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Overview: Literature:

What is Logic? Handouts: (J. Kelly)

Propositional Logic The Essence of Logic:

Predicate Logic chapter 1 (not 1.6)

chapter 6

What is Logic?

J Definitions of ‘logic’

J The art of reasoning

J the branch of philosophy that analyzes inference

J Reasoned and reasonable judgment; "it made a certain kind of

logic"

J the principles that guide reasoning within a given field or

situation: "economic logic requires it"; "by the logic of war"

J a system of reasoning

1

Aristotoles (384–322 B.C.)

which we come to know anything.

J formal rules for correct reasoning

J Syllogism:

Socrates is a man

Socrates is mortal

J characteristica universalis

J universal language to describe all scientific concepts

J calculus ratiocinator

J method to reason with that language

J salva veritate

J two expressions can be interchanged without changing the

truth-value of the statements in which they occur

say: Let us calculate [calculemus]!”

2

Criticism to logic

means of constraining the reasoning process; we [people]

don’t solve problems using logic, we just use it to explain

our solutions.”

[Marvin Minsky]

J High expressive power

J Well-understood formal semantics

J Precise notion of logical consequence

J Proof systems that can automatically derive statements

syntactically from a set of premises

J Logic can provide explanations for answers

J By tracing a proof that leads to a logical consequence

3

Uses of Logic

J Argumentation

J Inference (systems)

J Cognitive psychology & AI

J descriptive use of logic

J Normative systems

J prescriptive use of logic

J Knowledge representation

Warning!

J Meta-language

J Different levels

J Abstraction

J Difference to everyday use of concepts

J Temporal, causal, … relations

4

Propositional Logic and Predicate Logic

J Propositional Logic

J The study of statements and their connectivity structure.

J Predicate Logic

J The study of individuals and their properties.

than predicate logic.

J Propositional/predicate logic are unique in the sense that

sound and complete proof systems do exist.

J Not for more expressive logics (higher-order logics)

Socrates is a man Socrates is a man

Socrates is mortal Socrates has blue skin

J Nothing is said about the actual truth of premisses!

J The concern of logic is that…

J … never a false conclusion can be reached from true

premises!

5

Propositional Logic

J Truth Tables

J Logical equivalence

J Tautology

J Contradiction

Basic elements

J Logical connectives

J ∧ and

J ∨ or

J ¬ not

J → implication, if … then …

J ↔ bi-implication, iff (if and only if)

J atoms = facts = statements

J Propositions can be constructed based on atoms and

connectives

6

Truth values

J true (T) or false (F)

J v(A) represents the truth value of A

J T and F are often represented as 1 resp. 0

Truth tables

connectives

J List ALL possible cases

J Example, for negation :

A ¬A

T F

F T

7

Truth table for AND (∧)

A B A∧B

F F F

F T F

T F F

T T T

A B A∨B

F F F

F T T

T F T

T T T

8

Truth table for implication (→)

A B A→B

F F T

F T T

T F F

T T T

V((dog is animal) → (dog breaths) ) = T

17 20-11-2007 DKS - Module 3

A B A↔B

F F T

F T F

T F F

T T T

9

Remarks on implication

natural language

J Temporal issues

J Causal relations

J Implication in propositional logic refers to the truth values

of the atoms!

J E.g. compare:

J If the moon is made of cheese then it is tasty

J If the moon is made of cheese then 2 x 2 = 5

J Both are true, but the first sounds more ‘logical’!!

J Tautology

J A logical expression that has truth value T is all cases

J Contradiction

J A logical expression that has truth value F is all cases

10

Example: tautology

(A∧B)→ (C∨(¬B→¬C))

A B C A∧B ¬B ¬C ¬B→¬C C∨(¬B→¬C) (A∧B)→ (C∨(¬B→¬C))

F F F F T T T T T

F F T F T F F T T

F T F F F T T T T

F T T F F F T T T

T F F F T T T T T

T F T F T F F T T

T T F T F T T T T

T T T T F F T T T

Example: tautology

(A∧B)→ (C∨(¬B→¬C))

A B C A∧B ¬B ¬C ¬B→¬C C∨(¬B→¬C) (A∧B)→ (C∨(¬B→¬C))

F F F F T T T T T

F F T F T F F T T

F T F F F T T T T

F T T F F F T T T

T F F F T T T T T

T F T F T F F T T

T T F T F T T T T

T T T T F F T T T

11

Example: Contradiction

A ¬A A∧¬A

F T F

T F F

Logical equivalence

they have the same truth table

J That is, each truth assignment of the atoms results in

the same truth value for the expression

J Notation: A ≡ B

J A and B are logically equivalent

12

Example

F F F F F T T T F

F T F F T T F T F

T F F T F F T T F

T T T T T F F F T

Example

F F F F F T T T F

F T F F T T F T F

T F F T F F T T F

T T T T T F F F T

Conclusion:

A ∧ B ≡ ¬(¬A ∨ ¬B)

13

Equivalence laws

J A ∧0 ≡0

J A ∧1 ≡A

J A ∨0 ≡A

J A ∨1 ≡1

J A ∧A ≡A

J A ∨A ≡A

Equivalence laws

J A ∧0 ≡0 J A ∧ B≡B∧ A

J A ∧1 ≡A J A ∨ B≡B∨ A

J A ∨0 ≡A J A ∧ (A ∨ B) ≡ A

J A ∨1 ≡1 J A ∨ (A ∧ B) ≡ A

J A ∧A ≡A J A ∨ (¬A ∧ B) ≡ A ∨ B

J A ∨A ≡A J A ∧ (¬A ∨ B) ≡ A ∧ B

J A ∧ ¬A ≡ 0 J (A ∧ B) ∨ (A ∧ ¬B) ≡ A

J A ∨ ¬A ≡ 1 J A → B ≡ ¬A ∨ B

J ¬¬A ≡ A J A → B ≡ ¬(A ∧ ¬B)

14

Equivalence laws (general)

J Distributivity

J A ∧ (B ∨ C) ≡ (A ∧ B) ∨ (A ∧ C)

J A ∨ (B ∧ C) ≡ (A ∨ B) ∧ (A ∨ C)

J De Morgan Laws

J ¬(A ∧ B) ≡ ¬A ∨ ¬B

J ¬(A ∨ B) ≡ ¬A ∧ ¬B

Inference

J Modus Ponens

A→B

A

∴B

concluded that B also is true

J E.g. if the rule is (smoke → fire) and you see smoke

then you can conclude that there is fire

15

Predicate logic

J Quantifiers

J 1st order language

J Substitutions, interpretations

Syllogistic reasoning

J Syllogistic reasoning as

Socrates is a man

∴Socrates is mortal

cannot be expressed in propositional logic

16

Objects, predicates, quantifiers

J Needed:

J Objects, such as Socrates

J Predicates, such as mortal

J Quantifiers, such as all

J Formally: or:

J ∀x : M(x) → S(x) ∀x : man(x) → mortal(x)

J M(s) man(socrates)

∴ S(s) ∴mortal(socrates)

Quantifiers

J Universal quantifier

J Notation: ∀

J “for all”

J Ex. “(∀x)M(x)” or “∀x : M(x)”

J Existential quantifier

J Notation: ∃

J “exists, there is”

J Ex. “(∃x)M(x)” of “∃x : M(x)”

17

Often used formulas

J All A are B:

J For all x: if x is A then x is B

J (∀x)(A(x) → B(x))

J Some A are B:

J There is x: x is A and x is B

J (∃x)(A(x) ∧ B(x))

Warning

J Big difference:

J (∀x)(∃y)A(x,y)

• For all x there is a y such that A(x,y)

• For all men x there is a woman y such that mother(x,y)

J (∃y)(∀x)A(x,y)

• There is a y such that for all x, A(x,y)

• There is a woman y such that for all man x, mother(x,y)

18

Quantifiers in finite domains

say {a1, …, an}, the universal and existential quantifiers

are a abbreviation for the finite conjunction resp.

disjunction:

J (∀x)A(x) = A(a1) ∧ … ∧ A(an)

J (∃x)A(x) = A(a1) ∨ … ∨ A(an)

J (∃x)A(x) ↔ ¬(∀x)¬A(x)

J (∀x)A(x) ↔ ¬(∃x)¬A(x)

19

Inference

J Modus ponens

(∀x) P(x) → Q(x)

P(a)

∴ Q(a)

where x ∈ X, a ∈ X

J E.g (all kids like ice-cream) and (Bob is a kid) hold, then

deduce (Bob likes ice-cream)

J Exercise: translate into predicate logic!

Next module:

(27 november 2007)

20

41 20-11-2007 DKS - Module 3

21

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