphs. T h e subsequent chapters, which were prepared by the investigator teams,
i
/ -

'

INFRARED SPECTROMETER PLANET SENSOR (COOLDOWN START)

NEAR-ENCOUNTE

FAR-ENCOUNTER

INFRARED RADIOMETER INFRARED SPECTROMETER

WIDE-ANGLE CAMERA

ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROMETER NARROW-ANGLE CAMERA

FIGURE .l-l.--Relativc
28

positions of scientific instrumcnts carried on Mariners 6 and 7.

SCIENTIFIC PAYLOAD

contain were pretation appropriate

the written

preliminary independently exist

scientific among team. them.

results The

from

the

experiments. some given are

The those

chapters in interof the

of one another;

therefore,

differences

may

interpretations

investigator CAMERAS

TELEVISION The Mariner surface gain eate green,

wide-angle 4 camera, area in each the focal The but

camera had

covered approximately was did

an

area

12 to

15 times

larger

than The iris

the field more

the same the narrow-angle

surface

resolution. The

of view of the wide-angle picture length was f/3.0;

camera than

11 ° by 14 °, encompassing camera. and and rotated far-encounter aperture green,

100 times control, blue actuated filters

setting by speed to delinred, was

was 50 mm. Automatic a fast shutter was equipped speed with red,

circuitry, color blue The

provided camera

of 90 msec

a slow shutter in a green, pictures,

of 180 msec.

differences. sequence. narrow-angle with a linear approach, was 508 and

The

filters

were

automatically for than ft). the

camera,

used camera;

alone higher

boresighted provided At closest miles); focal speed with of the 84.48 phases

the wide-angle resolution the camera was about mm.

a modified an area aperture

Schmidt-Cassegrain that The of the wide-angle 70 by 90 km iris setting provided The camera to provide falling one and took

telescope camera. (44 by 56 the shutter

10 times

covered

of about control

its resolution length a yellow of 6 msec

300 m (1000 speed effects. They

was f/2.5; a fast

Automatic haze with shuttering

a slow shutter to reduce

of 12 msec. were Each

was equipped overlapping inside picture the each

filter

The overlapped sec, The an electrical of the and and, the

cameras wide-angle portions with vidicon charge

shuttered pictures, continual

alternately. the

timed camera the

narrow-angle throughout had a surface

pictures farsensitive on the

to aid in interpretation.

near-encounter to light, and lost sec, point tape the

of each

flight. tube in each beam camera scanned to the in proportion current information, to digital to the intensity proportional light which data value was before of the light to the charge for each stored to Earth to electrical point. in the striking target the surface in 42.24

tube. therefore,

An electron an electrical

665 280 points

generated image data the

loss at each This spacecraft form, When which

in proportion transmission converted coding

converted

to intensity Because were binary

recorders. analog on Earth,

from spacecraft was reconverted

was in binary impulses,

transmission.

received repre29

MARINER-MARS 1969

sented tube.

the pattern They were negative

of light used

and

dark it and

elements thus

of the original of a beam the

image

on the vidicon swept across

to modify

the intensity

of light original

that image.

a 70-mm

to expose

re-create

INFRARED SPECTROMETER The mine possible oxide, along search the objectives life-related ozone, track and of the infrared H20, dioxide; surface spectroscopy including CH4, (2) including of the limb. an infrared Berkeley, was of the about spectrometer, carried visible designed of the light and built as part Martian areas with surface. 4-2) through system 380-atm before explosive same a telescope, both channel gas on started to was space. variable being of view field on Mariof for the to two two Shortly sensor, unit. channel cooling The worked 2 detector plate of the scan selected detectors, some scientific and dark NH4, experiment polyatomic CO the ethylene, were molecules surface (1) to detersuch as the nitric (3) to

the atmospheric

composition, molecules nitrogen concerning the the

acetylene, planet;

to determine the dark carbon

temperature topographical absorptions; (6) to examine

of the field of view, intensity bright

side of the spectral cap; and

for evidence through

composition;

(4) to provide dioxide

information (5) to provide infrared To at the payload. To surface cameras. from the and which bottles command valves the ner that the Martian Light were help areas, Data

evidence from these

on the composition objectives,

of the polar

emission accomplish University

of California, the

determine from

composition covered were

the spectrometer spectroscopy from entered into

the same

as did the

television analysis of

the experiment upper the two

also compared to obtain to near (fig. directed The employed

of the results

ultraviolet atmosphere from cooled Mars split

experiment limits instrument and

a detailed

was focused,

beams,

for maximum hydrogen

efficiency. and

cooling

1 detector

(mercury-doped gaseous the from the spacecraft filter-wheel on Mariner

germanium) CCgcS and motor. ° F). 6. The ° F)

(5500-psi) encounter, devices command was

storing

nitrogen. a Mars cooling The The

opened

started to about failed

gas flow to the

spectrometer 7, but

1 detector

intended selenide)

be cooled cooled filters,

22 ° K (-420 165 ° K (-163 reaching the

as designed (lead exposed

channel were one

to about rotating

by a radiator scan

to deep region 120 km.

Wavelengths examined. was about 3o

detectors the

by continuously wavelength of the by 120 km

each

10 sec to complete approach, and during

At closest

geographical a single

resolution

120 km by 3 km,

SCIENTIFIC PAYLOAD

FILTER WHEELS ALLOW

ONLY

SPECIFIC

SPECTRUM OF INFRARED TO PASS THROUGH

WAVELENGTHS

INTENSITIES OF INFRARED WAVELENGTHS SENSED BY DETECTORS IDENTIFY GASES 25 -cm (lO-;n.) TELESCOPE DIAGONAL PRIME MIRROR MIRROR IN ATMOSPHERE OF MARS FOCUS ING MIRROR

MAPS LIGHT RADIATION

INCLUDES INFRARED FROM SURFACE THAT GASES

HAS PASSED THROUGH IN ATMOSPHERE

SECONDARY

MIRROR

DOUBLE MIRROR SPLITS LIGHT BEAM SO TWO REGIONS OF INFRARED WAVELENGTHS CAN BE ANALYZED ELECTRONICS DETECTORS COOL SENSITIVITY TO INCREASE RADIATION TO INFRARED UNiT CONVERTS DETECTOR VOLTAGES TO PULSES FOR RADIO MESSAGE CODING

FIGURE 4-2.--Diagram

of infrared

spectrometer.

The This rated binary digital

energy signal by

of the

light

registered and data to the analog

as a voltage converted signal. automation after were temperatures, transmitted weighed approximately

change The pulses

across were and

the

detectors. were sepato in the

analog in time values tape

was processed the spacecraft

to two pulses, subsystem and 16.2 kg 8 W

which

proportional

converted stored measurements important each

recorder the

for transmission (critical voltages, data, cruise and

the flyby.

Engineering in real (35.8 time,

on the experiment in analyzing The power encounter for infrared heaters sequence.

gas pressures),

experimental spectrometer, during

42 sea 4 W of the

which

lb), used

of power

during

ULTRAVIOLET The the upper (molecules amounts.

SPECTROMETER spectroscopy of Mars that have experiment by detecting gained was designed various identifies molecules, and these species to identify atoms, to determine by the gases and in

ultraviolet atmosphere or atoms The

ions their wave31

or lost electrons),

ultraviolet

spectrometer

MARINER-MARS1969

lengths

of light

that

they absorb

or emit.

Data

on the composition

of the Martian

atmosphere not only provide knowledge of how the atmosphere itself originated and evolved, but, in turn, is a source of information regarding the age and evolution of the planet. could exist there. It has not been of the Earth's The limated the it into mirror tubes, Earth because carried light atmosphere, ultraviolet Martian its separate element each sensitive It also is essential possible the and on to make brief in an understanding ultraviolet samplings and on the carried its rays directed The regions 1100 studies have Mariners by light means onto light of whether of Mars been taken from by or not the life

surface the

relevant only Earth

wavelengths satellites

of radiation high-altitude

cannot balloons.

penetrate ultraviolet and

spectrometers

spectrometer (made and

6 and

7 focused that

colin by tube 1600 and angle, a

parallel) diffracted

of mirror a grating was again were

elements diffracted focused One from

instrument

(fig. 4-3) through

wavelengths. to different from

slits and onto

two detectors,

which

photomultiplier

responded © in the region to 4350 A. The spectrometer's mechanized to rotate. the rotation of the

of the wavelength spectrum. o to 1900 A, the other in the region

grating was ruled, or grooved, with Because each wavelength was diffracted directed
ULTRAVIOLET BY SENSORS

2160 rules/mm at a different to the
DIFFRACTION IN SPECTRUM

grating
SPECIFIC

the
WAVELENGTHS IDENTIFY

separated

wavelengths
FINELY GROOVED LIGHT

detectors

MIRROR OF

DETECTED IN MARTIAN

GASES

REFLECTS SEPARATE

ATMOSPHERE _k EXIT SLIT

WAVELENGTHS SCAN

(ARROWS MOTION)

SHOW

MIRROR

/ [ SENSOR CURRENT TO PULSES ""_" !_:'

\_ _ ,

( '

t__ _

I. -_--_

_ /

_N \ _ J

_.

WAVELENGTHS ON EXIT SLITS

OF

LIGHT

FORRAD,OMESSAGECOD'NG

i r_ r _N_Lk_L

O_ _

_

ULTRAVIOLET GASES IN

LIGHT UPPER

EMITTED ATMOSPHERE

BY

_ _ _

\'? \_" _ _\\ \

OF MARS FOCUSING TELESCOPE STRAY TUBE ELIMINATES SLIT AND ELIMINATES DEFINES STRAY FIELD OF LIGHT VIEW MIRROR

LIGHT

FIGURE4-3.--Diagram

o[ ultraviolet

spectrometer.

32

SCIENTIFIC PAYLOAD

sequentially. determine processed the data Mars. The experiment (4264 a), Although other species in the the and were was converted

The

known

position striking

of the the

grating to the

in time The amount. light

made that The

it possible reached was

to them then of

wavelengths to a voltage stored transmitted

detectors. to Earth

proportionate in near real

voltage though was

for transmission

after while

the each

flyby,

some passing

time

spacecraft

atmospheric species primarily _ught in the ultraviolet spe%roscopy were Ho(1216 A_, O (1304 a)_ N (1200 _),N2 + (3914 a), CO + N2 (1354 A, 3371 A), NO (2150 A), CO (2160 _), and CN (3876 _). it was felt that there species, (1235 range may not be sufficient obiective _), Xe (1470 metallic solar energy of the ions, and at Mars was other to excite to seek molecules a secondary _), experiment

atmospheric such spectral as Kr

examined.

INFRARED RADIOMETER The were with surface television objectives the cameras cooling of the infrared infrared to obtain or cloud radiometery from map experiment those areas that could and on Mariners of Mars scanned be correlated to obtain to obtain absolute 6 and by exactly a curve of tem7 the

to measure topographic

emission a temperature features across

shown the

in the imagery; terminator;

by a scan trace

perature measurements that covers it is formed The boresighted two-channel with the

of the south polar from carbon dioxide, radiometer narrow-angle (fig. 4-4), television

cap to determine whether the frost water, or a combination of both. which weighed The 3.4 kg (7.5 lb), was looked camera. instrument

through the atmosphere of Mars in two different wavelength regions: 8.5 to 12.4t_ in channel 1 and 18 to 25t_ in channel 2. Filters in the radiometer determined the wavelengths 60 readings tures, 4 were instrument an internal reaching provided calibration (temperature source the two antimony-bismuth every 2 were The and Martian onto This and thermopile 63 sec, 54 were engineering from deep calibration readings space, was detectors. planetary measurements were the made latter and Of the temperain the from reprefiltered a voltage to two information

by the

detectors

readings,

or voltage). temperature the

of known

senting a zero reference point. The thermal radiation from by optical proportional pulses whose elements in the radiometer temperature.

surface

focused producing

the two detectors, analog voltage to the voltage.

to surface separation

was converted The

in time was proportional

33

MARINER-MARS

1969

VOLTAGE PROPORTIONAL TO TEMPERATURE DETECTORSMEASI 120Q TO330*K FOCUSING LENS, FILTERSSTOP ALL BUT SELECTEDWAVELE OF INFRARED LIGHT FOCUSING

ELECTRONICS UNIT CONVERTS SENSORVOLTAGES TO PULSES FOR RADIO MESSAGE CODING

CALIBRATION PANEL FOR HIGHEST TEMPERATURE MOUNTED INSIDE HOUSING

DIAMO ND-SHAPED, THREE-POSITION MIRROR

MARS LIGHT INCLUDES INFRARED RADIATION FROM PLANET SURFACE

SPACEVIEW PORTFOR LOW-TEMPERATURE CALIBRATION (ZERO REFERENCE)

FIGURE

4-4.--Diagram

of infrared

radiometer.

was encoded

in binary

form

by

the

spacecraft were

data stored

automation in the digital

subsystem tape

for

transmission. Data and also transmitted S-BAND The data of the planet. ure radio

from the experiment in real time.

recorder

OCCULTATION first S-band provided objectives to obtain signals reflected Martian The occultation new values and experiment significantly on of the figure the planet's was performed density, changed Mariners of Mars, Data by Mariner and electron views 7 were this last scientific 6 and and from 4. of The the

returned

for the pressure,

density to refine to measpart of

atmosphere, of the

experiment

these data,

measurements from

to attempt

surface.

34

SCIENTIFIC PAYLOAD

the

experiment to

could make

be

correlated of the Mars, the the

with

data

from

other

experiments of from the the

on

the

spacecraft surface. The and craft trajectory from its radio surface. and phere received density electrons To to provide the data again

estimates utilized a separate behind of tracking through signal reappeared waves,

electrical signals from

characteristics transmitted It did, Earth, thus and from and the

Martian spacecraft require the spaceMars, off at the the planet, a

experiment require passed passed the view signal The signal that

radio

did not

onboard stations.

instrument. As the

however, occulting

as seen Martian through

spacecraft emerged planet's yielded Similar measured

curved was

behind cut

atmosphere the

as the spacecraft changing

behind

the radio on Earth.

passed

atmosphere. strength desired changes 6 and It was and

The data

atmoson the by

refracted and

the radio

the frequency

of the signal are caused

Measurements of the results, yield Martian of Mars; the points accurate

of the changes atmosphere. these

pressure the

in the ionosphere enhance four occultation

also were

in this experiment. 7 were selected that of its design of of Mars, expected

trajectories separated values and density

of Mariners in latitude. aiding in the for the radius

also would

oblateness understanding to the

thus providing an estimate internal structure. Determination future scientific landing questions of the missions regarding

of its density atmospheric and is a critical the nature

of Mars in the planet.

is vital resolution

factor of the

of important

CELESTIAL MECHANICS The primary purposes 7 were to determine the Moon, of the project to measure as part Because bodies obtained cision, findings, the of the the and the of the celestial mechanics the mass of Mars, the ratio from Earth the to Mars of all experiment on Mariners of the masses of the Earth at encounter. of Mars, inner 6 and the achieve and the Additional as part of an and to in solar planets, 7 while mass

6 and and

distance were the

purposes existing attempt orbit,

experiment to improve general extended their were the experiment

to refine ephemerides

ephemeris on Mariners determining To data

relativistic mission was

effects plan. on based

of celestial data were pre-

by measuring exclusively results as during

effects correlated

on the flightpaths tracking with 5 flyby equipment. radar-bounce of Venus

of the two spacecraft, optical 1967.

by ground Mariner

maximum

telescopic

in October

35

MARINER-MARS 1969

The For the

celestial

mechanics necessity the

experiment to determine period analysis of the of the

on Mariner the anomaly data.

6 was conducted forces from and recovery

as planned. acting that on event

Mariner spacecraft

7, the during any

nongravitational

has delayed

thorough

36

CHAPTER

5

Television

Observations

From Mariners

6 and 7*
MURRAY,

R. B. LEIGHTON(Principal Investigator), N. H. HOROWITZ,B. C. R. P. SHARP, A. G. HERRIMAN, A. T. YOUNG, B. A. SMITH, M. E. DAVIES, AND C. B. LEOVY

In using In spite

July

1965,

a new data storage via

era began that

in

the

closeup the successful

study flyby

of planetary of Mariner the basic onboard transmission

surfaces workability digitization

by

imaging

techniques technique signal, rate

with utilized data

4 past Mars.

of its limited

return, of the Although

Mariner

4 established image and tube, tape, covered to our

of one imaging of the video at reduced under surface The to apply and determine 1 percent bit

a vidicon antenna, the pictures

on magnetic

to Earth a picture about planet's (1) to

a directional

reconstruction an area knowledge

into of that 6 and

computer of Mars, and history objectives the the

control. (refs. of the of Mars, basic

of only

they contributed 5-1 and techniques both character television

significantly 5-2). experiment of Mariner at long range familiar

on Mariners 4 to explore and at close from

7 were the in order

successful

further range,

surface

atmosphere

of features

ground-based

telescopic

studies; (2) to discover possible further history of the planet; and (3) to provide extraterrestrial life. Mariners first results calibrated together concerning discusses the 6 and 7 flew past Mars experiment, been reported from wall results distributions, have size

clues as to the internal state and past information germane to the search for 31 and upon 5-3 and and August 5-4). 5, 1969, respectively; study This of the undata chapter tentative draws

on July (refs. the

of the television pictures, crater evidences preliminary

based

qualitative presents geographic

experiment; slopes,

distributions; of topography respect measuring must to

of haze or clouds;

describes

new distinctive

types

seen in the pictures; and discusses the implications the present state, past history, and possible biological Data a sample presented of pictures in this report stages were obtained in various of processing.

of the results with status of Mars. by inspecting results, and The

therefore,

* The

results

described

in

this

chapter

have

been

published

in

Science,

vol.

166,

1969,

pp.

49-67.

37

MARINER-MARS 1969

be regarded fication available,

as preliminary, complete as more and

subject sets and

to considerable better quality measurements

expansion versions become

and possible.

possible pictures

modibecome

as more

of the

quantitative

EXPERIMENT DESIGN AND CAMERA OPERATION Television Subsystem The Mars was experience 6 and heavily Design and cratered results but of Mariner experiment. had rather 4 strongly The low surface influenced earlier relief, and the basic showed therefore design that low

of the Mariner

7 television

pictures

local photographic also was discovered property: picture could bration effectively Early ing color within era the "target a photographic cope and with to the design

contrast, and that that a vidicon-type noise," Thus, the data analogous the 64-level low by perhaps

there was a possible hazy atmosphere. It camera tube exhibits a most important to photographic a factor contrast (6-bit) computer of useful return (similar and use over encoding conditions quality. on 256-level of Mariner views longer of Mars a blue (8-bit) encodtwonested camto with efficient bits each similar Mariner 4); overlapping of areas as the filter two and (pixel) was grain, and scheme because is less than that of 4 caliof 10 (ref. 5-2) is the same from of Mariner intensity could be applied

emulsion

to picture. contrast

extremely enhancement to produce increase the picture focal lengths wide-angle

using pictures in data track frames;

techniques

studies

for Mariners

6 and 7 centered to that of the

(at least a tenfold coverage along of different overlapping, some the green Mariner picture encoded picture

4); use of two focal-length

cameras

to provide showing

high-resolution all sides effects, 4. employed (for

to obtain

full-disk To filters 6 and formats

pictures study

spacecraft added

approached the red and The identical

planet.

atmospheric on Mariner

carried and

7 television electronic tape a digital for every (referred

experiment circuits recorder digital picture

cameras for order along

economy

use of the tape of an 8-bit television tape recorder characteristics those
r

recorders), word line

to store

the six lowest

seventh

element data), x and

to as 1/7

a second,

to store analog data for all pixels (ref. 5-5). The of the Mariner 6 and 7 television cameras are outlined 4 are included for comparison.

instrumental in table 5-I;

of Mariner

1 The from stored other on

1/7

digital

television experimcnts. tape recorder,

data In

for this were

the

central

20

percent 1/28

of digital

each data

line

were (6-bit

replaced coded for

by every

encoded 28th

data pixel),

onboard the analog

region, available.

coarser (See

fig. 5-2.)

38

TELEVISION

OBSERVATIONS

FROM

MARINERS

6

AND

7

Table

5-1. --

Characteristics

of television

cameras

and

data

systems for Mariners Mariner 6 and 7 cameras

4, 6,and

7

Item

Mariner

4 Wide-angle

Narrow-angle

Optics: Aperture, mm Focal length, mm T-number Type Shutter Exposure (fast, slow), msec nm Filters: effective wavelength, 6O 305 8 Simple Cassegrain 4-position rotary 85; 200 600 (red) 540 (green) Picture: Absolute Angular size, mm field, deg 5.5X5.5 l.lXl.1 200x 200 24 48 n=6 9.6X12.3 11×14 704X935 42.25 84.5 n=8 Digital I 4 100 5x10 e 32.5 0.025 1 4 110 1.3×10 _ 30 4.3 16.2X 103 270 1 4 ll0 1.2XI0 g 30 4.3 16.2X 10_ 270 9.6X12.3 1.1 XI.4 704X935 42.25 84.5
n_8

10 52 6.5 Lens 4-position 90; 180 573 (red) 526 (green) 469 (blue) rotary

200 508 3.6, 3.84 Equal-radii Schmidt-Cassegrain 2-blade, right-left 6; 12 56O

Resolution elements (pixels) Frame readout time, sec Picture interval, sec Encoding Tape recorders: Number Tracks Tape length, m Stored bits (effective) Tape speed, cm/sec: Record Playback Data transmission As used, bps Backup, bps rates: levels, N----2"

Analog

8_

To reduce was held gain sary receipt The rotary green, camera processing an nearly control

the noise constant (AGC) and the program

introduced and data the a cube-law return

by analog modulation

recording, index

the average circuit. pictorial

signal This data

level signal necesafter and blue, a

was increased

by automatic

contrast-enhancement by a factor of about restoration A) has of the

increased elaborate

5; it also made

of computer (camera with

on Earth. wide-angle that camera consists which an 11 o by 14 ° field of view green, shutter (camera but of four colored filters in the sequence camera longer Figure red, and

etc. Alternating B), carries

exposures only

the wide-angle 10 times haze filter.

is the narrow-angle a 1.1 o by 1.4 ° the cam39 5-1 shows

has a focal length a minus-blue

field of view,

MARINER-MARS 7 969

eras mounted on the spacecraft, and the relative positions of the other scientific instruments. Figure 5-2 shows the effect of AGC on the analog signal, an effect similar to that of a high-pass filter in that it diminishes the amplitude 01 long spatial wavelength (low-frequency) signals. Spectral sensitivity curves, with and without filters, are shown in figure 5-3. T h e approximately 6-msec response t h e of the AGC corresponds to about one-tenth of a picture line, and its characteristic effects are apparent in all near-encounter pictures, especially those with high contrast (e.g., the polar-cap boundary, the planet limb, and the terminator).

FICURI. 5-1. - Sriciitific iiistriiniciits moiintcd oii tlic scan platform of Mariner 6. T h e five principal instruments are: infrared spectrometer (IRS), ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS), iiifr;irctl ndioincter (IRK), wide-angle tclcvisioii camera (TV-A), and narrow-angle television canicra (TV-B).
40

TELEVISION OBSERVATIONS

FROM MARINERS 6 AND 7

Z

X E

8 f_

41

MARINER-MARS

1969

1.0

(°)
(c) 0.8 _ PLUS VIDICON SPECTRAL

0.6

0.4

Z

0.2

c_

0

j

22'..x._.
(b)
(o')

1.0 0 Z 0,8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0 400 50O 600 7OO 40O 500 60O 7OO

WAVELENGTH,

nm

FIGURE 5-3. Mariner angle

--

Spectral sensitivity curves for television cameras, 6 wide-angle camera. (b) Mariner 6 narrow-angle (d) Mariner 7 narrow-angle camera.

with and without filters. (a) camera. (c) Mariner 7 wide-

camera.

To data, and torial reseau effects metric

show

the nature reduction effects

of the are listed:

picture restore "cuber" and

restoration the in the calibration

process, analog "pickup" pictures distortions, flight data, data and

some

of the

steps

in

the computer remove analog

two highest

order

bits to the digital digital pixel picknown remove sensitophotoshift the and the true

of AGC and marks

and

data, z combine noise, 2 measure (ref. measure evaluate the 5-6), with

data, of reseau

measure and flight

remove

electronic

locations

on flight data

calibration

by interpolation

so as to agree

pattern, measure and correct for optical of residual image from calibration and response of each pixel from calibration

deduce

I This procedure is semiautomatic, subject to hand correction by the computer operator, as necessary. 42

TELEVISIONOBSERVATIONSFROM MARINERS 6 AND 7

metric tions been pending

exposure and light

for each flight leakage function

pixel, 3 correct camera), pictures of the camera flight corrected

for the effects and on evaluate subsystem. data

of shutter-speed and correct ad hoc of these the steps

variafor the have basis, of

(narrow-angle

modulation applied

transfer receipt

Some from

to a few of the of complete, pictures. closeup

an experimental

telemetry

six playbacks

the recorded

Mission Design and Television Data The parts: within planetary encounter (FE) of, closest 6 and period period approach; 7 missions and

Return for each spacecraft was divided and period the later into two to

a far-encounter a few hours As the Mariner (and in bit so that analog other

starting

2 or 3 days before,

extending bracket-

and a near-encounter were 25 NE were originally pictures,

(NE)

ing the time of closest for 8 FE narrow-angle ture data to Earth increase craft, bility tape dred tain 26 digitized

approach. pictures NE science a 5-day

(See ref. 5-3.) conceived, and the 1/7 and analog NE data picdigital

data) period

to be recorded spacecraft. the became actually times. late directly digital

transmitted a sixtyfold of the spacethe or of

at 270 bps over transmission real-time data

for each during 1/7 of the

However, data stream, Thus, in which in real areas Fifty were

was realized picture played during to that useful

development possible. used,

transmission during and taken FE picture were

playback, sequences back several

this capathe analog hunSome 7, conat

led to the extended recorder 1/7 digital was filled pictures pictures, three-color greatly and 428 digital

In addition,

several time.

transmitted

to Earth FE period data

of these

the very photometric attainable

of Mariner

valuable NE pictures,

wide-angle

for large Earth. pictures

of Mars IrE pictures, returned

a resolution from Mariner pictures were FE pictures plan the original including Thus,

superior

from 1/7 digital

4 real-time

6; 93 IrE pictures, 33 NE pictures, and returned from Mariner 7. This ninefold and 18 percent digital increase data frames. by spacecraft, 6 near-encounter camera frame in the return number 200 represents real-time a total

749 useful real-time digital increase in the number of of NE that pictures of Mariner over the 4, not

times

Pictures 6N17

are designated means Mariner

mode, and frame number. 17, 7F77 means Mariner 7

3 For each and outside the results of 4 Most the

spacecraft, corrected the real-time 20

this to percent

must the

be done observed area.

for flight pictures

each

filter

of each

camera because

and little

for

all

calibration of the

temperatures, image projected

temperature. were valueless or none

FE wide-angle blank

central

43

MARINER-MARS

1969

far-encounter with a blue During record These Calif., pictures numbered

frame filter frames each

77, etc. The by the day are wide-angle, of the FE

first NE

picture

from pictures.

each

spacecraft encounter, camera

was taken all was oddto the

wide-angle

camera. low-resolution period, analog to Earth Deep the

Thus,

in near

narrow-angle during each

used clamped.

a series of up to 33 full-disk were could station transmitted be received of the NASA signal

pictures

of Mars with daily These (210-ft) Network. antenna

the AGC period at the pictures

when

16.2-kbps

by the 64-m Space

Goldstone, showed each The

tracking

all sides of the planet as it rotated each day, and within the total face of Mars was recorded at many different scales and viewing phase angle was nearly visible). NE picture are presented locations in tables for the two spacecraft 5-II and 5-III. The constant and was the same for both ing terminator Approximate 5-4; relevant data

5-day series, conditions.

spacecraft

(25 ° , mornin figure were

are shown picture

tracks

Table 5-11.-Slant range, km View angle from vcl tical, dog Center 70.2 57.3 49.8 41.8 36.2 29.7 25.2 40.5 39.4 38.1 38.8 39.6 59.5 49.3 42.1 34.6 30.3 24.4 20.4 16.3 14.9 15.0 17.6 19.1 21.3

Mariner 6 NE picture data at center of frame
Solar zenith angle, (leg does 18.8 6.8 4.9 11.1 17.1 23.5 28.9 41.3 45.8 50.8 55.6 60.9 20.5 30.6 38.2 45.7 52.1 58.5 64.2 70.3 75.8 81.7 87.2 90.0 93.0 not Latitude, °S intercept 4.3 --2.0 --5.2 --8.6 --10.6 -- 12.9 --14.1 -0.1 -- 1.2 --2.7 --3.0 -- 3.7 -- 13.0 -- 15.9 - 17.3 -- 18.5 --16.6 -- 16.9 -- 16.6 -16.2 -- 15.2 --14.2 -- 12.7 -12.1 -- 11.0 planet 292.3 303.2 310.3 317.3 323.0 329.1 334.4 346.0 350.7 355.8 0.6 5.8 324.8 334.7 342.3 349.9 356.6 3.1 8.9 15.1 20.5 26.4 31.7 34.4 37.3 1,ongitudc, °E Area, heigh! Xwidth, km 2 Limb 157.2X556.4 Limb 125.6X229.1 Limb 109.1X 158.7 1112x1597 97.4 X 125.7 1679 K 1861 119.1X 113.9X 122.1 108.4

l'icture 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

of pictttrc

7401 6614 6130 5682 5348 5028 4777 492O 4737 4558 4439 4333 4832 4382 4103 3868 3738 3613 3543 3498 3497 3522 3584 3622 3680

1309 X 1378 1191Xl243 99.8 X 231.4 Limit 83.7×132.8 858 X 1289 77.1X 102.5 773XI036 73.1 X88.8 723 X 929 72.3 x 84.4 718×921 74.8x87.0 765x973 77.4X91 .!

44

TELEVISION

OBSERVATIONS

FROM

MARINERS

6

AND

7

Table Picture Slant range, km

5-111. -from deg

Mariner

7 NE picture

data

at center

of frame Area, heightXwidth km _ Limb

View angle vertical,

Solar zenith angle, deg

Latitude, °S

Longitude, °E

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 9243 8533 7993 7533 7129 6771 6443 6654 6377 6084 5864 5631 5462 5285 5167 5049 4994 4949 5314 4776 4405 4130 3917 3759 3638 3664 3619 3621 3646 3722 3822 Center 69.6 59.7 52.3 46.1 40.6 35.8 31.4 47.5 45.6 42.9 42.4 41.1 41.9 42.1 44.2 45.8 49.2 52.4 65.7 55.0 46.8 39.9 33.7 28.4 23.6 28.1 26.6 27.3 28.4 31.6 34.9 of picture does 25.8 15.6 8.2 2.5 4.7 10.2 15.1 50.5 52.1 53.4 55.9 58.2 61.4 64.5 68.3 72.1 76.7 81.4 14.0 24.9 33.3 40.7 47.3 53.6 59.5 65.6 71.1 76.7 82.1 87.7 93.4 not intercept 14.4 5.3 - 1.4 -7.0 -12.0 - 16.4 -20.5 -53.1 -57.1 -60.6 -64.2 -67.4 -7O.7 -73.2 -75.9 -76.8 -77.3 -75.4 --20.6 --28.5 --34.3 --38.3 --41".7 --43.7 --45.3 --40.4 --40.4 --39.1 --37.7 --35.0 --32.2 planet 350.3 354.9 357.7 1.3 3.8 7.3 10.0 328.3 332.4 338.9 344.1 352.3 0.1 12.5 26.6 46.3 68.6 89.4 6.1 14.2 21.2 28.8 36.2 44.2 52.0 62.1 69.3 76.3 83.1 89.5 95.5

Limb Limb 175.3x412.5 Limb 152.9x262.0 Limb 137.7x200.4 1503X2233 197.0X165.7 2282x1672 166.6X 148.8X 147.5 139.4 2049X1912 2098X2058 137.4X138.9 1368X1561 131.69X 1343X1862 133.5X171.7 Limb 97.9X201.3 1383x2488 84.5X128.9 874x1291 77.2x101.4 775x1035 80.7x92.2 823x995 81.5x87.7 831 x987 87.1 x90.8 996Xil16 147.2

chosen, basis dates August

in cooperation was limited by

with

investigators

for other First, date,

onboard the choice to the the during time

experiments, of possible of July the the of closest that and dark interval

on the arrival 31 to approach spacecraft period approxithat Syrtis
45

of several

considerations Second, of the time

and constraints. considerations arrival on any given of about

engineering

15, 1969. view the rotation

was limited be in radio bracketing mate could 24-hr

to an interval

1 hr by the tracking limited These the

requirement two constraints

Goldstone of Mars

station

a several-hour Martian longitudes area,

of closest period

approach. in particular,

the possible most

be viewed

effectively;

prominent

MARINER-MARS 7 969

Major, could not be seen under optimal conditions. Fortunately, Meridiani Sinus, a prominent dark area almost as strong and permanent as Syrtis Major, and a variety of other important features well known from Earth observations were easily accessible.

TELEVISION OBSERVATIONS FROM MARINERS 6 AND 7

FIGURE - Mariner NE picture tracks, plotted on a painted globe of Mars. T h e wide54.
angle camera filter sequence is blue-green-red-green, etc. T h e first picture is taken using the blue filter. IVide-angle and narrow-angle pictures alternate. (a) Mariner 6 picture locations. (b) Mariner 7 picture locations.

47

MARINER-MARS1969

The form, successive

cameras could directions

and

other during

instruments near encounter.

were the

mounted

on a two-axis The orbit

scan and

platas five platthe with on

which

be programed

to point

instruments

in as many

(See fig. 5-I.)

form pointing total scientific some viewing of picture if possible; the same different divergence a wide

strategy adopted for each spacecraft was designed to optimize data return within a context of substantial commonality, but of needs variety of the various features, viewing phase the the two-color experiments. including overlap planet and phase angles; same and Emphasis the some seeing angle. limb polar in blue the was placed cap; of classical overlap; two different

continuity overlap, viewing under area

coverage; stereoscopic area under viewing

substantial

three-color light; same

conditions

at almost

The picture at low latitudes light light cross of that arranged and dark region that

track for Mariner to bring into view areas, two "oases" Regio). dark polar under south 6 on the the

6 was chosen to cover a broad some well studied transitional (Juventae The area, Fons Meridiani lighting to cross and Oxia Sinus, conditions. Hellas Palus), track thus The Mariner 7 picture

longitude range zones between and a variable to views also was "wave-ofbright, cirwas selected providing track the

(Deucalionis of Mariner region

important to include

different and

cap and

cap edge;

to intersect -- the classical,

darkening" feature, cular "desert." Camera Both parameters. expected noise from for both fourth "dropout" the pictures, accurate, is generally areas clouds marked views, Operation television The because spacecraft; drop of the noise. but track

Hellespontus;

and General cameras of an the

Observations well within low signal expected level; 6 analog FE and NE showed processing cameras, of the "clouds," stand into areas polar ranges the greater tape of the ambient was lower electronic than recorder than data than pickup showed and the of normal before surface and obscured a few by rela-

operated

contrast

of the Mariner unaccountably power first track system gain

6 FE pictures, was somewhat

however,

the square-wave

anticipated

of the Mariner between tape not more 6 and only recorder

a 50 percent

in amplifier Mariner These also by the with the classical features exceptions necessitate

playbacks; greater of the the

7 analog

affected

subjective can be made.

appearance

elaborate measurements 7 television exception

high-resolution visible; by

photometric Mariner the possible Martian are

As observed

Martian

regions

appearance

of afternoon features transformed

it is not with

or haze. The

out clearly

in the FE pictures; recognizable

in closer 48

these

TELEVISIONOBSERVATIONSFROM MARINERS 6 AND 7

tionships to show eras were factor

to the designed

numerous surface.

craters the

that

mark

the

surface.

The

NE

pictures that the

seem camby a

a moonlike that

(It should are often

be remembered, of local further contrast

however, enhanced

to enhance the pictures

contrast

brightness

fluctuations

of 3 and

in printing.)

Actually, although ditions its contrast near the terminator. The amount the

the surface is generally visible, under similar lighting conis much less than that of the Moon. Fewer shadows are visible

determination of haze or veiling

of

true glare more

surface in the refined

contrast picture photometric atmospheric reduction current,

depends The haze. of the residual

critically pictures Definite pictures images,

upon appear

the to be

field.

free of such effects; presence cannot including leaks, and be drawn possible

however, glare the for until

measurements

may reveal conclusions is completed, shutter light

of veiling corrections

or a general photometric dark

vidicon

instrumental

scattering.

ATMOSPHERIC Aerosol The tering and which taken picture. thus Several far: (1) tering The picture

FEATURES

Scattering Mariner 7 northeastern 1/7 digital appears across filters on limb The pictures appears frames the limb provide clear evidence 7N1, the one immediately platform includes for scat7, before slue, pictures

layers 7N1. began with

in the atmosphere. The the each limb track of the

limb

in frames received after coverage and 7N21 camera shown

2, 3, 5, and

in a few real-time

wide-angle again the Thus,

in frame wide-angle layer

Hellas.

narrow-angle 5-5 are evident just as is scat-

characteristics scattering aerosol layers intensity kilometers

of the scattering is distinctly in the stratified

in figure layers,

in horizontal

from

Earth's

atmosphere.

(2) The few hundred local times (3) (4) of locating

of the scattering varies substantially over distances of a and is more intense toward the west or toward earlier

of day. thickness height true of the scattering of the layer planetary covered limb; layer however, 7N1 is about 10 km. because 7N7 of the difficulty 15 and up to 40 km to be between is difficult by frames to determine through

The The the

it is estimated

and 25 km in the in frame 7N21.

region

49

MARINER-MARS I969

( 5 ) T h e layer is about 50 percent brighter in the pictures taken with a blue filter than in pictures taken with red or green filters. This is not as much difference in intensity as would be expected for Rayleigh scattering; it corresponds more closely to A-2 wavelength dependence. T h e relationship between this scattering layer and the Martian tropopause will be studied carefidly as more refified data become available. T h e normal-incidence optical depth, assuming isotropic scattering, is estidependcncc suggests mated as 0.01 in the red and about 0.03 in the blue. A that scattering should be predominantly forward, so that these very small values should be underestimates. Near the south polar cap and over the regions of Mare Hadriaticum and

FIG( E 5-5. - Mariner 7 limb pictures. Note the s h a r p layer of haie iicxt to the limb in R fraincc 7N1, 8, aiitl 5, and the magnified view i n frame 7N2. Tlie prominent, cratered dark feature in frame 7N5 is Meridiani Sinus. North is approximately toward the right.
50

TELEVlSlON OBSERVATIONS FROM MARINERS 6 AND 7

Ausonia just east of Hellas, the real-time digital data reveal an apparent limb haze. T h e haze over these regions is not as bright as the haze discussed previously, so that it is unlikely to be dense enough to obscure surface features observed at NE viewing angles. A faint limb haze also may be present in the Mariner 6 pictures of the limb.
Blue Haze

Despite these evidences of very thin aerosol hazes, visible tangentially on the limb, there is no obscuring blue haze sufficient to account for the normally poor visibility of dark surface features observed or photographed in blue light or for their occasional better visibility (the so-called “blue clearing” phenomenon; see refs. 5-7 and 5-8). T h e suitability of the pictures taken with a blue filter for blue haze observations was tested by photographing Mars through one of the blue filters on Eastman 111-G plates, which have a response in this spectral region similar to that of the vidicons used in the Mariner cameras. Conventional blue photographs on unsensitized emulsions and green photographs were taken for comparison. A typical result is shown in figure 5-6; the simulated blue photograph is similar to the conventional blue photographs. T h e effective wavelength of the actual blue television pictures should be even shorter, owing to a lower ambient temperature and to the absence of reddening due to the Earth’s atmosphere.

FIGURE - Photographs of Mars from Earth, taken to compare Mariner-type pictures 5-6. taken with a blue filter with “standard’ green and blue photographs of Mars. These photographs \vel-e taken 011 May 24, 1969, a t New RIexico State University Observatory. North is at the top. A. Standard blue (0915 G.m.t.). B. hlariner blue (09:05 G.m.t.). C. Standard green (08:44 G.m.t.).
51

MARINER-MARS1969

The blue pictures taken by Mariners surface features, even near the limb and tion nator. seen is strong. The Frame blue 7N 17 (polar 6N1 (limb) overlapping cap) frame

6 and 7 clearly show craters terminator where atmospheric shows sharp surface detail 6N3. detail 5-7 near surface frame corresponding

and other obscurathe termito that blue, are and the craters craters

shows green

in the subsequent

Figure

includes

green, and red pictures in the region of Meridiani Sinus. Although distinct in all three colors, albedo variations, associated both with with normal Shading large-scale blue obscured of South features, appearance Polar Cap of atmospheric limb and surface observed and may to the the haze is the remarkable terminator features in Mariner decrease mare not in the are due 7 NE area FE clearly are more pronounced during in green the Mariner and red Earth-based photographs obtained of Mars. encounters

than

in blue. show

Another of the 5-8). where haze. viewing tering polar-cap south Because, over

possible polar the cap during polar

indication near near cap, the both

darkening pictures visible (fig. everyor thick near the increasing in frame aerosol scatof the cap

encounter, darkening

is obviously

to clouds pictures with thin behavior observed

It may be related terminator angle over between The

to darkening (fig. 5-9(a)), the darkening cap and

in contrast

adjacent be caused

7N 11 (fig. 5-9(b)). the polar itself. In either effects. North

by optically photometric

cap, or possibly it may

by unusual

case,

be complicated

by systematic

diurnal

or latitudinal

Polar Phenomena There are marked latitudes; 6F34 and and distance bright between 7 during Mariner (point by comparing frames meridian and changes some 7F73, from region between of these which Mars near Much previous taken Mariners changes correspond (fig. 5-8). bright limb the 6 and are 7 in the by the appearance a comparison the same higher and of

high central

northern

revealed Despite

between contrast 7F73) fainter appeared taken visible bright as seen 52

to approximately generally (point 2) appear near although range during 7F73 and the point "tongue" (point

of Mariner a larger Mariner completely by Mariner in several tongue clearly in the

7 FE pictures, 7 picture. the

a large,

1 in frame smaller 2 has dison pictures clearly The day,

of the Mars over

brightening rotation, the same

the two flybys;

in fact, it was not visible

it was of distances. Martian 7F76

6 pictures

1) increases

in size and

brightness in frames

its appearance

(fig. 5-8).

TELEVISION OBSERVATIONS FROM MARINERS 6 AND 7

n 0

z
0

n N 2
0

I'

?

53

MARINER-MARS I969

.

T h e widespread, diffuse brightening that covers much of the region of the north polar cap (point 3) apparently corresponds to the polar hood which has been cbserved from the Earth at this Martian season (northern early autumn). This hood is smaller in Mariner 7 pictures than in those of Mariner 6; the region
54

TElEVlSlON OBSERVATIONS FROM MARINERS 6 AND T

FIGURE

5-9. - Mosaic of polar cap pictures. (a) Frames 7N10 through 7N20. Effects of autornatic gain control are clearly evident near the terminator (right) and at the edge of the polar cap. (b) Frames 7 N l l through 7N19, taken with the wide-angle camera. T h e effects of automatic gain control have heen corrected partially, but the contrast is enhanced. T h e south pole lies near the parallel streaks in the lower-right corner of frame 7N 17.

between, and just north of, points 1 and 2 appears to be covered by the hood in the Mariner 6 pictures, but shows no brightening in the Mariner 7 pictures. T h e different behaviors of the discrete bright regions and the hood suggest different origins for these features, although both are apparently atmospheric
55

MARINER-MARS 1969

phenomena bright fixed clouds H20 by the Diurnal regions clouds.

or result have The

from fixed

atmosphere locations cloud with experiment that in the

and areal

surface extent composed

interactions. frost of the diffuse

The hood

discrete suggests revealed

suggest

surface

or orographically CO_ or CO2 and structure

fluctuation

or haze. ice would S-band

An extensive be consistent occultation

or haze on

of either 6.

the atmospheric Mariner

temperature

(See ch. 9 of this report.)

Brightening variable frame the the to bright 7F73 in the features the Tharsis, in fig. 5-8; Mariner and days Olympica of these that may be indicative Tractus 5-3.) the FE the and during in the which fixed. (point Albus, The of atmospheric and Nix brightness afternoon. do was striking and many not show are observed; circular procof these to The any the several fea-

Other esses appear regions. areas develop structure variations features long, light

throughout

Candor, pictures increase

Olympica

(See during and

also see ref.

is observed,

in Earth-based Martian region pictures

photographs,

forenoon 6 Martian be near Nix

locations

features during

over appear

topographically

Particularly 6 in 7F73)

streaks

tures that resemble craters with bright centers circular features exhibit one or more concentric ing than, those near Nix (waves, Olympica. billows, Two W-cloud pictures, westernmost ciated with at the ._0-km in terrestrial Search points clouds of the classical of these

and dark edges. Several of these circles similar to, but less strikof this type streaks) such appears features form two of the assoregion; 4 and 5). No morphology in this would

features (points however,

or cirriform

resolution clouds.

be visible

for Local Clouds and Fog pictures polar no local regions 12, and patches polar-cap from are both spacecraft the polar in origin, differences stereo near (figs. near and 5-9(a) the which in angles beyond and polar-cap frames appear were examined carefully for evidences away of bright are viewing is little However, bright (blue). rims a few local

All NE of clouds from features, present,

or fog. There possibly and

no evidences

of such

atmospheric its edge, No

phenomena a number shadows

the south

cap. Over height whose 13 are

cap and near can be seen.

atmospheric

detectable

can be detected lie between 5-9(b)) edge. 7N15 sharp the polar-cap show On and

by stereoscopic 5 ° and 12 °. There diffuse, 7N17 terminator. several and the cap itself, clear,

of overlapping or no illumination frames patches diffuse, Unlike 56 7Nll, bright most

evident of clouds

suggestive

present

(green)

craters,

a few crater

TELEVISION

OBSERVATIONS

FROM

MARINERS

6 AND

7

and 7N17

other

topographic and near 7N19

forms

appear

diffuse

(frames curved, these

7N 17, 18, and quasi-parallel topographic

19). In frames bright form streaks or con-

(blue)

(green), pole.

remarkable Although

are visible

the south

suggest

trol, including some craterlike shapes, by the lack of shading. Frames 7N17 and mottles close to the terminator,

their possible cloudlike and 7N19 show faint, superimposed

nature is suggested but definite, streaks cratered surface.

on a sparsely

SURFACE FEATURES A primary range, Earth. objective types of the television on experiment the Martian similar active, was to examine, surface, to that and as observed of the Moon at close from for

the principal While confirming Martian with than the were and polar and dark Terrains from

of features

a cratered surface, added evident terrains

appearance 6 and of more

much ent least the

of the terrains three south

Mariners implication previously.

7 also revealed analyses

significantly more recent, indicate of, and correlation

differsurface that within, with at

processes of permanent the light Cratered

Preliminary displayed exhibit Earth.

distinctive cap.

are represented surface terrains observed features do not from

in the pictures, any

as well as a mixture

transitory These markings

at the edge simple

Pictures southern hemisphere usually pictures. hemisphere, may result dark areas. unfavorable tian 6N22 craters and large These

Mariners

4, 6, and Cratered Olympica, exclusively

7 suggest areas which

that

craters in some

are prevalent 5 in the Mariner appears areas

in the northern as FE

hemisphere;

however, Nix

knowledge

of cratered appear craters northern visibility coverage,

terrains

is less complete. crater, with from Sun

pictures

far as 20 ° N latitude.

in FE pictures can in the dark

to be an unsouthern difference in and views,

lies at 18 ° N. a few visible poor limit

Many in the

be seen hemisphere;

in close-range of the the

are almost only

visible

an enhancement angles

of crater knowledge of the 5-10. The

by reflectivity highly oblique part

variations

However,

photographic

of the northern diameter-frequency were made

of Mars. of Marwith 6N 19 through 256 craters

Preliminary

measurements in figure

distribution on frames upon

in the region are shown

Deucalionis

Regio

curves

are based

5Defined fig. 5-7.)

as the areas of the Martian

surface

in which

craters

are the dominant

topographic

form.

(See

57

MARINER-MARS1969

diameters

of more

than

7 km

(frames

6N19

and

21) and

upon

104 craters

with

diameters of more than 0.7 km is the existence of two different morphology. and small 6N19 meters, small lunar than and The 6N21. two and bowl-shaped. Diameters craters, craters. estimated impact

(frames 6N20 and crater distributions, crater with from

22). The most significant result a dichotomy also apparent in are large and flat-bottomed, on frames kiloThe are most order and interior with evident

morphological Craters range best

types

flat bottoms ratios appear of large distribution particular the original a primordial

a few kilometers on the in frames 6N20 to have craters

to a few hundred of 100 to 1. 6N22, slopes flat

with primary 20 ° .

diameter-to-depth observed Some of them distribution the crater This Tsiolkovsky. it is evidently may have modified

bowl-shaped

resemble steeper is far

The compared side for of the

diameter-frequency in figure Moon features near because that

bottoms on the was chosen

5-11 (a) with

in the uplands lunar surface, crater region devoid

comparison

of large The

post-upland

distribution.

1O0O0

|

IIII

1

I

I

I

I

1 III

I

I

1

1

I

111

1000

^

Z

a

100

I 0,6

I III 1.0

I 2

I 3

I 4.

I 5

I 6

I III 8 I0 D, km

I 20

I 30

I 40

I

I 60

I

II; I00

CRATER

DIAMETER

FIGURE 5--10.--Preliminary cumulative distribution of crater diameters. Solid curve at right is based on 256 counted craters in frames 6N19 and 6N21 with diameters more than 7 km. The solid curve at the left is based on 104 counted craters in frames 6N20 and 6N22 with diameters of more than 0.7 kin. Error bars are from counting statistics only (N1/2).

58

TELEVISION

OBSERVATIONS

FROM

MARINERS

6 AND

7

I000

I

I

l

I

|

I

!

!

!

I 101

I

I0 000

I

I

!

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

(b)

LU NAR MARE QUILLITATIS)

300

30O0

__

LUNAR

UPLANDS

%
^

%
A

I00 Z Z

I000

-_>

30

3OO

I0

1

I 8

I I0

I 14

I 20

l 30

I 40 I_

I 50

I

I 70

I

I 90

100

I 0.6

I 0.8

I 1.0

I 1.4

I 2.0

I :3.0

I 4.0 D, In

I 5.0

I

l 7.0

I 9.0

CIIA/IBt DIAMETFJt D,

CRATER DI,I.IAETH

FIGURE 5--11. craters Mars

-- Comparisons on Mars those with on the

of Martian those lunar on the maria.

and

lunar

size

distributions. (b) Comparison

(a) Comparison of small

of large craters on

lunar

uplands.

with

distribution the distribution of small

of the craters

small

bowl-shaped on the about lunar

craters maria

is compared (ref. craters 5-9). larger

in figure The than among (fig. craters FE

5-11 (b) with curve of about

of craters larger than

distribution has a slope

1 km in diameter for primary in crater

on Mars

-2, which is similar on the lunar maria. There terrains. marked Martian of the the are The areas; crater large

to the curve variations of the

3 km in diameter different 5-7) have in some crater more other of

morphology Sinus than peaks marking with

craters

dark

area

Meridiani central lighter

polygonal floors and features,

outlines is also secondary Martian however,

and seen,

more but

the especially

distinctive features terrain. such

in the northwest pictures. impact swarms, large lunar frame crater

portions Many craters seem to
59

less clearly, associated as rays and

in some

primary

can be found associated

on the

(See, for example, secondary

6N 18.). Certain

MARINER-MARS 7 969

be absent; ejecta blankets appear much less well developed. T h e missing features are, generally, those most easily removed or hidden by erosion or blanketing, a pattern consistent with the observation that the craters on Mars are usually more shallow and smoother than the lunar craters. O n frame GN20, there are low, irregular ridges similar to those observed m the lunar maria. However, no straight or sinuous rilles have been identified

F I G ~ ~ 5-12. - (a) E s a m p c s of chaotic terrain. l l i c ;ipprosimatc locations 0 , the narrowIW anglc-camera views inside wide-angle-camera frame 6N7 are shown by tlic dashcd rectangles. North is approximately at the top. (b) Possible chaotic terrain. T h e lighter color a i d t l i c ;il)seiic.c of craters suggest that large parts of tlie riglit-liantl Ii;iIE of this view t;ikcti I)y tlic witlc-;ingle camera may consist of clinotic terrain. ( c ) Example of chaotic tcrr:iiti. Tlic location of frame GN14 inside Ir;iiiic 6 N 15 is shown by thc solid rectangle.
60

TElEVlSlON OBSERVATIONS FROM MARINERS 6 AND 7

c

-

I

,

MARINER-MARS1969

with been

confidence. building, recognized.

Similarly,

no earthlike formation,

tectonic or

forms

possibly

associated

with have

mountain

island-arc

compressional

deformation

Chaotic Terrains Frames surface display nificant although 8 lie within this and frame About Frames 6N9 giving higher parts chaotically 6N6, jumbled albedo 14, and ridges. than 8 (fig. This frames 5-12(a)) chaotic 6N5, show lower terrain On 7, and in figure a relatively areas, that irregular basis, smooth cratered with to sigseems that terrain, 14, and extent for

way abruptly

to apparently its surroundings. frames As shown (fig. 5-13).

in shape, we infer similar 6N6,

characteristically

of overlapping characteristics. frame 6N7.

15 may contain enough 5-12(a), frames

the resolution

of those

is not great

to reveal terrain the pictures This

the general

morphological

An interpretive sq km of chaotic covered faint by the

map of possible terrain Mariner may

chaotic

has been 1 million

prepared

lie within features.

1000-km-wide mentioned. belt lies at

2000-km-long and

strip

6 wide-angle of similar

10 contain

suggestions

about 20 ° S latitude, primarily within the area between the dark areas Aurorae Sinus Chaotic depressions, (fig. 5-12(a)). and only pattern pattern three terrain is composed and irregularly ejecta craters of a highly 1 to 3 km wide Although from faint crater possible terrain

poorly defined, and Margaritifer irregular long, this best terrain plexus

mixed light-and-dark Sinus. of short ridges and 6N6 in frame

2 to 10 km jumbled, Chaotic are recognized

displayed is practically 1-million-sq-km

is different

in setting uncratered; area. The an irregular

sheets.

terrain in the but

patches

of chaotic with

are not all integrated, N to N 30 ° E grain.

they

constitute

an apparent Terrains

Featureless The

largest

area

of featureless

terrain

identified

so far is the floor

of Hellas,

the bright, circular low solar illumination, resolution smoothness exhibit it is not terrains. The 62 limit are possible Mariner smooth not

"desert," centered at about 40°S latitude. the area still appears devoid of craters, 300 m. Lunar be in our surface that present geographic Hellespontus, areas state known. It may floors; any all bright, circular relationship the dark

Under very down to the size and deserts of Mars however,

of about featureless to define

of comparable of knowledge,

significant shows that

for featureless area that lies

7 traverse

TELEVISION

OBSERVATIONS

FROM

MARINERS

6

AND

7

319°E 3.5 ° .i" "i_"." "$'_ ,/'::.," _ /_.".:W" ;..'".'I *.') F;..>" f. :.',,_ ,I D,/ . ./ • ,_ ,.,/ --':,_'7".'" .... c /" "I
•".'-"' "_--/. • ....'¢ j

6N7 (:" :'":;Y ]': "s , .' . ;_ ). • 2' /: " " " ":.... ." ""'/ , %'::: ,',., ":.'.'[, _ . : .... . • ." • _ ", .... "" .. •";
-t, _

342.4°E -10 o

.'.._
"" ";'

t ...
::

."

".." :" "-I ...:'.1

:, p'..j
'''''

.i'. _. e...)

,',.v _

!•: i':

"'_ "J

_:.,.'...'.".'.,.,

.; •

•" ". -;..:, • ." " : .'I

0
O

:.'_, ,'.':",.:.)
," ''•'

(:.:_
'

!-.>
: .... _

:j •::.-- :: -_;'h
..... "" .I )

0
;

• .r-

_.....-

/

I. -.._
,... ......

,.-°
-i y:

- ." • • L_._
..

/." • -. "." - • - ,_-_.-

:................._,_

y

"
v"

J.::.L_ ....._:, ....
• ",- t'_
" .• ,i _-/

• ":.,
•..Lr,

.-....."
-..

:.:.

" • ......
• ":

:...•.._.

..,,
t_:,

v:'

•" _
'- ;
• ...._

.,.-._;_-_:,:: . -.. ,b,'.:-:": ,:/-,<<• .." -:..
_ ' " ....-..i,_'. . , _'" ....

_,;.'•-'.•'•'".'/,.•

:.- .....

:.:

.•- .
....
. " .'.

..:

......

. :
" • .

..

• • .'".,
':-_._--49,
" ".)_ " :

_" -."• •" •.

. < . .....

.'.._,
:
.. .'.3

2 ......
,_, e..'._
" / _'l

.. -.J
." " • "I " . "••'_
" " " . .'. I _

_ v ,:-/_..-.-,
U
* i/P°

-".... -',
". ": t _

('1
v

:
.... ".

•_ " ";
"'r

_,: ," ":
• " ,"" " _" :r---=.--.-1.
I" • " ..,;.,

1"..

. "

"-"

I:"• I .'...£
_"" %:,.. I l
i,,

,_. "

:,

r ..... , i. i_.....

_-"-*-'l

_,'i l,,O
•"

" ,.o°

""

• .. ," r" ".i.
"*'"* • "'i':" • ': .'.;,'_
•* t

_)

6N6
t_ , 4

'"

• " " ' " .'" J • " "l

•":'"j

_" t

• -" ' • . "I
.." •

.i

,=_..','%.

",
_

|

--..bN_

bid
I..',,

_ ::.- r-.'t---_k--Y-"i
I" " • "l_ ,i.I 'l,_ '..L.'.4 .... ,...'*_ ,%," _ i a _ _,/

_

/,_ i.,#

,

/

.... ,
,

O
,

"" " i • . "j I'; :_ I" ./

I..-/

It!7
•:.., .:;
.,l_

;..:'
.;..::)-)
t.'_. ,_ '" "'-"_ g •
¢t . •,., _

,.':;

#'-)_. ,. -( J.:_.l i#'•t

....... 6N14

J _

,._

_J NORTH

/'_ _

,",
0

_

_ I

,% . .... i

/"

x....,,

O
O

t_

13.8 ° 312°E

.,:'%':1

::/,
0 lil,I l O0 I 300 I I 500 I

o

0
336.3°E

-24•7

APPROXIMATE EAST-WEST CENTER SCALE, km FIGURE 5--13.--Interpretive map showing the frame possible 6N7. extent of chaotic terrain shown in

west of Hellas, is heavily by short, irregular tional center

is heavily and

cratered. appears and

The to slope ridges

130- to 350-km-wide gently Craters downward It gives the (fig. 5-14). within

transitional to Hellas, way abruptly within km first 200

zone interrupted along the toward

also an the

cratered en echelon foot

scarps

to the

flat floor

of Hellas. abruptly

are observed

transi-

zone, but of Hellas. The

become

obscured

possibility of Hellas, sur[ace.

has been and However,

considered that in frame

that the 7N26,

a low haze featureless the ridges

or fog may be obscuring images o[ the are not relevant Hellas/Hellespon63

the

surface

there[ore

to the true

MARINER-MARS 1969

N

*

,

64

TELEVISIONOBSERVATIONSFROM MARINERS 6 AND 7

tus boundary craters appears South appear

are clearly within

visible, that

proving

that

the surface the absence

is seen;

yet virtually

no

picture.

Thus,

of well-defined

craters

to be a real effect. Polar-Cap Features of longitude, at close from 51° at -60 ranged The is that thickness quantitative and qualitative from range. 290 ° E to 20 ° E, the edge The to and for the visible, The cap was observed perhaps more; picture beyond the centers angle and This of the Martian over the was cratered a latitude pole itself. is clearly 35 ° . The surface difficult is distincnearly (ref. at of

Over south range Solar visible superficial covered surface with tive confined, The this lends the polar The visibility, 7Nll visible eral polar from zenith

a 90 ° span its edge angles appearance picture. a varying

cap was visible

°, southward phase angle

to 90 ° and

terminator

in one with

of a clearly of snow.

moderately

viewing

the unfamiliar discussion seem

conditions respect therefore, region. edge

make

comparison size distributions aspects in the

with other of craters. of the polar FE pictures concerning

areas of Mars cap that

to the number to those

to that

of the

cap was observed from Lowell to Earth-based

to be very

60 ° S latitude, caps.

as predicted

Observatory

measurements

5-10);

confidence principal with the

observations cap edge solar The

the past behavior enhancement forms. In about

effect subtle the where

at the local

is a spectacular of other angle about was

of crater frames are is sevand 4 pic-

appearance

topographic density

to 7N13 both times greater visibility 7N12

zenith population zone,

53 °, craters craters in width, enhancement slopes. mentioned

on and

off the cap. in the results shows

of visible This

transitional primarily the

2 ° of latitude noted The

may equal of crater tures Frame

that observed 15, for snow

thus far anywhere from to lie preferentially cap edge

else on the planet. the tendency, detail. on poleward-facing

in Mariner tendency

14 and

in finer

in the previous paragraph tion of the illumination. diameter, craters. interesting On tions, resulting areas Near the center

is so marked In addition and on the which and

as to cause to several west inner show Often,

confusion regarding the direccraters as small as 0.7 km in are visible of the to that craters, a crater distinct but near the larger crater 6N18. variaa 65 necessarily to have is an wall many largest in frame not

of fine mottling structure part related

sinuous appears views effects.

lineations similar large

grooved most

the cap itself, from

the wide-angle

reflectivity appears

for the

to moderately

slope-illumination

MARINER-MARS1969

darkened seem appear In suggest primarily them small

floor to have contrast, a more

and dark

a bright floors.

rim; In

in some frames frames surface upon

craters 7N17 7N14 whose local and

with

central

peaks,

the

peaks craters cap of

unusually

prominent. high-resolution uniformly

7N19,

several

large

through brightness relief. Unlike

7N20 Several most

of the craters, areas

polar some

coated

variations other

are caused of Mars, 7N16. bright lie

by effects

of illumination in each

in size, are visible

picture.

regions of positive relief are also visible, Also distinctive in these frames are areas boundaries on are the tens floor apparently in the picture and irregular, shallow in frame in diameter of a crater unrelated of kilometers 7N14. and

especially in frames 7N14 and of fine, irregular, quasi-parallel regions. irregular, 7N15 known and Three such Other have no shallow 7N17. counterparts

depressed in frames

regions depressions,

to craters,

appear

Some

of these elsewhere

series of either

spacecraft.

In frame 7N 19, a curved, scalloped escarpment is seen, forming a boundary between a heavily cratered area on its convex side and a relatively crater-free area on its concave with the mare side. This feature suggests basins on the Moon. the large circular structures associated

Relationship of the Terrain The a fact dark same areas area rim areas contrast known of light from With partially reflectivities

to Light and Dark Markings and dark markings photography. because 6N13 floors, areas, wavelength, Frame rims and to the in dark on Mars In they contrast (fig. 5-7) while but craters only varies violet have shows These with light, wavelength, bright and the

long

telescopic indistinguishable increasing

are essentially relatively

approximately craters

reflectivity. become that and have floor

is enhanced in bright in pictures

as redder in a dark areas taken have tend with and in areas; light. on

brighter. bright similar of craters

surroundings.

differences

to increase

the visibility

red or green filters. West of Meridiani some other parts of the planet, there although The floors wavelength The generally to become 66 otherwise of these relatively craters conspicuous, the areas. exhibit dark

Sinus (frames are dark-floored they are same general

6N9 and 6Nll), craters in bright to see in blue

difficult dependence

of reflectivity

as do the larger distinction more obvious dispersed between and

bright

and

dark

areas are

on the

the sharp

Martian

surface

is tend and

in FE pictures. indistinct.

At higher Exceptions

resolution,

the boundaries northeastern

TELEVISIONOBSERVATIONSFROM MARINERS 6 AND 7

southern area

boundaries The

of Meridiani clearest structural and

Sinus Hellas

(frame (fig. 5-14). and

6N13)

and

the

eastern and

edge

of

Hellespontus. is that Chaotic tivity than Some with 5-4) single two to comprise

relationship

between

a dark

a bright

of Hellespontus terrain adjacent appears cratered

to be lower areas. identified Whether bright observed Palus;

to have chaotic

a somewhat terrain have Fons: coincide

higher

reflecenough

is extensive to be determined. now been

any previously of the classical large, of such classical in reference that upon

areas from frame

remains Earth 7N5).

"oases"

identified also see ref. found that quasi-linear

dark-floored craters "canals" dark-floored

craters (Oxia

(such as Juventae Gehon) are composed features and

fig. 5-5; with 7N5. that

or groups

It has been

at least alinement

(Cantabras, craters, canals inspection,

of several

also shown

in frame

(See fig. 5-15.) dark most will patches. are be concanals

As reported It is possible

5-4, other closer

of irregular, eventually

it will be proved

associated with a variety of physiographic sidered less distinctive as a class. Some the place the aspects dark early area drawings by a large pictures with and maps Major early of Mars and maps

show

a circular, Sinus, Additional may

bright very

area nearly

within in the of

south

of Syrtis

east of Sabaeus and photographs

occupied Mariner

crater 6 (fig. 3 of ref. 5-4). of dark-area

comparisons reveal long-term

of topographic

associations

boundaries. the Mariner 7 or by 6 and CO2 7 pictures (see ch. equivalent(fig. 5-7) is

A few rough and estimates

comparisons

can be made

between

of Mars

topographic

elevations

by Mariner

occultations

9 of this report), by Earth-based radar width spectral measurements (ref. 5-11). The located gradual long stretch of cratered terrain

measurements,

in Deucalionis

Regio both terrain and relief.

on what Earth-based radar and CO 2 measurements slope rising westward. Here, at least, cratered high any chaotic or to regionally correlation viewed terrain low areas; with in Mariner like dark particular planetary-scale 6 NE

suggest is a very is not restricted areas, it may in what if Earthterrain is

to regionally not exhibit The seems based related

light

pictures

appears

to be the topographically lowest area surveyed by the spacecraft, CO 2 measurements are correct. Thus, it is possible that chaotic in some consistent way to planetary-scale relief.

8E. Burgess,private communication. R. M. Goldstein,private communication; C. C. Councilman,private communication. 67

MARINER-MARS I969

FIGIJRF. 5-15. - Partially reconstructed frame 7N5 showing Meritliani Sinus in the foreground. T h e “oasis,” Oxia Palus, projects into the picture from the left edge, near the limb. Note the asymmetric shading i n several craters in Meridiani Sinus; the isolated, (lark-floored craters in surrounding bright areas; a n d the crater complex in Oxia Palus. T h e view is approximately N 20” W. T h e banded appcarancc of the sky area is due to the picture processing.
68

TELEVISIONOBSERVATIONSFROM MARINERS 6 AND 7

The Depressio,

entry near

point 58°S there,

of occultation latitude, suggesting 30°E highly Mariner basin

of Mariner longitude. elevated This pictures

7 occurred A very terrain. relationship that the areas.

near low would

Hellespontica pressure Depreswith with the its

surface agree

was measured sio is elevated, impression featureless

If Hellespontica floor of Hellas,

Hellespontus from the is a local

also may be. rimmed

gained terrain,

by higher

INFERENCES CONCERNING Features and past concerning this three tween chapter, (2) principal H20 solid features; in formation brightenings Significance The time crust period of Mars and early held early, observed those

PROCESSES AND 6 and

SURFACE HISTORY are results time. of both In this present part tectonic in the bediurnal of

in the Mariner they and the and polar-cap vapor in the their and

7 pictures the basis of

processes;

therefore, processes

provide

of at least

limited

conjecture

variations secondary role The and Forms features large to the Earth's the larger that

through (1) absence

we consider erosion, terrains; of south and observed

implications (3) probable features. FE pictures also is considered

of earthlike evidenced

blanketing,

modification possible biological role

of CO2 solid/vapor as an explanation

equilibrium of the

of equilibrium

implications.

of the Absence of Earthlike of earthlike by been tectonic the present the the than subjected

absence

on kinds

Mars

indicates topographic

that,

for that

the the have from curhave and

represented has not continue that, in the much 5-13) time (ref.

Martian surface.

forms,

of internal probably Earth (ref. have

forces

modified, a very always rently formed the origin in origin ently

to modify, because planet's is that To the less active event the extent of a dense never

It is inferred has been,

craters of the dense, with surface

survived A view may

history, Earth's associated that

interior

of Mars

is, and 5-12).

probably

aqueous planetary tectonic their similar

atmosphere features

in a singular

differentiation on Mars

of the core. to the formation that Mars

may be related independ-

atmosphere,

absence

suggests

had an atmosphere

to that of Earth.

Age Implications of Cratered Terrains At the only present time, with the ages of Martian those of the Moon. topographic Both the forms Moon can be discussed and Mars exhibit 69

by comparison

MARINER-MARS1969

heavily ferences the total

cratered in the lifespan have the

and history

lightly

cratered

areas, response

which with the

evidently the Moon, effects

reflect where in the

regional

difover on size imcase

of, or the has never To

to, meteoroidal presence

bombardment atmosphere form episodic extreme lunar solar the and objects

of the surfaces. produced

Compared existed, that

a significant

atmosphere Mars pinging may distribution upon established, of a saturated cannot the already cratered to attain direct from early the have

presumably of craters. a valid

of a thin fluxes

recognizable the extent

secondary

the relative

of large in the on the

two bodies surface,

can be determined, may be hoped only the a lower crater that the present rate; are found Unless ages the where within

or a common for, except limit density is, the to require this of returned accepted period as much even craters these

history

age comparison accepted produced older than the crater of the and that

cratered been

to an age can be found. uplands system at age years by of an at a that on at be a

It is generally estimated is much mare their lunar

4.5-billion-yr possible.

age of the inferred Indeed, about discrepancy

present areas present uplands rate on

bombardment Moon

minimum even a billion is removed

is considered density. crystallization maria, followed rate (ref. areas per 5-14). (ref. were craters

sparsely

measurements era of high reduced Mars, has been billion heavily If these other crater On

samples

of material

previously by a long stand. unit area

implication

bombardment

of bombardment as 25 times this would observed areas rate

drastically the Moon

will presumably

a bombardment estimated years areas cratered

However, 5-12). bombarded should to this, the Thus,

require

least several in the time, craters seem single more primordial. and major

to produce actually large

the density

of large

on Mars for such secondary areas with no

also could

at a constant be visible, most heavily Tycho Martian cratered

at least a few very recent, local uniform effects. in the relatively

including craters,

In contrast degree out from episodic increases

cratered

of preservation

of large

standing

the rest as a Martian history for cratered the likelihood that

or Copernicus. terrain terrain rather is priis

This again suggests an early than a continuous one, and mordial. If areas of primordial never

terrain been

do exist

on Mars, This,

an important in turn, bodies would form activity.

conclusion the likeli-

that these areas have

eroded

by water.

reduces

hood that a dense, earthlike atmosphere ever present on the planet, because these high planetwide l0 s yr unless 70 erosion it is renewed rates. On Earth, by uplift

and large, open almost certainly no topographic tectonic

of water were have produced as long as

survives

or other

TELEVISION OBSERVATIONS FROM MARINERS 6 AND 7

Implications of Modification Although enough easily seen. erosion On frames appear noted and large 6N19

of Terrain blanketing craters and within 6N21 processes the (fig. 5-7), on Mars even have not their as large uplands Mariner have been strong are

to obliterate

cratered with small

terrains, craters the lunar

effects

as 20 to 50 (a feature 4 data), and fresh

km in diameter originally the scarcity appearance, tion, crater or both. frequency To account

deficient craters which

by comparison The

by Hartmann

(ref. 5-12) on the basis of the is obvious. suggests is indicated craters history an episodic particularly

of smaller however, Such

a relatively

of formation, apparently areas

modificabimodal

a history

by the

distribution of figures 5-10 and 5-11. for the absence of even small craters in the marked almost on the terrains erosion, to the cratered blanketing, present terrains, have time. because never dependence impression permafrost volcanism terrains intense may on and and other These large been

of featureless processes may also have by such must not be been procsursug-

and chaotic have the erased. been same The

terrains, operating as those cratered

surface processes craters affected

obviously geographic a general

esses, indicating face processes. The gesting layers. may chaotic

an enduring terrain gives

of these of collapse

extraordinary structures,

the possibility The possibility further associated absence

of large-scale consideration. with obstacle regional

withdrawal Magmatic

of substances and withdrawal the

from

the underlying withdrawal near-surface the would chaotic or

of kilometer-thick

its localized or other surface,

deserve

disturbance apparent seem terrain

be another

possibility; however, erosion

of extensive of some sensitivity

volcanic unknown

to be a serious is the product local

to such an interpretation. to a widespread process.

It also may be that localized

process,

of unsuspected

CO2 Solid/Vapor The concerning served meter indirect known on the Mariner the

Process 7 NE could white pictures be produced material. the thickness the of the polar of the cap polar give snow they deposit normal relief no direct per provide along information since square with the obcentiother

material

or the thickness

deposit, do and,

brightness of any factors, polar evidence

by a very

few milligrams

powdery

However, of the relatively

important

regarding may help

to establish pictures,

its composition. appearance unlike that of craters so far recog71

In the

high-resolution cap and

the existence

of topographic

MARINER-MARS 1969

nized

elsewhere

on the

planet

suggest

that

some drifted

of the

apparent

relief If so, local

may

be

due to variable thicknesses of snow, perhaps nesses of at least several meters are indicated. The snow by wind. assumption balance, appropriate g/cm z in the sation. a minor essentially As the days, the estimates and structure One that when of the influenced may estimate the absorbed edge of the polar

by wind. that

thickof the than the the 0.8 is be

cap shows

evaporation effects the polar midday rather

is strongly

by local the daily solar

slopes;

i.e., by insolation loss from entirely exceeds find the net the daily by the

evaporation power We the

cap on loss at

the evaporation temperature.

is determined

radiation

radiation by overnight g/cm2; the

frost-point

loss to be about because H20

case of CO2, although whose deposition

loss is reduced be about 0.08

reconden-

In the case of H20, constituent irreversible. complete rates

the loss would

is limited cap

by diffusion, latitude

loss would requires

evaporation

of the

at a given between

many for CO,,

above

may be multiplied per square centimeter

by a factor for

10 and that

100 to obtain the cap is

of total grams

cap thicknesses

of tens of grams

per square H20,

centimeter

several

assuming

composed of one or the other of the materials. Such a thickness is acceptable for CO,,, but is unacceptable for H20 because of the problem of transporting such quantities (ref. 5-15). We posed throughout Several contrary formations peaks While such The pared or cooling of low-lying atmospheric assume, for the remainder of this discussion, per observed low elevations under dark simply of the quiescent floors depressed from polar and wind plays 1 o K/km. sloping high areas. difference, square which and that the polar of H.,O a tendency (ref. 7N14, of solid 5-16). cap is comof CO2, with the layer. formations have been from with irregular result rate suggest deposited conditions bright rims, (frames transport a role. is about Therefore, may result 6 ° K/km, adiabatic comheating for snow These central 17). it removed craters and could lapse lapse on high elevations, enhanced a few milligrams centimeter deposited annually from one pole to the other at the observed vapor density

to be preferentially to what include in some

may be expected

craters, that

areas

15, and material,

effects

also is possible

solid/vapor

interchange

adiabatic of Martian

atmosphere terrain

to a frost-point

rate of about across

air blowing

in evaporation

solid and precipitation over density, latent heat, elevation

The rate is determined by lateral scale of relief, wind

7'2

TELEVISIONOBSERVATIONSFROM MARINERS 6 AND 7

speed, dient. eter

turbulent-layer As an example, and deposit centimeter merely occasionally evaporation. glacier. craters polar The located deposits

thickness, interfacial heat transfer, a wind of 20 m/sec blowing across with time a turbulent that snow layer day. only about could days. results The very at 0.1 g/cm 2 per become Because

and net adiabatic graa crater 20 km in diamcould be this process during such would

0.5 km in depth, during the entire

100 m in thickness, several

differentially effective per square perhaps "trap," summer cumulation Martian small north H20: permanent

is on the ground, possibility of snow

tens of grams an interor a process, topographic to survive acof a of the of of such the

systematically

redistributed is that during could feature; central could the lead in a particular

val of a few hundred

A speculative accumulation in sufficient increased albedo

a sustained

accumulation then topographic snow-covered conceivably Presumably,

the winter

to a permanent peaks of some sites part

of COs snow

within high

that latitude CO 2.

i.e., to formation be the

prominent

of solid

permanent

cap is such a structure

(ref. 5-16).

Processes Suggested by Brightening Phenomena Several of the brightening to formation However, of H20 and haze phenomena surface could described or to H20 previously ice clouds well could in the in most

be related atmosphere.

frost on the

the phenomena

be explained

equally

of these instances by condensation and polar hood in the north polar and near the south polar over the regions of Mare The Tractus topographic tures are well of H20 brighten below surface brightenings Albus cannot above control

of CO2. This is true region, of the cloudlike

of the bright tongues features observed over in tropical Tharsis, because latitudes Candor, their where and and

cap, and the limb hazes observed Hadriaticum and Ausonia. in the regions that they of Nix 01ympica,

be explained requires the CO2 frost

by CO 2 condensation be on or near To explain point.

complete temperain terms

the surfaces these

phenomena

condensation processes also is difficult. during the forenoon, when the surface or the atmosphere and condense above, on it, either so that from water above

Most of the region appears to is hotter than either the material could not diffuse Thus, toward the or below. a surface ice frost

vapor

is very unlikely. A few features in the area, parts of the W-cloud, for example, are observed to brighten markedly during the late afternoon, where H20 frost could form on the surface from Earth if the air were to be bright sufficiently saturated. These features layer are not observed in the early morning, but a thin of H20

73

MARINER-MARS 1969

frost dry.

persisting The The

through

the

night

would could, bright

evaporate that these but the under regions

almost

immediately then be due this part of any highest very the these even

when to frost. of Mars cloudlike resolution

illuminated

by the early behavior diurnal with and (frame would the

morning of the H20

Sun, provided

the air were conditions, absence at the Even on

sufficiently

of the W-cloud behavior convective the clear 7F76) renders easily

throughout

is consistent morphology available of 5 m/sec km during continuously ness due graphically

ice clouds, detail

topographic

observed unlikely. displacements day

this explanation observable Martian Some be seen and No such

light order regions and

winds of 100 were streakiare oroslow have of H_O surface. and sources years

produce than

more

one-fourth should pressures.

for which

observed to these produced,

by each because and

spacecraft. condensation

observable in clouds, evaporation distortions

distortion

displacements

if they

processes

are

at Martian temperatures been observed. Another condensation Water quickly most should at most, how The any vapor difficulty evolved

or streakiness in terms the local

in an explanation rapid surface from the from the a deep

of these removal during source

phenomena of water from would thermal Local

lies in the relatively through

the daytime layer by region.

be transported convection,

upward of it would

atmospheric by this

be removed exhausted seasonal seasonal

permafrost a few hundred

be effectively unless where

mechanism Because variations from a subsurface

within most the

replenished

in some temperature

way.

of this atmosphere

region could

lies near to see occur. is not

the equator, possibility

are small, source

it is difficult water

significant

replenishment from

of replenishment

of liquid

considered

in this report.

Biological Inferences No direct in the pictures. bial and least three One is that sonal 74 inconclusive the availability of the nothing darkening evidence However, on the subjects suggesting because at a resolution question of biological most in the wave, surprising picture are more interest: and results suggests favorable the presence of life on Mars probably is not nature television regions, other than are of water the parts has been would informative in the past. thus far seafound

Martian

life, if any, life, the from the

be microAlthough on at maria,

undetectable

of 300 m, this the general the

surprising.

of Martian

pictures

of the Martian experiment of the

of water

at present,

availability the dark for life

that

sites of the

planet.

TELEVISIONOBSERVATIONSFROM MARINERS 6 AND 7

On plied than ever;

the the

contrary, classical

it now and wave

would

appear

that These

the may are

large-scale preliminary

surface

processes

imhow-

by the chaotic it may be that

featureless of darkening.

terrains

be of greater between corrected

biological conclusions, dark pictures have not and and are

interest bright exam-

subtle evident availability would

physiographic when

differences

regions ined.

will become the

photometrically the areas,

Regarding any such (the found. ture been cannot tions based life evidence areas dark morning

of water, areas. These be permanently A classically interpreted been

pictures which covered described as wet

so far should with ground, Many however, feature

revealed on the frost; polar not sites no cap been moishave

of geothermal have been

be visible of the also has of these the their

terminator, collar), are

clouds

observed. has been have that show that

which those in the

Other content observed

locales

considered

sites of higher-than-average

diurnal on close of water

brightening. inspection, frosts should or clouds.

pictures; in terms

brightening definite indicaEarthfor small it is this con-

be interpreted however, activity. of water

Pending

identification, The

the brightenings

be considered drawn most the from live

as possible Mariner limiting in the dry 4 and

results No If that, survive

thus reinforce that there scarcity terrestrial water

the conclusion, of water known layer condenses continued part species vapor The

observations, on Mars.

is the

serious surface,

factor

to us could near as frost search of the

Martian sites, use

environment. amount water conceivable and The According on Earth reactions ocean, matter. enough relative now sufficient whether in the densation

is a permafrost

or if the it could

of atmospheric

in favorable for regions

by evolutionary on the planet. of water views, simple the organic

adaptation,

life as we know missions of much that led

of water

on Mars past were where The water to current

will be an important on Mars chemical

to Mars biological to the

in 1971. interest. of life These into ever the had living origin Earth.

history initiated they pictorial

is a matter reactions atmosphere reactions the question Earth, which

in the reducing further raises

of the primitive were that eventually of whether then, that ever from

produced

compounds

precipitated yielded Mars the The

underwent evidence

to sustain Martian

an origin for Mars planet

of life. it can

If the proportion be estimated of water

of water Mars has

outgassed mass of CO s produced question is on Mars

to CO2 is the same in the water anything liquid state. to cover the

as for the to a depth

atmosphere, approaching

of a few meters.

this quantity

was present

75

MARINER-MARS1969

The forms rough such (refs. were restrial

existence

of cratered imply long last. An

terrains that the

and planet

the has

absence not had

of earthlike oceans of life time,

tectonic

on Mars idcas

clearly

of terrestrial only how on very long terfossils place of data, the same and based oldest taken

magnitude

for a very of how must 5-18). time,

time, ocean upper

possibly is required limit from the the during brief, of the fossils

never. on are origin the the the

However, required remains of life must

we have

much

for an origin >3.2X

an ocean 5-17 highly and

experience, evolved earlier history. that planet,

can be derived Because probably micro-organisms, While

109-yr age of the of what have

these

apparently years

at a much the Earth's

first few hundrcd on the basis of the epoch results we must occurred if Mars avoid planet.

million during

one cannot

exclude, aqueous television of life,

television

the possibility history a priori ground ideas of the

a comparably the effect of finding regarding in advance the the life

the early

so far is to diminish using these

likelihood for ideas

on Mars. possibility

However,

is to be a testing

origin

to disprove

of life on that

DATA POTENTIALITIES Computer restoration of the further new certain Some of the pictures, NE analog processing of the information ultimately whether of the the planned starting with data recovered from six

sequential playbacks several months. This ance, for raphy, although accuracy cussed and thinking and quantitative that other it is not

tapes, will be conducted over will enhance the completeness, pictures. on will There are reasonable meteorology, from relative processed the data physiography, be obtained 8-bit desired

the next appeargrounds geogpictures, are dis-

usefulness of Mars

much aspects yet

photometric

can be attained. in the following

uses of the

paragraphs.

Stereoscopy Most can of the NE pictures taken vision of the No accuracy with regions in the crater the wide-angle of three-picture conventional central-peak camera manner contain These of aerial south polar and regions areas phocap crater-

of two-picture be viewed that tography. indicate

overlap;

some contain tests using

overlap.

in stereoscopic measurements

Preliminary

frames

7N 17 and depth,

7N 19 of the of elevation

height,

rim height are possible. at this time. 76

for determinations

can be stated

TELEVISIONOBSERVATIONSFROM MARINERS 6 AND 7

Planetary

Radii correction between has been of the FE pictures of latitude optical and the should and dynamical the of the make possibly it possible to determine Because geometric amounts polar telescopic giving radii. to It the

Geometric the radius of inconsistencies figure about sistent urements a value of Mars that

of Mars

as a function

of longitude. discrepancy and

oblateness,

historically limb

troublesome; as observed have affected irradiation this cannot

18 km in the value the polar phenomenon, of the polar for the optical

for the difference darkening, may more However, geodesy may be will be of the than

equatorial the

is possible

by Mariner, earlier has, thus explain

if it is a permeastoo large flattening

systematically diameter flattening.

the large

obtained from figure for the unlikely than frames that and several

surface-feature polar flattening the actual radii because

(ref. 5-19). Although a fairly reliable obtained from the Mariner data, it is determined relatively low with pixel an accuracy greater in these resolution

kilometers the difficulty

in locating

the limb.

Cartography The large number of craters found on the Martian surface makes it feasible points, should pictures, the basic

to establish a control network that uses topographic features as control instead of surface markings based on albedo differences. This network provide which material Satellites It is hoped of the planet. frames; motion) photometric two pictures. should that The Phobos, satellite appear be. The the larger should itself have of the when moved that visible, Martian Phobos about satellites, l0 pixels this (again across depth the basic cover locations maps for compiling of the area areas. of these a new of the series of charts. planet, The NE 10 to 20 percent will constitute

for detailed

will be detected the limb the two the by its have shadow a between detectable and will of the

in two of the Mariner it should

6 FE pictures as a "defect" is not shadow

taken

was just beyond amount

has moved its shadow 5 pixels

between

If Phobos depth

will

be about

of about

10 percent.

If the photometric

can be measured accurately, satellite can be determined. eter of Mercury during

the projected area (and hence A similar method has been used transits.

the diameter) of the to measure the diam-

solar

77

MARINER-MARS1969

Photometric Studies It is expected from both spacecraft, 80 ° phase 45 ° , and that the will angles. photometric be derived. Because data function Observations obtained for each were from angles, thus for areas pictures and color, made Earth combining near can be used data to

25 °, 35 °, angle range per-

establish the absolute calibration at the smaller phase data also will be related to Earth-based observations, over which the phase function of crater wideand results is determined. slopes. possibly This mit the different the scattering. The changes near though the reciprocity morning areas these principle terminator in NE may be useful Such and pictures changes formation can be used phase be useful in testing determination filters of the Agreement to measure

the 80 ° phase doubling the should of overlap can be used for then

information

between to check

and between

and narrow-angle

validity

correct

atmospheric for diurnal

quantitatively dissipation clouds approximate local areas near

in the FE pictures.

may include to obtain

of frost the

or haze limb. even

of afternoon angles

Overlap or color-ratio

colors,

are observed pictures

at different

in each color.

Color-difference of anomalous

also may

in identifying

photometric or colorimetric behavior. Wide-angle digital Mariner 7 in late far encounter will be useful for making Comparison The wavelength Even range, able, though some the of Pictures With coefficient Radar Scattering of the Martian at a given with results Anomalies surface latitude

pictures obtained by color measurements. and Height waves Data of decimeter of longitude. at close apparavailbecome become

reflection

for radar

shows marked correlation study. pictures

variations of Mars radar of topography As more

as a function by radar height may data

few of the areas

so far observed radar and other

are visible

reflectivity valuable

ent upon

careful Mariner AND

will become

increasingly

in this connection.

SUMMARY

CONCLUSIONS new insights still concerning relatively results the Martian surface television the and and atmosphere from of versa-

Fundamental have tility been provided 6 and Mariners strategy (1) blue. 78

by the design,

unprocessed emphasize design, resolution. wavelengths

pictures

7. Several

unexpected flexibility surfaces visible has been

importance

in instrument in exploring The surface

in mission at high in all found.

use of an adaptive used, including the

planetary is clearly haze

No blue-absorbing

TELEVISIONOBSERVATIONSFROM MARINERS 6 AND 7

(2) heights (3)

Thin, of from Diurnal

patchy

aerosol

scattering at several features.

layers latitudes.

are area

present is seen

in the repeatedly

atmosphere and

at

15 to 40 km, brightening topographic

in the W-cloud

is assofor the in FE diffuse, may be

ciated with specific effect is known. (4) Darkening pictures bright small, southern crater and

No fully near

satisfactory the limb the polar

explanation is seen cap; in dark clearly these areas

of the polar in several cratered Details aysmmetries populations

cap in a band places on and

is less distinctly

visible

in one or two NE pictures. near

Localized

patches are seen low clouds. (5) Widespread hemisphere. forms.

terrain

is observed, are

especially

of the to local dark

of light/dark often appear

transitions characteristic related, craters anticipated

are often of craters as if defined are present, surface from

related

Asymmetric

markings

in many

areas; locally, these wind direction. (6) (7) Two

by a prevailing distinguished is indicated. 4 results, and two modibright, another for long been effects Crater variations by wind or both. tens of out or CO2, ruled terrains age; the active very

distinct

of primary terrain

on the basis

of size, morphology,

and age. An episodic

history Mariner

In addition

to the cratered

at least two new, distinctive topographic featureless terrains. The cratered terrain new fying streaked distinctive further known terrains processes complex exploration here. (8) recognized. (9) strong visibility suggestive drifting Snow grams Evidences of both No tectonic seem to require areas. found the present-day in these When This the

forms are seen: chaotic is indicative of extreme operation at closer and provides of especially range, the Candor

observed of Tharsis area afternoon forms

in the region character. of

may reveal phenomenon of Earth topographic the snow intensity be caused transport, or several is H20 strongly is indicated.

topographic

a fascinating

prospect

because and

brightening similar to those and

topographic

have

atmosphere/surface as affected in this area. thickness grams inferred the are

effects by local On seen. the These exchange snow is H_O

are observed control

on the south by solar

polar heating,

cap. At the cap edge,

where slopes, may

is thinnest,

is greatly of variable the snow

enhanced snow

cap itself, and material seems

or by differential here of several are that centimeter

solid/vapor if the

thicknesses per square

per square material

centimeter

respectively. for several

The possibility reasons.

79

MARINER-MARS1969

(10) northern variable (11) topographic (12) clusive, serious gests that

Variable latitudes; circumpolar Several forms, Although

atmosphere these classical primarily findings earlier regions effects patches.

and

atmosphere/surface the been the that planet. favorable polar hood

effects and

are

seen

at high diurnally

include have

bright,

features craters

successfully remnants. question

identified on Mars

with are

specific inconis a

or crater

regarding evidence are more

of life in the than

they support limiting the factor dark

scarcity

of water,

past and pictures other

present,

for life on the

Nothing for life

so far sugof Mars.

parts

REFERENCES
5-1. LEIGHTON,

R. B.; MURRAY, B. C.; IV Photography pp. 627-630.

SHARP,

R. P.;

ALLEN,

J. D.;

AND

SLOAN,

R. K.: Mariner 149, 1965, 5-2. LEIGHTON, R. K.: 5-3.

of Mars:

Initial

Results.

Science,

vol.

R. B.; MURRAY, B. C.; SHARP, R. P.; ALLEN, Mariner IV Pictures of Mars. Tech. Kept.

J. D.; AND SLOAN,
32-884, Part I, Jet

Propulsion Laboratory, 1967. LEIGHTON, R. B.; HOROWITZ, N. H.; MURRAY, B. C.; SHARP, R. P.; HERRIMAN, A. G.; YOUNG, A. T.; C. B.: Mariner 6 Television 1969, pp. 684-690. R. B.; HOROWITZ,
A. SMITH,

B. A.; First

DAVIES,

M.

E.;

AND

LEOVY,

Pictures: N. H.;
SMITH,

Report.
B. C.;

Science,
SHARP,

vol.

165,

5-4.

LEIGHTON,

MURRAY,

R. P.; HERRIAND LEOVY,

MAN, C. B.:
5-5. 5-6.
5--7.

G.; Mariner

YOUNG,

A. T.;

B. A.; First

DAVIES,

M. E.;

7 Television

Pictures:

Report.

Science,

vol.

165,

1969, pp. 787-795.
MONTGOMERY, DANIELSON,
SLIPHER,

D. G., in preparation. G. E., in preparation. Atmospheric pp. C.: An vol. Analysis 9, 1969, Phenomenon 137-140. of Martian pp. 243-299. of Craters of the the Ranger Estimated VIII and From IX the and Photoand 1966, Fine Structure Analysis Photometry and on Mars. Publ.

E. C.: An Outstanding Soc. Pacific,
J.

Astron. 5-8. 5-9.
POLLACK,

vol.
SAGAN,

49, 1937,

B.,

AND

Polarimetry. Ranger Geology graphs.

Space

Sci. Rev., Progress

TRASK, N. J.: Size and Spatial Photographs. of the Ranger Lunar VIII Tech.

Distribution From Part 32-800,

in the Analysis Two:

Surface and IX. Kept.

Experimenters'

Interpretations. pp. 252-267. 8o

Jet Propulsion

Laboratory,

TELEVISIONOBSERVATIONSFROM MARINERS 6 AND 7

5-10.

FISCHBACHER,

G. E.; Jet May W.

MARTIN,

L. J.; AND BAUM, W. A.: Martian Laboratory D. M.: contract Science, Icarus, and 951547,

Polar Lowell

Cap Ob-

Boundaries, servatory, 5-11. 5-12. 5-13. HARTMANN,

Propulsion 1969.

BELTON, M. J. s.; AND HUNTON, K.: Martian Mantles

in press. vol. 5, 1966, History Planets, on Mars. pp. 565-576. of Terres1967, Science, Dioxides pp. vol. and

Cratering. Earth

ANDERSON, D. L.; AND PHINNEY, R. A.: Early trial Planets. 113-126. of the

Thermal

Terrestrial

5-14. 5-15. 5-16.

ANDERS, E. A.; AND ARNOLD, J. R.:

Age

of Craters Behavior Influence Science,

149, 1965, pp. 1494-1496. LEmHTON, R. B.; AND MURRAY, B. C.: Other O'LEARY, mation 319. Volatiles on Mars. Science, vol. B. Y.; AND REA, D. G.: Mars: of Temporary Bright Patches.

of Carbon

153, 1966, pp. 136-144. of Topography vol. 155, 1967, on Forpp. 317-

5-17.

ENGEL, A. E.; NAGY, B.; ENGEL, C. G.; Like Lifelike Forms in Onverwacht on Earth. of South R. J.: vol. Series, Science, Africa. vol. Forms

KREMP, G.; South Africa: 161, 1968, vol. at the 156,

AND DREW, C.: AlgaOldest pp. Fossils 1967, From pp. Recognized the Early Lick 1005-1008. 508-511. of 1924.

5-18. 5-19.

SCHOPF, J. W.; Precambrian TRUMPLER, Obs. Bull.,

AND BARGHOORN, E. S.: Alga-Like Science, of Mar_ 19-45. Observations 13, 1927, pp.

Opposition

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We gratefully Aeronautics Mariner-Mars staff, vidual roles Mars experience, and were team played and respect and 1969 and effort efforts acknowledge Space Program to bring the support depends upon it requires it to a successful of individuals, and encouragement as complex base only money, especially but of the National of the indiof technical much important Marinerassemthe of

Administration. management;

An undertaking a broad not

as that

of facilities, Although staff of the

conclusion. we are the entire

by hundreds

appreciative

the support With bly, testing, Jet Propulsion
SMITH,

of H. M. SCHURMEIER and subsystem, and gratefully M. C.

1969 project. to the television flight
MONTGOMERY,

responsibility picture data acknowledge

for the design, processing the contributions

calibration, D. G.

operation, We

lay with
LANDAUER,

Laboratory.

G. M.

CLARY,

L. A. ADAMS, F. P. areas. L.

C. C. LABAW,

T. C. RINDFLEISCH,

and J. A. DUNNE in these

MALLING,

81

MARINER-MARS

1969

j.

D.

ALLEN,

and C.

R.

K.

SLOAN C. E.

made

important
R.

early
MILES,

contributions. and E.

We

are for

indebted their data G. help return.

to V.

CLARKE,

KOHLHASE,

GREENBERG the pictorial efforts

in exploiting We are

the especially

flexibility

of the

spacecraft of the broad

to maxilnize and creative

appreciative representative. contributions

of

E. DANIELSON The able pictures

as experiment collaborative with

of

J.

c. and

ROBINSON, of L. A.

in

comparing and

Mariner

Earth-based craters, are

photographs, gratefully

SODERBLOM

J. A. CUTTS,

in measuring

acknowledged.

82

CHAPTER 6

Infrared Spectroscopy
K. C. HERR AND G. C. PIMENTEL (Principal Investigator)

INSTRUMENT DESCRIPTION

T h e infrared spectrometer (fig. 6-1) carried on Mariners 6 and 7 represents an original application of variable-wedge interference filters and cooled infrared detectors to planetary missions. T h e instrument telescope has a field of view of 2"; thus, at closest approach (about 3100 km), the geographical area sampled is about 120 by 120 km. A circular variable transmission interference filter provides 0.5 to 1 percent spectral resolution. Every 12th spectrum is recorded through a polystyrene film to provide in situ frequency and photometry calibrations. are Spectra that cover a wavelength region of 1.9 to 1 4 . 3 ~ provided by two

FIGURE 6-1. - Infrared spectrometer, designed and developed at the University of California, Berkeley, especially for Mariners 6 and 7.

83

MARINER-MARS 1969

channels: continues 2, which channel

channel to obtain operates and the

l, on

which solar

operates on and reflected

on the light.

emitted dark The side

light of the other plate with lead

from

the

planet and are

and in one cooled

measurements blades

planet; channel and the low-area

channel

selenide

detector

chopper

aperture

of the

to about 165°K by radiation to space. The radiator items are supported from the rest of the instrument mounts where doped gen specially necessary germanium) gas. The radiation is selectively reflected, absorbed, designed to provide detector for the radiative is cooled instrument. isolation. to about Interior The

other cooled contact ball goldplated (mercuryand hydroand

surfaces

are

long-wavelength nitrogen

20 ° K using and

emitted The

by the trace spectral

bulk constituents of the atmosphere and surface represent signatures of various molecules. INFRARED ABSORPTIONS Results A spectrum, is shown in figure typical 6-2. of those Most recorded

materials.

features

NEAR 3#, RECORDED OVER THE POLAR CAP

at latitudes features

near are

the Martian provided

equator, the

of the

spectral

by COo,

CO.

GAS

CO 2 GAS

CO 2 GAS

CO 2 GAS

CO

GAS

1.88

- 3.68_

X CHANNEL 2

2.99

- 6.00/_

FmURE 6-2.--Near-infrared spectrum recorded at 0 ° N latitude, 359 ° E longitude.

84

INFRARED

SPECTROSCOPY

predominant absorption hydrates. spike,

atmospheric to the 3250 of the near Part

constituent. P and cm -1 attributable

Also

visible

are H20

two or,

features and perhaps, at 2980 resolution planet The

near

2150

cm -t attributable

R branches is recorded 3t, overlap

of carbon twice region, on either absorption spectral

monoxide

a broad to surface

to solid

3t_ region of the

side of the radiometer cm-L In the is slightly on August instrument During this

as shown

by the instrumental recording

background

low-frequency higher.

The infrared spectrometer on Mariner 5 at 04:48:54 G.m.t? at 20 ° N latitude and field of view swept south to 13 ° S latitude

7 first viewed the 345 ° E longitude. and any evidence was

5 ° E longitude.

period, 18 spectra were recorded; none showed absorptions between 2900 and 3100 cm -t. At of the scan 04:51:41 polar-cap track passed G.m.t., edge. onto and that brightness CO2 absorption the Figure the Mariner 6-3 7 scan

of atmospheric so that the

platform and

pointed

spectrometer

viewed

an area

at 45 ° S latitude shows cap, polar moving (04:54:51

315 ° E longitude, of spectra the Martian

15 ° north as the pole. cap. more (The feato seem spectral structure south

a sampling toward

recorded

At 62 ° S latitude changes Near indicated 2.7m the

330 ° E longitude the spectrometer increased

G.m.t.),

two distinctive the triplet

field of view was looking by 60 percent; the peak X and at 2.0m intensity

at the polar

of the gaseous than doubled.

was lost, and

of the feature recorded. spike.) intensities 341° almost were These

In this spectrum, X feature tures grow is recorded reaching and are recorded together, G.m.t.) platform to that cap.

two new absorptions, twice on either of the subsequent a maximum then slued steadily back not near (04:58:11 to northerly the

Y, are clearly radiometer Their and

side of the

in each

18 spectra. 68 ° S latitude

E longitude indiscernible again edge

(04:56:05 as the of the scan polar

decreasing,

becoming They would latitudes view

at 78 ° S latitude, corresponding

20 ° E longitude at which were

G.m.t.).

detected the

at a time

approximately recorded Y absorpover the

spectrometer detected

pass over 120 spectra

They

in any

of the

at latitudes more northerly than the polar cap edge. Plainly, the X and tions are geographically concentrated near 68 ° S latitude and localized

1All times are G.m.t. times, latitudes, and

data receipt are

times, based

5 rain and 32 sec later upon postencounter

than these

the data latitudes

were recorded made and longitudes

on Mars. All on Aug. 8, are subject

longitudes

JPL

Pegasus

calculations

1969. Because Mariner 7 experienced to change as postencounter tracking

a preencounter orbit anomaly, refines the actual orbit.

85

MARINER-MARS

1969

:::......:. • : !_. i • :.

------_ .........

BEFORE POLAR CAP: 49°S, 313"E ON POLAR CAP: 68eS, 341°E NEAR SOUTH POLE: 80°S, 58°E

FmuRE trum

6-3.--Near-infrared recorded over the cap.

specsouth-

ern polar

_." :"

• '. . _,,...,.,_.,...;,'/

dr....: •

i,
1.88 - 3.68 p. ), CHANNEL 2 2.99 - 6.00_

polar-cap was nearly region

edge,

61 o to 80 ° S. The

Martian There

polar-cap was and

edge

at the date of either viewed polystyrene

of encounter absorpan equatorial calibration film A interpolation 3027 cm-k extrapolation, upon before laboralaunch.

60 ° to 61 ° S latitude. 13 ° and frequency prelaunch

no trace between this

of these

tions in any of the 150 spectra between An initial spectrum. From

recorded

for Mariner is provided spectra,

6, which by the

16 ° N latitude, measurement laboratory

280 ° and particular

95 ° E longitude. polystyrene

has absorption features centered at 2940 and 3050 cm -1. Linear gives two independent measurements of the X frequency, 3020 and less accurate 3294 cm-L The tory
86

estimate accurate spectra

of the X and recorded

Y frequency Y frequency by the

can

be

obtained

by is based

most

determination

reference

Mariner

7 spectrometer

INFRARED

SPECTROSCOPY

FIGURE

6--4.-

Calibration spectrum and ammonia. of

with

the

laboratory methane

gaseous

t
rl 1 I Z II II

I I I I I I I J I I I X Y

p*V CH 4 , NH 3

I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

POLAR CAP ..... LABORATORy CH 4 AND NH 3

I 1.88 - 3.68/J. X CHANNEL 2 2.99 - 6.00,_

Figure containing

6-4

shows about

the The

superposition each Q-branch the

of a laboratory of methane and of the left at at

spectrum ammonia,

of a gas pressure methane spectra the

sample at the the Y

0.2 m-atm

broadened v3 band within Q-branch 30 cm -1, to

by 1 atm 3020.3 possible frequency frequency.

of air. accuracy, of the The with

frequency

laboratory and right

cm -a matches

X frequency is estimated ammonia at half

in both vl band

which laboratory bandwidths

-+-15 cm -1. are estimated of 24 cm -1.

Similarly, to be about

3336.7

cm -1 matches

height

be compared Discussion The close

an expected

resolution

identification match

of these to bands

features

is of particular and ammonia,

interest

because that

of the may
87

frequency

of methane

molecules

MARINER-MARS1969

have

biological of solid The (1)

origin. intensities

These

bands reasons.

were Y features of optical

not

associated

initially

with

the with near at

spectrum each other, 4900 3020 spectra (3) of solid ventional (4)

CO2 for many the intensity the been

of the X and ratio

neither intense density

correlate solid at 4900

uniformly

nor with For

of the rather

CO2 absorption spectra.

cm -1.

example, by as much had were before previously

cm -1 to that frequencies

cm -1 varies reported

as a factor attributed (refs. detected launch 6-1

of 2, sometimes to solid and 6-2). frequencies the Mariner

in successive

(2) No features No features CO 2 recorded infrared These

CO2 at these

in the spectra con-

at these with

in the laboratory instruments the cap

or with Mariner

spectrometers. features became quite was still indistinct viewing to prove recorded performed the that near during polar these 7 scan 79 ° and not be between could are

period while the spectrometer 80 ° S latitudes. Nevertheless, due two to solid types dominated we felt

it necessary the spectra were obviously

features CO..

CO2, since by spectral

68 ° S latitude to solid

so heavily

features studies

attributable

Accordingly,

of laboratory

to test this

possibility.

A flight-model spectrometer in an evacuated environmental spectrometer filled the field was cooled this plate periodically tric could tion ring sample, absorption features thickest less than ventional CO2 salt window the telescope of view. viewed The

identical chamber at normal steel carbon plate,

to that of Mariners 6 and 7 was placed with wall temperatures of 77 ° K. The incidence which The to about path and has a stainless-steel an emissivity of the the plate of 0.3 at solid by center was that 3t,, then of the upon

to 77 ° K. Gaseous at a rate recorded of tungsten angle spectrum that of 0.7-mm in the filaments between recorded correspond CH4 or NH3 spectra cell (ref. 6-3) the

dioxide

(Matheson) spectrum under the 6-5

was condensed

thickness/hr. 2 to 4t, region heated optical with to the

illumination direction shows near are

a concen-

2800 ° K. At

of illumination a typical reflectionAbsorpin the showed a conGaseous iodide vs a Au-Co

be selected

to be 73 °, 55 °, or 33 °. Figure a sample X and analysis solid

thickness Y features

2 to 3 ram. clearly dioxide recorded onto visible used using

samples. 10 ppm cold

A mass spectrometric impurity. of thick and (The

of the carbon were

Transmission (Matheson) held

CO2 samples IR-7 was of 0.005

a Beckman temperature

spectrophotometer. mole/hr a cesium with measured

was deposited at 77 ° K.

at a rate

88

m

INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

FIGURE 6-5. -- Near-infrared tion-absorption trum of solid

reflec-

laboratory specCOz (77 ° K).

Y

1.88

- 3.68/_

X. CHANNEL 2

2.99 - 6.00/_

Cu

thermocouple with

embedded a solid sample, near

in the

window.)

The A distinct

transmission absorption though could study, diffuse After was spectrum the

spectrum at 3013 not distinct. be attributed conducted the and the sample solid

was cm -1 This to with was was

recorded same

1.5 mm thick. at 1305

was observed; sample methane warmed weaker; warmed halved. peratures suspended

absorption displayed CH,

3350 cm -I was discernible, cm -1 that laboratory more CO2. In a separate in solid of CH4 of the COs methane

no absorption was trapped spectrum most recooled that

suspended

in solid

Y. M. Huang, plainly, The

at 20 ° K. When remained. methane in solid from

to 77 ° K, the however, shows to 100 ° K, and study in solid as high

became

somewhat

to 77 ° K, the that, near 3020

approximately at temof methane absorption.

methane

can be trapped distinguishable

CO2 even Mars

as 100 ° K, and

cm -1, the

CO2 is not readily

89

MARINER-MARS 1969

At been among CO2. quencies. calculated harmonic

first

consideration, earlier. there transitions 3016

it seems Herzberg observed are and

surprising (ref. in the 6-4), infrared transitions

that for and

these example,

absorptions does not to first spectra

have list these

not them freis

reported Nevertheless, The

the 43 transitions

Raman

of gaseous (1, 3, 0) are transition oscillatorlisted numbers sites of of does factor band-Despite by

possible 3320

corresponding (0, 0, 0) ---+ The and is the of both

(0, 0, 0) ---+ (as a binary The

(0, 1, 1) and combination) transition Among odd changes

to be near

cm -1, respectively. second

oscillator-forbidden (g +--t---_ g). (as a quaternary there are none that

it is also selection

rule-forbidden forbidden Herzberg, v..,and

harmonic quantum occupy

combination). involve

43 transitions

v3 as required Solid CO,, has C3_ with

for the 3016-cm crystal symmetry four molecules _a (symmetry facts are

-1 transition. Th, and the per unit cell either X,,+) gives

CO_. molecules (ref. 6-1). site The group of syxnmetry the absence

symmetry not group lead

combination IIg that or the of the

".2 (symmetry analysis.

II,,) and These there

a state in the

to an infrared-active explain its appearance. is an analog

component sufficient

to explain of solid

we must

Perhaps

in the spectrum

oxygen

(ref. 6-5).

a completely forbidden selection rule for this homonuclear the fundamental transition at 1549 cm -1 can be observed comparable bidden about dence strongly deliberately observed transition impurity the same 3020 cm-L the spectruln likely. spectra, should but band four indicates to those times used here. In the case of oxygen, upon deposition because of the evidence is due because faults, frequency but 3300 applicable the more band deposition is carried of lattice through that suggests of lattice or grain to the the is sensitively more that added of solid explanation The of gaseous dependent if the appears The

diatomic molecule, in very thick samples intensity out of the forconditions; imperfections, inert-gas the (0, 0, 0) _ We spectral 3013-cm it becomes a thesis impurities -* band (0, 1, 1) sites, that at with more it, too, believe feature seems that

intense

at 4 ° K. All evi-

the feature (ref. 6-6).

supported

by enhancement spectra stacking is probably and near methane,

in the laboratory sites, vacancies, appearance the band

to the forbidden

CO_., appearing

imperfections boundaries). Martian

(surface

of the feature mundane spectra

are also consistent explanation to obtain suggests

Although

cm -1 was difficult

in transmission

its presence be attributed

in the reflection-absorption to solid CO=.

No methane absorption this does not constitute

was observed at 1305 cm -_ in the Martian spectra, sufficient evidence to eliminate the methane inter-

90

INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

pretation. difference and the the approaches ground weaker

Spectra between gaseous zero could the half twice). remains 3300-, the than

recorded the absorber. as these not as great the and 3020-cm

in this spectral surface, provides This

region which

depend furnishes each

upon the

the

temperature source, which near is the factor,

planetary

spectral Thus,

a thermal approach our light

attenuation other. the and 1305-cm the

temperatures -1 band (because need (under

a gas -1 feature path through

be observed

at all. Furthermore, resolution), at 3020 the solar the

length

is less than atmosphere There the must Several shrouded the both the ever, more 10-sec 3020-, Furthermore,

cm -1 passes correlation

to explain -1 bands, of these polar cap

lack of intensity at the pole The as the and record. in the been at the more

between CO2. COt be at latitudes could clears explain during howthe COs differ or near solid must

4900-cm if the are latitudes as cloud

if all are features the near

to be attributed is attributed polar-cap spectra This could a cloud If

to solid to solid edge suggest, would vary should, the

disappearance under and

southerly

be rationalized possibilities by a solid southerly period edge, is on from layer, different

investigation. (or fog), more which, easterly

CO 2 cloud

longitudes. coverage Such reported.

discrepancies, be detectable the

height, poorer that then size,

thickness, a spectral definition has not

needed through

to obtain

television polar-cap differ

picture edge (such

polar-cap observed significantly ness that of the through

an observation ground, that nearer particle growth polar

its spectruin Whether is now the inclusion

the pole.

it could of impurities study.

because

of thick-

as water), be significant

conditions,

under

It could near

the southern

cap may recede

only to latitudes

80 ° S.

Conclusion It is clear the Martian two 3t_ features. that continuing spectra, studies, will help despite directed to resolve questions at laboratory the that proper remain reproductions assignment that for they further of of the are due con-

polar-cap

For this preliminary be preferred,

report,

the interpretation

to solid CO2 must sideration.

EVIDENCE FOR SOLID CARBON DIOXIDE In both as the planet. field There missions, of view were the infrared passed three through opportunities;

IN THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE recorded on spectra the in the 4t_ region limb of the was recorded
91

spectrometer the in each,

atmosphere

bright spike

a reflection

MARINER-MARS

1969

at 2360±15 cm -1, the center of the "3 carbon dioxide absorption band. No such reflection was observed in either of two dark-limb crossings. The three brightlimb limb) tory observations 6 limb and are crossing shown and in figure adds the of to the spike 6-6° Figure 6-7 again shows 6-8 field With is due the second (off the a laboraof a index Mariner spectrum recorded 20 sec earlier shows solid the CO2

that recorded at 77 ° K on spectrometer a few microns,

10 sec later spectrum

(over

the planet). 15_ of annealed plate that

Figure filled

reflection-absorption

(Matheson) of view to the thicknesses

condensed flight-model exceeding

a stainless-steel identical a reflection

Mariner

instruments. which

is observed

BRIGHT

LIMB

REFLECTION OF SOLID CO 2 IN

SPECTRUM THE UPPER

ATMOSPHERE

t
m Z

FIGURE

6-6.-

Near-infrared through on the tile bright

spectra Martian limb.

recorded atmosphere

92

INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

of refraction transmission They and have 6-8).

variation spikes been are

through observed for

the in

4.3t_ absorption transmission for solid

band spectra carbon

of CO2. of monoxide

Analogous solids. (refs. 6-7

molecular

observed,

example,

MARINER SECOND

7 BRIGHT LIMB CROSSING I I I I I

,',.,
% % t ! k sA I I I I J I II II II | ! I I | I I

he
If II

I FIRST SPECTRUM ON THE PLANET

I
.,'_ ¢

I ! I I

I

J

I
I I I

._v.._....Z

.:.o.- ....... OFF THE LIMB q,.ts/.s.ss*o_.,. °° .,.°°

.....!1

SOLID C02

_

/

FIGURE 6-7.Near-infrared spectra recorded just before and after the bright-limb crossing.

I 1.88 - 3.68/, CHANNEL 2 2.99 - 6.00/_

93

MARINER-MARS

1969

FIGURE 6-8. -- Laboratory
CO 2 REFLECTION 4.24/_ SPIKE

infrared of

reflection-absorption solid carbon dioxide.

spectrum

I

t
Z

I II I!

'

I

LABORATORY IS_

REFLECTION

SPECTRUM,

SOLID CO 2 SPECTRUM

.....

BACKGROUND

I .U

-_ 3.68/_

X CHANNEL 2

2.99

- 6.00/_

It is clear that the reflection spikes displayed in figure 6-6 are highly characteristic and attributable to solid CO2. They are not due to solid CO_ on the planetary surface viewed with stray light from outside the spectrometer's principal field of view. Local surface temperatures at these latitudes exceed 250 ° K, much too high to permit condensation on the surface. Reflection at 2360 cm -1 from the surface would not be observed because the atmosphere is opaque at this frequency. The reflection must be associated with solid CO2 at such high altitudes that the atmosphere is no longer optically thick.
94

INFRARED

SPECTROSCOPY

Table

6-1.--Conditions

under Mariner July 31 05:19:07

which 6

reflection

at

2360 7

cm -1

was

observed Mariner 7

Parameter Date, G.m.t. Latitude, Longitude, Local time Surface Slant 1969

Mariner August 04:43:23 22 ° N 343 ° E Late morning 250 9830 17 5

August 04:54:55 3° S 355 ° E Noon _275 6500 I1

5

deg deg OK

2.5 ° s 300 ° E Noon 8180 km 11

temperature, range, km

Aperture

width,

Trajectory terpret which and second reflection these the limb center

calculations observations. of the of this point, crossing observation of the optical that The

_ provide Table field and and path 6-I of view

geometrical lists passes the closest width

parameters slant range to the

that to the planet,

help point the

to inabove latitude For the the

longitude spike

the aperture 7, it is possible the limb

at this slant the 5.5-+-1.5

range.

of Mariner

to deduce

time

between corresponds

crossing, approach

sec. This

to an altitude of the ture height

at closest

of 25-*-7 km. over the closest upon approach of the an assumed with point temperascale solid an indication based

If it is assumed field of view, at this altitude. of 8 km, There edge ships are other 84-91) these

this reflection value

originates of CO S gives

the condensation

of Th so derived, absorptions that

is 130 ° K. infrared -- solid and also may be connected at 3t_ observed near 12t_. The over possible CO2 absorptions absorptions under study. are the polar-cap relation-

CO2 in the atmosphere (see pp. among

dark-limb

observations

FURTHER INTERPRETATIONS Literature (1) (2) cap. Further following ently (3) Solid suspended face composition
These 6, and were for inferred trajectory Mariner from

reports

now along along work

in preparation the the track track, of the

will field

include of view. that near final on

the

following

results:

Topography Temperature laboratory observations: silica will

including

the edge

of the polar of the apparto sur-

is in progress material

to permit

interpretation limb, relative

or silicate

was detected and

the bright

in the

atmosphere. be considered.
are based Because AU upon

Its identity

significance

calculations the spectra

postencounter are G.m.t.

JPL at the

Pegasus moment

calculations orbit

made

for

Mariner altitudes

7 on Aug.

8, 1969.

Mariner times

7 experienced

a preencounter

anomaly,

themselves.

of observation

at Mars.

95

MARINER-MARS1969

(4) CO2, CO, (5)

Curves and Curves

of growth H20 in the of growth atmospheric

will permit atmosphere. will establish

determination new not upper observed.

of the limits

absolute for the

amount several

of pos-

sible polyatomic REFERENCES 6-1. OSBrRa, and 6-2. 6-3.

constituents

W. E.; AND HORNIN6, Complex Ions

D. F.: The

Vibrational Dioxide. N20

Spectra

of Molecules Phys., vol.

in Crystals.

VI. Carbon in CO2 and

J. Chcm. Crystals.

20, 1952, pp. 1345-1347. DoT, D. A.: Torsional Vibrations

Spectrochim. Mole-

Acta, vol. 13, 1959, pp. 308-310. BECKER, E. D.; AND PIMrNTEL, G. C.: Stereoscopic cules by the Matrix 224-228. Isolation Method. J. Chem.

Studies Phys.,

of Reactive

vol. 25, 1956, pp. Molecules. of Solid Oxygen. D. Van _- and Ph.D. Car/3-

6-4. 6-5. 6-6. 6-7. 6-8.

HERZBERC, G.: Infrared Nostrand Co., Inc., CAIRNS, B. R.; Oxygen. CAmNS, Thesis, bon B. R.: Univ. J. Chem.

and Raman 1945. Phys.,

Spectra

Polyatomic Spectra of Solid

AND PIMENTV_I_, G. C.: Infrared Spectroscopic Berkeley,

Infrared Studies 1964. Infrared

vol. 43, 1965, pp. 3432-3438.

of California, J. Chem.

EWING, G. E.; ANt) PIMENTr.L, Monoxide.

G. C.: The

Spectrum pp. 925-930.

of Solid Temperatures.

Phys.,

vol. 35, 1961,

EWIN6, G. E.: Spectroscopic Studies Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of California,

of Substances at Low Berkeley, 1960.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We acknowledge infrared endurance ment and when a threat Shop express spectrometers of the JPL to the and our the generous used project Mariner the Space contributions indebtedness throughout the on support Mariners their cause We by NASA 6 and courage of the thank for the development acknowledge activated flight Shop by P. our as they the of the also the instru-

7. We

staff and to be the 7 mission. Sciences to the to the project.

it was considered

spacecraft's Chemistry Electronic

anomalies Department at Berkeley We espeB. FORNE',',

Machine for their cially

Laboratory fabrication Berkeley

enormous

of this instrument. group, and led

J. L. HUGHES, D. A. WATSON, R. H. WEITZMANN,
dedicated efforts

M. A. CARLSON, for their

96

CHAPTER

7

Ultraviolet

Spectroscopy

C. A. BARTH (Principal Investigator), W. G. FASTIE, C. W. HORD, J. B. PEARCE, K. K. KELLY, A. I. STEWART, G. E./THOMAS, G. P. ANDERSON, AND 0. F. RAPER

The emissions obtained rable

ultraviolet from at and the

spectrometer sunlit the 130-kin

on

Mariners above in the

6 and the Martian The

7 was designed of Mars. atmosphere, rocket was

to measure The spectra, are compatechniques spectra result of the

atmosphere level

limb

above region

in quality

to the best spectra of the Earth's probing design,

obtained atmosphere. distances which

by using of about

sounding success 7500 km

in this altitude

in obtaining

of in situ quality from three essential factors: (1) upper light The instrument

utilized to the bright capability

a telescope of about telescope baffling disk upper of the

to give a field of view one scale height This was in the off-axis was 105 times on design, which effective

of 0.23 ° by 2.3 ° to provide atmosphere rejection as the was of Mars. achieved

altitude by being an the

resolution extensive

In addition against

arrangement. atmosphere. instrument pointing

necessary as bright the

to discriminate emissions This sophisticated

of Mars,

measured capability

in the was used

(2) The spacecraft.

pointing

platform directions

pointing

to choose

that would cause alined tangentially field of view (3) pointing twice The down

the projected to the limb through that allowed of this the

ultraviolet of Mars layers

spectrometer as the spacecraft Martian Teams

field of view to be motion swept this in choosing a platform to be probed are for in

of the

atmosphere. atmosphere

concurrence spacecraft.

of the other

Investigator

strategy

this region

of the upper report, the results of ultraviolet detailed and

on each

In this chapter described; data analysis in nature, the upper described knowledge

preliminary rationale The

ultraviolet and are analyses

spectrometers the techniques spectroscopic occurring the

the experiment are explained. representing atmosphere here the

for the preliminary

spectrometer

primarily emissions using depend

identification The more the results geometries

of Mars.

techniques of the 97

are in process;

of these analyses

not only on the properties

of the measurement

the photometric

MARINER-MARS 1969

instrument, will provide

but also on the proper cross sections the altitude distributions amounts

assignment

of the solar The that

excitation

mechanism above been 130 km present

and the associated

of the molecules. of constituents

results could

of this final analysis have

of the observed

constituents

and upper limits on the but were not detected. INSTRUMENT The

DESCRIPTION used a baffling is an Ebert system scanning spectrometer of stray with light. an occulting The optical The is a

instrument and

slit telescope

for the elimination

layout and physical configuration short-wavelength detector (1100 photomultiplier window. The channel, window. sary gain applied

of the instrument are shown in figure 7-1. to 2150 _), referred to as the G-channel, _),

tube with a cesium iodide photocathode long-wavelength detector (1900 to 4300

and a lithium fluoride referred to as the N-

is a photomultiplier tube The electronics are linear low-intensity The N-tube. gain airglow change on the N-channel

with a bialkali photocathode and a sapphire for both channels. The dynamic range necesmeasurements is achieved is accolnplished as well by having by as high-intensity the high bright voltage planet-sensor-induced

to make changes. to the

disk observations

varying

DIFFRACTION GRATING INTO A SPECTRUM

- DISPERSES ULTRAVIOLET

LIGHT

PERISCOPE (EBERT) MIRROR EXIT SLITS / U

DETECTOR

ELECTRONICS

I

ULTRAVIOLET PRIMARy _ TELESCOPE MIRROR ENTRANCE OCCULTING SLIT SLIT ELIMINATES AND DEFINES STRAY LIGHT FIELD OF VIEW _y ELITELESCOP E MIRROR IMINATES SHADE STRAY LIGHT EMITTED

LIGHT

BY GASES

IN UPPER ATMOSPHERE OF MARS

FIGURE 7--1.--Optical

layout

and physical configuration of the used on Mariners 6 and 7.

ultraviolet

spectrometer

98

ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY

The and gives violet alpha enters primary mirror, light

Mariner ultraviolet 0oectrometer a spectrum with 20-A resolution. the design to utilize of the electronics a lower data-rate a long, light

scanned its range with a 3-sec period, In addition to taking complete ultrasubsystem mode. before baffled light through provides This sampling allows mode. strikes at 1216 LymanLight capability and

spectra, data the

(Lyman-alpha)

to be taken instrument focuses

for the time period through The the it, in turn, pre-slit

the near-encounter shade a pre-slit

a 250-mm The

telescope which baffling

mirror. and

is focused are used

onto a secondary of off-axis

on the

entrance

slit of the

spectrometer.

shade

to minimize

the amount

light reaching the spectrometer the planet. After the light enters ror collimates grating The it onto the diffraction the light exit The driven exit is focused onto

while the instrument is viewing the limb of the spectrometer, the first half of the Ebert mirgrafting. slits by tube. grating the the The inner diffracted half exit light of the slit and onto with The for is scanned the the that Ebert directly second back and unit leaves the second mirror. strikes goes photofluoride forth conlight

short-wavelength the outer tube. system reflectivity

goes through

the short-wavelength through multiplier for higher by a cam tains tubes and

photomultiplier mirrors in the supplies supply and

After are

the long-wavelength magnesium electronics

slit, it is reflected ultraviolet. and for the low-current grating

by two mirrors coated grating bellows. amplifiers drive system. The

by a motor

in a sealed

high-voltage a power

photomultiplier

EXPERIMENT RATIONALE AND ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE The ultraviolet spectrometer on of 1100 to 4300 _. The spectral way, to characterize to light upper up Earth's atmosphere the atmosphere Mariners features the Martian or glow show in the that 6 and 7 obtained in this wavelength atmosphere. ultraviolet. the emission Solar spectra interval Similar spectral atmospheric the Martian limb in the help,

range

in a quantitative causes ments in the

illumination measurefeatures species. atmosaltitudes is shown emission

are quite specific The instrument's phere from feature toward about gives 7-2.

and provide unique identification of most projected field of view swept down through limb, giving with spectra altitude characteristic of the causing of the intensity A typical spectrum

the bright The

of the various Martian of a given the emission.

25 000 km down. variation the altitude of the number

in figure

distribution

of the species

allows

Knowledge absolute

cross section and solar flux for the particular emission densities to be determined. After the field of view of the 99

MARINER-MARS

1969

I

I

I

I

o

i

CO_

,_2 n-x2

I1

__

_;

_

c;_;

o"

o

I

I

I

I

11

I

I

o,_

_o ¢

I
2O00

I
40W

2_,oo

30o0
WAVELENGTH, ._

3500

FIGURE 7-2. -- Typical

spectrum

of the Martian

limb.

instrument obtained was increased

had

crossed again to

onto gain make

the

bright until the

disk

of

Mars, was

ultraviolet approached. the 1000 dark on

spectra The side above is shown of

were gain the the in

at a reduced

level

terminator measurements

sensitive field typical of

terminator dark limb

until of the

the

projected A

view

was of the

about

km disk

planet.

spectrum

Martian

1O0

ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY

figure

7-3.

The

ultraviolet

spectrometer depth

probes

an atmosphere particular

down wavelength and

to the that physics the the The sensi-

altitude where unit optical gives rise to the excitation. The of the atmospheric The central Mariner tivity field of the basic analysis atmosphere layer response instrument instrument is viewed function upper

is reached

at the

technique involves

for understanding the bright instead spectrometer effective baffling a factor limb

the constitution or flyby must fall geometry, rapidly reduces

where outside the

edgewise of the for than

of vertically. off-axis light discrimination. that The

of view

to allow by more

has an effective

arrangement falls off ahnost of photons quantity emission rate along

of 10 s at 1° off axis.

slit funcoutside unit volthe The

tion of the Mariner ultraviolet its central field of view. Volume ume that in unit is observed theoretical emission time, discussion is the rate is the

spectrometer R, i.e., the number

exponentially given rate the off per R, line the

primary

physical on the emission

of interest.

Although of sight.

is centered integral

volume

quantity

of the

5

I

I

I

I

4 "7

-7
"7

m

;12

V

0 2000 2500 3000 WAVELENGTH, ._. 3500 4OO0

FIGURE 7--3. -- Typical spectrum

of the Martian disk. 101

MARINER-MARS1969

column emission

emission rate

rate

4=J following

in photons integration:

cm -2 sec -1 is related

to

the

volume

by the

4=J where sion ds is the increment rate is proportional rate factor g: of length to the

=f'n(r)

ds of view. The column emisthrough

in the direction density

volume

of atoms

or molecules

the emission

4=_ = The volume density in planetary while column density density atmosphere of atoms

n(r)

ds may be a function of only the planemay be related function:

tocentric direction

distance, s. The

the line of sight

of the observation in the direction using

may be in a different of view Rhijn

to the vertical

column

by an integration

the Van

f
where where x is the angle between

n(r)

ds

:I

n(r)

V(x, r) dr

the direction

of observation

and

the

planet

vertical,

and r 0 is the planetocentric distance of the point of observation. column density in the direction of view to the vertical column as the Chapman n(r). function, The Ch(×), column density by which emission is a function rate along of × and the direction distribution, is related

The ratio of the density is defined the atom density of observation

to the volume

4=_q=gCh(x

ti"
n(r) of atoms (% _-H

dr

=gN0eh(x) where N is the vertical column density or molecules. by cos 2 ×)_ For an isothermal

atmosphere,

the Chapman

function ('rro_ \2 H/ '/* exp

is approximated

Ch(×,

r0/H)=

cos 2 ×)(%erfc

_

102

ULTRAVIOLET

SPECTROSCOPY

where equation

erfc

(x) is the to use with

complementary observations the instrument's to use is twice

error of the

function. illuminated

This

is the

appropriate For the

planetary

disk.

limb observations, where the appropriate function

field of view is outside the value of the Chapman

the atmosphere, function at

•- T 0 I/2

In an extended planetary exosphere, proximated by a power law

the

atom

density

distribution

may

be ap-

For

observations is related

made

from

outside density

the

exosphere,

the

observed equation

column

emis-

sion rate

to the

atom

by the use of the

2( )1J2
4,_J =gn(ro)r o _-_)

where

F (x) is the complete

gamma

function.

PRELIMINARY RESULTS Initial analyses indicate the presence the from Martian the The vapor emission surface. origin in the hydrogen of the Mariner of a hydrogen This associated Martian is the with 6 and 7 ultraviolet atmospheric emissions corona extending to about 25 000 km above altitude Mars at which the Lyman-alpha with the signal galactic km, of the the inbecomes is presumed Below The is visible. comparable to be the an altitude small

intensity. of H20 1304-_ tensity amount bution exosphere upon these radiative

of this hydrogen oxygen

photodissociation of 300

atmosphere.

of atomic

magnitude

indicates that, compared with of atomic oxygen is present. of the upper the atmospheric that value that final to be less than data, transfer solution of the includes

the upper atmosphere Preliminary analyses show the Earth's by more than

of Earth, a very small of the altitude distriof the Martian of 2. Based a involves a factor

emissions for the

temperature

temperature

of the exosphere

the effects of multiple scattering. o Observed emissions in the 1900- to 4300-A wavelength range are associated with ionized carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. These emissions are the FoxDuffendack-Barker bands, the prominent ionized CO 2 spectral peak at 2890 A, 103

MARINER-MARS

1969

and the The range

the Cameron upper When scale height the

bands.

The of Mars spectral

altitude

variations

of these

emissions peak

indicate 23 km.

that

atmosphere Mariner

is dominated COo - above data spectral is that to both in the Earth's of Mars nitrogen. cannot gamma are make bands also of Mars data

by CO2 with in the taken 1900in the spectral

a CO2 + ionosphere. is about © to 4300-A Earth's feature, with range. features of these wavelength upper the the atmos2972-_ excep-

of the neutral with

the ionospheric

are compared the most oxygen, have the and

similar observation

phere,

striking

only one upper are

line of atomic tion of helium, missing molecular, from

is common spectroscopic atmosphere molecular nitrogen The atmosphere,

planets.

This

is particularly

significant Notably of atomic, emissions

as all of the major

constituents upper ionized

atmosphere,

signatures

in this wavelength the emission The absence

indicates that total Martian features in the

molecular atmosphere. Earth's

up as much as 1 percent of the of nitric oxide, strong emission absent from the spectra of Mars.

104

CHAPTER

8

Infrared
G. H. NEUGEBAUER HATZENBELER,

adiometry
(Principal
E. MINER,

Investigator),
AND D.

G.

MIJNcH,

S.

C.

CHASE,

JR.,

SCHOFIELD

The cifically of the 8-2

infrared designed

radiometer to measure of Mars. The

(ref.

8-1)

carried emitted

on Mariners in two broad

6 and

7 was spebands of (refs. teletrain to incident platform

the energy instrument with consisted bimetallic a rotatable Once

wavelength camera refracting The optical the

spectrum 8-3). each into

was mounted the narrow-angle of two thermopile plane each mirror reference the 2.5-cm that

on the scan television (1-in.) reflected for absolute mirror whose 90°;

the spacecraft and scopes, of the energy

and The with the

was boresighted radiometer included an uncooled

detector.

radiometer space,

detector The

telescopes.

63 sec, the mirror

was rotated radiometric observations position,

view empty measurements. were the made instrument The range, nel

thus providing planet

a zero energy intervals. each

was viewed the thermal

by rotating In a third 63 sec. of energy range

for 56.7 sec at 2.1-sec measured had the The into (18 1024 directly radiometer were by a thermistor

orthogonal

mirror

of a plate,

temperature To cover

was this Chanlower and by and was atmos-

monitored there

a dynamic channels,

120 ° to 330 ° K. in atmospheric range; channel noise filters from mode, near of the during mode are have range detector was linear

two spectral upper levels. output over

located

windows. 2, the in energy

1 emphasized

temperatures In practice, The defined by

of this the

temperatures. was digitized the size of the 2 channel

this temperature passbands

was dominated 1 (8.5 to 12.4_) to exclude the when surface the than during

digitization absorption; obtained exceeding were tests, the measured

steps.

of channel radiation

to 25t_) were

interference

pheric gaseous measured. Data were

consequently, both in the by stray as that brightness

far-encounter and during light

spacecraft Although anticipated flight re8-1

was at distances the radiometers from mained and 8-2; laboratory essentially Energies

100 000 radiometric

km,

encounter. units shown been

affected the same

to an extent

greater

sensitivity established temperatures

laboratory

calibrations. in figures assuming 105

in the

near-encounter

the corresponding

derived

MARINER-MARS

1969

SOLARANGLE, deg -30 300 0 30 60 90 120 150 3OO

28O

28O

26O

24O

220

200

2OO

10

12

14

16 LOCAL TIME, hr

18

20

22

l:lt;l_l_E

8--1.-

Tcmpcralt,res during near because tracks

measured encounter of by the the

in

channel curves

1 (8.5

to 12.4/,)

of

the

Mariner time.

6 infrared The latitudes The curve (in dashed inertias local times

radiometer is not deg) and

(solid various center curves

I, as a function slues. field

of local Planetocentric are solids of

continuous along dotted the lines units) to

platform of of the

swept

of view

indicated. with

represent and the

cooling albedos A

homogeneous for a latitude

thermal

(kp:') ''_ (cgs corresponding

as indicated,

--10 ° and

observed

points.

unit been and 8-2).

emissivity placed The to the scale track As shown south, when

of the of the

planet's that

surface. relate

In this preliminary temperature over the over the to sweep but the not on, slowly; boundary As the of the variations

report, surface. the south cap. polar

emphasis polar cap the the over

has cap (ref. the track temthe

on the data of Mariner

to the

southern polar As cap, swept

temperature 8-1, the near,

7 was chosen

in figure the

temperature decreased

decreased polar

to 225 ° K when around

platform continued latitude, perature
106

was slued

to latitudes temperature below

however, of the field of view

-61 ° S

the radiometer dropped

crossed

suddenly

160 ° K.

[

INFRARED

RADIOMETRY

150
I t t t

260

- 260

240

o

u_

220

200

\
180 - 180 -160

140 I0

i 12

I

I 14

I

I 16

I

i 18

I

I 20

I

i 22

i

140

LOCAL TIME, hr

FIGURE

8--2.-

Temperatures during the

measured

in

channel of the

2

(18 local

to

25/_)

of

the

Mariner

7 infrared latitudes are indicated. (in

radiometer deg) along

encounter, swaths

as a function described by

time. of the

Planetocentric field of view

various

center

polar before

cap, the The

the frost

temperature temperature between

decreased north.

to at least

153 ° K near

the

terminator of 6.5 rob.

just We

platform agreement change

was slued

of CO z is 148 ° K at a vapor this value constituent the and the observed of the (ref. at the onset and Murray assumption

pressure

interpret as the been for frozen

temperatures, This

as well evidence has not pic107

large

in temperature by Leighton under surface

cap to provide 8-4). emissivity The

CO2 to be the major in detail obtained

of the polar cap. of unit cap.

hypothesis need

discussed Temperatures

be equal

to the actual

temperature

of the polar

television

MARINER-MARS

1969

tures within by

of Leighton the cap. with sources Although

et al. If only

(ref.

8-2)

show

bare

surface of view of

that

is not covered polar the resuhing errors that the

by frost filled measured

5 percent would

of the field temperature be raised

in the

cap were

a brightness

200 ° K,

brightness urements eters channel solid energy rection because

temperaturcs a discussion included is not

by 4 ° K. systematic to note example, For in the measthe radiomof of 12 ° off of the large area The 1 o in of the cor-3 ° K, correction refined obtained systematic value. on an transin the 1 ° K in sharp 6 at to this and -3.5 temin the ° S pictures temperaextended of the Martian in albedo can be fit are consistent with response it is important sources. to a point sourcc wings response the entire based source

of possible in this report,

instrumental

responded

significantly

to off-axis 7 radiometer,

2 of the Mariner subtended,

at a distance Because a central space.

axis, was only 0.3 percent angles diameter contributed radiated to the minimum

of that however,

for the same the extended of the source total

on axis. beyond

27 percent

of a measurement object 7 is about the on thc data true

by an isothermal response

filling measured

temperature of the on during the

by Mariner temperatures, for channel based than the limb.

of the extended over radiation encounter that the is being near show

of channel planet. for channel passage

2 and At low 1 than across are

on a model

temperature

distribution for off-axis analysis before errors areal sitions data,

the surface performed and observed

was greater

2. A more

systematic

effects, higher

All known

temperatures

Mariners 6 and 7 provided scale about 10 times finer between there fields fluctuation maps and dark (maria) to be no of view that was does (50

the opportunity to measure temperatures than that obtainable from Earth. Although and sharp km light (desert) areas changes approach). channels 8-1. that are that The with The well defined only any

appear

temperature at closest in both structure 6 was nearly

exceeded feature

contiguous perature classical latitude ture well

not seem identified

to be associated in figure

of Mars

recorded terrain

of Mariner

307.0 ° E longitude, show a chaotic

television

of this area

may be related

anomaly. Because the track beyond the characterizing Although in thermal

of Mariner the

equatorial suited represent 8-1, 8-5) of thermal (ref.

(ref. 8-3) properties both

terminator, obvious inertia

it is particularly gross departures may be seen solid and and that values Strong

for a determination of the variations that

parameters surface. and/or

thermophysical in figure

the

temperatures from

by assuming

a homogeneous

inertia

with the values derived the 200-in. telescope.
108

by Sinton

measurements

INFRARED

RADIOMETRY

It is emphasized from inferences A definite drawn from

that

the

temperatures on the basis at the present when

presented of laboratory time should

in this report calibrations. be considered for off-axis

are derived Accordingly, tentative. radiation

the raw measurements, them discussion

will be published

the corrections

are completed. REFERENCES 8-1.
8-2.

CHASE, S. C., JR.: Mars.
LEIGHTON,

Infrared Optics,
HOROWITZ,

Radiometer vol.

for the pp.
B.

1969
C.;

Mariner
SHARP,

Mission R. P.;
HERRI-

to

Applied
R. B.;

8, Mar. 1969, N. H.; MURRAY,
SMITH,

639-643.

MAN, A. G.; YOUNG, A. T.; C. B.: Mariner 7 Television Aug. 1969, pp. 788-795. 8-3.
LEIGHTON,

B. A.; DAVIES, M. E.; AND LEOVY, First Report. B. C.;
DAVIES,

Pictures: N. H.;
SMITH,

Science,
R. P.;

vol.

165,

R. B.; Mariner

HOROWITZ,

MURRAY,

SHARP,

HERRIvol. 165, and Mars.

MAN, A. G.; YOUNG, A. Y.; C. B.: Aug. 8-4.
LEIGHTON,

B. A.; First

M. E.; AND LEOVY, Science,

6 Television

Pictures:

Report.

1969, pp. 685-690. R. B.; ANn MURRAY, B. C.: Volatiles
W. M.;

Behavior 153,

of Carbon 1966, pp. Observations

Dioxide of

Other
8-5. SINTON,

on
AND

Mars.

Science,
J.:

vol.

136-144.

STRONG,

Radiometric

Astrophys. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many success to H. persons

J., vol.

131, 1960, pp. 459-469.

within

the

Mariner-Mars experiment, and

1969 but our

project special

contributed thanks their support

to the of our

of the infrared
SCHURMEIER,

radiometry

are extended

j.

STALLKAMP,

C. KOHLHASE for

efforts. We acknowledge also J. BENNETT and D. GRIFFITH for their help in the data acquisition and reduction. We are indebted to R. B. LEIGHTON and the Mariner-Mars 1969 television team for permitting us to see the giving us their valuable comments. television pictures before publication and for

109

CHAPTER

9

S-Band

Occultation
G. FjEr.DBo,

A. KLIORE (Principal Investigator), B. SEmEL, ANDS. I. RASOOL

Mariner of a planetary cated point 6 and amount G.m.t. radio Sinus 15:40, for an of entry

4 was

the

first spacecraft by utilizing low surface

to make a radio pressure, more

radio signal. ranging at the

occultation These from point about

measurements indiat the of the the Mariners 5 mb

atmosphere into

measurements of exit. thus

unexpectedly

occultation and data

to about for four surface

9 mb

7 provided

opportunities

occultation of Mars, than

measurements increasing

atmosphere,

ionosphere,

configuration by more

of occultation

obtained

200 percent.

Mariner 6 made its closest approach About 20 min later, it disappeared beam and was interrupted the 20 solar min, zenith the by angle the (4 ° N latitude, 355 ° E longitude). 9800 km from The

to Mars on July 31, 1969, at 05:19:07 from the view of the Earth, and its surface local 57 ° . At in time the at a point time the moment remaining of the point near Meridiani was about The at this point

Martian

was about emerged local

of occultation, in occultation North Pole 21:40, was about

the spacecraft about (79 ° N latitude,

was about

the limb.

After

spacecraft

vicinity

84 ° E longitude).

at that

and the solar zenith angle was about 17 400 km from the limb. Mariner 19 rain 14:20, the later, and the of Hellespontus spacecraft 7 made its closest radio latitude, angle 9050

107 ° . At that time, on August by the 56 ° . At the limb. longitude).

the spacecraft

was about About area about the

approach beam 30°E km from

5 at 05:00:49 Martian The surface local

G.m.t. time was

its S-band (58°S solar was about

was cut

in the

zenith

was about

the moment About

of occultation, later,

30 min

spacecraft's and Arcadia

radio signal emerged from behind Mars in the vicinity of Amazonis (38 ° N latitude, 212 ° E longitude). The local time was 03:00, and angle was the limb. about 130 ° . At that time, the spacecraft was about

the solar zenith 20 180 km from

111

MARINER-MARS1969

DATA ACQUISITION During phere, are data which were was the by effects each entry and and exit of the radio propagation 9-1 through beam of the 9-3.) 9-1. mode at in the of operation tracking the and the Exit received in data signal of provides a special produced a standard station through radio the signal. Martian were (These diagram atmoschanged effects of the

the frequency of refraction

amplitude on the in refs. was

of the signal

received

on Earth

discussed acquisition Entry

in detail into

A simplified

procedure occultation

is presented

as figure

performed to a rubidium where mode

in a two-way

a frequency to the in obtained passed

referenced spacecraft one-way standard the the counted data. with

is transmitted transmitter nondestructively closed-loop open-loop

it is coherently of operation crystal

retransmitted. which The

spacecraft's record

is referenced through

to its onboard Doppler an audio data

oscillator. receiver This was

phase-locked-loop was recorded. the passband signal

procedure through It

Simultaneously,

passed 5 kHz.

receiver,

of about

>
SPACECRAFT WITH COHERENT TRANSPONDER _-m (21o-_) ANTENNA

PUNCHED PAPER TAPE

DIPLEXER

t
TRANSMITTER

H
I_

FRONT

END

H

J _ J

J TRACKING-DATA HANDLING J SYSTEM BIASED DOPPLER OPEN-LOOP

PHASE-LOCKED RECEIVER

t
FREQUENCY DIGITIZER I [ _=.

DATA

STANDARD RUBIDIUM

FREQUENCYTRANSLATED VERSION OF RECORDING DIGITAL RECEIVED SIGNAL

| RECEIVER j _

RECORDING VENUS SITE

FIGURE 9-1.-

Simplified

schematic of data acquisition procedure experiment on Mariners 6 and 7.

for S-band

occultation

112

S-BAND OCCULTATION

frequency-translated analog magnetic For tape recorder,

version as well

of the

received

signal

which time and

was

recorded on

on

an

as digitized

in real

recorded 7, the

digital and

tape. This procedure the S-band occultation

provides the open-loop experiment on Mariners were Mars

data. 6 and

Mars

Echo sites of the Goldstone receivers, and the open-loop microwave time Echo receiver craft and sites link and to the Venus recorded. is necessary from purpose be constant receiver by the it was obtained

tracking station data from the site (Goldstone), Doppler station the planet. instantaneous because open-loop the gain data

instrumented with open-loop site were transmitted over a they were taken of the time.) amplitude because bandwidth Doppler together 3 min of data the of the frequency with the receiver The digitized at the The data in real Mars and spacewith

where

Closed-loop tracking to insure behind receiver of the from

also were reception

at the

in Woomera, (This receiver control

Australia.

open-loop

as the

reemerges Another

is difficult lockup

to accomplish

the phase-locked-loop that long cannot time

of its finite

is to obtain circuit.

phase-locked-loop basis the

of its automatic was selected motion passband tuning

open-loop rates fact that

on the of the

of the projected These 5 kHz. receivers, oscillator rates, receiver within

caused

spacecraft. of about open-loop all An equipment of the between of the local audio

undesirable

to retune selection of the integrity, standard. other test indication units

of occultation,

led to an open-loop To their thesized spectrum system test and tone the insure from to give various

precise

as well

as to preserve were receiver, open-loop This receiver test before was not as a recorded. A 20-kHz channel syna

frequency-translation a rubidium and a real-time could reproducing

frequencies

phase-locked-loop provided received of the to the this data. tape and in the open-loop data

analyzer,

were signal the output

equipment referenced

be switched

analog

recorders.

to a rubidium that than the

standard frequency

was added recorded Later, the

recording distorted time base

to insure by more for

by the analog

recorders

a fraction the digitizers

of 1 kHz. sampling

test tone The

was used

keying

analog

recordings because

were used primarily of system constraints, Digital Analysis a record trary open-loop

as backups to the real-time digital recordings, which, had to be obtained over a microwave link. data and The are passed through of the is then the received compared Decimation Program, signal with and which sampled predictions

Spectral produces at arbibased 113

Programs of the

and the Digital frequency

Phase-Lock

Receiver

amplitude frequency

intervals

of time.

MARINER-MARS

1969

on loop are

the

orbit residuals.

of

the The

spacecraft; closed-loop Orbit on system residuals any total an

the

differences data, consisting

in

frequency of the which

constitute biased Doppler

the

opencounts,

processed

by

the

Determination orbit; limitations, are bias phase From data then or drift path there provided inversion is used temperaturc, the

Program, differences the passed that change the

compares the

the

counts residis Proto ion1

to predictions uals. Because

based of The

constitute

closed-loop frequency Preparation and effects integrates in the

maximum through may due data by (ref. the be

sampling a Data present,

sample/sec. gram, obtain osphere which Program refractivity ionosphere atmosphere. which a record and utilizes and

removes of the atmosphere. the

to refraction go to Double of the other by the the

Inversion Precision data to

Program, Trajectory obtain in the the

trajectory

performs This the

integral profile

9-4)

profile. and The

to compute and as obtained

electron parameters inversion,

density of can the be

pressure,

lower directly

profile

of refractivity,

500

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

f

I

I

450

40O

350

3OO

E
25o

200

15o

iool

ol I I -I .0 I I 0 I I __-_ 1.0 I 2.0 3.0 1 . 4.0 i0 3

I 3xlO 3 ELECTRON

I 104 NUMBER

I 3xlO 4 -3 DENSITY, cm

I 105 3xlO $

REFRACTIVITY

FIGURE 9--2.file obtained

Atmospheric refractivity pronear Meridiani Sinus at 4* N

latitude, 355 ° E longitude, at 15:40 (local time) in early fall. Data were obtained from two-way tracking during the Mariner 6 immersion. No filtering was used in the data analysis.

F1GURE 9-3.Ionospheric electron number density distribution derived from figure 9-2. The measurements were made near Meridiani Sinus at 4* N latitude, 355* E longitude, at 15:40 (local time) in early fall. The solar zenith angle was about 57*.

114

S-BAND OCCULTATION

interpreted figs. 9-2 ture and in the

in lower

terms

of the

electron to obtain

density profiles

in of the

the

upper

atmosphere. and must

(See tempera-

9-3.)

However, atmosphere,

of density,

pressure,

an assumption

composition

be made.

RESULTS It is generally atmosphere; of the Martian then the after present case traces of Ne and other accepted This that poses CO2 on the is the exact that that has which atmosphere N with about extent Martian This results The obtained as long necessary, portion For 20 percent when (refs. Earth, result major constituent of the Martian range of the of Mars 60 percent However, the interior, be completely The presence datum or for confrom profiles congas, at all 6 if

however, constituents,

estimates

amount question bearings once 9-5

of concentration regarding on had should and the atmosphere a solar contain 9-6). from should origin

from 60 to 100 percent. atmosphere. the escape Ne,

an interesting argued

the identity

a question atmosphere, He,

It has been of H2 and and about of Mars then depending atmosphere origin should

if the present

is a remnant

of a primordial

composition,

the

CO2, 25 percent as is the absent N, and absence the

15 percent is the contain on the of Mars of the here, by analogy

atmosphere on Earth, of Ar, in the the atmosphere

of outgassing Ne 95 percent of outgassing. atmosphere.

CO2, 2 to 3 percent

is therefore

an important

understanding In deriving in the

of the the results Martian

presented and on the 9-7

CO2 was assumed assumption of other temperatures

to be the major on results on pressure the

stituent 6 and shown stituent the

atmosphere.

is based experiments and

Earth-based

spectroscopy 9-4

Mariners

7. (See chs. 6 and in figures 10 percent Ar. and be decrease

7 of this report.) were They are valid

through

for a composition as CO2 remains however, with Ne, data example, the analysis some to revise if the

of 90 percent major the estimate composition

CO2 and

in the atmosphere. would would reliable

If it became

of CO 2 downward results should altitudes or a more and Figure of the radio ments. tion The of a 0.05 change

to fill the remaining substantially COs will by about changed. and 10 percent. emerge

less refractive temperatures from

to 80 percent composition

Confirmation

of this composition Mariners

7 is completed. 9-4 shows beam from error limits N-unit the profiles of pressure as a function of the distance the center of Mars for all four of the occultation measureon the pressure in the measurements refractivity. are based (These error on an assumplimits do not 115 uncertainty

MARINER-MARS

1969

II
3440

I

I

I

!

I

I

I

I

I

3430

MARINER 7 ENiTRY 14:20 (LOCAL TIME),

58%

;lINER 15:40

6 ENTRY (LOCAL TIME), 4°N

3390 V_ARINER 21:40 6 EXIT (LOCAL TIME), MARINER 03:00 3380 -7 EXiT (LOCAL TIME), 38°N

3370 0

[ 1

I 2

I 3

I 4

I 5 PRESSURE, mb

6

7

[ 8

l 9

10

FIGURE 9--4.-

Pressure

as a function planet,

of distance derived from

of the radio Mariners

beam

from

the

center

of the

6 and 7.

include certainties orbital

the

possible in the

effects

of

an

incorrectly on When a ---+5-km radio Mariner the orbit beam 7. the

assumed accuracy these results

composition.) of the were for respect uncertainties is more should 9-5 a mean of be shows reference 0.0052. knowledge

The of

unthe the

vertical Mariners the orbits position

scales

depend 7.

paths

of in of

6 and produced of the for when

computed, Mariner to the 6 in center

uncertainties knowledge Mars be and

uncertainty with These

the of will For

the

---10-km to about

uncertainty -1 km

probably precise. approximately the

reduced

determination the pressure Figure above ellipticity

an atmosphere equal pressure with 116 an on

in hydrostatic

equilibrium, equipotential

a gravitational profiles equatorial plotted radius

surface. of altitude km and an

derived ellipsoid

as a function of 3394

This

corre-

S-BAND OCCULTATION

5O

40

3O

20

0F ENTRY 10 14:20 (LOCAL TIME), 58°S

MARINER 15:40 MARINER 21:40

6 ENTRY (LOCAL 6 EXIT (LOCAL TIME), 79°N TIME), 4°N

MARINER 03:00 0 I 1 1 2 I 3 I 4 .I 5 PRESSURE, mb I 6 I 7

7 EXIT (LOCAL I 8 TIME), 38°N I 9 10

FIGURE 9-5. -- Pressure

as a function

of altitude, referred and e=0.0052.

to an ellipsoid

with

a = 3394

km

sponds If the original

to a figure reference pressure

of Mars ellipsoid profiles

inferred were were

from

dynamical and the if the profiles

measurements radial would distance lie very

of oblateness. scales close of the to one

correct correct,

another. The evident disagreement is not yet the case. However, when to a greater compute of pressure taken over equipotential Hellespontus the degree of precision, equipotential figures 9-4 and fourth from surface reference

in the profiles of figure 9-5 indicates that this the radial distance coordinates are established to use these surface three 7 mb. seem Thus, to lie 3.8 mb, of the measurements measurements measurements, to a common in the region that of the to gravitational and 9-5 that 6.4 and of Mars. four these close taken

it will be possible

It is evident at the diverse

fall between

latitudes The yields

longitudes, measurement,

surface. (58 ° S),

however,

a pressure

of only

indicating

surface feature which interrupted 6 km above the mean ellipsoid observations. For Mariner

the radio signal at that point lies some 5 to in the vicinity of the other three occultation measured at 4 ° N differs by about 20 km
117

6, the radius

MARINER-MARS 1969

from points

that are

measured almost equal,

at

79 ° N. it can

Because be assumed and that of of

the that thus the

pressures one

measured the the

at

these

two of the

is measuring that

shape

gravitational of Mars has by

equipotential a shape the similar

surface, to

conclude gravitational

physical

surface surface

equipotential to the optically

predicted served

dynamical

oblateness

Mars,

as opposed

ob-

flattening. The profiles of temperature are as a function in figure an of distance 9-6. The from the center boundin the of

Mars aries

for all four again have and and

measurements been do established not reflect profiles

shown

uncertainty N-units

assuming possible are

uncertainty in the

of 0.05 assumed 9-7.

refractivity, Pressure

errors

composition.

temperature

crossplotted

in figure

3440

I

I

I

I

I

t

I

1 1

3430

E

3420 I

..=.

3410

_E u. Z 3400

I : _
MARINER 15:40 I 339O MARINER 14:20 6 ENTR (LOCAL

' \'
TIME), _ __ 7 ENTRY TIME), 58°S 7 EXIT 03:00 (LOCAL I 240 TIME), 38°N I 260 28O

(LOCAL

3380

_MARINER 2i :40 3370 80 [ I00 I 120 LOCAL TIME), I 140 79°NI__J__( / II 160 I 180 TEMPERATURE, OK [ 200 220

FmURE 9-6.uncertainty mination

Temperature boundaries of refractivity.

as a function include only

of distance from the the effect of estimated

center of the planet. The uncertainty in the deter-

118

S-BAND OCCULTATION

The shown is in

vertical

distributions 9-6 and 9-7,

of have and

temperature been that derived the has figure are that ideal not 9-7,

in

the assuming gas

Martian that is valid.

atmosphere, the atmosphere The For of the the this thermoreason,

as

in figures hydrostatic

equilibrium,

law

dynamics in exit, three the

of atmospheric of the four cases

condensation shown in

been

considered. that than these present,

especially lower at are

Mariner

6

atmospheric of In occur,

temperatures CO 2, implying if suitable latent

substantially the atmosphere nuclei therefore,

condensation is super-

temperatures saturated. should

levels

reality, releasing If it

condensation heat that and, radiational

condensation the atmospheric by transport

raising

temperatures.

is assumed

cooling

is balanced

10 CO 2 CONDENSES

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

IV_AR|NER 6 ENTRY 15:40 (LOCAL TIME), 4°N

IER 7 EXIT 03:00 (LOCAL TIME), 38°N

ENTRY 14:20 (LOCAL TIME), 58°S

MARINER 21:40

6 EXIT (LOCAL TIME), 79°N

46.0 .0 km

km

25.6

km

0.0= 100 120 140

I 160

I 180

I 200

I 220 TEMPERATURE,

l 240 OK

I 260

I 280

I 300

I 320

l 340

I 360

FmURE 9-7. -- Pressure as and 7 measurements. condensation of CO2. altitude at which the

a function of temperature for all profiles, derived from Mariner 6 The region to the left of the shaded boundary is favorable for the The numbers referred to the boundary denote the approximate boundary is reached.

119

MARINER-MARS 1969

of

energy

by

circulation, in the

then polar

the night fall

atmospheric shown Mars, the the are ideal on below

temperatures in figure it seems 9-7. more

should appropriate curve

follow that, the in by Each a of

closely case, when

the saturation particularly the derived and the

temperature temperatures law, rather profiles. have

curve

As this may be the temperature to derive reduced saturation the

condensation gas relation, refractivity never lower the 9-8 CO..,

of CO2, the temperature this few these cent way, percent. The temperatures

saturation

than

be used data than surface through are

pressure

When effect shown for

atmospheric of CO z and

temperatures the are one

of raising in figures 100 percent data of only

pressure 9-11.

results

of this analysis two profiles: Ne. 10 percent

figures CO2 and

shows

the other

for 90 pernumber atmosof than 100 that 9-8

In the interpretation density, ture phere percent of C02. The through meteorology. variety 9-11 In and reveal the it is the presence that the result. derived makes profiles

of the refractivity of Ne that makes The addition temperatures

in terms 10

of atmospheric Ne than in the those

a substantial substantially

difference percent lower six times

in the tempera-

CO 2, because

the refractivity range several following of the

of Ne

is about

smaller

temperature and the

profiles unexpected salient

shown aspects features

in figures of of these

important discussion,

Martian results

J,_l

II,,-,,MARIN ER 6 E INTRY

0.1 CAL TIME), 4°N

5O

t
40

! r,
a. I

_o__o_-_

/

\ ooo oco
-- 20 _

30 _

FIGURE 9-8.-Temperature as a fnnction of pressure in the Martian atmosphere at the entry point of Mariner 6 (heavy line) for two assumed compositions. The dashed line represents the temperature distribution calculated for radiative-convective equilibrium (RC) by Gierasch and Goody (ref. 9-7), also for the Mariner 6 entry point. The horizontal bars marked RCgcD are the temperature values estimated for two pressure levels when atmospheric dynamics is considered (refs. 9-9 and 9-10).

"--.
10 100 I 150 --_ I 200

,c,o\ ',,.
I 250 300

TEMPERATURE, °K

120

S-BAND

OCCULTATION

FIGURE function tian point for The (R) and

9-9.--Temperature of pressure at 7 in the the (heavy

as Marentry line)

a

I

I

I

4O

atmosphere of Mariner

0. [

two assumed dashed line curve Mariano. adapted

compositions. is the radiation from ref. Ohring 9-12.)

!
E

t
30
___700% CO 2

(See

a. 20 90% CO2---_ '\ _N _r

,oo,
5O

t

I
100 150 tEMPERATURE, °K

I
2O0 25O

JMARINER 0.1

6 EXIT

t
E TIME), 79°N -20 _ j-.

21i40

(LOCAL

FIGURE 9--10.but for exit radiation

Same as figure 9-8, of Mariner 6. The is after 9-7). Gierasch

o_

curve (ref.

t \\
,0%._
I
50 100

and

Goody

co
e-_- No j I
150

IO

--._._.I_o
0

I
200 °K 25O

[EMPERATUR£,

I

I

_

_MARINER

7 EXIT

3O

t
00 (LOCAL TIME), 38°N 20 a.

1
FIGURE 9-11.but for exit radiation Ohring 9-12.) Same as figure 9-9, of Mariner 7. The is adapted (See from ref.
I 100

l0

t

curve and

I
150 I"EMPERATURE, °K--I=.

[
200 250

Mariano.

121

MARINER-MARS 1969

are emphasized atmospheric the Martian The

by comparing temperature atmosphere.

each profiles of the the

of the observed predicted atmosphere last few years. by

temperature existing has been Notably,

profiles

with models

the of

theoretical the and object because

thermal

structure studies during

of several been argued the total

comprehensive that because surface pressure over convective the in Martian than the strongly determined phere large

it has

CO 2 is the major

constituent

of the atmosphere

is only about 10 mb, radiative heat exchange should dominate and advective energy transport (refs. 9-7 and 9-8). Consequently, atmosphere is the above thin, near one should a given may -50 be radiatively and on the point coupled the Martian balance. temperature (see refs. itself. on indicate a planetary numerical that the scale overall the lapse are would effect at rate comDetailed temperature so that poles. considering (RC) dynamics exchange. in the (RCgcD), levels computa9-7 to the surface Because and 9-8) surface should the more be of as between terrestrial by local and atmosphere, temperature distribution atmos-

atmosphere essentially is optically

radiative-convective expect and a sharp ° K at night the surface extent. 9-10) of the close

discontinuity

as 70 ° K at midday In actuality, however, and Mintz

the atmosphere modify tions the such

the surface structure (refs. the the 9-11, alone,

atmospheric to some 9-9 and magnitude atmospheric and the and

circulation

a thermal

by Leovy ground, In figures and

of advection becomes pared radiation Also

is to decrease to raise and

discontinuity

temperatures temperature for similar and at two

subadiabatic 9-8 with temperature (R) transfer are the

at the equator profiles temperatures processes,

to zero at the

measured calculated both

distributions conditions, different and

radiation anticipated

convection

indicated

atmosphere if all three are considered. Figures

radiation,

convection, figures

9-8 and 9-9 correspond

to daytime;

9-10 and

9-I 1 correspond structures with the following

to nighttime on Mars. the theoretical models significant noon are features:

Comparison of the observed temperature for the four different locations indicates

(1) The of 40 kin. suggests The the

atmospheric higher gradient

temperatures than the observed in the

observed predicted lower

at

the

equator up The

in

midafterand

significantly presence

temperature atmosphere of 9 km.

to an altitude temperature

is subadiabatic,

of a tropopause

at an altitude

122

S-BAND

OCCULTATION

found in the equatorial stratosphere is 100 ° K higher than radiative transfer alone. The observations also indicate temperature superadiabatic. profile. (2) The cap (fig. 9-9) to be quite considered. temperature and close to the distributions in the predicted the polar with the profiles where in midafternoon early morning when night at a pressure However, level of 0.2 mb with this is the least the temperature certain feature

had been a sudden gradient of the near hours the

predicted decrease becoming temperature south

by of

polar seem were

in the subtropics

(fig. 9-10) dynamics

atmospheric is just beginning,

(3) At 79 ° N latitude, temperature densation occurring The CO2, the point negative the the actual of profile, at almost tropical atmospheric surface temperature is only and the Goody. atmosphere Either CO= various CO 2 in the

the observed and of conCO 2 is

if interpreted all heights atmosphere

assumption that 9-8) than

of saturation condensation is the expected. most For 283 ° K. radiometer an the

atmosphere, in

suggests (fig. surface by the For

in the atmosphere. daytime near measured 275 ° K near ref. the 9-7.) the interesting. 100 percent However, near the Ne, of theoestiof nearinconsistent temperature value the than amount in the of the is much warmer

At the equator,

the atmosphere temperature temperature is about temperature 7 ° K, (See discontinuity

is about infrared the from than indicating

of occultation atmospheric

(see ref. ground markedly The warmer

9-11),

of 8 ° K.

case with the

10 percent

is 268 ° K, and remaining problem suggested is much

discontinuity Gierasch fact retical mated solar infrared from (ref. tude, that

differing

predicted consists from higher

is substantially the opacity absorption-band in the middle in the the

calculations. by the radiation bands Mariners 9-1). and On had Refractivity

of the atmosphere models atmosphere of both. upper similar layer The 1.7×105 topside ion. atmosphere to those was now

or a significant by absorption of Mars, from near The

is deposited

of CO=, or a combination measurements 6 and the near a peak 7, yielded dayside, density l l0-km planet. 9-13 show the results main of about

as derived Mariner 135-km minor was layer 400 ° on 4 alti-

obtained located

electrons/cc. plasma No ionization temperature Mariners

was observed the from dark the side high

altitude.

temperature

to 500 ° K, assuming of the 9-12 and Figures

CO2 + as the

principal density

was detected profiles 4 and

and

derived 7. The

latitude

dayside

measurements

from

123

|

I

MARINER-MARS

1969

atmospheric the violet. curves and lower increases a 10-percent in main Solid indicate the

models ionization curves

shown layer represent

in is

these an results F1

figures region derived the The

are

based

on by

the solar

asssumption extreme data. in the

that ultraDashed

produced from the

refractivity made that the

interpolation neutral are atmosphere. warmer are due

between

measurements figures they show were in

ionosphere and the

upper The

atmospheres presumably reduction

now to

than

1965.

temperature activity, and

seasonal

changes, Sun.

increased

solar

in the

distance

to the

2001 2OO ! t I I I I t I i ' I 1

IK

[
14( MARINE__RIN ER 7 140f

1 ix;--"
f_ f J

12(

2
eO \\ 6O

":::,,
i I |08 , I 1010 i I 1012 m -3 i l ]0 ]4 ,i_ ]016 ]0 IE

:f
otI

/, jl I I

4O

2O

0 1o4

J

i lo 6

:r
i 0

MARINER

_INER

7

[ tO0

i[

I \ 200

,

i 300 OK

,

I 400

NUMBER DENSITY,

TEMPERATURE,

FIGt;RV 9-12. -- Number The Mariner tained near

density

vs altitude. were obat 13:00

FmtJaE

4 (1965) data 50 ° S latitude

9-13. -- Temperatures Mariners 4 and

vs altitude 7.

for

(local time) in late winter. The solar zenith angle was 67 ° . The Mariner 7 (1969) data were obtained near 58 ° S latitude at 14:30 (local time) in early spring. The solar zenith angle was about 56 ° . 124

S-BAND

OCCULTATION

REFERENCES 9-1.
KLIORE, A.; CAIN,

D. L.;

LEVY,

G. S.; and
LEVY,

ESHLEMAN,

V. R.;

FJELDBO,

G.; AND Meas1965, 149,

DRAKE, F. D.: Occultation urements pp. 9-2.
KLIORE, A.;

Experiment:

Results Ionosphere.
G. S.:

of the First Science,

Direct

of Mars'
CAIN, D.

Atmosphere
L.; AND

vol.

1243-1248. Radio and Occultation Planets, MeasureIV of the Martian Probe. Co.
G.;

ments Space Pub.
9-3. FJELDBO,

Atmosphere Research 1967,
V.

Over VI,
R.:

Two

Regions

by the Mariner North-Holland of Mars Data.

Space
AND

Moon The

(Amsterdam),
ESHLEMAN,

pp. 226-239. Atmosphere IV Occultation The Bistatic Analyzed Planetary Mariner
V. R.:

by Integral Space 9-4.
FJELDBO, G.;

Inversion
AND

of the

Sci., vol. for the
S. I.;

16, 1968, pp. 1035-1059.
ESHLEMAN,

Radar-Occultation J. Geophys. Atmosphere Upper and Res., vol.

Method
9-5. RASOOL,

Study
S.;

of Planetary
AND

Atmospheres. W. E.: The
RASOOL, S.

70, 1965, pp. cury. 9-6. 9-7. phere. ical vol. 9-8. 9-9. 9-10. 9-11. Space

3217-3225. McGovERN,
E.; AND

GROSS,

of MerAtmosDynamSci., 1969,

Sci. Rev.,
McGoVERN,

vol. 5, 1966, pp. 565-584.
W.

GROSS, S. H.;

I.: Mars:

Science,

vol. 151, 1966, pp. 1216-1221. of the Thermal Planetary and Space of the Martian Lower Atmosphere. Space Physics,

GIERASCH, P. j.; AND GOODY, R. M.: A Study Structure 16, 1968, Vol. pp. 615-646. 1 of Comments on Astrophysics

GOODY R.: LEovY

pp. 128-133. C.; AND MINTZ, Y.: A Numerical of Mars.
G.;

General

Circulation Rand Corp.,

Experiment Dec. 1966.

for the Atmosphere
NEUGEBAUER,
E.; AND

RM-5110-NASA,
CHASE, S. C.,

LEOVY, C.; ANO MINTZ, Y.: J. Atmospheric
G.;
SCHOFIELD,

Sci. (in press). JR.; HATZENBELER, Preliminary Results 166, 1969, pp. Latitudinal pp. 673-681. H.; MINER, of the Infra98-99. of the on Profile

MUNCH,

D.: Mariner Experiment.
MARIANO, J.:

1969: Science,

red 9-12.

Radiometer G.;
AND

vol. and

OnRINC, Average Mars.

Seasonal and

Variations

Surface

Temperature

Vertical

Temperature

J. Atmospheric

Sci., vol. 25, 1968,

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We the Deep thank Space the staff of the who, Mariner-Mars through their 1969 project and the personnel of

Network

competence,

guaranteed

the flawless
125

MARINER-MARS1969

acquisition in data their results.

of S-band acquisition, and in data

occultation and reduction.

data.

We especially thanks

thank

D. NIXON for his help NANCY HAMATA interpretation for to P. J. GI_--RASCH, of our

M. P. MILnNE, Special

JOAN JORDAN, and are extended to the helpful

assistance

C. Lv.ovY,

R. STEWART for discussions

126

CHAPTER

10

Celestial echanics
J. D. ANDERSON(Principal Investigator), L.
EFRON, AND

S. K. WONG

The the data from of Mariners

use of two-way, Deep 6 and field could

phase-coherent Network mechanics, and on the

range

and

Doppler for the of the

tracking accurate importance of Mariners ratio, earlier from

data

from

NASA/JPL to the launch

Space

was required of Mars. beyond Because tracking Earth/Moon and not data were the three itself shape, range in the

navigation of these 6 and 7 new field and data direct would of these

7 to the vicinity of celestial encounter be obtained that of data improvements

coverage mass the

to Mars

was scheduled

in such a way that the gravity of Mars Doppler that and from ephemerides

information of Mars Earth. from and radar result that

(in particular It was 4 (range measurements

the mass of the planet), these from measurements to the planet

recognized

complemented obtained flyby during the

Mariner range

spacecraft),

a combination

trajectories 1969 of Mars.

opposition Because

in significant

ephemeris

improvements, exploration of the size, would be permitted by using the radar this regard, craft were it was realized occulted that the times by Mars analysis to complete. data to determine MASS RATIO revolves 4671 and of the equal about km and Moon to 81.3. and The the center a speed with tracking ratio data would

and gross topography of Mars measurements to its surface. In and emersion as the spacepoints 6 and a discussion and for the the calibration Mariners being contains

of immersion important data from

provide

size of the planet. Meaningful radar many range months

(See ch. 9 of this report.) of the tracking which 7 and to Mars, Therefore, are still obtained, will require of only

measurements

this chapter

the tracking EARTH/MOON The distance curve mean

the Earth/Moon

mass ratio

the mass of Mars.

Earth of about

of mass of the Earth/Moon of 12.4 m/sec. with an amplitude of the involved It impresses equal and the inversely Earth a frequency

system

at a

a sinusoidal to the sidereal to and is of t_-1 127

on range motion where

Doppler

proportional Moon

(1 +_-1),

t_-1 is the

of the masses principle

approximately

in the determination

MARINER-MARS

1969

is that data reliable; is good into When difficult ciently would tary

a value residuals

can

be found unknown

that

eliminates sense. The

the

monthly

cycle

in the

tracking and data error

in a least-squares anywhere or eight near figures

determination Moon's not orbit.

of t_-1 is direct of the The any in the cycle, the tracking lunar

no other to seven searching to think great

parameter that and

in the representation of the does introduce error with

has a frequency t_ -I, which,

ephemeris

noticeable data, although in the

by comparison, for possible of anything propagation to cause reasonable if present. only even

can be determined sources significant effect difficulty. of systematic with correlated Periodic must

to the order

of I0 to 20 ppm. it is very a suffiSun of the for for that

a monthly

S-band the

rotation small delay

be close enough medium, For the

variations be very total has the

interplaneMariners an inverse is a 28-day could

possibility, trajectories, a density (ref.

6 and 7, however, square sinusoidal produce radiation spacecraft, prescnt distribution

Mariner of only

Earth-to-Mars of electrons 4 m. variation 0.001 with Melbourne

the of 6/cc 10-1) with

at the

Earth's

distance phase

a maximum

suggested appropriate variation

solar an error pressure

flux

of 0.1 percent in t_-1 because The that

of about seems

of a similar this sort

in the solar interplanetary error mission, is not which

on the spacecraft. to indicate derived relative determine for on

agreement

of the several of systematic for each

however, unless

the phasc

of the flux variation from the variations whether t_-_. the

is the same spacecraft's in solar

does not seem likely. Data monitor, which measures percent accuracy, bias 10-I should the shows significantly Table from Doppler Mariner deviations

temperature control flux flux to a better than 0.1 is present mass ratio, that could

a variation

solutions

the results from

Earth/Moon about 10-2), 2 (ref.

as determined of Mariner 4 (ref. given. Pioneer 9 Moon 10-3), The val(ref. was is 7

12 weeks 5

of Mariner

6 Doppler Mariner

data 1 and 6 and mean data

11 weeks Mariner also and

data. 2 Results (ref. 10-4), t_-l-_ -1 from for each obtained shown, directly

and Pioneers the arithmetic spacecraft. by combining the Ranger the

7 (ref. 10-5) are _-_ of the Mariner from Rangers G_

ues are tabulated A solution 10-6) with is also determined

6 through for the

although by the for

gravitational impact geometric

constant trajectories; gravitational

t_-_ must constant

be computed G_, which

an assumed

yalue

From May 4 to July 28, 1969. '_From May 8 to July 22, 1969.

128

CELESTIAL

MECHANICS

Table

10-I.--Determinations from Mariner,

of

Earth/Moon and

mass Ranger

ratio tracking

/_-1,

as data

determined

Pioneer,

Spacecraft Mariner Mariner Mariner Mariner Mariner Pioneer Pioneer Combined 2 4 5 6 7 6 7 Rangers (Venus) (Mars) (Venus) (Mars) (Mars) 81.3001

k& t +___0.0013 .0017 .0008 .0015 .0015 .0007

bt- t_

_-

t

--0.0007 .0007 --.0002 .0003 --.0011 --_003 .0013 .0027

81.3015+ 81.3006+ 81.3011___ 81.2997__+ 81.3005+_

81.3021_____ .0004 81.3035_ .0012

defined

by t_-I=Ge/Gu. error error

The in G_.

error The

in Ge, however, fundamentally

is about from different Ranger

1 ppm; method

therefore, equal

the percentage to the percentage

in the value

of t_-t determined

is almost

of determin-

ing t_-1 from Ranger impact trajectories, as opposed to using interplanetary trajectories such as those of Mariner and Pioneer, is reflected in a significant difference in the values. An arithmetic mean of the seven Mariner and Pioneer values The results Ranger in t_-1=81.3008, value, however, that is subject data (about method have to suspect provided the with differs direct an rms from deviation this errors with mean from value the by mean of 0.0008. There and the one 16

0.0027. Mariner

is no reason Pioneer value The in single figures), tially perform solution First, significantly it is now those reconciliation is receiving argue gested of 2½ the to that

determination

of t_-I from of a size that two computer

spacecraft Mariner precision with same new knowledge possible yr ago both in the

to systematic been processed and and

would

adjust

by Ranger. programs: (about equations to of the value 8 figures) the other least in the the and in double formulations squares. authors' lunar ephemeris Orbiter data The opinions, conditions of the (ref. precision. and of Mariners to 81.303 Moon 10-7). in double In any 6 and or 81.304, interplanetary precision

heliocentric

geocentric

of condition

of weighted therefore, from field the about of data

of e-_ is essenit is necessary the has In Ranger changed. increased addition, precision; case, the spacecraft 7, which as sug-

in all cases; reductions of the

spacecraft.

Since

for t_-_ was obtained, gravity through analyses to perform were _-1 values attention closer Ranger

2½ yr ago, several

have

of Lunar only

necessary from

computations in single lunar than

performed derived because data.

of the increased

of the results or 81.301

for a t_-1 value by the combined

to 81.300

129

i

i

MARINER-MARS 1969

MASS DETERMINATION For complicated the ment infrarcd both Mariners 6 and 7, the forces hydrogen change system of about without to Mars) determination acting and imparts on the nitrogen a force starts and 80 of the spacecraft. gases on about this mass One from the 35 of Mars is of

by nongravitational spectrometer by system. and In (the normal This (IRS), expelling

channel environa pressure-

for example,

operates

in a cryogenic of 100 dyn

produced

regulated spacecraft m/sec. encounter through is allowed required ponential On on the over normally encounter trajectory however, clear one the

gas expulsion a velocity the approach a period space into

or more order rain

to the of 0.1 before pressure the gas are

produces closest for

in its trajectory jetting continues min. level normally; after was system After regulation;

operation,

at a constant period, about

encounter to escape for rate. Mariner spacecraft intended on the

pressure

5 hr

gas to decay 6, the acted period 7. system over

to an insignificant did not operate The imparted

at approximately as a result, encounter to have increment the affected seems the

an exforce of

a period

of 4 or 5 days this spacecraft

instead operated

of a few hours. However, event, which was was hit forces

Mariner

6 days

before to the reason,

by an unknown on the order that the the spacecraft additional is that the the time

a velocity

of 1 m/sec, spacecraft attitude unknown

or a change disrupted.

of 4× 10 r g cm/sec Beyond also acting gave which force and no this on

in momentum. point, the impact of about forces Mariner it is not spacecraft; of a maland on that 1 day. the 7 are 7. Thereblowdown data similar tracking 26, 5 days initiation the position

It is possible whether possibility

by a meteoroid; were

whatever

spacecraft of the

battery, event, the

indication

function the leaking Because spacecraft available

following electrolyte

was punctured over the results event

by the a period resulting from

imparted days

a low-thrust encounter, an event initiation for the and data mass

of uncertainties in the few at this time.

regarding before

Mariner fore, can from data before of IRS 13O data about be used

6 did not experience before before of the to July The the to obtain 35 min a value

of the same IRS of Mars will be acting about can forces G.m.t.,

type as Mariner system (fig. 10-1). with the from

acquired

of the beyond

cryogenic

However, when, the spacecraft. July before were

encounter telemetry

be analyzed on

to Mariner To

7, engineering

combined points solution

in an analysis obtain encounter, cooling.

nongravitational 31, at 04:39:57 in the

the mass of Mars, parameters

we fit 670 Doppler least-squares

7 min

CELESTIAL

MECHANICS

I

I

I

oo

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g

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1

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131

MARINER-MARS

1969

and

velocity

of the distance

spacecraft off the

at the axis

epoch,

the

gravitational and the

constant longitude

for Mars of each of

GM_ , the

Earth's

of rotation,

the five tracking stations of the fit are summarized km_/sec _. A second with nine with nine value not the range range

for which data in table 10-II.

were available. The solution

The statistical properties for GM_ is 42828.22++-1.83

solution

was performed taken ranging are shown and from This point system

in which on July installed 10-IV. by the

the for

Doppler Mariner

data 5.

were The 10-III,

fit along Calif., changes and data. the the The is in of or

measurements properties changed different error.

27 from

DSS 14 at Goldstone, in table

experimental residuals

to the statistical Doppler fit is not of GM_ significantly standard

of the Doppler in table Doppler the estimate and significantly

fit are shown introduction

As shown

in table of range

10-III, which error

for the range

fit is 42828.48± value, was computed

1.38 km_/secL either data with a standard sampled affect the

Doppler-only

in size

estimated

62× 10 -° sec on each range intervals. Although ably the Mariner. This the has

0.05 Hz on Doppler data into

at l-rain appreciorbit of as the

introduction for the mass important

of range of Mars, implications

the fit does not help to determine experiments,

solution

it does

to other

such

Table

lO-II.mStatistical

properties

of

fit

to

preencounter

Doppler

data Hz _ rillS 0.0028 .0019 .0025 .0043 .0024 second by multiplying

Deep Space Station 41 51 62 12 14 (Australia) (South (Spain) (California) (California) Units by 67. are Hz Africa)

Number points 200 26 80 311 53 at S-band and

of

Data

interval, G.m.t.

Residuals, Mcan

July July July July July can be

26, 06:49 27, 16:28

to to to to to

July July July July July

30, 27, 30, 31, 30,

15:41 23:02 22:31 04:40 06:38 to millimeters

0.000006 .000164 --.000086 --.000105 --.000098 per

26, 17:29 26, 01:33 26, 00:35

converted

approximately

Table

lO-IIl.--Statistical

properties

of

fit

to

preencounter

range

and

Doppler Hz

data

Deep Space Station 41 51 62 12 (Australia) (South (Spain) (California) Africa)

Number poiqts 200 26 80 311 53

of

Data

interval, G.m.t.

Residuals, Mean

lXnS 0.0028 .0019 .0O25 .0042 .0024

July July July July July

26, 27, 26, 26,

06:49 16:28 17:29 00:35

to

July

30, 27, 30, 31, 30,

15:41 23:02 22:31 04:40 06:38

0.000008 .000164 _.000088 .000127 .000090

to July to July to July to July

26, 01:33

14 (California)

132

CELESTIAL MECHANICS

Table

10-1V.--Range

residuals from

fit to preencounter range and

Doppler data

Reception on July 27, 1969, G.m.t. 01:12:02 01:59:02 02:29:02 02:59:02 03:29:02 03:59:02 04:29:02 06:06:02 06:36:02 a Units can be converted to meters in one-way range by multiplying and the rms of the 9 residuals is 26.9 or 4.0 m.

Residual, 10-9 sec _ --42.1 62.7 5.9 6.2 2.9 -- 16.2 5.5 --8.2 --19.5 by 0.15. The mean residual is -0.30

S-band good

occultation orbital data

and

the

ultraviolet a final

spectroscopy, analysis. on the Precise ephemeris when We fit than the 05:19:06 best

both

of which of and

wilI the will

require orbit play forces that data the can than is a

to complete

knowledge of the believe, and in time of it Mars

important major on role

in obtaining in later 6 and orbit along the analyses 7 for the

information of the understood

tracking

data

nongravitational at present, Doppler or the

Mariners

are

better. 6 from to better the

Mars-centered predict 8 km approach value events along

Mariner trajectory For July to ±1 an 31, sec.

to range 1 sec

to better time

flightpath. is on good

example, 1969,

estimate G.m.t.;

of closest that this

to Mars should be

is estimated

The than Doppler yielded Mariners accept planetary the

only

source 6 taken for 6 and

for 7, over

accurate

determination Mariner interval 4. A

of the recent about _. The and performing

mass

of

Mars,

other of has from

Mariners data a value 4 and

is from a 10-day

analysis closest

(ref.

10-8)

centered kmS/sec

approach

GM¢ are,

of 42828.32--+0.13 therefore, in value

masses there

determined is good reason with

agreement, when

to other

spacecraft-determined data.

analyses

REFERENCES 10-1. MELBOURNE, Tracking Planetary (Prague, 10-2. ANDERSON, the W. G.: The Probes Determination and Planetary Symposium May 11-24, of the Radio 1969. of the Moon of and the Venus Mariner and II of Planetary Radar. C: Paper Space Masses from Radio at 12th -Part I

of Space Meeting,

presented Probes

COSPAR,

Czechoslovakia), J. D.: Determination Unit from

Masses Tracking

Astronomical

Data

133

MARINER-MARS 1969

Spacecraft. 32-816, 10-3. Path 10-4. and Jet NULL, G. W.;

Ph.D.

dissertation

in astronomy, Pasadena, Tracking AND TITO, from

UCLA. Calif.,

Also, July Mariner

Tech. 1967.

Rept.

Propulsion

Laboratory,

GORDON, H. j.;

D. A.: The Data.

IV Flight 32-1108, Data. Data. July ConAIAA,

Its Deternfination

Tech.

Rept.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, PEASE, G. E.: Part 1. Orbit The Tech. 1969, Mariner Rept. V Flight 32-1363,
A_O

Pasadena, Calif., Aug. 1967. Determination from DSIF Tracking and Its Determination Propulsion D. E.: from Laboratory, Improvement From Tracking Calif., Pasadena,

Path Jet
HILT,

pp. 1-26. J. D.; and of Astronomical Data. Ephemerides 1969, pp. Pioneer Radio-Tracking

10-5.

ANDERSON,

stants 10-6.

vol. 7, June

1048-1054. Analysis. Part II: from Radio-TrackSummary Apr. 37-44, 1967, pp. Jet

VEgos, C. J.; AND TRASK, D. W.: Range Combined Determination of the Masses of the Earth and Moon ing Data. vol. III, 11-28. The Jet Deep Propulsion Orbiter Space Network. Space Programs Laboratory, Gravity Pasadena, for the Mass Data. Aug. Pasadena, Analysis. Calif., and Paper

Calif., Tech.

10-7. 10-8.

LORELL, J.: Propulsion NULL, G. W.: Using the AAS

Lunar

Rept.

32-1387,

Laboratory, A Solution (Albany, IV Doppler N.Y.),

June Dynamical presented

1969. Oblateness at the 130th of Mars Meeting

Mariner

12, 1969.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We acknowledge mechanics and the able assistance and support and many given others to the Mariner-Mars JPL Flight Project.

1969 celestial Path Analysis

experiment Team

by H. GORDON, D. CURKENDALL, W. ZIELENin the Navigation and the JPL Precision

BACH, M. SYKES, S. REmBOLD, Command

N. THOMAS,

134

APPENDIX

A

'Preliminary

ortraits
A sampling obtained ners 6 and tion. The discernible ing pictures nomena. of partially processed experiment released indicate pictures on Marifor publicathe details processof these phe-

in the television 7 was promptly six shown here in even

raw prints. the studies

Further value

is expected

to increase

in quantitative

of Martian

135

P

P

e

e

#

APPENDIX

B

Investigator
VISUAL IMAGING

Teams for Mariner-Mars

1969 Mission

Robert B. Leighton, Bruce C. Murray Robert P. Sharp Norman H. Horowitz Richard K. Sloan Alan G. Herriman Merton E. Davies Conway Andrew Bradford B. Leovy T. Young A. Smith

Principal

investigator

California Institute of Technology California Institute of Technology California Institute of Technology California Institute of Technology Jet Propulsion Laboratory Jet Propulsion Laboratory RAND Corporation University of Washington Jet Propulsion Laboratory New Mexico State University

INFRARED SPECTROMETRY George C. Pimentel, Kenneth C. Herr Principal investigator University University of California, of California, Berkeley Berkeley

INFRARED

RADIOMETRY Principal investigator California Institute of Technology California Institute of Technology Santa Barbara Research Corporation

Gerry Neugebauer, Guido M/inch Stillman C. Chase

ULTRAVIOLET

SPECTROMETRY investigator University of Colorado Johns Hopkins University University of Colorado University of Colorado Packard-Bell Electronics University of Colorado University of Colorado University of Colorado University of Colorado University of Colorado University of Colorado

Charles Barth, Principal William G. Fastie Fred C. Wilshusen Kermit Gause Edward F. Mackey Ken K. Kelly Ray Ruehle Jeffrey B. Pearce Charles W. Hord Gary E. Thomas A. Ian Stewart

143

MARINER-MARS1969

S-BAND

OCCULTATION Principal investigator Jet Propulsion Laboratory Jet Propulsion Laboratory Goddard Institute for Space Studies Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Arvydas J. Kliore, Gunnar Fjeldbo S. I. Rasool Boris Seidel

CELESTIAL MECHANICS John D. Anderson, Warren L. Martin Principal investigator Jet Propulsion Jet Propulsion Laboratory Laboratory

144

APPENDIX

C

Mariner-Mars
NATIONAL j. O. D. D. E. Naugle W. Nicks P. Hearth G. Rea

1969

Management
AND

Organization

AERONAUTICS

SPACE ADMINISTRATION Administrator, OSSA

Associate

N. W. Cunningham R.A. Kennedy R. F. Fellows D. P. Easter

Deputy Associate Administrator, OSSA Director, Planetary Programs Deputy Director, Planetary Programs Manager, Mariner-Mars 1969 Program Engineer Program Scientist Staff Scientist

JET PROPULSION W. R. H. H. H. Pickering J. Parks M. Schurmeier W. Norris

LABORATORY Director Assistant Laboratory Director for Flight Project Manager Spacecraft System Manager Launch Vehicle System Manager Mission OPS System Manager Tracking and Data System Manager Projects

W. R. Dunbar M. S. Johnson N. A. Renzetti

(LeRC)

NASA-Langley,

1970

--

31

] 4_

NATIONAL

AERONAUTICS WASHINGTON, OFFICIAL

AND

SPACE D.C.

ADMINISTRATION 20546

BUSINESS

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CLASS

MAIL
POSTAGE NATIONAL SPACE AND FEES PAID AN

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