THE MARINER 6 AND 7 PICTURES OF MARS

This color picture of Mars shows greater detail than any Earth-based photographs could provide. It was made by combining three black-and-white frames that were taken by Mariner 7 through color filters.

NASA SP-263

THE MARINER 6 AND 7 PICTURES OF MARS
BY
Stewart A. Collins

Prepared at Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena, California

1971 Srrentlfic and Terh~lical n f o r n ~ a t ~ o w I Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 Price $4.25 Stock Number 3300-0367 Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 78-610670

Foreword
Mars, the fourth planet, is a subject of romance and mystery in human culture. Astronomers, over the past century, have revealed that this close neighbor of Earth is in many respects its twin among the satellites of the Sun. Its transparent atmosphere permits observation of the seasonal variation of its surface markings that long ago gave rise to speculations that Mars also harbors life as does Earth. The meager information we have had about Mars has stimulated a whole literature of imaginative conjecture about the planet, which engendered and sustained the wide public interest in the scientific exploration of Mars by astronomical observation and space flight. Mars is the planet most accessible for study from Earth, and most amenable for research by modern space-flight techniques. It also poses scientific questions most likely to better our understanding of our home planet's origin, evolution, and fundamental processes, and thus to provide knowledge potentially as beneficial to human affairs as it is interesting in an absolute sense. For these reasons the study of Mars has been ranked top priority by the scientific community, as for instance in the recommendations of the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration early in its history embarked on a progressive series of missions to enlarge our knowledge of Mars. The initial reconnaissance of Mars was carried out in 1964 by the Mariner IV spacecraft, which transmitted to Earth close-up television pictures of the lunarlike, cratered, mountainous surface, and reported on the condition of the planet's atmosphere and space environment. Mariner VI and VII in 1969 extended this reconnaissance in both detail and diversity of observations. The planned succeeding phases of investigating Mars will continue with Mariner Mars Orbiter missions, to be launched in 1971, whose task is to lay the groundwork for atmospheric entry and soft landers on the surface by the Viking program in 1976. The present volume presents the results of the Mariner VI and VII missions, in a more finished form that has been issued hitherto. Greatest interest attaches to the 200-odd television images which the world first viewed in their crude form as they were received on Earth. This book tells the story of the teamwork that produced this splendid result, and provides to the reading public the fruits of a venture that well characterizes the age of space exploration.

HENRY J . SMITH Deputy Associate Administrator (Science) Ofice of Space Science and Applications National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Preface
This book presents a comprehensive set of the television pictures taken of Mars by the Mariner 6 and 7 spacecraft. These pictures are the final results from the ambitious and complex television experiment of the Mariner Mars 1969 Project, a project managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. To most fully utilize this television data, NASA has sponsored extensive post-flyby computer processing and analysis of these pictures. The purpose of this book is to make available high-quality reproductions of the final, computer-processed pictures. The text serves only to explain the genesis and unique characteristics of the pictures, to point out interesting features in them, and to provide some indication of their significance in the history of Mars investigations. Detailed analysis has been avoided in this volume. Such interpretation is the subject of the special supplenlent "The Mariner 6 and 7 Pictures of Mars" in the January 1971 issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research, a supplement which presents the observations and conclusions of the Television Experiment Team under the leadership of Dr. Robert B. Leighton. The television team has not participated directly in writing this book. The Mariner pictures are not copyrighted and may be obtained through the National Space Science Data Center, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 . The author is indebted to the JPL Image Processing Laboratory, which prepared all the hlariner pictures used in this book, and to Jaines K. Campbell, who provided the trajectory and viewing data. The valuable assistance of Mary Frail Buehler, Patricia B. Conklin, Patricia Shutts, David Thiessen, and Jaines H. Wilson is gratefully acknowledged. The administrative and scientific judgment of Dr. A. Bruce Whitehead has also been essential to the preparation of this volume. Chapters 1, 3, and 4 are based in part on material prepared by Claude M. Michaux, who also made the drawings. Finally, Drs. Robert B. Leighton, Bruce C. Murray, and Robert P. Sharp, all of the Television Experiinent Team, and G. Edward Danielson, Television Experiment Representative, have been very helpful in reviewing portions of this manuscript, correcting inisstatements, and helping the author clarify the expression of many ideas.
December 1970
JET

PROPULSION LABORATORY OF CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE TECHNOLOGY PASADENA, CALIFOI~NIA

Stewart A. Collins

vii

Contents
Chapter 1 Previous Investigat'ions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Chapter 2 The Spacecraft and the Mission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Chapter 3 The Far Encounter Pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Chapter 4 The Near Encounter Pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 Chapter 5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

Appendix Far Encounter Photoreference Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Near Encounter Photoreference Table . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 NASA Mars Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

CHAPTER 1

Previous Investigations

For thousands of years, Mars has intrigued man, for it has stood apart as an unusual heavenly body. The ancients identified it as a "star7' which wandered about the sky and periodically varied in brightness. The early Greeks recognized that Mars was a "neighbor" of the Earth and first called it a planet. Modern Martian exploration began during the seventeenth century when Francesco Fontana first studied Mars with a telescope, identified its gibbous phase, and thus found that Mars shone by light reflected from the Sun. Fontana also saw on Mars a marking which he believed to be permanent, probably the dark, triangular Syrtis Major. In 1659, Christian Huygens sketched this feature and, by timing its passage across the Martian disk, concluded: ". . . . the rotation of Mars seems to take place like that of Earth in 24 of our hours." In 1672, Huygens and J. D. Cassini observed the white area known as the South Polar Cap. In the early eighteenth century, Giacomo Maraldi noted that the polar caps changed size with seasons and that the small summertime southern cap was slightly offset from the South Pole, a fact not then known to be true of the Earth's polar caps. He was also the first to observe changes in the location and size of surface markings and remarked that some of these changes might be due to clouds. About 1780, Sir William Herschel, continuing the work of Mdraldi, sought to correlate the color and size changes of features with the Martian seasons. In doing so, he located the Martian spring in the planet's solar orbit. Herschel concluded that the polar white areas were ice caps, the dark areas were oceans, the light areas were continents, and that Mars had an atmosphere "so that its inhabitants probably enjoy conditions analogous to ours in several respects." These statements, from such a respected authority, influenced subsequent investigators for over one hundred years. The nineteenth century brought a host of Martian map makers. Two of these men, Wilhelm Beer and Johann von Madler, established a

Martian longitude-latitude system much like that accepted today and more accurately defined the Martian rotation period to be 24 hours, 37 minutes, 23.7 seconds. Giovanni Schiaparelli, starting in 1878, published a series of maps identifying features with Latin names, most of which are still in use today. His maps' greatest significance, however, was not the settlement of international naming feuds. Rather, his maps showed many dark lines-he called them "canali" ( channels)-interconnecting the dark areas in a strange-looking network. "Canali" was soon mis-translated into "canals," and intelligent life on Mars was suddenly an intriguing popular concept. As the idea of Martian life took firm root in public thought, another astronomer, Asaph Hall, discovered two small moons of Mars and named them Phobos and Deirnos. Phobos was found to revolve around Mars three times faster than the planet rotates and would, therefore,
The maps of Giovanni Schiaparelli were the first to use Latin nomenclature for Martian features. This map, drawn in 1888, was made from visual, not photographic, observations. I t shows many features visible in the Mariner pictures and also many "canali" (channels), which later caused excitement about the possibility of Martian life.

appear to rise in the west and set in the east twice daily. Deimos, with a period slightly longer than the rotation of Mars, would rise in the east and travel slowly across the sky before setting in the west three days later. In 1892, as astronomers began to study canals more carefully, William Pickering discovered a canal crossing the dark area of Mare Erythraeum. This finding refuted the theory, surviving from Herschel one hundred years earlier, that the dark areas were oceans. A new explanation of the changing sizes and colors of the dark areas was then proposed: that these were land areas covered with a vegetation that flourished in the spring and dried in the autumn. This theory remained popular through the 1950's. As Martian exploration entered the twentieth century, Martian life found its most ardent defender, Percival Lowell. Enthusiastic over Schiaparelli's canali, Lowell devoted his life and a fully staffed observatory to the study of Mars. The canals, he proposed, were constructed by intelligent Mars inhabitants seeking to survive on a dry and forbidding planet. As the polar caps melted during their summer seasons, the canals carried the melt-water away to the drier equatorial regions to irrigate the life-sustaining crops there. Canals sketched by Lowell were thin, straight lines so precisely arranged as to require an intelligent origin. During the ensuing debate, E. M. Antoniadi announced he had identified canals as an alignment of spots or ragged edges, not straight, continuous lines. While many of Lowell's canals disappeared from later maps, they were erased much more slowly from the minds of observers and the public. By 1930, Mars had been fastidiously mapped within the limitations of visual observation. The improvement of photography at the turn of the century introduced a new capability with which astronomers could compare observations made many years apart. Thus began a systematic study of seasonal variations, like the "wave of darkening7'-a progressive darkening from pole to equator of the dark areas in the hemisphere of the melting polar cap, and daily variations, such as the reported appearance of blue, white, and yellow clouds. This century also introduced the use of new analysis instruments, such as spectroscopes, thermocouples (infrared radiometers ) , polarirneters, and photometers, to planetary study.

This Earth-based photograph was taken in 1956 by Dr. Robert B. Leighton at the Mount Wilson Observatory. Just appearing near the western limb is Syrtis Major, and just disappearing at the eastern terminator is Cerberus. Bordering the South Polar Cap is the light area Ausonia. North is at the top.

Using a spectrometer, G. P. Kuiper discovered carbon dioxide in the Martian atmosphere in 1947. Similar ground-based studies later disclosed small amounts of water and carbon monoxide and indicated that the Martian atmospheric pressure might be as low as 10-15 millibars, roughly 1%of that on Earth. With a thermocouple it was determined that the surface of Mars was very cold, with temperatures above freezing only during summer days in the tropical latitudes. Polarimeters, measuring polarization, and photometers, measuring brightness, suggested the bright areas included finely divided material containing at least some ferric iron. In 1965, more than 350 years after Galileo sought the first close-up view of Mars, the Mariner 4 spacecraft flew close enough to the planet to make a number of new measurements and acquire 22 television pictures. Mariner 4 found an extremely thin (5-10 millibars) carbon dioxide atmosphere and sent pictures revealing Mars to be extensively cratered.

Mariner 4 provided man's first close-up ctures of Mars. Frame 4N1 showed the 'artian limb and the area Phlegra. rame 4N11, taken farther south, pre' n t e d a crater 175 kilometers in ameter.

CHAPTER 2

The Spacecraft and the Mission

Shortly after the successful Mariner 4 mission, NASA authorized the Mariner Mars 1969 Project. Mariners 6 and 7, launched by the more powerful Atlas-Centaur rocket, were to greatly increase and improve the observations made by Mariiier 4 and by Earth-based investigators. Thus scientists and engineers began to design a more ambitious exploratory mission and to build larger, more sophisticated spacecraft to complete this mission.

The Mariner 1969 spacecraft were larger (5.8 meters or 19 feet) across the sola; panels and heavier (380 kilograms or 840 pounds) than any previous NASA planetary spacecraft.

This Atlas-Centaur, a massive vehicle of 145 metric tons, successfully launched Mariner 7 on March 27, 1969. Mariner 6 had been launched by a similar vehicle a month earlier, on February 24,1969.

After more than 3 years of preparation, Mariner 6 was perched atop its Atlas-Centaur rocket 10 days before its scheduled launch toward Mars. Unexpectedly, a faulty switch opened the main valves on the Atlas stage, and the rocket, as tall as a 12-story building, began to collapse like a punctured tire. As the air roared out, two ground crewmen ran into the vehicle, started the pressurizing pumps, and thus prevented further "deflation" of the launch vehicle. While NASA prepared Exceptional Bravery Medals for these two crewmen, engineers began a thorough inspection of the complex Mariner 6 spacecraft and determined that it had sustained no damage during the mishap. The spacecraft was removed from the wrinkled rocket and was placed

upon another Atlas-Centaur. So successful was this switch that Mariner 6 was launched, on schedule, 10 days later toward its Mars encounter. This ingenuity and flexibility of operation typified the entire Mariner Mars 1969 Project. The two spacecraft, Mariners 6 and 7, incorporated two major improvements over previous planetary probes, improvements that encouraged adaptive operation. The first was the use of programmable computers aboard the craft. In previous planetary missions, most of the sequences and other spacecraft instructions had been read into the on-board computer prior to launch, and it was difficult or impossible to modify these instructions after launch. The Mariner 6 and 7 computers could be reprogrammed from the ground at any time during the mission. The second advance was the experimental high-rate telemetry system. This system, due in part to the new 64-meter-diameter receiving antenna at Goldstone, California, enabled

Mariners 6 and 7 both followed a long solar orbit that carried them gradually out t o Mars. Mariner 7 was launched a ntonth later than Mariner 6 but arrived only 5 days later because of the "inside track" taken b y Mariner 7. At the time of encounter, Mars was 96 million kilometers (60 million miles) from Earth, and radio signals, traveling at the speed of light, from the spacecraft were received at Earth 5 minutes later.

\ \ \

96 m i l l i o n k i l o m e t e r s

- /f , --

the Mariners to communicate 2000 times faster than Mariner 4. These two advances figured prominently in many after-launch decisions aimed at increasing the quality or quantity of data or at correcting problems that had arisen on the spacecraft.

The giant antenna, 64 meters (210 feet) in diameter, at the Deep Space Network's Goldstone, California, station toas an essential element of the high-rate telemetry system. Other stations located around the world used antennas 26 meters (85 feet) in diameter.

The science instrument scan platform was mounted beneath the spacecraft, as shown in the photograph. The platform was movable so that the instruments could be pointed at different regions on Mars. Unlike previous Mariners, these spacecraft carried n o instruments t o gather interplanetary data during the Earth-Mars cruise. The entire mission was focused on obtaining information about the Martian surface and atmosphere. Instruments are: (a) infrared radiometer, ( b ) wide-angle television, (c) ultraviolet spectrometer, ( d ) narrowangle television, and ( e ) infrared spectrometer.

Picture-taking activities for both Mariners were divided into two sequences: far encounter sequence and near encounter sequence. Tbe far encounter sequence took place during several days prior to flyby when all of Mars appeared as a disk in the television pictures. Near encounter included the 30 minutes during flyby when detailed pictures were taken of small areas on Mars. The pictures are identified by 'spacecraft, sequence, and picture number within that sequence. Thus 6F38 is the thirty-eighth picture taken by Mariner 6 during its far encounter, while 7N13 is the thirteenth Mariner 7 near encounter picture. An abbreviated account of operations during encounter week is given below.

Encounter Events
T u e s d a y , J u l y 29. Throughout Tuesday, Mariner 6 records 33 far

encounter pictures on its tape recorder. The tape is played back and the pictures are transmitted to Earth that evening. Originally, Mariner 6 was to take only eight far encounter pictures, but the experimental high-rate telemetry system has proved so successful that 50 such pictures will be returned by this spacecraft.

Wednesday, July 30. Mariner 6 records an additional 16-1/5 pictures and transmits them back late in the afternoon. As flight controllers prepare for the complex Mariner 6 near ellcounter sequence, to occur Wednesday night, contact is suddenly lost with Mariner 7. Most personnel continue to prepare Mariner 6 while a smaller team concentrates on solving the Mariner 7 problems. Both efforts climax at the same time. While Mariner 6 begins recording its 25 near encounter pictures, a cheer goes up at the announcement that Mariner 7 communication has been re-established after a 7-hour silence. The day ends as Mariner 6 passes behind Mars. Thursday, July 31. Spacecraft engineers analyze the data now being received from Mariner 7 and determine that several problems still exist. Post-encounter study will reveal that the Mariner 7 battery probably ruptured and vented its contents into the spacecraft. This in turn caused electrical transients that induced the spacecraft to spin like a pinwheel and to lose contact with Earth. Now, however, the most serious consequence appears to be damage to the equipment that reports the pointing direction of the television cameras. Since the Mariner 7 cameras cannot be pointed properly without this information, work is begun t~ find a solution. On Thursday night, the 25 Mariner 6 near encounter pictures, recorded a day earlier, are played back. Friday, August 1. A scheme has been devised to calibrate the pointing indicator for the Mariner 7 cameras. The cameras are turned on and begin transmitting pictures of black space. They are then moved around in a search which climaxes when Mars appears in the corner of one frame. Several additional corrections center Mars in the frame and provide the needed calibration. This operation, essential before any television pictures can be acquired by Mariner 4, is possible because of the high-rate telemetry system which sends an entire picture in 42 seconds instead of the 35 minutes required by the standard system. Saturday, August 2. Properly oriented once again, Mariner 7 records 33 far encounter pictures and plays them back during the evening. Sunday, August 3. Mariner 7 records and transmits an additional 33 far encounter pictures. Analysis of the Mariner 6 data continues in an effort to determine whether Mariner 7's plan should be altered in any way to study interesting features seen by Mariner 6.

Monday, August 4. Mariner 7 records its final 25 far encounter pictures and plays them back. Mariner 7 now has taken a total of 91 far encounter pictures, quite a contrast to the eight originally planned. Mission planners have completed their study of Mariner 6 data and have decided to assign to the still-limping Mariner 7 a more ambitious job than that performed by its sister craft. Far encounter data will be sent back until one hour before near encounter-Mariner 6 stopped 6 hours prior to encounter. Also, Mariner 7's near encounter coverage is increased to 33 pictures. This aggressive, last-minute plan is executed perfectly; and Mariner 7, following its sister's path, passes behind Mars. Tuesday, August 5. Mariner 7 plays back its 33 near encounter pictures, and both spacecraft continue in orbit around the Sun. Postscript. At this writing 16 months later, both spacecraft are operational and in regular radio contact with NASA's ground stations. As the spacecraft passed behind the Sun, the radio signal was used in the most sensitive test yet made of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity.

The Television System
Mariners 6 and 7 each carried two television cameras to photograph Mars. At the near encounter distances from Mars, Camera A, with a wide-angle lens, showed large areas of the planet (approximately 1000 x 1000 kilometers, about the size of Alaska) and details as small as 3 kilometers ( 2 miles). Camera B, using a telephoto lens, at the same distance from Mars, showed smaller areas (100 x 100 kilometers, about the size of the Los Angeles basin) and details as small as 300 meters (300 yards). The fields of view and shutter sequence were planned so that the A frames, taken sequentially through blue, green, and red filters, would overlap, and the B frames, taken through a minus-blue filter, would be located in the overlap area of two A frames. Most far encounter pictures were taken using the B camera. A television picture taken by Mariners 6 and 7 is actually an array of points, each of which has a numerical value from zero to 255, representing the brightness at that point. Zero represents black, 255 indicates white, and the 254 intermediate numbers correspond to the intermediate shades of grey. Each picture is composed of 704 lines

The two cameras carried by each spacecraft differed only in their optical systems. The wide-angle Camera A (top) used a 50-millimeter focal length Zeiss planar lens with blue, green, and red filters, while the high-resolution Camera B (bottom) used a large (508-millimeter focal length) Cassegrain telephoto lens.

with 945 points, or pixels (picture elements) per line (665,280 pixels per picture ) . This numerical information was received in the telemetry from the spacecraft, stored on magnetic tape, and readily processed as numerical data by computers. Through the use of a system roughly similar to a home television set, pictures were read off these tapes and were photographed as they appeared on an electronic display screen.

Shou;n here are the actual numerical values of the points in a small portion of this picture. In this large array of numbers, it is possible to identify a crater b y the low data numbers of its dark slopes and the high data numbers of the bright, sunlit slopes.

CAMERA A

- AUTOMATIC GAIN
CONTROL

CUBING CIRCUIT

ANALOG TAPE RECORDER

CAMERA B

RADIO
P

4

_,

-

SAMPLER

-

BIT CLIPPER

-

DIGITAL TAPE RECORDER

This block diagram shows the television system in its near encounter mode and indicates the on-board processing of the television signal.

The Mariner 4 television experiment had shown Mars to have a very low-contrast surface with only subtle detail. For this reason, during near encounter the electronic television signal was processed on the spacecraft into two forms of data: analog video and digital video. The primary data form, the analog video, was processed (high-pass filtered) to emphasize small-scale details. This signal was nonlinearly amplified to enhance high-frequency detail while sacrificing the fidelity of large-scale brightness variations. If such pictures had been taken of Earth, small detail such as mountains, valleys, rivers, and coastlines would have been enhanced, but differences between large deserts, oceans, and forests, for instance, would have been minimized. The secondary data form, the digital video, was not enhanced and therefore accurately preserved the large light-to-dark variations. Digital video, however, was taken for only selected picture elements and required extensive computer processing before it could be used. In the far encounter sequence, there was only one data type, a form of analog video to which the enhancement technique had not been applied and which therefore more accurately represented the actual scene. Obtaining and transmitting the pictures to Earth was only half the job. Remaining was the task of computer processing the pictures so that they most accurately represented Mars. Eventually two versions of pictures were produced-a maximum-definition version using only the analog video and a photometric version combining the analog and digital video. The maximum-definition pictures showed maximum fine surface detail and the photometric version portrayed Mars as it actually appeared, revealing fewer details but better showing the large-scale variations.

Finally, several effects had beell introduced into the pictures by the television system and had to be removed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Image Processing Laboratory, the computer facility designed for and devoted to processing television data. The primary unwanted feature of the pictures was the coherent, or periodic, noise, which appears as a basket weave pattern overlying the picture. Through the use of computers it was possible to extract this and other patterns.

A second uninvited feature in the pictures was the residual image of previous pictures. Because vidicon television tubes do not entirely erase the previous picture before they record the next scene, a faint image of the previous picture can be seen in most pictures. This effect was especially pronounced in limb pictures. Using computers, the image processor removed this residual in the photometric pictures. technique used, such reBecause of the effects of the enhancen~ent moval was impossible in the maximum-definition pictures in this volume. Finally, the slightly nonrectangular shape of the pictures is due to a geometric correction applied to them to compensate for optical and electronic distortions.
Thus the pictures shown here are the final output from a long and complex sequence of operations both on the spacecraft and on Earth.

Opposite: A comparison between the maximum-definition and photometric versions of 6N13 is presented here. The top figure is a maximum-definition version, and the bottom slzows the photometric version of the same picture, after the analog and digital data have been recombined. In the bottom figure, the dark eastern point of Meridiani Sinus appears prominently as the dark area in the center of the picture, contrasting mitlz the lighter desert to the right. In the maximum-definition version, this light-dark contrast, which actually appears on Mars, has been removed, and both areas are about the same shade of gray. However, in the maximum-definition version, craters are much more clearly visible in both the light and dark regions.

This sequence illustrates the way in which computer processing was able to remove coherent noise from the pictures. Notice the "basket weaue" pattern overlying the picture information (top). The computer analyzed such a picture and separated the repeating pattern (center) from the random scene. This pattern was then subtracted from the original picture, leaving only the noise-free picture (bottom).

ULTRAVIOLET WAVELENGTHS DETECTED BY SENSORS 7

DIFFRACTION MIRROR

ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT EMITTED BY GASES IN MARS UPPER ATMOSPHERE

FOCUSING MIRROR

! !

The Mariner 1969 ultraviolet spectrometer was designed to study the upper atmosphere of Mars.

Other Scientific Experiments
In addition to the television investigations, Mariners 6 and 7 performed several other experiments designed to improve our understanding of Mars and the solar system. Ultraviolet Spectrometer Atoms, ions, and simple molecules of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and such compounds as carbon monoxide and cyanogen were sought in the upper atmospheres of Mars by the dual-channel ultraviolet spectrometer. Prototype Mariner instruments were flown aboard sounding rockets before the Mars launch, providing comparison spectral surveys of Earth's atmosphere. One channel covered the range of 1050-1900 11 and the other covered the 1900-4350 A spectrum. The ultraviolet spectrometer experiment found no ozone in the atmosphere of Mars and indicated that solar ultraviolet light was reaching the highly reflective South Polar Cap virtually unimpeded by the atmosphere. Nitrogen, the major constituent of Earth's atrnosphere, was conspicuously absent. Hydrogen and oxygen, both ionized and neutral, were detected in small quantities, possibly the result of the breakup of water vapor and carbon dioxide by solar energy.

Infrared Spectrometer
The infrared spectrometer was designed to detect a wide variety of possible atmospheric species, including oxides and other compounds of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. In addition the instrument provided a measure of surface temperature and offered the possibility of obtaining reflection spectra identifying surface constituents. The instrument used two semiconductor detectors, one cooled to 165"K by radiation, the other to 22OK by a two-stage Joule-Thompson cryostat using N, and H,. Rotating filters provided a spectral scan from 1.9 to 6.0 microns on the first channel and from 4.0 to 14.3 microns on the cryogenic channel. Most of the chemical species sought were not present at the detection limit; however, clouds of solid carbon dioxide and of water ice were observed, and solid carbon dioxide was detected in the vicinity of the South Polar Cap. In addition, reflection spectra indicative of silica or silicates were detected above the limb, suggesting either dust clouds or finely divided surface material. Surface topography could be inferred from varying carbon dioxide abundance (corresponding to the height of the atmosphere).

Infrared Radiometer
The infrared radiometer measured the surface temperature along the path viewed by the television cameras. It consisted of an optical

This spectrum of the South Polar Cap, obtained by the infrared spectrometer, contains features (labeled X and Y ) indicating solid carbon dioxide is present either on the cap or in the atmosphere above the cap.

WAVELENGTH, microns

SPACE

NIGHT

SPACE

\
HELLAS POLAR CAP

Since the infrared radiometer was aligned parallel to the television cameras, this infrared temperature data acquired by Mariner 7 shows the temperature at the centers of television pictures and along lines connecting these centers. Notice the temperature of the Polar Cap, approximately as cold as frozen carbon dioxide would be at the prevailing Martian conditions.

system with dual thermopile detectors which sensed the thermal radiation in the 8- to 12-micron and 18- to 25-micron bands from a tiny region along the track of the centers of the television pictures. Temperatures as warm as the 280-290°K range were observed in the equatorial latitudes, and a value approximating the frost point of carbon dioxide at prevailing conditions was reached near the South Pole. Few thermal anomalies were observed; generally the sunlit dark regions were warmer than corresponding bright deserts, and the temperature declined as expected as the field of view approached and crossed the evening terminator. The darkest classical feature on Mars, Syrtis Major, was observed beyond the terminator and appeared still to be warmer than the surrounding terrain.

S-Band Occultation
Four times during the Mariner Mars 1969 encounters, the radio signal between the spacecraft and Earth passed through the atmosphere of Mars. Each spacecraft trajectory was designed so that the Mariner passed behind Mars as seen from Earth, permitting the occultation analysis at four widely separated points above Mars. The coherent radio signal was bent and retarded by the intervening atmosphere, and

the physical properties of the air were investigated. The four locations and the planetary radius and atmospheric pressure and temperature at the surface are given below: Location Meridiani Sinus, 4"N, 4"W North Polar, 7g0N,276"W Hellespontus, 58"S, 330"W Amazonis, 38"N, 148" W Radius, kilometers Pressure, millibars Temperature, O F

3393 3373 3383 3378

6.6 6.4 3.8 7.0

37

- 172
- 79 - 99

Celestial Mechanics
The accuracy with which the Mariner spacecraft were tracked permitted investigators to infer the masses, positions, and motions of those celestial bodies whose gravitational fields influence the spacecraft. These include the Sun, the Earth and Moon, Mars, and to a lesser extent, Jupiter and other planets. Data obtained from Mariner 6 and 7 confirmed calculations based on previous flights.

FAR ENCOUNTER PICTURES

CHAPTER 3

The Far Encounter Pictures

Earth-based investigators were unable to photograph details smaller than about 100 kilometers (62 miles) on Mars. The Mariner 4 television experiment, therefore, was a significant advance, for it showed detail as small as about 3 kilometers. However, the area covered by an entire Mariner 4 picture was comparable to the smallest "point" seen from Earth, and thus it was not possible to confidently relate the "microscopic" Mariner 4 views to the telescopic Earth-based views. To compensate for this resolution disparity, Mariners 6 and 7 took a far encounter sequence of pictures showing the entire Martian disk at much higher resolution than was possible from Earth. These far encounter pictures permitted more reliable interpretation of the later near encounter pictures. Moreover, since the near encounter pictures show only about 20% of the Martian surface, the far encounter pictures, providing coverage of almost the entire planet, contain much data that is independently interesting.

Two days before its closest encounter with Mars, Mariner 6 began taking telephoto pictures of the approaching planet. Mariner 7, starting 4 days later, took such pictures during 3 days prior to encounter. Both spacecraft approached Mars from slightly south of the equator, so that the South Pole was always tilted about 5 deg toward the camera and the North Pole was out of view just over the northern horizon. As Mars rotated, features emerged from the western morning terminator, moved to the right (north is at the top) across the planet's disk, and disappeared behind the eastern late afternoon limb. Because the sun was not directly behind the spacecraft, a portion of the disk was not illuminated. It should be remembered, also, that the automatic gain control, described in Chapter 2, was not used during far encounter, and thus the pictures closely represent the actual appearance of Mars.

During the 3 days of Mariner 7's far encounter, the spacecraft's distance from Mars changed from approximately 1,840,000 t o 130,000 kilometers, causing a corresponding increase in the apparent size of Mars.

NORTH POLAR HOOD MARGARITIFER SINUS

MARE AClDAtlUM JWENTAE FONS TRACTUS ALBUS TITHONIUS LACUS MERIDIAN1 SlNUS AURORAE SINUS MARE ERYTHRAEUM

AONIUS SINUS

SOUTH POLAR CAP

NORTH POLAR HOOD

MARE AClDALlUM

TITHONIUS LACUS N I X OLYMPICA AMAZONIS )PRATES

PHAETHONTIS

SOUTH POLAR CAP

7F0, the last picture taken to calibrate the camera pointing direction, is interesting because it was one of the few taken of this area of Mars. Normally during this segment of Mars' rotation, the tape recorders were being played back to Earth and thus no pictures were acquired. In 7F0, the dark features in the center are Aurorae Sinus and Margaritifer Sinus (see sketch simulating 7FO). Protruding from the eastern limb is Meridiani Sinus, and just emerging from the western terminator is the Earth-observed "canal," Coprates. Frame 7F1, taken almost 5 hours later, shows that Coprates has rotated to the extreme eastern side of the disk (see sketch simulating 7F1). Also visible, just southwest of Coprates, is the prominent dark feature Solis Lacus. Across the center of the disk stretches the desert Amazonis, whose mottled and streaked appearance suggests that greater detail is present than can be seen in this very early view. The dark area between Amazonis and the South Polar Cap is Mare Sirenum and Aonius Sinus.

NORTH POUR H O O D 7 /--NIX PROPONTIS ELYSIUM CERBERUS AMAZONIS OLYMPICA

-

.... ,.-MARE ClMMERlUM

--C.

-.. -./ .. . . -, ; .
i

-4

.

9

"W" CLOUD

------

MARE SIRENUM PHAETHONTIS SOUTH POUR CAP

From these far encounter pictures, it has been determined that the South Polar Cap extended northward to about 60 degrees south latitude. This is within a degree of the seasonal location predicted by astronomers and illustrates the regularity with which the cap advances and recedes. Just visible near the terminator in 7F9 are two small dark spots: Cerberus and Propontis (see sketch simulating 7F9). These features border the eastern part of the desert Elysium. Also, near the limb of 7F9, there is a bright area which becomes brighter in the later afternoon pictures, 7F10-11, climaxing as a very bright spot right at the limb in 7F12 and 7F13. This afternoon brightening correlates with Earth observations of this region but remains unexplained. Release of water vapor from the soil is an interesting possibility.

NORTH POLAR HOOD

NODUS LAOCOONTIS MARE TYRRHENUM M R ClMMERlUM AE

SOUTH POLAR C P A

As Cerberus and Propontis continue across the disk, the Polar Cap begins to show ragged detail along its northern edge, as in 7F15. Similarly: in 7F16, it becomes evident that the boundary between the dark Mare Cimmerium and the light Aeolis is ragged and broken, not smooth and regular. Also, light and dark variations become prominent near the North Pole (see sketch simulating 7F17).

NORTH P L R HOODOA

TRIVIUM CHARONTIS

M R TYRRHENUM AE M R ClMMERlUM AE

SOUTH P L R C P OA A

Syrtis Major, a large, dark, triangular-shaped feature, appears in the morning sunlight in 7F23. Midway between Syrtis Major and Cerberus is the dark spot Nodus Laocoontis. Also more apparent in these pictures is the bright "hood around the North Pole. This hood appears to consist of a haze which had formed over the north polar region at the time of encounter.

NORTH P L R HOOD OA

-7

NODUS LAOCOONTIS S R I MAJOR Y TS M R TYRRHENUM AE

M R S R E TS AE E PNI

SOUTH P L R C P OA A

The circular desert Hellas is very apparent south of Syrtis Major and just north of the South Polar Cap (see sketch simulating 7F25). Hellas, like the regions in Amazonis, brightens as it approaches the limb. However, unlike the Amazonis features, Hellas is plainly visible from the early morning terminator throughout the day.

NORTH POLAR HOOD

7
SYRTlS MAJOR

SABAEUS SlNUS

MERlDlANl SlNUS DEUCALIONIS REGlO

SOUTH POLAR CAP

MARGARITIFER SlNUS

MARE AClDALlUM JWENTAE FONS TRACTUS ALBUS TlTHONlUS LACUS MERIDIAN1 SINUS AURORAE SlNUS MARE ERYTHRAEUM

AONIUS SlNUS

SOUTH POLAR CAP

Extending to the west of Syrtis Major is the long dark Sabaeus Sinus, culminating in the two-pronged Meridiani Sinus (see sketch simulating 7F33). Meridiani Sinus marks the zero point of the Martian longitude system. 7F33 was the last picture to be recorded on the first Mariner 7 tape load. During the next 6 hours, these 33 pictures were read from the recorder and transmitted to earth. Also, during this time Mars rotated so that Meridiani Sinus was on the eastern limb when the next picture, 7F35, was taken. Frame 7F35, showing much the same view of Mars as 7F0, now reveals greater detail. The northern boundary of Aurorae Sinus is seen to be ragged with several disconnected small markings in the lighter area. Another dark spot, Oxia Palus, is now visible just north of the tip of Margaritifer Sinus. North of Coprates is an additional marking, Juventae Fons.

NORTH POLAR HOOD

r

cHRysE MARGARITIFER SINUS

MARE AClDALlUM JWENTAE FONS TRACTUS ALBUS TlTHONlUS LACUS MERIDIAN1 SINUS AURORAE SINUS MARE ERYTHRAEUM SOLIS LACUS AONIUS SINUS

This page begins the side-by-side comparison of similar Mariner 6 and 7 far encounter pictures. For both spacecraft, these pictures were taken between 48 and 24 hours prior to flyby. Each Mariner 6 picture was taken 5 days before the corresponding Mariner 7 picture. After extensive analysis and computer correction, there remains a significant difference between the appearance of pictures from the two spacecraft, a difference that is still unexplained, but is probably due to the television system, not to Mars. These pictures show more clearly the irregularity of the South Polar Cap edge and the dark Mare Acidalium, in the northern latitudes.

NORTH POLAR H O O D 7 MARE AClDALlUM

TlTHONlUS LACUS NIX OLYMPICA AMAZONIS PHOENlClS LACUS COPRATES SOLIS LACUS

MARE SIRENUM PHAETHONTIS

,-.--'-'-*

AONIUS SINUS SOUTH POLAR CAP

As Solis Lacus and Coprates move towards the limb, it becomes evident that Amazonis, long thought to be an uninteresting area of Mars, exhibits a great deal of fine detail. Apparent in 7F44 is the circular feature Nix Olyrnpica, which had been known from Earth as an area that often showed seasonal variations in brightness. There appears to be a very complex and interesting arrangement of light features on this face of Mars.

NORTH POLAR HOOD-

TlTHONlUS LACUS NIX OLYMPICA AMAZONIS PHOENlClS LACUS COPRATES

MARE SIRENUM PHAETHONTIS

AONIUS SINUS SOUTH POLAR CAP

Both 6F8 and 7F47 show Cerberus and Propontis once again emerging from nighttime. They also reveal the gradual brightening of the features in Amazonis as these features nioved toward afternoon.

NORTH P L R HOOD---\ OA

PROPONTIS ELYSIUM CREU EBRS AMAZONIS

.-.:

,=-

,.---,

M R ClMMERlUM AE

M R SIRENUM AE PHAETHONTIS SOUTH P L R C P OA A

The brightening of the Amazonis features climaxes in 6Fll and 7F50, where several of the spots are seen right at the limb. The bright region seen in 7F9 can now be identified as several smaller spots, Another bright region, Phaethontis, does not brighten appreciably as it moves toward the afternoon limb. Rather, like Hellas, it appears to remain fairly constant in brightness.

NORTH POUR HOOD-

TRIVIUM CHARONTIS

NODUS LAOCOONTIS M R TYRRHENUM AE

p
7F17

M R ClMMERlUM AE

PHAETHONTIS

SOUTH P L R CAP OA

Careful conlparison of the Mariner 6 pictures with those from hfariner 7 suggests that the Polar Cap edge had changed very little if at all during the 5 days between observations. Comparing these pictures with those taken farther from the planet, e.g., 7F15, one notices that these pictures show much greater detail in the northern boundary of Mare Cimmerium. Particularly prominent is the linear projection Cyclopia, pointing toward the circular Elysium. Also, the northern polar "hood" is more clearly defined than in the earlier pictures.

NORTH P L R HOODOA

TRNIUM CHARONTIS

M R TYRRHENUM AE MARE ClMMERlUM

w

SOUTH POLAR C P A

In these pictures, Nodus Laocoontis is seen more clearly to be a diffuse dark region in Aethiopis. Also, there now appears to be a fairly definite western boundary or gap in the north polar "hood."

NORTH POLAR HOOD-

NODUS LAOCOONTIS SYRTlS MAJOR
MARE TYRRHENUM

MARE SERPENTIS

SOUTH POLAR CAP

The region between Syrtis Major and Nodus Laocoontis is now seen in greater detail and reveals a mottled appearance. Compare these pictures with the Earth-based photograph in Chapter 1.

NORTH POLAR H O O D 7

NODUS LAOCOONTIS SYRTIS MAJOR AERlA IAPYGIA

MARE TYRRHENUM

/--..
MARE SERPENTIS HELLAS

..

AUSONIA SOUTH POLAR CAP

At this distance, a small dark feature may be identified just west of the tip of Syrtis Major. The resolution of these pictures is substantially better than that attainable from the best Earth-based observations.

NORTH POLAR HOOD 7

MERIDIAN1 SlNU DEUCALIONIS REG1

SOUTH POLAR CAP

The pictures from both spacecraft show a definite darkening over the southern limb. This could be either a surface property or a haze that had accumulated over the Polar Cap.

NORTH POLAR HOOD

7
ISMENIUS LACUS THYMIAMATA

MARE AClDALlUM

MERIDIAN1 SINUS

OXlA PALUS MARGARITIFER SINUS MARE ERMHRAEUM

SYRTIS MAJOR SABAEUS SINUS DEUCALlONlS REGlO MARE SERPENTIS

SOUTH POLAR CAP

7F66 and 7F67 reveal clearly that the feature Edom, in the notch at the junction of Meridiani Sinus and Sabaeus Sinus, is actually an oval crater approximately 600 kilometers in diameter. Notice also the definite brightening of Syrtis Major as it approaches the limb. This effect contrasts with the relatively constant brightness of another dark feature, Solis Lacus, as can be seen in 7F4345.

NORTH POLAR HOOD -7

THYMIAMATA MARE AClDALlUM MERlDlANl SINUS

OXlA PALUS MARGARITIFER SINUS MARE ERYTHRAEUM

SYRTIS MAJOR SABAEUS SINUS DEUCALlONlS REGlO MARE SERPENTIS NOACHIS SOUTH POLAR CAP

NORTH POLAR HOOD 7

rCHRYSE MARGARITIFER SINUS OXlA PALUS

MARE AClDALlUM JWENTAE FONS TRACTUS ALBUS TlTHONlUS MCUS

MERlDlANl SINUS AURORAE SINUS MARE ERYTHRAEUM

AONIUS SINUS

SOUTH POLAR CAP

The pictures on this page are arranged sequentially because the Mariner 6 and 7 pictures of this region do not correspond. Frame 6F33 was being recorded when the Mariner 6 tape recorder reached the end of its tape after the first day of far encounter, and 7F69 was the first picture to be taken by Mariner 7 during its third day of far encounter. The remaining far encounter pictures, starting with 71769, are printed at half the scale of the previous pictures. These Mariner 6 pictures provide the best far encounter coverage obtained of the Margaritifer Sinus region and show very clearly Oxia Palus and the definite mottling north of Aurorae Sinus (see sketch simulating 6F30). Frames 7F69 and 70 show this same Aurorae Sinus region farther along toward the limb. Notice in these two pictures the three dark north-south streaks in this mottled area. Notice also that the "canal" Coprates can now be identified as a sequence of separate dark features aligned roughly east-west.

NORTH POLAR HOODMARE AClDALlUM

TlTHONlUS LACUS

PHOENlClS LACUS

COPRATES SOLIS LACUS

AONIUS SINUS SOUTH POLAR CAP

6F34 is the first picture taken during the final day of the Mariner 6 far encounter. These views clearly show the abundant Amazonis detail promised by the previous day's pictures (e.g., 7F42). Nix Olympica is seen as two bright concentric rings, possibly a very large crater; and other similar, circular features appear throughout the "scrambled area northwest of Coprates. In addition, several bright linear "wisps" appear in these pictures near the North Pole. They too brighten noticeably as they move toward afternoon. It has been suggested that they are clouds, but their identical position after 5 days tends to refute this possibility. Another interesting feature now visible is the dark area with an "M" shape, Phoenicis Lacus.

NORTH POLAR HOODMARE AClDALlUM

TlTHONlUS LACUS

PHOENlClS LACUS

COPRATES SOLIS LACUS

MARE SIRENUM

AONIUS SINUS SOUTH POLAR CAP

As the Amazonis region moves toward the limb, many of the briglit markings become less distinct while the northern wisps" continue to brighten. The South Polar Cap edge now reveals a crater due south of Nix Olyrnpica in 6F36 and 7F75. Such apparent topographic detail suggests that some of the ground underlying the snow is cratered, similar to other Martian areas.
"

NORTH POLAR HOOD-

PROPONTIS ELYSIUM CREU EBRS AMAZONIS
I . .

: ... --.... ! Q, -:-. \ ' ..A. .

-.

..-.&.*...-"-,.,.-./

--"
MARE SIRENUM PHAETHONTIS SOUTH POLAR CAP

MARE ClMMERlUM

As Cerberus emerges from night and assumes a distinctive "fish7' shape, parts of Amazonis, which were not identifiable at the center of the disk, become brilliant spots near the limb. Frame 7F79 is iiiteresting, for it shows the larger of the two Martian moons, Phobos, as a small dot just east of Cerberus. From this and other pictures showing Phobos, its location has been defined more accurately than Earthbased data had permitted.

NORTH P L R HOOD OA

TRIVIUM CHARONTIS

NODUS LAOCOONTlS M R TYRRHENUM AE

u
I

a

M R ClMMERlUM AE

PHAETHONTIS

SOUTH P L R C P OA A

As the spacecraft continues to approach Mars, the ragged northern boundary of Mare Cimmerium becomes still more diffuse and illdefined. In the Mariner 7 pictures, the dark mottled areas now begin to reveal numerous craters, and a distinct crater is now visible at the northern tip of Cyclopia. Frames 7F81 and 7F82 show an interesting "lump7' on the southeastern limb. Subsequent analysis has shown this "lump" to be a detached haze layer in the atmosphere above the Martian surface. The Mariner 6 pictures show a bright area, Phaethontis, southeast of Mare Cimmeriuin.

NORTH P L R HOOD OA

NODUS LACXO M R TYRRHENUM AE M R ClMMERlUM AE

SOUTH P L R C P OA A

Closer views continually reveal more craters in the dark areas. Also, in 7F83 there are two very bright spots in the northern half of Elysium. These pictures correspond roughly to the Earth-based view in Chapter 1.

N O R T H POLAR H O O D

7

NODUS LAOCOONTIS AMRE TYF!RHENUM SABAEUS S I N U S MARE SERPENTIS

S O U T H POLAR C A P

A large crater (about 500 kilometers in diameter) appears in Iapygia, near Sabaeus Sinus.

NORTH POLAR HOOD 7

S B E S SINUS AAU

SYRTlS MAJOR

MERlDIANl SINUS DEUCALlONlS REGlO

SOUTH POLAR C P A

These pictures show a multitude of craters in Syrtis Major. Like 7F82, Frame 6F49 shows a definite layer of haze off the eastern limb. From a study of the far encounter limb data, it has been determined that there are definite haze layers in the Martian atmosphere but that these layers are not uniformly distributed over the whole planet.

Playback of the final 25 Mariner 7 far encounter pictures was completed about 3 hours before the spacecraft was to fly by Mars. During the remaining time, the cameras were once again turned toward Mars to acquire the closest far encounter pictures of the mission (down to 42,000 kilometers from the surface). These pictures were not recorded on the tape recorder, soon to be needed during near encounter; instead, the digital video form of these pictures was transmitted directly to Earth as the pictures were taken. In the digital video format, a column, known as the "jail bar," in the central area of the picture is blocked out and only every seventh pixel is transmitted for the remaining fourfifths of the picture. (Three of these pictures were combined to make the color picture in the Frontispiece of this atlas.) This close to the planet, it was possible to begin using the wideangle Camera A with its four color filters: red, blue, and two greens. In these pictures, the blacked-out "jail bar" obscured the eastern portion of the planet. As observed froill Earth, the Martian surface shows greatest contrast in red light and least in blue. Near the North Pole in the blue picture there is a conspicuous bright feature which does not appear so prominently in the red and green. This evidence suggests that there was a blue-colored haze in the polar region at the time of Mariner encounter.

BLUE

GREEN

RED

GREEN

77

This narrow-angle picture shows the southeast limb of the planet. Visible just beyond the limb is evidence of an atillospheric haze layer.

NEAR ENCOUNTER PICTURES

CHAPTER

The Near Encounter Pictures

The near encounter pictures are presented here in chronological order. The total set of 57 pictures has been divided into five groups, each corresponding to a contiguous series of pictures taken while the cameras were pointed in a specific direction. The odd-numbered frames, e.g., 6N9, were taken with the wide-angle camera and are called "A" frames; the even-numbered pictures, taken with the narrowangle camera, are called "B" frames. The five picture groups are: 6N1-8, Aurorae Sinus 6N9-25, Meridiani Sinus 7N1-9, Meridiani Sinus 7NlO-20, South Polar Cap 7N21-32, Noachis-Mellas

Opposite: Mariner 6 (top) took pictures of the equatorial region of Mars; Mariner 7 (bottom) flew by farther south, taking pictures primarily of the southerly latitudes and the South Polar Cap. The picture outlines have been superimposed upon a globe made from Earth-based observations.

Aurorae Sinus
As Mars appeared in the television field-of-view, Mariner 6 began to record pictures on its tape recorders. The first eight pictures, taken of the limb, Aurorae Sinus, and Pyrrhae Regio, revealed two significant features: evidence of atmospheric haze at the limb and a previously unidentified, uncratered type of "chaotic" terrain. Far encounter pictures of this area, such as 7F69, showed several dark north-south streaks and a very mottled texture. Although it is not positively identifiabre, there appears to be a haze layer just beyond the limb in 6N1. This would corroborate the thin haze layers seen in some of the far encounter pictures. High resolution frames 6N6, 8, and 14 show a jumbled, broken type of terrain which has been labelled "chaotic." Careful study of both the narrow- and wide-angle frames suggests that chaotic terrain covers a substantial portion of 6N5, 7, and 9, and that it does not clearly resemble any areas on either the Earth or Moon. In the B frames this terrain appears to be topographically depressed, lower than the surrounding cratered areas. Since there are few if any recognizable craters in this chaotic area, it is inferred that chaotic terrain is younger than the surrounding cratered terrain and, perhaps, is presently developing and expanding into cratered areas. (Frame 6N14, which fortuitously overlapped this group of pictures, is discussed in the Meridiani Sinus group. )

Enhanced photometric version

6N1 (opposite), of the Martian limb over the Candor region, shows evidence of an atmospheric haze layer just beyond the limb. At bottom is an enhanced photometric version of 6Nl. Beginning with 6N1, a photometric version of each wide-angle picture will be included ( except for 6N23 and 6N25 ). This version, which has been contrast-enhanced, provides an indication of the actual appearance of Mars. 6N2 (above) is a highly foreshortened, high-resolution picture of the region very close to the limb.

Enhanced photometric version

6N3 (opposite), including northern Aurorae Sinus, shows some of the dark streaks that were prominent in 7F69. The dark band down the center of the picture is due to the residual image (an instrumental defect described in Chapter 2) of 6N1 and does not actually appear on the Martian surface. At bottom is an enhanced photometric version of 6N3. 6N4 (above) hints at topographic detail, but no features have yet been positively identified.

Enhanced photometric version

6N5 (opposite) provides a panorama of territory in which chaotic
terrain has been located. At the moderate resolution of this wide-angle view, it is not possible to identify this terrain's small tell-tale detailsuch identification depends on use of the narrow-angle frames located within these A frames. At bottom is an enhanced photometric version of 6N5.

6N6 (above) is a narrow-angle frame that clearly shows the jumbled, broken, and blocky terrain. There is a definite boundary, down the center of this picture, between the chaotic terrain in the western half and the smoother, cratered terrain to the east.

Enhanced photometric version

6N7 (opposite) is the only A frame sharp enough to allow direct discrimination between chaotic and cratered areas on the basis of topographic texture. It also contains all three B frames, 6N6, 8, and 14, which show these boundaries at higher resolution. At bottom is an enhanced photometric version of 6N7. 6N8 (above) shows another example, in the lower right corner, of a boundary between cratered and chaotic areas. Notice the fissures apparently extending from this boundary into the cratered terrain. Such fissures add to evidence that chaotic terrain is probably younger than and encroaching upon the cratered terrain.

6N9-25, Meridiani Sinus
After recording 6N8, the Mariner 6 computer "slewed the television cameras to point farther north and photograph the dark feature Meridiani Sinus. Later, after 6N13, a second slew directed the camy eras southward again to s t ~ ~ dthe boundary between the dark Sabaeus Sinus and lighter Deucalionis Regio. In far encounter, Meridiani Sinus and Sabaeus Sinus appeared as very we11 defined dark features extending to the west of Syrtis Major (7F67, 6F30). In trying to identify such albedo variations in these near encounter pictures, it is important to remember the on-board processing explained in Chapter 2, which served to minimize the visibility of such large albedo variations. Careful comparison of light and dark areas has not yielded any sure explanation of the difference between them. The tentative conclusion has been offered, however, that some light areas are areas of lower elevation onto which light dust has been transported, possibly by winds. These 17 pictures also offer the most extensive and comprehensive coverage of Martian cratered terrain and thus lend themselves to comparison with pictures of the Earth's moon. Such analysis has revealed that, unlike the Moon, Mars has two distinct crater classes: small, young, bowl-shaped craters and larger, older, flat-bottomed craters, which have been strongly modified by unknown processes.

lo0

E~lllaiicedphoto~netricversion

6N9 (opposite) is a somewhat oblique view of the western side of Meridiani Sinus. There are perhaps some areas of chaotic terrain in the lower left corner. At bottom is an enhanced photometric version of 6N9. 6N10 (above) shows several of the small bowl-shaped craters that are believed to be relative newcomers to the Martian landscape. Their youth is inferred from the lack of extensive erosion evident in the larger craters. The two faint, dark annular features in the upper center of 6N10 are defects of the Mariner 6 B camera, characteristic of all pictures taken with this camera; they are not markings on Mars.

Enhanced photometric version

6 N l l (opposite), another view of the Meridiani Sinus area, shows an abundance of the older, flat-bottomed craters. At bottom is an enhanced photometric version of 6 N l l . 6 N l 2 (above) provides another high-resolution view of the Meridiani Sinus area.

6N13 is the best Mariner 6 picture of Meridiani Sinus. An enhanced photometric version, with the albedo variations apparent, is shown in Chapter 2 and should be studied to better identify the large dark shape apparent earlier in far encounter pictures. This version, however, shows clearly the very definite and intricate eastern boundary of Meridiani Sinus. At the far right of the picture is the western portion of the large crater Edom, seen in far encounter, 7F67. Notice that the floors of many craters within Meridiani Sinus appear to be covered partially with light material and partially with dark material. This observation has led some geologists to surmise that a light-colored material, such as dust, has been transported from the light areas into the depressed crater bottoms.

6N14 is the first picture taken after the cameras were slewed back
to the original track and tilted westward. This is a highly foreshortened view of chaotic terrain; and, fortuitously, this picture overlaps 6N6, taken more than 4 minutes earlier. Notice the fissures which appear to be expanding into cratered terrain from the depressed, chaotic "valley."

Enhanced photonletric version

6N15 (opposite) includes a portion of the limb in the upper left corner of this view looking back at Aurorae Sinus and Pyrrhae Regio. Notice the same diagonal features as those seen in 6N7. At bottom is an enhanced photometric version of 6N15. 6N16 (above) provides a ready conlparisoil between the two characteristic kinds of Martian craters. The large crater just right of center is an example of a large (approximately %-kilometer diameter) flatbottomed crater, with subdued edges and evidence of extensive modification. On its rim is a small bowl-shaped crater with very sharp edges and a lip that appears to be slightly elevated above the surrounding ground.

Enhanced photometric version

6N17 (opposite) shows another expanse of cratered terrain. At botton1 is an enhanced photometric version of 6N17. 6N18 (above) contains in the lower left the edge of what is apparently a large, nearly obliterated "ghost" crater. While the prominent crater in the upper middle of 6N18 may be easily identified in 6N14, this larger "ghost" crater edge is not apparent in the A frame.

Enhanced photonletsic version

6N19 (opposite) continues the panorama of Martian craters. At bottom is an enhanced photometric version of 6N19. 6N20 (above) shows at the left a crater with a concentric doublering appearance and, at the right, a ridge-like feature more than 50 kilometers long.

Enhailced photometric versioil

6N21 (opposite) includes the boundary between dark Sabaeus Sinus and light Deucalionis Regio. Careful crater counts in both regions indicate there is no significant difference between crater distributions in light and dark areas. At bottom is an enhanced photometric version of 6N21. 6N22 (above), illuminated by a low Sun (14 degrees above the horizon), reveals a surface with a great deal of subtle topography.

6N23 (above) was taken at the afternoon terminator. Detail is less apparent than in 6N21, an effect due perhaps to greater surface obscuration by an atmospheric haze or to the difference in filters through which the pictures were taken. 6N24 (opposite, top), taken in very dim light, shows several possible craters. 6N25 (opposite, bottom) was taken beyond the terminator.

7N1-9, Meridiani Sinus
Mariner 7 also obtained pictures of Meridiani Sinus during its near encounter sequence. One of the most interesting aspects of these pictures, however, is the information they have provided about possible haze layers in the Martian atmosphere. Meteorologic analysis of this information has led to the following conclusion: Above this portion of the Martian surface there were probably three distinct, colorless haze layers located between 5 and 45 kilometers above the surface.

Enhanced photometric version

7N1 (opposite) clearly presents the limb haze at the bottom of the picture. At bottom is an enhanced photometric version of 7N1. 4N2 (above) was fortuitously taken of the limb. This high-resolution view clearly shows the detachment of the haze layer from the surface.

Enhanced photometric version

7N3 (opposite) shows the cratered terrain north of Meridiani Sinus. version of 7N3. At bottom is an enhanced photo~netric

7N4 (above) shows the fairly indistinct outline of several highly
foreshortened craters.

Enhanced photometric version

7N5 (opposite) presents the dark mass of Meridiani Sinus. Again, reference to the photometric version is useful. Many of the craters seen here are readily identified in the Mariner 6 near encounter pictures. Also, near the limb at the bottom of the picture is the eastern portion of dark Oxia Palus (compare 7F35 and 6F33). At bottom is an enhanced photometric version of 7N5. 7N6 (above) probably overlaps a small portion of the Mariner 6 B frame, 6N12. Again notice the light appearance of part of many of the crater bottoms.

7N7 (above) shows again the intricate detail
of the eastern edge of Meridiani Sinus.

4N8 (opposite, top) provides a more detailed view of the craters south of Meridiani Sinus. The Sun is almost directly above this region, a possible explanation of the subdued appearance of this topography. 7N9 (opposite, bottom) reveals more of the crater Edom than was visible in 6N13. This pict.ure, taken through a blue filter, shows lower contrast than 4N5 or 7, supporting Earth-based observations that the Martian surface exhibits reduced contrast in blue light.

7N7

South Polar
Mariner 6 far encounter pictures had shown there was tantalizing detail prominent both in the interior and along the edge of the South Polar Cap. This observation motivated the mission scientists and engineers to increase the Mariner 7 near encounter Polar Cap coverage from six pictures to ten pictures. After finishing their trace across Meridiani Sinus, the television cameras were slewed far south to the Polar Cap edge. These two mosaics provide the most graphic illustration of the operation of the automatic gain control, described in Chapter 2. The top mosaic shows the Polar Cap as it would have actually appeared to an observer aboard the spacecraft. The second mosaic shows the maximum definition versions of these pictures. In this lower version, notice that the Polar Cap is about the same shade of grey as the bare ground to the left and that a very dark band has been artificially introduced along the cap edge. The attributes of this second version, however, are obvious when one compares the fine detail apparent both on and off the cap to the much less detailed rendition of these same areas in the upper mosaic. The depth of snow inferred from these pictures and the low temperatures measured on the cap by the infrared radiometer have led most investigators to conclude that the snow is frozen carbon dioxide, dry ice," not frozen water like the Earth's polar caps.
"

7N10 (above) shows the area just north of the cap, and, because of its bland appearance, is an enigmatic picture. Far encounter pictures, e.g., 6F40, suggested there was a haze over the morning portion of the Polar Cap; and such a haze, if present, could account for the lack of detail in 7N10. 7 N l l (opposite) provides a view of the Polar Cap edge. Topographic detail is clearly seen through the snow layer. At bottom is an version of 7N 11. enhanced photon~etric

Enhanced photometric version

7N12 (above) is a deceptive telephoto view of the cap edge. Since
the sunlight is coming from the left side of the frame, what appear to be shadowed crater walls are, in fact, the sunlit slopes from which the snow has been melted or sublimated by the direct sunlight. The bright slopes of the craters are the areas inclined away from the Sun where snow still remains.

7N13 (opposite) continues the picture track across the polar cap.
For many craters, the rims appear brighter and the floors darker than the surrounding surface. In this area, crater shapes and distributions are similar to those of nonpolar regions on Mars. At bottom is an enhanced photometric version of 7N13.

Enhanced photometric version

7N14 (above) presents some features apparently unlike any seen elsewhere on Mars. The large circular feature at the lower right, nicknamed the "elephant's footprint," contains several very irregularly outlined depressions that do not resemble craters. Here these features, referred to as "etch pits," appear to be quite shallow. 7N15 (opposite) shows more etch pits. In addition, there is a very unusual, lumpy texture to the surface just below and to the left of the large, flat-bottomed crater near the right margin of the picture. At bottom is an enhanced photometric version of 7N15.

Enhanced photometric version

7 N l 6 (above) introduces unusual features of seemingly positive relief such as the bright, raised area near the picture center. Isolated knobs and hills of this sort have not been identified elsewhere on Mars. 7N17 (opposite) includes the actual South Pole near the lower right
corner of the picture. In the vicinity of the Pole there is a noticeable lack of craters and other features common elsewhere on the Polar Cap. Notice, also, the alignnlent of curved streaks around the Pole. At bottom is an enhanced photometric version of 7N14.

Enhanced photometric version

7N 18 ( above ) reveals the small-scale surface texture and features present deep within the Polar Cap. 7N19 (opposite, top) displays a long, scalloped arc which stretches about 900 kilometers across the center of the picture and appears to separate the heavily cratered Cap areas from the sparsely cratered central ones. The nighttime ternlinator passes through the right side of this picture. 7N20 (opposite, bottom), the "giant's footprint," is a feature straddling the scalloped arc seen in 7N19.

Enhanced photometric version

After passing beyond the Polar Cap terminator, the cameras were pointed northward and back toward the limb again. The next eleven pictures showed additional cratered areas plus a new type of terrain, which has been described as featureless, in the floor of Hellas. As seen in far encounter (e.g., 6F46), Hellas is a large circular area that appears bright throughout its crossing from terminator to limb.

Enhanced photo~netric version

7N21 (opposite), our final view of the limb, looks north toward Meridiani Sinus, the dark area near the horizon. At bottom is an enhanced photometric version of 7N21. 7N22 (above), highly foreshortened, shows some indistinct craters and subtle linear markings.

Enhanced photometric version

7N23 (opposite) includes much of Noachis. Craters seen here do not appear to differ significantly from those in Mariner 6 pictures. At bottom is an enhanced photometric version of 7N23. 7N24 (above) reveals more flat-bottomed craters.

Enhanced photometric version

7N25 (opposite) offers an interesting view of the transitional area between cratered terrain and Hellas. The diagonal ridges in the upper right corner characterize a gentle downward slope to the lower floor of Hellas, in the extreme corner. At bottom is an enhanced photometric version of 7N25. 7N26 (above) is a high-resolution picture of these ridges and shows an otherwise largely smooth surface. Notice that the ridges appear to predate the craters in the lower left corner because the craters, like those seen in 7N25, interrupt the ridges and are apparently not controlled by the ridges.

Enhanced photometric version

7N27 (opposite) shows the distinctively featureless floor of Hellas. Three craters are visible near the western boundary, but none are clearly identified further into Hellas. Apparently, some process is operating, or has operated, in Hellas which either prevents the formation of craters or erases such craters as they form. At bottom is an enhanced photometric version of 7N27. 7N28 (above) is evidence of the lack of visible features at a resolution of approximately 500 meters.

Enhanced photometric version

7N29 (opposite) covers more of the Hellas floor. At bottom is an enhanced photometric version of 7N29. 7N30 (above) supports. the evidence of 7N28.

Enhanced photometric version

7N31 (opposite) shows that even at the very low solar elevation angle of 8 degrees there are no identifiable features. At bottom is ail enhanced photometric version of 7N31. 7N32 (above), like 7N31, shows the lack of identifiable features on
the floor of Hellas.

CHAPTER 5

Summary

Since the seventeenth century, Mars has captivated man's imagination. From rudimentary knowledge, man has imagined that Mars, of all the planets, most closely resembles Earth and is perhaps capable of supporting life. Mariner 4 abruptly reversed these visions and suggested that perhaps Mars, heavily cratered and lacking Earth's dense atmosphere and strong magnetic field, more closely resembled the Moon. The Mariner 6 and 7 flights have finally revealed a unique Martian character, distinctly different from that of either the Earth or the Moon. Martian crater shapes and size distributions differ significantly from the lunar counterparts. Chaotic terrain appears unlike anything recognized on either the Moon or the Earth; and featureless terrain has no lunar equivalent. Dramatic Polar Cap pictures reveal long ridges and irregular depressions of unknown nature and origin. Clearly, the handiwork of uniquely Martian phenomena is evidenced on the surface. Tenuous, patchy layers of haze are seen in the atmosphere above local regions of Mars. Mars' larger moon, Phobos, is found to be the darkest object yet identified in the solar system. Finally, Earthlings' views of Martian "life" have undergone major evolution. Lowell's canal-constructing race can finally be abandoned. However, this does not eliminate the possibility that simpler microbial life may have developed; nor does it diminish the importance of learning whether life of any kind has ever existed or presently exists on the planet. In this connection, Dr. Norman Horowitz has warned ". . . . it should be noted that if Mars is to be a testing ground for our notions about the origin of life, we must avoid using these same notions to disprove in advance the possibility of life on the planet." These 200 Mariner 6 and 7 pictures, taken in a brief span of 8 days, have told us much about our planetary neighbor and have raised many new questions whose answers await the discoveries of future missions.

Bibliography
Glasstone, S., The Book of Mars, NASA-SP-179. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1968. Leighton, R. B., et al., "Mariner 6 and 7 Television Pictures: Preliminary Analysis," Science, Vol. 166, No. 3901, pp. 49-67, October 3, 1969. Leighton, R. B., et al., "The Mariner 6 and 7 Pictures of Mars," Special Supplement, Journal of Geophysical Research, January 1971. Mariner-Mars 1964, Final Project Report, NASA SP-139. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1967. Mariner-Mars 1969, A Preliminary Report, NASA SP-225. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C., 1969. Slipher, E. C., The Photographic Story of Mars, Sky Publishing Corporation, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1962.

MARINER MARS 1969 TELEVISION EXPERIMENT TEAM
ROBERT LEIGHTON, B. Principal Investigator MERTON DAVIES E. ALAN HERRIMAN G. NORGAN HOROWITZ H. CONWAY LEOVY B. BRUCE MURRAY C. ROBERT SHARP P. BRADFORDSMITH A. ANDREW YOUNG T. California Institute of Technology RAND Corporation Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology University of Washington California Institute of Technology California Institute of Technology New Mexico State University Jet Propulsion Laboratory

MARINER MARS 1969 PROJECT MANAGEMENT
N. W. CUNNINGHAM, NASA R. A. KENNEDY, NASA NASA R. F. FELLOWS, JPL H. hl. SCHURMEIER, JPL H. W. NORRIS, JPL J. R. CASANI, V. C. CLARKE, JPL J. A. STALLKAMP, JPL M. S. JOHNSON, JPL N. A. RENZETTI, JPL W. R. DUNBAR, Lewis Research Center Program Manager Program Engineer Program Scientist Project Manager Spacecraft System Manager Deputy Spacecraft System Manager Mission Analysis and Engineering Manager Project Scientist Mission Operations Systems Manager Tracking and Data System Manager Launch Vehicle System A4anager

MARINER MARS 1969 TELEVISION PERSONNEL
P. M. SALOMON S. B. SENG W. J. SLEIGH R. K. SLOAN G. M. SMITH D. L. SMYTH L. M. SNYDER L. A. SODERBLOM J. M. SOHA H. P. SQUYRES W. D. STROMBERG F. VESCELUS

Appendix

FAR ENCOUNTER PHOTOREFERENCE TABLE
Picture number Shutter direction Range, Phase Sub-spacecraft point Kilometers/ pixela

km
1,244,221 1,228,388 1,212,556 1,196,724 1,180,281 1,164,448 1,148,615 1,132,782 1,116,342 1,100,507 1,083,790 1,068,232 1,052,399 1,036,568 1,020,733 1,004,291 988,457 972,624 956,181 940,347 924,514 908,679 892,236 876,402 860,568 844,733 828,289 812,455 796,619 780,175 764,339 748,454 732,667 568,196 540,171 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21

"

Longitude, " W

Latitude

'

6F1 6F2 6F3 6F4 6F5 6F6 6F7 6F8 6F9 6F10 6Fll 6F12 6F13 6F14 6F15 6F16 6F17 6F18 6F19 6F20 6F21 6F22 6F23 6F24 6F25 6F26 6F27 6F28 6F29 6F30 6F31 6F32 6F33 6F34 6F35

Bottom Bottom Bottom Bottom TOP TOP TOP TOP Bottom Bottom Bottom TOP TOP TOP TOP Bottom Bottom Bottom TOP TOP TOP Top Bottom Bottom Bottom Bottom TOP TOP TOP Bottom Bottom Bottom Bottom Bottom Bottom

100 109 117 126 136 145 153 162 172 181 190 199 208 217 226 235 244 253 262 271 280 289 298 307 316 325 334 343 352 1 10 19 28 120 136

-6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6

34.0 33.4 32.9 32.5 32.1 31.7 31.3 30.8 30.4 30.0 29.5 29.0 28.6 28.2 27.8 27.3 26.8 26.4 26.0 25.6 25.2 24.7 24.3 23.8 23.4 23.0 22.6 22.1 21.7 21.2 20.8 20.4 19.9 15.4 14.7

a6F1-33 and 7F0-67 are 480 pixels in width. 6F34-49 and 7F69-93 are 960 pixels in width.

FAR ENCOUNTER PHOTOREFERENCE TABLE (Contd)
Picture number Shutter direction Range, Phase Sub-spacecraftpoint " ~ o n ~ i t u d'W e; Latitude Kilometers/ pixela

krn
512,753 484,723 457,301 429,267 401,840 401,231 376,849 352,463 328,075 304,293 279,898 255,498 231,092 206,680 1,844,034 1,720,371 1,697,072 1,685,722 1,674,371 1,663,021 1,651,670 1,640,320 1,628,371 1,617,023 1,605,671 1,594,321 1,582,971 1,571,621 1,559,673 1,548,323 1,536,973 1,525,623 1,514,167 1,502,923 1,490,977 1,479,626 1,468,279 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22

6F36 6F37 6F38 6F39 6F40 6F41 6F42 6F43 6F44 6F45 6F46 6F47 6F48 6F49 7F0 7F1 7F3 7F4 7F5 7F6 7F7 7F8 7F9 7F10 7Fll 7F12 7F13 7F14 7F15 7F16 7F17 7F18 7F19 7F20 7F21 7F22 7F23

TOP TOP Bottom Bottom Bottom Bottom Bottom Bottom Bottom TOP TOP TOP TOP TOP TOP Bottom TOP Bottom TOP Bottom TOP Bottom Bottom TOP Bottom TOP Bottom TOP TOP Bottom TOP Bottom TOP Bottom Bottom TOP Bottom

151 167 182 198 213 214 227 241 255 268 282 295 309 322 50 121 134 141 147 154 160 167 173 180 186 193 199 206 213 219 226 233 239 246 252 259 265

-6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -7 -7 -7 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4

13.9 13.1 12.4 11.6 10.9 10.9 10.2 9.5 8.8 8.2 7.5 6.9 6.2 5.5 50.3 46.9 46.3 46.0 45.7 45.3 45.0 44.7 44.4 44.1 43.8 43.5 43.2 42.9 42.5 42.2 41.9 41.6 41.3 41.0 40.7 40.4 40.1

FAR ENCOUNTER PHOTOREFERENCE TABLE (Contd)
Picture number Shutter direction Range, Phase Sub-spacecraft point

km
1,453,533 1,445,577 1,433,630 1,422,281 1,410,931 1,399,581 1,388,233 1,376,882 1,364,937 1,353,586 1,199,474 1,184,540 1,169,009 1,154,076 1,138,545 1,123,613 1,108,081 1,092,551 1,077,617 1,062,086 1,047,152 1,031,621 1,016,687 1,001,156 985,625 970,691 955,160 940,225 924,693 909,759 894,227 878,695 863,760 848,227 833,292 817,760 803,248 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 22 22 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23

"

Longitude, "W

Latitude

Kilometers/ pixela

'

7F24 7F25 7F26 7F27 7F28 7F29 7F30 7F31 7F32 7F33 7F35 7F36 7F37 7F38 7F39 7F40 7F41 7F42 7F43 7F44 7F45 7F46 7F47 7F48 7F49 7F50 7F51 7F52 7F53 71754 7F55 7F56 7F57 7F58 7F59 7F60 7F61

TOP Bottom TOP TOP Bottom TOP Bottom TOP TOP Bottom Bottom TOP TOP Bottom Bottom TOP TOP TOP Bottom Bottom TOP Top Bottom Bottom Bottom TOP TOP Bottom Bottom TOP TOP TOP Bottom Bottom TOP TOP Bottom

272 278 285 292 298 305 311 318 325 331 60 68 77 86 95 103 112 121 130 139 147 156 165 174 183 191 200 209 218 226 235 244 253 261 270 279 287

-4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4

39.8 39.4 39.1 38.8 38.5 38.2 37.9 37.6 37.3 37.0 32.8 32.4 31.9 31.5 31.1 30.7 30.3 29.9 29.5 29.0 28.6 28.2 27.8 27.3 26.9 26.5 26.1 25.7 25.3 24.8 24.4 24.0 23.6 23.2 22.8 22.4 22.0

FAR ENCOUNTER PHOTOREFERENCE TABLE (Contd)
Picture number Shutter direction Range, Phase Sub-spacecraftpoint Longitude, "W Latitude

krn
787,291 772,355 756,821 741,287 726,351 710,816 535,132 514,811 495,087 474,764 455,037 435,309 414,982 395,251 374,920 355,185 335,449 315,112 295,370 275,625 255,279 235,527 215,173 195,412 175,645 155,273 150,478 145,084 140,288 134,892 130,095 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22

"

Kilometers/ pixel"

7F62 7F63 7F64 7F65 7F66 7F67 7F69 7F70 7F71 7F72 7F73 7F74 7F75 7F76 7F77 7F78 7F79 7F80 7F81 7F82 7F83 7F84 7F85 7F86 7F87 7F88 7F89 7F90 7F91 7F92 7F93

Bottom TOP TOP TOP Bottom Bottom Bottom Bottom TOP TOP Bottom TOP TOP Bottom Bottom TOP Bottom Bottom TOP Bottom Bottom TOP TOP Bottom TOP TOP TOP Bottom Bottom TOP Tol?

296 305 314 323 331 340 81 93 104 116 127 138 150 161 173 184 195 207 218 230 241 252 264 275 286 298 300 304 306 309 312

-4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -4 -5 -5 -5 -5 -5 -5 -5 -5 -5 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6 -6

21.5 21.1 20.7 20.3 19.9 19.4 14.6 14.0 13.5 12.9 12.4 11.9 11.3 10.8 10.2 9.7 9.1 8.6 8.0 7.5 6.9 6.4 5.8 5.3 4.8 4.2 4.0 3.9 3.7 3.6 3.5

NEAR ENCOUNTER PHOTOREFERENCE TABLE
Data at center of picture Picture number Shutter or filter Picture dimension on surface, km

slant
range, krn

Phase angle, "
44 52 52 52 52 52 51 52 51 52 51 52 52 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 37 43 44 44 44 44 44 44 44

Viewing LongiSolar elevation angle, " tude, "W angle, "

Latiyde7 Horizontal
-6 4 -2 -5 -8 - 10 - 13 - 14 0 -1 -3 -3 -4 - 13 - 16 - 17 - 18 - 16 - 17 - 16 - 16 - 15 - 14 - 13 -5 20 12 4 -2 -7 - 12 - 17 -21

Vertical

6Nla 6N2 6N3 6N4 6N5 6N6 6N7 BN8 6N9 6N10 6Nll 6N12 6N13 6N14 6N15 6N16 6N17 6N18 6N19 6N20 6N21 6N22 6N23 6N24 7Nla 7N2" 7N3 7N4 7N5 7N6 7N7 7N8 7N9

Blue TOP Green Bottom Red TOP Green Bottom Blue TOP Green Bottom Red TOP Green Bottom Blue TOP Green Bottom Red TOP Green Bottom Blue TOP Green Bottom Red TOP Green Bottom Blue

6621 7389 6598 6159 5699 5355 5030 4778 4930 4727 4541 4428 4331 4903 4404 4105 3865 3746 3617 3546 3501 3498 3522 3584 8725 9766 9118 8492 7995 7552 7136 6774 6443

88 71 83 85 79 73 66 61 49 44 39 35 29 71 60 52 44 38 31 24 20 14 8 3 79 58 67 75 82 88 85 80 74

45 70 57

51 42 37 30 25 41 39 37 38 40 62 50 42 34 31 25 21 17 15 15 18 44 75 67 59 52 46 41 36 31

53 67 56 50 43 37 31 26 14 10 4 0 354 37 26 18 10 4 357 351 345 340 334 328 9 13 59 5 3 359 356 353 350

551

238 2283 162 1492 128 1511 123 1177 109 1090 253 2202 123 1270 105 983 91 889 86 880 88

-

401

269 3143 203 1989

1292 143 1324 118 1127 103 990 92 1228 11 1 1124 107 1130 94 865 79 756 73 718 69 697 69 706 71 1767 201 2144 162 1598 144 1406 130 1272

aFor this limb picture, the picture center was not on the planet. Therefore, the data given here is for the point at the center of the right edge of the frame.

NEAR ENCOUNTER PHOTOREFERENCE TABLE (Contd)
Data at center of picture Picture number Shutter or filter Slant range, krn Viewing Longielevation angle, " tude, " W angle, " Picture dimension on surface, krn

Phase angle, "

Latiyde' Horizontal
-54 -57
-61 -65 -68 -71 -74 -77 -77 -78 -75 -21 -28 -34 -38 -42 -44 -46 -41 -41 -39 - 38 168 1650 149 1512 142 1484 141 1549 148 1837 172

Vertical

7N10 7Nll 7N12 7N13 7N14 7N15 7N 16 7N17 ' 7N18 7N19 7N20 7N21 7N22 7N23 7N24 7N25 7N26 7N27 7N28 7N29 7N30 7N31

TOP Green Bottom Red TOP Green Bottom Blue TOP Green Bottom Red TOP Green Bottom Blue TOP Green Bottom Red TOP Green

6693 6381 6095 5886 5662 5495 5318 5195 5069 5013 4971 5337 4818 4431 4154 3938 3778 3656 3679 3633 3636 3660

35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 35 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80

39 38 36 34 31 28 25 21 18 13 8 76 66 57 49 43 36 31 24 19 13 8

48 45 43 43 42 43 43 45 46 49 53 66 56 47 40 34 29 24 28 26 27 28

33 ' 27 21 17 9 1 349 334 314 291 269 354 346 339 331 324 316 308 298 291 284 277

210 1951 132 1218 104 989 94 925 89 915

190 2025 159 1690 143 1513 132 1394 124 1356 124 1066 92 868 80 773 73 723 77 779 78 811

NASA has prepared this map of Mars from the Mariner 1969 television pictures. Far encounter pictures provided the basis for most of the map, but near encounter data was used for areas of near encounter coverage. T o most dramatically present the Martian topography, the cartographers used maximum-definition near encounter pictures in their work. Since this data, unlike the far encounter data, is not photometrically accurate, there is an obvious mismatch at the boundaries between areas drawn from far encounter pictures and those drawn using near encounter data. This maximum definition data has also caused Meridiani Sinus to appear much less prominent than it actually is and has caused the spurious dark band along the edge of the polar cap. However, this map shows many features previously unmapped and locates other features naore accurately than was previously possible.

159
* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1971 0-424-086

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