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FBAGMENTS OF A
FAITH FORGOTTEN

FRAGMENTS OF A
FAITH FORGOTTEN
SHORT SKETCHES AMONG THE
GNOSTICS MAINLY OF THE FIRST TWO
CENTURIES A CONTRIBUTION TO THE
STUDY OF CHRISTIAN ORIGINS BASED
ON THE MOST RECENTLY RECOVERED
MATERIALS BY G. R. S. MEAD.
SOME

SECOND EDITION.

London and Benares
Theosophical

Publishing Society

1906

So understand the Light,
with it.

He

answered, and make friends

HERMES THE THRICE-GREATEST.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
THE
first.

second
I

edition

is

practically a reprint

of

the

have removed or altered a few words and

phrases, have added the newest-found Oxyrhynchus
logoi, endeavoured to bring the bibliography up-todate,

and appended an index.
G. R. S. M.

CHELSEA, 1906.

PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.
a series
published in magazine-form
the Gnostics of
of short sketches, entitled Amongst
the polemical
from
drawn
the First Two Centuries,

SOME years ago

I

I have since then
Fathers.
writings of the Church
been asked repeatedly to rescue them from the oblivion

of the

apart.

back -numbers of a Review,
This

I

was

arid publish

for long unwilling to

do because

to comprise a

had planned a large work,
of volumes, and to be called Round
Christendom, the materials of which
I

them

number

the Cradle of
I

was

collect

in

magazine articles,
ing and gradually publishing
all finally
of
intention
the
with
gathering them
in
book-form.
them
and printing
together, revising,
have meant the work of many
would
however,
This,
years,

man

that might never be completed (for no
can count on the future), and which would,

work

have remained in the form of an apparently
disconnected mass of articles, without plan or purpose.

therefore,

decided to publish a pioneer sketch
the outlines of which I
as it were

I have, therefore,

a programme

hope to

fill

in with

more detailed work

in

a series

the
of volumes, small or large as the importance of
various subjects demands.

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

viii.

The second

of

the three main divisions of the

present volume, then, consists, for the most part, of

matter

already

published

it

;

carefully revised.

has, however, been
For the rest, I have

throughout
endeavoured to give the reader a bird s-eye view of
I have, there
the whole field of early Gnosticism.
fore,

added to the above-mentioned

material

to

main

articles the

be derived from the Uncanonical Acts

and the Coptic Gnostic works, and have prefaced
the whole with a general introduction, dealing mainly
with the background of the Gnosis. To all of this I
have appended a short conclusion and some biblio
graphical indications to help the student. The treat
ment of the subject is, therefore, new, in that no one

has previously attempted to bring the whole of these
materials together.

These sketches are

however, primarily in
tended for the student, but are written for the
I have throughout endeavoured my
general reader.
not,

best to keep the interests of the latter always in
view, though I hope at the same time to have given

the student the assurance that the best authorities

have been invariably consulted.
I have, therefore,
on the one hand, explained many things with which
the

generally supposed to be already
familiar, and, on the other, have strenuously resisted
the temptation to learned annotation, to which the
scholar

is

subject readily lends itself in every paragraph, but
which would swell this volume to ten times its

present

size.

I have, then, written so that the

of one language only
last

may

read from the

first

man

to the

page, without being forced to regret his igno-

it understood that have expressed in these pages.PREFACE. another is simple enough for all to understand. have learned through them to sense the work of the Great Master in a totally new light. for my part. so sketches. and I. however. difficulty of the subject is make It is have entirely I the matter clear. that when greater reader comes to a difficult the general passage he need not difficulty is lose to courage. profoundly human interest. S. but this every other writer in the true that the at times so great that even with the best will in the world to and not one of also true of is The nature field. follow. G. for I believe that the subject . they are all purely tentative. 1900. They seem to me to have written many beautiful things. . ranee of other tongues is of IX. merely academical importance. R. M. happens that just the opposite Above all is things I would have thinking for it that frequently the case. LONDON. failed of these is such that if one paragraph deals with a subject which is beyond our comprehension. my main object has been to hand on what the earliest Christian philosophers whatever views I and teachers wrote and thought.

.

.. The Comparative Science of Religion The True Scholar of Religion .... of Comparison The Analysis of Religion ... 18 19 v&quot. . 7 .... 328 .. The One Religion ..Higher Centuries Its Immediate Result The Force The Force . First Two &quot... .. The Sunshine of its Doctrine ... Our Present Task . The Beginnings of Christianity The The &quot.. Providentissimus Deus 4 5 . 3 New Era Two Thousands Years New Hope of To-day ........... 9 ....... 10 .. 14 16 17 ... . . PAGE INTRODUCTION PROLEGOMENA The Creed The The of 1-153 ... of Progress The Nature 5 6 Criticism&quot.. ..... 9 . ... U &quot. .. Christendom ...SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS. . of Reaction . of Criticism The Resultant 11 12 ..... The Just Method ago 18 .. 8 .. ..

. . .... .... Nineteen Centuries Ago and The Return of Souls . 41 ...... The Conditions The of the The Reconciliation . of Science ....... ...... 44 .. The Main Means Where 29 30 to a Recovery of the Outlines 30 .... 600 B.. ....C.. to be Three Mother Streams . to look for their Origins The Greece 36 ..... 37 .... ..... 36 57 42 &quot... Orpheus returns to Greece The Mysteries . ... 26 .. 25 Comparison Intensified Present Occident and Orient Now and Theology 25 The Coming and Going of Souls The Birth and Death of Races . . of &quot... 27 The Manhood . 35 .. The Greece 32 . .... 29 . 46 ........ The Greatest Story in the World The Need of a Background . Their Corruption 33 . . .. PAGE 21 . 47 47 V .. Homer Surveyed 34 The Reason of it . 39 . Primitive Hellas ..FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.. . 43 . 32 .... ......... . The Nature of the Field The Soil of the Field....... Xll.. &quot. 39 .... The Gnostic Schools &quot. GREECE.... 23 ...... 23 . ..... 28 SOME of the Western World ROUGH OUTLINES OF THE BACKGROUND OF THE GNOSIS 29120 PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS . 36 .. The Precursors of Pythagoras The Orphic Tradition. 24 .. The Wavelets of Aryan Immigration The Orphic Line . ...... . of ..

... and Context ...... .... Books Meeting .......... . PHILO ON THE CONTEMPLATIVE LIFE The Essseans .... 64 ...... 48 The . Xlll. Their Retreats The Mareotic Colony. 49 ..SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS. . 65 . 71 ...... PAGE The Various Traditions . 70 70 . .. . The Wisdom . . 60 of Eusebius 61 .... 53 ... ... . The Mysteries EGYPT ... ... 71 72 72 ...... 69 .. 69 68 Their Dwellings . ..... ... The Original Meaning of the Term Monastery Their Prayers and Exercises Mode of their of The Sanctuary Their Rule ... 49 .. . 54 . 50 ..... . 55 ....... .. of Egypt The Blendings of Tradition The Mystic Communities The Therapeuts The Earliest Christians 55 . 66 67 . . of Mithras .. 62 The Pseudo-Philo Theory 63 Its Death-blow An Interesting Question of Date The Title . The Name Therapeut Their Abandonment of the World The Nature 65 57 . 51 ............. 60 .... 86 . ... 51 Political Mysteries The Private Mysteries The Orphic Communities The Philosophic Mysteries Pythagoras and Plato Aristotle and Scepticism East and West Rome . . . ......... ... Their 66 66 .... 57 58 ..

Day 75 . .. 85 The Sacred Dancing The Morning Prayer A ... ........... 8695 . 80 .... . . ... 79 . The Influence of Babylon .. 91 Pharisaism ....... .... 90 91 Judaism . .... 85 . 78 . 82 . 73 73 74 .. ... 88 88 .... ......FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.... ..... ..... .. .. The Variety of Communities JEWRY ..... 76 The Frugal Fare The President The Instruction 77 ...... . The Writing of Scripture-history The Mythology of History Honest Self-delusion .... . .... Fasting . .. 78 . 95 120 96 ...... Housing and Clothing Their Sacred Feasts ....... ...... . The Banquet on the Fiftieth Seniority The Women . .. ... .. Philo s Connection with the Therapeuts The Lay Disciples . The . 86 .. 75 .... ... . 80 . The Seventh-day Common Meal . 79 Bread and Salt . 82 Note on the Sacred Numbers .. .... .. Zealotism .. ... 73 . 84 . ..... The Singing of Hymns ... ... 92 The Chassidim and Essenes .. 75 Disciples The Plain Couches .. . xiv......... 94 ..... 93 The Inner Schools ..... . .. PAGE . 76 The Servers... Bird s-eye View of the City.. ....... The Interpretation of Scripture ... .. Spiritualizing of ALEXANDRIA A .

133 .. ..... 143 .. of Jesus The Main Doctrines THE LITERATURE AND SOURCES OF Literature . . XV... The Letters of Paul THE EBIONITES ............... .... . ...... 136 132 .the . Religion Jewish and Christian Schools 116 . 136 . of Christianity Father&quot...... Yahweh not &quot. PAGE The Populace The Library.. 131 of Jesus ... of Christianity . . 134 .. 143 153 . 126130 .. ... .... 110 113 ..... ..Secularizing&quot.... 146 151 k ....SYNOPOSIS OF CONTENTS.... 102 ........ 138 138 . 109 106 . .... . 124 . 140 . .. 126 The Poor Men 127 The Ebionite Tradition THE ESSENES Their of Jesus ... GENERAL AND GNOSTIC CHRISTIANITY 121153 THE EVOLUTION OF CATHOLIC CHRISTIANITY The Canon 121 The Gentilization 122 123 . 139 The Person . The Gospels.......... The Nazorseans .. THE TENDENCIES OF GNOSTICISM &quot... Manner The Degrees of Life ... . of Holiness Points of Contact with Christianity The 125 121 .. ....... . 100 ... 136 142 . The Museum The Schools of the Sophists . ...... The Inner Teaching 128 .. .. Indirect Sources Direct Sources 141 GNOSTICISM.. Various Classes of Souls . . . The Dawn-land The New .

. &quot.....FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN..... . ... 160 162 A Follower of John the Baptist The Pre-Christian Gnosis ... 17$ ....OPHITES&quot. 181 188 181 . XVI...... 160161 .. SIMON MAGUS The Ebionite Literature The &quot.. The MENANDER 162 ....... .. .. of Doctrines The Making THE 167 .. .. .... .... .. . 177 177 180 .. No THE Classification possible &quot......SIMONIANS&quot...... ... &quot... The Origin of the DOSITHEUS Name . . ... Link with Zoroastrianism Teachers ... ... 170 171 172 of . The Obscurity 175 177 ... PAGE THE GNOSIS ACCORDING TO ITS 155449 FOES SOME GNOSTIC FRAGMENTS RE COVERED FROM THE POLEMICAL WRITINGS OF THE CHURCH FATHERS 157414 .Simon&quot...... 178 .. 157 .. .Simonian&quot.. . 164 of the Subject ........... His Date 163 .. System The Fire Tree The ^Eons . 168 . - . His Doctrines A 164 165 &quot.. SATURNINUS The Chain 174 ....... of Asceticism Summary . Man 173 ... . . 180 . . ... .... of Irenseus The Great Announcement The Hidden Fire . . 175 .... . &quot... 175 . ... 177 . ...... . ... ..Simonian&quot. . &quot...

.... 194 .OPHITE&quot... O.. . .. . ... ... . 202 .. The Serpent Symbol .... 197 . of Baruch Baruch Christology THE NAASSENI 193 ... .... PAGE The Term &quot.. 203 . The Myth of the Going-forth . A Mother Hymn ....... 189 ... 209 .. The Samothracian . ...... . Pseudo-philology AN ANONYMOUS The ...... ....... 202 . 199 The Assyrian Mysteries .. ...... ... . ....... 187 188 . . T. 200 The Egyptian The Greek . ... xvii...... . 193 ....... 193197 ... 182 . Justinus The Book SYSTEM ... 208 Name ......... ... Exegesis Christology Jesus AN EARLY 189 &quot.... .. . .. . 205 ..... 191 .. 206 212 206 207 .. . 183 ......SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.......... 210 of Hippolytus....... . . Their Literature 198206 . 196 .. . of the Great The Fragment of a The Source .. .. The Phrygian The Mysteries THE PERAT^Q 201 ... of their Tradition The Three Worlds Direct Quotation The Meaning ..... 212 of the Psychological Physiology The Lost Books 201 ... 191 . SYSTEM FROM IREN^US Spiritual Creation Yahweh laldabaoth . 186 .... .. ..Ophite&quot.. 198 Their Mystical Exegesis . . .. .. . ......... . ... . 188 . .

... ... .. .... &quot..Writer of the Apocalypse . ........ . 228 .. 213 .......... . . ... Things .. 224229 God to Seek after THE SO-CALLED CAINITES ..... XV111...... 215 .....FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.. . I hate&quot.... The Moon-god Communism. 240241 240 .... 229233 Their Idea of Jesus .. 230 Reincarnation . CERINTHUS ... ..... .. PAGE THE SETHIANS .. .. .... &quot. . of Marcion 238 237 238 239 240 . ... . 234 The Monadic Gnosis .. 239 . ........ 237 The Scape-Goat for the Pillar. .... Number How Theories .EPIPHANES&quot. .... .. .. 224 God 225 ..... . .. 217221 An Outline of their System The Mysteries THE DOCET^E .. MONOIMUS .. Scrap of History THE CARPOCEATIANS &quot... 222 .. 218 Man Saviour. .. 223 .. 218 ..... 236 ... .. .. 231 .. 213216 Seth . 226 .. .. ................... 219 ... 233236 A . 214 .....Apostles The Over... ..... . . 220 ... .. ..... . . . God The ^ons Cosmos and The . ... ... .... .. The Master . .. 234 ... The Obscurity of the Subject .. . . .Which CERDO ........ ..... .. . .. The Enemies of Yahweh the Friends Judas of 222 223 ... ... NICOLAUS &quot.

. The Holy Spirit 260 The Great Ruler The ^Etherial Creation 262 The Sub-lunary Spaces 264 Soteriology 261 263 265 ....... 250 .. The Mystic Gospel The Sons of God 267 . XIX PAGE 241249 MARCION The Spread of Marcionism The &quot.. Visions. A Trace of Zoroastrianism The Spurious System ...Higher Criticism&quot.. &quot. 241 The Gospel 244 of Paul 242 . .... Eznik 246 A 247 Marcionite System.... The Title Chrestos . 274 &quot. 259 255 257 The Sonship. 251 THE BASILIDIAN GNOSIS Basilides and his 253284 253 Writings Our Sources of Information The Divinity beyond Being 256 Universality beyond Being Ex Nihilo ..... . 276 277 278 280 282 .SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS. 268 The Final Consummation 270 Jesus 272 Karman and Reincarnation The Theory of Appendages Moral Responsibility . 249 250252 APELLES His Wide Tolerance Philumene Her 250 .

Living Symbolism The Fourth Dimension &quot.. .... &quot... 284 . &quot.... 306 .... XX. The J&on World ... PAGE THE VALENTINIAN MOVEMENT The &quot.. 285 &quot.. Little One 306 &quot... . 305 .. Being . 316 ... 299 ....They The Unknown Great of Valentinus So-called Eastern The Leaders &quot.. Concerning the People of the Beloved The Galilseans The Wisdom The Chain of The Ariadne s &quot. 309 311 335 Towards the Great Silence 312 The Depth beyond Being . .. 300 Powers the of 302 . 298 Concerning the Creation of the First Race of On Mankind the Pure in Heart One Concerning of Man Perfect Ye are Sons of God The Face of God .. of Syzygy 320 . 297 .. Writings ... 314 Solids A .. 303 .......... 307 . 313 The Platonic .. Biography Date . . of Gnosticism .... 294 311 294 296 ... 287 and Western Schools 287 Movement..FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.. of the of the Gnosis The Syntheticizing Sources of Information VALENTINUS .... SOME OUTLINES OF ^EONOLOY ... of the the . The Fragments that Remain . . . The Law . The Eternal Atom . ........ Thread out of the Maze...

..... .... .......... 332 Mythology . 325 The Dodecahedron . ..... The Mystic or Cosmic Jesus The Grief of Sophia . ... ....... 343 . 326 .. 333 .. 851 Bodies .. The Sophia-Myth us The Mother of .. ... 348 335 l&ons The Abortion The Cross . THE NUMBER-SYMBOLISM Sources ... 389 &quot. 331 . OF . . 351 Souls ... Only-begotten .... .... . .... The or The Mystic Body Soteriology of the Christ .. . 338 .... 346 . The Last Limit ... .. 336 ......Words&quot..... of the &quot.... 341 .. Many Names . ....... . ...SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS... 340 ...... . The Sensible World .. 342 .. 347 . 328 Theos .. 358 882 358 ..... ... The Decad ..... . 354 &quot.. ... 334 HIPPOLYTUS ACCOUNT OP ONE OF THE VARIANTS OF THE SOPHIA-MYTHUS The Father of All The Parents The Names .... &quot. 329 Cosmos ... . ... 345 ... . . . ...... ...... Chaos ... MARCUS 355 .. ... . .. .. . . 352 New Man ..... Demiurge Minds 357 .. 353 .. ... .......... .... XXI PAGE The Law of Differentiation The Three and the Seven The Twelve and Ten .. 323 323 . 322 . ... Its .. . ^ons of the The World-Mother The Term 335 .... .... ........

... World of Eternity the Marcosian Ritual PTOLEMY Truth 869 Theological Arithmetic Jesus the Master . The Letter to Flora .... The Hymn of the Soul 400 401 .... .. XX11.. 376 . ...... 359 Kabalism . . ..Higher Criticism&quot. 392 Writings .. ........ 395 From His Hymns .. 385 . ........ 380 383 .... The Source of The Proem to the HEKACLEON 370 .. .. .... PAGE Number-letters ...... .. ...... THE HYMN OF THE ROBE OF GLORY . . .... Moses Inspiration Fourth Gospel . . Fortune and Nature of Countries .. 396 The Book Karman of the Laws .... ..... 375 .. Moving Image ... . 398 399 . The Great Name .... BARDESANES .. . &quot.. The &quot. .. .. Echo of the The Name The Symbolic Body The Numbers of 365 the From . 373 .......FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. ...... . 392 391 392 405 Biography ..... 383 ...... 390 .. 403 406414 ..... . ... ... 378 &quot.... . ..... 393 Indirect Sources . 366 . . The Right and Left . .. ...... . of the Sensible The Tetraktys The Man .. 372 . 387 . 361 . ... of . ....... Gospel Exegesis The Creation 363 ... . 391 His Commentary on the Fourth Gospel... 388 .......

.. ......... . FOREWORD 415 418 ..Working ..... 439 ...... Its Meaning... . Sacramental Invocations Note thereon .. Two A . 431 . XX111.... ..... .......... .. An Early Form of One of the Great Miracles A 426 .. ... FROM THE ACTS OF THOMAS A Hymn to Wisdom...... 415 Catholic Over.... 434 .. .. .. 423 built.. 417 ... PAGE SOME TRACES OF THE GNOSIS IN THE 415449 UNCANONICAL ACTS .... 422 ... 435 .. .... . 445 446 445 . The Gnostic Acts . The Christ speaks with Jesus .... John s Last Prayer .... 419 .. 428 429 . 437 . 438 Selves. . of The Evolution of Tradition Docetism Mystic Stories of Jesus 426 Ritual from the Mysteries 426 ... .. ......... ..... 440 The Interpretation thereof The Initiation of the Cross A 430 ....... 426 .. ...... . 424 .. .. . The Palace that Thomas FROM THE ACTS OF JOHN A ...... .. 421 .. .... Recently-published Fragment The Rationale 419 . 441 442 443 ..... . Prayer John s Farewell Address to his Community .. .. 416 Early Collectors .. 444 ... 427 .. The Story of John and the Bugs FROM THE ACTS OF ANDREW Address to the Cross.. The Doxology The Mystery of the Cross The Higher and Lower of Praise to Christ .. .SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.. .

.. 454 . . 455 . &quot. 463 ....... 446449 The Descent of Man . 456 ... 464 of 465 ... A FAITH FORGOTTEN.. THE GNOSIS ACCOEDING TO FRIENDS ITS ..... The Journey into the Height .... 460 John 461 ... Mary the Rulers have been 459 . ... The Mystic Redemption through the Cross 447 Afterword 449 .FRAGMENTS OF XXIV.. 466 ...Come The Three Vestures of Light 461 unto ... Programme .... .. ........ The 506 in . .... Concerning the Robe of Glory. The Master Robs the JEons of a Third Their Light The Questions Why of .. SUMMARY OF THE CONTENTS OF THE SO-CALLED 457 PISTIS SOPHIA TREATISE .. The Bruce Codex .. The . . 446 .............. The Teaching of the Eleven Years The Mystic Transfiguration and Ascent the Twelfth Year The Master Returns to His Disciples The Mystic Incarnation of the Twelve That the Soul of Elias the Baptist Of His Own is Born . Robbed .... 466 .... . . in .... 461 Us&quot.... PAGE FROM THE TRAVELS OF PETER ... . 453 .. THE ASKEW AND BRUCE CODICES The Askew Codex ... Difficulty of the Subject 458 453 .. .. .... 451602 SOME GREEK ORIGINAL WORKS IN COPTIC TRANSLATION 453592 . 462 ... Translations. Hymn of Welcome 459 460 ... Incarnation 459 ..... ..

..... be shall Emanations Infancy of the Thirteenth than the Higher of Light in the shall be &quot..... 477 ... SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS. 485 The Limbs .. .... 483 484 There are Other Logoi 484 The Degrees of the Mysteries The Boons they Grant .. 479 of the 479 ....journey Continued The Myth of Pistis Sophia The Enmity of Arrogant The Fall into Matter.... Last &quot. The Heaven. An Otherwise-unknown Story of the Of the Glory of them The Scale of Light The Perfect The &quot. 474 Mon 476 ..XXV.. &quot. First The Three Supernal Spaces The Inheritance of Light Kingdom of 478 the Light 478 479 The Mystery of the First Mystery The Gnosis of Jesus. . .... 469 470 471 of the Soul The Descent Its 468 .. .. PAGE 468 The Shortening of the Times .. 471 Repentance and Redemption The Degrees of Purification The Light-crown The Final Victory 472 ....... 485 of Light. Disciples lose 477 . 473 473 ...... them All of 481 One Word of the Ineffable The Glory of Him who Receiveth the Mystery 481 Of the Thrones 484 Concerning the in the Light-kingdom . .. the Mystery Ineffable The .. Courage in Amazement 40 at the Glories of the Gnosis The Highest Mystery is the Simplest . 486 of the Ineffable The Thousand Years The Books of leou 487 .

For at a Certain Time the Gates of the .. which . of the Baptism-Mysteries 499 .... 497 .. . 494 The Transport of the Disciples . .... 492 Infinite Compassion of the Divine Of Those who Mimic the Mysteries . The Preaching of the Mysteries The Burden of the Preaching . 501 to Repent . 489 . 490 490 Of those who Repent and again Fall Back The Added Glories of the Saviours of Souls 491 Concerning the Irreconcilables .... 489 of the .... . The After-death State 496 a 497 . 495 &amp. . Constraineth . Of the The Mystery ead of the 492 493 494 Resurrection of the ....... ...... in Incarnation . of the Sinner 495 .. Desire to Sin .. ... 500 ... The Evil Man .... I know not whence ye are The Dragon of Outer Darkness The Draught of Oblivion . ........ The Boundary Marks of the Paths ...... PAGE Ye are Gods Of Souls . . 437 488 . XXVI..gt.... 503 .. . Agree with Thine Enemy&quot..... That this Mystery is to be Kept Secret The Constitution of Man . .. The Stamping of the Sins on the Souls. The Burning up of the Sins by the Fires 499 And of the Initiated Righteous &quot.. ..... Light will be Shut 502 The .. 502 503 &quot...... 498 ..... ...FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Infinite Forgiveness of Sins But Delay Not &quot. Can the Pains of Martyrdom be Avoided 493 ..... 504 .. Mysteries The After-death State of the Uninitiated Righteous ....

. 514 .. Ways of the Punishments of the for Mercy Pray They Enter an Atmosphere of Exceeding Disciples Great Light The Vision ..... 511 Midst 512 .... .. 517 518 546 . XXV11.... ... .. . .. THE SAVIOUR The Immanent Limbs of the The Christ is The Gnosis of the Christ . The Initiation of the Disciples on the The .. ... 505 ..SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS. Tis He Who Holds the 504 . ... 515 515 they 516 .. 515 They Return to Earth The Celebration of the Mystic Eucharist The Mysteries that are to be Revealed... 508 Mount 508 Drawn Aside Way of the 509 . 510 Described 510 Midst The Ordering of the Fate-sphere is All Mysteries up to the Light-treasure are Promised them The Punishments The Duration The of the ..... PAGE The Parents we are to Leave The Books of leou Again The Christ the First of this Enter the Light . .. 507 507 . of the Baptism-Mysteries 514 ... 516 The Cup of The Note of a Scribe SUMMARY OF THE FRAGMENTS OF THE BOOK OF THE GREAT LOGOS ACCORDING TO THE MYSTERY .... Humanity to 506 Keys the of 506 Mysteries SUMMARY OF THE EXTRACTS FROM THE BOOKS OF .. The Punishment of Sinners in the Lower Regions and the Evil Receive when Reborn Wisdom Bodies ... Ineffable the Ineffable First Veil is They Enter the 507517 ......... 512 to Sinners 513 ..

. 535 535 ....XXV111. The Good Commandments 522 of the Gnoses of the Invisible The Hidden Wisdom......... 520 The Lesser Mysteries. FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 524 526 of the of 521 .. The Three Great Rulers ... 520 The Mysteries of the Treasure of Light.. 530 . 523 . . 527 The Powers the Lesser Mysteries Confer The Mystery of the Forgiveness of Sins 527 The Powers .... PAGE The Book God 518 . The Mystic Rite of the Baptism Water of Life .. 531 .. . ............. .... 532 of the . .... The Fourteenth ^Eon.... The Type of the Treasures 528 .......... .. 519 . Invocation to the Unapproachable The Mystery of the Twelve ^ons The Thirteenth ^Eon.... 532 . The Baptism The Mystery the of .. Holy Spirit Withdrawing the Evil the Rulers ... Cosmic Embryology .. . ... 523 .. The Type of the True God leou The Mystic Diagrams. 518 ....... 529 it Confers . ... . . ... Concerning leou the Emanator Middle Light-world . ... 531 532 ...... 533 .... 528 .. A Dark Saying is Explained The Flesh of Ignorance The Greater Mysteries The Powers they Confer .. ....... .. 529 . The Tetragrammaton .... 522 . 534 . The Baptism of Fire . Invocation to the True God .. 536 536 .. The Ordering of the Light-treasures The Great Light ..... ..... To be Revealed to the Worthy Alone ..... 526 of ..

544 the [1 First] Mystery of the Midst 545 Hymn to The Way SELECTIONS FROM THE 546 UNTITLED APOCALYPSE OF THE CODEX BRUCIANUS.... 54 ? ......... 540 . . The Sixty Treasures The Little Idea ... Hymn to the Logos The .. SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS.. 550 550 The Manifested.. The Umnanifested .. The Descent of the Light-spark The Spiritual Atom . 553 553 554 554 ... and Phosilampes The Christ 547566 .... the Pleroma .... 541 The Thirteenth The Name Hymn to in the of the Great 542 Power the Unapproachable God sung Seventh Treasure 543 The Great Logoi according to the Mystery The Universal Idea . Three-faced and Two-faced Space of the 552 The Creative Logos .... 555 ... 547 .. 549 .. PAGE The Seal on the Forehead 537 of leou 537 General Characteristics of the Diagrams.. 556 . Nicotheus.. 551 Commentator Marsanes.. 548 . The First Being The Second Being The Supernal Cross ..... The Twelve Depths The Primal Source The View 545 . Glorified of the Logos ...xxix. 548 .... The Twelve the Order of Jesus the First Mystery sung to Hymn 538 in the Thirteen Mon .

........ 560 . . . 557 . .... Soteriology 556 .... .. 562 Believe .... 563 Splendour to 561 .... ... . of the Titled Treatises ... .. 573 in these Treatises 574 .. The Scheme Pre-supposed . 559 Light-vesture ... PAGE The At-one-ment . . 570 The . .... . 578 567 568 Date Authorship The 567 Titles .... of to the Light ... ... ......... .... XXX... 566 Hymn . ... . . . ... The Prayer of the Earth-born .. The Hidden Worlds .. ....... The Song of Praise of the Mother Above .. . 558 The Promise. ..... NOTES ON THE CONTENTS OF THE BRUCE AND ASKEW CODICES The Kinship .. The Lord 561 Them who 564 .. . 558 The Ineffable Vesture The Purification of the Lower Nature The World-Saviour . 569 ............ Given are The Powers of Discrimination them 564 ......... ... ..... The Ladder of Purification . .. 557 . ........ . 565 The Son God ........ 565 ... ...FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.. . 568 ... 570 The Books of leou Obscurity of the Subject The Original Pistis Sophia The Coptic Translation The Books 572 Treatise 572 573 of the Saviour The Copyist. ... ....... 559 The Powers of the The Mothers of Men .. The Man of His Promise 562 . .. . 569 The Probable Author....

SOME FORGOTTEN SAYINGS Rejected Logoi 580 .. 609 Early Works Critical Studies prior to 1851 Works subsequent to 609 .. 578 An ...... The Pentad . 603-633 ..... ..... 605607 BIBLIOGRAPHIES ... .. ..XXXI.. .. THE AKHMIM CODEX The MS... 589 ... The Decad .. -.... 623 .... ... PAGE Appreciation of the Untitled Treatise Not to be Attributed to a Single Author 576 Its Apocalyptic Basis. . and The its Gospel of The Wisdom Contents Mary Examination The Father . ..... .. ....... ... 610 the Publication of the Philosophumena in 1851 . The Christ . 577 588 .. 591 .. The Gospel of his 579592 .. 608633 GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY . 613 . The 579 582 of 582 Mary 583 Statements 583 584 .. 577 The Over-working ....... 584 586 587 ...... . The Mother. of Jesus Christ Irenseus quotes from An . SYNOPSIS OF CONTENTS..... ... 593602 593 . 600 The Oxyrhynchus Papyri CONCLUSION AFTERWORD ...... .. . .. Egyptian Origin of the Treatise The Opinion of Harnack The Importance of the MS....

.XXxii... 631 633 . ENGLISH 627 628 630 AND .... ... 631 GEMS AND ABRAXAS-STUDIES WORKS MENTIONED ANCIENT BY WRITERS THE MOST RECENT TEXTS OF THE H^ERESIOLOGICAL CHURCH FATHERS AND THEIR ENGLISH TRANSLATIONS . ... PAGE THE COPTIC GNOSTIC WORKS AND REVIEWS ARTICLES IN AMERICAN PERIODICALS UNCANONICAL ACTS GNOSTIC GNOSTIC (?) . .. FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.. 624 630 ...

Achamoth. 283. 338. Accretions. ^Ethers. Adamas. 152. 551 . Abyss. 288. Agree with thine &quot. 530. 225. 308. 280. sons of. 128. 91. 247. Acts. 279. creation. 39. 528. 191 living. ^Eon. 490. 208. 95 295 All-Father. Jesus. 177. adversary. . Adembes. four teenth. 263 . 424. After-death state. 312. 325. 515. 586. 497.INDEX. 516. Alone-born. divine. 162. 334. 278. 356.world. Book of. Acts of Apostles. 53. Agrapha. 476. 163. Alpha. of night. 532 . 440 ten. 419. 152. 192 triacontad of. 188. 539. 68. 231. 514. parents of. Anaxagoras. 370. Abortion. Akasha. Abiram. 269. 365 perfect. 522. 412. 281. names of. Abrasax. 311. Aberamentho. Ancestral heart. Ananias. 390. 527. 329. Alexander. 357. Adam. of seons. 417. 69. 41. 422. Gnostic. Sabaoth. 593. 97. 340. 403. 307. 189. . Alone-begotten. 499. 468. 423. 521. 511. 153. 565. 512. of. 519. 354. Adityas. 276. Acts of Peter. 337. 549. Agathopus. Leucian. 445. Allegories. Anagamin. 299. . Aboulfatah. Acts of Thomas. 418. 327. 390 . Alexandria. 99. twelve. 417. 532. 580. 301. teenth. 313. 329. 474. 302. 341 . ^Etherial. 277. 568. Acts of Andrew. . 218. 579. 388. Acembes. 445. 510. 531. 60. 344.&quot. Acts of John. treasures Agape. 126. Ahuramazda. 415. 313 Abdias. Agrippa Castor. . Acts. Akhmim Codex. 385. &quot. Anatolic. 426. 79. thir Mon. All things depending. 553. 465. 555. 208. 204. Adamant. 341. 337 . . 520. 226. 190. incorruptible. 465. 466. 218 . Adam. 334. seat of. 287. 147. Anaximander. 531.&quot. 583. ^Eons. 406. 203. 551. 446. 580. 413. 282. 443. 37. 71. 24. 554. All-Mother. 173. 208. 336. 218. 434. 208. 207 . 235. 599. 511. 447. 375.

355. 533. 277. Babe. 89. 380. 583. 411. people of. Amru. 469. 499. 86. 81. Baptismal consecration. Attains. 512. Athos. . 343. Beloved. 104. 534. 581. 583. 522. Bacchi. 209. 393. seven. . 170. Ardesianes. 196. 439. 223. 395. 529 three. 320. Augustine. Basilides. 407. 277. second. 365. 509. 60 . Mount. 584. 381. 117. 355. Apocalypse. 334. Amen. 184. 273. Bacchus. 3. 331. 39. 10. of 278 526 511 . 288. Bar-Manu. Andrew. 349. Ararad. 55. 151. of right. 423. Baur. 514. 478. Authentic. 319. Bardesanes. 261. day. 64. life) 524. 420. 515 . 250. 108. Astrology. 212. 167. Appended Soul. 191. Babylon. 505. 486. Antioch. Book Asceticism. . Askew Codex. 245. 527. 104. of days. 453. new. of myth of 522. 547. Ascension of pleroma. On an. 585. Barbelo. 107. 178. 515. 529. Be-with-us. 527. Aristobulus. 207. Arrogant. Apollonius of Tyana. 178. 335. Ani. 515. 512. 600. 248. (fires of) dove. 301. untitled. Babel. Amens. 165. 304. 350. 392. 445. 94. Basilisk. 511 . 371 499. 339. 531. 274. 109. Aristophanes. 431 first. Axionicus. Apology. Barbelo-Gnostics. Baptism. 305. Birth. Announcement. nity. 586. As Others saw Him. 318. 355. 523. 514. 193. Ambrose. 365. 483. Bird. 316. great. 397. 60. Ancient. 377 Aphredon. 528. . 53. Bacchic mysteries. 94. 222. 375. B . 511. 40. 251. fire. 278. 204. 554. 504. 276. 348 . 522. 510. 519 man. Barcabbas and Barcoph. 223. birthday of. Baruch. Archimedes. Arithmetic. The. 393. Amshaspends. 288. 468. 174. 67. 203 of Horus. of midst. Great. incense. Arian. Apocrypha. 474. 176. 343. .-414. 551. 542. of Holy Spirit. 307. 589. Antitheses. 177. Aristotle. Arahat. 412. Aphrodite. 167. Apostle. . Bardesanites. 500. 568. 556. 253. 175. 594. 526 . (of . Appendages. 541. 283. 410. (vision of) of.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 470. 238. my steries of. Atlantic Island. 389. Beelzeboul. 487. Apocalypses. 512. of eter At-one-ment. 473. Balance. 226. 106. 274. XXXIV. of Jesus. 288. Augustus. 178. of spiritual . 173. Atom. Ares. 166. 371. 397. of water. 515. Apelles.

205. 273. story of John and the. 47. 233. 312. people. Caracalla. . Brooke. 524 . Chads. little. 505. 327. Boundary (see 343. 598. of chaos. 443. 394. Buddha. Cain. 150. 90/92 7. Called. &quot. of of true mind. 589. 330 of their mouths. Caravanserai (see Inn). 97. 496. 124. light. Charinus. 368 . Chrism. 124. Cerebellum. 512. Births of joy. Canopus. 301. great. Charismatic. 422. 515. 351. . 93 logia. est. Blossoms. 519. 518. 419. Books of leou. Chrestos. and Holy Spirit. 208. child of. 303 of the fulness. 93. 241. 457. 521 . 455. Burton. 378. 100. 185. 206 . 471. Bubastis. 567. 587 a. 325. 323. Cave. 327. Bridal chamber. 183. 189. 190 341 distinguished from Jesus. 342. 224. 475 our. 380 is the word. tradition. Brother. . 237. 343. 94. mysteries. 556. gnosis 508 invocation to. 313. 507. 229. Book of Adam. 103. Capparatea. . Breath. 94. 382. 189 of the child. 152. 470. 546. Celbes. 198. . 199. . 484 . 588. 249. 227. Bythus. 586. 224. great master. 421. Child. . 595. 58. 469. 145. 175. Canon. Bitter. Brahmarandhra. 190. . name mystic body of. 442. Jesus my. Books of the Saviour. Bruchion. Christ. Body. 555. 226. 244. 354 the of. Chiliasm. 121. 328. Choiic. Cainites. Cerdo. 205. 398. 243. Caduceus. Calligraphists. Book of Baruch. little. 487. 215. 393. 87. Abraham s. Children. . . 193. 417. 374. . . Chorizantes. 523. 443. Book of Laws of Countries. 563. 103. Chosen. Celsus. .XXXV. 567. Lucius. . Cease not to seek. 406 . of life. Cecrops. 522.&quot. 507. 455. 550 of matter. 497 . 105. Book of Great Logos according to the Mystery. Capernaum. Limit) 307. Brothel. 41. 169. 128. Cerinthus. 313. 321. Book of the Dead. Brain. the. Book of Gnoses of Invisible God. 208. 43. of God. Bugs. 573. Callimachus. 467. Chaos. 109. 172 . 98. Paul . 151. above. high great. 448 Jesus. 51. Chassidim. 489. 188. 448. historic 427 of. 211. 103. 126. 379. 37. 391. 598. 528. 542. Carpocrates. 104. 430. 89 star-cult. INDEX. 199. 240. 435. 301. . 533. Chaldsean. 568. Bosom. . influence on Jewry. 569. 211.

222. 515. 149 . 454. 409. 324. of. 109. XXXVI. 437 of initiation. 82. 522.&quot. Darkness. Clay. Goran. Codex. good. 110. 421. 438 . spheres. 548. 227. 504. 192. 516. 59. 262. couches. address to. 467. 529. 148 of Hippolytus. 176. dragon outer. Commodus. . . Counterfeit spirit. of Justin.Come day of. 226. variety . 343. 423. 342. 301. 462. 512 Dsemons. 433 . 352. Cube. 25. 296. unto us.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Common 250. 37. Concerning Mary. 449 448. powers. 279. Critias. &quot. 591. The Light and Dathan. 431. 343. . 215 of wisdom. 190. 213. Cumont. 276. . 602. 229 supernal. Crucify the world. 394. Consummation. 599. 330. 550. Christs. 465. mystic. Corybantic mysteries. 419. Commandments. bush of initiation the. Community. 492. 80. pseudo. 76. Clementine literature. 164. 151. the . 436 447 tion of. 490. 418. 352. Coats of skin. 435 salva of wood. Circuits (Tours). Communism. . City. 270 final. of Daemonian friends. 351. 85 . 166. 162. Cratylus. 152. 471. 59. 119. 392. 343. Daveithe. 303. of mystery of. 390 Confucius. Claps of hands. Cyrus. 579. 445. 566. Offspring of Conglomeration of seed-mixture. Crotona. 148. 588. 503. 98. Daisan. . Concerning Fate. the. 61. 79. 394. 14. 265. 39. 150. 503. 70. Couch. 453. hierarchies. Akhmim. 499. 466. Dance. 503 . Daniel. 50. Brucianus. 351. Cureton. of gnostic. light. . 188. 447. Conversion. 200. 85. Cleopatra. of. 303. of Theodoret. 67. Compendium. 433. 595. Darkness. Die. 169. circular. 151. 518. . 500. Corners. Crucified in space. 445 559 . . 446. 234. . 190. 498. Conybeare. 99. 164. Christliche Welt. 496. 529. mystery. of . . 312. 317. Crucifixion. first 405. 542. Communities. 60 . 505. . 346. 195 . 276. Daevos. 349. Cyprus. 547. 525. 371. 331. fruit. 221. . of life-giving water. of. 446. 557. 226. 435 redemption of. Cross. Citizens of heaven. 546. Mareotic. 89. 374. 305. 394. 4. Clement of Alexandria. 106. 421. four. 490. 30 50 Orphic. 178 . 435 Closet. Cleobius. . Cup. Claudius. of. 208. 343. Askew. 173. 272. 330. 345. 548. Conception. 382. Book 198.

209. of dark Dragon. Decans. 91. 204. 329. . 220. Energies. Economy. . 265. 237 . 93. 433. 51. 466 Persian conquest 40. 40. 312 . flood Eagle. 59. Death. the one. 354 495 . Egg. to know Dodecad. Diagrams. . resurrection of. 588. 588. . 323. . twelve. 378. 551. 225. 510. Depths. 165. 59 plagues of. Elias. 189. 50. Devi. discipline. 494. 232. 349. 459. 363. Eleven years. 439. 203 prayers for. 303. shame of. 49. 324. 505. rise from. 343 great. 494 raised him from. Edessa. Dry. 551. 135. Ebionism. 381. 496. 320. 222 body. baptism-myth of. 264. 371 father in form of. 194. 381. 379. 214. 325 . (see Workman). . 394. Ebion. Dwarf. 199. 82. 490. Desert. 551. Docetism. 186. Ennads. 410. 304. 498. 539. 352. 324. 323. Dove. 548. 468. 317. 355. 313. 278. Eden. 296. 246. 190. Decad. Enformation according to sub stance. 186. 427. . . 537. 307. . to come. forms. 436. 373. 373. soul of. 68. Embryology. 376. 348. 178. Egyptian. 331. . 515. Diagram of man of truth. 354. of. of light. 497. 461 . . 343. 180. Day 462 XXXV11. Demiurge Democritus. ness. Element. 536. Diabolus. 202. 217. Dionysus. rhombic. Deucalion.INDEX. 185. 326. 536. 176. 262. Diaspora or Dispersion. 598. 42. Dollinger. . being. Delights of world. . Dialogues against the Marcionites. sixth. 38. 328. Dodecahedron. Dead. 237. 432. 384. Elkesai. Destruction of False Doctrines. 281. 487 of perfect Be-with-us. 378. 349. Earth. 361. De Legatione. 238. 423. 188. 490 . 492. 328. Egypt. 365. 127. David. 64. 119. 120. great. 371. 58. Destiny. 372. 376. Dositheus. of Ophites. 407. 533. 424. 262. 226. 222. 426. Eleleth. 424. Eleusinia. Door. Deficiency. 162. before flood. 57. 350. . Encratism. 194. 363. 49. Echo. 459. face of. Elohim. 275. beyond Depth. 536. 586. 126. 367 Elect. Devas. most beautiful. ledge. 302. 51. scheme of 367. 510. 377. 436. Didascaleion. Eleutherus. 329. 194. 127. 547 unutterable. 334. 237. 365. 589. my steries. 569 the of. 392. 496. 65. 349 . 503. 325. wisdom of.

526 . 569. 533. 267. sixty. 465 . Fear. &quot. into of Fall. alone good. 261. 13. 105. 40. Except a man be born 219 . Euphrates. Fate. Five. Fate-sphere. . First.&quot. 529 . of the soul. 185 . 75. 509. 447. 41. Erani.&quot. Ex Nihilo. 218. 399. who . 544 . 304. 548. Fate. 150. Flesh. authentic. of ignorance. 172. 282. 546 of the Lord. 61. 262. Concerning. 526. 400. 578. 266. Fish. 261. 241. 464. 189. statute. Formlessness. 247. Faces. woman. 584. 487. trees. 93. 465. 351. 94. . 422. 255. Fortune. 209. shall . 278. 127. language of my. 423 . &quot. 338. 355. Eucharist. 585. 172 hidden. 390. 506. Excommunication. 150. Esau. 348. 523. leave. finger of. . 395. 270. Flood. 520 . Eznik. 188. 306. 498. Flora. 227. 336. . at Alex baptism Euclid. 323. 171. Eratosthenes. 32. 490. 259. 468. 585 . unrighteousness. mist. 356. knees. last shall be. 108. Foreknowledge. 162. Filioque. 550. 84. 498.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 529. Eusebius. 233. 278. (sons of Satan). 301 Ephraim. of 478. 585. 204. 75. 505. 248. per of rulers. Erectheus. 176. Father. 305 . 504. Forethought. 468 of fect. 246. 383. Fifty. Exodus man. 470 . . Face. 171 Eudsemonistic eschatology. 531. 385 impressions. 522. andria. Fatherhood. years silence. 104. 530. 462. 274. sup porters. Forgiveness of sins. 448. 501. born. 82. Excerpts from Theodotus. 397. 533 Epiphanes. 527. Enncea. tongue word 438. of. 254. 569. limbs. Fiftieth day. 268. 477. 519 . 74. 287. made. Eve. Ephemereuts. 523. water. 62. 329 flower of. Eta. 190. 174. 226. Letter 334. 552. vision of. 329. 560. 142. Epopteia. 505. 64. 270. 463. Epiphany. to. 190. 50. 234. -mother. 515. Fig-tree. XXXV111. 186. 325. Exterior of exteriors. 191. 544. 532. 332. 279. 337. 109 .&quot. 131. 368. 295. Fifteenth year of Caesar. 94. 394. 361 . 208. Eumenes. . 303. 371. matter.he . 505. 352. 292. of. 582 529 . 423. tree. Enoch. (see Going-forth) myth. 314. Fire. mystery of their. 66. books. 108. For this cause I bow my &quot. Firmament. 395. Sophia. 263. . 101. Fatherhoods. 221. 311. 398. Ezekiel. Epiphanius. Essenes. Exegetica. life-giving. 188. Eulogius. 504. 510. 589. 422. 321.

201. Fourteenth aeon. 236 outlines of background 94 of. ment. 503 . . &quot. 32. Gospel of Perfection.&quot.Why . . Gitta. 254. 67. &quot. . 524. 399.&quot. izing Four and twentieth mystery. . 164. 425 Gate. Gates. robe 406. 306. 195. 487. 266. of Christ. 188 harvest. 440. Freewill. heavens. 204. . 439. mount of. Gospel of Paul. Gifts of spirit. Gennesaret. . 506. Syrian. of the powerful. great lights. 379. 474. 390. 263. 366 boundary. . 247. . 201 commandments. . . Gabriel. &quot. . Four Quarters of the World. 421 of. 199. Grasshoppers. Gratz. &quot. . Glaucias. 203. Gorthaeus. 508 mystery of 479 480 of pleroma. . monadic. 472. . Gospel according to Mary. 243. holy ones. the to Gospel according I . 462. 582. 201. Fourth. 484 . 480. Galilee. 185. 441 land. 314. 338. 556. 311 . 558. Ye are. XXXIX. 473 body. 198. . myth of the. 577. 480 synthes . 406. 346 supernal. 464. 377. . 233. Galileans. 198. 423. 228. dimension.Gods. 273. bird. 484. of. Four. 436. 318 295. . of all the gnoses. Grace. 421 day. Gospel. 473. . 588 quarters. Geometrizes. firma 490 elements. 202 of truth. glories of. 515. of of am the the lord. 471. 432. deep. 152. 163. 401. . 198. 340 callest thou me. 164. . 210. 419 . Gospel of Eve. of the treasure.Christian. of light. 266.INDEX. 183 supreme. 465. 202 true. 391. 555. 460. breath. Good. 165. 342. and Four twenty invisibles. 249. 538 . Gospel of Mary. 540. 481. 254. 363. (ethical side of). 32. 509. king of. ineffable. 268. . Gospel according to Hebrews. Forty-nine. Gospel of Judas. 441. 126. 503 of ineffable. wedding. 388. God. things that are. deity. 52. . Glorified of Logos. 532. 464.&quot. 508 . 118. 200. God. 244. 399. Gosyel according to Thomas. 198. . 502. gospel. . hymn of the robe of. 103 Canopic. one. 522. 517. 462. Great. Gospel of Philip. 430. 167. . Jewish. . 226. 256. 434. 203 . 520 . ves tures of. . definition of. 243. Glad tidings. 289. 580.&quot. 461. 260. Gnosis. 198. 446 Basilidian. 73. 333 . Egyptians. 542 primal passions. 405. 439. . 554. Going-forth. Gazzah. 330 consummation. pre. 523. 312 dragon. Garment. of Jesus. Glory. 374 . 313. Governors. 377 525. of gnosis of 177 of 476. Fruits of spirit.

. 423. of Holy. 222. 266. . 440. Horn. 300. Hormuz. On. . 269. porters. Greeks are but children. ancestral. . 164. Horos (Boundary). 164. 203. . 363. 262. 267. 242. . . Heavens. 196. 205. Historicized tion. 333. 514. 430 mercy. 440 Hermetic schools. 391. pure of in. 43. 438. Hell. . 529. . women. 43 myth Helena. 554 . 468 kingdom of. . 439. 590. 385 ego. 88. 308 . 173 unknown. Heaven. Jordan. shepherd of. 57. 233. 133. . 523. Hippolytus. 566. 271. 293. . 142 power. 270 mother. sea. . 447. 278. Higher criticism. 346. 311 sup 5 479 teacher. . Hiranya-garbha. 339. and Hunt. 44. 14. 320. degrees of. . thought. 532 469 invisible forefather. of 551 holies. 543 467 receiver. seven. Harnack. 80 . one. . Hermes. holy. eternities. 474. Spirit shall come 269 . . . . Hesiod. 307. 4. 61. . 589. citizens of. 396. 436. . 251. Grief. Guardians. 40. man 202. 537. . . 548. Harmozel. . 344. 57. ignorance. &quot. 528. 587 lights. Helen. first. . 111. 523. 467 silence. 288. 301 . Heart. Hittites. 168. . of plenty. 421. . 532 light. 201. Hesychius. . 108. 173. Hephaestus. 272.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 317 Heavenly man. 272 logoi according to 544 the mystery. . upon thee. 205 name. 211. 201. Hades. 25. 144. legends Historicizing of mythology. 529 limit. 117. Heresies. Hegesippus. . Harmogen. .&quot. ones. 171. 363. 600. 377 . 308. 588. selves. 55. 349. 599 one. . invisible. 372. 222. . 101. 280. 191 mind. 538. Herodotus. 273. &quot. of. 82 jour ney. 185. 329. 323. 188 270. 201. logos. 264. 309 271 270. 529 lao. 588. 378. Honestas. 266. 397. 168. 208 in. xl. 212. 352. 330. . ruler. 371 world. Hair of his head. 513. 602. Hipparchus. : 343. initia one. 434 . Heracleon. 308. king. 529 544 master. 347. 40. Homer. man himself. Hebdomad. Harvest. great. 542. Harmony. . 602. 149. 300. 247. 523. Hellenists. 471 . 194. 222 222. 38. 368.&quot. 420 peace. 365. 442. wars from. 272. wedding feast. . thrice-greatest. holy. 348. 570 511 . . . Hercules. 433 self. . table. 424. Greatnesses. Grenfell H Hanging on the tree. Harpocratians. 268. 40 Sabaoth. . 371. 202 just one. 423. Healers. . 163. 388. 251. 374. 514. . 202. 529 soul. Holiness. Greatness.

long shall I bear with Hyle. 189. 543. 510. 239. 470. 471. Icosahedron. &quot. 502. &quot. 305. five.&quot. . 419 . 529. images. 543 . 487. 412. 205 . 483.&quot. of the robe of glory. 79. 424. hath the lord pleroma changed &quot. 225. asunder.If I thee leous.&quot. books of. 534. us.&quot. &quot.&quot. I recognised myself. wisdom. 126. 414. 544. 342. 538 . &quot. 247.If I I 382. 471 . 537. 250. 466. 381. mystery. 419. 529. 524. 77. nature of. 233 . 465. 600. 100. 566 to logos. Hyrcania.&quot. Horus. lacchus (Yach). 490. 510. 420 395 of Ephraim. 377.&quot. 266. I I I the true gate. 202. &quot. Hymn. 270. 535. 505.&quot. Idol-worship. 505.&quot. 474.&quot.&quot. .&quot. 73. 172. am that mystery. 427. 328. Idolatry. ing of. Hymns. 534.&quot. Naassene. 520. 225. Hort. . like as 448. Impassables. 471. 540. am a wanderer. 217. Impressions. 539. 377. 545. Illusionists.&quot. 470. righteous. 569 . My.&quot. 555. . lao. 541. I myself. 271 . 58. 439. &quot. 300. . &quot. 462 . 304. 498 . 537. 317. 529. Imaging forth. 246. 431 . &quot. 144. 268. 349. laldabaoth. 193. 395 Orphic. Ignorance. I labe (lave). I art. Illusory. 540.&quot. of the powers. 191. Idols. 544 . or.&quot. things sacrificed to. little. 96.How 271. 598. 534. thou. &quot. 213. 584. who thou 440. what I will. 545 the soul. leou. flesh of. of of 403 Come unto to first light. Hypatia. 45 sing penitential. &quot. 487. of the 464. am that man. 509. become came not to my ye make not right left. call the 490. 455. birth of. Hour hath not yet come. 431 I have torn myself 488. Idea. great. 313. 529. 201. 222. . my sin. 527. of praise. 180. am the god of Abraham. 472 . 202. welcome 462 to . . lesssei. 513. 534. Hysterema. 464 . 533. 334 . 220. type of true god. seal on fore head of. labraoth. 394 of Bardaisan. greatnesses 537. I will go into that region.&quot. 210. . Hylics. 512. great. 520 . 545. have 540 I &quot. Hyssop. 192. 533. 555 .&quot. Hyksos. Hystera. am am ye drink not blood. Illumination. . Ideas. recognised myself. to to unapproachable god. 535. first man. against heresies. 472. 139. 406. 537. . 387. Immovables. Ice. How you. Image.&quot. of Jesus. I know I know .INDEX. 547. xli. 80. 529.&quot. 60. 504. us.

. name. 192 . Ithye. 431 monies. Individuitatis. 221. 202. In the place where I shall be. 162. 340 destruction of. 504 . 565. 510 . chrism. 532 our God. 484 the . &quot. 419 Judas. Irenaeus. cosmic. 301. address. . 128 . 427. of. of. 534. 403. 57. 370. 440. Infancy. 501. 442 person 140 of. 41. 566. 118. . 375. 199. 479 gnosis of gnosis of. Ion. 306. mystery of. 396. Ineffable. . 150. 508 limbs of the. 201. 485. 474. ves tongue of. .&quot. . 477. 378. xlii. . 462. . 580. historicized mountain legends of. 463. 353. . . 431 . 147. . 447. Josephus. Iota. . 582 . the 428. word 481 479 482. 204. Intercourse. 506. births Joy. 469. 441 442 . mother of. 484. Jonah myth. 351. portrait of. 278 . 515. 349. 543 500. 205 . mystery-names. of. Incense. 43. . 447 church celestial. (see leou). 557. 58. 543. 119 . 411. 376. Interior of interiors. of. 462. 186. the . 486. 478. a shepherd 472. Investiture. 479. cere 423. 585. Initiations. Jamblichus. Initiation. Indivisible. Joshua. Inn. 280. . 369 twin . . 355. . 287. . Isidorus. 344. 376. 273. Mary. Christ distinguished from. mystery of gnosis of. John. hymn of. . 226. 405. Incorruptibility. 483. 204. 185. 368. 393. 186. story of. 291. 581 . 598 of the disciples. farewell last prayer of. . 182 . 222. 352. Jerusalem. 92. mystery 481. 482 of. 475 mysteries of. of. 438 of. India. 277. seed of. . 269 stories of. 358 grades of. 460. liability of. 464. Indweller of light. of their. 191 . Indian religion. ture. Incorruptible aeon. 152. 580. Italic. . 477. 580. 508 robe of. 221. Jesus. 197 stitute. 479 six-lettered name. dance of. 501 . wrath Iniquity. baptism of. 302. . trea sure of. . 507 . 462. Ineffables. with males. 55. 550. 368 name a sub baptism . 435. 225. 478. 461. Joseph. Jehovah. Jordan. 512.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 412. Jeu 424. 557 above. 224. 382. 427. . 487. 464. 552. master. 507 mysteries of vestures of. 278 . . 380. 202. the virgin. Jerome. one space of. boy. Apocryphon of. . Inheritance of light. 462. Jacob. 272. unre baptist. 494. first mystery of. 554. 237. 421 below. 323. 534. . 233 son of Mary. 354. 474 my brother. 483. 375. Ebionite tradi tion of. James. 186. 475. principium. of the cross. 345 . 511. Isis.

473. 478 ance of. 526 . 510. 246. . . of. &quot. 523. of light. . of Alexandria. Kalapatauroth. 590. 502. of motions of. &quot. 178. 548. treasure of. 58. Kingdom. Light and the Darkness. . 478 . 204. 255 104 Aristotle. Lake Maroea. 465 . . For this cause I bow my. of. 413. 574. Kolarbasus. . 565 . 511 69. 404 . 496. 404. Judas Thomas. . day of. 514. 487 kingdom of. me. 505. 477. 303 . 460 sons seven virgins of. 479. Let there be light. 313. 512 479 overseer of. 600 340 good. 564 atmosphere of. 471. 437. 586 . 193. 548. . . 308 . . . beams. 503. of . 564. 504 crown. 382. tree of. 581. . 413 384 . 243. 584. 483. 97. great. . 37. Leibnitz. . . 446. . children of. supermundane things. Kushan. 467 flames. virgin of. . 97. of of. 599 . 189. 424 Acts . spark. 133. 515. Land. 532 102 Justin Martyr. 265. 394. . 566. 511. . Knowledge. 466. 96. . 274. 403.&quot. 320. 352. 465. 518 . 513. 98. 279. gates of. 474. &quot. 433. 305. tree of. sphere. Library. water of. 180. 417. 521 525 cross of. 361. xliii. 506 maiden. . 334. 186 . Kostlin. of. . 214. 426. 587 hymn to. 554. . 478. 448. treasure. . Persepolis. 259. 509. K midst. realm. 523. 232. 470. 179. 465 power. face of. 477. 602 of heavens. 329. 320. 447. 491. 201. 216. . . 528. 399. 525 . third of their. . 254. 201. 506 202. 384 . Justinus. Leucian Acts. 481. 509. 504. word and. 473. Kin to of mysteries. 397. Last shall be first. 434. . image of. Left. breath. Laotze. 190. 478. 320. and honey. everlasting.INDEX. 449. streams spirit. 530. . Just. 585 . 465. 562. 478. 322 . 397 mysteries of the treasure. 468. Karman. Kundalim. 148. receivers 460 of. 197 . 461. Life. 203. 523. &quot. .&quot. 466. 481. 94. of heaven. 505. 477. 304 Kabalism. milk spark. 419. 487 great. (keys of). Kronos.&quot. 372 . 483. 484. 348. fire. Light. 487. 586. three spaces of the. 380. falsely so called. 446.&quot. Julian. 303. . Siriadic. inherit indweller of. 394. 436. . giving giving water. Krishna. sparks. 371. . 544. 406. &quot. Levi. . 387. 389. Knowledges. Lamp. one. god. 307. 75 col children of. 127. 505. 529. of father 219 .&quot. Kenoma. of the father. ray. 514 . 514 boundless. 491 robe. 7. 505 . 374. stream. divine. 555 promised. 487. 340 god-bearing. Knees. 435 lector of. 473 189 fluid. 180 .

344. 189. 407. 366. 448. 547. 462. 446. 555 . spirit. 527 . 507. 600 . M Magdalene. of heavenly man. 215 . 544.thyrsus-bearers. of. 202. 40. new. 483. 593 the. 240. 554. 556 Magna Vorago. 306 . few bacchi. 353 . 466. 433. 518. Living one. 188. 539. 566. 433. 593. first. 199. 218. . 483 last. 320. 584. Adam . 437. Marcians. 529 . Logoi. 537. 545.&quot. 412. 439 (limbs 586 . 302 . 25. Lights. Limit Limitary 262. 200. . 547. &quot. 366. 543. inner. 438. 423. 388. 508. great. 47 &quot. Mansel. Maishan. 427 . I that. Sabaoth. the. 507 &quot. first. 191. 288. 522. 384. 367. 392. Manetho. 498. 459. 174. 517 . 271 spiritual. 272. . 419. Magic. perfect. 372. 421. 261. 201. Osiris the. 551 188. 512.&quot. perfected. 559. 371 heavenly. 201. 330. am &quot. . .born.&quot. 483. Marcion. 373. world. 150. 294. 439 . . 498. 191. 512. Manichaeism. himself. 371 little . 368. Mainandros. Lot. midst. 311. 240. 188 . Little. 372 . (see great. idea. 337. 491. 382. 126. and great. Many. of truth. 497.members. 537. 271. doctrine of. 556. 269. five. Man. 267.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 484. 323. 167. 190. 440. 422. 177. 439. 499 . 566 Boundary). Male-female. great. 466. 584 . Magus. 496 descent of. 195. 272. 175. creator. 378. child. 520. 343. son of this. 540. 569. 343. 544 hymn to mind. 381. 562. Marcionite. Mandaites. 439. 354 powers son second. or logia. of the . 463. 507. 439 . 207. and . way woman. 222. 374. xliv. . 446 doctrine. 525. Magi. 535. 226 . 516. . 556. Maimonides. man. water of pure. 202. 548. 279. 222 sons of. 534. 172. Maha-pralaya. of ineffable. 188 . 445. one. of. 225. vesture. 175. 322. 463. 177. 559. 145. mystery of. 395. Logos (see Word). 216. thy. con stitution of. 602. 446. 462. 331. or. movement. one body. 10. from heaven. 334. great. 291. 173. Dialogues against . 541. vesture of. 241. 553. Limbs. 143. called. 598 . Liturgi. M . virgin of. 267. 344. 477. of). 445. 270. Marcionites. 422. churches 242 . 167. antitheses. 540. few chosen. 460. 566 59 perfect man second aspect of. 522. 330. 585 Lipsius. 485. 394. 421. 329. 56. 266. Maiden. Luminaries. 476. . 468. glorified of. 352 351. children. church. 550. rejected. 406 . 584. 371. 482. . Malice. . 411. 416. 380. . 58 . Logia. 318. 273. 415. 484. Linus. Chaldaean. the. 418. 499. 588. 300. 531 . 520. . 270. 199. 423 . 588.

Montanist. 220. 551. Matter. 563. 175. sacred. 380. 589 son of. Miltiades. Mind. Miscellanies. 287. . . Marsanes. 466. . 69. Moses. Metropolis Mariamne. 279. Concerning the Offspring 198. Memoirs of the Apostles. 315. 334. The. 549. 488. 539. little. 8. 471. Masbotheus. 519. 589. Mary. Mercury. Mithras. 334. 506. 496. the body. 7. 234. 236. 467 purgations of. Mother. Mary. Mathesis. of Lyons. 553. 198. 152. Martha. lake. 164. 81. Midst. Martyrdom. . Mary. Moon. 353. 510. 519 of. 466. 287. Mayavi-rupa. community. into. Jesus. 516. of. 199. 269 . 467. 512. 97. Monoiimus. 207. 275 fall Merinthians. Gospel according to. . Greater and Lesser Ques tions of. 222. 162. Genealogy of. 561. 526. 554. 513. 511 488. Money-changers. Melchizedec. gnosis. 323. Mary. 590 . . 428. Monastery. 489 virgin of. 484 mother of Jesus. 225. 550. Mineral nature of soul. 188. Matrix. symbolism of. 291. . 433. Monad. 320. xlv. 318. 548. 222. Menander. 558. 173. Mary. 557. 67. Mary. 277. 454. 217. above. 191. way 490. Marcosian . Mind and 423. 358. 270 . 273 of. Mathematicians. 308. 330 mysteries of of all. . Maya-vadins. 334 . Mareotic number69. Michael. 560. 173. 580. devour their 470 own. 266. 237. Marcellina. 423. 185 Mercy. of Chorene. 334 of thirty names. 461. Marcus. 576. 185 great. 474. 361. 288.. 551. great. 208. Matthias. 387 Miiller. Medulla. 561 breath. 420. pains . 422. 71. 249. 466. 374. 211. Martyrs. Mirror. 393. Marcosians. 334. 531 . of . 473. 379 . earth be- baptism cometh. 494. 254. 222. 511. Mohammed. 185. 219. Metensomatosis. 333. 514. 581. Max Metempsychosis. 546. 292. 55. 274. 511.INDEX. Monadic Monadity. of living. 196. 169. 185. 335. Middle space. truth. ritual. 204. 564. 373. 589. of. 513. 81. Mixture. 388. 540. Miriam. 550. . 269 Magdalene. 203 of compassion. 473. 199. Mary. births of. 518. 85 . Members. 510. 555. 70. . . 557. 596. Marriage. 336. 165. 422 of many names. . 56. Mosheim. Gospel of. rod of. 251. Questions of. Moist essence. 396. . Monadology. 199. 348. 263. 589. 205. 553. perfect. 294. . . of Alone-begotten. 233. .

462. 215. Myth. 420. 282 . cultus. 202. kept secret. . 58. 212. 527. . 435. 447 of intercourse. Nahashirama. looking within. 502. 531 . 527 . Mysteries. 471 world beyond. 440. 472. 49 49 ritual from. of. 365 great. 462 502 am that. of light of thy father. 268. &quot. 477. 258. 462. Chaldsean. . 480. 353 type of race. 440. Mythologizing of history. 300. baptism. 506. fires of 464. . 56. . 515 . twelve. Naassene. 205. 51 Phrygian. 482. 523. 457. 544. . Names. . 392. of relative of the. of 522 . 422 . Mulaprakriti. wisdom declared in. 368. 58 of sex. 503. 542 . 51. 484 . 523. first. your mother. a of Christ. authentic. 279 of baptism. 203. 49. of . . 51 . 460. 334 virgin. Name. 201 . Naas. 449. Muesis. 370. 482. of resur rection of dead. 332. 478. 200 . 543 542. 495 . 597. 455. 567 433 . 530. 50. . . . . 490 . 431 202 Samothracian. 522. . echo of. 465. &quot. N . Athos. 532 of Seth. 377. 508. &quot. Exodus. 439. (mystery of) 479. 429. 511 of breaking of seals. Assyrian. 507. degrees of. 411. Jesus 599. . 500. . 198 . 495 462. 479. 381. 431. 203. according . 216 philosophic. Valentinus. 493. 527 552 that was unknown. 479 . 481. substitute. 459. 507 . 168 Jonah. 541. 186. 510. Orphic. of power. 500 . 363. . 447 of Pistis Sophia. hymn. . . . Greek. state. 485. 469 of . 479. 191 names. Mythology. 58. . . 469. 185. . 184 of great mother. 439 . 506 kingdom 491 lesser. Mountain. . . of embryology. of withdrawing evil. . 522 . political. 462 twixt heaven and earth. 374. 533 281 of Jesus. Egyp tian. ineffable. 489 private. Nadi s. 420.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 494. 201. cross. riac. 269. . 522. . of the father. 201 keys of. of truth. 598. . . 515. 210. 546 . 365. . xlvi. 473. . Mount. 430. I Naasseni. . 152. 542 . spiritual twelve aeons. . . of great power. 474. Thracian. 550. 304. . greater. 202 preach ing of. 533 sins. 500. Myrrh. of their fear. of Helen. . 355. 545. ineffable. 514. 51. 380. 51. 46. 58 . 493 Mith. 459. 531. Mysticse voces. 356. 498 of every nature. document. 273. of Galilee. . six- lettered. 306. 486 . 435. 516. 437 to the. Myrtle. myths. 4:^3. 461. 67 boundary marks of. 55. Eleusinian. 509. 463. Secret Sermon on the. 369. . 382 shining. 435 of forgiveness of . (outer four-andspace of). 494. 49 drama. 88. 565 authentic. twentieth. 198. last. 203. 499. Mystery. Nail of discipline. (hymn to) 539. mimics of. of chrism. Bacchic and Corybantic. of Olives. 514. . 463. 196.

Nitrian valley. 350. 103. 392. and all. 482. 323. 54 hymns. 144. 50 line. Nirvana. of perfect souls. 476. 548. &quot. . us. 365. 50. 486. 186. 562. 222. 358 502. 440. 531. . Outline of face. 545. 411 songs. Orpheus. 546 . On an Appended Soul. 545. 396. of. 142. &quot. 176. Nicopolis. Orphic. 339. 470. Nicotheus. 321 One. 269. . 506 little. Noah. 530. . permutations. great. 561. Nativity. 345. 322. 438. 38. 197. Nine times greater. 338. 559. Omphale. 602 . 474. 504. Nuhama. 416. Nomina barbara. poems. . of. Orgeones. 198. 320. . 564. 292. Noetic world. 532 222. 266. 323. 520. 307. heavenly. 201. 400. . Ophites. Oneness. 373. 42 mysteries. seven-robed. 44. 509. Oroiael. Only-begotten. 59. The. 374 and only one. 589. 553. 587. 158. 560. Onamacritus. Octahedron. holy. Oaths of secrecy. . Nature. of Basilides. 359 nuptial. Nazaraean. symbolism. Neander. 349. On Heresies. 51. . 532. 572. Oblivion. of 277. 330. Osiris. 257. 425 horn. diagram . 503. 518. Ocean. 192 222. . atom. 202. Open unto Ophiani. . Nile. Osirified. 145. 556. theories. xlvii. 190. . tradition. mother of many. Origen. 588. Omega. 486. 344. .&quot. 38 . Nochaitse. 378. 503 . Net. 319 ocean. 341. 126. 434 (just). 534. 512. 208. 255. Noughtness. 216. 239. Ophitism. Outlines. 400 210 upper.&quot. . Night. 234. Solomon. 375 . 181. word. Numbers. 374. in a thousand. 516. 251. . Ninefold. 509. 516. 373. 218 virgin. 49. 481. 45 . On the Soul. 100. No-number. . Norton.&quot. word. 376. Nicolaitans. letters. . 324. 39. Naught was. 45 life. Nirvanic. Narrow place. Odes. On Justice. 580. 381. 330. Nazaraeans. Osymandyas.INDEX. Ogdoad. 496 draught . 268. 437. 467. of 334. 213. 399. ssons. 548. Ode to Sophia. 42. . 554. 447. 326. 280. . Never grow old. 317. (of thirty). 271. 204. Nineveh. 402. 149. 382. 600. 306 living. 379. 236. 82. 324. 333. 419. 565. 331. 251. imperishable. 432. 380. 183. Number. 236. 282. Omar. 83 . . 106. 67. 50. 101. 193 373. garment. communities. &quot.

light. 334. lord of. 584. 397. Pleroma. 511. 290. of. 40. . 339. 166 . 140. our . 117. Peter. 478 . .&quot. 504. drama. 591 . 198. Apocalypse of. of. 327 . Oxyrhynchus. 390. 97. Phronesis. Paradise. 297. . 397. 211. 417. 55. Philosophumena. 294. mind. 239. 213. Pantaenus. 481. 336 227 466 540. 176. 588. of. 581 . ascension 461. Philumene. 84 61 Parchment. Ovum. 538. 572. 218 Gospel . Paraphrase of Seth. 446. Parents. 84 . xlviii. . 464 . 331. 281. 312. 248. 567. 454. 405. 104. 434. Pelasgi. 387 . Philoxenus. treatise. of. 230. 74. triangle. 503. 83. 176. 222. 468. 495 . 470. 273. 342 . 427. 568 . 423. Plagues of Egypt. freedom. boundary of. Paul. 553. seon. 226. of. cities of. 337. 456 Peratse. Pass-not. of. 582 deity. Pentateuch. 254 of. 440. . Petro-Simonian controversy. 551 . 345. 524. Martyrdom . 580. 566 . 423. system translation of. 128. Pineal gland. 283. of. 252. 484. number 503 . 529. of Jesus. pseudo. configura tion of. 352 . Pergamus. 215. 578. 354. 247. 499. 501. Philip. of. 412. 49. Person. original. we . 60. 371. 314. 311. 407. 226 . 41. 557 man. 505. myth . Acts Circuits 152. 207. 39. fruit of. 123 . 314. brother. 423 . 571. . 206. interpreter of. 529. 349. 245. 190. 347. emanation 505 . . Pistis Sophia. 165 gospel . 150. 189. Pistis Sophia (Faith-Wisdom). of . &quot. 486. 439. 467. Plagiarism by anticipation. Perfect. 343. 92. 409. . 382. ring. 82. 62. 198. 438. 600. 117 lovers. 449. 105. Gospel seal of. gnosis of. 222. 198 of. 550. 346. 501 . Pentad. churches 244 of. 487. 499. 186. Platonic solids. and wisdomPhilo. 421. Phosilampes. 346. of. 227. Passions. Philaster. Pearl. 53. Pherecydes. 208. Plato. Phrygian mysteries. Plato. Ascent of. 199. 374. Pallas Athene. 164. 51. 574 . 551 547. Plain. . 45. Pharos. Parentless. 210 . 216. Paraplex. 377 . 331. autobiography. 151. 551. 93. 279. 378. mercy. letters of. 351. 250.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 201. 502. 303. Vision of. 37. seed of. . 398. 536. Overseer. Phlium. Pastes. 396. are to leave. 565 469. 389. Petro-Pauline controversy. of truth. 388. 225. god Perfection. 166. common Persepolis. 202. 465. sons of. 192. 166. 422. Passion. On the Contemplative Life. lords of. Pharisaism. Nuptial Number of. 311. 551 flesh. 513. of. 547. 446. . of seons. 302.

(Euergetes). 372. Providentissimus Deus. 321. &quot. 37. Put not 472 of. the. 564. forty-nine. species. &quot. 218. 334. 547 . 305. 543 . 589. 81. 220. 84. 377 est. 166. 282 . I 540. Plutarch. of. 548. Principalities. 301. 422. 98. 381. 166. 173 349. 381. 521 491. Point. Reasonings. 600. morn of the earth-born. Ptolemies. 162. 469. great. 82. 57. 381. 405. Pralaya. 504. 199. 86. 51. of. 488. Recognised myself. 51. 105. 164. 94. 302 song of . Purgatorial spheres. 491 . Polyhedric of origin Ptolemy. Polarity. III. 94. 518 righteous. 498. ing. 82. R . 314. 82 of East. above. 344 robe . 314. Prophets. delphus). 365. . 173. 447 boundless. Proasteioi up to Mfher. Ragadouah. 227. 511. 499. 108. 314. 230. 198. Prayer. Portrait of Jesus. Pleromata. 519. 163. (Phila- degrees Purusha. Prodigal son. Puranas. 442 . Rebirth. Pseudo -Clementines. 565. Pullulation. 233. 454. 407. 259. dead. Poor men. Purgations of matter. 542. Red Sea. 516. 588. 99. (Soter). 126. 185. 447. 99. 40. 334. 56. 186. 269. . 371. of high 190. 45. 209. Race.INDEX. 116. 57. 437. II. schools of the. 462 . off. crafty. Prouneikos. 291. Rabbis of south. Ptolemseus. 344. 322. Plough. Raguel. 468. 393. 274. . 468. 464. . 164. 489.&quot. of wrath. 343. Purification. daemonian. 205. 183. 409. elect. Pneumatics. Receiver. 353. Porphyry. 54 triangle. Pythagoras. . 39. to Flora. 55. 275. 427. . Power. . 171. Powers. Providence. 494 . have. 85. 70 sacramental.&quot. 411 Queen Questions of Mary. 497.&quot. 94. 471 of mind. 204. ladder . Proculus. 468. . 50. 421. John s last. 127. 104. Polyhedra. 69. &quot. . 14. 250. Pseudepigraphs. 467. Poseidon. Preuschen. . 102. 440. cruel. triple. demiurgic. 139. 486. parable of. I. 288. Pythagorseans. . 354. 523. for Prayers of Therapeuts. xlix. great. 590 293. Pre-Christian gnosis. super-celestial. 381. Proclus. 25. 405. . 564 303 mystery type of. 280. 383. name of. 104. Pythagorsean communities. Receivers. 567. of light. 502. 466. 474. 436. of perfect man.

425. 236. &quot. 552. Regeneration. Renunciation of world. 504 . Sabaoth. Saviours. 488. 512. Rulers. Relative of mystery. words of. 443. Saviour. self-born. 201. 460. 470. 13. 268. 516. 548. conglomera tion of the. 485. (Carl). Repentances. Reincarnating entity. 234. 499. Samsara. 537. 577. Satan. 489. 505 Rhapsodists. Rheinhardt. 281. Right like as the left. 563.Repent. 490. uni Rudras. 376. 197. . of cross. 411. 519. 461. 136. aeons. 401. 357. versal. three great. 265. 162. 446. 194. 468 92. 262. 267. 230. 77. 236. 99. 404. 502. 579. Sacrifices. 461 twin. 177. 219. 207. 202. . from mysteries. 334. 522 . 80. 222. 380. 370. 250. 424. Reign of 1000 years. Robe. 317. 39. . Sarbug. 159. Reincarnation.&quot. twelve. 574. initiation. Books of the. 270. Rod. 381. Adamas. 192. Salmon. . 448. great. Rhodon. 371. Reflections. 274. Seals. 464. 254. 100. 567.&quot. 527 . Righteous. (hymn of). 58. 545. Same. 532. 185. 32. sons of. Rivers of Eden. of truth. 497. 38. 301. Ritual.&quot. Reminiscence. 454. 380 . Sais. 552. 265 . 511. 471 of Sophia. . 273. Delay not Repentance. 529. 565. 412. 271. of Mercury. 521. . 230. 593. . 579. 364. 431 . 449. 469. 529. Moses lower. 264. . 466. 494. 231. 222. L Redemption. 436 . to. 439. of 520. 481. 436. 477. 498. 492 . 516. 334 angelic. &quot. Sadducees. Schmidt . 598. 233. 344. 485. of souls. Samaritan Chronicle. . 146. 498. 343. and. of . 264. 513. 262. 445. 447. 478. 471 place of. 385. 440 . little. 440. 348. bread Salt. 103. 381. 565 songs of. &quot. Remedy of Soul. 271.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 380. 410. Seed-mixture. 174. 567. of iniquity. 546. 548 of body. 377. 498. 483. 218 . Samothracian mysteries. 176 . Ruler. 265. Right. of glory. Root. 436 Saturninus. 357. 232. all Restoration. 507. 448. 167. Restitution of things. 588. 263 . 167. 251. 176 of dead. Rhacotis. seventy-two evil. Salome. Marcosian. deathlessness. 303. 538. 406. Secundus. Refutatorii Sermones. 404. of all universes. Resurrection. . . 171. 272. 447. first. 80 with. 381 . great. 372. 258 . 419 405 of power. 467. 498 evil of 526 flesh of the. . Schwartze. . 276. 93. 440. of pleroma. 287. 470. 449. 374. 163. 495. 423. Sakadagamin. 214. 266. Resch. 471. 573. 407. . 273. 474. 73. Secularizing of Christianity. 327. 512. 538. 551. 246. 465.

li. Servant. 82. bered greatness. 470 tion of. 598. second. 247. of father. Sixty. 551. 272. God. the man. Sibylline Oracles. stars. of Cyrene. 378. 58. 189. . 160. 167 rod. . robed 323. 213. 511. of. 262. Sithians. 331 flying. 104. 215. 167. . dress of a. are Simonian whitened. Isis. Seventy. hymn of the. 39. 201 398 396 times. 424 ture of. 169. 396 . Simonians. 261 . Sheol. Servers. 74. 73. heads. 339. 335. Wisdom . 564. . women 523. 525 . descent with a proper. 116. light. of. 298. . 341. 265. Sinope. Severians. formed. 215 206. Soteriology. clothed 277. num 474 heavens. Skin. 303. 59. 183. the pleroma. Shepherd boy. 529. 189. 377. . Jesus 317 Solon. of living. 282. . 354. 199. Sirius. 260. 202. 529. 354. 198. . 499. 272 334. 75. . 423. saviour of 264. Elohim. . 306. Secret. 565. Serpent. Simon. 262 . 496. . trea . ode to. literature. Soul. Sermon on the. 283. alone-begotten. 222. 372 . 336. 363. Sophia. lost. Shakti. 190. 529 544 fatherhoods. Serpentine force. 185. 189. 76. 555 years. . the. Setheus. 241. 105. Mountain. 313. Sins on souls. 58. 213 my Para 59 steries of. 599 303. 278. 188. (nature). 5. of Adam. 216 . 378. . Seven. . . 505. . 526. . 511. Silences. 403 of Elias. of five years. 467 . . Soria y Mata. 304. 379. Skemmut. 387. 583 Ye &quot. . &quot. Slime. 524. odes Solomon. phrase of. 390 of man. Sonship. . 268. 355 . Magus. 471 of. 522. voices. 173. 334. 213. of the dry. 305 grief of. stamping of. 581 . 404 . 164 . 327. a. 168. 447. Sinned. 595. 371. 524. 58. 58.&quot. 423. Sothis. mythus. and . . 97. spheres. 323. Shame. 259. 553. 270 . . Siddhis. of Basilides. third. 561 . Sethians. 144. 189. 269. . 263. God. Selene. great. common meal. 106. of Son. 372 pillars. 99. 548.&quot. 419 469 redemp . 126. 213. 346. ves 311 .INDEX. 302. . 333. 432. 516. 251. Seniority. 557 Seth (or Set). 540. Sepulchres. Smith and Wace. 491 virgins of light. sures. 314. great. He has not. . . 163. . Sheep. 353. . abysmal. 191. egg. amens. Satan. 375. 58. 582 disciples. 201. Sons. 422 seal . fall of. 190 legend. 203. 322. Serapeum. 174. 40. Siriadic land. Septuagint. 265. 168. 208. 266. 331 185. 440. 60 . form of a. coats of. 190. * Silence. 185 symbol. 333. 197. Seventh day of. 275. Sige. 298.

440. 525 great.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 565. 475 . . Supplication. conversion of. 373. light of. 498. Spider. Tabor. 478 three-faced three. 465. 357 . 396. space. classes 473 . 177. 163. pseudo. 262. baptism. Sun. 323 asons. blessed. . Synesis. 89. a dove. 564. 468. 583. Theodotus. . 563 . of ineffable. 209. 354 . . 438. Splendour. 219 139 of. 266. . Tetraktys. 263 . 288. limitary. 378. . the. Suppliant. 524. 264. Supporters. 259. 261. seven. Tears of their eyes. 477. 397. incarnation. Thelesis. Tau. 536. 268. tribes. 346. 278. 467. That-which-is. 251 plantal nature 277 mineral nature of. 294. Sweat of bodies. &quot. Theocritus. 498. of light. Tetrads. of. 277 . 529 and two-faced. 467 purgatorial. frenzied.&quot. 534. 467. 261 330. Syzygy. 109. 323. 331. 477 sublunary. in return of. lord of. 479 . three supernal.&quot. its Souls. breathed out. . 321. middle. 590. 367. 277. of 338. . Take courage. 348 of first mystery. 293. 434. 381 . 562. . 472. 292. 584. spaces. 505. inner. mundane. 510 in true form. . Spiral. . 597. 488 ship of the. 259. Sphere. Tetragrammaton. 269. 551 twin. 463. 465. 464. . 260. 479 of twelve aeons. . fruits excellent. . 379. 65. Thales. 149. first. Thebes. fate. wor coming and going of. five. 276. 37. 522. second. Spaces. 370. 499. 500. 132. Thebaid. 272. 305. 357. 209. 492. Tehuti (Thoth). 263. 23 Supplementary of. law of. 515. &quot. 463. 55. 529 Syrian gnosis. 264. 495. 465 sun. Tetrad. 378. On On an Appended. 222. 377. 276 . . 327. 553. Tetrahedron. 305 . upon 420. Standing one. Superfluity of naughtiness. 390. 353. 465. Srotapanna. 478. saviours . Space. 267. Thalatth (Tiamat). 263 . . Teii. 476 . Tertullian. 103. of. gifts 441. 101. Spheres. 268. 377. Theodas. the. in. 510 . Tantra. 173. 375. holy. limit. 203. . Spermatozoon. Statute. 317. 334. 423. 331. first. 57. 267 crucified . 496. Sublunary regions. 350. 149. counterfeit. 460.shall 269 thee. 294. like living. disk of. 588. 236. 26. Spirit. 526 . 492. lii. 504. 337 . Supersubstantial. 531. first. 479. development. 466. 343. 150. . 588. Theodoret. come virginal. . Spirits. 422. . 566. mind-born. 461 .

Trismegistus. a. of their light. . 552. aeons. 460 . . spaces. . 488. 527 . 353. 183. 525. 523. Theophrastus. to. . 204 508. 515. 299. Therapeutse. . . 522. 469 purgations of. 477. . 484. 381. 230 . name. Three times accomplished. 422. 522. 278. one in Judas. 602 Acts of. 543. dom . 509. Torments. 542. asunder. 323. 498. 477. saviour . . 172 rule. 523. Treasury. Therapeutrides. . 223. 267 gates of. 10. 366 father of. 486. 60. 62. 57. Tobe . saviours. 421. . . . 463. type of. 186. 64. Thousand. 476. 549 body of. 62. 535. 578 wis of the ineffable. 72. 420. 535. 441. 58. 504. 529. 328. 172 . 534. True God. 74. 511. 528. Thirty hours. 422. 202. Therapeuts. Thiasi. 505 . Philo s connection with. Thirtyfold. . of Jesus. Transcendentalists. 325. Theos. books of the. Twelve. 530. 57. Thirteenth seon. order. . 506 years . True Word. 44. Trees. 169. 207 . 419. &quot. 168. 542 . 505. 294. 84 . s. Twin. 514. 488 . 538. 194. according 419. . 524. 468. five. 287. 465. 278. 459. 192 540 . 63. Tone. 50. of . 531. 406. life. Treasurers. 276. of incorruptible. fire. Triangle. 474 . 486. 544. 172 life-giving. Twins. Thrones. tribes. 466. Treasures. 537. 503. 101. 468. . 356. 304. 530. 218 . 505. 66. Thrace. 511. of light. fig. Tongue. 185 Timceus. 84 prayers. liii. 488. aeons. 500. 223. .INDEX. 209. Trojan war. 511. 337. 520. 460 mysteries. 367. 221 . 465 story. 419 . 150. Tree. Thieves and robbers. . two. 329. Therapeut. 419. lay-pupils of the. 172. 198. 421. of 70 Theudas. . 499. 512 . 423. 42. 539. Third. 367 377 god of. 424 saviours. 202 years. Treasure. 380 plain of. second light. light of the. gate of. 485. 424 Gospel palace of. 196 529. 459 Extracts from. 520. 412. ven 211. 66. 559. . Truth. 82. . Torn myself 487. 440. 43. (see Tybi). of flesh. of light. 478. Thyrsus. incarna 531 depths. 532. 533. 66 Transmigration. 370. hanging on. 529 . Thrice -spiritual. 332. 39. diagram of. . Transfiguration. 461. . Titus. . Hermes. veil of. perfect. 487. 424 . 201 Thoth. of light. 474. 587 gods. 548 tion of the. Trismegistic literature. . 92. bearers. house.&quot. 104. tricle. . sixty. name of. Tybi. Thracian mysteries. . 58. 547. of. 438. 71 . 482 . 292. . 342 446 of knowledge. 424. 461 485 the. Thomas. .

Why callest thou me Good. 468. 203. 327. 215. 286 285. 522 221 cept a man be born image of. Tubingen school. 529. 71. . Universality beyond being. Upanishads. &quot. Veil. 474. 448 of error. Vestures. true. 544 god. &quot. &quot. made body. Vasus. seven.&quot. of light. 460. Under-meaning. Vortex. 509. of. 204. . 285. Unstainables. . 528 god. &quot. Untitled Apocalypse. 543 one and only. of power. &quot. 59. 239. When two Where is shall be he one. 545. 301. a. of glory. 565. Unknown. one. O Egypt. of light. . vast. with child. 331. u . 578 gospel of. Vesture. of . 566. then. gar ment. mother. 531. . three. Wanderer.&quot. 297. 203 womb. 227 of baptism mysteries. Way. 251 525. great. 498. Unapproachable. 491. 216. 377. 511. 583. . 200 Ex baptism of. 517. Typhon. 424 life-giving. to god. 571 writings . 32. light. 562. 257. 529. &quot. of . Virgins. of Jacob. Veils. 463 of ineffable. . 558. 547. . 497. Wedding. John Wiedemann. 524. 328 . 448 of the first man. 499 . 210 above. 475. . of. 538 468 of treasure. 435. 218.&quot. . Unguent. 521. hymn to the.they Wisdom . of Ezekiel. 510. Volkmar. 234. 524 pure light. w 320. . &quot. 595. I am Water. 221 . 309. 201. . (baptism of). 564. 289. 515. 171. 284. 3. Tyrants. 290. 501. . 498. seven. 547. living. 262. 472. 557 . Unutterable depth. Virgin. 188. 526 life. . . 598 . 514. 543. . 225. ? 475. 523. . Which &quot. 94 Vision. 307. 531. 191. 484 the. 201. things I hate. 529 . Vineyard. 306. schools of. 202 of Paul. Valentinianism. 514. Where. Ventricle. 520. of life. &quot. 564. invisible. of shame. 448 of midst. . 79. 570. 526. &quot. 298 myth . of thirteenth aeon. spirit. liv. 294.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Wake thou that sleepest. 223.&quot. . Whirlwind. 499 matter. Virginal 584. 476. 302. . 201. 541.&quot. 521. 469. . 546. Uncontainables. of 565. 287. of. 166. Vine.&quot. 513. 276. . 397 feast. 465. 555. Waters of Jordan. Unknowable. third. 220. (the judge). 466. 566 ineffable. 439. 448 and name. 298 . of. 584 whirl. 185. Virginity. . of. 185. . Voice. Valentinus. mighty. 516. Voices. 261. . 331. 405.&quot. 323. 58 . 483. . . 536. great. 211. Whirlpool. 301. 558. of light. 446. 322 first. 433. 197. 75. 468. 329. Turmoil. 204. 530.&quot. 515.

friends 92. Yod. 37. . 448. Zoroaster. 419 lovers. Zoroasters. goddess of. 209. 226. Zoroastrianisrn. 38. 473. all-father. 269. 87. 448. 215 virgin. 260. Winged globe. 152. jars of. 508. of 138. 385 352 . 417. . Zahn. . . 325. hymn to. 473. 38. 298 of Valentinus. . 516 god of. Wing or thought. 9. Yhvh. Yogins. 534. 89. 442. 225. 512 . . Christ is the. 497 . 512.INDEX. receivers of. . . 429. Zeus. 251. . 278. Zoroastrian logia. 177. of Egypt. Within. . 363. 434. 555. 442. 91. last of the. . 57 mystery. impure. 396 below. Zama. . &quot. Yantras. . 351 the Lord. 582. Workman (see Demiurge). 41. 172 . 41 Xerxes. 486. looking. 379. . Iv. Wreaths. Zorokothora (Melchizedec). disciples. 491. tradi tion. Wine. 354. Zealot. 396 . 222. one and only. 436 60. 534. Words. 225. of truth. 587 323. of of Saviour. zama. Wrath. 336. 485 un or minds. workmen of. of their iniquity. 474. 511. 368. 138 or angels. enemies of. 57 of Jesus Christ. Women Yahoo. X Wings. 225 . 556. 91. 482. . 180. 75. . 94 declared in a cup of. above. Wisdom. 524. 438. 580. 589 of Solomon. Wreath. 179.&quot. 268 harmony of. 376. 507. 331. Yoga. Womb. Zealotism. God. and life. 526. Word (see Logos). 169. 462. 189. 27. 435. speakable. made 390 flesh. . 497. 333 . signs of. of deity. world. 534. 353. 298 Yahweh. 375. Chaldsean. Zodiac. 448 . 37. 557. 260. 7. . . Worm. 349. 350. 302. 92. . 374 . 367. 582. 525. 436 512 . . 97. 94. 351. 215.

.

.INTRODUCTION.

PAUL (according to Gnostic tradition.The whole creation groaneth and travaileth together waiting for the manifestation of the Sons of God.) .

PROLEGOMENA. He appeared Way conscience of the General only from the fact that all the Teacher of the Way. MYSTERIOUS Time once more big with child and labouring to bring forth her twentieth babe. as the The Creed Western world counts her progeny for. and has been the symbol of their union through out the centuries. to the books. the natal so said day of of . but from not flows faith. just nineteen children of her centen arian brood have lived and died since to whom all Church believe the common The to God. according is . Some nineteen hundred years ago the Illuminator appeared and light streamed this forth into the world the of adherents of such the is common the great religion creed of the Western world. As the day of Jesus the them after honorific inscriptions said Roman Emperor all Christians : 3 of of the birth Augustus. This the is the world over. He Christians look as Teacher of the is He common bond that is Way Christians of itself.

&quot. other day does the individual or the pitied From no &quot.C. &quot. community day. 9 (See Harnack s article in Die christliche Welt. such o gifts rules over all has filled for the salvation of the world as designate him as Saviour for us and for of wars he will make an the coming generations . Dec. man with this natal this all. not only has he surpassed the good deeds of earlier time. The hope of the adherents of the Emperorthe expectation of cult was speedily shattered . had there not now born a common him who forth from streamed is blessing. glad tidings that are bound up in him. appearing are the hopes of our fore fathers fulfilled. and establish end. So runs the most perfect of a number of inscriptions lately found in Asia Minor and set up to commemorate the introduction of the Julian It bears a Calendar by the Emperor Augustus. receive such benefit as from of full blessing to The Providence which &quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Rightly does he judge who recognises in this birth-day the beginning of life and of all the &quot. . 1899). powers of life . but it is impossible &quot. From his birth-day a new era begins. The birth-day of God has brought to the world that one greater &quot. By his than he can ever appear.&quot. 4 This day has given the earth an entirely new The world would have gone to destruction aspect. all things worthily. now that time ended is when men themselves for being born. date corresponding to our B.

Our present task will be to attempt.PROLEGOMENA. among Christian general nature of thought and religious is it were birth? is -the signs of of the nations. to point to certain considerations which may tend to restore the grand figure of the Great Teacher to tradition.the whole nature so of the manifestation for travaileth together waiting the Sons of God&quot. why not should the twentieth century witness some general realization of the long deferred hope by the souls that are to be born into general it ? mind Never in the been more Western world has the ripe for understanding in things religious than the birth it is of to-day. the dawn feeling in the things being quickened and expanded.? Can any who keenly survey the times. 5 Christendom remains in great part unfulfilled. internecine and most bloody wars. Will the twentieth century witness the fulfilment of this of the great expectation. of ivday. can it be said present time that &quot. natural environment in history and and disclose the intimate points of its . never have conditions been more favourable for the wide holding of a wise view of the real nature of the Christ and the task He is working to achieve in the evolution of His world-faith. for the nineteen centuries which have passed away have The New grown severally in old years of bitter strife. of persecution and intolerance in things religious which no other period in the world s known history can parallel. however Our Presen imperfectly. and as labouring in the pains of some new And if this be so. doubt but twentieth that century. at now.

That soil is it rich is for the full enough of part the original growth of the man-plant soil. to the teaching of restore spirit of we universality. anything faith in the Fatherhood of God Must we not then believe that our common Father is no if believe at ! persons and that at all times. the try to lessen any soul single for over Christendom to a soil in the Christ to Not for its true one instant would reverence and the love of who watches that Great Soul our task will rather be to point . He children nineteen ? We should hundred be dull years Christ had not taught us really believe of it Christendom ? of the this. With many others we hold there is but One The One the many faiths and Religion for humanity creeds are all streams or streamlets of this great . but let us briefly consider its meaning. contact which the true the of ideal Christian religion has with the one world-faith of the most advanced souls of our common humanity in brief. scholars teaching And The whole history is a record of indeed of if the yet how few of the Churches disbelief in this .6 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. His rays stream This river. surely we hold this all. and ever more confidently open its heart to the rational rays of the Spiritual Sun. rational and spiritual. in all has loved and loves and will love His respecter of lands. The Sun of Truth is one. ment to every branch of man s nature. which that love can more flourish ever abundantly. perhaps seem a hard saying to some. emotional and moral. forth the minds and hearts of into we may men. and gives nourish .

. And illuminating doctrine to realise this not to believe it in this some half-hearted way and of deny how it by great the growth of the heart in the sunshine of this most blessed doctrine our other beliefs It is practically all the world-saviours that ! we would ask our readers to approach the consideration of the many forms of faith of earliest Christendom with which we shall have to deal in these pages. It may possibly be that this crude particularism in religion is a necessary factor The and exclusiveness in the development of certain classes of and souls. 7 fundamental dogma of universal religion. This same spirit also infused itself than the into Mohammedanism. or of the Christ. that all it is of the teaching Mohammed of or provided he but set his one to our common Zoroaster. but is not a greater portion of our Father s blessing possible to us now ? that is it Can we not see that have learned of Krishna or of it the the Path from Buddha. upon that Path. Words fail even to hint at the sublimity of this conception. He it was Father? who illumined Them.PROLEGOMENA. used for ultimate good purpose by the Wisdom that guides the world. In this sunshine Sons! Doctrine. foot man matters not whether a all sent Them all forth and might through Them have the spiritual food suited to their needs. which has ever instigated it to every outbreak of intolerance and persecution. at the glorious glimpse into the stupendous reality of God s providence which opens up. and no greater foe has dogged the footsteps of Christainity evil genius of Jewish particularism. and we can trace the results in the bloody pages of its history.

false frequently wear so religion&quot. the main effort has been to discover differences. however. prepared to abandon the comparative science of religion. com parative science of theology. well. But it is one of difficult. It has been said by Professor Max Miiller that we eternal providence of in should not speak of the comparative science of religion. and exaggerate the analysis of official So far there has been. by scholarship. But let us be on our guard against all exaggera tion and strive to get things in their true propor for tions. We term are not. &quot. circle of writers.heresy&quot. &quot. but also a deep nature as well as a wide sympathy with the hopes and fears of the religious conscience. This is quite true of the work that has and done so far been done. and above all things an unshakable faith in the unwinking providence Supposing revere all it of God in all possible that a the great Teachers human man known affairs. but should rather employ the phrase. little of a small attempt at synthesis. could love and to history as deeply and earnestly as each exclusive religionist and loves his own particular Master reveres .FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. we believe there is such a science which any man the most the noblest perchance to can set his hand. outside details. 8 and &quot. &quot. &quot. It requires not only an intimate experience of human knowledge of history. who by His Messengers His own good time ever adjusts the balance. their unsympathetic opponents. it only thus that is we can realise the God. changed an aspect that they seem quite beautiful true religion of alongside of the orthodoxy and &quot. .

or &quot. an religion pours the hearts of men into the its rays The analysis analysis has in of |5etha of of a religion Com Panson human-kind. expressions as Every manifold as . its a orthodoxy. soil of &quot. all would then be his How ! when supported by Faith vast and the evidences of world-bibles and the exhortations of teachers would Persuaded ! feel himself the of the all the world- all of fact his strong re-birth. heretic least of all hurled after pool on the shore. banks. eclectic for &quot. The One Religion flows and soil is the of Light-stream human therefore great nature. &quot. would he notice the cry him by some paddlers of &quot. he a true citizen of the world and the treasures of the sacred heir presumptive to all would he care the gibes of him by the at syncretist flung analysers of externals and seekers after difference. believe really the great without though 9 in religions in the as full as the The True Scholar exclusiveness. truth he that supposing could each of of measure. and scrutinize the mud of its bottom and the Religion. its and would gladly leave them to survey bed and channels. Not. of Religion. but his analysis within as well as from without. supposing finally he could of his Wisdom sense the Deity in active operation in what a glorious Religion of these manifestations. orthodox of each great faith believes in the truth own revelation. for he would be bathing in the life-stream of books.PROLEGOMENA. and he would find his orthodoxy in the life of the or analysis less of would be from stream and not in the shape of the banks. would think little of in he that however. Little &quot.

and you find the same factors at work. 10 the and minds hearts manifestation of of truth its adherents. How un equally reflect that light ? wise is it then to compare the most enlightened with the most views of one set of religionists c5 all can ignorant beliefs and most superstitious practices of another set And yet this is a very favourite pas time with those who seek to gratify themselves ! with the persuasion that their own faith is superior that of every other creature. all. chosen.&quot. there &quot. all at different stages of evolution. many All Hindus.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and idols imitators of the Christ. Analyse any of the great religions. and its light life are free but as there are grades of souls. To few Bacchi. how can it be that for all . are are &quot. Thyrsus-bearers but the of one with the Bacchi religion compare mere foolishness. worshipers for of instance. the same problems of human imperfection to be studied. the many who and the few who are &quot. its in the The and words life a great sage must differ widely from the feeble reflection of its light which is all the dull intellect of and unclean ignorant and immoral can of the life It is true that express.&quot. This method will never lead us to a comprehension of true Religion to or an understanding of our brother man. is Thyrus-bearers of another &quot. have ever there been. let us put Roman Church Church or alongside If are all not unintelligent Christians fervent we compare the two at of the image-adoration the of Greek eikon-worship the of the worship of four-faced . called in each as religion.

It presses on him at every turn. have ever really studied the subject. the to parallel So then if we analyse a religion. general ignorance of He everything is amazed at the connected with How few are there who history and origins. the parent of all the Rays of Light poured into the world. we find that the lowest of the people know little of it and cling desperately to many misconceptions and superstitions. outside of the comparatively small body of scholars whose its to deal with such researches and even among them how few have thrown any real light profession is on the subject. rises grade after grade of higher intelligence and less erroneous expression of it. then we must go to the best theology and holiest livers among the Brahmans. it is a problem he cannot escape. if rest we of 11 the would the of figures find the proper holy life and best theology of Christendom. until we arrive at that class of souls light in object all who its their of consciously seek to welcome the fulness and make this the one lives. points contact of to find the real religion and its and here we sense the presence of the glorious Spiritual Sun. Brahma and the but pantheon. sister-faiths. It is within this class of minds that we must seek for the true nature of a Here then we expect between the religion. Christian! .PROLEGOMENA. in spite of their admirable industry. and that from this travesty of what it really is. Now of all the great religions none can be of any student of the comparative The greater interest to science of religion in the West than the Christian Faith.

to gain much real either studies of rationalists nature of the Christ from the help or apologists. preconceptions as entirely rejected. and of which no word is breathed from the Is pulpit. that every finds one as of he his early times has to be con and most of them indeed to be siderably modified. a vast freedom of . only valuable as a means of sifting libraries of out material for his prosecutes future studies. and gazes round on a world that he has never heard of at school. 12 Indeed it and any one possessed of we have endeavoured the ideas filled for difficult is with enthusiasm with a for faith living to express above. this the one doctrine which he which he has read in had been unbroken led to believe has been succession and in handed down one form since in the He gazes round on a religious world beginnings of immense activity.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. striving and contending. For s long he is with confronted books filled with mutually contradictory and opinions. He use. the world of this the Primitive Church of the accepted manuals and been told of by pastors and masters ? Is this the picture of the single and simple community of the followers of Jesus. a vast upheaval of thought ? and a strenuousness of religious endeavour to which the history of the Western world gives no parellel. to He gradually works his way to a point whence he can obtain an unimpeded view of the remains of the first two centuries. Thousands of schools and communities on every hand. the unity of religion in the truly universal teaching.

so little critical attention has been bestowed on the writings of these although by their means great light may be thrown on many of the obscure problems con nected with the history of the beginnings it is only &quot. But the student prefers themselves centuries to look to the first instead of listening to two the opinions and decisions of those who come after. freedom of he moves which he in has an atmosphere of previously had no Who are all experience in Christian tradition. of comparatively late years that the utility of their evidence has been recognised and that attempts have been made to bring them into court. heretics The its as the &quot. . very pestilent folk and enemies of the True Faith which we have now established by our decrees and councils. voice&quot. can hardly be expected to know more of them than those they anathematised after their death. are all heretics. a mighty effort to live the religious life. though such abundantly minute and laborious research has been expended on it is the problem of the origins of Christianity by the analysis of canonical documents. &quot. of the Catholic Church since has stigmatised these &quot. first-born . these people not fishermen and slaves and the poor and destitute.general ascendancy &quot. who. heretics. though those are striving too but these men of learning and ascetic life.&quot.PROLEGOMENA. as farther away from the origins. Here he finds innumerable points of contact with other religions. 13 thought. Now remarkable that. saints and sages as much as many others to name has been given with whom far less reason ? the They say later Church writers.

and the faithful have believed un- Sancto Spiritu questioningly that that voice was But for Protestantism at least such suggerente&quot. of every canonical document literal inspiration sense of was but universally held. or to admit that the sacred writer has erred. &quot.&quot. a tacit confession that inspiration As had ceased in the infancy of the Faith. faith (as and they morals. the is dogma of the verbal and by the Holy Ghost. The famous Providentissimus Deus encyclical of Leo XIII. (&quot. lately &quot. This policy really one cf despair. and is still held by the majority of Christians to-day. sons of Satan. of want of confidence in the living and persisting presence of inspiration in the Church. For upwards of one hundred years liberal Christendom has witnessed the most strenuous and courageous of efforts to rescue the Bible from the hands an ignorant obscurantism which had ways degraded and deprived it it of obscurantism is in many to the level of a literary fetish of the light of reason. either to narrow inspiration to certain parts only of Holy Scripture.14 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. to rid For the system of those who. do not hesitate to concede that Divine inspiration the of things because beyond. in the fullest the terms. and wrongly regards nothing think) in . in order themselves of these difficulties. crude no longer satisfy the can opinions liberal mind in things religious at the beginning of the twentieth century. 1893) formulates the orthodoxy of Roman Catholic Christendom in the following counsel of despair : &quot.It is absolutely wrong and forbidden. well known.

was these inspired instruments who. and finally expressed in apt words and Otherwise it could not be with infallible truth. Hence because the Holy Ghost employed men as His instruments. Such has always been the persuasion of the Fathers. and those only. we should consider not so much what God has said as the reason and purpose which He had mind in tolerated.gt. at the dictation receives as sacred and of entirely. the the of question truth 15 or falsehood of a passage. He so moved and impelled them to write He was so present to them that the things which He ordered. the possible Holy Ghost. This is the ancient and unchanging faith of the Church. . error sacred is possible writings. first He was the author of the entire Scripture. by supernatural power. but excludes and rejects it as absolutely and necessarily as it is impossible that God Himself.PROLEGOMENA. that inspiration not only is essentially incompatible with error. we cannot therefore say that it . For. rightly understood. and finally confirmed and more expressly formulated by the Council of the Vatican. for in all saying it this system cannot be the books which the Church and canonical are written wholly with all their parts. . said that . the supreme truth. It follows that those who maintain that an . then willed faithfully to write down. they. and not the primary author. have fallen into error. in any genuine passage of the either pervert the Catholic notion . perchance.&amp. can utter that which is not true.ti . solemnly defined in the Councils of Florence and Trent. and that any error can so far is it from being co-exist with inspiration.

binding on all the Church powerful faithful. 16 of make God or inspiration.&quot. as the to students of the is domain of faith life. religion the doing violence to therefore. of its life unquestioned depends on authority. The consequence. This encyclical medievalism it is . and as believers in Providence have confidence that the force thus generated will even tually be used for good. of perfectly patent that such a unavoidable by the Head of a has given in its adhesion to the course. the author of such error.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. doubt sincerity. though at present it seems to many This of us is an unmixed evil. and circulated broadcast at the end of the nineteenth century. its scholars have to to resort a method casuistical which is exceedingly distasteful to those who are nurtured the free air of scientific research. however. one side of the picture. however. is that in order to reconcile this dogma with reason. and which in unfortunately renders Catholic critics open We cerity. pronouncement Church which dogma better than our fathers. is not a curious literary relic of the most solemn and authoritative Head of by far the largest and most of Christendom. we watch the human with keenest interest this tragedy of reason struggling in the bonds of a self-imposed authority. is maintenance the and whose infallibility. in which we boasted ourselves voice of the much to be so It Its Result. their for in commonest phenomenon reason. of is. and indeed a . writings of the charge of Roman insin need not. necessarily.

to replace number appears This conservatism. for the many Indubitably 17 student millions of still human believe The Force most firmly as they are bidden to believe by the Holy Father. is apparently the pressure which insists on ever greater and greater thoroughness from those who are clearing a way for the acceptance of a living doctrine still necessary. in order to as their achieve this task these energetic souls with an enthusiasm for criticism which exaggerated. and with a slight difference of contents and edition many millions of Protestants. for what for an ever-growing to be the fossil of a lifeless dogma.PROLEGOMENA. we believe. for it is largely by a faith though a blind one in the dictated reality of inspiration. But could such believers open the eyes of their under standing. it is of inspiration. are filled with as lively a faith own and by their devotion to truth are God s work in preparing the way for a fuller doing realization of His eternal Wisdom and a deeper understanding of human nature. in the sublimity of the not the seen. they would see that the busy souls who are clearing away the obscurations of centuries of misunderstanding. but which nevertheless is are is filled perhaps the necessary . things positive place in by what seems to it at present a negation of its most cherished convictions. which refuses human heart filled to have its &quot.&quot. most one interesting nature. will not prove an evil Christendom in the long run. True. who spurn the Pope s authority far from them. believe as blindly in this view of inspiration and are even more fervent than bibliolaters Roman their Catholic This conservative and reactionary force brethren.

will regard an art as it as a most means for human error. to settle the question of a Textus Receptus. Scripture Textual or the Lower Criticism has for ever shattered letter the pretension of the Council of Trent. and their relations with other . it asks. keen an(^ trained mind of the every word intellect and scientific of scrutinizing to test the blind assertions of faith. however. God s good gift of reason that any soul possessed of can believe the literal inspiration of such a collection words of protean changes of It is Teh ?. did not convey such an idea. proved to have suffered in misfortunes at the hands of is dogmatic editors amazed at the that spectacle. its tradition so ignorant reason human the many scribes and stands Can it be possible.&quot. ? perhaps a mistake to have given the name of Criticism to such research.^t ? re of Criticism. word. it their several contents. and so far from impious in so admirable finding anything that of textual criticism.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. but simply the sense of examining and judging well. But the wise man will not be dismayed by a term . For r o?Pro ess we ^ nc if we turn ^e ^ It is the child of to the other side of the picture. these twain that will bring light. he will look at the thing itself. 18 yoke-fellow of blind conservatism. potent removing But Criticism does not end with the investigation proceeds to a higher branch and busies itself with research into the date and history of the sacred books. because the ordinary person looks on the term as implying something hostile and inimical the original meaning of the . The Received Text &quot. the analysis and comparison of of the text.

fact. the only vessel that can live through them is the ship of a rational faith. criticising without. cannot the blind A discomfiture. trying to religion whose adherents and so long as This die. because these problems can now be defined with an intelligence and a knowledge of human nature which infinitely adds and demands more pressingly than to their interest. this investigation are so stupendous. inspiration of of Christendom not a band of enemies compass can do exists which makes their work so sense. of tradition of verbal inspiration. But before we enter the sun -lit waters of the harbour of this new country. the high moral worth of our Critics and their deep It is the best in valuable. it is but a means towards a new definition of the eternal problems of religion a most potent means indeed. itself is this. private judgment. though indeed I there be any class of men who have sought that of if more earnestly for help and guidance in their task It is this than the great Critics of Christendom. In it is doubt method the brief. of criticism is rational. But we must not suppose that Criticism is an end in itself.credo quid absurdum&quot. . its faith Roman alive. ever their solution.19 PROLEGOMENA. religious spirit is as this spirit much the the Holy Ghost as is the conviction in the &quot. but Criticism cannot solve The . it as the whole surveys contents to in all field its of parts. writings literature Biblical The in brief. we must have battled through that many which no bark storms of blind faith will ever survive. results of we seem to enter a new religious land.

though breathing a far loftier spirit. of very various dates edited and re-edited that the older deposits of the Jewish portion draw . For. scholar. are still open to many objections . a faculty that will pass beyond the science things seen to the gnosis of things unseen. and paint the picture of a God that revolts all thinking minds. falsify from the mythology of other nations and history to an incredible extent. are in their oldest deposits largely profuse in unmoral doctrine and patent absurdities. can never fully explain.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. as mystic cannot throw full the scholar as Equally so the mystic light on the problem . 20 their them. and that the books of the Christian portion are still equally called in question on numerous points . granting that the Bible is a library of books for the most part composed of scraps of other documents. This is the child that will come to birth from the of the two great forces of congress of reaction of progress and which we have been speaking. activity marred with imperfection and absurdities which the reason can so clearly detect ? This the scientist as scientist. there is so teachings much of of beauty the Bible. that the more recent deposits of the Hebrew Scriptures. that the problem of inspiration. centuries been instead of being lessened by these facts. and lofty conception in the and it has for so many regarded as the vehicle of God s revelation to man. solution depends on a still higher faculty. What the nature of this higher faculty which transcends the reason and why are the records of its is . becomes all the more pressing for solution.

clairvoyant. of Its history. we are it the teach. We have had three Nineteen Centuries mind trained Ago and of natural research. are disposed have such things been before: to believe that never we has been it numerous new among them the sense and chief the of impatient past. himself science the to The mystic discipline and the scholar refuses : any validity yet without the union of to attach the mystic. are all so this proud. For some three hundred ye&rs the Western world has been evolving a wonderful instrument in what we the scientific method. people. intellectual which we instrument. call developing in this instrument conquests are so brilliant scornful are methods. But the student of human nature and the scholar of the science of life keeps looking to the past in order that he his of may the better forecast the future.&quot. and All this is perfectly natural and even necessary for the proper develop ment grade of of keen this mind of us. men that senses. a subtle grade of hundred years or so of . of and its little can by the lessons As has ever been the prime. What 21 required is the nature born of the union a nature so hard to find that it may of the two is be said almost training of ba to submit not will non-existent. to unsympathetic its ideas. history extends beyond the domain and strives to become Higher Criticism sense of the &quot. And two the child of the methods of to the understanding cannot be born.PROLEGOMENA. we think that wisdom will die with case with nations in their inclined to profit &quot. &quot.

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. . The soul of man returns again and again to learn the lessons of life in this great world-school. should human affairs for wiser we is ever minds of look in the phenomena similar to the happenings of these last three hundred years ? Whither else more certainly than to the history of the times which witnessed the birth of the religion of the Christ ? The many striking parallels between the social and religious aspects of the civilization of that critical epoch and of our own times have been already sketched by a few writers. for for scepticism. exemplify the wise providence of strife God? it Perhaps at first sight. if we have but wit enough to understand. all longed for the has it all meant. analysis and of most brilliant physical research in ments. 22 cataloguing and criticism. may not be so to point to difficult as it appears the direction in which to these questions may be to some extent anticipated. this how sifting. then. history of to by of genesis the Whither. For the experience of humanity is our own experience. but no general notice has been taken of their endeavours. That similar phenomena recur in the natural world is the unvarying experience of mankind. what does the good What is purpose depart the overthrow have positivists downfall of superstition. testified is humanity. that time is the ever-moving image the answers of and that the wheel eternity. turning. of have feared the pious and religion. least of all has any practical lesson been learned from the review of this experience of the past.

. for its cycle is not ended and the records of the future are not yet open to our understanding. the same ways of looking at They cannot fall into our midst from the must it not be that they have been Ewigkeit things ? &quot.PROLEGOMENA. why do the same problems arise. Finally. that though we can review the main outlines of the whole of that phase of civilization. We must further remember that the records of that time are frequently very imperfect. 23 according to one of the great doctrines of general If this be so. its even that many of may well be souls who were It the identical embodied in the early centuries of Christianity are continuing their experience among ourselves to-day. it follows that when similar The Return religion. . For why otherwise do the same ideas recur. we can only survey a portion of our own. we must remember quality of the life the general of our own age that and mind-texture Comparison. conditions recur a similar class of souls returns to continue lessons of experience. while the and history of our own is inscribed in painful detail . some factors in great prominence in the civilization of the Grseco- Romaii world are only very faintly outlined in our present civilization. brought back by minds to been familiar ? It would of whom they have already course be exceedingly unwise to even a single one of our parallels into an The Conditions identity we must bear in mind that though many of of the stretch . while some strongly marked features of our own times are but imperfectly traceable in that age. the conditions are strikingly resemblant. &quot.

possible and by the subsequently &quot. contact To-day with the ancient East. mind took birth in Greece some two thousand five hundred years ago. and the uncertainty and eager curiosity intellectual The the public mind in the closing years of the nineteenth century. All these considerations must great effort of the imagination for even the most history to see a marked superficial student of similarity between the general unrest and searching new after a ideal that marked the period of brilliant development which preceded the birth of Christianity. 24 is generally far more subtle than hundred years ago for humanity it was nineteen evolves. hundred years which preceded the Christian era. of world-conquest the by organising genius of Rome. The tendency is the same in kind though not in the achievements of the scientists and degree Present. the need of the active.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. have been vastly trans cended by the conquests of their successors in our the example) during own three life is more intense. it is the conquests of physical science which have in truth of . and developed itself by intimate time. a contact made &quot. scholars of Alexandria (to take the most conspicuous of . physically Alexander. thought more more extended. experience The modern solution of the problem more pressing. be kept in mind if we would anticipate the future from a survey of But indeed it requires no the history of the past. But to-day or the power not the conquests of an Alexander of Rome which have built the ways it is communication between the nations.

and it will come for those who seek it to-day. The great impetus which the study of oriental he languages and tongues long since dead has received J Reconcihai during the last hundred Jyears. it is the meeting of the great waters. ends the united the of 25 and earth. It is no longer the speculative mind of Greece and and arterial nervous Occident and Orient the practical genius of Rome that meet together. built up an system for our common mother which she has never previously possessed. initiation of a literature of the which comparative world-bibles science and ancient of of religion slowly but surely modifying all our pre To-day it is not a Porphyry who conceptions. It came in the past for those souls who were searching for it. but it which has struck the &quot. That reconciliation will come. &quot. Light will If the human pour into it. between religion (or. it is not even the mind of the then confined Occident meeting with the enthusiasm and mysticism of the then Orient. Heaven and Earth will once more kiss each other. heart seek the Light the It was so nineteen hundred . Higher blow to Criticism unreasoning bibliolatry. is disproves the authenticity of the or a Marcion who makes havoc of became the New Book of Daniel what afterwards Testament canon. has led to the of Science and Theok . the developed thought and industrious observation of the whole Western world of to-day meeting with the slow old stream the of and ancient modern East.PEOLEGOMENA. if you will. [ . science The is the death conflict theology) and has produced a generation that longs and searches for a reconciliation.

that the path of individual souls is not to be traced in the evolution of racial bodies. hordes of The which destroyed that which the new races were old races which supplied the the more advanced conditions for the experience of souls. and new races were to be developed. one of Christ as of so great a Soul for the helping of The Light was received by men in proportion to their capacity to understand it. 26 years ago came . were far souls who were incarnated into capable of from the barbarous civilization. we should remember that they centuries. rhe if Coming Souls. and the Life was poured into them as their natures were capable of And expansion. when the dark cloud of ignorance and in tolerance settled down on Christendom for so many makes it appear as if that Life had been poured out in vain. and that Light radiated to no purpose. were lavished on souls and not on bodies. carnated into the civilisation of who were different the half The souls Greece and in Eome receiving the Light. the reading of these pages may perhaps lead them to a more reasonable view of the conditions which called of the for the coming mankind. may at first appear strange to taught to regard the state of affairs before the coming unmixed depravity. but which in their . and out to be developed. which in their childhood could not supply the necessary conditions for the incarna tion of such subtle intellects. the subsequent history of the if times. were to disappear gradually.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. men sought for the Light and the Light And if this view those who have been answer in to their prayers.

PROLEGOMENA. as men are born and die they may be long-lived or short-lived. or course there are numerous individual exceptions. as the old units and atoms was it overlapping o all were slowly replaced by new ones. must it not have been foreseen and provided for by the Wisdom that watches over human affairs ? all Races and nations are born. But whatever their characters as compared with other is that of manhood. or indifferent. for the above is the merest outline of the elements of the problem. is not the same as the grade of souls which incarnates in them in their middle in their old age. But how is it to be expected that Vandal and Goth could understand the great problems which delighted the minds of the philosophers and mystics of Greece and Rome ? And further. there was much races. and disappearings so shade off into their origins other nations and races. that the analogy of their The Birth and Death ofKaces. suddenness. the details complicated. Of in their of souls age. and their of childhood. bad. they may be good. and die. It follows then that as a general rule the class which seeks experience in them childhood. that no mind can fully are so grasp them. races. the permutations and com binations so innumerable. 27 attract to them still higher souls This of course did not take place with manhood would perchance. their later and their middle period characteristics period period that early that of old age. very gradual. . . Moreover races and nations so overlap and blend.

The problems which occupy the developed intelligence were fore shadowed in the womb of its parent. some of the . the vehicle of its period of childhood. and our more attention of will in future its immediate task will be to deal with outlines of that foreshadowing. has had fthe from the Vorld an d i^ s womb the modern world. Our Western he mind. we can trace the main moments of their evolution and perceive the differences in their main periods of age. 28 lives with the of death race. men must of birth not be over and the moment very hard to detect in the case of a is and the embryonic period and stages of dis Nevertheless integration cannot be clearly defined. apparently just coming of age. enable us better to understand the otherwise spectacle of sad the dark and middle ages in Europe. the natural concomitants of childhood. was a natural period of Such considerations will ignorance and passion.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and in the future we may hope it will think and act as a man and is put away childish things. lives of The moment strained. it of Greek and Roman lusty childhood was born civilisation. they were and were followed by the intellectual development The Western world of youth and early manhood.

&quot. interwoven with our earlist recollections It is it . against which but few have the &quot. own understanding divorced from In brief. has been stamped upon our infant consciousness with a it has solemnity which has repressed all questioning . the ordinary man the greatest story in the and he must begin the world. a thing of Greatest story in . as all its tellers assert. But once strength to struggle. become the we have grown used It has thing upon its side that stupendous power of inertia. PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS. but that it is struggle. the force of custom. desire to know more about let to. if of the story all historical he analyses his he finds it violently environment. the origins of Christianity drunk in as it were with our The of all may be said to be almost a part the consciousness of the Western world. entirely supernatural. Previously he has been led to believe not that the only story is absolutely unique.SOME ROUGH OUTLINES OF THE BACK GROUND OF THE GNOSIS. THE familiar story which we have mothers of milk.

he does not feel that he has been put it. no has background. instead of faith. For if we look back to the evidence of the first two rhe Mam Means to a centuries of our era (and to our Recovery of regard to the origins subsequent to this period is of Dutlines. but the general reader seldom hears of them.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and without this it is impossible to have a real comprehension of the nature of infant Christianity and the full scope of its without illumination.&quot. There are of course a few works which are not of this nature. its real it naturalness and we its shall never understand vast power of adaptation to that environment. no matter how industriously he may labour. 30 His standing alone. any validity) for mind no evidence with an understanding of the actual state one Church and one form of of affairs. He may read many books on the Life &quot. in contact with the natural he is environment for which seeking. &quot. we go deeper into the matter and make a special study of the history of the origins. that background. with the largest of libraries at our disposal. we find But even if that no writer has as yet given us a really sufficient sketch of the environment. able we find modes innumerable communities and innumer of expression communities united for . in brief. picture Moreover he will find it very difficult to fill in itself.&quot. disturbing. dangerous &quot. and Times of our only to find that for the most part the environment has been made to fit the story and its main features have been taken from Lord. in unnatural isolation. for they are generally regarded as and &quot.

and a means that will help and munities us to fill the outlines of in with a the origins than these greater the background of feeling of confidence we had So far previously thought possible. 31 the living of a Life and systems striving to express the radiance of a Light. when .heaven-storming.&quot. or capable of satisfying the Never perhaps daring efforts has to the most world exacting intellect. In many of these com expressions we find intimate points of contact with the life and faith of the best in universal religion. limiting the illumination which they had received to the comprehension of the poorest from confining it to the region of blind that it had supplied them claimed faith. it was just the boast of many of these communities that was a religion it as was as know the things of the soul the things of the body. witnessed more reach a solution of the world- were attempted by some of problem mystic philosophers and religio-scientists. so far to possible definitely they boldly claimed that science. nevertheless their &quot. from finding the sharp divorcement between science (or philosophy) and religion (or theology) which has characterised all later periods of the Christian era up to our own day. they with the means of formulating a world-philosophy intellect. and partly due to to the the natural impossibility of expressing in human language the stupendous realities to which they aspired.PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS. than their attempts are for the these That most part incomprehensible modern mind is partly owing to the fact that our record of them is so imperfect.

the if Gnostics. By no means opposed them. at once presses itself upon the attention of the student of history is Whence did these men come ? Did they arise suddenly : j n ^| ie jnidst of a worid that cared not for these things. of realities. referred to in Church whose goal was those be They are now generally history as the Gnosis. were they entirely out of touch with the past those . who boasting had they no predecessors who so bitterly ? . strove for the knowledge of God. themselves to be the only legitimate inheritors of the illumination of the Christ in their most angry mood. for present general title.&quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. custom has selected to be their doctrines. stigmatised the Gnostics as of Satan. the holy things of . the science They Fhe Gnostic nature. indeed that meaning. wisdom life their study. the first-born our feet in the . the gnosis of the things-that-are was their goal . many names by those who subsequently haled them from their hidden retreats to ridicule their efforts and anathematise their They were called by and one of the names which they used themselves. the the end is who those their right feet God used and hence the Gnostics would be Gnosis as the means to the upon the Way to set God. may help us to set &quot. The question which Where to C bheir Origma. 32 we can understand its our admiration and make we (if bow our heads us their inspired a spectacle to move is cast aside all prejudice) Power which before the efforts. for one of their earliest documents existing expressly declares that Gnosis is not the end it is the beginning of the path.

as we the blendings of cult. to The separate them into their original elements ? of theogonies problem seems as hopeless as the endeavour to trace the mixtures of races and sub-races. centuries prior to our is it possible. of nations and families. the syncretism especially during the three and cosmogonies and the mixtures of faith which abounded in these centuries. of Aristotle and of Heracleitus. For if usually to be . of the Mysteries and Initiations of the nations. but the most important field to be the is surveyed nature How era. 33 In less bitter mood. us that the doctrines of tell the Gnosis are of Plato and Pythagoras. gaze upon of the religious world. before he can really of the soil in political appreciate the nature which the seed was sown. we shall then be or no we join our voices heresy-hunters. which were the material means of these Where can we begin ? we begin where known history fails (as is the case). follow the Let us then try lead and of background in fill the better able to say whether to the we of this hue and cry of the shall only vast the field attempt of the research The Nature which the student of the Christian origins has labour. and not of a brief space to for some of outlines rough Gnosis. where we direction shall Church Fathers the some materials on find which to base an answer. history and conditions of social to The the time have to be carefully studied and continually borne in mind.PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS. we ask ourselves. and imagine that we have here blendings of cult and religion. In what follows indications vaguest in Christ.

Nations may have certain distinguishing characteristics. so are nations ? the if a man is pushed back the more to difficult is trace it is the heredity of a has but two parents a nation may have many. 34 reached a state of things primitive. bodies. where shall we seize a beginning in this material of protean change ? Surely we cannot trace it on the lines of material evolution alone? May it &quot. their superstitions and barbarous practices are found blended with the remnants of high ideas which no savagery could evolve. persist mingled and grand-children. [the and sight of they share with other nations. it is not . for whereas a the man bodies of nations decay in the with their children all. we have regarded which Tribes as primitive savages are found to be the decaying remnants of once great nations. we are forced to be ever revising our hypotheses by each new archae ological and ethnological discovery. Such then being the nature of the general religious of the physical vehicle consciousness. but they are not individualised in the same way as a man is individualised. as well not be that there people Just as the bodies of The Soil of the is &quot. and whereas the bodies of a man s parents at death are hidden away to decay ramifies).FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. for of inner their than even that of it is on a vaster scale.soul of a which has to be reckoned with physical heredity of (since the farther it more men are born from other But born from nations. is more and the problem difficult to solve heredity the nature of the animal soul. far difficult nation. and all the family-tree which in earth.

PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS. it greatest courage to venture on any all we feel that every state attempt at generalization to be qualified by so many other con . 35 surprising to find that the history of the evolution of religious ideas is one of the most difficult of studies. and Three watch round like to the is animal souls of its irrational soul of nurses . But to return to the antecedents of the special period and movement we have in view. Three main streams mingle their waters together in the tumbling torrent that swirls through the land in these critical centuries. Egypt. Three main elements are combining their substance and transmuting their natures in the seething crucible of the first centuries of the Christian era. and spiritual soul. and practice we shall not of the people. We have then direction in which find it in the cult to search most carefully in the this can be found. and Jewry receive the child in their arms. to pay the greatest attention . however. to be shall It is the by the Christ. for in this found the inner side of the religions of Jewry. and making them vibrant with life. it is rational soul its of like heredity with their minds. and know that we are only tracing the bones of skeletons when we ought to be clothing them with flesh. Egypt. If we bear the requires these presuppositions in mind. but the spirit within it is illumined heredity of its rational which we is The its cradle. suckle the body of the new born babe. but in the religion and discipline of the philosopher and streams . and Greece. ment ought that siderations we are almost disgusted with its crudity. Greece.

new powers puberty age . 36 and For antiquity. of the prophet in human was nature priest. IF we turn The Greece to our era. for the worst as well. will speak elsewhere. the instruction in the inner degrees reserved to those who were fit to comprehend . activity is part and parcel of a great quickening. so to speak. and the old-time oracular wisdom are receiving new and ancient myths of thought are expression in the infant science of empirical physics and the birth This of philosophy. coming into activity. the beginning spirit in the it is.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Its it a most marked characteristic . and intensified the religious instinct of Greece in remarkable manner. there were as many degrees in religion as there were grades sage. Let us then first turn our attention to the religion of the intelligence of Greece. alas. which may be it is an intensification traced in other lands as well . for the but of this we worst is the corruption of the best . mystery-institutions and schools of initiation of every degree were to be found in all great nations. of a new to the Greece of the sixth century prior we can perceive the signs of the birth Western world. the of a great intellectual activity of Greek the of genius. . and to them we must look for the best in their religions not infrequently. of the religious consciousness of the nations. GREECE. an outpouring of power.

in India the of last the there were others . existing permit us to trace their paths. . 37 the application of the intellect to things religious. In the East we have Confucius and Gautama the Buddha. that all philosophy flowed from him. in this so sudden appearance of it. and Thales. Indeed in doctrine. in Persia far Zoroasters. and other teachers in Egypt and Chaldsea and elsewhere. these early days it is almost impossible to separate philosophy mythology and all the ancient ideas connected with it. in Greece Pythagoras doubtless elsewhere Laotze. Can any who in human be a Providence see happenings But for &quot.GREECE. we must not suppose that Pythagoras was without predecessors The for though his later followers would have us think Pythagoras. some great plan we believe in the providence of ends. who acted as messengers of the our but records are too imperfect to Light. is . where can clearly than in such great ? to confine ourselves to Greece . If we look to the times of from who regarded as the herald of the first elements of philosophy in the Grecian world. owing to the accelerated development of this faculty is in man.&quot. that shapes our hand more its Wisdom doubt but that this was part of man s advancement ? If there affairs. The greatest pioneers of this activity were men whose names still live in the temple of fame. we cannot believe and we doubt not that Pythagoras regarded himself as the enunciator of old truths and but one of the teachers of a line of He had Pherecydes and Anaximander and Thales before him in Asia Minor.

the old tradition was that of Onomacritus. He than the archaic fragments of the Orphic poems which enshrined the most ancient elements of the religious tradition of Hellas. but could nothing of religion and the rest. As But he fell far short of the for the Orphic fragments. they could make but was doubtless more the intelligent and his little of intelligible theogany them. we as follows. and at the same time memory its seems to have been to revive in Greece the of its past of to . were the relics of barbarous ancestors. flattered their vanity their ancient heroes. travelled of the Greeks of the time regarded Egypt as the centre of culture and their own all learning and forbears as of no account in The rhapsodists of the Homeric poems by singing of the prowess of such matters. they wisdom of Egypt. which gradually led to their collection and translation its Greek This took place at the end of the sixth century.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 38 who lived a century a state of find earlier somewhat affairs The educated and than Pythagoras. But a nation that is to be something of itself and not a mere copier of others must have confidence in their past traditions. and we find about this time that there arose a growing interest in these old fragments. tell as for Hesiod . and no one believed in them but the superstitious and ignorant. and the name identified most closely with this activity to recover the fragments of into the of the period. how that when Greece It is interesting to notice this was done cast back the just prior to the period hosts of Xerxes from the shores of Europe. invading The effort by recovering the channel ancient inspiration.

rendered Primitive . main wave there were doubtless many wavelets. and as find an enormously increased activity in those most sacred institutions of the But before we perhaps try life religious proceed the most to take Greece of the consider to important point of a hasty retrospect along the for those Mysteries. that so she might feel courage hurl back the invading forces of the East. of rise of te philosophy and the revival of the Orphic tradition. assert with one voice that the line of their descent was from Orpheus through Pythagoras and Plato. period.GREECE. Attica was occupied by the long-forgotten ancestors of flood and when the the Hellenes. and to the pave way same East At her to in the this future days we then. as well we without. The Greeks known to history seem to have formed part of one of the waves of immigration Of the Europe of the great Aryan stock. the shores Atlantic of the Then came was Island Mediterranean the great destroyed. matters in later Greece more deeply than the rest. If we may venture to believe that some germ into history underlies the records of the priests of Sai s communicated to Solon and preserved to us by Plato in his Critias and Timceus. m d2|phic But this is not all the leaven is working within . so long ago as ten thousand years before our era. according to of them. 39 her feel the strength of her peculiar genius in thinking out the old oracular wisdom in terms of let her fresh intellect. the notice that of conquests Alexander. let us the line of studied such Orphic tradition. who this briefly all.

of which Manetho. if you we if polity of will. occupied Hellas of the period &quot. who knows stock. the third It it is before the said was the time of we have mention If be this wavelet of &quot. that they were ruled over by chiefs from the Atlantic Island who busily pushed its conquests to the most distant shores of the criminate mass Great Sea (the Mediterranean). what the They Pelasgi. and how the was left for long to the occupation of country these same autochthones whom Herodotus calls were to the Greeks. &quot. their traditions. What enormous possibilities of cult-mixtures myth-blending. or the blendings of races that had taken place before the remains of them could be classed as an indis ? We are told. imagine how the the conquering Aryan race which then the overlords of the autochthones &quot. the mighty powers of the . we can &quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and doubtless their primitive Attica. bears a striking resemblance to the polity of the ancient Aryans in India. religious As traditions for the came from a common &quot. and theocrasia have we here these Atlanteans who ! It was introduced the cults of Poseidon and Hephsestus (Vulcan). Pelasgi. the ancient Greek inhabitants of according to the notes of Solon. and that the ancient Hellenes disputed the lordship with this dominant race. autochthones of their The own &quot.&quot. was driven back.&quot. Dravidians were and are to the Indo-Aryans. the writings of in Deucalion. &quot. Egypt of &quot. &quot.&quot. 40 uninhabitable by seismic disturbances of which the great cataclysm was but one of a number. &quot. but with a long history could recover their records.Flood before the flood true.

but were great leaders who established kingdoms separated by long periods of time. &quot. not only in Greece itself but also on the shores of Asia Minor. flood floods imagine how when had subsided and the in course of many many years seismic disturbances had lessened. Immigration. and perceive how a Cecrops. as befitted a warlike race. who was also a warrior goddess. and even by the ancient We may hymn-bursts which we have in the relics in all those ancient mythology of the Teuton in the legend-lore preserved Slavs. The of Aryan wavelet overlapped wavelet. of legends of Druid and Bard and traditions of the Celt. May it not further be that with these conquering to advise and encourage. the Hellenic stock reoccupied the ground again.41 GREECE. imagine how in these early years. horde fought with horde. which had destroyed their fathers. and supply kings came bards . in the and Norseman. as the Wavelets swept them onward. For the Aryan Hellenic stock there was All-father Zeus and the Goddess of Wisdom. What say ? the Greek religion was at this period. an Erectheus. who shall But it is not so wild a guess to suppose that it may have been a bardic nature of suited to warriors. But how many wavelets of immigration flowed in until Homeric times who shall say ? out Perhaps some day may from the myths some deposit of history. and an Ion did not it be possible to sift follow each other in rapid succession. effects of the Aryan We may &quot. sea and of subterranean fire. Pallas Athene. and that the smiling land of Hellas was a rich prize strong current of the for the strongest.

with some Orpheus of the time rousing the warriors to enthusiasm by his songs. indeed the Orphic the peculiar was the tradition this is tradition. In Thrace they would meet with the cult of Dionysus and absorb some of its traditions not that . of inspirational. its origins its back roots into in time the appear a wide- soil of an archaic Semitism. and to one of the later wavelets trace the archaic fragments of the see most ancient religious poems some Sacred religious Way to We may almost ? of the time passing pomp down the the most sacred spot Eleusis. it by the rhythmic clashing of their shields. harp in hand. it must have been and oracular characteristic But even a pure one ? and . It The Orphic would be vain look for any intellectual to presentation of religion along this line it was. ever Greece.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. while the regular march of the warriors kept time in and emphasized to the strain. with his grey locks streaming in the breeze. way through other races. the traces of which are hard to discover in the obscure and fragmentary records that we now possess. Moreover there is some mixture . and the main line of their march seems to have been fought their round the south shores of the Black Sea and through Thrace. 42 what of religion was thought good for them ? May we not seek for the prototype of Orpheus here. prophetical. the various races must have . Thrace was the home of to reach eastwards and spreading cultus with this cult. in these early days Scarcely whatever . and settled for a time among them before they reached Hellas.

but existed at this period or hard to say. but this is it were. were a stock that paid little attention to religion they at home. we can no they were doubtless inspiration If and became more longer say. Homer. for the Trojans were^jjrreeks. but and sufficient for their needs. but the Trojan War was more probably a foray There of these warriors to gain new lands. records. of heroes who had left their religion ment . a foray not against an alien race. as won . may have been a fickle Helen and a too gallant Paris who violated the hospitality of his hosts. Chaldean tradition the of whether later is in 43 the Orphic line. but against those of their own general kin . . give one the impression of being some sort of Viking warriors who cared little for the agricultural pursuits which their predecessors were engaged. it was superadded What the precise religion of the earlier of these successive wavelets was like. whose idea of providing in ^ for an increasing population is by foray and Qj) conquest. Homer sings of a Greece that seems to have entirely forgotten its ancient bards. somewhat orientalised in their customs perhaps. when they had settled in the rich lands of Greece. we are . We see a number of independent chieftains occupying the many vales of Greece. not altogether inexplicable. The yellow-haired Greeks who the supremacy subsequent to Ion s time. by settlement in The Greece of Homer. if we can judge from the tradition preserved by Hesiod. for watched given them we now turn we have no over civilized. and try to doomed to disappoint- to the Greece of find traces of Orpheus.GREECE.

Chaldaea. needs of thinking men there was nothing in Homer to compare with the religious traditions of Egypt and . &quot. &quot. but the bard of their predecessors (who were equally Greeks) of the Hellenic stock which they had dominated. legends of this older Greece. of the heroes of Troy naturally looked to Homer as the singer of the deeds of their forefathers. and with perchance for the most part as little understanding concerning it. just this absence of the priest. however. the lays and &quot. Homer was the bard of these Viking heroes for the It &quot. they were too proud to listen to &quot. the germ of that independence of thought which is the marked characteristic of the Greek mind that was subsequently developed. were left to the people and to consequent neglect and lack of understanding. &quot. Such was the state of affairs when philosophy 1 &quot. and as the &quot. which is an It is. all that dark-haired Greeks. . recorder of their customs and cult . and of which the Greece of history was the special and indication of carefully watched depository. Orpheus. the Greeks apparently had nothing of . world-purpose for which it was good for men to look the gods manfully in the face and battle with them if need be. that it might evolve was destined. . with a cult like the cult of the fair-haired ones. arose in the seventh century it was then found by J * the few that Homer could not suffice for the religious . was The descendants &quot. Orpheus eturns to Jreece.theologers who had been the bards of the conquered so the old songs and sagas of this bardic line.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 44 contact with the nations of Asia.&quot. but for Greeks.Orpheus and the old &quot. or the very subordinate position he holds.

Those who busied themselves with such matters at this critical period. we may and poets helped as they could receive this activity in Orphic poesy to us. .&quot. and Orphic Hymns. their ancestors Then were barbarians. a tradition religious . though allsufficient for many. in modes more suitable to the intellectuals of the time and we have . these were based on the archaic frag Many ments of the pre-Homeric times. the philosophy of a Pythagoras and subsequently of a Plato. it occurred to some to collect and compare the ancient oracles and religious myths of the people the frag ments of the Orphic songs and therein they found proofs of an ancient Greek tradition of things unseen that could be favourably compared with much that Greece had Egypt and Chaldaea could tell them. were not suited to the nascent Greece which was asserting itself with such vigour. and looked back to of this archaic tradition as their foundation. we do not some eighty in in refer number. which may be read in English left thinkers were The fragments of which have come down it. religion. signs of this inspiration &quot. But the mystic and mythological setting of these poems. Taylor s translation. without guidance. were not . their enthusiastic and prophetic character. forebears their were not barbarous. Therefore the greatest leaders of intellectuality of that thought sought means to clothe the ideas which were enshrined in myth and poesy.GREECE. but to the ancient fragments scattered in the works of classical and patristic writers. show to the late believe.

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. the temple. were to be found the means of a more intimate participation in the cult and instruction in the dogmas. that there was a science of the soul. of things unseen. in the inner shrines of side. either all their all the themselves gods . more difficult the Mysterytraditions. a knowledge . 46 the public cults and popular traditions there existed an inner organism of religion But alongside and channels of of secret concealed within traditions If it is difficult to form the Mystery-institutions. that there was in a gradual process of unfolding in things religious fine. secrets or mysteries into possible to be initiated . The that idea was in Greece the Mystery-tradition that which underlay all underlay similar to similar institutions in antiquity. A the persistent tradition in was great Mystery-institutions founders were the introducers several arts of gods or with connection that of they were were instructed in them by the civilization. of the notion evolution of popular any precise in ideas religious much Greece. phenomenon was that there was something of antiquity to be known which it was in religion. the slightest violation of the oath is trace to it various lines of the being punishable by death. The institution interesting The idea of the in Mysteries is the most the study of religion. which were regarded with the greatest possible reverence and guarded with the greatest possible secrecy. to find and it is cult of importance without any difficult inner this In these institutions.

&quot. of the human and the unseen world. It is said that these earliest teachers of humanity who founded the Mystery-institutions as the most The Reason efficient means of giving infant humanity instruction higher things. they who knowledge than any were the teachers of infant races. from the purest and most kinds. is the fulfilling of the law and so again though are the few are the chosen. &quot. and set forth how the world came into existence and much else. were men of far greater had come after.for &quot. and mankind wayward moreover. and only capable of infant little . men cannot be forced. but they instructed them in the nature of the gods. for when human nature is intensified. humanity. in men of minds our but humanity were children with developed. called/ &quot. The teachers of depends on they use it humanity have ever been opposed by the innate evolution selfishness. they did they teach them the arts. love they must come of their own free-will. When knowledge and it is given power is acquired.47 GREECE. . were souls belonging to a more The highly developed humanity than our own. them we degraded. We these world honey-combed with They were of all sorts and find the ancient institutions. to best of superstition Nor should we be surprised at this. worst of the religion and most the and in noble find down the Their Corruption. soul.many forces for of is . And not only in that brief. slow. the recipients whether or no for good or evil. not only is the better in in finds it it stimulated but also the worse greater scope.

and that the Mysteries were committed to the care of the most advanced pupils of this humanity. dramas and scenic representations. The Various of &amp. 48 understanding what they distinctly saw and felt. and have to rely mainly on This much. among men. and the wonders shown therein such tion of none of our humanity could of themselves As time went on and our humanity produce.gt. and man win his own divinty by self-conquest it to and persistent struggling against the lower elements The teachers remained unseen. to compel So runs the as If. is hints and veiled allusions. the teachers gradually withdrew. we therefore have no adequate materials upon which to work. more and more developed the faculty of reason. we have much no but of the origin and evolution Greece are difficult to are difficult of the characteristic in Greek of the which the beginnings Mystery-cultus. popular seen. the Mysteries were conducted by those who had a knowledge of nature-powers which was the acquisi a prior perfected humanity not necessarily earth-born. however.ns the &quot. tradition.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Then was left was that corruption crept in. according to this view. cults more and development The main the longer moving their reverence visibly and worship. In the earliest times. and were thought strong enough to stand on their own feet. Mysteries their was traditions profound secrecy were kept. to ready help. ever in his nature. . trace. of what had previously been revealed by higher means. who had finally to substitute symbols and devices.

and philosophic. private. as may be seen ys Private . and not only made men live better lives here on earth but enabled them to depart from life with brighter hopes of the future. though providing for a grade or several grades of advancement along the path of right living and of right comprehension fact. citizen of that stringent. the days of Plato we find existing Mystery-institutions which may be roughly characterised as political.49 GREECE. Dionysiac. Alongside of the Eleusinia there existed certain private Mysteries. The rites. the The number of which subsequently increased enormously. the bestowed upon the Mysteries by the highest praise tell us that greatest thinkers among the Greeks. tests so initiated. as departments of a State-religion are bound of life. with their pageants and their splendid Mysteries inner that political Mysteries At this period almost every respectable Athens was the when Mysteries. it is . not recognised by the State. certain. all to become in time. What the primitive Mystery-cultus traditions along the lines of Orphic. In to say the State- external gorgeous see is were the famous Eleusinia. and Eleusinian may have unnecessary to speculate in this rough outline sketch but if we come down to descent been. so that almost every variety of Oriental Mysterycultus found its adherents in Greece. had become somewhat perfunctory. could many not and we can have easily been very were admitted every year. who is they purified the nature. these State-Mysteries. that the Mystery-side into initiation its of cult higher religion and was the doctrine.

who yearned after the religious and among them were the Pythagorean schools. but at the same time they satisfied the needs of many who could derive no spiritual of societies this nourishment from the State-religion. therefore. in the best of the It is in Orphic and to find Pythagorean the indications of Mysteries. who gave them entirely to holy living. and not in traditions that we have the nature of the real the political Eleusinia . These Orphic communities appear to have been the refuges of those life. The Pythagorean schools disappear into the Orphic communities. &quot. and communities kind private there were to be found naturally many undesirable elements. the Pythagorean tradition that we see the signs of what I have called the philosophic Mysteries. Erani. Of course there were charlatans selves &quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and Orgeones among . it is. Pythagoras did not establish something entirely new Greece when he founded his famous school at in Crotona. his original school was broken up and its and when members had to flee they sought refuge among the Orphics. Among these private foundations were communities of rigid ascetics. men and women. who parodied purity and following them and knowledge. to pretended we but the indications of are those at their present whose conduct squared with their profession. he developed something already existing. 50 from a study of the religious associations among the Greeks known as Thiasi. such people were said to live the and were generally Orphic life known as Orphics.

otherwise in the joy of its it would get entirely out of hand and freedom reject the truths of the ancient wisdom. In fact the Orphics did Eleusinia and supported 1 * much to . or the in 51 elements disorderly the of Oriental cults. application of his and Eleusinian same time he was one intellect of the His philosophy but the itself. at the Mysteries chief founders of Greek philosophy. Chaldsean. however. however. satisfied the aspira and Pythagoreans were somewhat the State-Mysteries of the ordinary citizen. to lead the rapidly evolving intellectuality of Greece along its own lines to the contemplation of the inner nature of things. It stands to reason. We life have then to seek for the innermost religious of Greece in this direction. Pythagoras and Plato. . Orphic. was not a thing of . These Pythagoreans were famous throughout antiquity for the purity of their lives and the loftiness and the Mysteries they regarded with such profound reverence must have been something beyond the Eleusinia. were but one of the outer approaches. something to which the Eleusinia of their aims. Pythagoras is said to have been initiated into the Egyptian.GREECE. means for comprehension of the higher life. and to remember that the inner experiences of this life were kept a profound secret and not paraded on the house tops. that the Mysteries which than higher man towards a educating the ordinary tions of Orphics improve the as a most necessary Th ? them Philosophic Mysteries. especially of his mathematical genius to the best in these Mysterytraditions he saw that it was necessary to attempt .

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. he set forth a positive document in the Timceus. Pythagoras. they degenerated into empty argument and ended in negation. Unfortunately most of those who immediately followed him. but he does not formulate them so by his dialetical brought into a much as clear the method. so that the fit state to Therefore are the receive conclusions nearly always negative. and his main effort was to clear the ground from misconceptions. as contemplate the things-that-are. It is a mistake to suppose that Plato formulated a distinctly new system of philosophy his main con . different lines. and &quot.only ground mind may be them. of his dialogues at the end of his probably against his better judgment and in response to the importunity of his pupils. so that the intellect might be purified and brought into a fit state to He spent his not so much a system building up of knowledge. life in this task. Pythagoras termed it. 52 though on somewhat he worked more in the world than Plato continued this task. does long life. imagined that his dialectical method was an end in itself. are ceptions part and parcel of the old wisdom handed down by the seers of the Mysteries. and so instead of living the life of philosophy and seeking the clear vision of true initiation. composed of scraps from the unpublished writings of Pythagoreans and others. might become apparent of themselves. Aristotle followed with his admirable method . as clearing the way so that the great truths of the Gnosis of things-that-are.

53 of analysis and exact observation of phenomena. itself that its intellectual world. against that victory was with it. in that his method also was taken as an end in And the itself rather we come to present era. when so the than as a means simply. we look to the surface of things merely. but from another more mis understood. In Aristotle Scepticism. the modern breaking same spirit of scepticism. vigour would conquer the matched its vigorous intellect Everywhere the ancient and a time imagined for East. the same rise it of the the same unrest. and as he treated of the without rather than of the within he was from one point of view better understood than Plato. It was a far more extended Greece than the Hellas of Plato it was a Greece whose physical had conquered the Orient. and with of old views. it independence of thought had given rise to innumerable schools warring with each other. . three centuries prior to life of Greece the intellectual was centred at Alexandria. though on a smaller scale were the same intellectual activity see there at it charcterized the method.GREECE. We in germ which as has scientific down work. and the Its spectacle of offers us is it very similar to the spectacle modern Europe during the last three hundred years. and which boasted prowess . But if we look If deeper we shall find that this is not the case. we almost might say that Greece had entirely forgotten the Mystery-tradition and gloried solely in the unaided strength of her intellect.

so the Greek conquest of the life spread abroad a spirit of scepticism and unbelief. But all this was a very gradual process. and the Orient more scepticism increased. while at the religious religious same time it intensified the and gave greater satisfaction to the emotions. when the Greeks in their thousands went forth into the East. came the ancient wisdom of into the prepared by contact closer intimacy with East. Oriental thinkers and mystics became Hellenized along the lines of Pythagorean and Platonic philosophy. and Greek philosophers became Orientalized by contact with members of the many communities that honey combed not only Egypt and the rest of the . just as the introduction of Orientalism into Greece with it among the people brought abuses and enthusiastic rites of an undesirable character. 54 the days of Plato the Orient and Egypt were brought to Greece so to speak. in Egypt so that though the Orphic and Pythagorean communities of Plato s time imported into Greece a modified Orientalism which they adapted to the Greek genius along the lines of their own ancient wisdom-tradition. As for the generality. those of them who were with these schools.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and plative life that offered seek refuge in the contem them knowledge. whereas later on Greece went to Egypt and the Now West anc^ East. and drank it in readily. the intenser became the of numbers to withdraw from the warring CT desire clash of opinions. the ancient Chaldsea and wisdom had Orient the its home generally. while sharpening the intellectual faculties.

55 nations subject to Greece. most popular cult was. in the persons of her best men. 70 Mysteries O f Mithras. somewhat in a fashion of the present British The legal mind and practical was never really at home in the genius of Rome metaphysical subtleties of Greek philosophy. the organizing world. genius similar way of power conquering Italic the policed to the Rome. I / . How numerous were these communities in the first century may be seen from a study of the writings of Philo Judseus and the life of Apollonius of Tyana. which summed up code of ethics in the ideal of its Nevertheless Rome avoid ^11 religious find her Greece. chief religions honestas&quot. and so we find her. could no more than Greece contact ii &quot. from about in B. When Alexander the the Greek kingdoms of the Successors of were in their turn humbled beneath Rome. of contact Roman of the among the was many the Empire core and the inner Sun. the follower of Stoic naturalism. or the mysticism of the East.barbarian&quot. but also Asia Minor and even Hellas herself.GREECE. and ethical from in discovered inscriptions recently the innumerable Religious Associations the many to relating also Greece. . and from the picture which may be recovered from the of mystic Greece and theosophical essays of Plutarch. and we The ji i passing through the same experiences as though in much more modified form. In literature and art she occupation of India.C. &quot. . The point of the common worship of this with the East.could only copy Greece in philosophy she sought for -f iirale of conduct rather than a system of knowledge.

as Plutarch tells us. with the natural symbol of the glorious orb of day. and the rest of the solar symbolism. Mithra. resulted from the contact of Greece the thought of the and which and Rome with East. caused his rays to shine to the uttermost limits of the Roman Empire. 56 onwards. the Spiritual Sun. Church Fathers from the time of onward have declared that the the the from the point and indeed the Justin Martyr Devil. in the Mysteries of Mithras. to found be the in Mysteries of Mithras. which the uniting together of many peoples into the side of Grseco-Roman world had made possible. Such is first four centuries of statement of one of who view of a Christian looks at it ecclesiastic. indigenous forms of religion. gradually permeated the popular In course of time. and the principal antagonist of the truth during our period. the Logos.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.The was the worship of Mithras. The Mithriac Mysteries represented the esoteric a great international religious movement. &quot. or of the sun-god. National and local cults were gradually influenced by the form of symbolism employed by the modi fied Chaldseo-Persian tradition. for the instructed. the visible sun for the ignorant. so did the . the worship of the Spiritual Sun. which was common in one form or other to all great cults. the Mediator between the Light and Darkness. And just as his outer cult dominated the restricted forms of national worship. most popular of heathen cults. had plagiarized their most sacred rites by anticipation.&quot.

&quot. and doctrines wisdom therein it set is very evident that the forward as the traditional Egypt have innumerable points of contact with the Greek Trismegistic literature. with the added title . those mystic and theosophic treatises which formed the manuals of of instruction in the inner Hermetic schools. or Tehuti. in their own Hermes some points of similarity with the charactistics of Tehuti. mystic communities which handed on the wisdom-tradition of Thoth. the origin of It is associated with the name of Manetho. that is to say. finding its of inspiration of the branches. LET us now turn the to Egypt and cast a glance on which has to be surveyed. God of Wisdom. EGYPT. translation of records which is very probable that Plutarch in his treatise on the Mysteries of Isis drew the bulk of his information from Manetho. In spite of her reserve and immeasurable contempt for the upstart Greek genius. before the vista of outlines this Gnosis can be of part filled the background of the in. called him by that name. given of her wisdom There had been an enormous activity of and documents.GREECE.&quot. ^ was common to all priests. to Greece. whose name. even in the Th times of the earliest Ptolemies. modify the Mystery-cultus tradition of his Mysteries of the ancient 57 Western world. was the source wisdom-tradition in all The Greeks. Egypt had. the -*** as Jamblichus tells us.

was a name It was identified with Sothis.C. of syncretism and blendings. the Siriadic of Land . because of his great wisdom. (2000-1500 B. of the oldest treatises of this Trismegistic literature further evidenced by were largely Egyptian is Jamblichus in his treatise on the Mysteries of the Egyptians and Chaldseans. not only in the external popular cults but also in the inner traditions. and find in it many doctrines developed which without this investigation we Greece wisdom on fully should have considered purely Christian we literature doctrines of entirely indigenous to Indeed. though not the form. in the Trismegistic number a the of distinctive Gnostic Christianity but without the and all of these doctrines are seen historic Christ to soil. within the Egyptian tradition all manners itself there are of conflation of doctrines. and the Mysteries of Seth were doubtless . identical tongue with of the the title Semitic of the perchance Supreme in the conquerors. the Sirius. 58 Trismegistus.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. of the Saviour and Virgin Mother. But The en of as in the case of Greece. of the direct second birth and final union with God. find as . so in the case of Egypt. Along these between Egypt and lines of contact we can proceed to inspect the Egyptian its own soil.). or Thrice-greatest. great honour. guardian star of Egypt. To take a single instance. That the contents. have existed for thousands of years previously in Egyptian tradition especially the doctrines of the Logos. there was a strong of the Hyksos Semitic blend dating from the line At that time Seth.

especially and future researches in in the the Mystery- many hitherto throw Egyptology fresh light on the mixed heredity of religion in Egypt. un worked religion. the opponent of Osiris. political relations between disclosed by archaeological Egypt and the later Persian conquest of Egypt. In any case many of we cannot but feel the the conceptions of the inner sublimity of religion of Egypt. The vast and mysterious background of the cults of Egypt.&quot. it simply registers a rivalry of cult and race and points to a previous epoch when there was intimate contact between the races and their religions. the Logos but this . must also have discovered points of contact in the research. who prevented him do anything not The ancient if Daimon he were about to rightly. no more affects the real doctrines of the Mysteries of Iranian fact that the the than Seth. After the hated Hyksos were expelled it is true that Seth or Set was gradually identified with Typhon. in spite of our present inability to classify them in a satisfactory manner. which is perhaps even more complicated than fields of will doubtless that of the cults of Greece. the sonorous phrases and grandiose titles which we sift . destroyed nature of the Devas of the Indo- Aryans. Equally so the Christian use of the term Demon does not dispose of the fact that the Daimones of the Greeks were beneficent beings of Socrates &quot. domain of traditions. blended some in fashion with those of Osiris.59 EGYPT. Aryans used the name Daevos the beneficent to designate evil entities. close and Chaldsea witness the .

which evidently belonged to the circle of mystic Judaism. the Grecian world. in writing of the wisdom in of about lovers class the A. inhabited world. persuade us that there was something great working within.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Q either because healing superior they healed souls because they by the common calls were to they professed that as servants well of in ordinary as God. man becomes the spiritual birth of man. in every province. and we find the innermost strivings of the mystics devoted to the shadowing forth of that greatest The Mystic ities. 60 out from the present unintelligibility of myth and symbol. or of ar ^ for Therapeuts. especially it. sharing in Egypt there are crowds of or nome as call they the Grecian and non- both the them and In perfect good. These wisdom-lovers Philo The name Therapeuts.&quot. round Alexandria. they confess that they had fallen away from this high standard and had the lost much to key their of Nevertheless the desire for wisdom was knowledge. still strong and Egypt was ever one many Thus of the most religious countries of the world. is declaring that &quot. we find the Jew Philo. Commun of &quot.this natural to be found in many parts of 25.D. bodies. whence god and a son of the Father. men of nation.Birth a The Egyptians themselves. He describes one of their communities.&quot. according to Greek writers. an use. looked back to a time when their initiated priesthood was in possession of greater wisdom than was theirs in later times. but the many other communities he mentions were also . a of all mysteries. Horus.

giving this translation it is s writings But before necessary to prefix a few words by way of introduction. and the world knew them not. in order do this thoroughly. no records. they kept themselves apart from the But it is just world. we cannot refrain from presenting the reader with a translation of the main source in Philo from which we derive our information.EGYPT. 1895). therefore. . sketches. to search through the it would of course be necessary whole of his voluminous works and submit the material thus collected to a critical examination a task outside the scope of these short But as the matter is of vital importance. The survival of the voluminous works of Philo through the neglect and vandalism of the Dark and Earliest Christians of Eusebius. 61 their members were strenuous searchers after wisdom and devoted pracThese secret brotherhoods left tisers of the holy life.A. or the Fourth Book of the Treatise concerning the Virtues. excellent bibliography of works relating to the subject. We must. make the most what Philo has to we can of to tell us of these Healers. critically edited with a defence of its genuineness by Fred C. (Oxford. devoted to the same ends. The full title of this important work is: Philo about the Contemplative Life. ConyThis book contains a most beare. M. The appearance in 1895 of Conybeare s admir able edition of the text of Philo s famous treatise On The the Contemplative Life has at length set one of the ingeniously squarely on inverted its pyrammds of the origins base again. these communities which were the immediate links in the chain of heredity of the Gnosis.

men and women . and encyclopaedia. as they were for Eusebius. which. which date the treatise is assumed to have been &quot. According to this theory. was coeval with the origins. the bete noire of Protestantism. eagerly description of the externals of the Therapeut order. the treatise were genuine. 62 Middle Ages is owing to the fact that Eusebius.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. These three centuries ThePseudo. then the earliest Church was a community of rigid ascetics. and Lucius. This view remained unchallenged until the rise and was only then called in question because the Papal party rested their defence of the of Protestantism. monkdom. Theory. forged (op. in his efforts to construct history seized upon Philo without materials. but no longer of a primitive cast. The consequence is that every recent Protestant Church history.evolved a theory.the Therapeutae Christians. &quot. of on its attack have perfection finally by Gratz. monkdom on Christian antiquity of this famous treatise. has been accepted by nearly our leading Protestant scholars. and boldly declared it to be the s Church earliest Christian of Alexandria.D. and the ascetics described therein to be in reality monks about the year 300 A. For the ascription are of still work the to Philo is declared to be false. cit.). and is claimed Nicolas. all to have demolished the objectionable document for ever. p.. For three centuries the whole of the batteries of Protestant scholarship have been turned on this main For if position of the Roman and Greek Churches. within a few years of of . when . vi. dictionary.

&quot. We have thus a new departure in Philonean research. s preface. when Conybeare s work was published. and with admirable patience paralleled every distinctive phrase and technical expression with voluminous citations from the rest of Philo s works. treating of the Therapeuts. of which there ignorance. it was then and only then that a treatise MSS. nor any work bearing specially on him. and all the props knocked from under it. Strange to say.63 EGYPT. the With Conybeare has marshalled his Testimonia. where he writes: and somewhat of a reproach Oxford as a place of learning. is To prevalent and regrettable an this he has added an extensive so &quot. is to recommended by students in our Honour and that.&quot. versions relentless persistence have been At attacked last all collated. Excursus on the Philonean authorship of the tract. is plentifully besprinkled with references to the ingenious invention. critical text of this so violently was placed and in our hands. This pyramid of the origins was kept propped upon its apex until 1895. that not a single line of Philo. Pseudo-Philo. It is barely credible. is evidenced by the concluding paragraph of Conybeare &quot. The danger to certain orthodox presumptions which a thorough study of the rest of Philo s works would threaten. called the &quot. its Death- . If Philo did not write the De Vita Contemplativa then every canon of literary criticism is a delusion. although this most to be read School of Theology. the evidence adduced by the sometime Fellow of University College for the authenticity of the treatise is irresistible.

of Christian dogmatics (op.op.C. the contents of the D.64 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Who. cit. are of and for the Be this as it may. were they ? Christians . the (&quot. was born about the year as Philo the date of the treatise may be roughly to the first quarter of the first century. is one of his earliest works (op. the be emphatically. we It is thus established that the An tiv a is Interesting Question of are confronted with some difficulties .. p. cit. from Eusebius and Ambrose in the fourth century down express. then a vast problem accepted is opened up.C. As to its date. Christianity in Philo knows any possible word is used to-day. 30 Now 276). are dates incorrect. If. &quot.U.). immense importance us a glimpse into those mysterious communities in which Christians for so many centuries recognized their forerunners. x. B. can the question naturally arises of Philo be with the earliest identified Therapeuts ascribed : Christian Church of Alexandria ? If the accepted dates of the origins are correct. the father not only of Christian exegesis. The At such a date. &quot. the of first importance origins of the Christian faith. but also. to a great extent. the answer must on the contrary.V. p. No. opinion of &quot. cit. is tacit or a long line of Catholic teachers. De Vita Contemplaa genuine Philonean tract.About year 22 or 23 &quot. of to Bull and Dollinger in modern times. p. The interest as Therapeuts affording were not of absolutely nothing sense in which the then. spiritual of authors by the admission. The answer to this question . 290).C.. but the expert Conybeare assures us that every of the works of Philo confirms my feeling reperusal that the D.

the superor Concerning the Virtues. lost&quot. a good part of the second book has been removed. to the tractate itself. book Philo of s voluminous work De Legatione. the palinode which formed the fifth book has been . y p.&quot. By who has &quot. Book Book The some in The Suppliants. &quot. or Concerning the Virtue of the Suppliants.EGYPT. Ab. all except the scrap on the Essenes which Eusebius has preserved to us in the Prceparatio Evangelica . Suppliant fled to Philo us he means tells God and taken refuge with (De Sac. De Legatione in a threefold way. demands an entire 65 reformulation of the origins. Firstly. perhaps because it ran counter to Christian tradition con cerning Pontius Pilate. . treatise bears the accepted history of The &quot. . It is highly probable that our tract formed part of the fourth Him. Time and Christian editors have truncated the &quot. Secondly. scription. 284). Thirdly. IV.. i. and the first part of it has been lost.&quot. fragments only of which have survived.. (op. 186. 33). while the account of the Therapeutae was put by itself and preserved as a separate book. as forming a whole by itself. et C. IV. Title Context.one MSS. the entire fourth book was removed. &quot. But cit.

either our] souls and scarce and desire. have I &quot. I know. sumptuously. proper concerning embrace [the life of] contemplation. our wisdom-lovers immediately apparent from their name. not to speak too pre . I will at once. 66 PHILO ON THE CONTEMPLATIVE already treated of Essseans who assiduously practise the [religious] life of action. will in accordance &quot. its my of proceed to those who subject. with fail to speak her.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Tterapg^ called women] (OepcLTrevei) as well bodies. and and injustice. and .T) 6 LIFE. The Name Therapeut. selfishness of difficult pleasure and folly. in most of the following much as say sequence as is degrees. They are and [men of the word of (for healing superior that only heals whereas this [heals hold by they profess that Therapeutrides sense in the original because to and is in an art cities which fear. Now the purpose of &quot. carrying it out in all. for the greatness men ought not to be a cause of who deem it right that no good of the virtue of these for silence those thing should be kept silent. or. Nevertheless the endeavour must be we must even for struggle through with made and it.As The E S68B3. and that too without adding anything of my own to better the poets and history-writers are accustomed to do in the scarcity of good material matter as all the but artlessly holding to the truth itself. the most skilful [writer]. . when curable grief use in and laid diseases.

by which alone truth and falsehood are distinguished from each other. the Bacchic and God not advice s away with heavenly are afire with their [do some on custom. space. or. any but love. And he adds significantly. may . that he is not speaking of the sight of the body. but of that of the soul. through their that deathless and blessed mortal life possessions is to for thinking that their Their ended. Philo here indulges in a digression. by nature and the sacred laws to serve (Qepa-Treveiv) That which is better than the Good and purer than the One and more ancient than the Monad. like those initiated Corybantic Mysteries.&quot. But as for the race of devotees [the Therapeuts]. or who betake they service divine] which leads to perfect themselves to because of or appeal. or plane]. [the carried into &quot. daughters. &quot.PHILO ON THE CONTEMPLATIVE LIFE. who are ever taught more and more to see. let them transcend the sun which men perceive [and gaze upon the Light beyond]. nor ever leave this rank [order. let them strive for the intuition of That which is. 67 endless multitude of the passions and vices. Those who are content to worship externals are let them then remain blind. one so]. Then it is that. deprived of sight. inflict or else because they have been schooled upon them). contrasting the unintelligent worship of externals by the misinstructed in all religions with the worship of true Deity by those who follow the contemplative life. Now blessedness. they leave their already sons and their yearning Life. they until they behold the object of love.

is full of forms of destruction. which he praises. Whenever then [our wisdom-lovers] take the step of renouncing their goods. companions and friends. wives. is a drag and most powerful &quot. while those who have no relatives [give their property] to their be. they are no longer enticed away by any one. for every city. with the love of wisdom. which to how Anaxagoras and told Democritus. children. Their Retreats. leaving behind them brethren. Nor do they emigrate illused or worthless slaves to allurement.&quot. but hurry on without once to &quot. In a digression Philo points out the difference between the sober orderly abandonment of property follow the philosophic life. other relatives. some other city (like in claiming purchase who.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. &quot. only procure for themselves a change of masters and not freedom). turning back. their native lands in which they have been born and reared for the habitual . and the wild exaggerations of the popular legends. the multitudinous ties of relationship. of [and this] not to indulge any feeling churlish dislike to their fellow-men. man in But they make their abode outside the walls [shut in] woods or enclosed lands in pursuit of solitude. but from a knowledge that continual contact with those of . and disorders which would be insupportable to a who has once taken wisdom as a guide. parents. 68 with willing resolution making them their heirs before the time. from their owners. even innumerable the best tumults. allowed all when seized their estates be devoured by cattle. and bonds of friendship. governed one.

which opens into the and from the proximity of the open sea itself. it were. and their combination produces a most healthy condition [of the atmos from the lake are phere]. from robbers] is ensured by the belt of homesteads and villages [which surrounds the terrace]. the community are very merely providing shelter against the two the extreme heat of the sun greatest necessities. [or Mareotie Colony. in a most favourable situation both for security and mildness of temperature. own dispositions dissimilar to their is unprofitable and harmful. both the Grecian and non-Grecian world sharing in the perfect good. nome as they call it.The dwellings of simple. are not close neighbourhood together is as those in towns. The dwellings &quot. for irksome and unpleasing to those Their . &quot. and especially The For they who are in every way in every nome] the most highly advanced come round Alexandria. Security [sci. breezes sent The breezes from the sea are light. and the extreme cold of the air.69 PHILO ON THE CONTEMPLATIVE LIFE. while those heavy. &quot. sea.Now this to be found in natural of class parts of many men race] [lit. is the inhabited world. to the Therapeutic father a land. as to plateau or group of small hills] overlooking Lake Marea or Lake Mareotis immediately south of Alexandria. In Egypt there are crowds of them in every or province. and the mildness of temperature is due to the continual up by the lake. spot exceedingly well adapted for the purpose. perched on a fairly high terrace [small as colonists.

&quot. and prophets. which they have obtained in the visions of dream -life.In shrine The or monastery [a small chamber.70 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. food. called a is dwelling in the holy life. code allegorically. completely praying lightened of the lust of senses and sensations. that with heavenly Light. Hence many of nothing of them give out the rhythmic doctrines of the sacred wisdom. at dawn and even. there to track out truth. that their soul. they are &quot. real rises sunshine. cell]. accustomed to offer the for praying their minds up prayers. God. because of the intercourse which is so dear to them. Thus they preserve an unbroken memory even that so in their of dream-consciousness is presented to their minds but the glories the divine virtues and powers. but only the laws and inspired mysteries of of sayings whereby and are &quot. who seeking for solitude. and also for mutual help in case of attack by are robbers. for ancestral . closet. Their Prayers and Exercises. may and as it may be filled sets withdraw to its own congregation chamber. devotion and grow the rest. nor are they far apart. or which in solitude they perform the Original Meaning of the Term Monastery. a sacred place. nor anything else requisite for the needs of the body. philosophise]. they spend interpreting their time their Taking the sacred writings in study [lit. taking into it neither nor drink. together perfected. Twice a day. as the sun the sunshine. each &quot.The and council- whole interval from dawn to sunset they devote to their exercises. and knowledge hymns.

in in the order]. predecessors. the and chin. the left by the senior most skilled the doctrines comes foward and discourses. as it is called. examining closely precise pierces the ear in the thoughts. of door. they method the of taking imitate the used in Nature of their Books. engaged in study. also works of ancient authors who have They were once heads of their school. works. but they compose and hymns to God in all sorts of metres songs and melodies. these as patterns. that the words of they think are symbols of the literal nature which a hidden 71 meaning is made by the under-meaning. in the prescribed the breast Then he who is palms downwards. in contemplation in For six days on end every one remains apart solitude with himself in his monastery. and left behind The [only] plain &quot. not making a display of wordcleverness. . and reaches the soul and steadfastly Their Mode of Meeting. but day. with reason and thoughtfulness. rhythms]. practice of their They do not then spend their time and nothing else. as the rhetoricians and sophists of to but and explaining the a meaning meaning which does not merely light on the tips of the ears. many monuments them their as allegorical it were. the length of their membership attitude. &quot. outlined necessarily upon [a back ground of] the more solemn numbers [lit. every seventh day they come together as it were to a general assembly. never setting foot out But or even looking out of window. with steadfast eyes and steadfast voice. with their hands between right the side. and take their seats in order according to their age [that is.PHILO ON THE CONTEMPLATIVE LIFE.

and in the second : that sitting within earshot they may hear easily. division. this assemble : For women too habitually form part of the audience. remind implanted themselves of their food but once in three days. being left open. Their Rule. signifying their approval merely by a look in the eye or a nod of the head. the rest of it. they consider that the practice of philosophy deserves the light. Now general sanctuary in which they every seventh day consists of two enclosures one separated off for men. 72 The abides there. between the two halls only partly built up. is to . and a brief portion of the night to the latter. for made having the same deliberate choice [as the men]. and then virtues think proceed to build up the rest of the upon Accordingly none of them would of taking food or drink before sundown. while the necessities of the for body [may content themselves with] darkness. A wisdom number of them. it. since there is nothing in the way of the speaker s voice. &quot. like a breast-work. some three or four cubits floor. &quot. &quot.Now [our Therapeuts] first of all lay down continence as a foundation. rest all listen in silence. The Sanctuary.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.The is however. possessing the same eager desire and women. hence they assign the day to the former. to from the the roof. and this for two reasons in the first place for the preservation of that modesty which so becomes woman s nature. as it were for the soul. and the other &quot. in whom the thirst for a greater degree.

they offer them nothing to tickle their vanity.PHILO ON THE CONTEMPLATIVE LIFE.]. put together anyhow. Still while for drink they have water from the Thus in mollifying those tyrants which spring. As stated above that to their of covering clothes dwelling I have already Housing anything but beautiful to and at. which the gourmands supplement with an extra relish of continual labour. Now two kinds there are and house. of honour. after paying due attention to the soul. special and on it. just to protect them from cold clothing. as also indeed they do their cattle. and drink only to escape thirst. and even after six days barely take a mouthful of the most necessary food. and body. and as to their clothing. at richly and unstintingly sets before them. but only such bare necessities as make life thirst. their needs by their singing methinks. but plain bread with salt for seasoning. it is equally of the it is look plainest description. avoiding satiety as an enemy of and a plotter against both possible. they consider it worthy common light &quot. that being trained on they can last for twice the time. they anoint the body. respite from they partake of no dainty fare. being made to answer only its most absolutely necessary purpose. to grasshoppers do live air. Since then they regard the seventh day as all. as they say the made [Plato. Phaedr. 73 while a few are so cheered and fare so sumptuously wisdom s banquet of teachings which she so Fasting. . Accordingly they eat only to escape hunger. giving it. nature has set over the mortal race hunger and hyssop . soul &quot.The hallowed and high festival.

In the first know that place they all come together at the end of every seventh week. and winter in heat. which has been appointed as the origin of the generation of the cosmic elements. here indulges in a long digression in paints in the strongest colours the debauchery and extravagance of the banquets of voluptuaries. contrasting them &quot. . &quot. from truth come the abundant blessings of human and divine. the fiftieth.74 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Their the seventh seven day pure and everthen is only which is assigned to is festival a prelude to their greatest feast.When in then they have assembled together. since they virgin. in everything they practise simplicity. vanity has falsehood for its origin. for they reverence not only the simple period of seven days. each of them containing the innate power of its source for from falsehood stream forth the manifold kinds of evils.I in with the banquets of Philo others. good both would also touch upon the general meetings which they pass the time in greater festivity than usual banqueting together. but also the period of the power [or square] of seven. a woolly hide. the most holy and natural of numbers.&quot. and in a mantle thick summer instead of a sleeveless robe of fine linen. clad with joyous looks and with the white robes. while . For &quot. that knowing but simplicity truth. in order to contrast them as much as which he possible with the sacred feasts of the Therapeuts. [the sum] of the powers of the [perfect] right- angled triangle. &quot.

with whom their lives through their zealous love of wisdom. . and before O n the . After prayers the seniors &quot.-. hands to heaven their eyes. since they are pure of gain. and raising their eyes and rows in a certain order. most of have grown old in virginity.PHILO ON THE COMTEMPLATIVE LIFE. but for a deathless progeny which the soul that is in love with God can alone bring pleasures forth. mortal children. For they do not regard as seniors merely those who are advanced Seniority. whom jT own free-will.And also share in the banquet. since they are trained to gaze on things worthy of contemplation and . at sign from mereuts for the day (for this is the usual name The are engaged in such duties). standing one beside the other in D ay for those who . which is lately in fallen unqestionably love with its fairest women the and most divine portion. following the order of their election. preserving their The Women Disciples. has with implanted which it in it shall . they regard such as quite young children if they have only in years higher life). but rather of their &quot. sit down to table. Fiftieth i down. unstained by any of pretence money-making affairs they may be prayer unto God that their banquet offer pleasing and acceptable. but such as have grown up and arrived at maturity in the contemplative part of philosophy. and have reached old age (nay. those when spiritual the Father light-beams. they are so keenly desirous of spending that they pay no attention the to Their longing is not for of the body. their hands. sitting . 75 one of the Ephegreatest solemnity. some or the not from necessity (as purity priestesses among the Greeks).

over which [they of throw] the plainest possible them at the elbow for rugs. There is. a division made between them in their places at table. and them to [the chariots of] . while on the other at [even the most liberal the they always study banquets] frugality in everything.) Perhaps you suspect that cushions. rejecting the allurements of pleasure with all their might. should be remembered that it was the custom (It in the Greco-Roman world to recline at table. whereas they have nothing but mattresses of the more easily procurable material (the papyrus of the country). have set the injustice selfishness of inequality (the root of all yoke of power on the necks of the weaker and harnessed the stronger.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 76 contemplate the laws of wisdom. . rious at for Cf. slightly to lean upon. lay on His breast at and and well-bred students philosophy. For nature has created men free but the those who strive after all evil). raised For on the one hand they somewhat relax their [usual] Spartan rigour of life [on such occasions]. are provided any well-born people disciple meat.&quot. The person reclining to the right of another was said to lie on the latter s breast (avaKeicrOat ev rw /CO ATTO)). leaning on the left elbow with a cushion under the arm. however. the men being apart on the right. since &quot.&quot. &quot. they consider the possession of servants in general to be contrary to nature.the if not luxu rate of tolerable softness. who &quot. and the women apart on the left. Nor are they waited upon by slaves. the canonical phrase.

the Nor is clearest warmed for are delicate. or waiting for orders. for think. that some of such a banquet as this . so does is a drug that it bid these sages brings on live. but juniors of the order who have been selected in order of merit with every possible care. so that no resemblance to a slave s dress &quot.PHILO ON THE CONTEMPLATIVE LIFE. that has wine brought in on these occasions. who (as those noble and well-born and anxious to reach the summit of virtue should) with affectionate rivalry. but served is it by is no 77 slave. For just as right reason bids priests make offerings free from wine and blood. there is no closer tie than virtue closer ties : who those and goodness. were their legitimate children. but water. I So have banquet there in this holy said. with their robes let down. regarding them as their common parents. as men who free perform the necessary service. to for the food which hyssop nothing bread with is is added as an extra relish for the gourmands. For wine and costly . And they come in to serve ungirdled. not by compulsion. cold for the majority. bound to them with as though they than their parents by blood since. I know may be introduced. chance free men who are appointed for such service. madness. wait upon these fathers and mothers of theirs. salt for seasoning. &quot. and The those of the older The blood men whose tastes table moreover contains in it. but of their own free-will anticipating the requests [of the guests] with they are not For promptitude and eagerness. my readers will laugh at but such laughter will bring them weeping and sorrow. &quot.

pausing at intervals and stopping for frequent impressing the ideas on their souls. without any thought of display. (For when. the for the preliminaries of banquet. for he does not aim at a reputation for cleverness in words. after the guests have taken their places ranks I have described. fixing all their attention one and the same attitude showing their understanding and comprehension [of his words] by nod and look. in the taken their stand in order. listing attentively. seasonings rouse up desire. the most insatiable of So much. ready to serve. (and when is gained but then there before. then. remain in comprehend what is said. on their upon him.) side. giving an one recapitulations. but is simply desirous of getting a clearer view of some [of doctrine]. never theless have as great a longing to learn. and when he has done so.78 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. in continues to speak without for rapidly breath. beasts. though they have not such keen vision as himself. so that is when there not ? deeper silence than is no one ventures to make a sound or even breathe at all hard) the president searches out some passage in the sacred scriptures or solves some difficulty propounded by one of the members. and interpretation. points The president for his part employs a somewhat leisurely method of imparting instruction. he unselfishly shares it with those who. the mind of pausing the hearers is left behind unable to keep up the pace. praise of the speaker by a pleased expression and . and the waiters have &quot. complete silence you may say .Now. fails to While they.

rising. of the catching sight of the extraordinary beauties and ideas contained in them. more pretation. as though they would offer their three claps congratulations. unwrapping unrobing the symbols from them. for these law-code as their men being .Now is narratives. and bringing to light the naked inner meanings. either a new one The has been made in God which he has himself composed.When then the president seems to have dis little coursed long enough. there is a burst of applause from the company. thing. chants a hymn which s honour. according in his case at.79 PHILO ON THE CONTEMPLATIVE LIFE. . and hesitation by a mild shake of the head and a motion of the forefinger of the right hand. . and in made good theirs [to practice have met with due] attention. to have at the points aimed the discourse. are the And just as the interpretation of the sacred scriptures based upon the under-meanings in the allegorical The &quot. &quot. and for having soul the unseen thought stored up in the words rational soul [of the student] (in which thought the for begins nature to body the spoken contemplate things native to its own than in anything else) the inter as it were. service juniors who stand at attentive as the seniors at table. the thoughtful turning to him of their faces. in the mirror of the names. or an old one of of Hymns. . Then the president. but this is restricted to of the hands. &quot. and to its range. ill: whole or look upon the to a living like Inter- pretation of Scripture. for those who are able with a the suggestion to arrive at the intuition of hidden sense from the apparent meaning. commands.

the conductor whose reputation greatest and the one most suitable for the post. &quot. in with flavouring of of to salt respect place of the temple. with the all-pure food upon it. the juniors bring the table.After Sacred Dancing. while the rest should strive after things of similar purity. stationary choruses. was the simplest and purest things fitting should be allotted to the most excellent division that of the priests. diversified And after strains. but abstain from the same food in order that the more excellent should have this privilege. both in join in the . . in up the chanting]. men and women. join Then when hymns Bread and bands. ^ festival. him proper order. . leavened bread. are over. which was mentioned shortly before. proces the ancient poets. and mingled the holy table set with hyssop. [take listen the others also in deep silence. while the rest in. and about the middle of the entertain ment they first of all separate into two bands. the banquet they keep the holy all-night this is how it is kept. men is is in one and women in the other. the reward of their ministry. and dance-songs.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. many sional hymns. [as the priests]. 80 For they have left behind them metres and tunes in trimetric epics. [all] admirably measured off in &quot. altar-chants. out the holy For on this table are loaves up in without seasoning the loaves are unleavened and the salt unmixed with anything else for it salt . except when they have to burden and refrains for they all. They all stand And up in a body. And a leader chosen for each. libation odes.

turning returning in the dance. 81 God s honour in sometimes in singing in chorus. became (Philo here refers to the fabled dance of triumph of the Israelites at the destruction of Pharaoh and when Moses led the men and Miriam the women in a common dance but the Therapeuts all his host. at another in standing songs. sung and danced] apart by itself. beautiful. then and men they join together. For the sea at God s command for one party a cause of safety and for the other a cause of ruin. Then when each band has feasted [that &quot. just as in the Bacchic rites drink the wine unmixed. over the world could not have traced the custom to this myth. sometimes one band beating time to the answering chant of the other. in imitation of the joined chorus on the banks of the Red Sea because of the wonderful works that had been there wrought. being formed as closely as possible on this model.PHILO ON THE CONTEMPLATIVE LIFE. the expressions of the most beautiful. by means high of notes tones of the musical melodies in parts and harmony the the women answering to the deep of men produces a harmonious and most The ideas are of the most symphony. . at one time in processional hymns. and dancers is piety. while the goal of the ideas. [now] inspiring it. and one chorus is formed of has drinking of God- pleasing [nectar]. the two bands. is. . &quot. They then chant hymns made many metres and melodies. [now] dancing to its music. and the dancers reverent. expressions.) So the chorus of men and women Therapeuts.&quot.

A Note on the mystic numbers 7 and 50 mentioned in the text above. legitimately recommended to the Father and Creator of the Universe by their virtue. because (Leg.&quot. citizens of world. from to &quot. proportioned of the angled triangle.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 1 The power 10] nor or square and the great feast therefore took place The number 50 is based on the fiftieth day. Alleg. Therapeuts.. every of [i. Prayer. which procures them His love. i. ness. 82 &quot. perfect famous Pythagorean righttriangle.&quot. when. to his accustomed traffic in philosophy and labour in its fields. virtue that sets before it for its prize the most suitable reward of nobility and goodness. remark that Philo elsewhere With regard to 46) tells us that the Pythagoreans called the number 7 the neither produces any of the ever-virgin. they take their stand at dawn. and the first comer in the race to the very goal of blessedness. After this prayer each returns to his own sanctuary. catching sight of the rising sun.e.it numbers within the decad is produced by any of 7 is 49. it may be of interest to Numbers..So it then far about and in the soul the heaven and the alone. the sides of the &quot. Thus drunken unto morning s The Morning fair drunkenness. who are devoted to the contemplation of nature and live in &quot. they raise hands to heaven. . them. outstripping every gift of fortune. light with this with no head-heaviness or drowsi but with eyes and body fresher even than when they came to the banquet. praying for their sunlight and truth and keenness of spiritual vision. &quot.

but it has occurred to 3. = square series. 9. and squares. Philo why first it sight should the call is 1. which he calls the 50. 1.. and finally . to discover series of me and 10. With regard =1 + 1. another + - 16 25 treatise .A. namely triangles At 16. (Qu. 4. Cambridge. 3 + 3 the see at once that 1 42 + = to be noticed that 1 it is 3 on the consideration of the only engaged number 50.. (Of. we 39) get some further interesting information concerning Philo speaks of two series. and to often referred so . + 10 = 20 and 20 + 30 = 50. . M. and 10-1 + With regard we = 9 to the triangular series. to + 2 . . but we are at present + . I2 4 = 2 2 9 = 3 2 and 16 + 6 30. 4. 4.PHILO ON THE CONTEMPLATIVE LIFE. 16. The Nuptial Number of Plato. 50. or atoms. 1891 the best work on the subject. 9. 6. 1. + and 9 in 16 Gen. 1 + 4 + . numbers that he had in as the following. + = 25 iii. and 5. . + 2 4. 3. difficult first triangles. monads. 6 10. 88 by Plato. = 1 2. by James Adam.) The sides of this triangle bear the proportions of 3. 16 Moreover = 1 + 3 1. mind some such arrangement 6. Many interesting correspondences may be made out from the study of the apparently simple ordering of these points. 32 - 42 4- In 5 2 or 9 .

the Therapeuts had lay-pupils who lived in the world and who perhaps resorted to the community now and again for a period of returned again to the world. In reading this treatise and the rest of the to the Therapeuts scattered through references Philo writings. 84 Much more could be said but our space is limited. details for themselves.. he belonged to one of their outer case with the Pythagoreans and As was the Essenes. &quot.retreat. That these lay-disciples were men and then of great ability . and those who are interested in the matter can easily . 81) writes: is an &quot. be seen. We learn from this interesting item of autobio graphy that Philo had himself enjoyed no success in the contemplative life. This accounts for his great reverence and high respect for those who had succeeded in comprehending the things worthy to &quot. i. he could therefore not have been a full In accepted member of one of these brotherhoods.&quot. with passion. I too have friends ofttimes left my kindred and and country.&quot. and lapsed into the very opposite current. all probability circles. and have gone my into the wilder ness [or into solitude] in order to comprehend the things worthy to be seen. Alleg. the chief questions s that naturally What was Philo s connection with them There and how far can we rely on his account arise are : .&quot. yet have profited nothing but my soul was scattered or stung .FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. work out Philo a Connection with the Therapeuts. Philo (Leg. Now as Philo never abandoned his property. ? important passage in his writings which gives us the critical point of departure in seeking an answer.

It is therefore reasonable to conclude that there were at and this time ascetics scattered Philo Mareotic Others may Eygptian. lypses a writer as Philo distinguished that though embedded now to seems to scraps me them of Jewish Pseudepigrapha which have in the come down It ? we may have some many us. and with which he was probably connected as lay-pupil. for they were &quot. but that hymns. Philo would have us believe that his particular community was the chief of all. doubtless because it was mainly Jewish. expositions. orthodoxly so.PHILO ON THE CONTEMPLATIVE LIFE. as Philo would literature lead us to believe in his apology for that nation ? It is evident from his own statements that the community which he describes. or Orphic the been one tinged with Judaism. sermons. 85 amply shown by the works of Philo there was a large literature of a still loftier and more inspired character is also evident from what Philo has to say of his teachers.&quot. and insight is The Lay himself. or Zoroastrian.worshippers. as of mystics The the holy life and sacred Communitjfls throughout the world. lost precursors of the of them belonged to the fragments of the Gnostic which have survived. south It is of Alexandria was further not incredible . and that devoted science s numerous communities have to community was one of these. or elements. commentaries. tinged as strongly with Chaldsean. But were the Therapeuts Jews. apoca works which aroused the admiration of so interpretations. was but one of a vast number scattered all over the world. What has become of all these works. though not sun.

was that of Jewry. For the there were the Law and the people Prophets and the Gospel. for those within. those and most highly mystical and abstruse treatises that none but the trained mystics could possibly understand or were expected to understand. for the the intermediate only literature lay-pupils.86 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. THE The Influence of the which poured into the matrix of Even origins. a small part of their literature. I communities also did efforts. think that not the propagandize and that whatever works they may have foward for lay-pupils or by put lay-pupils were directly.Schools of the this peculiar nation Prophets. third stream Christian before the Exile the undisciplined tribes composing had had their &quot.&quot. Up the traditions of the Jews and their . . doctrinally more is in this direction therefore that we must on the for light origins of Gnosticism and the occult background of These Christianity. though they may have indirectly been at the for back of some of the greatest propagandist as in the later case Gnostic of Philo. JEWRY. that were there various by the and it look also truly and traditions communities eclectic who combined and among them synthesized the down handed initiations exclusive communities. communities did not at this time propagandize. small communities apart and recruited by to this time seers holding and themselves visionaries.

while the leaders of those who returned set to work to rewrite their old traditions and of reformulate their religious conceptions. The elaborate for the glorification of their in the strange conviction them &quot.87 JEWRY. The Jewish writers appropriated to themselves the great Semitic race and of the nations of Chaldsea and of Babylon. are revealed to us the of which by patient deposits researches of scientific Biblical scholars and the ever is to clearly evolution of new their in national discoveries of archaeology. however. as the &quot. by the light had absorbed all of which of the wider views they be traced the various stages of various the scripture. and used them the traditions of own origins and history. although were distinguished by the particularism of a nascent exclusive monotheism and a growing of course they detestation of idolatry. and the impression it made upon them can be clearly traced the in history of their subsequent religious development. In Babylon. and we perceive in their library of religious books the gradual elimination of the cruder ideas of Deity and the gradual development of far . conceptions of religion had been mostly of a very crude nature compared to those of the more highly civilized nations which surrounded them. that they all applied to chosen people of God. doctrine of purity on which the Persian Zoroastrian tradition laid such stress was eagerly adopted by their priesthood. they came into intimate contact with a great and very ancient civilization. Most the nation remained contentedly in Babylon.

we read into their history an atmosphere of too great refinement for the actual Jew It should also be of the period to have lived in. Again.88 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. The two &quot. but common to the times. that the of the old traditions were in falsifiers any of literary morality in of its writing of a religious character an inner The impulse. be editors supposed. remembered that the mythologizing of history and to their memories. but the historicizing of mythology were not peculiar to the Jews. providence. was the outcome wealth technical of terms bestowed on these ancient writers and their methods student modern by Biblical almost forces critics to read into the those unconsciously times ideas and standards that had then no existence. It must not re-writers and and forgers History. of had no conception modern meaning. what was them was their fanatical belief in Divine favouritism and their egregious claim to the monopoly peculiar to of God s Now The of History.kingdoms&quot. higher conceptions in (at times) most wonderful poetic outbursts. that were always fighting . and Antiquity in general all sense ordinary the word. had ingrained in them an invincible longing for freedom. and at the same time they had the innate poetic imagination of all those who live in close contact with nature. a common fault is to endow these ancient worthies of the Jews with motives of action and refinements of belief which only belong to the best in Christendom and so we not only do grave injustice . the Jews. as all children of the desert. however.

and in spite by the monuments of a looked back to their poor settlement great civilisation. it would be interesting to know what development occurred in the schools of their prophets in contact with the ancient Chaldaean wisdom. peculiar destiny as men who had made a compact who had promised them victory over all who had gradually grown to their own stories. Israel were successively deported by the Assyrian authorities. died before the conqueror with a God foes. and the great deeds of their ancient sheiks above all things they insisted on their . which and the subsequent history of that Israel not only thus settled in Babylon.ten tribes&quot. &quot. to remove a centre of perpetual and &quot. of the glories of its palaces. were some of them followed the example of their kinsfolk but most of the Judseans refused to adapt themselves to the new . When the more turbulent Judaean tribes subsequently in their turn deported. kings. conditions. disturbance.JEWRY. among themselves and with 89 their neighbours.&quot. granted Cyrus. &quot.Judah. The &quot. in gratitude for . and The its fathers wove homes the palaces of for the children stories of meagre the beauty and richness of their native land. who were the first to be deported. settled down in Babylonia and gradually adapted themselves to their new environment. &quot. but remained there. they pined for their freedom. believe The fathers. consisting as they did of elements more adaptable to their surroundings than the Judaeans. their help against the the return of the Judesan Assyrian power. &quot. of Jerusalem as though it had been in the land of of their being surrounded Paradise.

&quot.90 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. expanding the old their fathers records into a splendid it all that they had &quot. and bringing into developed of religion by controversy with the Babylonians and Persians a controversy which consisted in persistently main taining that their religion was better than their opponents claiming the best in their opponents . and there was no one to check the enthusiasm of these early - i . in fact other Gods false all other are religions false. our sacrifices than greater any other in the world our fathers . they wrote had told them. . generation. our temple must have been grander. who Those folk. have said and we In such a frame of mind and with the innate poetic fervour it feel -it is true. We They probably argued God our religion is are the chosen people better than any other : of religion. . been greater than the best times in other nations. tradition as their own. or position Honest Self- delusion. Filled with what an enthusiasm for the past. and existed the returned were of the next they reoccupied the ruins of Jerusalem with ideas of a former greatness which in freedom of poetic their sires imagination and love of rather than in actual history.history. . in case the sense any of history did not exist in those days. Now the Jew had such a firm conviction that he was the Chosen of God that he probably really J v v n elievect all his assertions. . all the palmy days of our religion were before the Captivity those times must have . scribes. and ever- asserting that they had something still higher as well.

so that we find colonies of them scattered abroad in all the great centres for instance. and from such beginnings which future genera gradually evolved a literature tions received without question. The development of this literature was a natural a growth. gradually became the great traders of the ancient world. Zoroastrianism. though the distinct factors which played but in it are somewhat difficult to disentangle part . of the race which the Jews they adapted to Zealotism. there are distinct signs of repeated modifications of cruder conceptions. shortly after the founding of . we hear Alexandria 40. and by of their nature they felt impelled to write. and of the leavening of the nation steadily developing spiritual force.91 JEWRY. and on the other civilizations in in intimate contact with the great which they found a home. not only as a precise record but as a divinely written scripture fact of verbally inspired. but that the majority of the Jews in course of . The expectation and of absorbed a Saviour from of the salvation of the race. time preferred to live the members among the nation of In fact the Gentiles. the point of departure may be found in the fact that the The and not only j majority of the nation did not return Juda this. Whence came this persistent spiritualizing of the old conceptions ? by a In vseeking for an answer to this question.000 Jews of a colony of planted there. no fewer than These Jews of the Diaspora or Dispersion were in constant contact with their Palestinian co-religionists on the one side. . their transformed writing records out of the old all historic recognition.

the a of all which finally and revolutionary ideas. are presented with the spectacle of a most determined struggle for freedom for the Jews were ever disappointed of their hopes. and view But constituted this fanatical directly nourished by the pronouncements of the religious prophets. when he would reign for one thousand years in Jerusalem. became more and more dis- . and we find in their record of a determined opposition to the conqueror. and had to submit . although more unbalanced writers and Jewry the became the disaffection At the back Pharisaism. If freedom: in and in the Roman destruction of Jerusalem. to the final destruction of up we Jerusalem by Titus. again after new disappointment. in the Jewish nation was centred the struggle for personal world. fanned into fever heat by the fiery every literature the exhortations and denunciations of a pseudoprophetical character which has no parallel in the history of the the Greek genius was centred the struggle for the freedom of the intellect. their God. All this was to be effected by the direct interposition of Yahweh. it was of evolved. after Empire. For some four hundred years.&quot. 92 own their needs and to the conviction that Israel was the Chosen of God. to the successive overlordship of Greece But hope ever sprang up again and and Rome. of this was the peculiarly the Roman hater of Zealotism. centre of all exclusive which him faith from &quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. tread under foot the nations of the world. Jew had point mankind. This expectation was for material nature they looked long entirely of a for a king who should restore them to freedom and .

was nevertheless a most potent factor The the in external known us to of widening side . be that spiritual nature. but the Elect of nations Him the . well fairly but the inner side of this movement. and we find numerous records of the sacrifice. and the nation was gradually leavened by Pharisaism. the strictest of internal not but purity. and it represented the main stream of Chaldsean and Persian influence on Jewry. But such views as these. of this Israel abhorred their blood sacrifices. although they indirectly influenced the public scripture of the nation. in Along this line of tradition we find gradually evolved a far more spiritual view of the Messiah. These tasteful to the better elements in the nation.93 JEWRY. is but little understood.The 833 doctrine. Pharisaism was in course of numerous of rigid could more time divided into which schools. which. their led the life such a Leading indeed great the ideas life. to which all the most learned of Jews belonged. better elements we find by the more represented spiritual views that by degrees worked into the sacred literature. in E88ene8 . the religious Pharisaism of is horizon. the servants of with God their hearts and not with of all served their lips. could not be boldly declared among a people that had ever stoned its prophets and delighted in blood- Such views could only be safely discussed private. Israel was not the physical nation of an d God chosen out God were those who the Jews. though running to the extreme of minute ceremonial and the most elaborate rules of external purity. it became of a Pharisaism had its origin Babylon.

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

94

existence of schools of Chassidim and those

among whom

calls Essenes,

Josephus
pure and learned of the Jews, the

whom

were the most
"

Rabbis of the

South," living
apart and in retirement.
These schools and communities seem

to

have

looked back to the stern physical discipline of the
Schools of the Prophets on the one hand, and to

have been in contact with

the spiritual ideas of
the Babylonian wisdom-discipline on the other.
In Babylon we see how one of the nation s seers
The Inner

contacted part of the Chaldsean wisdom-tradition, and
the famous
Vision of Ezekiel
was subsequently
"

"

invoked as canonical authority for all that range of
ideas which we find revived so many hundreds of
years later in Mediaeval Kabalism. But in order to
understand the nature of the studies and inner
experiences of the

members

of these mystic schools of

Chassidim and their imitators, it is necessary to have
a critical acquaintance with non-canonical Jewish
those

numerous

apologies

for

wisdom-literature

the

especially

writings,

apocrypha,
unfulfilled

and

apocalypses,

a

prophecy

mass

and
and
of

pseudepigraphs which were so busily produced in
the last centuries preceding our era and in its
earliest

centuries.

It

is

true

we

possess only the

fragmentary remains of this once enormous literature,
most probably only the works that were written for
general circulation, and principally by those members
of these communities who were still obsessed by the
Zealot conception of Israel; but enough remains to fill
in some very necessary outlines of the background
of

the

Gnosis, and

to

enable

us

to

realise

how

JEWRY.
earnestly

men were
of

greater knowledge

95

striving for a purer life
God in those early days.

and

These mystic schools of Jewish theosophy had
an enormous influence on nascent Christianity;
the innermost schools influenced the inner schools
of

Christendom, and the general literature of the
a deep mark on general

intermediate circles left
Christianity.

Most of these mystic schools and communities,
whether of Greek or Egyptian or Jewish descent,
when they came in contact with each other, gave and
True that some of them refused to mix in
received.
person or doctrine, and there were rigidly conserva

mystic schools of all three lines of descent;
others, however, if not in their corporate capacity, at
tive

any

rate in the persons of their individual members,

gave and received, and so modified their preconcep
tions and enlarged their horizon.
Indeed, in the
last

of

two centuries prior

to

and

first

two centuries

our era there was an enormous enthusiasm for

syncretism and syntheticism among the members of
such schools, the effects of which are plainly traceable
in the fragments of the Gnosis preserved to us

polemical

citations

of

the

heresiologists

of

by the
later

orthodoxy.

ALEXANDRIA.
The rough outlines of the background of the
Gnosis which we have endeavoured to sketch, are
of

necessity of

the vaguest, for each of the

many

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

96

subjects touched

deserving of a volume or

Our

intention has only been to
idea
of
the manifold lines along
general

give some

which

is

upon

volumes.

several

complicated heredity has to be
is so
vague that perhaps

its

But our sketch

traced.
it

may

be as well, before proceeding further, to give the
reader some notion of the more immediate outer
conditions in which the Christian Gnosis lived and

we

will not say died, but

Insistence

disappeared.

upon some of the points already touched upon and
a few more details may serve to make the matter
clearer

;

and the best spot from which to make our
is
Alexandria, and the best time for

observation

a retrospect

had

is

definitely

from the

the epoch

won

when General

Christianity
victory and driven the Gnosis

field.

It should be

sketch

its

we

shall

remembered that
to depict

attempt
appearances of things; within, as

in the

only

following
the outer

we have

already

suggested and as we shall show in the sequel, there
was a hidden life of great activity. If there was an
enormous public library at Alexandria, there were
also

many

private libraries of the inner schools dealing

with the sacred science of unseen things. It was
precisely from these private circles that all mystic
writings proceeded, and we can see from the nature
of the Gnostic

have reached

and other works of

this

kind which

that their authors and compilers
had access to large libraries of mystic lore.

then carry our minds foward to the
quarter of the fourth century of the present
when Hypatia was a girl, after the hopes

Let

A Bird s-eye

last

C

City*

era,

us,

us

ALEXANDRIA.

97

of the School that traced its descent through Plato

and Pythagoras from Orpheus, had received so
rude a shock from the early death of Julian,
the emperor-philosopher; just in time to see the
Serapeum still standing, unviolated by the icono

hands

clastic

immediate

a

of

fanaticism

progeny

of

to

the

Jewish

that

was

Zealotism
the

of

the

and

Christ.

teaching
foreign
Let us ascend the great lighthouse, 400 feet high,
on the island off the mainland, the world-famous
entirely

Pharos, and take a bird s-eye view of the intellectual
centre of the ancient Western world.

The

on a long ribbon of
the sea front and the

city lies out before us

land or isthmus,

between

Far
great lake towards the south, Lake Mareotis.
away to the left is the most westerly mouth of
the Nile, called the Canopic, and a great canal winds
out that way to Canopus, where is the sacred shrine
of Serapis.

would

see

Along it, if it were festival-time, you
crowds of pilgrims, hastening, on gaily

decorated barges, to pay their homage to certain
wise priests, one of whom about this time was a
distinguished

member

of the later Platonic School.

The great city with its teeming populace stretches
out before us with a sea-frontage of some four or
five miles; in shape it is oblong, for when Alex
ander the Great, hundreds of years ago, in 331 B.C.,
marked out its original walls with the flour his

Macedonian veterans carried (perhaps according to
he traced it in the form of
rite),

some national

a chlamys, a scarf twice as long as

Two

great

M

streets

or

main

arteries,

it

was broad.

in the

form

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

98

These
it
into four quarters.
modern
of
our
far
wider
than
are
any
thoroughfares
streets, and the longer one, parallel to the shore,

of

a

cross,

divide

and extending through the outlying suburbs, has a
length of three leagues, so that the Alexandrians
consider it quite a journey to traverse their city.

Where

these streets cross

is

a great square sur

rounded with handsome buildings, and adorned with
fountains, statues and trees. There are many other
squares and forums also, but none so vast as the
Many pillars and obelisks adorn the
great square.
the most conspicuous of them being a flattopped pillar of red stone, on a hill near the shore,

city;

and two obelisks on the shore
is

the present Cleopatra

s

itself,

one of which

Needle.

The island on which we are standing is joined to
the main-land by a huge mole almost a mile long,
with two water-ways cutting it, spanned with bridges,
and defended with towers. This mole helps to form
the great harbour on our right, and the smaller and
less safe

huge

harbour on our

left.

There

is

also a third

dock, or basin, in the north-west quarter of the

by a bridge.
The two main thoroughfares divide Alexandria
into four quarters, which together with the first
city, closed also

suburb of the city were originally called by the
five letters of the alphabet.

first

The great quarter on

our left is, however, more generally known as the
Bruchion, perhaps from the palace Ptolemy Soter set
It is
aside to form the nucleus of the great library.
the Greek quarter, the most fashionable, and archi
tecturally very magnificent.

There you see the vast

ALEXANDRIA.

99

mausoleum

of Alexander the Great, containing the
golden coffin in which the body of the world-conquer

ing hero has been preserved for hundreds of years.
There, too, are the splendid tombs of the Ptolemies,

who

Egypt from the time

ruled

Alexander s empire
century

B.C.

when

of

the division of

the latter part of the first
the kingdom

till

Romans wrested

the

from Cleopatra.

Observe next the great temple of
Poseidon, god of the sea, a favourite deity of the

sailor populace.

with

of the university,

not the original

the Museum, the centre

all its lecture

Museum

Baths, too,

building.

is

There, too,

halls,

see everywhere, thousands

you

of them, magnificent buildings

Alexandrians spend so

rooms and

of the Ptolemies, but a later

much

where the luxurious

of their time.

On the right is the Egyptian quarter, the north
western, called Rhacotis, a very old name dating back
to a time

when Alexandria

did not exist, and an old

Egyptian burg, called Ragadouah, occupied

The

difference

in

strikes you, for it

its

site.

the style of achitecture at once
is for the most
part in the more

sombre Egyptian style

;

and that great building you

see in the eastern part of the quarter is the far-famed
it is not so much a
Serapeum
single building as
a group of buildings, the temple of course being the
chief of them.
It is a fort-like place, with plain
;

heavy walls, older than the Greek buildings, gloomy
and severe and suited to the Egyptian character
;

it
is

the

is

to

say,

You

halls.

by

centre

its

of

"

Barbarian

the
will

vast

the

always

flights

Heathen
or

"

schools,

non-Greek

that

lecture

remember the Serapeum
of

steps

bordered

with

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

100

innumerable sphinxes, both inside and outside the
great gate.

underneath the buildings, you
would be struck with the network of vaults and
If

you could

see

crypts on which the whole city seems to have been
built
these vaults are used mostly as underground
;

cisterns for the storage of water

a most necessary

provision in so poorly rain-fed a country as Egypt.
The south-eastern quarter, behind the Bruchion,
is the centre of the Jewish
colony, which dates back
to

the days of Alexander himself, and has never

numbered

than 40,000 Hebrews.

less

The great open space to the left of the Bruchion
the Hippodrome or race-course, and further east
still along the shore is the fashionable suburb of

is

Nicopolis,

where perchance Hypatia

other side of the city, beyond

cemetery

with

adorned

columns, and

known

But the various
The

lives.

Rhacotis,

innumerable

is

On

the

a huge

statues

and

as Necropolis.

styles of architecture

and

distinct

characteristics of the various quarters can give but

Populace.

idea of the mixed and heterogeneous populace
assembled on the spot where Europe, Asia, and Africa
little

meet

together.

First

Egyptians and Greeks,
haughty and effeminate

you

;

have the better

class

mostly extremely refined,
of Romans but a few

the magistrates and military, the legionaries of the
guard who patrolled the city and quelled the frequent
for all of whom, Jew or
riots of religious disputants
;

Christian, Gnostic or Heathen, they had a bluff and

impartial contempt.
In the more menial offices vou see the lower-class

ALEXANDRIA.

mixed Egyptians, the descendants

101
of the aboriginal

Thousands of
populace, perchance, crowds of them.
in
the
and
negroes also,
brightest possible
Ethiopians
colours.

There, too, you see bands of monks from the
Thebaid, many from the Nitrian Valley, two or three

days journey south into the desert, beyond the great
lake
they are easily distinguishable, with their
;

tangled unkempt locks, and skins for sole clothing
for the most part at this time a violent, ignorant, and

ungovernable set of fanatics.

Mixed with them are
and officers of

people in black, ecclesiastics, deacons

the Christian churches.

Down by

the harbours, however,

we

shall

come

many other types, difficult to distinguish for
the most part because of the interblending and
mixture. Thousands of them come and go on the

across

ships which crowd the harbours in fleets.
akin to the once great nation of the soare
Many
called
Hittites
Phoenician and Carthaginian

small

"

"

;

sailor-folk in

numbers, and traders from far more

distant ports.

Jews everywhere and those akin to Jews, in all
some resembling Afghans ascetics,
from
too,
Syria, descended from the Essenes, per
the trading parts

chance,

or

cleanliness.

;

;

Therapeutae, paying great attention to
Also a few tall golden-haired people,

Goths and Teutons perchance, extremely contemp
tuous of the rest, whom they regard as an effeminate

crowd

big,

tall,

strong,

rough

fellows.

A

few

Persians also, and more distant Orientals.

Perhaps, however, you are more interested in the

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

102

Christian populace, a most mixed crowd without and
within.
The city ecclesiastics are busied more with

than with religion

politics

can

be divided

into

the rest of the faithful

;

two

classes,

offering

widely

different presentments of Christianity.

On

the one hand, the lowest classes and

many

of

the monks, bigoted and ignorant, contemptuous of all
education, devoted to the cult of the martyrs, thirsting

and wild

for the blood of the Jews,

to

overthrow

every statue and raze every temple to the ground.
On the other hand, a set of refined disputants, philo
sophical theologians, arguing always, eager to enter
the lists with the Pagan philosophers, spending their

while the crowds who come
them are mostly indifferent to the right or
wrong of the matter, and applaud every debating

lives in public discussions,

to hear

point with contemptuous impartiality, enjoying the
wrangle from the point of view of a refined
scepticism.

But we must hasten
The

on with

our

task,

and

complete our sketch of the city with a brief reference
to

two

of

most famous

its

Even

and Museum.

acquaintance

previous

and

Alexandria,
of

history

heard of

When
among

if

its

are

schools,

institutions, the Library

most of us have had no
with

the

perfectly

we have

topography
ignorant
at

any

of

of

the

rate

all

world-famed Library.
the kingdom of Alexander was divided

its

his generals, the rich

to the lot of

Ptolemy

I.,

kingdom

of

Egypt

fell

called Soter, the Saviour.

Believing that Greek culture was the most civilising
factor in the known world, and Greek methods the

ALEXANDRIA.

103

most enlightened, Soter determined not only to make
a small Greece in Egypt, but also to make his court at
Alexandria the asylum of all the learning of the
Fired with this noble ambition he
Grecian world.

Museum

or University, dedicated to the
Had not Aristotle
sciences, and a Library.

founded a
arts

and

the philosopher taught his great leader, Alexander,
the art of government; and should not the chief
generals therefore gather together
works that dealt with so useful a science

of

all

his

however, the original plan

tunately,
political

a

purely

was speedily abandoned and more

library

views

universal

of

the

For

?

It

prevailed.

is,

not

however,

unlikely that Ptolemy, as an Egyptian ruler, did
but found a new library for his capital in emulation
of the

many

land.

We

libraries already existing in that ancient

have only to

Osymandyas

recall the vast collection of

at Thebes, the

"

Remedy

Alexandrian

Library

Grecian library,

Egypt.

it

Nor was

for Poly crates of

it

was

of the

Soul,"

Therefore, though the

to be persuaded of the fact.

the

first

great

was by no means the
even the

public
first

in

library in Greece;

first

Samos, Pisistratus and Eucleides

of Athens, Nicocrates of Cyprus, Euripides the poet,

and Aristotle himself, had

all

large

collections

of

was placed

in

books.

To be

brief

;

the

first

collection

the part of the royal palaces near the Canopic Gate,
the chief of these palaces being called the Bruchion,
close to the

appointed

Museum.

There were also

A

librarian

and a

staff

were

copyists and calligraphists.
scholars to revise and correct the

an army

of

104

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

texts,

and

chorizontes

(xwptfrvres)

to

select

the

authentic and best editions; also makers of cata
logues, categories

Under the

and

analytics.

Ptolemies the collecting of books
became quite a mania.
Ptolemy Soter had letters
sent to all the reigning sovereigns
begging for
copies

of

first

work

every

whether of

their

country

possessed,

poets, logographers, or writers of sacred

aphorisms, orators, sophists, doctors, medical philoso
phers,

historians,

etc.

Ptolemy

II.

(Philadelphus)

commissioned every captain of a vessel to
bring
him MSS., for which he paid so royally that
many
Attalus
forgeries were speedily put on the market.

and Eumenes, kings

of Pergamus, in north-west Asia

Minor, established a rival library in their capital, and
prosecuted the search for books with such ardour that
the library of Aristotle, bequeathed to
Theophrastus

and handed on to Neleus of
to escape the

to

find

its

Scepsis,

had to be buried

hands of their rapacious collectors, only
way, however, to Alexandria at last.

Philadelphus accordingly issued an order against the
exportation of papyrus from Egypt, and thus the

Pergamus had to be content with
some
vellum; hence,
say, pergamene,
parchemin,
parchment. The commerce of MSS. was carried on
rival collectors of

throughout

all

Greece,
the chief marts.

Rhodes and

Athens

being

Thus Alexandria became possessed of the most
ancient MSS. of Homer and Hesiod and the Cyclic
poets of Plato and Aristotle, of ^Eschylus, Sophocles
and Euripides, and many other treasures.
;

Moreover, large

numbers

of

translators

were

employed

to

ALEXANDRIA.

105

turn the books of

other nations into

The sacred books of the nations were trans
and
the Septuagint version of the Hebrew
lated,
Bible was added to the number, not without miracle,
Greek.

if

we

are to believe the legend recounted by Josephus.
Even by the time of Ptolemy III. (Euergetes) the

Bruchion could not contain

all

the books, and a fresh

nucleus was established in the buildings of the Serapeum, on the other side of the city, but not in the

temple

with

itself

which Pompey s

What

its

four hundred

Pillar alone

pillars, of all of

remains to

in the times of the first three Ptolemies,

400,000
the

rolls or

number

a million

us.

a wealth of books in so short a time

"

Even

!

read of

What then must have been
Some say they exceeded
and papyri. Let us, however, remem
volumes.

in later years

rolls

ber that a

we

book

?

"

"

or

"

roll

was generally not a

volume as with

We

us, but rather the chapter of a work.
read of men writing six thousand books
The
"

"

!

rolls

had

to be comparatively small, for the sake of

convenience, and a
it

contained

this in

work

books.

We

often had as

must,

many

rolls as

therefore,

bearing
mind, be on our guard against exaggerating

the size of

the great Library.

The Serapeum, however, soon contained as many
books as the Bruchion, and all went well till 47 B.C.,
when the great fire which destroyed Csesar s fleet,
burnt the Bruchion to the ground.

An

imaginative
Lucian, asserts that the glow of the con
flagration could be seen as far as Rome
versifier,

!

the

So they had to rebuild the Bruchion, and put into
new building the famous library of Pergamus,

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTE

106

.

city had bequeathed to the Senate, and
which the infatuated Mark Antony handed over to

which the

Cleopatra, last of the Ptolemies.
When the glory of Alexandria began to depart, its
Julian, the emperor
library began to share its fate.

took

(360-363),

library

;

when

many volumes

enrich

his

own

fanatics

in

387

to
"

the

"

Christian

stormed the Serapeum, they razed the temple to

its

foundation, and nothing of the library was left but
the empty shelves.
Finally in 641 Amru, general

Omar, second in sucession to the Prophet, fed the
furnaces of the 4000 baths of Alexandria for full
of

six
If

months with the Bruchiori s
what the rolls contained were

priceless treasures.

in the Koran, they

what they taught were not in the
in either case, burn
were
Koran, they
pernicious
them
Some Mohammedan apologists have lately
were

useless, if

;

!

tried

whitewash

to

Omar and deny

story; but perhaps he is as
as the "Christian" barbarians

shelves of

the Serapeum.
the written

Such was
The

scholars,

scientists

had to work.

And

the

whole

be excused

little

to

who

devastated the

material

on which the

and philosophers of Alexandria
not only was there a library,

but also a kind of university, called the Museum,
dedicated to the arts and sciences, and embracing
among other things an observatory, an amphitheatre

anatomy, a vast botanical garden, an immense
menagerie, and many other collections of things useful
of

for physical research.
It

plan,

was an institution conceived on a most
an assembly of savants lodged in a

liberal

palace,

ALEXANDRIA.

endowed with the

107

liberality of princes,

exempt
Without distinction of race
from public charges.
or creed, with no imposed regulations, no set plan
richly

of

lecture

or

study

members

the

lists,

of

this

distinguished assembly were left free to prosecute
researches and studies untrammelled and
their

In

unhampered.

historians,

poets,

astronomers,

gists,

of

natural

of

laying the

sorts

all

innumerable

mathematicians,

commentators,

critics,

grammarians, archaeologists

researches which

science,

foundations of

first

have once more

in our

made but

faltering

steps

on with such assurance

those

own

time,

the attention

Museum of Alexandria
where we to-day stride

True, the

the world.

philolo

in brief, savants

;

lapse of centuries, claimed

after the
of

were

geometricians,

translators,

professors

physicians,

ranks

their

but the spirit and method

;

were the same, feeble compared to our strength,
but the same spirit now made strong by palin
genesis.

own

educated
stood

before

centuries

has

temper that
of our

was the

like

Very
three

;

time.

Aristotelian

Christian

marked the

"
"

science

philosophy

era,

three

last

Religion had lost

scepticism and

in

then,

temper
the

its

the

last

to

the

centuries

hold on the

and misunder

were alone worthy

man of genius. There were emancipated
women too, dialectical daughters," common enough

of

a

"

"

"

in those latter

Had

days of Greece.

thought these schoolmen, their great
founder, Alexander, conquered the political world by
following the advice of his master Aristotle ? They
not,

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

108

would

also,

the

teaching of the famous
had mapped out heaven and earth

who

Stagirite,

and

follow

things therein, and soon they too would
conquer what else of the world there was to be
conquered, both natural and intellectual. It seemed
all

so probable then, so simple

now

be probable even

So they
criticizing,

set to

their

accentuation,

They

set to

and

work with

their

seems to

!

their commenting,

philologizing,

work

It

logical.

some minds

to

and

grammar, and
and cataloguing.

their

categorizing

to measure things

;

being pupils of

Euclid, they attempted to measure the distance of the
and Eratosthenes, by copper
sun from the earth
;

or

armillse,

for

circles

determining

the

equinox,

calculated the obliquity of the ecliptic, and by further
researches calculated the circumference of the earth
;

he

also

mapped

out

the

world

from

all

the

books of travel and earth-knowledge in the great
In mechanics, Archimedes solved the mys
Library.
teries of the lever and hydrostatic pressue which are
the basis of our

modern

statics

and hydrostatics.

Hipparchus too thought out a theory of the heavens,
upside down in fact, but correct enough to calculate
eclipses

and the

rest

;

and

three hundred years

this,

later, under the Antonines, was revamped by a certain
Ptolemy, a commentator merely and not an inventor,

the patent now standing in his name.
Hipparchus
was also the father of plane and spherical trigo

nometry.

But enough has already been

said to give us

an

idea of the temper of the times, and it would be too
long to dwell on the long list of famous names in

ALEXANDRIA.

109

encyclopaedists and grammarians
and
Callimachus
Aristophanes; poets such as

other departments
like

Theocritus.

Thus with the destruction of the building in the
fire of Caesar s fleet and with the Roman conquest the

Museum came to an end.
Museum was established in

It is true that a

first

the reign

new

Claudius

of

was a mere shadow of its former
(41-50 A.D.),
of the Muses, but the official
home
true
no
self,
auditorium of the wearisome writings of an emperorbut

scribbler.

it

Claudius had written in

Greek,

Tnagis

ineleganter, as Suetonius remarks, eight
books of a history of Carthage, and twenty books of
inepte

quam

He would, therefore, establish
a history of Etruria.
a Museum and have his precious writings read to
sycophant professordom once a year at least. Thus
passed

away

the glory of that incarnation of scholar

was a

ship and science;

it

marking a period

of unbelief

soulless

and scepticism, and

man woke

destined to pass away when once
the fact that he was a soul.

And what

of

the
that

philosophy during
The
barren enough.

thing at best,

outer schools
?

period
old sages

again to
so-called

of

They,
of Greece

too,

were The
were

had

Pythagoras, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
passed from the sight of mortals. The men

who

followed them

no more.

splitters

of

the

and

were for the most part word-

phrase-weavers.

Megaran

school,

Dialectic

Eristics

or

arguers

wranglers,
believed in

Pyrrhonists or doubters, Cyrenaics who
the senses alone as the only avenues of knowledge,
and annihilationists, a host of later
pessimists

Schoola

sophists,

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

110

Sceptics, Cynics, Epicureans, Academics, Peripatetics

and Stoics

Epicureans

who sought

to live comfort

ably; Stoics who, in opposition to Plato s doctrine of
social virtues, asserted the solitary dignity of human
individualism.

After the three great reigns of the
Alexandria fell morally, together with

first

Ptolemies,

its rulers; for

one hundred and eighty years
sophists wrangled,
pedants fought over accents and readings with the
"

true

odium

grammat-icum"

till

Cleopatra, like Helen,

betrayed her country to the Romans, and Egypt
became a tributary province. So far there had been
no philosophy in the proper sense of the word that
;

did not enter into the curriculum of the

The Dawn-

her

Hitherto Alexandria had had no philosophy of
own, but now she is destined to be the

crucible

kind

which

in

philosophic thought of
fused
together; and not

be

will

philosophy, but more important

and theosophy
the

and
be

Museum.

of

still,

every
only

religio-philosophy

every kind will be poured into

and

many strange systems
things admirably good and true will
moulded out of the matter cast into this
melting

pot,

some

So far the Grecian genius
seething crucible.
has only thought of airing its own methods and views
before the East. Into Egypt, Syria, Persia, into India
even,

it

has

flitted

and sunned

itself.

It has

taken

a year to convince Greek complacency that the
period of world-genius is not bounded on one hand by
Homer and on the other by Aristotle. Slowly but

many

remorselessly it is borne in upon Hellenic ingenuity
that there is an antiquity in the world beside which

ALEXANDRIA.
it

is

Ill

The Greek may despise the
them mere barber or Barbarians,

a mere parvenu.

Orientals and call

"

"

because they are strangers to the Attic tongue; but
the Barbarian is to laugh last and laugh best after all,

guarded heirloom of wisdom,
which he has not yet quite forgotten. The Greeks
have had the tradition, too, and have even revived it,
for he has a carefully

now

but have

forgotten again

the sceptics have

;

replaced Orpheus by Homer, and Pythagoras and the
real Plato

by

Their Mysteries are now
except for the very

Aristotle.

masonic and no longer real
very few.

And

if

the Greek

despised the

Barbarian, the

Barbarian, in his turn, thought but little of the Greek.
You Greeks are but children, O Solon," said the wise

"

priest of Sais to the Attic

You Greeks

law -giver.

misunderstand and change .the sacred myths you have
jidogted,
religious.

fickle

and

careless,

Such was the

and

superficial in things

criticism

of

the ancient

Barbarian on the young and innovating Greek.
Slowly but surely the wisdom of the Egyptians,

and Chaldaeans, and

of the Babylonians

its reflection

Jewish doctors, of Persia, too, and
perhaps even of India, begins to react on the centre
of Grecian thought, and religion and all the great

in

some

of the

human

problems of

the

scholasticism,

beaux arts and

schools

;

Alexandria

is

soil

begin to oust
belles lettres,

mere

from the

no longer to be a mere literary

but a city of philosophy in the old sense of the
not that it will
term
it is to be wisdom-loving
city,

:

;

eventually succeed even in this, but
succeed.

it

will try to

.

"Tg^

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

112

There

is

and hidden

to be a

new method

for so

many

and analyzed there
out and synthesizing

The concealed

too.

centuries will be discussed

will be eclecticism, or a choosing

;

there will be syncretism and a
the
most
heterogeneous elements into
mingling
some sort of patchwork there will be analogeticism
;

of

;

efforts to dis
or comparison and correspond encing
cover a world-religion to reconcile the irreconcilable
;

;

;

to synthesize as well science, philosophy and religion
It will apparently fail, for the
to create a theosophy.
;

race

is

nearing

its

end

at the end of a long life

many

reappear

The

wheel has turned.

with new blood and
of the

new

race

Huns,

Celts, Britons,

in

it will go out
due time when the

old race

new
is

is

to be replaced

physical vigour

;

but the

incapable of grasping the

problems of its predecessors

:

Goths, Teutons, Vandals,

and Arabs are bodies for a far

developed batch of souls.

less

The

and the souls that ensouled

incarnation, to

mind

is

old tendencies and prejudices to eradicate.

race will die
of

the searching for truth
with an old brain, with too

it

;

True the new race

will

grow and develop and in its turn reach to man
hood and old age, and far transcend its predecessor in

also

way but when a child it will think as a child,
when a man as a man, and when aged as the aged.
What could the barbarian Huns and Goths and Arabs
make of the great problems that confronted the
every

;

highly civilised Alexandrians ?
For the new race a new religion therefore, suited
to its needs, suited perchance to its genius, suited to
its

age.

so

far

What

its

shrouded in

actual

historic origins

were are

impenetrable obscurity;

what

ALEXANDRIA.
the real history of

its

113

Founder was

is

impossible to

discover.

This much, however,
note was struck
instrument.
generalize

staring

we

It

too

for

certain, that a

of

tuning up
always a dangerous

is

freely,

splashes

is

the

of

new key
the new
thing

and paint the past in

colour,

for

human

in

to

too

affairs

good was mixed with
in
and
evil
the old method,
evil with good in
the new. The new method was to force out into
find

nothing unmixed

;

men

a portion of the sacred Mysteries
The adherents of
and secret teachings of the few.

the open for

new

the

all

religion

"

everything";

that was

all

itself

and many

professed to throw open
believed that it had revealed

That was because they

revealable.

So bright was the light to
them that they perforce believed it came directly
from the God of all gods or rather from God alone,
for they would have no more of gods the gods were
were as yet children.

;

straightway transmuted into devils. The "many"
had begun to play with psychic and spiritual forces,
let loose

mad

for

sanity.

from the Mysteries, and the "many" went
a time, and have not yet regained their
Let us dwell on this intensely interesting

phenomenon

for a

few moments.

Roman

It is true that in the

now reduced

the

politically united so

"

world

many

"

Empire, which had
to its sway, and thus

streams of ancient civilisa

and barbarism into one ocean, things were in a
very parlous state, morally and socially. The ancient

tion

order was beginning to

draw

freedom and independence

to

an end.

were of the

Political
past,

but

The New

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

114

and

intellectual

meaning

were

still

knew not

the

tolerance

religious

guaranteed, for so far the ancient world
of intolerance.

States were politically subordinated to the control
of the Caesars, but the religious institutions of such
states,

on which their

social life

and national existence

depended, were left in absolute freedom. Neverthe
the spirit of reality had long left the ancient

less

institutions;

they

were

maintained

still

as

part

statecraft, and as necessary for the
people, who must have a cult, and festivals, and
but few took the
religious shows, then as now

and parcel

of

;

matter

really

For the educated

seriously.

was philosophy, and

the

shadow

of

the

there

ancient

Mysteries.
But these things were not for the people, not for
the uneducated
the priestly orders had forgotten
their duties, and, using their knowledge for self;

aggrandisement, had now almost entirely forgotten
what they once had known. It is an old, old story.

The ancient church was corrupt, the ancient
There must be a protest, partly
enslaved.
as

usual

good and

state
right,

evil

partly wrong,
protesting
against evil and good.
It is true that the Mysteries are free and open
to all
who are worthy.

morals and virtues are absolutely
essential pre-requisites
but not these alone.
It is true that

It is true that there is
is

One God

but

Yahweh

not that Deity.
It is

that there are grades of being and
between the Supreme and man but

true

intelligence

It first was the body and love the things of the soul it was good to bring reality of life once more into the hearts of men. It is true that all men will be saved solve &quot. not rather the poor than the rich. a of old barriers things. a wholesale condemnation . it was good paramount as the knowledge good to set aside the things of of God. a social upheaval. the ignorant than the learned. is acquired definitely. The memories of the past crowded into the old brain. however. The memory which succeeded in eventually impressing itself with most distinctness on the new brain. One thing. a new lease It their for of life for was good faith. glorification of ignorance. but &quot. . who can say ? The main fact was that one race was dying and another being born. Therefore. when the new impulse on the people. we are to have a breaking down seizes and a striving after a new order of but at the same time a wild intolerance. was . but the new brain was unable to register them except in their cruder forms.ALEXANDRIA. They is no fly to the opposite pole. the It is that true philosophy alone cannot the problem but it must not be neglected. In protestantism in things religious there middle ground among the uninstructed. 115 gods are not the work of men s hands or devils. for the people to believe with all heart after so them to make much virtue all-necessary step to a disbelief. while the angels are creatures of light. followed by a political triumph. What might have been if more temperate counsels had prevailed.

for in the beginning these most exclusive and intolerant to themselves and religionists kept their ideas time confined to Jews. the We are of course in this only looking at the popular and outer side of the great movement which transformed the general religious consciousness of Within was much of great a excellence. it does attracted the attention of the not seem Greek official Jewish ideas at Alexandria were at that and naturally so. had been begun in the reign of to have savants. guarded them jealously from the Gentiles. and doubtless ere long its be its memory brought however. that the Alexandrian Rabbis were known as the &quot. Later on the Jewish schools at Alexandria were so esteemed by their nation throughout the East. We are Jewisband of it. been an important element in the life of the city. this memory was the tradition of Jew.Seventy&quot.&quot. 116 perchance the most suited to the vigorous and warlike races that were to replace the old races of the Roman Empire. ever since its foundation.Light of Israel.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. looking at the outer conAt ditions among which the Gnosis was working. Though the translation of the Hebrew scriptures by the so-called &quot. ancient the that the world. of science religion growing will it into manhood it will has already recovered and philosophy. only portion of which could be under But now stood by the young brain of the new race. race is remember more memory of through. Ptolemy Philadelphus. Alexandria. the Jews had still. and continued to be the centre of j .

&quot.C. religious thought It is true that Philo s and method Greek of alle- . but is conjecturally about B. is the most He was a great admirer of the Hellenists. and his work brings out many similarities renowned between Rabbinical philosophy. Within these it was that the Jews perfected their and worked out what they had lore from the Chaldseans and and also from the wisdom-traditions of Babylonians. was a &quot. 45). in order new religion. and this pitiful hypothesis has been faithfully reproduced by Christian apologists almost down to our own time. 25 A. that the wisdom of antiquity.plagiarism by anticipation&quot.ALEXANDRIA. had endeavoured to maintain that the Peripatetic philosophy was derived from Moses a wild theory that was subsequently to a ludicrous extent.C. and developed and expanded (Plato being substituted for Aristotle) was in the greatest favour even among such enlightened Church Fathers as Clement of Alexandria and Origen. wherever found. theories of religion &quot. gleaned of kabalistic Egypt. it chiefly things Jewish. of the Devil. s^^ students of Grecian thought and literature. invented by Justin Martyr. &quot.D. to spite the Philo (circa B. Some of these wrote TUtLriP and was through their works that the Grecian world derived its information on in Greek. of Plato. whose date is unknown. the of Hebrew doctors. This theory of Aristobulus was the forerunner of the still more fantastic theory. Many &quot. 150. Aristobulus. 117 Jewish thought and learning for several centuries. and are ^ / therefore known as Hellenists. however. were moreover.

are a precious indication of the existence of communities who thought as Philo thought. but also that every name therein contained a hidden In this way he meaning of highest import. But though Philo s method invoke the authority of Moses whereby he could &quot. 118 whereby he reads high philosophical conceptions into the crude narratives of the myths of Israel. a tradition that was philosophy or kabalistic mysticism. . we have indications of the direct points of contact between Greek and propagandist Jewish thought. and so made known his nation far and wide throughout the Grseco-Roman world.D. Philo writings are nevertheless of great value. but his gorical exegesis. school is scientifically for the ideas of his inadmissible. &quot. is no longer regarded as legimitate. Now Christianity in its popular origins had entirely entangled itself with the popular Jewish tradition of innocent of The Gentiles all religion. 37 100). believed not only that the Old Covenant documents were inspired in every part. the famous historian. Josephus (A. and They a valuable means of becoming acquainted with the scope of the Jewish Gnosis in a propagandist form. who were admitted into the new faith. when the Bible documents are submitted to the searching of historic and philological criticism. also wrote in Greek. nevertheless his numerous great importance as supplying us with a record of the ideas which were current in the tractates are of circles or schools with which Philo was in contact. strove to explain away the crudities of the literal narrative. Here. therefore.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

tion joined their ranks. It was the Alexandrian school of Christian philo sophy. and that school owed evolution to thought. its There is its contact with Grecian a pleasant story of its first beginnings to which we may briefly refer.&quot. 119 however. Towards the end of the first century the Christians established It was a a school in Alexandria. soon grew restive at the imposition of the rite of circumcision. however. the condemnation of learning. of which the most famous doctors were the same Clemens and Origen. the city of schools. &quot. however.&quot. Sunday-school for children. And orthodox. Church of Jewish in narrow which the Jerusalem. and so the insisted &quot. All such views. even the very Clemens and Origen was and with the triumph regarded as a grave danger of narrow orthodoxy. which laid the first foundations of General Christian theology. called the Didascaleion. moderate so as time liberalism of went on. and . were upon with great suspicion by the or rather that view which finally became looked &quot. and the other great religious traditions and philosophies con tacted the popular stream.ALEXANDRIA. With courageous faith it was established hard by the . or in their propaganda they were forced to study themselves to meet the objections of educated opponents. speedily resolved all and arose.heresy&quot. and either men of greater educa even for those sect. orthodox. which remained the* essentially itself into a who regarded Judaism As time new faith. as the only forerunner of the went on. upon. Origen himself was at last anathematized. first earliest propagandists things. wider and more liberal views obtained among a number of the Christians.

Syria and Arabia met together. owing to their ignorance of From art and science and philosophy. Such is a brief sketch of Alexandria and her schools. Asia Minor. however. They were found of course elsewhere in the world Syria. door of the world-famous Museum. Didascaleion were forced to look to their laurels. in Gaul and Spain . that same Sunday-school.120 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. from whose chairs the general Christians. Rome and Greece. and Italy. and it was in outer contact with such a seething world of thought and endeavour. and they soon numbered in their ranks men who had already received education in the Grecian schools of thought and training. city . that some of the greatest of the Gnostic doctors lived. in but the best picture of the ancient world with which they were in outer contact. were excluded. arose the vast for the teachers of the fabric of Catholic theology . is to be sketched in the where Egypt and Africa.

GENERAL AND GNOSTIC CHRISTIANITY.
THE EVOLUTION OF CATHOLIC
CHRISTIANITY.
THE

historical origins of Christianity are hidden in

Of the actual history

impenetrable obscurity.
the first half of the

Of the history

knowledge.
years

on

also

first

we have

conjecture.

canonical account

for

of The

century we have no
of

the

the

next hundred

most part to rely

The now universally received
was a selection from a mass of

and legend;

only in the second half
of the second century that the idea of a Canon of the

tradition

New

Testament makes

is

appearance, and is gradually
the Church of Rome and the Western

developed by

its

The

early Alexandrian theologians, such
are
still ignorant of a precise Canon.
Clement,

Fathers.
as

it

Following on the lines of the earliest apologists of a
special view of Christianity, such as Justin, and using
this evolving

Canon

Irenseus, Tertullian

Roman Church,

as the sole test of orthodoxy,

and Hippolytus, supported by the

lay the foundations of
121

"catholicity,"

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

122

and begin

to raise the first courses of that

enormous
wKich
is
dogma
to-day regarded as the
only authentic view of the Church of Christ.
The first two centuries, however, instead of
edifice

of

one
confirming the boast of the later orthodox,
one
and
on
the
church,
faith, always
everywhere,"
"

contrary present us with the picture of many lines
of evolution of belief, practice, and
organisation.

The struggle

for life

was being

fiercely

waged, and

though the "survival of the fittest" resulted as
usual, there were frequent crises in which the final
"
"

fittest

is

hardly discernible and at times disappears

from view.

The view

The
Gospels.

which eventually
became the orthodox tradition based itself mainly
J
of the Christian origins

upon Gospel-documents composed, in
some time in the reign of Hadrian

The skeleton

all probability,

(A.D.

117-138).

Gospels was pre
a
collection
of
sumably
Sayings and a narrative
of Doings in the form of an ideal life, a sketch
of

three

of

these

"

of the inner
composed by one of the
Apostles
communities and designed for public circulation.
"

Round

this

nucleus

the

compilers

of

the

three

documents wove other matter selected from a vast

mass of

myth, legend, and tradition they were
evidently men of great piety, and their selection of
material produced narratives of great dignity, and
;

much

was foolish and
we have still preserved
in some of the apocryphal Gospels.
The writer of
the fourth document was a natural mystic who
cast aside

in circulation that

fantastic, the remains of which

adorned his account with a beauty of conception

EVOLUTION OF CATHOLIC CHRISTIANITY.
and a charm of

feeling

that

reflect

the

123
highest

inspiration.

At the same time the canonical
fortunately preserved for us

selection

most

documents of far greater

historic value.

In the Letters of Paul, the majority of which are
in the

main, I believe, authentic,

we have

1

the earliest

records of Christianity which we possess.
The Pauline Letters date back to the middle of the
first century, and are the true point of departure

historic

for

any

really historic

research

into

the

origins.

On

reading these Letters it is almost impossible
to persuade ourselves that Paul was acquainted
with the statements of the later historicized account
the four canonical Gospels
all his conceptions
breathe a totally different atmosphere.
Instead of preaching the Jesus of the historicized

of

;

he

preaches the doctrine of the mystic
not only seems to be ignorant of the
Doings but even of the Sayings in any form known
to us; nevertheless it is almost certain that some

Gospels,
Christ.

He

collection of

Sayings must have existed and been

used by the followers of the public teaching in his
time.
Though innumerable opportunities occur in his
writings for reference to the canonical Sayings and
Doings, whereby the power of his exhortations would

have been enormously increased, he abstains from
making any. On the other hand, we find his Letters
replete with conceptions and technical terms which

no explanation in the traditions of General
Christianity, but are fundamental with the handers-on

receive

of the Gnosis.

i

Letters

124

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

The

picture which the letters of Paul give us
the actual state of affairs in the middle of the

of

first

century

with

is

own

his

that of an independent propagandist,
illumination, in contact with the

ideas of an inner school on the one hand, and with

outer communities of various kinds on the other.

Whatever the inner schools may have been, the outer
communities among which Paul laboured were Jewish,
synagogues of the orthodox Jews, synagogues of the
outer communities of the Essenes, communities which
had received some tradition of the public teaching of
Jesus as well, and understood or misunderstood
the case

Paul
The
isationof

u y

may
s

it

as

have been.

was

mission

down

break

to

Jewish

exclusiveness and pioneer the way for the gentilization of Christianity.
The century which followed

propaganda of Paul (50-150) is, according
to Harnack, characterised by the following features
(i) The rapid disappearance of Jewish (that is to
this

:

say, primitive
(ii)

to

and

original) [popular] Christianity.

Every member of

have received the

was

u

that

The expectation
the age, and the reign

of

God

"

the teaching
to say, of the nature of

Spirit of
is

"charismatic,"

community was supposed

the

;

"

spiritual

gifts."

(iii)

thousand

"

years

of

chiliasm

the approaching end of
Christ on earth for a
"

was

in

universal

favour.

was a mode of life, not a dogma.
There
were
no fixed doctrinal forms, and
(v)
accordingly the greatest freedom in Christian preach
(iv) Christianity

ing.

EVOLUTION OF CATHOLIC CHRISTIANITY.
Lord and the
(vi) The Sayings of the
Testament were not as yet absolute authorities
"
"

Spirit
(vii)

them
There was no
could set

125

Old
;

the

aside.

union of the

fixed political

Churches; each community was independent.
a quite unique
(viii) This period gave rise to
"

literature, in

which were manufactured

facts for the

past and for the future, and which did not submit to
the usual literary rules and forms, but came forward

with the

loftiest

pretensions."

sayings and arguments of assumed
were brought forward as being
Teachers
Apostolic
(ix) Particular

"

"

of great authority.

At the same

time, besides this gentilizing tendency,

which was always really subordinated to the Jewish
original impulse, though flattering itself that it had
entirely

shaken

off the fetters of the

"

circumcision,"

was a truly universalizing tendency at work in
the background
and it is this endeavour to uni
versalize Christianity which is the grand inspiration
there

;

underlying the best of the Gnostic efforts we have to
review. But this universalizing does not belong to the
line of the origins

subsequently traced

along which General Christiaity
its

descent.

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

126

THE

EBIONITES.

Epiphanius would have
The

it

that the Christians were

and says they are mentioned under
the writings of Philo. The followers
earliest converts of Jesus are also said

first called lesssei,
...

Nazoraeans.

name

this

of

the

to

have

m
.

been

called

Nazoraei.

Even towards the

end

of the fourth century the Nazoraeans were
found scattered throughout Ccele-Syria,
Decapolis,
Pella (whither they fled at the destruction of

still

the

Jerusalem),

away

region

beyond

Jordan,

Mesopotamia.
was called The

Their

collection

to

and

far

of

the

according to the
from
the synoptic
greatly
accounts of the Canon. Even to this day a remnant
of the Nazoraeans is said by some to survive in the
logoi

Hebrews, and

Gospel

differed

Mandaites, a strange sect dwelling in the marshes of
Southern Babylonia, but their curious scripture, The

Book of Adam, as preserved in the Codex Nasarceus,
bears no resemblance whatever to the known
fragments of The Gospel according

though some

of

their

rites

are

to the

very

the rites of some communities of the
referred

to

in

that

Hebrews,

similar

to

"Righteous"

strange Jewish pseudepigraph

The Sibylline Oracles.

Who

is

of
"

the original lessaeans or Nazoraeans were,
wrapped in the greatest obscurity under another
;

their

Poor

designations,

Men,"

we

however,

the

Ebionites

or

can obtain some further information.

These early outer followers of Jesus were finally
ostracized from the orthodox fold, and so completely

THE EBIONITES.

127

were their origin and history obscured by the subse
quent industry of heresy-hunters, that we finally
find them fathered on a certain Ebion, who is as
non-existent

as

several

other

such

heretics,

as

and Elkesai, who were
Epiphanes, Kolarbasus
invented by the zeal and ignorance of
fourth-century
haeresiologists

and

(epiphanes) teacher
of

the

"sacred

the

So eager were the
list

of

"

"

Kolarbasus

;

four"

of

personification

Epiphanes is the
an unnamed distinguished

"historians."

later personification of

the personification
(kol-arba), and Elkesai the
is

"hidden

power"

(elkesai).

add to their

later refutators to

that

they invented the names of
persons from epithets and doctrines. So with Ebion.
heretics,

The Ebionites were
they were
added

originally so called because

"

"

the later orthodox
poor
subsequently The
PoorMen
or
"in
their
ideas about
intelligence"
;

"in

Christ."
And this may very well have been the case,
and doubtless many grossly misunderstood the
public

teaching of Jesus, for it should not be forgotten that
one of the main factors to be taken into account in

reviewing the subsequent rapid progress of the new
In the minds of
religion was the social revolution.
the most ignorant of the earliest

followers of the

public teaching, the greatest hope aroused
have been the near approach of the

poor
this

should be elevated above the

was

well

day when the
But

"

"

may

the

view of

the

most

"

rich."

ignorant

only

;

though doubtless they were numerous enough.
Nevertheless it was Ebionism which preserved
the tradition of the earliest converts of the
public
teaching, and the Ebionite communities doubtless

-

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

128

possessed a collection of the public Sayings and based

upon them.
was against these original followers of the

their lives
It

public teaching of Jesus that Paul contended in his

For many a long
Petro-Pauline controversy was waged with

to gentilize

efforts

year this

Christianity.

great bitterness, and the
is

to

Canon

of the

New Testament

thought by some to have been the means adopted
form the basis of a future reconciliation
the
;

Petrine and Pauline documents were carefully edited,
and between the Gospel portion and the Pauline
letters

was

inserted the new-forged link of the Acts

from a

of the Apostles, a carefully edited selection

huge mass of legendary Acts, welded together into
a narrative and embellished with speeches after the

manner

of Thucydides.

How
The
Tradition

then did the original Ebionites view the

person and teaching of Jesus ? They regarded their
leader as a wise man, a prophet, a Jonas, nay even
a Solomon.
Moreover, he was a manifestation
of the Messiah, the Anointed, who was to come,
but he had not yet appeared as the Messiah that
In his birth
would only be at his second coming.
;

as

Jesus,

Dispensation was

Law

;

all

expected

The New
simply.
but the continuation of the Old

he was a

was

essentially Jewish.

the coming
their

prophesied by
as king, and then
to

a

the

prophet

power

thousand

all

of

years

the

of

men

They

Messiah as

of old.

He was

therefore
literally

to

come

the nations would be subjected
the

Chosen

there

prosperity and plenty on

would
earth.

People,

be

and

peace

for

and

THE EBION1TES.
Jesus was a man, born as

and Mary.

of Joseph

It

all

129

men, the human son

was only

at his baptism, at

thirty years of age, that the Spirit descended

him

and

he

became a prophet.

upon

They, therefore,

guarded his Sayings as a precious deposit, handing
them down by word of mouth. The Ebionites knew
the pre-existence or divinity of their
revered prophet. It is true that Jesus was christ,"
of

nothing

"

but so also would

be

all

who

fulfilled

Thus

the Law.

they naturally repudiated Paul and his new doctrine
for them Paul was a deceiver and an
entirely
;

apostate from the

was a Jew.
It was only

Law, they even denied that he

later

The Gospel

that they used

according to the Hebrews, which Jerome says was the
same as The Gospel of the Twelve Apostles and The
Gospel of the Nazarenes, that is to say, of the
It should be remembered that these
Nazorseans.

knew nothing

the Nazareth legend,
which was subsequently developed by the in order
that it might be fulfilled
school of historicizers.

Nazorseans

of

"

"

The Ebionites did not return
the

ernperor

permitted

the

to Jerusalem

new

colony of

to

Therefore,

The new town

return.

when we

the mother church
historians, little

read of

"the

was

^Elia

Gentile.

re-constitution

"

at

^Elia

no Jew was

Capitolina to be established in 138, for

allowed

when

Colonia,

in

of

Church

can be placed upon such
mother church." based on the

reliance

The
public teaching, was Ebionite and remained Ebionite,
the community at ^Elia Colonia was Gentile and
"

assertions.

therefore

Pauline,

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

130

as

Christianity,

understood

an

national

by the

Ebionites,

doctrine,

Paulinism

essentially
being
was a necessity if any public attempt at univer
therefore it was that the
sality was to be made
;

true

side

historical

of

popular Christianity (the
became more and more
Ebionite
tradition)
orginal
obscured,

until

finally

it

had

so

completely dis
such tradition, that a

appeared from the area of
new history could with safety be developed to
"

"

suit

the dogmatic evolution inaugurated by Paul.

The

later

Ebionism, however, which
centuries, were of a Gnostic

forms of

survived for several

nature, and reveal the contact of these outer

munities of
public

which
Paul,

primitive

with

teaching

existed

inner

based

Jewish

on

the

tradition,

contemporaneously
have existed far earlier.

evidently

and may

Christendom

an

com

with

THE ESSENES.

131

THE ESSENES.
BASING themselves on the Sayings preserved in the
Gospels and on the description of the

canonical

communities given in the Acts, many have supposed
that Jesus was a member of or intimately acquainted
with

the

doctrines

communities.
Healers

Who

and
then

discipline

were

of

these

the

Essene

Essenes

or

?

For

centuries

before the

Christian era Essene

communities had dwelt on the shores of the Dead Sea.
These Essenes or Essseans, in the days of Philo and
Josephus, were imbued with the utmost reverence for

Moses and the Law.

They

believed

creator, in the immortality of the soul,

in

God, the

and in a future

state of retribution.
Finding it impossible to carry
out in ordinary life the minute regulations of the
laws of purity, they had adopted the life of ascetic
communism.
Their chief characteristic was the

doctrine of love

love to God, love of virtue,

and love

mankind and the practical way in which they
carried out their precepts aroused the admiration of all.
the purificatory
Their strict
observance of
of

by the Levitical institutions thus
to
them
become a self-supporting com
compelled
munity all worked at a trade, they cultivated their
own fields, manufactured all the articles of food and
discipline enacted

;

which they used, and thus in every way avoided
contact with those who did not observe the same
rules.
They also appear in their inner circles to have
dress

been strict celibates.

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

132

was as follows: they rose
and no word was uttered until they

Their manner of
Their
a
of Life

before the sun,

life

r

had

assembled

and,

together

with

faces

turned

towards the dawn, offered up prayers for the renewal
Each then went to his appointed task
of the light.

under the supervision of the stewards or overseers

At eleven
elected by universal suffrage.
bishops
o clock they again assembled and, putting off their
")

("

performed the daily rite of baptism
in cold water; then clothing themselves in white

working

clothes,

they proceeded to the
which they regarded as a sacrament
was a holy temple."
They ate in

linen

common

robes,

"

meal,

the refectory
silence, and the
;

bread and vegetables.
invoked, and at the
was
Before the meal a blessing
The members took their
end thanks were rendered.
seats according to seniority.
They then went forth

food

to

was

of

work again

the

plainest

until the evening,

assembled for the

common

meal.

when they again
Certain hours of

the day, however, were devoted to the study of
the mysteries of nature and of revelation, as well
of the celestial hierarchies, the
as of the

powers

names

the angels,

of

instruction,

which

they had an inner
guarded with the utmost

etc.

was

;

for

secrecy.

This was the rule for the week-days, while the
Sabbath was kept with extreme rigour. They had,

however, no priests, and any one who was moved
to do so, took up the reading of the Law, and the
of the mysteries connected with the
"

"

exposition

of
Tetragrammaton, or four-lettered mystery-name
the Creative Power, and the angelic worlds. The

THE ESSENES.
Essenes,

133

were evidently in contact with
and the Zoroastrian tradition
kabalism

therefore,

"

"

Chaldaean

of the discipline of purity

logic

;

and metaphysics, how

ever, were eschewed as injurious to a devotional life.
There were four degrees in the community:
(i.)

or

novices;

(ii.)

associates;
(i.)

approachers;

(iv.) old

After the

possessions

to

members,

new
or

full

members,

elders.

year the novice gave

first

the

(iii.)

common

all

his

treasury, and received

a copy of the regulations, a spade (for the purpose
described in Moses camp-regulations), and a white

symbol of purity but the novice was still
excluded from the lustral rites and common meal.
robe, the

;

After two years more, the novice shared in
the lustral rites, but was still excluded from the
(ii.)

common

meal.

The

(iii.)

were bound by the most

associates

solemn assurances, and in case of any delinquency
could only be judged by the "assembly," consisting
of one

hundred members.

Essenism

is

by some

said

to

have

an

been

exaggerated form of Pharisaism; and it may be a
matter of surprise to those whose only knowledge
of the Pharisees is derived from canonical docu
,

ments,

that

learn

to

the

highest

Judaism

was

,

,

aim

of

,

this

attain

to

to
enlightened
such a state of holiness as to be able to perform
The "degrees
miraculous cures and to prophesy.

school

of

"

practised by the Pharisees
been: (i.) the study of the

of

holiness

to

have

circumspection;
apron was the

(ii.)

the

symbol

noviciate,

of

purity;

in

are

Law and

which

(iii.)

said

the

external

The
Degrees of
Holiness.

134

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

purity,

by means

celibacy
(vi.)
(vii.)

(v.)

;

of

lustrations or

inward

a higher stage

still,

baptisms;

(iv.)

of

purity
thought
which is not further defined

purity,

meekness and holiness;

;

;

dread of every

(viii.)

the highest stage of holiness (x.) the stage
which enabled the adept to heal the sick and raise

sin

(ix.)

;

;

the dead.

We

should, however,

remember that the Healers

absolutely refused to have anything to do with the
blood-sacrifices of the Temple-worship, and refused

the physical body,
the Pharisees held as a cardinal

to believe in the resurrection of

which the

rest of

doctrine.

In this brief sketch

it

is

of course impossible to

point out the striking similarities between the dis
cipline of the Essenes and that of the Therapeutae

Egypt and of the Orphic and Pythagorean
Every subject referred to in these essays
requires a volume or several volumes for its proper
treatment we can only set up a few finger-posts,
of

schools.

;

and leave the reader to make

But before leaving

his

own

investigations.

most interesting theme,
it will be necessary to point to the identity between
many of the Essene regulations and the Gospel
teachings and traditions.
this

Converts were required to
Points of

Contact
with
8tian
ity"

sell

their possessions

and give to the poor, for the laying up of treasure
Not
was regarded as injurious to a spiritual life.
on ly did tne Essenes despise
life of

and

basis of all

but they lived a

Love
was the soul of Essene life,
and this characteristic of
action

self-imposed poverty.

of one s neighbour

and the

riches,

;

of the brotherhood

to be meek and lowly lusts. to hate evil but reclaim the evildoer.THE ESSENES. all men. More and their nay. they strove to be so pure as to become temples of the Holy Spirit. They were devoted to the curing of the sick. problems and of . circles all Philo distinguishes the Essenes from the Therapeuts by saying that the former were devoted to the &quot. had all steward to lived together as in a family. nay. brief. and in things forth called 135 common a appointed bag. contemplative still higher life. They were also great lovers of peace. the healing of both body and soul. &quot. the higher devoted stage of themselves the to &quot. and the authority of one nevertheless mutual over another was forbidden service was strictly enjoined. moreover they pro manufacture warlike weapons end of the Essenes was the scribed slavery. and so refused to take arms or . practical life. and regarded the power to perform miraculous cures and cast out evil spirits as the highest stage of In discipline. Finally. . their yea was to be yea. When whom travelling they would lodge with brethren they had never seen before. and thus seers and prophets. . and found in the main centres of the Diaspora. while the latter proceeded to &quot. and to be merciful to over. common. as though with the oldest and most and thus they took nothing with intimate friends them when they went on a journey. to be pure in spirit. To these inner communities were attached outer of pupils living in the world. to mortify all sinful in heart. All members were set on the same level. their discipline The members manage the universal admiration.

that is to say. are Catholics gradually adopted only after generations hesitation. and on the other at a number of of conclusions which even to our present generation seem too premature. on the one hand at many conclusions which the results arrived at centuries. of the world are invariably condemned by their The Gnostic mind rapidly arrived contemporaries.&quot. All theosophic students are. THE TENDENCIES OF GNOSTICISM. evolution of popular beliefs takes time. and the by the general mind only after invariably anticipated by minds of The Galileos greater instruction generations before. here again accurate historical data are out of the question. as the of Christianity. What then is &quot. in matters of religion. call Tendenz. Harnack speaks of the tendency. but . which at every moment of time is near at hand within.&quot. and we have for the most part to deal with what the Germans &quot. which by long convention generally called Gnostic. 136 religion that and philosophy. BUT The izing&quot. and we must is it in this direction look for the best in Gnosticism.acute secularizing the meaning of this said to be the outcome is phrase ? Catholic dogma is of the gradual hellenizing of general Christianity. centuries before their time.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.of nS ity. for the simple reason that they are endeavouring by every means in their power to shorten the time of normal evolution and reach the mystic goal. the modification of popular tradition All by the philosophical and theological method.

but I doubt whether this altogether accounts for the facts. by His public teaching practically threw open to all what had previously been kept &quot. then. was forced and made common property. and only gradually put forth a small portion of it. to speak more accurately. The leaven worked. by the It was stress of circumstances. if it then. The Gnostics were. The Gnosis was pre-Christian the Christ illumined its tradition. and the inner teachings which dealt with things that the people in the world could not understand. Catholicism finally.&quot. as they knew it could not possibly be understood. and intensitied by subse The Gnostics quent hseresiological controversy. the rest they kept in first closest secrecy. worthy alone. represents the rapid theologizing and systema Christianity.secret from the creation of the world &quot.acute 13*7 secularizing of Christianity. and is theologists. and tizing of . claimed that there were two lines of tradition the public sayings. the intermediate grades of the Mysteries. the majority is far distant path of external evolution.THE TENDENCIES OF GNOSTICISM. This side of their teaching they kept at entirely to themselves. the first Christian a cause for reprehension that the real historical side of the new movement was obscured in order to suit the necessities of a religion which aspired to universality. by accepting the Old Testa- . inaugurated by the propaganda of Paul. &quot. along the normal for The phrase &quot. and in course of time much that had been previously kept for the into publicity forced out &quot. then the Gnostics are the chief culprits.

required interpretation. the tribal God or rather. whenever it did not entirely the Old Covenant documents. invariably the reject the allegorical method. Many gospels and apocalypses were thus . which was imparted to the worthy alone. placed in a very subordinate In brief. adopted and the Yahweh- popular Judaism DU t in the earlier years it had been inclined to seek for an allegorical interpretation. the illumine Gnosis enigmatical sayings Words of or &quot. Arid just as this idea of the true God transcended the popular notions of deity. was not the Mystery God over The inner Teaching. Gnosticism. in persuit of a universal ideal. 138 ment not*&quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. not the Father of Jesus. the crude views of the uninstructed Jewish as populace entirely Yahweh to when not was. or creative power of the world. the literal meaning was sufficient for the people. the Lord. Canon ^^ e Beliefs in ^ literal its interpretation. and the parables. but adopted not only also a canon of criticism which minutely classified &quot. the Father &quot. position. an be Thus esoteric but or inner doctrine. the Demiurgos. instruction. the and &quot. on contrary. so did the true teaching o ^ The or parables. ethical teachings.&quot. cult. all. of Jesus. but for the truly spiritual minded there was an vista infinite revealed the dark there plain to of inner the eye ethical sayings was a the teaching were further which could meaning of for true Gnostic. Thus. the Yahweh of the Elohim was rejected. inspiration so out sifted most the of objectionable passages from the Jewish Canon. and the the unintelligible uninstructed.

&quot.resurrection from the which mystical phrase dead.&quot. capable of knowledge of spiritual who could receive the Gnosis. Thus mankind it hyhcs. but they unexplained. to was a into for phychics. compiled under the inspiration of the all purporting to be the instruction it was claimed vouchsafed by Jesus to His disciples after the &quot. &quot. &quot. . called things divide to lowest. the coming to new birth the of life But even these from its previous dead state. Gnostic treatises did not reveal the whole matter soul .&quot. days in extreme &quot. spiritual. believers simply. the (b) &quot. It is somewhat the custom circles to claim that all men in our are matters. and the of still was final revelation only communicated by word of mouth in the body. seeing simply asserts the great principle of justice as one Classes of Souls. entirely were they matter the (a) who were that things or them with custom three were those &quot. were they and required miracles and signs to strengthen their faith (c) whereas the pneu or the matics. theologian wisely qualifies this claim &quot. . spiritual classes: unperceptive class intermediate believers though the of were in so or Various -111 dead the as world. hyle. and by vision out of the body. equal.&quot. 139 as Spirit. were those spiritual. a peculiarly common to Thus stated the idea Christian all the view great for those is The modern by the adverb by no means the doctrine is that it religions.&quot.THE TENDENCIES OF GNOSTICISM. morally. true. they mostly represented as meaning the or Gnostic illumination. highest class. they left much many explained internal states and terms in things spiritual processes.&quot.

of Jesus. however. This classification obtained not only among men. a very difficult problem Gnostic doctors. and the prophets of the Old Testament as instruments of such powers were. in it and more far clearer. a theory which could cover every phase of contradiction in the sharp juxtaposition The of the divine and human natures of their ideal. The person of Jesus was thus made to bear the burden of every possibility of the occult world and In their every hidden power of human nature. . and opinion among them from Ebionite view that he was simply a shade holy that he of man. 140 of is facts of evolution. endeavours to reconcile the ideas of a suffering man and of a triumphant initiator and king of the universe to (both sensible and intellectual). The personality Person of Jesus. not only body and soul. they had recourse the expedient of Docetism. but The Gnostic view.&quot.morally equal. but also among powers . but also in spirit. and we can find examples ^ ne of every the original good belief. in make the morality proportional. however. it in accord with the admits the &quot. thus sorted out into an order of dignity. the manifestations of Diety. to the very antipodes of was not only a descent of the Logos of God a familiar idea to Oriental antiquity but in deed and in his person very God of very God. as stated above. the prophet of the new for tidings proved. a necessity forced upon faith by the boastful which sought to transcend spirit of an enthusiasm the claims of every existing religion.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and so order to to carry out the inner meaning of the parable of the talents. further asserts difference of degree.

they Equally complex was their anthropogony. but took to himself a phantasmal body Or Jesus. and Jesus the personality.&quot. but to appeared suffered. But these were subsequent doctrinal developments on the ground of certain inner facts: that a phantasmal body can be used by the be made to appear and disappear at will. in a man called the suffer. and (6) that the physical body of another. did not suffer. why. Jesus. and become dense or materialised. a usually pupil.resurrection. docetic is theory the theory of 141 &quot. but the limits of the sensible world of were too narrow to contain for its regions origins of the in the it. cosmogony of the most sublime and complex character. lower man. alone again. perfect. The Main intuition of the Gnostic philosopher .&quot. can be used by a master of wisdom as a medium for instruction. The God.&quot. the divine geon or perfected man. especially with regard to the period of instruction after the &quot. Christ was not really incarnated Jesus. Such underlying ideas physically . in Christ. whither. A sharp distinction was made between Christ. were searched Not only was their into with amazing daring. or rather God. and equally sublime the potentialities which they postulated of the human soul and spirit. so that they sought intellectual immanent mind of and spiritual deity. wherein postulated a transcendent aeonology which pour tray ed the energizings of the divine ideation.&quot. .THE TENDENCIES OF GNOSTICISM. and how things. &quot. In fact no problem appeared too lofty for the the whence.appearance. occur in Gnostic treatises and form an important part of their christology. so as to be felt (a) &quot.

Their eschatology. have been either entirely overlooked or. or theory of the salvation or regeneration of mankind. 142 As to their soteriology. refers to as a &quot. than to elucidate tenets which are a key to the whole position. wrought by the volition of the Logos in His own nature. Finally.metempsychosis&quot.fate. while the &quot. . which Harnack technically &quot. despatched with a few hurried remarks in which the critic is more at pains to apologize for touching on such ridiculous super stitions as &quot. hylic remained in the obscuration of matter until the end of the Peace&quot. teaching the Thus we find the Gnostics doctrine not only of the preexistence but also of the rebirth *of human souls and though a chief feature of their dogmas was the . to the &quot. and seonian bliss to the &quot. and &quot. but expanded it into a stupendous cosmical process. they did not confine the idea to the crude and limited notion of a physical passion by a single individual. &quot. when not unintelligently slurred over.&quot. It is somewhat curious that these two main doctrines. cycle a future which gave &quot. the whole of their doctrine revolved round the conception of cyclic law for both the universal and the individual invariably soul.nirvana&quot. sensuous eudsemonistic eschatology. psychic. they nevertheless held rigidly to the infallible working out of the great law of cause and effect.&quot.Great a picture somewhat different from the crude expectation of the good feasting time on earth of the Poor Men. main doctrine of forgiveness of sins. &quot.&quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. or doctrine of the last things/ again painted for mankind at the end of the world &quot. which explain so much in Gnosticism and throw light on so many dark places.spiritual&quot.&quot.

deterred by the wealth of detail. difficulty. perhaps. by the obscurity of theological phraseology. by the difficulty of the technical terms. yet conceived on the plan or carried out with the ability of a Maimonides. therefore.&quot. guide to the general reader the years of labour the writer has spent in searching through many books. extent serve as a to some not perplexed. THE study Gnosticism has so far been almost of entirely confined to specialists. but rather the mere jotting down of a few notes and indications which may spare the &quot. then. For the ordinary English reader. and he must have recourse to Literature. such works are closed books. importance and absorbing interest.LITERATURE AND SOURCES OF GNOSTICISM. then. is a first man Here. 143 THE LITERATURE AND SOURCES OF GNOSTICISM. as to on Gnosticism are books best works The best books without exception ? by German scholars. First. . technical training in may understand its Meantime our present essay may. It is to be hoped that ere long some competent English scholar. endowed with the genius of lucid know many be induced to write a popular sketch of the subject. in order that thinking men and may generalization. confronted with our reader as a rule what are the . whose works cannot be understand ed of the people the ordinary reader is . for we are the general of one language only. women who have not enjoyed the advantages of a Church history and dogmatics. and by the feeling that he is expected to things of which he has never even heard.

although the point of view assumed by these distinguished scholars is not sufficiently convinced effort really to that the formulate liberal for one inspiration the inner of who is every truth of deeply honest things is from above.). Smith and first Wace s Dictionary of Christian Biography (1877-1887) is The scheme of this useful absolutely indispensable. such Unfortunately only two exist. deals with the Gnostics. work contains a general article. Harnack s be found in to is admirable History of Dogma. new ed. translated in 1894.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. but the great German theologian s work is now out of date. Salmon. works are procurable in English dress. The best general review of Gnosticism by the light of such of the most recent researches.. The second volume of the translation (Bohn. in the volume. 1887). work. 144 if translations. a work intended for the general reader. 1890) of Neander s Church History (1825. and their of technical terms of the Gnosis. and Hort are responsible for the names are a sufficient guarantee thoroughness. The last two works are that are necessary the subject. and are all a preliminary grasp of the outcome of profound scholarship and admirable It is a pleasure to subscribe one s critical acumen. for tribute of praise to such work.. For a more detailed account. Of other English works we may mention King s Gnostics and their Remains (2nd ed. with lengthy articles on every Gnostic teacher. and shorter articles on a number of the Lipsius. King strongly . etc.

lacks the thoroughness of the specialist. Mansel of the s posthumous work.LITERATURE AND SOURCES OF GNOSTICISM. moreover their books and that of Mansel are only procurable in the second-hand market. the Norton. So much for works with Gnosticism.. however. now interest. by insisting on for the treating their leading ideas as a metaphysic to be judged by the standard of modern German philo sophical methods. in English dealing directly . Heresies of the Apostolic Age (1829) might have been written by The Bampton lecturer s an early Church Father.&quot. amulets. effort and Norton s are now both out of date. &quot. grave injustice but the to most part does Gnostics. reading. but insists his work He is.orthodoxy. and deals with a number of interesting points. 145 on a distinct Indian influence in Gnosticism. is not First only unsympathetic. The weakest point of King s work is the side he the so-called brought into chief prominence of the Gnostics. &quot. etc. The Gnostic Heresies and Second Centuries (18*75). the Dean having himself once held a chair of philosophy. in his Evidences of the Genuineness of Gospels (1847). talismans. are by the best stated authorities to have had most probably no connection with our Nevertheless King s book is well worth philosophers. and has an exceeding great sympathy for the Gnostics. far removed from &quot. devotes his second volume to the Gnostics. remains in which King as a numismatologist took special has . but the value of his Burton s into Inquiry the work is small.

By &quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. especially those German scholars in Smith and Wace s Dictionary which of all the best . list of nearly all the latest work done on the only direct is documents of Gnosticism which we to be found in the Introduction to my possess. indirect writings of documents Fathers the I of mean what the polemical subsequently established itself as the orthodox Catholic Church. when Schwartze s was published. So much. translation Sophia (1896). we have now to consider briefly the indirect and direct documents of Gnosticism. for the general literature of the indirect subject in English. These indirect documents were practically the only sources of information until 1853. each article followed also is by a fair biblio A short general bibliography. in works are given. direct&quot. then. therefore. 146 The student find will Harnack in discriminating bibliographies after brief but each chapter. But the con in this department of sideration of works does not these fall into the plan of this short essay. . and a the most important works of the Gnostic treatise Pistis classified is bibliography of appended this to all The student essay. documents I which have reached our hands through the medium of Coptic translation. and how France also surprised to see Church history and theological research runs England very close. Our indirect sources of information. &quot. will be how unfavourably the paucity of information in English compares with the mass of encyclopaedic work in German. and also a graphy. By mean the few Gnostic treatises translation of the Pistis Sophia &quot.

about 135 who A. to make us profoundly at bitterness all troversy centuries of sceptical of the reliability of such sources of informa Moreover. who were less capable philosophical and mystical agitated the Eastern communities. If. All subsequent refutators base themselves more or less on the treatise of Irenseus. orthodoxy. sources are tion. and.especially in the early the Church. to be found mostly in the writings of the Fathers of the Western of understanding problems which Church. or of the first three quarters of the second. and frequently copy tho work of the Gallic bishop. the whole edifice of refutation foundation. Irenaeus can be shown to be unreliable. the The Roman and occidental mind could never really grasp Greek and oriental thought.&quot. The great store-house of Gnosticism &quot. &quot. come the through of opponents hands Gnosis the remember the intense most the of and we . the earlier and more contemporaneous.LITERATURE AND SOURCES OF GNOSTICISM. and the Western Fathers were always the main champions of &quot. Prior to Irenseus a certain Agrippa Castor. 147 violent have only to of religious con times. flourished late in the reign of Hadrian. then. . far away from the who wrote at Lyons real scene of action. is endangered by the insecurity of its This important point will be considered later on. refutation of the first century (if any ever existed). We should further remember that no contemporary we have extant &quot. &quot. and therefore comparatively more reliable. is the Refutation of Irenaeus. in Gaul.D.. in about the penultimate decade of the second century.

therefore be supposed that his heresies threw too strong a light on may It this period. Clement of Alexandria. All the critics are now agreed that these accusations were unfounded calumnies as far as the great concerned. also composed a work against heresies. ascetics. against heresies. this Syntagma or Compendium is Judging from Justin also unfortunately lost.. though it may well be that these Gospels were assuming their present shape at appear that the &quot. the Justin A. seeing But schools that and the this point will their teachers were were rigid majority come out more clearly later on. in of the Gospel-story extant works. work upon pre-canonical controversy to This desirable.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Clement is . lived and was of Gnostic centre personally activity. greatest acquainted with some of the great doctors of the His works are for the most part free from Gnosis. were not identical with our four canonical Gospels. supposed to have dealt with the higher problems of Gnosticism in his lost work. The Outlines. whose greatest literary in the activity was from about 190-203 A. his s account would it &quot.D. may disappearance of the be also work nourished about 140-160 make of its the Agrippa continued use reason of Castor. Memoirs of the Apostles to which he repeatedly refers.D. Justin Martyr. 148 is said by Eusebius to have been the to write first His work is unfortunately lost. those wholesale accusations of immorality with which the general run of Church Fathers in after years loved to bespatter the character of the Gnostics of the first two centuries. the apologist.

149 which he endeavoured to construct a complete system of Christian teaching. Part of the treatise against heresies ascribed to Tertullian is written by some unknown refutator. mostly notorious. was It Purification. which larger work of the same is lost Father almost based heresies. This purported to be a Refutation of All Heresies. For Marcionites. which had fallen into Hippolytus hands. whose A. was the disciple of Irenseus. and adds considerably to our information from indirect sources for the work discovered at . against language the Irenseus.) Initiation. with quotations from some Gnostic is MSS. is continuation the which the Miscellanies. Compendium against all entirely on Irenseus. (i.D. composition of this about 222 A. abusive zeal. but adds a large mass of new matter. fiery violently are wrote heresies. not a mere copy of Irenseus. he copying is an independent authority.&quot.). however. the first three books of in which bore a strong resemblance of the (iii. the great Alexandrian Father. About work may The be dated somewhere this time also (225-250) Origen. and so we have a PseudoTertullian to take into consideration.LITERATURE AND SOURCES OF GNOSTICISM. also unfortunately of famous his Christian was he a philosopher true Gnostic himself. Hippolytus.) Platonists : lost. was in 1842 Mount Athos. in laboured show that to to the three stages (ii.D. but a much .) This work Direct Vision. intolerance. wrote a refutation against a . of Tertullian Carthage 200-220 (fl. Bishop of Portus at the mouth of the He wrote a Tiber. and &quot.

The study of these indirect documents has exercised the ingenuity of the critics and resulted in a marvellously clever feat of scholarship. and the reliability of Epiphanius often open to grave suspicion. and . against The True Word of Celsus. Eusebius is fifty years earlier. based on his predecessors and dating about the middle of the fifth century. Theodoret s Compendium. Epiphanius. Philaster. fall about the last quarter of the fourth century. bishop of Brescia in Italy. of course. bishop of Salamis in Cyprus. generally put out of court owing to his over weening credulity. Lipsius has demonstrated that Epiphanius. moreover. but there is little gleaned from him on the subject. In this there are passages referring to some If then we include Origen s work of the Gnostics. is far too late to add to our knowledge of the first two centuries. 150 certain Celsus. we have mentioned all the Fathers who are of any real value for the indirect sources Gnosticism of in the first two centuries Philaster. and his reputation for accuracy has been called into question to be by many independent historical critics. owing to his great faculty of inventing or retailing scandals and all is kinds of foulness. and Jerome. and are therefore (unless. and who lived some seventy-five years before Origen s time. Philaster.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. who supposed to have been the is first opponent of Christianity among the philosophers. they quote from earlier writers) too late for accuracy with regard to the things of the is first two centuries.

which he perforce regarded as the direct product of the prince all iniquity.store-house of for the first to the Fathers Irenseus lived far is away in the wilds Setting aside the writer at general presumption that no ecclesiastical such a time could. is his evidence reliable ? been fair to the views of his opponents. The Bruce Codex Museum. Bodleian Library.LITERATURE AND SOURCES OF GNOSTICISM. vellum. in the nature of things. in of Irenseus . is the Irenaeus. a 151 to his larger document. of notes of the lectures work. less (i. We thus see that our main source The Refutation Gnosticism two of Irenseus &quot. have of Gaul . Oxford containing a series of lengthy fragments under the general : Direct Sources. London extracts (ii. and or authority.) The Askew Codex. tractates polemical community.) : British containing the Pistis Sophia from The Books of the Saviour. We have now no than three Codices containing Coptic translations of original Greek Gnostic works. consisting mainly that is to say. he for both infers lost probably the lost Syntagma of Justin. &quot.according centuries. Pseudo-Tertullian which was the all lost draw from a common Syntagma Hippolytus. us turn our attention to our information. of which the bishop read on which he based his Thus reconstructing the compares it with Irenseus. of Compendium the all probability. treatise (consisting of two and distinct MSS. we shall shortly see that fate has of at length only a few years ago of this proof presumption in our But meantime direct sources of let placed the final hands.). . papyrus. and common source.

of treatise. Akhmim Codex. places in our hands the means of testing the accuracy of Irenseus. Prior to 1853. when We Codex translations have to reflect on the indifference which allowed these important documents to remain.) for eighty years without translation. 152 title The Book of the Great Logos according Mystery . is Church Father point by point and find that he has so condensed and paraphrased his original that the consistent system of the school of Gnosticism which . and in the other The (Cod. Egyptian (iii. and The Acts of Peter. without a another another treatise to the great sublimity but and a fragment or fragments of yet title. The Akhmim Codex was only discovered in 1896.) one hundred and twenty years ! attempt at translation in English appeared only 1896 in my version of Pistis Sophia.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. when the Askew Codex was translated into Latin.) The Museum. The Wisdom of Jesus Christ. Berlin containing The Gospel of Mary (or : Apocryphon of John). one of the original sources that Irenseus We are now enabled in one case to control the the sheet-anchor of Mary used. nothing of a practical nature was known of its contents. first in It will thus be seen that the study of Gnosticism quite recent. This new from direct sources is the more forced upon us by the latest discovery which in the Akhmim MS. Ask. while the contents of the Bruce were not known appeared in till 1891-1892. French and German. and that all but the most recent research is out of date. Bruc. in the one case (Cod. papyrus. view is all The Gospel of hseresiologists.

This recent activity among specialists in Gnostic when a widespread interest in a research. . In addition to these indirect and direct sources there is also another source that may yield us some when submitted to the searching an enlightened criticism. of preserved in the Gnostic Acts deserve closer attention than they have hitherto received. appears as an incom prehensible jumble. he is 153 endeavouring to refute. at a time when Biblical criticism is working with the now reincarnated energy and independence of a Marcion. as we shall hope to show in the sequel by quotations from several of them. The legends and traditions valuable information. memory of these universalizers of Christianity is coming once more to the front and occupying the the attention of earnest students of religion. From standpoint to that of pure criticism or is a curious coincidence. the above considerations far are the Gnostics that oblivion in it is evident that so and their ideas from being buried their opponents have so which fervently desired and so busily striven to ensure.LITERATURE AND SOURCES OF GNOSTICISM. that at the opening of the twentieth century. at a time revival of theosophic studies has prepared the way for a reconsideration of Gnosticism from a totally different refutation.

.

.THE GNOSIS ACCORDING TO ITS FOES.

Oh that mine adversary had written a book ! Job (according to the Authorised Version). .

at the end of the second century.SOME GNOSTIC FRAGMENTS RECOVERED FROM THE POLEMICAL WRITINGS OF THE CHURCH FATHERS.. Neander at century endeavoured the beginning of the present them by their friendly Judaism Baur followed to classify or unfriendly relations to . and in the present state of our knowledge we must be content to out of the different phases of heap as best we can. with an attempt which took into consideration not itr Classification Possible.... . sift the development Clement of Alexandria. tried the rough expedient of dividing these schools of Christendom into ascetic and licentious sects . from the polemical writings Church Fathers. as far No as they are of the known to us . Unfortunately we are not in a position to present the student with a satisfactory classification of the Gnostic schools every . WE shall now proceed to introduce the reader to the chief teachers and schools of Gnosticism.. classifi cation previously attempted has completely broken down.

attitude to and Egypt Lipsius followed with a more into the Gnosticism of Syria and and . then plunge into the indefinite next retrace our steps along &quot. good and bad.&quot. contains the most heterogeneous elements. general division of Alexandria. while the Ophite. or &quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. has to be sought for along Ophitism. however. have thought that it the line of so-called &quot. therefore. adherents of these schools called themselves generally Gnostics. so far individual. shall. chaos of the &quot. The name serpent. All these classifications the break down on many and we are thus compelled important points. indications imperfect Patristic hseresiologists. follow .worshipper. 158 how they regarded Judaism.&quot. certain that the origin of Gnostic &quot. Gnostics . a Gnostic phase of the Ebionite tradition and finally treat of the most brilliant epoch of Gnosticism known . which is a general term among the hseresiologists for almost everything But the they cannot ascribe to a particular teacher. ascribed the origin of Gnosticism to It is. and were apparently the first to use the &quot. from being simple and traceable to an was of a most complex nature some ideas. the of to earliest who vaguely and uncritically Simon Magus. Asia Minor. but only cal Heathenism also their Matter adopted a geographi distribution into the schools of Syria. line of descent until the first quarter of the second century . . We &quot. is simply a term of abuse used solely by the refutators.&quot.&quot. . first of all follow the so-called Simonian &quot. medley of schools and tendencies which the Fathers indiscriminately jumble together as Ophite. term.

dazzled by the richness of thought. and soared in mighty eagle wide and ever wider circles towards pure light. obtain anything but a most distorted portrait of men whose greatest was that they were sin before their time. boldness has perhaps not yet been equalled even in our own day. 159 Valentinus. in the first two centuries. to us when Basilides. and then exaggerated by every art of hostile criticism . we stand amazed. therefore.SOME GNOSTIC FRAGMENTS. the ethical and general teachings which provided no such points.&quot. in the words of Dr. of the at the boldness speculations. marvelling &quot. It was an epoch which gave birth to works of such excellence that. of Aristotle. in which it lost itself in ecstasy. It was simply the usual term for a that the term &quot. towards &quot. touched by the depth of soul of the author&quot. did heresy not generally connote the narrow meaning assigned to it later on. It should further be centuries remembered.a pure knowledge. and the Plato. period when Gnostic genius like a left the world behind it. and Marcion amazed infant orthodoxy with a higher criticism which for lived &quot. We should. . in studying the lives and teachings of these Gnostics always bear in mind that our only sources of information have hitherto been the caricatures of the hgeresiologists. of Zeno. were thus divided into a . &quot. school of philosophy thus we read of the heresy of The Gnostics. &quot. Carl Schmidt (in the Introduction to his edition of the Codex Brucianus). and Bardesanes and worked and thought. impossible to invariably passed over. and remember that only the points which seemed fantastic to the refutators were selected. were almost It is. rest of Christendom also. however.

! assertion. been that Justin argued that the . &quot. founded As early assumed a prominence out Justin as fact. is no reason to suppose that the Gnostics Simonians would the Church Fathers call The Origin whom Name have themselves answered &quot. view of argument It is may have Christianity.). opponents of &quot. or have the descent imagined for them on any basis in Martyr (c. defence of in his his par was met with some which Simon was quoted as an example. Justin gives .&quot. &quot. as all such assertions were in that uncritical age. recognized the line their by as Simon to name. 150 A. and accused the Romans of worshipping him as a god. But (alas for the reputation of Justin s accuracy when engaged in controversy) the inscription as Deo &quot.D. the holy God. Sancto &quot. &quot. an inscription on a statue at Rome. was received without question by subsequent haeresiologists. however. on the strength of to his place in history. 160 number of schools or were times more &quot.&quot. Semo Sancus &quot. of all proportion Evidently Justin regarded him with great detestation. or of less which in those early dignity equal and authenticity. Now it innumerable ticular in very probable controversies in that Justin. THE THERE SIMONIANS.To Simoni Simon.&quot. &quot. ! archaeology has discovered the statue and finds it Justin s dedicated to a Sabine deity.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. heresies.

some of the only of interest ideas which the is subsequently Catholic party was striving to trovert.THE 161 &quot.&quot. Simonians. according to the Fathers. and saw him and his supporters everywhere. miracles of Jesus proved all that Justin claimed on His behalf. But what did most to stereotype the legend that Simon was the first heretic.SIMONIANS. con . well have been that some wonder-worker may Simon may have astonished people in Samaria with his psychological tricks. so that contentions. What then is told us about Gnosticism). was the insertion of called his name in one of the stories included in the sub sequently canonical Acts of the Apostles. .&quot. and was met by the counter-argument that Simon also was a great wonder-worker. and so we have This took the first in the evolution of the legend of the origin of heresy of &quot. Simon for a &quot. and made great Justin claims. and the recovery of &quot. place later moments than Justin. even at Rome to detest the in a statue to a It Sabine godling. and that stories were still in Justin s time told of him among the people. (and therefore. it has no value as history. s Justin Thus miracles did it may not prove have been that grew memory of Simon.

wise title &quot. however. That however character can be asserted of the man. we have every apparently an Arab. they inimical to Jesus. He Dositheus. Simon Magus followers of John Both Dositheus and the fourteenth. In fact. Dositheus is Moses. of precursor . of the Pseudo-Clemen- The legendary background A Follower of John the ^ ne Baptist.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. is the earliest hseresiologists. Dusis. and nothing of a really reliable . Dositheus (Dousis. in a Samaritan Chronicle. &quot. were. informs polemic us the that Simon Magus was a certain &quot. Aboulfatah says even to by the to is The closely resembling also not their own secret inconsiderable literature. claim. the claimed be to &quot. said however. and were there reason to believe. 162 DOSITHEUS. states that the .Memoirs of the Apostles. to have made a both evidenced of the Dositheans persistence of the sect sixth century.Simon&quot. life they had to to said the promised prophet. many mystic com munities allied to those of the Essenes and Therapeuts. like so were claimants many to the Dositheans followed a mode of that of the Essenes volumes.&quot. others in apparently a unto &quot. One of the Gospels used by Justin. he was not an unimportant personage the according to tradition. . Messiaship. Baptist. &quot.&quot. and . or Dosthai) was in Arabia. and &quot. and in the Chronicle of mentioned in the lists of Aboulf atah (fourteenth century) the notices. under the general &quot. are all legendary. w ere.like still be have higher those days.

turned on a lunar basis. the system of Dositheus number a woman. along another line of descent. in Greek). below). More still. female disciple was Helena (the month. Babylonian shadows. On the dim screen of Dosithean tradition thus see shadows pre-Christian passing Gnosis Arab. the twelve months or zodiacal disciples typifying the solar signs. came from Arabia. perhaps. ! Later tradition assigned to him a group of thirty and a-half disciples.&quot. the lower aspect of which constituted the World-soul or the primordial substance with the divided of a world-system. claimed to be a manifestation of the Standing One or unchanging principle. one of them being That is to say. the name also ascribed to &quot. interesting source to which or the of a Syrian. point to a we can sources Phoenician. the supreme principle of the Simonians. we can may be traced. &quot. but still it is possible that he may have drawn from sources The PreGnosis. Of course only very qualified credence can be given to this late chronicler. or rather certain facts of the wisdom-tradition which Dositheus is said to have underlie that symbolism. the subsequent thirty aeons of the Valentinian pleroma or ideal world. name who of the moon also in appears legend of Simon. thirtieth. Selene. just as subsequent systems ascribed to Jesus turned on a solar basis. The one &quot. or to be more precise twenty-nine (the of days in a month).C. 163 One legend even claims the of sect of the Sadducees founder Dositheus as the men &quot. the of thus.DOSITHEUS. It is also to be observed that Aboulfatah places Dositheus 100 years B. . Sophia (within and with above and out.

and also mentions Masbotheus as prominent leaders of primitive Christian schools. we have already said. the Acts legend.&quot.D. &quot. based on the second century Circuits of Peter.&quot. Irenseus and his successors repeat Justin Martyr (c. Can he have been interesting as by the Talmudic tradition of the date which places him a century prior to our Simon. he Great said. and so some have assumed two Simons. Power. said not to be quoted prior to 177 A. era &quot. The statement is showing that the chronicler recognized the fact of a pre-Christian Gnosis. 164 no longer accessible to us. of the huge Simonian legend which was mainly developed by the cycle of Pseudo-Clementine litera ture of the third century. claimed to be an incarnation of the certain Simon of Gitta . 150) speaks of a whom nearly all the Samaritans regarded with the greatest reverence this Simon. makes no reference to the Acts story. ? Hegesippus Cleobius. a document of the New Testament collection. &quot. though how he date with the reconciles this John the Baptist orthodox chronology is a puzzle. as MAGUS. and had many followers. &quot.&quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Justin.SIMON &quot. Hippolytus alone. Together with Dositheus and influenced of Jesus. however. (according to Eusebius) Gorthseus. is mentioned in the Acts of the Apostles. SIMON MAGUS. at the beginning of the -third . but this does not seem to The Justin account is the nucleus be necessary.

hands on to us a highly developed phase of Gnostic tradition. and the name of Simon substituted for the great &quot. century. tradition And so the modified Ebionite tradition. with whom the Ebionites had striven. SIMON 165 MAGUS. The scheme of the Gnosis contained in this document. referred to so cursorily by Irenseus. and Gnostic doctrines.&quot. with the followers of and Ebionite tradition account of these doctrinal things. many of ethical. though not so far as the Valentinian system. the Ebionites with the Pauline churches. religio-philosophical. or mere germ. so from presenting a crude form. handed on Palestine points. In the earliest times to which Catholic Christians subsequently J traced the origin of their traditions. and in course of time Ebionite was also edited by the light of the new view. and so we are able to form some of Portus idea of one of the systems of these Gnostics. which. were. . scraps Simonians from the &quot. nevertheless almost as mature as the Barbelo scheme. were in Later on General Christianity set itself to work to reconcile the Petrine and Pauline differences. mystical. and now partly recovered elaborated is in the newly-discovered Gospel of Mary.heretic&quot.&quot. of Gnostic doctrine. which was TheEbionite (i Simon. the bishop quotes from a work entitled The Great Announcement. principally by the Acts document. as we know from various sources. and teachers of found themselves in these teachers on a bitterest strife prophets many all The Ebionite communities conflict garbled Above conflicts. .&quot. there movements numerous in and about a prophetical and reformatory nature. has preserved a extensive literature of the few &quot.

The &quot. nevertheless is we may is not unclearly distinguish this identity in at least one of the strata of the legend. the aeon-world. one of Baur was the Pseudo-Clementine or literary deposits of a very remarkable point this out. the Logos-idea. as described by the the main features of the Gnosis : all. Paul meant. reveal the Father over &quot. and his followers in the Tubingen school elaborated his views into the theory that Simon Magus is simply the nature.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. of course. The remarkable similarity of the doctrinal points at issue in both the Petro- Simonian and Petro-Pauline controversies cannot be denied. systems.&quot. The latest recension of this cycle of &quot. in which the conflicts between Simon Peter the Ebionite. first to legendary symbol for Paul. and Simon is finally routed at Antioch. are graphically pourtrayed. Simonian Fathers. the magical arts of the Samaritan are foiled. gradually evolved a romance. and Simon the Magician. by the doughty champion of the Poor Men. Although. A close inspection reveals a literature the of number of which is strata of legend. and the scholarly reputation of the Tubingen school puts out of court mere a priori impossibility. and so we finally routed by Peter at Rome (to suit the legend of the Roman Church that Peter had come to Rome). romance gave the whole a Roman setting. but in earlier recensions Peter does not find Simon travel beyond the East. it would not be prudent to take Simon Magus the extreme view that wherever mentioned. . and his false theology is exposed. 166 presumably first committed to writing in the Circuits of Peter.

served The is to be clearly seen Announcement pre by Hippolytus. one of their chief documents. is said to have been the practice of &quot. &quot. The main characteristic of the &quot. Simonians &quot. the builders. especially dealing with the serpent-legend The main symbolism.&quot. its ideal 167 MAGUS. which the evolvers of the The Literature. which gave rise to most of the fantastic stories invented by their opponents.Simon. which Simon is reported to have learned in Egypt.or emanation.&quot. rest of the &quot. &quot. and another famous treatise contained a number of controversial points (Refutatorii Sermones) ascribed to &quot. and puts us in touch with a Gnostic link with Persia and the of in the Magi. and &quot. of creation the the of doctrines world sensible reincarnation. In other respects the Simonian Gnosis was on similar lines to the Barbelo-Gnostic and Basilido&quot. quoted from by Hippolytus amply this hypothesis.SIMON its positive or pairs negative aspects represented as the thought syzygies. . literature has perished.&quot. and universe. as and soul.Simonian&quot. But very probable that the title Magus covers much more than the story it is the Samaritan wonder-worker. this Valentinian developments in the fragments of The Great . and indeed the fire-symbolism used confirms MS. &quot. etc. the world-soul represented descent of the the the of or female aspect Logos. was a book called The Four Quarters of the World. in Genesis. which submitted the idea of the God of the Old Testament to a searching criticism.magic. however. by the redemp tion.

and his Thought. were symbolized as the Sun (Simon) and Moon (Selene. however. System of of the myth Irenaeus. appears to have been sidereal thus the Logos . Helen). Moon) terminology is connected with the Phoenician cult of the sun and moon deities which (SeA^i/j/. Simoniaii&quot. the Sophia. the World-soul. but we need not be too precise in matters so obscure.&quot. evolved the legend. This interesting as showing an attempt to invoke the authority of the popular Greek Bible. so with the microcosm. Irenseus. The name of this city presumably led Baur to suggest that the Simon (*#ftt#.168 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Phoenician and Syrian ideas of Doubtless cosmogony were familiar to many students of religion at that period. in support of Gnostic ideas. among the Church Fathers. Simon-legend parodied into the myth of Simon and Helen. &quot. The Ireneeus gives the following outline of the system Simonians.&quot. Moreover one of the systems appears to have attempted to interpret the Trojan legend in a spiritual and psychological and myth of Helen fashion. . Logos and the World-soul. It was is &quot. The detractors of the Simonians. was still the old practised in that ancient city.&quot. the cycle of Homeric legend. Helen was the human soul fallen into matter and Simon the mind which brings about her redemption. Wisdom. that Helen was a prostitute whom Simon had picked up at Tyre. would have it that was the personal claim of Simon concerning . the extension of the method of the Jewish allegorizers into the domain of Greek mythology. Sun) and Helen &quot. however. or it TTT . It is the dramatic he ascribes to the &quot.

as trans from one she.. &quot. And she suffered every kind of indignity at their hands. even to human body and . &quot. and we shall there fore endeavour to restore it partially to its original form. in the being imprisoned migrating into other female vessel into another. and knowing what was the will beginning I conceived in My of her Father. I am entirely unknown them. he which the bases evidently the as Christ. sure salvation to For as the men by Angels. am I come to take her away for the first time.&quot. himself Logos. summarising was made prisoner by the Powers Thought. [?] So bodies. is in represented as speaking in the first person. This Thought leaping forth from Me. and free her from her bonds. to &quot.&quot. she was detained by them through envy. also. to prevent her reascending to her Father. on a MS. descended to the lower regions and generated the Angels and Powers. Wisdom was &quot. of My the first Conception (or Thought) Mind. Wherefore. And after she had generated them. . and thereby also continually undergoing indignity.. by whom in the Mind the making of the Angels and Archangels. any to As for Myself. and Angels that had been emanated by her. for they did not wish to be thought the progeny of other. writes the Church Father. My Gnosis.And continues Irenaeus. last of all even stood for hire in a brothel and she was the lost sheep.&quot. the Mother of All. from the MS.&quot. 169 MAGUS. transmigrating from body to body.. . by whom also the world was made. make &quot.SIMON Helen.

of these he erroneously attributes to himself. 170 were mismanaging the world. He was not a man. moreover. he had but copied it verbally.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. he may have been copying from Justin s controversial and glossing. if ! and Justin had already done some of the summarizing and commenting. which had come into his hands. presumably because he considered the oldest Gnostic MS. The Great Announce ment. all Fortunately Hippolytus. a better ground on which to form a judgment than the paraphrazing and rhetoric of these two ancient worthies who so cordially detested the Gnostics. in his possession. By this time . had spoken suffer. and He had descended. &quot. how much labour would he have saved posterity True. their prophecies under the inspiration of the Angels who made the world. and occasionally copies verbally portions of the MSS. however. most Simon it One critics. is more correct in his quotations. &quot. although He did not really The prophets. All of these doctrines proceeded from circles who believed in the mystical Christ. tranforming Himself like to the Powers and Principalities and being made and Angels so that . right. and was thought to although in have suffered Judsea. and are common to other systems if Irenaeus had only told us the history of the document which he was summarizing many . He had come to set matters &quot. He appeared to men as a man. but in any case a have given us single paragraph of the original would writings. consider it a later form of the Gnosis than the system summarized by Irenseus. but there is nothing to warrant this assumption. who came later. since each of them desired the sovereignty.&quot.

treats us to a lengthy &quot. everything which one can conceive as intelligible. sealed. &quot. or which a man fails to conceive.&quot. hidden.&quot. : is Great Power. however. himself fully and justified had no in ascribing the contents of the MS. the Boundless. words This the Writing of the following Revelation of Voice-and-Name from Thought. or which he unconsciously fails to perceive whereas the concealed side is . which the Universal Root Wherefore laid is the shall it be the Dwelling of in Foundation. SIMON for &quot. MS. probably a synonym for The Gospel. Of all things that are concealed and manifested. the &quot. less erroneously than the rest. are of the Fire has all things in itself which a man can perceive of things visible. from which we may take the following as representing the thought of the writer of the MS. Fire was Power and Universal Root was Fire. even though it escape sensation. to one whom he supposed to be the oldest leader of the Gnosis. was The Great Announce ment. conceived as being of a twofold nature the concealed and the manifested the concealed parts of the Fire . hidden in the manifested. become doubt &quot. Before we come to the direct quotation. was the first heretic &quot. and the manifested The manifested side produced by the concealed.&quot. history felt Hippolytus the hseresiologists. concealed. the temple of The symbol of the Boundless the Holy Spirit. the legend that Simon MAGUS. The Dwelling is said to be man. summary of the Hippolytus Gnostic exposition before him. The Hidden . in the and it opened with the Basilidian sense of the term The title of the .

imaging forth&quot. . and. school. the garnered spiritual consciousness of the man-plant . &quot. which of the but the husk to be to say. he Man becomes like unto God. This symbolism is of great interest as revealing and Treasures Trees points of contact with the &quot. but the full interpretation of this graphic symbolism would include both the genesis of the cosmos and the divinizing of man. freed from the bonds of But to our suffering and birth. is nourished. is placed in the store-house (or treasure). is accomplished. &quot. once that his &quot. but. Fire&quot. The manifested branches. leaves. which were the of the elaborate systems recoverable study of so many of the later Platonic The fruit of the Fire-tree and the Flower of favourite &quot. if its imaging troyed. that is fruit. has been perfected and it takes shape of itself. as it is above the heavens is the treasure- were a great Tree from which all flesh Tree. is generated not for its own sake but for that committed to the Fire . and not cast For the fruit is produced to be into the Fire.&quot. 172 the Fire which The Fire house. and also with the line of tradition of the Chaldsean and Zoroastrian Logia.FKAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. (teaches the Gnosis we are endeavouring to from recover Hippolytus) is subject to generation and suffering so long as he remains in potentiality. the trunk. All these parts of side of the Fire is and the outside bark. he attains perfection. man are the symbols of (among other things) the immortal. in placed the store-house. the great Tree are set on fire from the all-devouring flame of the Fire and des But the fruit of the Tree. &quot. the trunk. from the Coptic Gnostic works.

was only when He was though pre-existing. first proceeded and became twain. He Him therefore. manifested to it Father. &quot. male and the other from below. apparently from the very beginning of the immediately following the superscription taken treatise.This [Father] is He who has stood. having her in Yet was He not first. : To you. &quot. from appears the Universal Power. Nor was He called Father before for [Thought] called &quot. existing in oneness.&quot. which above. end. He Himself. &quot. the Great Thought (or Conception). all things. and write what I write. they unite and Space. I say what I say. producing Himself by Himself. without or beginning which Root. &quot.&quot. . ordering all things.SIMON The from quotation 173 MAGUS. therefore. like the pre-existing Boundless Power. Himself His own Thought. stands and will stand. without beginning or end. which has neither beginning nor was from this Boundless Power that Thought. Hence matching each other. female. one Mind. producing &quot. [the Boundless] He was alone. so The . incomprehensible Air In this [Air] is [Spirit].As. the is springing Power the is these Great Silence from one invisible. Great Announcement. a male-female power. end. which had previously been hidden in oneness. And the writing is this: Of the universal ^Eons there are two growths. the [second] Father who sustains and nourishes all manifest the Middle things which have beginning and end. It was one . Of inapprehensible. manifested to Himself from Himself that there was a second.

His power in herself and male-female. is &quot. but in Thought. From the things above those below Thought. &quot.&quot. and regard all positive statements that will &quot. they really from each other they appear as two. . itself.Simon. in the meantime we can reserve our judgment.Thus fested it comes is discovered Power. separated So much for The Great Announcement of &quot.first-born son of Satan&quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN- 174 also His manifested Thought did not make the [manifested the second] Father. Power and Thought. as foreign . Hence they match each other. is male-female. &quot.Simon&quot.&quot. fresh was the to the question. when That some document may yet be discovered which throw light on the subject is not an impossibility. having the female in so is Mind which is mani found to be two. but contemplating Him hid him that is. being one for there is no difference between Power and Thought. though one. and from to pass that that from them. Equally are one.

the Gnosis faith alone. the taught. and that he was specially famous because numerous following.MENANDER. . he says that Jesus lived 150 years before his Simon and Menander dates are equally vague Menander may have lived a generation or four His time. Wisdom. because &quot. &quot.. For instance. we are told. of the professed to teach a knowledge powers of Sis Doctrines.D. ONE of the teachers of the was singled out by Justin &quot. magic to be attained by . Gnosis who for special mention. outlines the of distinction power Grseco-Roman world. many away. 1&quot. shows us that Menander was a man of a past time. between the God over or powers. the of was &quot. Simonian &quot. The centre of activity of Menander is said to have commercial been at Antioch. led of his is Menander. We know that the dates generation. forces of to be attained by the &quot. on communication between East and cities to have handed on the general especially insisting on the Gnosis . of transcendental was not &quot. even as Marcion having was gaining an enormous following in Justin s own &quot. . generations before Justin s time. one of the most important r and literary the highway of He seems West. &quot. that all and the creative nature.75 MENANDER. writing about our earliest authority. he practical discipline is to say. of his of this period are exceedingly obscure even for Justin. 150 A. or still earlier.&quot. a native. but by definite endeavour and conscious striving along the path of Menander cosmological and psychological science. of the The notice in Justin Samaritan town Capparatea.

and assigns to bishop . &quot. were Saviours. The claim of the Gnostics was that a man might so perfect himself that he became a conscious worker with the Logos &quot. as we have seen above. The Saviour was the Logos.&quot. that is to on reaching a certain state of interior purification was said to rise from the dead or enlightenment. almost certain that Menander made no more claim to be the Saviour (in the Catholic meaning of the term) than did Simon. . seeing again that the &quot.&quot. those all who did so. &quot. Menander was consciousness of his spiritual ego. to the materialistic doctrine of the especially opposed was made a special him by the Patristic resurrection of the body. As they seem to have been centralized at Antioch seeing that andrists. became and as such &quot. Christs. &quot. is . to teach knowledge whereby they could free themselves from the dominion of the lower Angels. he obtained possession of the unbroken thereafter. The neophyte on receiving say.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. but not in the sense of being the Logos Himself. baptism.&quot. never grew old and became immortal. The followers of Menander were called Men- and we can only regret that no record has {hem and their writings. down by the higher men the sacred claimed to be the Saviour sent Powers of the spiritual world. however. 176 and the way whereby they could be subjected human will he is also said to have nature. to the purified . it the Church Peter as its of first withstanding to the . o It is.&quot. and this of complaint against ground writers of the subsequent centuries. he that &quot. been left of tradition assigns the founding of Antioch to Paul. to say.

though I myself would seek the origin of the aeon-doctrine in Egypt. is generally Gnosis. or more correctly Satornilus. It may be even that the Gnostics traced the tradition of their aeon-lore to this disciple of the of their aeonology is to be Magi. and Basilides other Saturninus end of the century . for the root found in the Zoroastrian Amshaspends.SATURNINUS. SATURNINUS. &quot. SATURNINUS. the personal emanations of Ahuramazda.&quot. speaks of the Satornilians as a very important body. suggest that Mainandros should be placed far earlier than and that we Simon. xxxv. face incident the same city 177 placed by the Acts tradition in may be that their writings would is it have thrown some light on these obscure traditions. Gnosis in his the ( ? Marcionites). for he them with the Marcians brackets Basilidians and schools the of Valentinians. Gnosticism and the Magian tradition. may first thus be placed somewhere about the and the beginning of the second but this assignment of date rests entirely upon the Patristic statements that Menander was the The Chain Teachers. of . should see in him one of the earliest links between I would.). writing between 150 and 160. as Mills and others have shown. Saturninus. most important time. but regarded as the founder of the Syrian J there is every reason to suppose that Gnosticism was widespread in Syria prior to his time. however. Justin Martyr (Trypho. and Valentinus were separated from each respectively by at least a generation. &quot.

and the rigidity of their many zealous adherents.&quot. but almost the invariable case with the Gnostic Saturninus Asceticism. and from to have introduced encratism to have been the &quot. and to define the relations of its Barbelo all &quot. is is all would the more regrettable O have connection probably with the fuller information as enabled &quot. or His followers abstained from marriage animal food of mode of all life kinds. whereas in reality a generation or two and they may may have elapsed between them. presumably based on. common a feature of the religious life can be traced to any particular teacher. a general is.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. have never as a matter of fact met face to face. able that. developments. and Basilides of Valentinus. attracted Salmon says that Saturninus seems first encratism. not improb first two. with regard to the similarity of doctrine alone was sufficient reason for the hseresiologists to father the origin of Saturninus system upon Menander himself. as encratism especially regard but there seems no sufficient reason for assuming called themselves that so Christians. among those who Protestant theologians a heretical practice. It however. or summary of Irenseus This a copy of. 178 teacher of Saturninus. &quot. Saturninus of Basilides. ( as is doctors) we have no information as to his nationality or the incidents of his life. Ophite us trace to and &quot. is said to have taught at Antioch. He was especially dis tinguished for his rigid asceticism. three . Our information as to the Saturninian system f Doctrines *s un f ornately exceedingly defective the short . the lost Compendium of Justin.

apparent of regeneration brings about not only the defeat the of evil powers. early systems. . mere gives a Irengeus that fact summary which presents comparatively simple features. we bear in mind that these however. is man by the myth which of the the angels. always should. though not really a man. and of the universe There were their rulers. We may with safety regard the summary of the bishop of Lyons as a rough indication of heads of docHne. or rather the fabri- . The Jewish scriptures were imper and erroneous. instead of being germinal. &quot. Thus we learn that Saturninus taught the Unknown Father . and numerous and a scheme whereby a World-saviour in the form of man. but others by the evil powers.and . or simple The expressions. angels. but also rescues all who have the lightspark within them. among whom was placed the Yahweh Jews. as a catalogue of subjects deprived of their content. Valentinus. is no guarantee that the systems themselves may not have been full and carefully worked out expositions. and their rulers . from the powers of the creative hierarchies. Gnosticism the to 179 and Basilides of t The main the of features are of the Simonian &quot. and same nature as those Menandrian Gnosis . arch powers the seven creative spheres angels. the great intermediate hierarchies. The most interesting feature Irenseus has creation of of the system preserved for us.SATURNINUS. the of fashioners the builders inimical hierarchies man. may have been elaborate enough. some prophecies being inspired of the fect by the creative angels.

and the light-spark. accordingly powers could only evolve an envelope or plasm. [this] naturebut the to do endeavoured so. therefore. heresy with so scant notice. nature. for it was withdrawn immediately. according to which could stand not upright. sent forth the limbs life-spark. tabernacled in it. 180 man s cation of external envelope by the hierarchies of the builders. Power Above. and the plasm rose upright. i e or tyP e . from totally entirely different standpoint. they said another one to &quot. but lay on the Then ground helpless and crawling like a worm. and is to say. in compassion.&quot. The making ma of man was on this wise. developed the it hardened became denser as race succeeded or and so the body of man was evolved. and the rest of the elements of the body are dissolved. This light-spark hastens back after death to those of its race own . A shining was snown by the Logos to the but when they were unable to demiurgic angels seize hold upon it. we all the more regret that the orthodox prejudices of Irenaeus or his informant have treated Saturninus and &quot. that knit and were together. . Here we have in rough suggestion the same theory of the evolution of the bodies of the early races as find advanced. his &quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. : Let us make man They image and likeness. different sources we and an by a number of modern writers on theosophic doctrines and. or real man.

but when indications. to an individual teacher to guide us.THE THE THE task 181 &quot. fche . or vague designations of widespread schools of various periods. c Obscurity of Subject. reflect that among such surroundings are face to face with one of and the main streams the complete evolving of definite where all should absence landmarks. we have no such information. some say &quot. we have now attempt is. and that this accounts for the glee of Hippolytus. who taunts the Gnostics with his possession of some of MSS.&quot. and &quot. there is at least a point round which certain ideas and state of be grouped.. however. convinced that the most recondite and technical treatises of the their secret Gnostics I were never circulated.&quot. am. by far the most difficult which can be undertaken by the student When we have the name of Patristic Gnosticism. but that by the time of Hippolytus (that is to say. the adherents of too much imbued with the idea the Gnosis were The . &quot. any of Gnosticism. as in Hippolytus. after the lapse of a generation or more) orthodoxy had made such headway that the Gnostic documents were withdrawn from circulation and hidden. but only scraps of ments may summaries of &quot.OPHITES.&quot. It has been supposed that up to the time of Gnostic documents were freely circulated Irenaeus .OPHITES. realize have been carefully surveyed a feeling almost of despair comes over even the most enthusiastic student. others or maintain. when as in Irenseus further we we .

of interest summary must and however. and generally phrased in his it own terms. heTerm^ erroneO us . and therefore at best be exceedingly imperfect We have thus to set liable to misconstruction. or that the Basilidians. such by the rest. 182 and grades of initiation to blazon their inner tenets forth on the house-tops. no a crystallized living thing. each competent student dead or orthodoxy system of the Gnosis in his own thought out the main features . this term. even who mostly where the into the exposition symbolism of the serpent enters of their systems.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. &quot. it Upiiite. Gnostic . up our finger-posts as best we may. themselves distinguished was Gnosticism and Valentinians.Ophite&quot. it is by no means the characteristic In brief.secret twined schools and phases of doctrine were separated from one another in any very precise fashion. the term &quot. fashion. who are presumably but slightly acquainted with the and who would only be confused by a mass subject. small part for the whole a fallacy of taking a very favourite trick of the haeresiologist. which originated in the feature. precisely these details and importance. Also I doubt exceedingly whether these inter of a doctrine&quot. whose main weapon was to exaggerate a characteristic minor detail into a main has been used as a vague designation . In treating this part of our essay also another we are writing for those difficulty presents itself. of which are a It details. is. of which we is exceedingly the schools describe not does generally are treating. As stated above. it was not used by the adherents of preferred the the schools term themselves. designations.

in his refutation of Celsus. which Theodoret when copying from him calls was from the Valentinian says Ophite. that to which could not It is in we must this look say. the Pagan philosopher. modified the general tradition in his own peculiar fashion. Ophite still marks out one main channels. and in its The Serpent . foundling asylum. Babylonia. for all exposition of Gnostic doctrine be ascribed to a definite so teacher. school. The latest criticism is of opinion that Philaster has blundered. where it still survives and receives due It figured explanation.&quot. and that the erroneous designation &quot. each of whom. Celsus.THE 183 &quot. the general outlines which form the basis of for the teachings of even Basilides and Valentinus. and Phoenicia. but the statement is sufficient evidence that there was a body of pre-Christian Gnosis. &quot. that the stream flowed unbrokenly and in ever-increasing volume during the first two centuries. almost a century afterwards. like the rest of the Gnostics. thence we can trace it back to Syria.&quot. Irenseus. OPHITES. writing about the third quarter of the second century. be pre-Christian. in his True that &quot. especially in Greece. after detailing a system. makes no distinction between the rest of the Christian world and those whom Origen. and also of the mystic birth. Egypt. Gnosticism is said by Philaster to This Ophite &quot. &quot.&quot. Ophiani. calls &quot. and farther East to India. forth the most intimate processes of the generation of the universe and of man. It was the glyph of the creative power. it Word. The serpent-symbol played a great part of its in the Mysteries of the ancients.

Illumina tion. This explains one of religious history. Physical procreation and the processes of conception lowest are lower manifestations of the energizing of the great creative will and the evolutionary world -process. and that Patristic writers of the subsequent centuries tried every means to exaggerate this &quot. sexual excess and depravity punished the prying of the unfit. almost attempt of the is made to shed and if the phenomena and dark bright found and of world all most curious the invariably quickened. some sides whenever in are an on the mystery whole nature is light the man. by particular into a whereas. as man s body is from the body of man s animal desire from the divine the universe. general charge of such abuses. and spiritual knowledge. knowledge a mere asceticism . were the reward of the pure in body and mind. as a error against matter of fact. But the one is as far removed from the other. . it is in the writings of the Gnostics themselves that we find the severest condemnation &quot. as will of deity. it more uncontrolled owing to the Thus we find that some obscure groups the quickening. not only of theory but of practice. of dabblers in the mystery-tradition fell into grave errors. animal is the stronger. seership. curious prying into the matter led to abuse. becomes the together. The mysteries of sex were explained in the adyta and naturally enough the the ancient temples attempt to get behind the great passion of mankind of . 184 form was debased into a phallic emblem.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. . was fraught with the greatest of the mystery led many to A peril.

the &quot.&quot.&quot. &quot. &quot.THE 185 &quot. flow upwards. but otherwise unknown . if Jordan &quot. so was the universe but serpent the serpent of the universe was the Great Power. &quot. The Myth of schools.&quot. Mighty Whirlwind. the serpent-rod of Moses. This serpentine force fashioned the universe. aloft to the height. or Rod of Mercury. The germinal universe was figured the Mother of All. and from death the to &quot. the Divine Reason. The egg was the Thought. turn could use it for creation. of Genesis. it &quot. &quot.OPHITES. which looked to an inner psychological their interpretation of of the Going-forth. the Mind of Deity. and yet he in his fashioned man. which conducted the soul from to life. what may The Myth was common Hippolytus ascribes we may it to to a an be called number here append &quot. The Caduceus. the Conception. or twined a certain number round of times it. uplifting wilderness. if he would only cease from generation. science. the Logos. To give the reader an insight into their methods of mystical exegesis. and the Thyrsus in the Greek Mysteries.&quot. As man was generated the in womb from a and an egg. as a circle with a serpent lying diagonally along its field. power man would carry the he would but cause the Waters and the path whereby of the life to figured forth the serpentine of the brazen serpent in the were promptly seized upon by Jewish Gnostics as mythological ideas similar to the myths of the Mysteries. in man. and the egg was the All-Envelope of the world system. Divine Will. The serpent and death. .&quot. the Vast Vortex. and It created him. &quot. the primordial The serpent was thus the glyph of the fire-mist.

downwards. all those with the body are the who the &quot. the Red Sea they enter the Desert. the Worldthe Jordan flow the Waters of the generation of men. leave the body. but their use as myths. which Moses state of the doubting lower mind.gods called the serpents of the &quot. those tion.&quot. the realm of where there soul. and thus the learned Gnostics at once perceived the . Yet even then they are not safe crossing . explained they the body.&quot.&quot. animal and sensual nature. then is the creation of the Jesus (Joshua) was one who had caused the gods. the &quot. and by its means they escape from the Desert and enter the Promised Land. Waters of the Jordan to flow upwards. the intermediate There they are of destruction. Exodus-myth. which is hidden within the blood. 186 The Myth school called the Peratae. shows the true serpent crucified on the cross of matter. but when they flow upward. attacked by the &quot. Gnosis had Thus then Egypt is selves &quot. Going-forth. then Many of the is ancient myths had a historico- legendary background. Those instructed in the Mysteries were practised in the science of mythology.&quot.crossed over. is When the spiritual mind.passed or beyond&quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and to pass through the Red Sea is to cross over the ocean of generation. the teacher. or religious and mystic romances.gods of genera To them Moses. and which plague who seek to escape from the &quot. &quot. the Heavenly Jordan. supposed to mean Transwho by means of the or those cendentalists. had gradually effaced the traces of history. desert. the To come forth out of Egypt is to Egyptians. identify them ignorant.

but which were destitute of the Men.THE 187 &quot. to guard against closing our eyes to the limitations of . such were as Plato. &quot. and the differ ence between Gnostic exegesis and that of the its subsequent Orthodox. the silliest element which entered into such pious &quot. who in many other respects giants of intellect. nevertheless. pleasant to &quot. in whereas the and theological the that is former tried to the myths and parables Orthodox regarded a dogmatic interpretation as alone legitimate. Jews. of when minds in certain error that such ancient and not the grubbing up the notice however. Indians. bility to instance is a very good example of this method of a great deal of such interpretation. which is found everywhere in the writings Egyptians. pastimes was the method of word-play. detecting the limitation directions. Judged by our present knowledge of language. Pseudophilology. were content to resort to such methods. Among therefore. Greeks. discover of soul-processes scripture. however.&quot.OPHITES. exegesis The . was exceedingly strained. we find the most fantastic derivations of names. or pseudophilology. when not decidedly silly. of the Babylonians. and the Gnostic and Patristic writers. It is.philologists. of the soul the chief and the truths of the interest for we should be of such careful of the nature spiritual life were &quot. religious mind of the times loved to exercise ingenuity on such interpretations.&quot. mythological nature of the Exodus and its adapta The above a mystical interpretation. &quot. roots . most rudimentary philological accuracy. which were put forward in support of theo logical doctrines.

sluggish mass composed of the four great called Water. Mother of or all living. her body below her Mother (the Universal Mother). AN ANONYMOUS SYSTEM FROM The Creation. IRENJEUS. Darkness. this The Waters of the zEther were thus set in motion. the First Woman.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. of the Great Mother. or Wisdom. and also the Holy Spirit. and Chaos. By her mere contact with the Space. This was the rightBut a Drop of Light downwards to the left hand into chaotic matter was called Sophia. the First and Second Man produced from her the third Great Light. 188 our own modern methods in directions where the much good work. Universal Mother brooded over the Waters. Second Man hand birth fell the Holy Church. IN the Unutterable Depth were two Great Lights. We will now proceed to give a brief sketch of ancients have done main outlines the of one of the presentations of general Gnostic ideas preserved by Irenseus. Abyss. she. son. left behind. formed with the First and .Waters she had aleady generated a of the Sensible World. the And freeing herself. ascending above. the Christ and He. who formed the boundary of the Ideal Universe. the chief Creative who retained Power some of the . the First Man. the TTorc. the Second Man.Mother. ena moured of her beauty. and ascended to the Middle Region Heaven-sphere. viz. .. The &quot. or Father. and formed a body for Sophia (the Light-^Eon). Below this triad was a elements.&quot. and his Son.

word I the First Man. serpent-formed. and all things in the world. And Man. and he lay like a worm on the ground. and quarrelled much with fighters. and exclaimed none &quot. and &quot. soul. : other. cried after our image. &quot. of this interplay of came forth the forces on matter &quot. and he another. . great Formative And they were &quot. And so Adam again fell under &quot. namely. T.) Eve 0. and so emptied himself of his Light. immediately gave thanks to &quot. the power of laldabaoth and the Elohim . her son &quot. until there were seven in all. he had received that is to say the from Sophia. they brought him to laldabaoth. Powers of the Sensible Universe. laldabaoth. forming were enamoured of Eve.&quot. who in his turn produced a son. So they man. for above thee All. breath of life. him the Light-fluid &quot.&quot.&quot. And man receiving the First Man and it. spirit.mind. and by her generated sons. disregarded his fabricators (the Elohim). And laldabaoth was boastful and arrogant. Exegesis. who breathed &quot.&quot.&quot. then into &quot. and all Man is Yahweh laldabaoth. the . Light-fluid this son was laldabaoth (said by some to mean the Child of Chaos). to Let us make man call off their attention.&quot. : Father of out . (&quot. &quot. mind Sophia or Wisdom sent the serpent the Paradise of laldabaoth. and beyond me is But Sophia hearing this cried out to Lie not.&quot. the the Son of the Powers were astonished at the but laldabaoth.ANONYMOUS SYSTEM FROM IRENJEUS. &quot. Whereupon laldabaoth (Yahweh) was jealous and planned to deprive Adam of the Light-spark by And the six creative powers woman.&quot. And by means their fathers.&quot. and Adam and &quot.&quot.&quot. and which was &quot. the angels. &quot. : made until into am Father and God.

Now Adam their laldabaoth. them Man . came back to them. &quot. And &quot. etc.&quot. and so once more &quot. angels down from fall had born of this Eve the Paradise of . And so a recollection of and they knowing that the body was put on their former state were patient. sweet odour of the Light. spiritual but after laldabaoth. and together with them the serpent or but Sophia would not permit the Lightmind to descend. &quot. and more and more languid.. and these are the powers. 190 listened to its wise councils. and transgressed the ordinance of ignorance of any power higher than himself imposed by laldabaoth. Whereupon laldabaoth drove them out of his Paradise. &quot. grew more and more dense. and so withdrew it to avoid spark mind (the lower mind) the profanation. the first product of brought forth six sons. only for a time. &quot. &quot. &quot. like the fall. dsemonial for their sake. and they knew that they carried death about with them. and became coats of skin. The system then goes on to grapple with the legends of Genesis touching Cain and Noah. with moderate success . inspired the main idea being that the prophets were by one or other of the seven Elohim.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and the Old Testament record generally. bodies. till the finally Sophia in compassion restored to them their bodies &quot. . &quot. serpent-formed. was freed from the dominion of the Creative Power. which plague cast down men because their father was and Eve before the &quot. &quot. but occasionally Sophia had succeeded in impressing with fragmentary revelations about the First and the Christ above. man &quot.

and draining them of their power. after had been attained by the and Sophia. Great Mother. not Jesus. and they rejoiced together. Christ &quot. and she in compassion begged of the First Man that the Christ should be sent to help her. &quot. but Christ and Sophia &quot. having been born of a of second birth ascetic Jesus). and so Jesus. knowing that her brother and spouse was coming to her aid. &quot. and &quot. mounted aloft to the Incorruptible ^Eon. was crucified by them. and profess himself openly the Son of the First Man.vesture. the one enfolding him and he became Jesus the other. &quot. But Christ did not forget the one in whom He had tabernacled. or Wisdom. announced his coming by means of the baptism of Jesus was made ready to receive him. and to proclaim the Unknown Father. 191 The rest of the system is devoted to the question scheme of regeneration and the interpretation of the Mystery-myths. and so sent a power which raised up his body. Whereupon the Powers and especially laldabaoth to heal. and marriage of the bridegroom this is the mystical &quot. Then it was that he began to do mighty works. Sophia. the man.virgin&quot.ANONYMOUS SYSTEM FROM IREN^US. . by the working the spiritual &quot. God (in other words. Now and the bride. And then Wisdom. all And of all the Christ clothed his sister Sophia with the Light. likening himself unto the Rulers. finding no rest in heaven or earth. &quot. descended upon Christ. &quot. repentance as in a clean vessel.&quot. by John. took measures to slay him. And so the Christ descended through the seven spheres. implored the help of the of the Christology. the Light they had retained first flowing back to him. Jesus.

the right hand of his father. and taught them many other mysteries of the spiritual life. 192 indeed his gross physical envelope. laldabaoth. and indicates that the dates of these treatises need not Brucianus. but . and receives the souls who have received these mysteries. only those of and the consummation of all things will be when all the Light shall once more be gathered up and stored in the treasures of the Incorruptible ^Eon. . and of one of the treatises of the Codex very important point. thought he was risen in his physical frame. reincarnation. This is a necessarily be later than the time of the bishop of Lyons. he explained the mystery. Interesting is it to remark the of the influence again Orphic. a very brief summary of the tenets he The main features of the christological and soteriological part of the system is identical with the main outlines of the system of the Pistis Sophia. but a psychic and And those of his disciples who saw spiritual body. but to certain of them who were capable of receiving this body. but the consideration of this important subject must be reserved for the sequel. Such is the account of this by no means absurd scheme of the Gnosis preserved to us in the barbarous Latin translation of Irenaeus summary. And Jesus now it. That the system was far more elaborate we may assume from the now known method of Irenseus original to make criticized.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. sits at And in proportion as he enriches himself in such measure so that he is own souls. laldabaoth deprived of power no longer able to send back holy souls into the world his with is of substance .

AN EARLY HIPPOLYTUS devotes the to the &quot. explained above. and Hermetic tradition in the cosmological part. makes no reference to the texts of the New Testament collection. and to observe how both the Hellenic and Jewish myths find a common element in the Chaldsean tradition. in its mystical exegesis. book of fifth who. his Refutation not themselves &quot. regard them the Gnosis. which the name of Justinus is associated. The Book of Baruch. .&quot. This has been disputed by Salmon. ho we ver. Platonic. to which shall subsequently he refer.&quot. SYSTEM. The members were bound by an oath of . seeing that the system hseresiologist. although freely quoting from the Old. followers as as of the SYSTEM. should decide the point. Ophites. from which Hippolytus selects a single volume. but it is nowhere found in the canonical texts. represents apparently one of the oldest forms of the Gnosis of which we have record.AN EARLY &quot. no other is all with who is singles we out mentioned by This account of Hippolytus the more important. to of After treating of three great schools. as giving the most complete form of the system.OPHITE&quot. but to my mind his arguments are unconvincing the fact that the Justinian school. specially for notice a certain Justinus. One short saying is referred to Jesus.OPHITE&quot. 193 Pythagorsean. &quot. This circle had a large literature. he seems the most ancient stream call all and Gnosis. Ophites.

8-10). the creative the World-Soul. (ii. The following There are three principles of the Universe is The Book of The Good. a variant is which is preserved by Herodotus (iv. (i. which Hercules (the Sun-god) plays the prin stratum of which is also found cipal part. and the finest. into four groups. twelve the nature of the Mother-Soul.) symbolized as a woman above Spirit. Thus the whole creation comes into existence. The Trees are of Eden. Rivers four representing the forces evidently of the same nature as the cosmic The Trees are divided which are represented by the Hindus as having their roots or sources above and their branches The name Eden means Pleasure or streams below. based on a Syrian creation-myth.most Cosmic Earth. Man having thus . body of Earth&quot.) or power. 194 of the school.. and from the finally The upper part of the Garden beautiful that to say. of three each. or Desire. twelve follow the will of the Father-Spirit.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. generated animals. and The lower twelve are the World-Trees of the Garden of Eden. the middle serpent below. called Elohim. and secrecy not to reveal the tenets The cosmogony the form of the oath is given. and a of in The myth has intimate in Genesis. and from the animal part of the Mother-Soul are human part men. the outline of the system.) the : Father. man is is formed of the is called the &quot. and (a plural used as a collective) twenty-four cosmic powers or angels come and a From Elohim Eden forth. with Chaldsean and points of contact Semitic ancient traditions. called Eden. or all-wise Deity. and (iii.

Good One. And creation all of the twelve to the four groups of the World-Soul. And he who had hitherto Lord himself Elohim. which led to the Good. from further degradation.&quot. . And Elohim desired to recover which was bound by force his spirit men. the turningof point the world ascended into the his own twelve heaven the he powers. the World-Father entered in and sat down at the right this hand of the in. forth. according to powers they move round as in a circular cycles. .Open me the gates that I may acknowledge the [true] Lord. 195 been formed. for now that he had ascended to the Light-realm he could work no to destruction.OPHITE&quot. as their was subjected spirit. spaces.&quot. and the World-Spirit infuses into him the Thus were men and women constituted. taking with him And in the highest part of the Great of Creation. celestial Spirit. Eden and Elohlm depute their powers unto him the World-Soul bestows on him the soul. &quot.AN EARLY SYSTEM. tricked herself out so as to entice him back but the Spirit would not return to the arms of . And the Soul (Eden) perceiving herself abandoned by Elohim. And a voice came &quot. but the Good Deity restrained him. dance But when the man-stage was reached. saying : This is the Gate of the Lord . for I considered myself to be the Lord. beheld through the Gate (? Light-world of The thought process. and there the Light shining the physical sun). cried aloud: that &quot. And leaving the righteous enter through his angels in the highest part of the heavens. perceived was one above him.

invariably obscured his precepts through the soul in man. that the people might be converted to the Good One but Naas had . 196 Nature Mother that the middle point of passed). but the soul. adulteries and even greater vice. the third third of his of own the spirit in man. for (now evolution was the spirit or mind desired to follow its Father into the height. And Baruch had also appeared to Moses and the of the Garden of prophets through the spirit in man. for instance. gave way to Mother Soul. the first group. called Naas the (Heb. of the World-Soul. but of the Tree Naas. serpent. thereby tormented. or power. and the spirit in man was Now Baruch. angels. and had given rise to adultery and unnatural intercourse. And not only had Baruch taught the prophets of the Hebrews. called Baruch. Nachasli). to succour And Baruch came and stood in the midst of the Trees (the powers of the WorldSoul). he might not. which especially incited the was human soul to such misdeeds. and his twelve labours were his conflicts with the twelve powers of the cumcised. Yet Hercules also had finally failed. . World-Soul. Thereupon. incited by the powers of the and especially by the first group who rule over sexual passion and excess. the symbol of animal And Elohim. Hercules among the Syrians had been instructed. for Naas had transgressed the law. sent forth the passion. and declared unto man that of all the Trees Eden he might eat the fruit.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. but also the prophets of the uncir- Thus. the angel. was plagued by the soul. seeing this. the spirit that was left behind in man.

he is vanquished by Omphale. Christology. and which have not entered into the heart of man and &quot. 197 SYSTEM.AN EARLY &quot. . and the horrors of animal sensuality a doctrine of . Hippolytus tries to make out that Justinus was a very vile person. but he. twelve years. the for after power of Eden below. but Justinus evidently preached rigid asceticism. bathes in the ocean of life-giving water.&quot. the psychic body the gross physical body and committing his spirit or mind to the hands of his Father (Elohim). and ascribed the success of Jesus to his triumphant purity. no longer in the water below the firmament. whatever things eye hath not seen and ear hath not heard. crucified. a son of Joseph and Mary. of course. the ocean of generation in which the physical and psychic bodies are bathed. &quot. all Baruch appeared unto Jesus. ascended is to the Good One. This ocean of generation is. . a child of shepherd boy. And there he beholds &quot. because he fearlessly pointed out one of the main obstacles to the spiritual life. the body of tree or soul. the ocean of rebirth. And Jesus remained faithful to the Last of teachings of Baruch. or Venus. &quot.OPHITE&quot. seeming to accomplish his labours. who divests him of his power by clothing him with her own robe. and Eden that to say. leaving on the &quot. the same as the Brahmanical and Buddhistic samsdra. in spite of the enticements of And Naas in wrath caused him to be Naas.

pertain to the same Gnostic Although the circle. and ex egetical character. THE NAASSENI. but Gnostics for a small 20) the names . Indeed. PRIOR to the section on Justinus. and the present features so identical as to make two first it highly probable that the Naassene work and the two Peratic treatises from which Hippolytus quotes. Hippolytus treats of three schools under the names Naasseni. Questions of One MSS. name Naassene Hebrew Nachash. psychological. Hippolytus does not call Naassenes Ophites. rather than a cos- mological exposition. The Concerning the Offspring of Mary. had fallen was a treatise of a of their polytus. the Naassene Document. and therefore the system is some what difficult to make out from Hippolytus quotations. The Gospel of Eve. devotional. its sources. in body fact. is when analysed into found to be the Christian overworking . It Mary. Peratae.198 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and The Gospel according to the Egyptians. and Their regarded as also authoritative the following scriptures: The Gospel of Perfection. The Naassenes possessed many books. into the hands of Hip mystical. The Gospel according to Thomas. a reserves the he also name Ophite gives derived from the serpent. to he which Cainites and Nochaitse (?Nachaitae from Nachasli). The Gospel of Philip. and considers them of not sufficient importance for further mention. All three schools appa rently belong to the same cycle. the is (viii. and Sethians or Sithians.

be Christian overwriter may placed about the middle on a Hymn of and the document of the second century. The main the system are that the cosmos is symbolized as the (Heavenly) Man.THE NAASSENI. etc. of three natures. etc.. the according dominates. features of psychic and material that these three natures found themselves in perfection in Jesus. Assyrian. in the frame of which the Pistis Sophia treatise is also set. spiritual (or intelligible). who was therefore . The Gospel of Mary. the spiritual or psychic. truly the Son of classes. 199 overworking of a Pagan commentary of the Jewish The date of the the Mysteries. probable that the treatise belonged to the same cycle of tradition as it scholarship. is somewhat of a puzzle to seems. This Miriam. churches : is divided into three the elect. or and the bound angelic. the called. or Mary. The Christian writer claimed that his tradition was handed down from James to a certain Mariamne. Samothracian. person) interpretation which is mixed up here and there with specimens of overwriters of course Their Mystical Exegesis. . as Mankind Man. (or in other words. malefemale. The Oreater and Lesser Questions of Mary. Dionysian. natures pre After this brief outline. and the choic one or other of these or material). however. is especially valuable as pointing out the identity of the inner teachings of Gnostic Christianity with the tenets of the Mysteries Phrygian. assemblies. Egyptian. Hippolytus proceeds to plunge into the mystical exegesis of the writer and (whom he regards as one and their of the Mysteries. Eleusinian.

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. of generation and destruction and the anointing with oil was the introduction of the candidate into unfading bliss. thus becoming a beyond the ocean Christ. even stones. 200 the pseudo-philological word-play so dear to heart of Plato s Cratylus. wno &amp. his mind of man is is itself. therefore he strives to abandon the animal nature and return to the eternal essence above. were regarded by Now ASS rian Mysteries. The real man is male-female. &quot. antiquity as the sacred nation par excellence) first taught that man was threefold and yet a unity. . the Assyrians (following the Chaldseans. The technical character of this exegesis and the nature of our essay compel us to give only a brief summary the main of but ideas. of this soul were set forth The nature and evolution in The Gospel according which to the Egyptians. . system Jewish and Christian. a work is unfortunately lost. devoid of sex &quot. is the The supposed to underlie all mythologies. The soul is the desire-principle. the subject important enough to demand a special study in The spirit or soul. and the soul in the body. imprisoned in the animal nature. It the old teaching of is macrocosm and microcosm. Baptism was not the mere symbolical washing with physical water. the eternal world. . as remarked above. for they increase and decrease. and the Self hidden the heart of in all. together with the Egyptians. and all have things souls.&quot. where there neither male nor female but a new is creature. Pagan. &quot. but the bathing of the spirit or mind in the living water above.gt.

the body. heaven are. while Isis is is &quot. golden. surrounded by and robed in seven sethereal mantles.&quot.THE NAASSENI. makes all remains but things unchanged. all things. which meta morphose the ineffable. Egyptian. and of the &quot. incomprehensible while the Mind. to is 201 nature of the spirit written in The Gospel according who seeks me shall find me in it is He children from the age of seven years representative of the Logos in man. of the things He is. I become what and I will.holds hands. were. the spheres of ever-changing generation. They are brought down from the Heavenly Man above into the plasm of clay.&quot.&quot. He is the conductor and reconductor (the psychagogue and psychopomp). fiery or passionate Therefore Hermes &quot. Osiris the Spirit or Mind. or mind. . immovable say remains what fore. all. the Self. : to be sought for within blessed nature of all things which still to be. seven-robed nature. The kingdom man a it is . beautiful. spoken of in the and are It is of the Phrygian Mysteries. and is is naught called The Good. The .&quot.&quot. &quot. as Thomas &quot. and Christ shall Wake The Greek. . the creation. &quot. is making which am what I I the mover of are. Among the Egyptians. for. My Father in the heavens. men whomsoever he god of a rod in his he spell-binds would. : ? Among the Greeks. I. the and this is the Water of Life. unimaginable. thou that sleepest. and wakes Therefore the saying: again from sleep. and originator of souls. and rise. wherewith the eyes of them &quot. according to the saying: mother-substance &quot. hence the saying Why callest thou Me Good One only is Good. This also am where For He . Hermes is the Logos. . and thus made slaves to the demiurge of the world.

fore (also) neither have all men hearkened to the preaching of the twelve disciples. and in the temple was also Ocean.&quot.I . in all who the Eleusinian tion of gods This rites. statues. through the Gate of the Lord. I drink of. whither Gnostic writer adds I &quot.&quot. And the For He knew of what nature each of His disciples was. &quot. 202 give thee Man.the men. genera the Great of the Going-forth. as explained in the given above. and that it needs must be that each of them should go to his own nature. it.&quot. and the regenerate or spiritual man. is and the generation of Jordan. representing the Heavenly Man.If by no means enter into the Kingdom of the Heavens but even if ye drink of the cup which ye shall .&quot. The Samo- this Myth set forth in &quot. the Son of the is are born and . The Phrygians the saying: of the &quot. the Christ. Wherefore am the true gate. Where and through them He spake to every tribe. Such a one was the Christ. ye drink not My blood and eat not My flesh. The mysteries of the Thracians and Phrygians are then referred to. but His disciples had Hence the saying: not yet reached to perfection. nor if they hearken can they receive The Phrygian. and then again upward. the Stream Jacob is Logos flowing downward. and the same ideas further explained from the Old Testament documents.&quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. This light. down the ladder of evolution. in all things co-essential with that Man. also taught the of their Mysteries same truth were two . For from the twelve tribes He chose twelve disciples. : go ye cannot come. The vision of explained as referring to the descent of spirit into matter. The Samothracians thracian.

.&quot. no fleshly man kept under watch for the spiritual alone. it tomb and sepulchre of the body.THE NAASSENI. For this is the Gate of &quot. they initiated because of &quot. within with the bones of the filled man living not in is you. which takes place through the gate of the heavens. casting away their garments. the grain the which is the indivisible seed.The the dead &quot. The school of the Naasseni. whereas the Greater dealt with the new birth. all who and brings forth a son.for dead. not carnal. where Good God dwells shall . become bridegrooms made virgin by the Virginal For such a man is the virgin with child. Spirit. the whole mystery they found that rebirth in was taught these rites. where the alone.from And the tombs bodies. leap forth from shall material their &quot. man also called the spirit in the 20*3 because &quot. &quot. and. and they who pass not through it.dead. which is neither psychic. into The of the Great .&quot. into which no impure man but it is no come. and pertained to fleshly generation. man in no the body. animal. but a blessed conceives aeon of aeons.&quot. again: that &quot. &quot. to say. Wherefore the saying was buried in the &quot.&quot.this is the resurrection men. Many other interpretations of a similar nature it is shown that the Lesser Mysteries are given. .&quot. nor fleshly.&quot. Ye are whitened sepulchres.&quot. they must come. it is said.&quot. Heaven. point. all remain dead. were all the Mysteries of the Great Mother. is regenerated spiritual For &quot. and this is the House of God. This of is the Kingdom of the Heavens. and which spark mustard primeval knoweth save only the spiritual. psychic.

cosmically the passing out of the body consciously through the highest centre in the head.&quot. smell. 204 were also was the &quot. hold is Naasseni they &quot. which or name The ascetics. but when applied to spiritual things makes of a man a god. hearing.. blessed. together&quot. &quot.&quot. they into four streams. and the serpentine force in man. water body]. which when following animal impulse the force of generation. animate or whether inanimate. could mortal. which flows through the midst of Babylon [the gross world or of the body].&quot. &quot. and as &quot. or the sun. itself Eden is vestures like the brain heavens. Akasha of the Upanishads.the spiritual choose for themselves from the living waters Euphrates [the subtle world]. the Ganges Heavenly Nile of mystic Egypt. just as the [river] &quot.gate of the is fit. &quot. proceeding forth out of Eden and In man. to use another set of symbolic terms. the Jesus. i.&quot. rigid them given Moist because Essence the of represented universe without whether immortal nothing that exists.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and microcosmically heavens. head only. which Hindu mystics cal . compressed in surrounding and Paradise the man as far These four streams are the taste. Thus. the &quot. . the of the Puranas. or This by the symbol of a serpent. He distributes beauty and bloom to all who are. the cosmic Kundalini. above the firmament The [of the river is the &quot. sight. dividing said. It is the Waters of Great Jordan flowing downwards is men) and upwards (the Akasha-ganga or Heavenly (the generation of generation of gods).e. which what is passing through the gate of truth.

F riitr in 6ii t Hymn. will conclude this brief sketch of these most interesting mystics by quoting one of their hymns. it sees the light Anon. then regeneration of all. dies. Thirdly. the of Chaos. . Mind was the first. cast into piteous plight. poured out by the with the &quot.. its soul. and the Thence the individual Soul. &quot.. of enlightenment. the pilgrim. Behind all is the Ineffable. the generative law of all Second was Chaos diffused. Now . sense Father. . the sorrows and rebirth. &quot. it rejoices . subdued by death.It tells of the World-Mind.&quot. holding sway. the firstborn of the Great Mind. The The text of a unfortunately so corrupt that parts of are hopeless. ! searching after evil on the earth . and of the member World- of the primordial trinity. nevertheless sufficient remains to it &quot. Now wails and And now And now is is judged judged and . serpentine power spiritual We horn of another symbol for the plenty. [spouse] of the first-born . the toiling Soul received the law. to be the true Christians because they were anointed ineffable chrism. 205 Thus these Gnostics claimed the Brahmarandhra. Whiles it weeps. Wherefore surrounded with a watery form It weary grows. comes first the First-born. the Cosmic Mother. . the Logos : &quot.&quot. . it cannot pass Into the labyrinth [of rebirth] [Jesus] said A : Father it has wandered.. and the descent of the Finally Saviour. it weeps. . third is the thought. .THE NAASSENI.

All mysteries will I reveal. ! descend aeon I will tread . Mysteries (Hippolytus calls them their had blasphemy against Christ been kept secret for many years. PERAT^E. send me. I will Through every flee. shun the bitter Chaos. my way .206 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. hand them THE Tradition on. as is amply proved by all his remarks.) &quot. and depended on of the Peratse the tradition of the ancient Chaldsean star-cult. &quot. and though the Church Father himself has not any idea what these mysteries really are. Book iv.&quot. Makes [man] He seeks to wander from thy Spirit. andria. He then proceeds to whom we have and whose already referred. The hidden Shall take the And I will name of Gnosis. Hippolytus has In already endeavoured to refute the Chaldaean system of the star-spheres. The system analogy with sidereal was based on an considerations. Seals in my to Father hands. but though he makes some good points against the vulgar . to But knows not how O Wherefore. as we have endeavoured to show above. HIPPOLYTUS says that the mysteries symbolized by the ser P ent are at the root of all Gnosticism.&quot.. We know from other sources that the school was prior to Clement of Alex treat of the system of the Peratee. to &quot. we agree with him. And show the shapes of gods secrets of the Holy Path .

from the two higher worlds. having in himself all [species of] concretions and potentialities from the three divisions to the Pauline phrase should dwell It is all &quot. he does not affect the mysterious doctrine of the septenary spheres. of which the and empirical horoscopists had long lost the secret. from another point of view. the ingenerable and self-generable.THE PERAT. he admits he had no practical knowledge. Thus there were for them three aspects of the Logos. the universe was The symbolized by a circle enclosing a triangle. three Gods. the &quot. : of the universe. and threefold power. or world-process devolution. this all kinds of generable or and. of which. after informing . three had reached the the completion of its descended from the Saviour ingenerable world or 0eon. down Hippolytus here breaks into off. and generable. Logoi. triangle denoted the primal trichotomy into the three ingenerable. but space compels us simply to refer the student to the fourth book of his Philosophumena for the outline the Church Father presents. of astrology which According to the Peratic school. self-generable.E. however. that of a man perfected. Hippolytus had the Peratic school especially in mind in his attempted refutation of the art of the astrologers and mathematicians. is the type of the Saviour with a threefold nature. and threefold body. for which they had substituted the physical planets.&quot.&quot. or three worlds. or three Men. or. 207 astrology of the time. It pleased fulness (pleroma) Him According that in him bodily. When Minds. that the seeds of potentialities are sent formal world.

It is the power of the abysmal slime. of the aethers. evil on earth.) and Celbes. the power which . heaven precede the conflict of good and &quot. the whole might of convulsion of the colour of water. &quot. 208 us that the founders of the school were a certain Euphrates (whom Origen calls the founder of those whom Celsus referred about 175 A. show that of Peratic treatises to their ideas were similar to those of the Chaldseans. checking the the faithful steward of the track tottering. . which the commentator endeavours to explain in Greek mythological terms. which raiseth up the clay of the imperishable vast moist [principle]. The A Direct quote is from which Hippolytus proceeds to evidently a Gnostic commentary on an old treatise Babylonian or Syrian cosmogonic scripture. The Saviour has not only a human but a cosmic task to perform. The beginning of this mysterious treatise runs as follows : &quot. rejoicing in that which streameth forth from the twelve founts of the Law.D. supporting the steady.I am the voice of awakening from slumber in the seon (world) of night.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. brought The wars in to which we shall refer later on. Ophites to proceeds to tell us something more of the Chaldsean He then says that he will quote from a number art. the cosmic task is to separate the good from the bad among the sidereal powers and the same peculiarity of soteriology is into prominence in the Pistis Sophia treatise. . whom he elsewhere calls Acembes and Ademes. ever moving. influences . . Henceforth I begin to strip naked the power that proceed eth from Chaos.

for it is denominated The Proasteioi up to the ^Ether . we should say . &quot. and sphere of generation is exists by thus the He then also the fate-sphere. dentalists. the formal or generable world. of the Baby The twelve sources are also called twelve lonians. They generation believed can that nothing survive destruction. These Peratics. 209 type from the impress of the power of the invisible waters above. &quot. signs of the zodiac. mouths. Hippolytus quotations and summary here become very obscure and require a critical treatment which has not yet been accorded them we are finally told that the matter is taken from a treatise dealing with . or World-Mother. . or Transcenname from the following considerations. It is the power which is surrounded by a dodecagonal pyramid or dodecahedron a hint which should persuade astrologers to reconsider their &quot. it is. the hierarchies of powers as far as the aether. which is is bound to the conversant with the The of the Name. This power called is Thalassa. that is to say.&quot. through which the world-powers pour hissing. . Hippolytus here again points out the correspon dence between astrological symbolism and the teaching of this school of Gnosticism simply astrology allegorized.&quot.E. or rather cosmogony theologized. a proasteion being the space round a city s walls.THE PERAT. derive their he says. taketh its evidently the Thalatth (Tiamat). or pipes. &quot. which were probably represented diagramatically by a series of concentric circles. who knows nothing beyond wheel of fate but he who this.

&quot.&quot. turning casts them form. The from which Hippolytus quotes. of the Going-forth. each of endless potentialities. as he tells us. and thus breaks off. Water which &quot. and apparently takes up another treatise from which to The new quote. and the paths through which man has entered into the [generable] can proceed through and pass beyond world. The universe is figured forth as triple &quot. 210 compulsion of generation [samsdra]. (transcend) destruction the is which is the generation of men. and the element in which the hierarchies of &quot. formal world is is which is devoid of moulded and the produced. again dives into the depths of mythology. This destruction. f as hi on i n g ^^ Q g onj Logos. and among other treatise things adduces the mystical Myth interpretation .FEAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and thus the Matter into Matter. It is called water because it is of that colour. is generation hold their sway. ^ on anc Matter (Hyle).). of the same nature as the Platonic doctrine of types We .&quot. stands midway between the immovable Father and moving Matter. Physiology. Hippolytus. treatise of is an exceedingly the mystical character. and seemingly deals with psychological physiology of the school. and Gnostic its com mentator explains the opening verses of the proem to the fourth canonical Gospel. &quot. is the baffled to be by amazing intricacy beginning of the system. and have their being. here see an attempt to graft a higher teaching. the lower ether. At one time He is turned to the Father and receives and then the powers in His disk (face. or person ^ logical : ^ &quot. the finally. however. namely. Father.

the moon is the Son. 211 on to the primitive symbolism of imper The sun is the fectly observed natural phenomena.THE PER AT. cerebellum the Son. the immobility of earth.&quot.) metaphysical pretation world. or. by an &quot. and tine path.E. : the (ii. to Matter. the main spinal marrow. and physiological process in The last Father.) explained. can. adds Hippolytus. secrets of the school depend on a knowledge of these it would be impious for him correspondences. earth is Matter. man. Matter or Hyle. attracts through the pineal the gland spiritual and life-giving essence from the vaulted chamber [? third ventricle]. thus The brain is the and the medulla The cerebellum. the seeds and the genera of things produced according to the flesh flow along into the And. And on receiving this. moreover. writer has also a correct theory of magnetic and We other influences. its ineffable and inscrutable process. moon the analogical psycho- (iii. the cerebellum [also] in an ineffable manner imparts the ideas. the is with sun. just as the Son does. the intermediate. its the sun and the motion of the earth give us reason to believe that the Chaldaeans were better acquainted with astronomy than the followers of the far later The Gnostic Hipparcho-Ptolemaeic geocentricism. in other words.) world of generation and earth-forces. which he quaintly sets forth. Father. and again towards the If this is correct. owing to its serpen phases are imagined as the turning of its face towards the sun. three distinguish of strata inter and spiritual the ideal (i. and the The moon is figured as a serpent. but . and the visible universe. and ideas. however.

then. Had the two books Mysteries been preserved. reveal too much of the &quot. Did Hippolytus. the most important Refutation of all the hseresiological documents which we was made no use of by the successors of The only MS. two books and would have from specially preserved these destruction. quotations) have revolutionized our ideas on the on many points. and especially surprising to find in a in Hippolytus. and its contents (because of the number of direct possess. Now have Hippolytus.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. we might perchance Gnosticism on have had our ideas even further revolutionized. it is been a curious fact that these two books bodil y removed from the MS. and did those who came after him consider it unwise to keep such evidence on record ? For one would have thought that above all things the orthodox Fathers would have delighted in parading the possession of such information before the heathen and heretics. who devoted the second and third books of his Refutation to an exposition the of Mysteries. . 212 to say anything is more on the matter a scruple which Church Father. But indeed it is altogether strange that this. world was brought from Mount Athos in 1842. of the rites and doctrines of the Church. known to the western Hippolytus.plagiarism by anticipation&quot.

CLOSELY connected with the Gnostics above described are the Sethians. as used by Hippolytus.THE SETHI ANS. whom Hippolytus next devotes speaks of their refers called his &quot. &quot. The it title. is is exceedingly puzzling the exact meaning of . &quot. to He attention. is not only puzzling on this account. In the latter fragments the hero Seth was chosen as the type of the good man. But whether or not for a digest of their doctrines. Paraphrase of Seth. of the Codex Brucianus is the ? a connection mysterious And further. is difficult the term to say what &quot. 213 THE SETHIANS. and allied ation to the doctrine of the Nicolaitans by the epitomizers.innumerable readers especially to The Paraphrase of Seth. is not apparent. the perfect. Hippolytus quotes from this document himself. his commentaries. the pro totype of Christ. Can possibly be that there the name Seth and it between &quot. paraphrasis&quot. or from some other treatise or treatises. but also because his summary differs entirely from the scraps of inform on the system of the Sethites supposed to have been mentioned in his lost Syntagma. to look for the origin of the Sethians along the Egyptian line of tradition of the Hyksos-cult. a certain and treatise. The term Sethians. . and the doctrines set forth by Hippolytus have no connection with the Sethlegend. Setheus are we &quot.&quot. the Semitic background of which made Seth the Mystery-God ? Seth.

and from the as into a Spirit. Into the bodies thus brought into existence by the waves of the waters (the vehicles of subtle matter) the light-spark and the fragrance of the Spirit descend. namely. &quot. This is symbolized by the worldheaven and earth. and it depends on the nature of the waves as to what the various creatures will creation is is in the waters. who from the ingenerable Light from above. nay the heaven and earth itself. three All with strives to retain the Light Spirit.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. but as it were a subtle odour spreading everywhere. however. . is borne down into the natural man.&quot. with a trinity whom we of are treating begin The Light. and imprison while the Light and the and the the light-sparks in matter . on their Spirit. Spirit is not. . are images of seals they &quot. Here we have the whole theory be. mind or man &quot. &quot. . are produced according to certain pre-existent types. produced. mingled one principles then are inter And the Darkness another. All genera and species and individuals. principles egg in the womb of the universe. and the rest of The worked out on the same analogy. of vibrations and the germ-cell idea in full activity. strive to raise their powers aloft and rescue them from the Darkness. And this [light-spark] is a perfect god. 214 The Sethians An Outline System. to be thought of as a breath or wind. Spirit and Darkness. into waves are thrown which egg by the creative power. &quot. side. and thus various &quot. is moulded into species. It was from the first concourse of the three original or powers that the first great form was the impression of the great seal.

like the ray of a star. can produce men immortal or gods. and yet not his own in essence. from the father below. Thus a minute spark.&quot. the hissing sound it produces. also is a The generative power is called not only wind.THE SETHIANS. can only produce mortal men. and solicitude actuating the Light from above is as to how and in what manner mind may be set free from death the evil . the washed or baptised. and [finally] produced a perfect and dark body mind. but also beast. and serpent. . &quot.&quot. from that perfect Light. . shrine. or sphere of genera tion. just like the whirling wind. &quot. It is the descent of the Perfect Man or Logos into the pure man that alone can the birth-pangs of the carnal man.&quot. after passing Mysteries.&quot. light-spirit and blood-stained water. the latter because of &quot. Every thought. . . then. which with agitation and tumult raised up the waves. his own son. For he [the rnind] was a ray from above. overpowered in the dark and fearsome. wind i by the 215 and the motion tide of nature of the power which causes the waves]. and bitter. Now the impure womb. which through the Lesser of to the cycle generation. from above. the Sphere of Light. This natural and spiritual process is shown still forth in the Mysteries. and drinks of the cup The . a divided splinter [the creative . has in the much compounded waters kinds of subtle matter] of been mingled [bodies of many various (existences). but the virgin or pure womb. he floating on the water. the [genera tive impulse] wind. a servant. and stripping pertain candidate is off the dress of puts on a heavenly garment.

No doubt the Sethians based on one or more of the traditions of the their theories Mystery-cult. processes for the explana For instance. of The Sethian school is supported their theosophic by analogies drawn from natural philosophy. having obtained through &quot. one of their books continues Thus the light-ray [human soul]. he leaves his is generation and is subjected the to thus a slave. speedily than iron . to say. servile That which the body form. mingled with the water [animal soul].&quot. long before the Eleusinian. grossest The and most ignorant phase of vulgar phallicism. and along Logos there where the in servile with the Logos becomes Logos has His being. hastens towards the Logos [divine soul] that comes discipline down from above form [body]. &quot. and by the allegorical interpretation of the Old tenets Testament. : and instruction its own proper region. and natural and used the analogy of &quot. but we need not follow Hippolytus in and that too in its his selection of only one tradition. but. and necessity ascends in his spiritual body to the state where is the ocean of immortality. school seems also to have had affinities with the Hermetic tradition. says Hippolytus.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. alchemical tion of spiritual matters. more [hastens] to the magnet. 216 of life-giving water. their system is nothing else than the tenets of the Orphic Mysteries. which were celebrated in Achaea at Phlium. after citing the example of the magnet.

As previously remarked.E.) calls the Docetae. Gnostic the doctrines schools of circle . bears of the a and inaccessible incom may. however. matter Illusionists is &quot. of on theorise to which we have is strong the name Docetae derivation to the The system of this likeness family Basilidian and to Valentinian but the doctrine of the non-physical nature the body of characteristic prominent of with the Christ. viii. but a most imperfect outline. them than with is the is general not more many other .) &quot. the remains of the ancient the stream of the Gnosis which we are bed of endeavouring to survey. as yet form no idea of the correct sequence of these must therefore proceed general Gnostic schools. are so fragmentary. therefore. Chronological and we can indications are almost entirely wanting. that nothing can be attempted. in and . except the obscure There just treated. We at haphazard somewhat. and will next turn our to a school which Hippolytus (Bk.&quot. 217 THE DOCET. seeing that their tenets are very attention similar to those of the three schools of this name is reason that Gnostics nothing. derived from the attempt of these is it prehensible that they believed reality (&quot.E. that similar of Maya-vadins of the Hindus. be possible the doctrine of the non- It matter. or rather a series of rough sketches of certain sec tions that some day further discovery may enable us throw into the form to of a map.THE DOCET. to show why especially selected. which ordinary Docetism.

so all things come forth. and thence other stems. 218 The schools. then branches. free from all deficiency. the Saviour of the universe. each consisting of so sub-aeons. there was an emanation of a divine or ideal world many or of three root-aeons. Thus was the Saviour the perfect aeon. was . small. outline their of tenets given by as follows. the perfect aeon. that is to say. beings. all being of the nature of That which Thus transcends intellect. generation of things as allegorically The manner is also figured forth set the of infinite by the fig-tree. which every smaller than than where. In this way. naked. male-female. in the and much else Scriptures. the of self-generable aeons uniting together produce from the One Virgin (ideal cosmic substance). and so on in infinite manner . and then leaves.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. worlds. and then fruit. is Hippolytus The Primal Being is symbolized as the seed of a is fig-tree. the Alone-begotten (-generated) one. Light came forth from the root of Then the host the universe. containing in Himself all the powers of the ideal world of the aeons. for from the seed comes the stem. containing in itself infinite potentialities. even before the sensible world was formed.&quot. equal in power in all things to the orignal seed of the universe. the fruit in its turn containing seeds. thus all in that spiritual world perfected. seed or of self-generating powers. yet greater great. And this aeon-world of one ideal ingenerable. And of the ideal universe produced. the mathematical point. or planes. He is the refuge of the terror-striken. the ingenerable. the covering of the &quot.

Thus. and placed a firmament between. all made The third root-aeon. passing or world-fabricator. having no substance of his own. This fabricating deity.&quot. but this was only done after all the infinite species of the third aeon had been intercepted in the darkness. there was a vast delusion of souls.ideas&quot. and thus perpetually treats despitefully the which are imprisoned eternal in attributes the darkness. of Thus light until the coming of the Saviour. containing in itself threefold. in its turn. itself the supernal potentialities. as in the Mosaic account. the third aeon. or Logos. for these &quot. And last of all the resemblance of the third aeon himself was impressed upon the lower universe.E. are called souls (\fsvxai) because they have been breathed out (aTro^vyelarai) These souls spend their lives (aeons) above. god which fashions the world. He separated the light from the darkness.THE DOCET. perceived that His ideas and impressions and types or seals (xapar^/oe?) the souls were seized upon by the darkness. from the from one to another of the bodies which are under the ward of the creative power in darkness. Next with regard to the emanation of the ideal world into the sensible universe. 219 and ideal world-process was accomplished the eternal in the spaces of the aeons. its Light down upon the primordial chaotic substance. out of which he makes bodies. and resemblance this from the is a &quot. shone and the souls of all genera were infused into and species of living beings And when it.life-giving Now generated fire. . then. uses the darkness (gross matter) as his substance. this fire is the creative light.

f ree f rom the c [ rG [ e o f re bi r th (metensomatosis). was incarnated in a body. the Alone-begotten Son gazing the upon soul-tragedy the images of the supernal aeons changing perpetually from one body to another of remitted. but is omitted in the English translation. that is to say. again indrew His glory. and so the Saviour withdrew His glory again and entered into the domain of the third sphere of the third aeon. the darkness Now &quot. as it its greatness power. or as the cessation of light when the eyelids close. and so descended to the heavenly dome.And I am a wanderer. willed to descend for their deliverance. In support of this the Gnostic author refers to the saying And if ye will receive it. : .. and would have feared So the Saviour indrew His glory were the vastest of lightningsudden flashes into the minutest of bodies. The latter passage is found in the version of the Seventy. the Son. &quot. then.e. into Himself. this is Elias that was for to come he that hath ears to hear. and had they beheld it they would i. the individual aeons above were not able endure the whole fullness of the divine world.&quot. and reaching the star-belt there.220 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and men faith is aroused in that their sins should be Thus. for even the apparently most minute light-giver of the starsphere is a sun illuminating all space. And so He entered even into the darkness. It is by means of the Saviour that souls are set The Saviour. . and also to Job 9: ii.. &quot. to have been thrown into confusion at and the glory of its for their existence. him let hear&quot. changing place after place and house after house. &quot.

Finally none but the real Gnostics. And His and : after this purification in the water He became possessed of a spiritual body. the Gnostic writer wisely ideal can be seen from many Christ. sides that each school . can understand the mystery is face to face. : . them. this has its own view. the cross.THE DOCET^E. this .&quot. and not be found naked of His new on perfection instead spiritual body put over triumph the .e. It would seem hardly necessary the student of Gnosticism the to point out to striking similarity system and the leading ideas of the contents of the Bruce and Askew Codices and yet no one has previously remarked between the general outlines of . Thus the saying Except a man be born of water and of the spirit he cannot that which enter into the kingdom of the heavens of another body &quot. nourished in the virgin physical body. some a a and that this is in the low. . the world-ruler (the god of generation) condemned own plasm (the physical body) to death. of flesh. that those who have passed through initiations similar to those of Jesus. 221 baptism was in this wise He washed himself in the Jordan (the stream of the Logos). is born of the As to flesh is Jesus remarks that flesh. a copy or impression so that when of his virgin-made physical body . and thus the Christ would powers and authorities of the for He would world-ruler. some high view nature of things. might strip off the physical body. and his nail to it the &quot.&quot.tree.. the spiritual body. i.

who is next section to a certain by one other mentioned only in namely Theodoret. the atom which swirl of forces. His system is based on the idea of the Heavenly Man. the universe. hseresiologist. conical numbers the decad. the tetrahedron. after which the whole process begins again. the yod. number and completion of the first series of numbers. which he calls one horn. it is rod of Moses and of Hermes . friend the serpentine force. and are reflections of the Numbertheories. symbols are produced by the monad. It is our old the iota. graph. 222 MONOIMUS. all other men being but imperfect one ideal type. octahedron. by many mathematical and geometrical considerations from the Pythagorean and Platonic traditions.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. His general ideas attach themselves to the cycle of Gnostic literature of which we are treating. &quot. the horn of plenty. and the icosahedron are &quot.&quot. the in other words. Now it plagues of was Moses rod which brought Egypt according to to pass the the myth. The theory of numbers and the geometrical composition of the universe from elements which are elaborated symbolized by the five Platonic solids namely. These . and the Son of this Man. the perfect is said This by seers to be a monad is in &quot. the perfect man. cube. his a brief Monoi mus was an Arabian and where in the latter half the of lived second para some century. dodecahedron and All these geometrical developed. HIPPOLYTUS devotes Monoi mus.

my sorrow and and love and hate. find . plagues are nothing else but transmutations of the matter of the physical body.. arithmetic proved some day grow still This^ mayg be to preserve a seed which may into a tree of real mathematical knowledge. once and for self. of the not a pupil of Valentinus. and falling in love joy. : his opinion the tenets of on the way to seek a certain Theophrastus. just as the atom from thyself a way out of thyself. opens up a number of important considerations which would lead us far the beyond scope the of present Monoimus was undoubtedly a contemporary Valentinian school. e. if thou thou shouldst closely wilt one and many. soul. if essay. Him in thus finding All of this re-echoes very distinctly the teaching of the earlier Trismegistic literature. The whole of this system. and getting angry though one would not. writes &quot. and the universe. and the garbled version of his system as preserved by Hippolytus can be made to yield many important points which will throw light on the theological &quot. We conclude our sketch of will Monoimus by quoting In a for God. sleeping though one would not. My And all in god. etc. thyself. my mind.. all and sayeth my appropriateth * : body. ^ w to Seek .g. indeed.&quot. of the Gnostic doctors. though one would investigate these not. he letter to Cease to seek after God (as without thee). and waking though one would and not.MONOIMUS. who . and things similar to these seek Him from out of thyself. and learn who it is. learn whence thee unto my is Him reason. 223 &quot. &quot. water into blood. all of which is quaintly worked out by the writer. &quot. And things.

copies from Irenseus. is again generally classed as find that its adherents and as usual we They were simply Gnostics.&quot. embroiders considerably on the account of the Bishop of Lyons. &quot. Judas who . Ophite. of which one the wo obscure indications still remain or Carpocrates-Cerinthus trace we will briefly refer to the obscure chaos of tendencies classed together under Our sources of the term Cainite and its variants. why these We respects will Gnostics now simply copying from his proceed to see the reason entertained an apparently so belief. who wrote two them. This line of tradition &quot. taken by itself. ascribed the perpetration of every iniquity to Thus we find that Epiphanius. hundred years after Irenaeus. &quot. and (if we exclude the mere mention of the name) are confined to Irenseus and Epiphanius the . has only a scrap or own reflections two of fresh infor and mation to add. of the or igi ns along another line of tradition. was sufficient to overwhelm them with the execrations of the orthodox. to the honour Cain and distinguished by they paid themselves called which fact. The main . even where he is other in predecessor. he will be in a better position to comprehend what follows. strange If the reader will bear in mind the systems of Justinus and of the Sethians. information are scanty. 224 THE SO-CALLED CAINITES.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. BEFORE returning again towards the time Obscurity of the Subject. and with the exception of his lucubrations. latter. moreover.

traditions refused to follow this law. compared with the true birth from the virgin spiritual womb. as followers of the Higher Law who despised the laws of the powers of generation. made a great muddle is Epiphanius has of this part of the system. was the God of the superior the God of enlightenment generation. features of the system of these Gnostics. or world fullness or perfection (TrX^/aco^ta of the aeons. and wisdom. which was symbolized as the power of the impure world-womb. and Lot and Moses were praised by the followers of the law of generation. evidently consanguineous with it the Valentinian &quot. the sensible world. &quot. abortion.&quot. of its old who. and were thus Q TheEnemies the Friends .225 THE SO-CALLED CAINITES. an after-birth (iWe/oa hystera). containing heaven and earth within it But this sensible world was. The creator of the world was not the God over the absolute power from above was stronger than all the weaker (va-repa hystera) power of generation. . were. (va-reprj/ma deficiency pleroma). power. therefore. of had the in the worthies External their Law. or the sensible world. as it the ideal world of the aeons above. vilified behests by seeing all the no who commands of the Thus Abel and Jacob the power of generation. without or external to the ideal &quot. hysterema). The Old Testament idea of God went The inferior no further than obedience to the commands of the inferior power. Those who had obeyed were as regarded followers further. is as follows. then. whereas in reality it was inferior the opponents of these who ought to be praised.

chief of and amongst instruction. were types of those individuals or nations who had followed a higher law. This is New Testament history. while the fruits of the one form instance. To take The Ascent of Paul purported to .FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. circle which one The had a number death. may of the true tradition of the cause of Jesus This Gnostic Judas. to the therefore claimed that Cain and inhabitants the of of Cities the Plain. in especially brought out in their ideas of spite of their nevertheless contain a small trace strangeness. apparently. We can here see very plainly the traces of the same antitheses as those worked out by Justinus . and who. and that line or the later Cain offered This antithetical device. the influence of the psychic traceable along the Abel of the spiritual was the powers along the Cain offerer of blood-sacrifices. and powers or angels being of descent. of writings. Jacob-Esau. was common enough other. were two small summaries called The Ascent Gospel of Paul. or the Marcionite antitheses of the God of freedom and the God of the law. Dathan and Abiram. They the to herself. in their contempt for Yahweh. in field. were calumniated by the followers of Yahweh. the other the latter first. and Coran. and Esau. 226 Wisdom and taken protected by aeon above. seem. Abel line. to have pushed their theories to the most extravagant conclusion of any. Ebionite antitheses as of for superior men (Isaac-Ishmael. of Judas. which. MosesAaron). the God of the inferior Christ and the Yahweh the school whose tenets Old Testament of the but we are describing.

&quot. come down to us in The Vision of Paul.Epiphanius account of matter. for the school which Epiphanius alone of the Cainites is is responsible. &quot. which had made the heaven. however. the Cainite doctrines. which took a different view of the Obscure traces of this seem to be preserved in the unintelligent Irenaeus. and man one who had a very clear idea of the true distinguished from the God God as of generation. from one point of view. This circle of students looked upon Judas as a far advanced in the discipline of the Gnosis. (Ebionite) tradition had consistently handed over Judas to universal execration. in any case it is lost. there was. The Christ was the which came down from above. he conse quently taught a complete divorcement from the things of the world and thus from the inferior power. in spirit order that the . apparently another tradition. the most interesting development of their theory. was the The Poor Men s view they took of Judas. 227 contain the record of the ineffable things which Paul is reported to have seen when he ascended into the Whether this was the same as The Apocalypse of Paul referred to by Augustine is A more orthodox uncertain. Man was to ascend to the highest region through the crucifixion of the Christ. a translation of which may be read in the last volume of the AnteIf we can rely on Nicene Christian Library (1897). presumably Essene in the first place. version of one of the documents of the same cycle has third heaven. this title. But the strangest and. consequently post- Pauline.THE SO-CALLED CAINITES. the world and the flesh.

the Christ had not made a mistake. but that all in had been done according to the heavenly wisdom. and in this way the salvation of the world. &quot. declared that. on the contrary. handed over to the authorities. A Scrap of History. one of the manifestations of the the christological God of generation. opinion. after becoming the Christ and teaching the higher in and fell their doctrine. Yet another more mystical tradition. whom Jesus originally taught the higher doctrine considered that his too open preaching to the people was a divulging of the Mysteries. endeavoured to overset the law and corrupt the holy doctrine. the spiritual world might be and so Jesus triumphed over the weaker power of generation at the expense of his body. there was a } so a historical tradition: that Jesus. Now Judas knew this. &quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. used every means to bring about His betrayal. in his great faith. taken Gospel of Epiphanius. 228 power stronger perfected in of man . and therefore Judas had him That is to say. which he handed over to death. were incarnated. those to and so finally brought about his condemnation for blasphemy by the orthodox Jewish authorities. away. that is to say. preserved one of their books. But besides this general mystical teaching. judging from the he says of The from Judas. For the world-rulers knew that if the Christ were betrayed to the cross. These Gnostics conse quently praised Judas as being one of the main . the inferior power would be drained out of them and they would ascend to the spiritual aeon. doctrine of the This was school. and it was apparently. and.

they were very dreadful people. &quot. like Carpocrates. nor the consequent revelation of the realms above. that he by no means believes that they did the things which he thinks they ought to have done. embroidering on Irenseus. With regard which Epiphanius brings against them two hundred and fifty years afterwards. but who called themselves simply Gnostics. have been from their doctrines ascetics.D. says rigid Epiphanius. it is evidently to the charge founded on a complete misunderstanding of jumbled account of Irenseus. and Epiphanius simply copy Carpocrates. was Tertullian. the not of malice pre Lyons distinctly says. the whole confusion arises through ! . he was also the head of a Gnostic circle. take a brief glance at the views of the Carpocratians. for the Bishop of had consistently carried out their teachings As a matter of fact. Hippolytus their predecessor. that a THE CARPOCRATIANS. therefore. The Cainite to circle. and. mystic consummated. or Carpocras. whom the Church fathers call Carpocratians. But. if they if pense. 117-138). OUR main source of information is Irenseus . taught appear man could not be saved without going through We will therefore now every kind of experience.THE CARPOCRATIANS. (according to Eusebius) a Platonic philosopher who taught at Alexandria in the reign of Hadrian (A. 229 scheme of salvation. without him the would not have been salvation of the cross factors in the &quot.

he differed from the rest in that his soul. the This it saw in its orbit Platonic and ! round the course of the soul in harmonious circuit when Spiritual Sun. and being In freed from each. he soared above them. finally ascend to the Father. ^which is Father clothed him with powers. it$ Father. if not above rulers. Hermetic traditions of the orderly also the idea is own is it in In consequence of this reminiscence the source of all wisdom and virtue&quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. in the Plain of Truth. then. he triumphed over human passions. shall ascend to the Father. Relieving. some the a of same higher . that the constraints receive similar of which world-building rise like that still their number had perfection further actually as attained Jesus.) the nature. and passing through all their spheres. whereby he might escape from the dominion of the rulers of the world. remembend what round . ineffable Jying behind the Pythagorean. and thus by the powers he received from above. The main tenets The Their Uoa of the school sensible world were as follow was made by the fabricating powers. son of Joseph and Mary.or conversation with&quot. the incapacity of the latter Church Father to underud the elements of the doctrine of rebirth. claimed Gnostics degree souls powers and perform these of the all to to will wonders. or builders. being strong and pure. and was born like all other men. far inferior to the ineffable of the unknown power JCMIS was the ingenerable Father. Though like manner all souls of a like nature the soul of Jesus was brought up in the ordinary Jewish views. who put forth similar efforts.

summary this of their doctrine of rebirth. Simonian Such ideas &quot. it is not.231 THE CARPOCRATIANS. school. &quot. Re the incarnation. For the MS. apparently. and degree. These nature. The next paragraph that there no is deals essential with evil in the doctrine universe. lest at any time thine adversary deliver thee to the judge. arrives at generalisation. thou shalt not come forth thence till thou has paid the utterprison. seem to have been very prevalent. I say unto thee. the other Apostles who had attained similar powers. The has soul existence and to pass activity in through every kind of its cycle of rebirth. that is to say. and were stronger than Peter and Paul. which asserted that this could be done in Irenseus a life. and thou be cast into art in the way with Amen. . the tenets of the &quot. from his only. however. see how Irenseus. but that things are bad and good in man s opinion Let us. In fact they boldly taught that men could reach higher degrees of illumination than Jesus. and the judge deliver thee to his officer. and the next powers were of a magical paragraph of Irenseus puts us strongly in mind of &quot. with thine Agree adversary quickly whiles thou one &quot. so much so that Irenseus complains that outsiders were induced to common think that such views were the belief of Christianity. him. clear whether they made the usual dis between tinction Jesus and the Christ. quotes the saying. therefore. that some souls then existing in the world could pay their karmic debt in one life. is apparently drawing his information from MS.

owing to his inability to understand the most elementary facts of the doctrine of reincarnation. the officer is the builder of new body. however. the judge is the chief of the world-building powers.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. The circle of the Carpocratians is said to have erroneous established a branch at Home. and until that the doctrine all through every experience has been learned. But not so will Irenseus have He it. who. 232 most farthing. do clusion is entirely due to the stupidity of the Bishop of Lyons. That the Carpocratians. therefore. which the explains all in the fullest manner on the lines of re incarnation and what Indian philosophers call karma. that is to say the is the accuser karmie record in the man s own nature. no one can be That some souls can do all this in one set free. asserts means that the soul must pass experience good and bad. immediately afterwards adds that he does not believe the Carpocratians actually Irenseus. has started with entirely premises. of fill and full so the tale of come to all experience the an end of experience. explains the text precisely the same exegesis as is given to it in the Pistis Sophia treatise. must have indulged in the most unmentionable crimes because life ! they wished to good and necessity bad. the adversary (diabolus). about 150. under a .&quot. the prison is the body. however. such things. although he is forced to deduce It such a logical consequence from their books. evident that the whole absurd con is. Now. although the matter was as clear as daylight to a beginner in Gnosticism. Thus the MS.

&quot. 62). we know. and not Carpocratians ? Harpocrates was the Graecised form of Horus. the MysteryGod of the Egyptians and Salome. in referring to these Marcellians. was a . distinguished (probably the Valentinian Marcus). excusable in a certain measure.233 &quot. to this Epiphanes the Greek for distinguished being also &quot. which he found in Ireneeus assigned simply to a &quot. EPIPHANES. . which Patristic writers have woven round the second best-known name of the Carpocratian circle.&quot. also mentions the Harpocratians who derived their tenets from Salome. EPIPHANES. WE next pass on to the contradictory and manifestly absurd legends. epiphanes&quot. but what shall we say of Clement . &quot. such as Pythagoras. It is curious to remark that Celsus. as quoted by Origen (c. and also a portrait of Jesus. seeing that Epiphanius wrote at the end of the fourth century (at This least is 250 years after the time of the actual Epiphanes) of discrediting a heretic were con when any means sidered justifiable . and Aristotle.&quot. &quot. prominent figure in the lost Gospel according to the Egyptians. teacher &quot. who has ascribed a whole system of the Gnosis. We have already referred to the extraordinary blunder of Epiphanius. certain Marcellina. They had pictures and statues of who were held in honour by teachers many great their school. Is it possible that this is the correct form of the name. Plato.

on the day of the new moon. and as early as Mosheim the key was found to the mystery. bequeathed to posterity a scandalous libel. and accompanied with licentious It was called the Epiphany (ra Eiri^ajua) in rites. and Alexandria. ascribes this to Epiphanes. of which he had seen books was a treatise He a copy. was the son of Carpocrates He Cephallenia. in the great temple of Same. Such an extraordinary legend could not long- escape the penetrating criticism of modern scholar ship. showing that the festival at Same was in honour the moon-god. deceived by the similarity of the names and also by the story of licentious rites. Epiphanes of Alexandria.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and was worshipped as a god with the most elaborate and lascivious rites by the Cephallenians. thus Carpocratians. and that some of their ideas were . circle in come or to the that conclusion were a Harpocratians. more extraordinary. Epiphanes (6 ETn^awj?). the new moon. We Communism. of honour of the &quot. some seventeen days.&quot. Thus Clement of Alexandria. the Carpocratians one of their most circulated On Justice. and who lived in the same century as Epiphanes ? His blunder is even This is his legend. It is almost to be doubted whether any Epiphanes among Clement further asserts that existed. at the beginning Alexandria the Gnostic of the second century. a lady of died at the early age of seventeen. Volkmar has worked this out in detail. but it is boy of seventeen or scarcely possible to believe that a have composed an abstract dissertation on less could justice. newlyThis moon lasted appearing one. 234 who is generally fair.

We have. This Gnostic community was much exercised with the set idea of communism as practised by the early Christian circles. is the into orgies of lasciviousness. This has already been in part refuted by what has been said above . &quot. and be ruled by &quot. who came to such views through the Pythagorean and Platonic discipline. philosophers should have turned their meetings Such. to be community thus of everything. and improbable that of education through the teachings of Jesus the sine qua non condition of such ideal communities being that they should consist of &quot. forth in a book concerning justice. who did confuse the Agapae or Love-feasts of the early times with the orgies and feasts of the ignorant populace. The Pagans brought such accusations against the Christians indiscrimi- . it our is Gnostics also highly and refinement. no reliable evidence carried these ideas into practice men that .&quot. however. they wished to reduce the idea to the form of a philosophical prin ciple and carry it out to its logical conclusion. a copy of which had come into the hands of Clement. wives and husbands included carrying out in some fashion that most curious idea. 235 EPIPHANES. as the Gnostics usually were.&quot. private property was the origin of all human miseries and the departure from the happy days of false ideas of early freedom. being also students of Plato.gnostics&quot. calling it is themselves Christian. There was. however. The meum and tuum were no longer to exist. of Plato s as set forth in The Republic. but communities at not improbable that there were Alexandria and elsewhere. therefore. accusation brought against them by Clement.

the their and diversity to the contemplation of the They despise the restriction imposed higher unity. &quot. mystical brooding of of the original unity. and finite spirits to eternal this who it Monad all existence strives to return. meaning by faith. as the origi This idea Monadic Gnosis. their souls are freed from imprisonment the mind absorbed matter. From them particular is of limitation souls who. be sufficient for the general reader to form an idea of will. In this way they escape the dominion of the finite mundane in spirits. they regard externals as no importance. soar above all by those attained cences the different popular religions. have proceeded. sects against quite credible that such abuses did creep in it is among the ignorant and vicious. and in Perfection Jewish. The Carpocratian school has been sometimes The Monadic claimed. 236 nately.&quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. by the mundane spirits. detail The following summary by Salmon however. to the Buddhist . the so-called much has been worked out in by Neander. From one flowed. and faith and love as the only essentials. the theory. rule over has But the several portions of the world counteract this universal striving after unity. nator I though of think improperly. and and the Christian one another. in and they obtain a state of perfect repose Nirvana) when they have completely ascended above the world of (corresponding appearance. led on by reminis former conditions.

Cerinthus is the strongest trace between Ebionism. name from a said to derive their who placed in latter half of the &quot. that is to say the century. and explained away a number &quot. the the circle of according to the variant of Epiphanius). however. He is supposed to come have personal contact with John.&quot. from whom have copied. discipline. Epiphanius has busied himself exceedingly over The Cerinthus. who century after Cerinthus. and cleverly J made him a scapegoat for the antagonism to Paul.Pauline tradition.&quot. to pick our way back along this trace towards the times of the origins. Cerinthus is said &quot. They are certain Cerinthus. and the beginning of the second century. pillar-apostles compromising statements in the Acts and Pauline Letters by this device. of has to reject the lucubrations of the late Epiphanius. has only a brief paragraph on the subject.Pillar- . Most writers have followed his lead. or the original external non. Egyptian Minor. 237 CERINTHUS. the reputed writer of the fourth Gospel but the same story is told of the mythic Ebion. and go back to the short account of Irenseus. is apostolic first times.CERINTHUS. and it must there into . &quot. later writers all was himself a full Irenssus. The Egyptian to have been trained in the and to have taught discipline is in Asia supposed to mean Scapegoat for the &quot. Impartial criticism. fore be dismissed as destitute of all historical value. we next come upon CONTINUING Cerinthians (or the Merinthians.

the World-fashioner. is an y case the importance of Cerinthus. Its cosmogony declared the stupendous excellence of the God over all. him. but this The Overwriter ot the Apocalypse. Hebrew. The Greek writer of the fourth canonical collections Gospel is said to have composed his account in opposi tion to the school of Cerinthus. descended upon &quot. The recension of but a still reliable enough as far as it was not the scripture of the Cerinthians the Sayings ascribed earlier collection in to &quot. Its christology declared that Jesus was son of Joseph and Mary that at his the Christ. Matthew. beyond the subordinate power. but this hypothesis not borne out by any evidence. Such is the account of Irenseus. &quot. the God over all. That the Christ then left him and then Jesus .&quot. a mere assumption. All other and recensions were rejected as utterly apocryphal. &quot. is . is that his name has preserved one of the earliest forms of Christian tradition. 238 the Philonic school. whom some Gnostics claimed to have been the writer of the Jn Apocalypse orthodoxly ascribed to John. and rose again (that is. and only then did he begin to prophesy and do mighty works. . suffered. the baptism Father in the form of a dove. appeared to his followers after death).FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and preach the hitherto unknown Father (unknown to the Jews). which seems to be and straightforward goes.&quot.

this Encouraged by phrase. NICOLAUS.ate of the church of Pergamus.writer of the Apocalypse has twice gone out of his way to tell us that he hates their doings. things sacrificed to idols and Subsequent hseresiologists. say &quot. then. Nicolaus with the all this father &quot. we must call struggle through. Which things I hate. encouraged by Irenseus. because the over. And then. where at least early Gnosticism. the reader s attention to a just discernible shadow of cavern. some fitful gleams of daylight But before doing so. We plunge no farther into the dark depths of the cave of the origins. Irenseus includes the Nicolaitans in the writer s condemnation of some members of the who apparently committed &quot. surprised that so inventive a genius as the Bishop of Salamis should have drawn breath even to put so rhetorical a question. but once more retrace our steps to the mouth of the speculation. am I to to ourselves we are ? For O Nicolaus thee. These Gnostics are of special interest to the orthodox. he of evidence &quot. of his iniquity before him. &quot. : &quot. therefore. Epiphanius proceeds rhetorically to address the shade of the unfortunate Gnostic What. until finally Epiphanius makes had every enormity collected or invented against the Gnostics.&quot. added further fornication. . the circle of the Nicolaitans. will.239 NICOLAUS. in their turn embellishments. WE have now got back to such early times that even we fails us the faintest glimmer of historical light f are deep down in the sombre region of legend and .

The predecessor of Marcion is said to have been a certain Cerdo. The method of method direct prototype of the . it will whole of Christendom. which at one time threatened to absorb the doing so. of Syrian extraction. this school of modern however.D. The Master LET us now return to the historical twilight of the second century. no distinct sentence of . were far more Old Testament for it not only rejected the but also the whole of the documents of the in order that it might be &quot. sweeping entirely. &quot. 240 Nicolaua Tradition claims an as ascetic. CERDO.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. fulfilled school of Gospel- compilation. and turn our attention to the great Basilidian and Valentinian developments. name of his preceptor. It is interesting to so eclipsed the note that. that Patristic writers frequently confuse not only their teachings but even the men themselves. Church of though Cerdo s relationship with the Rome was unsettled. these Church Fathers Christ in own everything but their condemnation their particular view of of the s doctrine. criticism. and an exaggerated instance of his freedom from relates Even granted that he taught that the eating of sacrificial viands was not a deadly sin. was the Its conclusions. there seems no reason why we to-day should follow passion. But before be convenient to give a brief sketch of the great and contemporaneous Marcionite move ment. who flourished But the fame of Marcion at Rome about 135 A.

-who are our best authorities. At first he was in communion with the church at Rome. the presbyters could not explain his difficulties and refused to face the important questions he set before them. MARCION.241 MARCION. excommunication recorded against him. appear orthodoxy was not yet developed even in the exclusive mind is of the Roman no doubt the success of presbytery. and contributed handsomely to its funds. the pioneer of mind subsequent orthodoxy. Marcion theories long before he The Marcionism. His chief activity at Rome may be placed somewhere between the years 150 and 160. The Church writers at the end of the second century. as. however. the idea of a rigid canon of that therefore. MARCION was a . But as finally excommunicated. For developed his all we know. he is said to have threatened to make a schism in the church . on the southern shore of Sea he was also a bishop and the son of a bishop. rich shipowner of Sinope. and we know nothing of a reliable nature of the lives of either Cerdo or and apparently was Marcion. it would. the chief the Black port of Pontus. . It was Marcion that precipitated the formulation of the idea of the canon in the of the Roman church. cannot tell the story of the beginning of the movement with any may have certainty. a matter of fact the origin of Marcionism is entirely wrapped in obscurity.

As already as that of the success criticism as applied to the problem of the Old Testament. and the Marcionite view had then as good a chance of as any other of becoming the universal then was the secret of Marcion it pointed out. splendidly organised. the writers.&quot. Orthodoxy had not declared for any party as yet. he was willing to admit that the Yahweh of the Old Testament was just. Marcionite churches sprang up. Asia Minor and Persia. teachings so of and Old to the which brought out that though the best of the former might be ascribed to the idea of a in startling fashion the fact. in parallel sayings and in a series of antitheses compilers.Higher s thinkers. with their own bishops and the rest of the ecclesiastical discipline. Marcion spread over rapidly to use the usual Patristic phrase the GraBco-Roman dominions century we hear . with Christ the the and heterogeneous collection. long views of whole may have them based on gleaned and opinions he heard voyages. Egypt. . of modern was the same s success ? What one. that he information on his the and world. Arabia. This much we know. of the books columns. Syria.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. view was in some respects even more moderate than the judgment of some of our modern Marcion The &quot. &quot. With great acumen ascribed he arranged the sayings and doings to Yahweh by editors of Testament say. Palestine. with a cult and service of the same nature as those what subsequently became the Catholic Church. and as for late as the fifth of Theodoret converting a thousand Marcionites. the more than In Italy. 242 came to Rome.

&quot. That Messiah was to be an earthly king. It was the most terrific indictment of the cycle of New Testament &quot. They who tried to graft this on to Judaism. We know how in these latter days the best have rejected ascribed to the God horrible in some minds in the Church sayings and doings of the Old Testament documents. The Christ had preached a universal doctrine. As for the New the idea of a canon Testament. was intended for the Jews alone.MARCION. that has ever been formulated. the Father over all.history&quot. they were foreign to the ideal of the Good God preached by the Christ. in Marcion s time. but it was the antipodes of the views which afterwards became the basis of the orthodox canon. canon. by the unintelligent and erroneous glosses they had woven into their collections of the teachings. the universal glad tidings. and had totally misunderstood the teaching of the Christ. were in grievous error. in order that Therefore the pseudo-historical school had might be fulfilled &quot. had an idea of a being thought of. and had not yet come. the imperfect creed of one small nation. was not yet or was only just Marcion. it adulterated and garbled the original Sayings of the Lord. 243 Just God. a new revelation of the Good God. and we thus see how Marcion formulated a protest which must have already declared itself in the hearts of thousands of the more enlightened of the Christian name. The Christ was not the Messiah promised to the Jews. too. Men were tired of all the contradictions and obscurities of the innumerable and mutually destructive variants of .

and John. Of course the day. so critic as keen a Marcion should have retained certain verses which made against his strong anti-Judaistic views. The Marcionites. he also rejected.&quot. It begins with the public preaching of the Christ at Capernaum. to actual history. &quot. on the contrary. pau ] the altered to the suit No that new Jewish converts. including those Mark. Of the manifold versions of the Gospel. now &quot. But this is also a difficulty. follower of Paul. So many orthodox apologists wrote highly against Marcion after his death. it is shorter than the present Luke document. recension. contended that was written by Paul from the direct and that Luke had nothing to do with it. Marcion started with h e was the mission of first the who had Christ. that it is possible to recon struct almost the whole of his Gospel. for it is improbable that Paul wrote any Gospel. Marcion mutilated Luke s say that is almost Patristic writers version. their Gospel tradition.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and some writers of great ability have held that it was . history had been so Messiah-theory of the As The Gospel of Paul. he would have the Pauline alone. of Sayings in use among the Pauline churches of the his &quot. then. The Gospel according to Luke. really understood and had rescued the teaching from the obscurantism of Jewish sectarianism. man could say what was the truth. 244 the traditions concerning the person of Jesus. He now rejected every other ascribed to Matthew. but it impossible to believe that. regarding it as a recension to suit the views of the Judaising His Gospel was presumably the collection party. if he did this.

the apostle puts outside. Marcion. gleaned from his angry the Marcionites &quot. appears but Tertullian to also a tries sorry to ordinary common of piece angry sense. The longest criticism of Marcion s views be found in Tertullian s invective is to Against Marcion. the Just and the Good. it rhetoric. written in 207 and the following years. which has dispassionate in the last few only years reached a satisfactory Gnostic fashion. solution in Christendom. taught that the idea of the Jews about God. But we can hardly expect a treatment of a grave problem. and who yelp at the God of truth.MABCION. with any of Marcion would have nothing to do them. questions ! which ye are perpetually gnawing &quot. except ten of the Letters of Paul. whose address temper to may be from the violent Tertullian. This has always been regarded by the orthodox as a most brilliant piece of work. but this for the rest of the collection present of is not very documents included the New Testament. parts of which he also rejected as interpolations by the reconciliators the of Petro. let us come to your various These are the bones of contention. was inferior and antagonistic to the ideal of the Good God revealed This he set forth in the usual by the Christ. show that Marcion taught two Gods. in the 245 version. however. These ten Letters were called The Apostle. whom ye dogs. Luke s the original of As credible. : Now then. ! . but by the light of the conclusions arrived at by the industry of modern and criticism.Pauline controversy. as set forth in the Old Testament.

is. treatise devotes who flourished The Destruction the fourth who seem Marcioriites. There were three Heavens. like been whether doubted Marcion should be classed as a Gnostic.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. deduce It anything cosmogony or the known best a clear to system of from the onslaughts of on Marcionite haeresiologists christology even has It doctrines. his Angels. of reader s sufficient here to shorten Salmon s curious Marcionite myth. it is evident that the Marcionite tradition was of a distinctly Gnostic tendency. in the highest the Good God. and that Marcion owed more to his predecessors in Gnosticism than was usully supposed prior to the translation first in It be will summary the of Eznik s treatise (into French) 1833. 246 Enough has now been to give the reader said a general idea of the Marcionite position a very strong one it must be admitted. difficult however. to and have been even at that late date a most flourishing body. the to his he bishop. in the lowest. Although it is doubted whether the ideas there described are precisely the same as the original system of Marcion. was the Beneath lay Hyle . book last Armenian an Esnig). calling attention to the similarity of parts this structure to the system of Justinus. both because of its the simplicity and also because it formulated of discontent protest long slumbering among the outer communities. but this point is set at rest by the work of Eznik (Eznig or 450 about of False In A. in the intermediate the God of of its Law.D. Doctrines.

in she revenge idolatry. innocence in Paradise. and saw the miseries which man suffered through Hyle and the Creator. Go down. Then go down to Hell. And He took com passion on them. Adam on hearing of death was afraid. so that men filled the world with ceased to adore the Lord of Then was the Creator wrath. and withdrew beside there is Now Hyle had been wont to himself from Hyle. saying : form of a servant a body]. And the God of the Law desired to take Adam make him from Hyle and taking him me aside. World). So am God and no other. Heal their wounds. and sent them down His Son to &quot. him I alone. serve Adam but when she found that he withdrew .&quot. perform with bring out reward the greatest miracles of healing. then will the God of the Law be jealous and instigate his servants to crucify thee. from Adam onwards. Power perceiving that the world was very good. But at length the Good God looked down from Heaven. he said serve &quot. and as men died he cast them into Hell (Hades the Unseen Creation. his spirit. 247 The world was the joint product The Creative A of the God of the Law and Hyle.MAECION. him his body and the Creative Power the breath And Adam and Eve lived in of life. : Adam. to their blind. and did not beget children. from her. supposing Marcionit* . give sight their dead to life. if thou worshippest And any other God thou shalt die the death. and [? the like the sons of the Law. which will open her mouth to receive Thee. or root-matter. take on Thee make Thyself deliver them. So Hyle gave desired to make man to inhabit it.

Whereupon the God of the Law was enraged. and The Marcionites were the most rigid of ascetics. And thus the souls were freed from Hell and up to the Father. now second time. And then He went on ? am Let me. but to plead with the Law was God Then the Christ descended a in the glory of of the Law.&quot. 248 Thee to captives to be one of Thou the Then dead. for I hast shed My blood. and did not know Thee to be a god. flesh and wine.&quot. the latter They also being excluded from their Eucharist. himself be killed shall that whoso sheddeth innocent blood . and rent his clothes and tore the curtain of his palace. Is it not written in thy law that whoso killeth another shall &quot. His divinity. take the revenge &quot. And the Christ said unto him the compelled to : I have a controversy with thee. himself to Paul.&quot. liberate the and bring them up shalt find there. He and how He had in return been crucified and the God of the Law could find no defence. and betook revealed the path of truth. I . . kill innocent and thou to recount the benefits had bestowed on the children of the Creator. and darkened the sun and veiled carried the world in darkness. have his own blood shed thee and shed thy blood. : was ignorant I thought Thee but a man. but I will take no other judge between us but thy own law. Me.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. then. and confessed and said . Christ thereupon left him. abstaining from marriage. And the God of acknowledge that he had done wrong in thinking that there was no higher power than himself. that is And Thy the due.

not only by the title Marcionites. The Lord and Chrestos not Christos. in pure ignorance Chrestos into Christos wherever it occurred changed so that instead of finding the promise of perfection in . but also decessors by many of their Gnostic pre and successors. There was naturally a number of sub-schools of the Marcion school. which curiously enough was called a synagogue. Title . we distinguished teachers. Christos is the Greek the for Hebrew Messiah. and struck a fatal to blow at the universality of history and doctrine. and in its ranks were a number of of whom. had the sole editing of the texts. This was denied. The title Chrestos was used of one perfected. rejoiced beyond all martyrs. have only space to refer to Apelles.D. the saint no doubt in later days the orthodox. however. most ancient number other sects in the The Marcionites have dated Christian also of their given us the The inscription. who subsequently . In early times there seems to have been much con fusion between the two titles. Anointed. The date is October 1. A. and formerly meeting-house or church. they limited it the Jewish tradition alone. to &quot.249 MABCION. the holy one. and the most remarkable point about it is was dedicated that the church Saviour Jesus. the Good &quot. was It discovered over the doorway of a house in a Syrian marked the site of a Marcionite village. the religious history of all the nations. 318. and was the used by those who believed that Jesus was the Jewish Messiah.

and he is further said by Eusebius to of the He have written a &quot. seems to have been drastic enough. his belief Her The in visions were Manifestations.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. same nature. a this. however. refutation has fortunately excerpt from this lost At this time been preserved for us by Eusebius.&quot. time in the reign of to &quot. an a certain Rhodon. the his head the greatest abuse for store. man diffident and which he could not maintain ] see a reconcile. was.D). : The picture which Rhodon unwittingly furnishes of his [Apelles old age is unwearied to pleasant in the pursuit of tolerant. directed against the Mosaic theology. WE His Wide Tolerance. As Hort says Gnosticism. taken to task for specially the clairvoyant faculty of a certain Philumene. owe our most on reliable information this Gnostic who opposed his views some Commodus (180-193 A. though his of Reasonings. multitude of books &quot. called set great pours on accompanied . truth. resting in beliefs but studious to We look upon. moral character of the theology. 250 APELLES. Apelles seems to have taken up a less exclusive book position than Marcion. recorded by in which book Apelles man who Strangely enough. saying that all sincere believers would ultimately be saved. and a old man refused the con was very Apelles &quot. best in &quot. whatever their theology might be a most enlightened doctrine and worthy of the troversy. whom he came across in his old age.

except in the most advanced Gnostic in circles. physical phenomena.&quot. &quot. girl Augustine s work Heresies. &quot. and to secretly by her divinations or some words appear to be missing. who knew ! Apelles personally at Alexandria. She belonged to the class of holy women or virgins. says that the old gentleman thought himself protected from such slanderous insinuations. This seeming sometimes declared himself be to Christ. [Here The same phantom. as a modern spiritist would say.&quot. by his age and well-known character. same Philumene in the form of a boy. which There is was printed On in the early editions of The following &quot. Philumene seems to have enjoyed certain psychic medium for faculties. with the usual charges of immorality. on the contrary. someboy . belief in the prophetical of his is the Soul. is Hort s rendering of the passage : He [Apelles] moreover used to say that a certain named Philumene was divinely inspired to Her predict future events. he said. though it is exceedingly doubtful whether any of them were trained seeresses. who were numerous enough the early Church. showed itself to the himself &quot.] presages. and also to have been a &quot.251 APELLES. following out his full power of a certain voyante most entertaining and congregation. He used to refer to her his dreams. and the perturbations of forewarn his mind. confesses convictions. in the section devoted to the Severians. who. in his his own On treatise own Montanist own Tertullian. in a naive fashion Rhodon. an entertaining account of Philumene in a curious fragment of an anonymous author.

. but from an unfriendly source. majority of that time. like the vast . 252 times Paul. ignorantly assumed that the fact of psychic powers proved the truth of theological doctrines. remember that this account not from the side of the Gnostics. is We should. and was content with that food alone. which if it had been given very monkish and very spiritistic. By questioning this phantom she used answers which she pronounced to her added that she was accustomed to perform some wonders. the chief : she used to of which the following was make a large loaf enter a glass vase with a very small mouth.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. as indeed of all times. however. and to take it out uninjured with the tips of her fingers. We shall perhaps never know whether Apelles had a knowledge of the sources of the phenomena he witnessed or. to supply the He hearers. and quite in keeping with the records of phenomen All of is alism. as her from above.&quot.

have been immediately therefore. most abstruse and consistent systems of the Gnosis. 120-180. Of his nationality again we know nothing. they first commentaries on the Gospel-teachings were the written by a Christian philosopher. he is. or Egyptian. Of the life of this great doctor of the Gnosis know nothing beyond Alexandria.D. * and who elaborated one them of Basilides followers &quot. He also quotes from several of the Pauline Letters. Of the writings of Basilides the most important were the commentaries already referred to. it should be understood that a margin of ten years or so either way has to be allowed for. . The Gospel teaching was his delight. (&quot. he was steeped in Hellenic culture. the outlines of which are plainly recoverable from the garbled fragments that Patristic polemics of the have left us. and he wrote no fewer than twenty-four books of commentaries as set forth in the although he does not appear to have used the subsequently canonical versions. prior to Valentinus. or Syrian. His date we the fact that he taught at is entirely conjectural . we say that he however. THE BASILIDIAN GNOSIS. But whether he was Greek.). He was also well versed in the Hebrew scriptures Greek version of the Seventy. generally supposed to If. thereon. and learned in the wisdom of the Egyptians. flourished somewhere about A. LET us now return to the early years of the second attention to Basilides and his our devote century. as Basilides and his Writings. and in this.253 THE BASILIDIAN GNOSIS.

the Gnostics Basilides is further said to have written led the way. however. interest. with or without the various historical settings. In any case.&quot. hypothesis.&quot. Gospel of Basilides of by Jesus was not a new resurrec &quot. that the historical setting Sayings of the Lord. as held in great honour by the school. 254 in all other departments of theology. if true. a Gospel himself. preter of There Peter. It is suggested of the heads of that would it be of intense was Matthias. These purported to be teachings given to Matthias in secret It tion. one the inner schools. and also his own elabora of certain inner instructions that had been tion handed down by a secret Whether tradition.knowledge of supermundane things. and that these accounts were expansions by various presbyters of the outer churches in Egypt.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and to have claimed to be the inter disciple of a certain Glaucias. is mention of certain also Traditions of Matthias. or not this inner Gospel formed part of the twenty-four books of his Exegetica is doubtful most critics. which the that was the definition he gave to the Gospel. . who was an &quot. but an exposition of &quot. Basilides a wrote presumably commentary on the Sayings and Doings of the Lord. who wrote the original sketch of Sayings and Doings underlying our Synoptic accounts. The original draft was pre- . which. after the be supposed therefore. which were in general circulation in many traditions.&quot. may. it is to be supposed that his commentaries aimed at explaining the public Sayings and Parables by the But there is another light of this secret Gospel. are in favour of this view.

The tions (i. Exegetica or not. and whose very unsatisfactory and inaccurate data were copied by Ireneeus. and presumably in the (iii. however. Our main sources of information for recovering an outline of the Basilidian Gnosis are three in Our number. him a treatise of Basilides. and the epitomators of the earlier. great work of Hippolytus.&quot. and now work of Hippolytus.) Philosophumena . but of these no fragment has reached us. Hippolytus muddles up his own glosses and criticisms with mutilated quotations. certain. sumably a Life intended for public circulation. smaller. Basilides is said also to have written certain Odes. (ii. is is but whether by no means that it it clear .THE BASILIDIAN 255 GNOS1S. or as Basilides set forth the supermundane things.).) first place (either of the lost Syntagma of Justin or) of the lost work of Agrippa Castor. A. and consist of the very fragmentary quotaof Hippolytus in his later work. . and we can only regret that we have not the original text of the Gnostic doctor himself before us. we lost Turning to the come upon the most valuable information extant for the reconstruction of this most highly metaphysical The Church Father had evidently before system.) of Clement of Alexandria in : his Miscellanies. was the what is Gospel. instead of a most faulty copy of the text of the Church Father s Refutation. whose method is most provoking. of the Sources of Information.D. who is said by Eusebius to have written a refutation of the views of Basilides in the reign of Hadrian 133 (c. &quot. knowledge understood it of . and designed to be capable of an interpretation according to the inner tenets of the Gnosis.

even that naught was not aught of things that are [even But nakedly.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. of is not simply the so-called Ineffable that. and which to the narrow minds of earth seems pure nothing of Deity. conjecture in the world of reality]. that. 256 summarizes important passages. must rise to that stupendous intuition possibilities of And we first which transcends even Being. Let us then raise our thoughts to those sublime heights to which the genius of Basilides soared so many centuries ago. I use the expression For that naught there was absolutely naught. but is is really . was [that is the world was. instead of time. is used. and in other respects does scant justice to a thinker whose faith in Christianity was so great. ness. far from confining it to the narrow limits of a dogmatic theology. beyond consciousness. which imperfectly treat of conceptions requiring the greatest subtlety and nicety of language. mean One And when the to say that was absolutely there of Logos use the term [the I it state of being]. . when faith in the universal the Glad Tidings was really living. &quot. I to say. beyond Being itself There was when naught was nay. all fullness. For that which named Ineffable. of do not in any merely to give some suggestion what I wish to indicate. but apart. The Divinity d Be?ng and mental quibbling not even reality]. it is superior to every beyond is not name that ineffable . Beyond being that which beggars beyond space. he would have the that it was Gospel a also universal philosophy explanatory of the whole world-drama.

nor any operation which falls ever within the range either of his preception or conception. we then. of the Orient to of be worshipped in silence alone. or rather far more removed from the power man s comprehension. can find appropriate names for the beings of the world more of reality and their operations. nor substance. or feeling.THE BASILIDIAN &quot. ceptibility. neither matter. 257 not even sufficient for the [manifested] universe [which is outside the world of real being]. Such.The names [we are use] GNOSIS. so diversified is it. nor angel. was the state of non-being. nor simplicity. he continues to argue. Naught was. that Thus we see which transcends even reality. they fall short. or noumenal fested Hippolytus being. or Universality Being. a the unmani- world even. neither anything at all for which man has found a name. . and far names to That to is it give impossible. We next come to the inception of in Universality. therefore. to so as beyond speak. and ascended to the untranscendable intuition the That which cannot be named. Much less. nor voidness of substance. or choosing. beyond the Seed being. &quot. Basilides soared even the ideal world of beyond Plato. nor impossi- nor inconceptibility. discrete stage. nor imperneither man.&quot. bility-of -composition. or determining. summarizes which transcends treatise state this this non- condition of being from the original all follows. in fine. nor god. without of when c thinking. when in a state beyond [if we can speak of time and space] the Deity beyond being.

do so merely to suggest the idea of an operation thought. term I use the writes Basilides. created beyond being being from elements Divinity positing and to causing subsist beyond a single which poverty of language compels us something&quot. &quot. &quot. 258 being or compelled. willed desiring.containing in bosom everything things must come into nowhere. This universal Seed by any contained everything in itself. will. leaves. branches.Seed. in some such fashion as the grain of mustard seed contains the whole simultaneously &quot. out of that has been put forward nothing&quot. Christian philosopher. and which treasures in that was the entire all-seed-potency of the universe. all its . &quot. stem. such a &quot. but which was really the potentiality of potentialities. This is evidently the same concept as the existence into Mulaprakriti of Indian philosophy. transcending and was separated [from other the Seed of all universes. other and other plants in manifold series. in the minutest point roots. but universes].&quot. seeing that it itself From &quot. call a to Seed.Thus the universality beyond being. And this universality also was not [our] dimensional and differentiate universe. which is everywhere and was or is or is to be. which subsequently came all volition.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.&quot. potentially. to create universality.&quot. and germs that come from the and which in their turn innumerable the seeds the of produce still plant. or sensible action. and the most admirable statement of the dogma of the creation &quot. I When &quot.

(/caTa TT pocrQriKriv au^avojmeva). was not . with the outcome. The next stage This all deals primordial Light and things.&quot. and there was light. Nihilo. was not. but only from the voice of the Speaker of the word. enlightened by Life is the source of it. or sublimest consummation. or mortal order that as a spider man takes brass or timber or other matter out of which to make something ? But He spake and it was. Man both every deriveth his principles from that Seed and is also beyond being. 259 GNOSIS. is however. must we make supposition. and this is what is the meaning of the saying of Moses. at the this is &quot. and that which was. or pullulation (TrpofioKrf). first- highest product. And He who spake Whence. Let there be light. beyond definition that he entirely repudiated every idea of emanation. Basilides by brought seems to have had some idea of a supplementary and times. this the Gospel.THE BASILIDIAN manifestation in their &quot. For not written whence. was from the state spoken. For the Seed of the universe. &quot. . &quot. c And was what was spoken in It was the true light which lighteth man that cometh into the world. ? From naught. proper natures and cycles &quot. then. like weaves its web [from itself]. was the light it is the word. the word that was Let there be light. will of the Deity beyond all. How about is no means clear. Ex God should make the universe. of universal potentiality. For of what sort of emanation or of in what sort of matter is there need. which Basilides calls the fruits. . projection. development one thing is clear. Sonship. which.

and was with Him beyond being [TT/OO? rov OVK o VTOL with. and confer mutual benefits on one another. seeing that it fell short of the degree of subtlety of the first Sonship. on the remained within the universal Seed subtle . so the second wings are complementary the Sonship and the Holy Spirit one to the other. and these wings are the Holy Spirit. aspect was the subtle. one less stood in need of purification- nature of the Sonship instantly and immediately. The subtlest burst forth. still for it though nature of the Sonship. and one subtlest still the of subtle. like wing or thought. . and so it remained behind. could not. . &quot. one beyond being. The less other hand. but some in one way and others in another. rose aloft.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 260 In &quot. Just as a bird cannot fly without wings. the The Sonship. as Homer sings. it through The itself [the less subtle as it find for Sonship. the very same word as the mysterious preposition in the canonical Gospel]. would imitate the higher and ascend. which had ascended it second]. beyond way Seed being. had to were wings on which to soar. .&quot. together with the depositing of the Seed of universality by the God beyond being. Proem now prefixed to the fourth For every nature striveth after Him because of His transcendency of all beauty and loveliness. Sonship in absolute every there was a triple consubstantial with the God coming into being from the state Of this triply divided Sonship. and hastened from below upward. and the cannot soar without the bird. . accordingly.

same substance with it. nor characterized by any word. Holy is the here see that Basilides second 261 such later. who createth from the state beyond being. left it [the Spirit] behind near that Blessed Space. borne aloft by the aloft the wing. bears &quot. therefore. But just as a pure and dry atmosphere is unnatural and harmful to fish. Seed. that is the The Holy but on drawing nigh to the first Sonship and the God beyond being. nevertheless some scent of the unguent still remains and is left behind the vessel retains the scent of the unguent. But if we ground which subsequently arose as the Arian and the Spirit. Spirit.THE BASILIDIAN GNOSIS. The Sonship. longer holds the unguent itself though in such a it no way has . nor had it a nature like unto that of the Sonship. Filioque. Basilides will tell us. it could no longer keep the Spirit with it. from which all whence enquire was the from the universal things came forth under the will of Deity. as by a wing. for it [the Spirit] was not of the Spirit . positive-negative also perceive the anticipation of the of the great controversies generations &quot. then.&quot. entirely deserted nor yet divorced from the Sonship. But even as the sweetest smelling unguent poured into a vessel. The second Sonship. so to the Holy Spirit was that state of the Sonship God beyond being that state more than every ineffable and transcending every together with the ineffable name. We state aspect of we . which can neither be con ceived of. dealing with the the Logos. yet not &quot. though the vessel be emptied of it with the greatest possible care.

this. more potent than potencies. 262 the Holy Spirit remained emptied and divorced from the Sonship. in a manner that will receive subsequent explanation. . yet at the same time retaining in itself as it were the power of the unguent. midway between Holy This Firmament things cosmic and supercosmic. Like the unguent s beard - on the head which ran down unto Aaron the savour of the Holy Spirit permeating from above and below even as far as the formlessness [crude matter] and our of state [remaining] Sonship ascend. the savour of the And Sonship. from the universal Seed and con- glomeration of seed-mixture there burst forth and came into existence the Great Ruler. this is the saying. but let no mortal think that he sensible universe. received it its first whence the impulse to were on the wings of an things hasten from below upward. ineffable than ineffables. potency that the demiurge . constitutes what Basilides terms the Limitary Spirit. borne aloft as existence. from worse to better. nor is anything in the better For all condition so bereft of intelligence as to plunge down ward. far beyond the visible firmament whose locus moon s the &quot.&quot. phenomenally separates the sensible universe from the noumenal.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. confer ring and receiving benefits. But as yet this third Sonship still remains in the great conglomeration of the seed-mixture. the head of the and beauty and magnitude This is nought can destroy. eagle. a for he is more can comprehend so great a being. &quot. The Great After is is track. which in reality permeates but everything.&quot. The Spirit.

its atmosphere. or supercelestial setherial creation. &quot.First of all the Great Ruler. His limit. and a thinking wise master-builder. marked (the moon s by the path. remained in the seed-mixture. not and brought into existence from the universal Seed. The setherial creation of the Great Ruler proceeds on the theory of similarity and analogy. below moon the was our This &quot. wiser than the 263 superior to every excellence wise. because he thought there was none above him.Thus ignorance of himself lord.&quot. that one can name. his &quot. although his wisdom was the greatest of all in the cosmic realms. Coming existence into he raised himself aloft. which eye has seen. he betook himself to the creation of the creatures of the This the is which has its beyond the world and universe. &quot. thinking right that he should be alone. a Son far better and wiser than himself. physical correspondence in the spaces moon . and so he became the most potent power of the save only the third Sonship which yet universe. made it for himself. atmosphere sublunary regions) terminated at the visible heaven.&quot. its periphery. was own the supercosmic spaces. in the surface of the sublunary waters setherial of space. therefore. and ruler.&quot. and was borne above in all his There he entirety as far as the Great Firmament. but only the reflection of their inhabitants. or lower firmament. . and soared upward. For all this The Creation. the stars. remained. In the sun-space lay apparently no mortal the realms.THE BASILIDIAN GNOSIS.

&quot. except the Sonship remained in the Seed. the wise one. And the second Ruler also &quot.&quot. greater than which the moon far Seed. or rather were ensouled. men can speak of him with understanding. had been predetermined by the God beyond being. The universal Spaces. struck with wonder and love and amazement &quot. They mutually confer benefits body and the other the mind also. that the Great Ruler made the creatures of the setherial spaces. sublunary spaces. there &quot.&quot. and on his right hand. That is to say. and these evolved And thus it is that souls. on beholding his Son. the Great Ruler. All setherial spaces then.Next. down to the moon. still. wiser own hand but who infused . or one giving the soul to setherial beings. energy into him and suggested to him ideas. This was all of the a second the earth.brought . And the Great Demiurgos.264 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. as is. And this space where is the throne of the Great Ruler they called the Ogdoad. greater than the father. are provided for and managed by the Son of the Great Ruler. and the space over which he rules is named the because Hebdomad. the whole aether ial creation with his it was his who was Son. fabricated &quot.And was at his marvellously great beauty. or above him the right hand in Gnostic symbolism signifying a higher condition. the but below him. still Ruler to arose inferior to Ruler the from first. the consummation or perfection of his ^ evolution or creation. from the This Ruler is called effable. when He deposited the universal Seed. and he caused him to sit at his right hand. the son were. it sits .

when the evolutionary stream of creative there still re energy began to return on itself. and there was no deficiency. mained behind in the universal Seed the third &quot. 265 a Son far greater than himself from the universal Seed. for sufficient for God beyond being the the universal That is laid them that plan which is down when He deposited Seed. that is to say. Sonship. But it needs must be that this Sonship also &quot. and the forth lower creation was ordered in the same manner as the higher. Basilides avoid the difficulties both of fate free-will absolute.&quot. as uttered by Him who primarily fitting time and form and manner of utterance of the things that were to be uttered. which bestows and receives benefits. in like manner to the first.&quot. and terrestrial] were completed. Of things here on the earth. the conglomeration of the seed- mixture &quot. choice. here all all things verily in the highest sense. planes and the sublunary. This lower creation one of subtle matter. the supercosmic &quot. whole universe [setherial. the turning-point of new karman hand of God alone. then. . to say.&quot. We next come to the soteriology of the redemption and restoration of When. As is still things that come apparently still to the earth. the field of are in the Thus does and . that the earth-stage is the moment between the past and future. having been hath planned the to pass according to nature. and the to pass in this state of existence.THE BASILIDIAN GNOSIS. there is no special chief or manager or creator. things. Soteriology. all Basilides. is in our come own stage or space. then.

Prophets gave is effable. Before the Gospel was preached. inform and and have &quot. the time had come. the Great Ruler of the Ogdoad was considered even by the most spiritual among men to be the only God. the creation itself groaneth together and travaileth together. and the second which followed the example and the God beyond being. correct sparks. to the been left order and perfect our souls. and the Gnosis came. waiting for the manifestation of the Sons of God the third &quot. words. and restored to its place the above. not only to the nations.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. it was And written. The inspiration Hebdomad the of only.&quot. came as may be seen from from the God of Abraham.&quot. but also to them of the Hebdomad and the Ogdoad. Isaac and God I did not make known unto them. which have a natural tendency downwards to remain in this state of existence. The Sons real of spiritual God men are the divine within. who behind here in the seed-mixture. and their inspiration came from this source. But the Gospel was that Mystery which was ever unknown. therefore. which names. because he was ineffable. This God to whom Moses and the was of the Hebdomad. but the and even &quot. When. says the . the Limitary Spirit of cosmos. the name of to their Rulers. Moses. I arn Jacob. even as of its fellow. &quot. with the most subtle Sonship. 266 should be manifested. Sonship. however. nevertheless no name was given to him.&quot. there beyond highest Firmament.

lays hold of and seizes on of catching fire the ideas from the blessed Sonship beyond the For the power of the Sonship which Limitary Spirit. but from fire a flame a great way off from the naphtha. of God (who creation 2t)7 the revelation of the children for &quot. wisdom. arid authority.The the Great Ruler of the Ogdoad. God over him was but a generable deity. whom are ourselves). unnameable That beyond being and of the Sonship.THE BASILIDIAN Gnostic doctor. and rushing thoughts of the [supreme] Sonship with the Son of the Great Ruler. GNOSIS. came down anything blessed Sonship * from vapour that the that Blessed God above. and passed through every princi the pality. and groaneth travaileth in expectation. departed from of title of very truth. This is the meaning of And he the words. Thus the Gospel first came from the Sonship shares the flowing &quot. the Gnosis] came into the universe. Son &quot. who transcends just as the all or thought. and that above set the Treasure of the ineffable and all. not that beyond being. The Mystic The fear of the Lord For he began to the beginning of wise through the grow is . as it were. repented and feared on understanding in what ignorance he had been. in the Limit Space. and every came It use. that man can and lordship. to that Ruler and the Ruler learned that he was not the . Gospel [the Glad Tidings. is in the midst of the Holy Spirit. through the Son who sits by the Great Ruler. so do the powers of men s spirit pass from below from the formlessness of the conglomeration up to the Sonship. naphtha can catch Nay. for the whole Gospel.

what the Sonship. Then was it the Hebdomad. but in those taught of the Spirit. and the Mystery became known to the powers above the heavens. confessed the sin which he &quot. declared in a mystery. what the Holy Spirit. After the instruction of the Great Ruler. &quot. The great Ruler. concerning which Scripture uses the words. 268 the Christ sitting by him. the Ruler. the whole space of the Ogdoad was instructed and taught. what the apparatus of the universe instruction of what the manner of This restoration. have recognized my sin. and for be revealed to the Sonship which behind in the formlessness. like the as the Gospel Great Ruler before him. Thereupon the up in the Son of the the Light which he himself had had kindled in him and thus the Sonship the Hebdomad was to . Therefore the time was ripe for the illumination &quot. I &quot. as it . had done in This boasting himself.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. learning what is That beyond being. is the saying. then. Not in words taught of human wisdom. and I will confess it for the eternity. from above from the Son illumined. and I know my trans gression. feared and confessed [his sin]. The Sons of the had the formlessness Mystery been to left of our own world. being instructed and taught and made afraid. And then all things in the sublunary spaces were enlightened and had the Gospel preached unto them. in Ruler of the lower lit space. that and Gospel should come to Ruler might be instructed that the its like evangelized Son of the Great Ruler manner. who in of and the Ruler of preached his turn. its is the wisdom.

to is time (an abortion) known unto former the mystery which was not generations/ as it the mystery made 269 known unto me.THE BASILIDIAN GNOSIS. the Light down which the come Ogdoad unto the Son of the Hebdomad descended upon Jesus. from above meaning of come upon Holy Spirit say. that which came from the into The from and thee The Power - that is of to the Highest shall divine the say. and he evidently did not seize the thought of Basilides. The power belongs to the soul and not to Mary the body the divine creative power making of man . Thus. For the world shall hold together and not be which has been dissolved until the whole Sonship . The Son apparently means the soul. that Sonship Ogdoad [the to This the is shall to the through the Limitary Spirit and Hebdomad. and words. which not is it was revelation By written. &quot. Hippolytus is here exceedingly involved. Jesus seems to stand for a type of every every Son of God. from the Hebdomad. whereas the body can only exercise the power of physical procreation. were to one born out due of unspeakable man &quot. power which cometh from the [setherial] heights above through the Demiurgos. &quot. I heard lawful for utter. a god. which power belongeth to the The text of Son. son of Mary. &quot. member of the Sonship. being caught on fire in harmony with the Light had already that streamed the thee saying. and he was illumined. down as far as Mary body] overshadow creative is him. Moreover.&quot.

Spirit. 270 behind left to forms follow shall upward and come it cation] to speed the with subtle. When. will all it the [the shall be effected. from anything different nor shall there be any rumour or knowledge of of existence alone. and natural in their remain condition.Thus all whose nature the is souls is of contrary to this nature. riot feed suffer pain just on as the by though mountains striving after it were with fish sheep. in universe Great the order that all things Ignorance [Maha-pralaya]. . aloft through its own for it hath Sonship. the whole ascended. of psychic plane] and hasten [For by purifi purified. even as all its power naturally consubsistent with the Light which shone down from above. it pain the Sons of God. namely that the Sonship may ascend beyond festation of men of And when creation]. and passed beyond The Final matfon&quot. spirit conscious for vehicle [the in souls receive to them for the benefit and formlessness. nothing may long for anything which &quot. then. God this whole the upon bring have shall &quot. its state of to remain immortal in existence. the whole creation become the the shall groan eth until and awaiteth the mani suffereth for . so that it able is power. in order that lower souls impossible longing to may objects. becometh most first a this imitate Jesus. state this remain without knowledge of or better than this state.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. forth state by evolving requiring contact and after the benefits. then object of the Great Mercy now and Sonship the Great Limit. the things superior in higher states.

THE BASILIDIAN GNOSIS.Thus Ruler of the Hebdomad shall have no knowledge of the things above him. and which will all be restored [to their original nature] in their appointed cycles. hour hath not yet come. impossible for him to attain. And in like manner the Great Ignorance shall upon the Great Ruler of the Ogdoad. so that nothing may long seize after anything contrary to nature and thus suffer pain. such a desire would for 271 overleap and transgress their limits. within . accord ing to nature in the Seed of the universe in the beginning. the &quot. &quot. And thus shall be the restoration of which have had their foundations laid all down things. for the Great Ignorance shall take hold of him also. and also upon all the [setherial] creations which are subject to him in similar fashion.&quot. All if they remain in but condition. foreordained nativity of in the Seed to be subject to the the stars and the return of the time- periods to their starting Now the Saviour. the Saviour My their is sufficient its proper cycle and witness in the saying.man. and thus shall suffer no grief. and also the Magi in For He also was observation of His star. was the perfected to spiritual the Basilidian &quot. places. according Gnosis. so that sorrow and pain and lamentation may go He shall desire naught of things from him. subject to destruction proper to desire they natural indestructible are things their if end in their destruction. &quot.&quot. &quot. And that everything has time.

And was Sonship was it thus through purified.&quot. in having become immortal].&quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. or great exemplar. longer mortal but remaining [that the is first the soul being no its natural state &quot. 272 the psychic and animal man or soul. of this . and all of blessed Sonship these above. which belongs or vehicle His psychic vesture Hebdomad to the and was restored to the Hebdomad. &quot. Every part of the creation goes up a stage. &quot. &quot. it remained Moreover he raised still higher that which was of the nature of the Great Limit. purified it passed upwards principles unto the . &quot. and the whole scheme of salvation is effected by the separating from their state of conglomeration the various principles into their proper states and Jesus was the first-fruits. the &quot. in him which was the That vehicle the nature of the height of of Great Ruler he raised with the Great arose Ruler. process. soul. immortal] Jesus. the him Sonship that left the third behind in the state of mixture [or impurity] for the purpose of helping through and being helped. Thus his physical belongs to formless which part down here alone suffered. the Sonship in him leaves the soul behind here. in its proper space or region for it is only then on reaching perfection. and it remained in the Limitary Spirit. that the real man is clothed with a proper [and really . just as to say. and aloft. And when a man reaches this stage of perfection. Great Limit. Sonship [left behind] the Holy Spirit. and was matter restored to the formless state.

&quot.&quot. was the crown of manhood. and therefore the manifesta tion of Deity. marriage. so that the misrepresentations of those of his prior authority. Basilides and his son Isidorus . who deals purely with the ethical side of the Basilidian Gnosis. after the discovery of the MS. namely. into their proper natures. the crown of the world-process.THE BASIL1DIAN 273 GNOSIS.the spurious Basilidian system. or this we Meantime shall refer later on. the term &quot. at the back of this system The main idea is the separating forth. So far Hippolytus. and account has changed the whole enquiry. the Sonship. metaphysical &quot. the Saviour. let us turn Clement of Alexandria. physics As T to or in the sublunary space being called domain of physis or nature. classification or restoration of the various elements original world-seed. &quot. the things of the Hebdomad or &quot. The revolutionized all but the nothing Ireneeus and of this great and short the Epitomators sublime Gnostic s Philosophumena prior views. by a process of purification which brought unto men the Gnosis or perfection of con Man was sciousness. us the outline was only in who the of in all probability gives Basilidian system. garbled known was to sketches this of speculations. or or confused principles universal the in plasm. To Irenaeus. and the perfected man. in one of the libraries on Mount Athos in 1842 prior . the Christ. metaphysical part using in the Aristotelian sense. It true Philosophumena were that The 1851 published to the world. of things beyond the Hebdomad. and there to fore does not touch the &quot. are now referred to as &quot.

babe who [evil] the For just as the babe. &quot. writes as follows in Book Karman to all Exegetica those who : fall into these so-called tribulations. 274 was natural but not necessary. although it has done no wrong previously.I Reincarna- the reincarnation and karman. reviled as Christians being murderers. only after transgressing in other matters without being discovered. sin is in it [from advantaged which otherwise are its and difficult to . so that. are people who. are brought to this good end [martyrdom] by the kindness of Providence.&quot. and yet has the capacity of former reaps lives]. in way as power. of he procreation who by the Jews. which fact is so consoling for to them that they do not even appear to suffer. who without is a wife is no man. the offences they are charged with being quite different from those they have committed without discovery. but suffer merely or adulterers .FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FOEGOTTEN. they do not suffer as criminals for proved offences. basing himself on the doctrines of xxiii. As apparently undeserved sufferings of martyrs. many when benefits it suffers. Basilides. or practically committed any sin. and seem to have taken a moderate ground between the compulsory asceticism of some schools and taught that the it glorification that taught &quot. even And though it should happen that one comes to suffer without previously committing any out ward transgression a very rare case he will not suffer at all through any plot of any but exactly the same apparently has done no ill. of his say that &quot.

murder constitutes the he may not be actually able although to effect his purpose.&quot. &quot. Men says Basilides. even though he does constitutes find the opportunity of actually and the commit to will riot committing adultery. but God [alone] if &quot. because he has not as yet been placed in the necessary cir cumstances. he would The man you name is man.&quot. &quot. . &quot. . but souls of another nature by other appropriate punishments. &quot. evidently &quot. he has he deed. In the case even of such a man we should not be right in supposing entire freedom from sin. even if he has actually done no sin. righteous . has not committed actual sin [in this life]. : not has And is : but was like a babe suffering. say sinned. from their deeds in soul suffers the elect honourably suffer. than that Providence Moreover. no one for is pure from pollution. 275 just the selfsame way is it with the man also who has never sinned in virtuous perfectly still the tendency to sin in him. I shall say that he is evil in so far as he has still the For will to transgress.THE BASILIDIAN GNOSIS. he were pressed even more closely. former lives &quot. for gain in . For just as it is the will to commit adultery which the adulterer. The elect soul is one in for an other that will suffer ideal. He &quot. I will say. the sturdy defender of the Gnosis says that he should answer If you permit. through martyrdom. even if I is will say anything rather evil. as Job said. dom]. for just this reason if I see such a sinless man suffering [the pains of martyr murderer. the example of Jesus were to be flung in his face by those who preferred miracle to law. &quot.

such as those of the wolf. etc. sensation excite such .&quot. ape. the of soul into the body of an animal confused by the uninstructed with the reincarnation. the animal soul. 276 words possessed of faith. which is the &quot. The Appen- of The ground in which the the doctrine being thus summarized : Basilidians are accustomed to give the appendages essences. . in The Timceus of Plato the same idea is called turmoil. chaotic conglomeration of the universal seed-mixture. sideration of the animal nature in man. goat. curiously enough the whole animal soul is called the counterfeit spirit in the Pistis Sophia treatise. And when the peculiar qualities of lion. the they say. have a certain name These [or accretions] to the passions.assent soul to any of the things which do not it is the of &quot..spirits&quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and are attached to the rational soul. The vulgar often so doctrine of transmigration. may be seen from the commentary of The primitive confusion is of course the Proclus. &quot.&quot. soul. The word translated essences is literally &quot.&quot. and &quot. body passions inhere by Clement &quot. a &quot. which denies such a received a possibility hand superstition human passing of a rational explanation at the from a con It arose of the Basilidian school. . elemental essence and the differentiation of the &quot. discovers without demonstration by an intellective doctrines apprehension. of the essence grow. owing to a certain turmoil and primitive confusion. or of desire. then. On to this nucleus other bastard and alien natures &quot. substantial existence. as &quot. of some modern writers on theosophy. &quot.

277 such natures appear round the soul. but they even imitate the movements and selves with the impulses beauties of plants. such as the hardness of adamant.&quot.&quot. son of Basilides. his. I to battle . . I was carried away. And not of only do human souls thus intimately associate them and impressions of irrational animals.THE BASILIDIAN GNOSIS. and that it is proper for man to to yield animal his nature. writes Appended Were &quot. On an Soul. But we are not to suppose that man is composed of several souls. I did it without wishing to do natures. the mastery by principle. I was compelled. and refused it the appendages. gaining the means of our rational In other words. no bility. rulers over the inferior creation within us. Our duty with the constraints of is to show ourselves was the man evil. but that the passions of the wicked Moral is I to are occasioned by the compulsion of the appended excuse then would the worthless of mankind have for saying. and seek excuse for misdeeds by saying that the foreign elements to him have compelled him to sin far his attached from the it. the choice rational soul is s. : persuade anyone that the real soul not a unit. the responsibility Thus in his book. they cause the desires of the soul to become like to the special natures of these animals. Isidorus. for they imitate the actions those whose characteristics they bear. Nay. man is the same man. characteristics there are also certain characteristics [of minerals] shown by habits. . no common acted unwillingly whereas himself who led his desire towards so. because they likewise bear the of plants appended to them. is his.

. years on great school. fifteenth [year] of &quot. into the &quot. the process of is magnificently worked out in the Pistis Sophia treatise. that the Basilidians did the accounts not accept the canonical of as claims. as his Pythagorean set Basilides he and writings of by other Barcoph. His celebrate Baptism by a preliminary night-service of readings.in In then. store by and by of five was the custom in the that the a silence imposed disciples.&quot.the an perhaps of workshop It is the Tib[erius]&quot. 278 matter in what body or vesture he vestures are not the man. They the of celebration fifteenth be . and they say that the fifteenth year of Tiberius Csesar means the fifteenth day of the month Tybi.&quot. and their of variants. glimpse interesting we have. or Tybi. which of initiation. It &quot. the the school was on the may Jesus Baptism of Egyptian month Tobe of the &quot. on gospels the contrary. but among many Gnostic . Clement. Hippolytus they explained such incidents as historicized legends literally. as preserved A Trace of Zoro- Eusebius. says Basilides. therefore.&quot. and .FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. point to the cycle Zoroastrian literature which was in great which favour is now lost. the likeness of was then that the Father as which a dove&quot. his school a certain books of Barcabbas and Orientals. meaning the they explained Minister or Holy Spirit came upon Him. evident. to which I must refer the reader for further information. Scholars are of opinion that Barcabbas and Barcoph. One the of the greatest festivals of day of &quot. historicizers. that astrianism. We learn from Agrippa Castor.

and minded the of also the among traditions time. that the monu Mithriac mystery-tradition contains as authentic a tradition as the Pars! line of descent. such features of the system as they considered most erroneous. down The us to is of by the tradition has come recovery from memory of a very the great library of Persepolis. then. . . It is therefore a matter of deep regret that the writings of the school have been lost or destroyed they would doubtless have thrown . that is to say. is all Basilidian system that can be deduced of the real from the writings of Hippolytus and Clemens Alexandrinus. and allowed to stand on their own merits. a portion destroyed were an important syncretistic has theosophically of the Magi &quot.the of the great Iranian faith and part of eclectic and Avesta-literature that said small be to religion. who respectively selected only such points as they thought themselves capable of refuting. and throws a brilliant light was on the Zoroastrianism with which Gnosticism in contact. communities. in his just -published subject. as Pars! seems exceedingly probable. seeing that even such hostilely selected passages easily fall into the general scheme of universal theosophy. after the return from It learned Jews and Babylonia. once they are taken out of the setting of Patristic refutation. accursed And it. 279 must have been that among the Essenes.THE BASILIDIAN GNOSIS. it Cumont has shown mental work on the as Alexander. To the student of comparative religion it is evident that both Church Fathers misunderstood the tenets they quoted. Such.&quot.

&quot. . taken from Irenseus and are the epitomators. they was a certain Abraxas or Abrasax. The of series had and copyists to which we writers no evidently first-hand information refer.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. The main are as said. 280 much light not only on Christian theosophy but on the obscure history of the origins. heavens up to the aether. of the Basilidians. to genetical occult science. view the 365 (during the the and represented from one point of &quot. however. Basilidian system. who was heaven. or Hebdomad and the region of the the Ruler of the &quot. In any case the 365 and astrological pertained considerations of Egyptian and Chaldsean &quot. denominated because This power was so of the numerical sum the values of the Greek letters in the came to 365.) that system had to do with a far lower this part of the stage of creation not. the sheet-anchor of orthodox hseresiology. &quot. and are another proof of the unreliability of Irenseus. s P ur i us The following points &quot. clear than the God beyond all.proasteioi &quot. It now remains for us to refer briefly to the also &quot. features of the confection thus brewed The God follows. the of and merely retailed whatever popular rumour and hearsay teaching of Basilides. however. of which heavens first number name Abrasax of days in the year. whether the Abrasax idea It is is to be identified with the Great Ruler of the Ogdoad. the ruler of their there were no less than 365. notions fantastic attributed to the school. the We learn. from Hippolytus (II. of the heavenly bodies aspects as reflected on the surface of year).

the earth Now which &quot. but nowhere mentions the name Abrasax. was the Basilidian name for the God over all. In fact the mysteries of the unseen world were . authorities. all of them superior to the 365. s it is envelope. was any certain light thrown on the Abrasax idea. and powers. great use of the number 365 among its fills endless hierarchies. and thus supplied the material for proving that the hitherto universal opinion that the &quot. builders. The God over all is the supreme ruler of an endless galaxy of rulers. which in their turn each rule over ninety. forces presumably these lowest powers that made up the Abrasax of the populace. was a gross error based on ignorance or misrepresentation. archangels.THE BASILIDIAN GNOSIS. gods.Abrasax&quot. and also the astrological scheme of the one ruler of the four. 281 &quot. curious to notice that in the Pistis Sophia treatise the mysteries of embryology are consummated by a hierarchy of elemental powers. detail. Not making till in all is set forth in great 365 powers. and fashion the new body The whole in accord ance with past deeds. or atmosphere entended as far as the moon. of the Codex Brucianus. Schwartze translated this treatise from the Coptic. or 365 in number. who follow the dictates of the karmic law. and this just two years after Miller in 1851 published his edition of The Philosophumena. The elemental the lowest which fashion the body are It was servants of the karmic law. also to be noticed that the ancient which makes anonymous It is treatise the superior MS. in 1853.

however. who so intricate in detail. ever clamours all inscribed Behind the superstition. there lay certain occult facts. that much latest there of his treatise to the subject. the Gnosis. . however. in the Abrasax matter. In Abrasax. form of ignorant belief. on every &quot. and which are attributed to the followers of Basilides .&quot. that even those devoted them with unwearied constancy could scarcely understand some of the lower processes. is opinion attributing any known gems to Basilidianism or other form of Gnosticism. because of the number of gems on which it is found. fact. and the rest of the apparatus which the for in some form with this potent &quot. who scholars addition to the great Continental have treated the matter. as in all any other things. which was the consummation of lives of is many Curiously enough this very phrase also found in the Pistis Sophia treatise. although the general idea was simple enough and their lives to . are of no tangible evidence for authorities.&quot. could really receive &quot. mind vulgar or other. had populace Doubtless the before long believed in Abrasax as the great power which governed birth and everyday affairs. name of were power.282 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. according to astrological notions . talismans.&quot. invocations. The term Abrasax well is known to students of Gnosticism. Gnosticism followed its natural tendency of going one better.000. thus Basilides imposed a silence of five years on his disciples.000. to use a colloquialism. and declared that only one out of 1. and two out of 10. effort.&quot. or even superstition. in this country in King has devoted The and best &quot.

seem to have been There facts. Basilidian Gnosis in from Memphis to the however. still met with students of the the nomes west of the Delta. the real nature of which. Indeed it is very probable that the followers of this. and they accordingly found the proper place for them in their Thus Abrasax. As to the rest of the powers of the &quot. stood and mocked at those he had tricked ! with which cock-and-bull story we may come out for a of the Irenseic store-house of Gnosticism &quot. that the sea. or &quot. when his substitute hung in agony. said to have believed that at the crucifixion Jesus changed bodies with Simon of Cyrene. school It seems more probable. of course. the ignorant. Of the history of the school we know nothing beyond the fact that Epiphanius. and the popular idea of him of was assigned to the lowest building physical body. breathing space. which was as They are follows. the vulgar and astrologers ignorant. the Great God universal systems. however.THE BASILIDIAN of 283 GNOSIS. and then. known to were talisman-makers naturally however. omit the silliest tale told against the Basilidians. was placed among the lower hier archies of the Gnosis.them of Basilides&quot. at the end of the fourth century. spurious system&quot. the main stream of the Gnosis. continued in the main stream of Gnosticism of the latter half of the second was century. would have warmly resented being classed as &quot. there is nothing of interest to record. and movement of at the back of the great Valentinian which we have next to treat. we cannot.them of . &quot. the doctors of the Gnosis.

of Gnosticism. Valentinus &quot. of Gnosticism. he who has been made to give his name to the remodelling of whole structure. when we information &quot. and not as severally inspired revealers of new doctrines. and against his come no word moral has ever Patristic so-called writers And character. not that Codices. I will not say the authorship. We know nothing certain him as a man. THE VALENTINIAN MOVEMENT. way. even by his bitterest opponents. we &quot. except the few mutilated scraps which hseresiological of polemics have vouchsafed to us. have learning and eloquence are admitted. still remains the &quot. which on the subject find the of mysterious character of the great master of the Gnosis ever receding before our respectful curiosity. to have been of a most extraordinary nature. I think this can be proved in any satisfactory fashion . universally greatest of the the fio-ure Valen- of to acknowledged His Gnostics. whole the Valentinian movement stands commanding and mysterious tinus been himself. but the compilation. each in his own . of the treatises in the Askew and Bruce My own opinion is that we owe a great part of these elaborations to Valentinus. to analyze the chaos of have left Valentinianism. us been breathed yet. nothing definite of him as a writer. they doubtless regarded these teachers as handers-on of a living tradition.great the unknown &quot.284 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. (I am of course leaving aside entirely the vexed question of. Great the Unknown&quot. BEHIND The &quot.

. no one of his works has been preserved spite to They are us. them of Valentinus &quot. We so far formulation of the separate by the name With the exception by the Fathers refers to of of its Gnosticism simply greatest leader. the so-called Valentinian Gnosis is the piece de resistance of nearly every hgeresio- We logical treatise. were of prior distinctly this is known with the outline of the best not the case ascribed system it to &quot. as seen through the eyes of while of shall. moreover Valentinianism. in it is to be disproved. the few of which we have referred. It is very strange that. by the Church Fathers. intricate and said difficult. however.Them of Va/lentinus .&quot. up a few finger-posts in the maze Valentinianism. all fragments to that has been written the teachings of &quot. them &quot. I do not see how to us. that remember always from being a single Gnosis. of the universally admitted transcendency of Valentinus. \Y nereas it is patently the case with the treatises in Coptic translations they could have been elaborated by no one but the stoutest. therefore. to have been exceedingly they are further said to have been syntheses and symphonies as Now formulations of the Gnosis.) man In spite of this appalling ignorance of the and his teachings. on the patience of its have to trespass the reader for a short space.THE VALENTINIAN MOVEMENT. we set Patristic opponents. was the main stream rechristened should &quot. 285 with the present scanty sources of information open On the contrary. headed among the Gnostics and the best head-piece of them all is said to have been on the shoulders of Valentinus.

for rarely part that very quotation the most fragments torn from their of consists all it but Now the followers of hearsay. or mere &quot. not only one another.? Fathers . make them flatly contradict also themselves. Each of them thought out the master&quot. from being of a most diverse nature. and adaptation which ever of spiritual and intellectual marks a period life. Valentinus were no slavish disciples who could do nothing else but repeat parrot-like the words of the contexts. initiated this synthe- more probable that neverthless it was still far independent in innumerable details of a very far-reaching character. perhaps Valentinus ticizing tendency. and its adherents were imbued with that spirit of research. but .. what tinians who agreed together. each introduced new which we can no longer follow in the confused representations of the Church Fathers.&quot. good there in is tinian system Church himself &quot. Thus we understand the complaint of Irenseus. details of the own scheme of universal philosophy in his True that by this time the presentation of the Gnosis. had become more settled in its main features. the ipse dixit spirit was far from their independent genius. Valen- next to nothing from the of Valentinus &quot. who modifications.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. followers. even then it is we have an unmutilated from any written work of theirs. may have though it is he developed and perfected enormously and free it . and fashion.system&quot. as to any longer talking We know of his the of the &quot. discovery. who laments that he never could find two ValenAnd if this be so. 286 of and Valentinus.

as will be seen later on. Western Schools. backs broken by the weight of But argument which has been piled upon them. light from the division Anatolic and Italic schools. Of the other leaders of the movement. published and division of Italic) in 1851. their have been seized upon by criticism. half Hippolytus. we and Western (Anatolic an Eastern heard of first 287 the school of The so-called Eastern and Valentinus.THE VALENTINIAN MOVEMENT. A Hippolytus (II.D. thus explaining the title superscribed to the Extracts from Theodotus appended. when Lipsius demonstrates that the Extracts from Theodoius. Now Marcus himself had a large Movement. signification was all hope Valentinianism into of the present state of in we simply assume indeed purely geographical times a doctrinal originally which to and abandon shoulders. in the only M. the ordinary student has to hold his head his our ignorance that they unless . were designations. Western. of them we possess. Although we have no sure indication of the date of Valentinus himself. From The Philosophumena. to The Miscellanies of Clement of Alexandria. extend from about A.D. of in later unsuccessfully attempted to be given. .) great deal has been made of this the meagre differences of doctrine of the Anatolic and Italic schools of Valentinianism indicated by had and .S. the earliest with whose names we are acquainted. are Secundus The Leaders and Marcus. which claim in their superscription to belong to Eastern the indications of tightly on to following the Eastern and half school. are. it conjectured to 180. may be 100 to A.

his thou &quot. from to whom the Excerpts Clement s Miscellanies were taken. and as late as. have sometimes contemporary of enormously of &quot. are is known not so much for the exposition of a system as for the exegetical treatment of scripture from the standpoint of the Gnosis of their time. or Marcians. and . and dealt for the most part with his followers. 193) disciples of Both Heracleon and Ptolemseus.them is been a only on the supposition that Irengeus. about 220. is supposed to had certainly no personal knowledge of Ptolemaeus. Still later. who are said to have differed greatly Ireneeus from their teacher. by some. and the latter taught o still farther east. Theodotus. what we know of from those of the Marcus is his system rest of differs supposed to Irenaaus.&quot.D. Axionicus and Baidesanes flourished. They are therefore called. 288 his followers were not following as early as 150 called Valentinians but Marcosians. Next. say. mere as a rhetorical effect. was far earlier in date. the former of whom at Antioch. is addressing a living person. ever.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. arid not employing the in &quot. in using the second person hortatory and admonitory passages. whom of distinguished Clement the (c. but this Valentinus. as Tertullian with Marcion. years later. we come to Ptolernseus. but of appended of course him we know nothing . how Valentinus. 180. who have been a contemporary of again Irenaeus somewhere about A. Later calls still most the Heracleon. heads of the Anatolic or Oriental school.

and A short review of the teachings ascribed to these doctors of the Gnosis will bring our task to a close. and westwards to Rome. was sought by the more moderate and mystical views of the movement now headed by Valentinus. unfilled. and even Spain. which presumably had always been the attitude of the innermost circles. such older forms of the Gnosis as had been found a exceedingly logical outcome antagonistic to Judaism the great Marcionite in movement. but those which either Basilides himself left Hippolytus (II. or in the system quotations. the spread far Syria. are earlier than 220. TAe Syntheti- cizmg of the as far as the indirect sources of Gnosticism for the first But the two centuries are concerned. which room found for every view embracing universality. insist face with a great On the one hand. is perhaps to be most clearly seen to-day in infinite his of Basilides. that we are face to movement and not a single system. The main outline of the movement of conciliation.THE VALENTINIAN MOVEMENT. Asia wide. which cut Christianity entirely apart from Judaism on the other. and explained tradictions by means of that inner in its away secret all- con teaching which was claimed to have come from the Saviour Himself. we would again fact upon is. from Egypt eastwards to Minor and Mesopotamia. . Gaul. We also hear of a certain who 289 Theotimus and Alexander.) has omitted to mention spaces. In influence of Valentinus brief. a basis of reconciliation . infinitude of were creations also peopled with an and creatures by the genius Gnosis.

as well they might be from the nature of the task he attempted. retaining some times the old names. are to said initiative of have been most abstruse and difficult of comprehension. This syntheticizing due to the of the was mainly Gnosis the genius of Valentinus. closely resembling it. it will be a precious acquisition to our knowledge of this most important epoch. and homilies. 290 who could brook no deficiency in the exposition of their universal science. the various aspects of the ancient Gnosis and the postulates of the old religions and philosophies. at best we have only a few ethical frag ments from own make letters followers.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. we must be . What has become of these writings ? No Church Father seems to have been acquainted with a single one of his technical treatises. as we have observed above. and adapting them fitted by the new light of the revelation. they of the Gnostics. if not. more frequently inventing new ones. adopting these world-old ideas. whom Church But what of his Fathers and critics a certain Valentinian system responsible of a most chaotic nature ? Were they in possession of for MSS. Into this or one general outline. His technical works. of ? consistent scheme of the Gnosis could be envisaged Pistis Sophia document and the other ? If the two Codices can be made to throw any light on the matter. or did they depend on general notions derived from his lectures work out a he set forth several Did Valentinus view from which it . or did owing to the and the innumerable points alternatives. difficulty of the matter. of Valentinus .

Irenseus wrote He 185-195. Biog. the rest his treatise writings are lost. Irenaeus Memoranda tions with claims of have to come across certain the Valentinians and had conversa some of their number. . Miltiades. among the briefly Fathers.. review dark until some fresh the in 291 authorities we must so. who but I s Diet of investigations information.THE VALENTINIAN MOVEMENT. The personal conversations were also teacher. by his 1887). A. remain content to document discovered. In mostly follow Lipsius. critical shall and W. is we must Meantime the certain traces our our confine attention to Valentinus and the general of but before doing movement. Proculus. held with presumably in followers the Rhone of the district same not Sources of Information. But these Notes belonged only to the followers of Ptolemgeus. and only one short fragment is ascribed to a writing of Ptolemseus himself. who is not only one of the best authorities on the subject review this in (Art. and namely. With the exception of tanist books of Irenseus. inaugurated the admirable into our Gnostic sources of ago long Christ. Tertullian informs us that prior to himself no fewer than four orthodox champions had under taken the refutation of the Valentinians Justin Irenseus : Martyr. analysis of The Panarion of Epiphanius. and isolated notices are found in the remaining four books.D. S. Mon- the the five these controversial of somewhere devotes most of his about first book to the Valentinians exclusively.

far away in chapter xi. 292 exactly a fertile abstruse tenets of the soil the which in to we Gnosis. In dealing with Marcus. that independent it is exceedingly form a judgment upon them. but he seems also to have been in possession of a Memoir of a Marcosian reliable oral .FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. martyrs of Lyons. implant the should think. and that the system of Valentinus himself is not to be found in The Refutation by the Bishop of Lyons. Lipsius assigns part of dis When. Irenaeus professes to give the teaching of Valentinus himself. with &quot. communications. difficult by to and Clement hinself.have been dislocated and their original coherence broken in so violent a manner. Marcus himself living and working Asia Minor years before. and so interspersed up&quot. these extracts to the Oriental and part to the Occidental school. These excerpts &quot.&quot. Lipsius also points out that Irenseus drew some of his statements opening from the same source as Clement in The Excerpts from Theodotus. From all of which it follows that we are face to face with a most provoking patch-work. Outlines. which are supposed by Lipsius to have probably formed part of the first book of Clement s lost The work. counter-observations cussions&quot. Our next source of information is to be found in the Excerpts from the unknown otherwise Theodotus. Irenseus derived his information for the most part from the same un in of spite &quot. moreover. but here he is In simply copying from the work of a prior refutator. he the superscription which practically bids us erase .

in his lost Syntagma. Tertullian simply copies from Irenseus. barbarous Theodoret and Epiphanius. are our indirect sources of information for an understanding of the Valentinian movement. then.THE VALENTINIAN MOVEMENT. and the Theodotus (Books) of from In any case. recoverable from the epitomators Pseudo-Tertullian and Philaster. we are so-called Anatolic School. latter. . seems to have combined the first seven chapters of Irenaeus with some other account. a sorry troop of of course simply copies Irenseus So many. Hippolytus (I. however.). and Epiphanius. us now return to Valentinus himself. and of the seons not also a list of found elsewhere. has preserved the famous Letter of also Ptolemceus names &quot. in fact the an account. and the chaos Hippolytus is still (II. &quot. Philosophumena. it must be confessed. silhouette a character that was of universally acknowledged to have been the greatest among the Gnostics. and of blind guides. entirely independent gives most uniform and synoptical representation of any haeresiological phase of the Gnosis of the Valentinian cycle that has reached us through the Fathers. that most precious of all The documents. 293 them namely. such a nature. to Flora. has been always Extracts associated with the again face to face with another patch-work. and endeavour to patch some dim together from the fragments that remain. in further confused. and so The for the most part does Epiphanius. where everything Let requires the greatest care and discrimination.).

his witness is to the known direct of this Nothing Theodas or Theudas. at the back were prehend. VALENTINUS. and Ussher has even assumed that in it was a contraction for Theodotus. a conjecture which he has been followed by Zahn. There were the Logoi. founded by some missionary from Asia Minor and numerous legends of the mysterious Gnosis which . This theory . .294 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. &quot. But the greatest lore of of Pythagoras. the wisdom of Plato. though he have stated that a certain Theodas. all character. doubtless traditions yet. mathesis ancient Khem. above all things. Valentinus was an Egyptian. Christianity But what kind of Christianity did Valentinus of true every encounter at Alexandria chetical School ? There was when he was a Clement were not as no Cate Pantaenus and boy. to &quot. the helped to fashion his inspiration of all he found in the last outpouring from the same source from which the wisdom philosopher comes the stream of that was swirling along at full tide. apostolic man. educated at Alexandria in all that Egypt and Greece had to teach The mysterious him. was tradition of the Gnosis. the inner schools and communities of the wisdomtraditions been Valentinus must have intimacy with Basilides. and many contradictory a Pauline community also. As to his biography. the Sayings of the Lord. Jesus had secretly taught to those who could com But. we know next to nothing. an in closest said is and the Gnosis. &quot.&quot.

VALENTINUS. every phase of which was already in some sort a synthesis. or to estrange the in so or popular evolution of Christianity been called the Catholic Church. Valentinus did not propose to attack abandon the general faith. change the All we can not entirely improbable. It is true that Tertullian. which has since He most probably remained a Catholic Christian to the end of his life. and. the ground on certain important points. the philosophic. in the great and in the private libraries of the mystics. And this we know was the task that He deter Valentinus set before him as his goal. even if so. those various sources of information. and in the library all intellectual and religious atmosphere of the place all those synthetical and theosophical tendencies which make for the formulation of a universal system of religion. mined to syntheticize the Gnosis. 295 would thus make the Theodotus of the Excerpts in Clement an older authority than Valentinus himself. which would still further complicate the Eastern and Western school question. Or recognize the ruling of disciplinarian Rome ? in the . origins. we coupled read of his excommunication in with the favourite accusation brought against prominent heretics. that he aposta tized from the Church because his candidature for the episcopal office was rejected. Rome speak Tertullian imagined but. But doing. In addition there were at Alexandria. did name of the Catholic Church in those early days ? Would Alexandria. that this took place at Rome . whole problem of Valentinian say here is that the view and would clear is in fact.

somewhere between 138 and 160. but in order to arrive at this conclusion. of Origen. and though his fame entirely eclipses that of every other name . On the whole I am inclined to assign the date of Valentinus to the century.296 did FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. they reject the distinct statement of Tertullian that Valentinus was still an orthodox member of the Church up to the time of Eleutherus (c. orthodoxy on to the date of his leaving Rome. but as both are problematical. however. Rome excommunicate a favourite way Valentinus after his death. 175). I first eighty years of the second In further support of this length of days. The date of his death is absolutely unknown at . adds fifteen years of Date. some considerable time One Rome. that he Valentinus. we have nothing to fear from the putting back of the one and the putting forward of the other ten years or so. Valentinus seems to have passed the greater part of his life in Egypt. also that he was at authority says Cyprus. he was. to reflect on the extra would invite the reader ordinary fact that. in another place. critics mostly reckon it about 161. and Tertullian himself also. and the equally distinct statement was personally acquainted with This would set back Origen s own date of birth and advance the date of Valentinus death. with her in after times of finishing a controversy ? Or is not Tertullian romancing here as is not infrequently the case ? Epiphanius dis states that Valentinus was tinctly regarded as orthodox so long as he was at Rome. if we can trust our for authorities. though the name of Valentinus is in the mouth of everyone of the time.

of this deeds most important Gnostic of 297 cycle. trying to forestall embrace everything. The great popular movement and its incomprehensi bilities were recognized by Valentinus as an integral part of the mighty out-pouring.VALENTINUS. stranger than all. practically hseresiologists. into one piece. orthodoxy. his letters After the he sight went. and doubtless only at his death perceived that for that age he was attempting the impossible. as orthodox. he laboured to weave all together. and. None of his technical lished. we can at least conjecturally answer that he went back to Alexandria. even the most dogmatic formulation of the traditions of the Master.&quot. But if be ever shown to be true that such documents as after it leaving of the treatises and homilies alone were that. He was an enigma not only to even to those who regarded him The Gnosis &quot. at any rate for the major part This strange fact requires of his life. the of the words and Gnosticism are great coryphaeus almost entirely without record. much less understand it. explanation. devoted his life to the task. but as a teacher. long almost entirely conjectural. were ever pub Rome he Western what he is circulated. to in his hands is the generality. he is regarded. None but the very few could ever appreciate the ideal of the man. is the Pistis Sophia are specimens of the workshop to which he belonged. and I would venture to suggest that the explanation is to be found to a great extent in the extraordinary reserve and secrecy of the man. where he Writings. and how lost to Where he lived did. . external and internal.

intended to if it mean simply the Gnosis which Valentinus taught. is knowledge of the things beyond the phenomenal world ? Tertullian also tells us that Valentinus composed a treatise entitled Sophia. in Basilidian sense of an the used here be Gospel that to is exposition if say.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. are also told that this is to supposed meant a Gospel But may not containing the Sayings of the Lord. the antithesis makes between the Wisdom of Valentinus and the Wisdom of Solomon would lose The Wisdom of Solomon is a book. He little. have now to treat of the few fragments of the works of this prolific writer which have come down to us in the writings 01 the Church Fathers. We he composed a Gospel. or Wisdom. to the but if Wisdom which Valentinus this were so. but be a false assumption false. consist of and homilies preserved by . which Tertullian Wisdom were of Valentinus should also be a book. whose we shall not always follow. then its proper antithesis would have been the Wisdom of God and not of Solomon.emendations. the all its point. Some critics have asserted that the words of Tertullian do not refer to a book but claimed to teach . a few scraps of letters of them &quot. The fragments is by however. of the by Gospel or Gnosis. Of his writings. besides the fact that they were numerous and his technical treatises exceedingly and difficult we know very abstruse. composed numerous Letters and Homilies and Psalms. The latest collection Hilgenfeld (1884). We The Fragments that remain. 298 his finished retirement the in life such that abstruse literary labours required.&quot.

owing to the presence Logos] who. From a i. For Adam being- fashioned Man of the [Heavenly] [the Logos]. plasm] seized hold of the angels [the fabricative powers]. Letter. or primitive form of man. had [the of the First gave voice to things to of of manner also among of humanity. . for pre-existing being in him.299 VALENTINUS. pieces The in the narrative of a vision and the Philosophumena scrap of a psalm. which could neither stand nor walk of Plato s Timceus is the embryonic sphere evolved by the powers of nature. Clement of two and Alexandria. work in very truth he And they [the powers] were struck and [in their terror] speedily marred [of their hands]. like and images. unseen bestowed on it the [the powers]. spread abroad the terror of that had His Man. when it been used in in its Him of it greater than had Mankind. Here we have the Gnostic myth of the genesis of man. which is already familiar to us in the general tradition of the Gnosis. with the name bear the to terror. &quot. and its powers. fashioning. the works of men become a them who make them such as statues realities face terror them seed who spake the supernal essence [the ego]. and above the rest of the man is into it Deity immediately raised creation . And just as terror of that creature [lit.&quot. The plasm. as the outcome of evolution breathes the mind. and all things which [men s] hands fashion to bear the name of God. and the races to to face in .

and on these fabrications of men s name of this or that supernal power was thought to be bestowed by Him who speaks hands the &quot. &quot. in fear of the mind within the &quot. Heavenly Man the of war on by slow degrees does the mind overcome them. with which &quot. but that Humanities. and the which decides the nature and mysterious something class and being of every creature. explanation given of have &quot. outraging it in . Now its purity essences which take of is up them accomplishes its prevented their abode own by the many in it. and him. 300 Nevertheless his body is still feeble. On the Pure One [alone] is Letter. &quot. contact. &quot. &quot. made much of statues and talismans and amulets. him. The in &quot. whose free utterance is His manifestation through his Son it is by Him alone that the heart can become pure. man of only learn to The Heavenly Man is the perfect type of all name is no name. Man alone down here has the divine name or nature alive within &quot. for each deeds. &quot. approach Egypt was to the perfect type either of manhood or of nature-organism.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Good. &quot. prehistoric traditional direct name world. [and that too only] when every evil essence has been expelled out of . face to we Here face. and the naturename powers. &quot. of From a ii. &quot. &quot. a hint by the the of initiated antiquity.idol-worship&quot. this made if were supposed to be a nearer in a certain manner.&quot. which idea was thus woven priests into the scheme of universal Gnosis by Valentinus. . it.

quite &quot. 301 As far as I somewhat the caravanserai].&quot. and the abode of many daemons [elemental essences]. so long as [or gaps made in its walls. so blessed is heart. Dead we read.) guarded heart (the &quot. The doctrine was an exceedingly In the so-called Book of the out by Clement. 287 . . and is with dung. the heart seems to receive same treatment as an inn has and holes filled frequently and it taking someone Thus else s property. &quot.&quot.heart&quot. But when the Alone Good Father hath regard unto it it. men living filthily in no care of the place as being with the heart is it has no care taken of it ever unclean it. appendages on responsibility proper. as indeed is pointed &quot. that with shineth and he who possesseth such a light . Ancient Egyptians. the the &quot. true man] and and its [or &quot. is and sanctified he shall see God. that the personality within the man in the aether of the not only this.purusha of the Upanishads). Isidorus. fleshes&quot. against scapegoat.VALENTINUS. explanatory heart that p. &quot. &quot.ancestral heart&quot. my sins 1897. which divers fashions with unseemly lusts. is a distinct and teach but us only that its not &quot. but the formula referred to texts Wiedemann s (Cf. can see. of the making fixed the the &quot. ancient one in Egypt.guardian It is. that the &quot. heart&quot. as we have already seen. the reincarnating entity. of how passions are connected with the blood. arid so with the fleshly envelope. Relig. it fleshly is the envelope. ever. &quot. Here we have the very same doctrine as that enunciated by Basilides and Isidorus with regard to the appendages of the soul. the &quot.

that his food did he himself was without great in so in him. was by It his Jesus that of the Thus Jesus. perfect expression. yoga&quot. higher- will of the ascetic. or utterance.&quot. apparently some with other notions) such lay ideas as behind these the (together doctrine of docetism which was an integral part of the Gnosis- . The Concerning One of the of the Powers Perfect Man. said is &quot. It that said is the body physical can be gradually accustomed to less and less nutriment. Alone Good can only be manifested by J J the ma &quot. * find Valentinus writing to &quot. the of in &quot. gained by he ate and drank in a peculiar working] godship without waste. for decay. is treatise we one of the We are also on yoga entirely refined and signs told that made &quot. any power of con things . Such a man was perfect.&quot.heart&quot. and innumerable cases are on record in the East of holy ascetics who have been able to described above by Valentinus mentioned in every in the waste Upanishads &quot. Agathopus as follows unremitting attained in self-denial : all to [lit. that first stages. The manner.power&quot. little very &quot. after the particles of life one of the siddhis is read support The on incredibly small quantities of food. success the in highest body have been obey the to and in India. in which the real to be enshrined. From iii. or physical heart. was tinence not decay him.302 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. a body of a still higher grade and matter can be gradually substituted of . made ii we free the Letter to Agathopus.

Clement himself also shared like 303 views. those who had this alive and conscious within them were the or pneumatic. the seed of the divine.&quot.VALENTINUS.No The Fac . so that death might die in you are th Sons of God. has incarnated here for the abolition of the domain of the Ruler of the &quot. and so did some other Fathers. the realm of the This Ruler is the God Indian &quot. &quot. . of the philo of Plato. ye are lords and of all creation destruction. From &quot. the inner man.elect race.ever-becoming&quot. From a Homily. A To such Valentinus is spiritual speaking. to spend and lavish it. and by your hands. few Sentences preserved in the Controversial Matter of Clement following the above Quota tion. Here we have the burden of the teaching in one Codex Brucianus to crucify the world and not let the world crucify us and of of the treatises of the the Pistis Sophia treatise. the third Sonship of Basilides. ? ye not that ye &quot.&quot. the very beginning have ye been immortal life such life as the aeons eniov Ye and children of .j . the pneumatic light-spark. the samsara of the Buddhist and sophers. yet would ye have death shared up among you. Old Testament. iv. are gods and lords all &quot. for inasmuch as ye dissolve the world and are not dissolved yourselves. v.&quot. phenomenal world. The &quot.Know The Self within the heart. death. was the eternal pilgrim incarnated in matter. and probably taken from a Writing of Valentinus. the dweller in light.

&quot. to be the &quot.] name For or real being of the majesty of the godhead]. God &quot. painter Sophia or Wisdom. of forces of course the user of the creative is phenomenal world.painter&quot.&quot. and the &quot. removed from the living then is aeon [the nournenal]. He is the god of death. image and prophet of the the word and interprets. true of the &quot. also a face of is life. but there is This live. The &quot. or the &quot. who copies from the the types or ideas in the noumenal world of reality. of God &quot. speaks for &quot. it which not is authentic the found in the form is the completes . and presumably it was taken from the same Letter. concerning which Valentinus writes As far removed as is the [dead image] from the living face. Here we have the same idea as in Fragment i. who is the who transfers the types from the noumenal spaces on to the canvas of the phenomenal world. 304 man God and shall see the face of the face of death. was said by Valentinus true God. the cause of the image The majesty ? What of the which exhibits the type [of the universe] to the painter.&quot. and in order that it the [the universe] may be honoured by its name [ [living] face. it is the invisible nature of deity co-operates so as to induce which has been faith in that fashioned.image&quot. of is . in deficiency [or absolute] nature name which The the confection. meaning one who is the The image prophet &quot.. so far is the [phenomenal] world : &quot. the &quot. He whom the Jews called God and Father. work &quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. of truth is the creator noumenal world. [or person. which contains the types all things. the god of life.

or Saints. the This the People of the Beloved who are loved by and love Him. Letter on the of deal with they &quot. From vi.world.&quot. the volumes&quot. Jewish is writings and the books of the philosophers.&quot. the spirit. who form &quot. All syzygy] things that come forth from a pair [or are fullnesses (pleromata). excellent the coming of the of the light-spark into man. &quot. but all which proceed from a single [a3on] are images. phenomenal universe came into existence.&quot. the infusion Community Friends. are found written in the Church Concerning tne PeP le * ji -j 1 1 i i 01 God. .public in the heart. it refers to the of Sophia from the aeon. The &quot.fall&quot. but also the scriptures of all other religions.n are the words which proceed law written from the heart.305 VALENTINUS. these things which are written in the public volumes. public included not volumes. These truths come from the heart he protests against the narrow view that can find truth in only one set of . the People of the Beloved. the Church of God. only and the scriptures the works of the philosophers of the Jews. &quot. For those teachings which are common. whereby the &quot. Valentinus means by Clement assumes that &quot. or general truths are those pertaining only to the Community of Friends. for Valentinus He merely asserts that the &quot. the Beloved. &quot. The remarks of Clement which immediately are follow almost unintelligible . of Many i &amp. common however. This will be explained later on.lt. and also the Christian documents in general circulation.

if declares it is in all scriptures one looks to the and and not the spirit letter. this. If this The fragment can be accepted as genuine.&quot.Little One. : Valentinus says that he once saw a child that had only just been born.&quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. following on the lines of argument of Isidorus concerning the unit consciousness of the soul and its responsibility. which he copied from Irenseus The Wisdom &quot. his own of Valentinus divinity. Hippolytus. Valentinus subjoined a which formed the basis of his teaching. This is in the doctrine of tinians quite credible. Have we here an incident from the prologue to one of Valentinus and is the Valentinus treatises tragic myth &quot.&quot. The Myth which Valentinus made. whereas the Valenasserted that there was but one. and the teaching worked out &quot. modification of the great Sophia-mythus which the deus ex machind of part of his cosmogony was ? . and that he proceeded to And the babe question it bo find out who it was. replied and said it was the To Logos. &quot. &quot. whom Galileans of the time of Valentinus Christ. A very doubtful Fragment from Eulogius of Alexandria writing at the end of the Sixth vii. we learn that the Galileans. and philosophies. believed two natures. says &quot. that Jesus viii. calls &quot. Century.&quot.) inserts the following scrap of information in the midst of the lengthy description of the system of Marcus. . tragic myth. Hippolytus (II. 306 scriptures.the early Christians.

or world of reality. &quot. &quot. and all is one. is tion. The Chain of Being. Babe borne Whether or not this exceedingly mystical Psalm was taken in the sense we have suggested above is merely problematical. probable that Hippolytus took them from the same treatise from which he derived the above informa . separating the Pleroma. Air from aether hanging Fruits borne of the deep of the womb. have as the Upanishads it. which from one point of view is the Great Limit or Boundary. All things depending in spirit I see All things supported in spirit I view Flesh from soul depending . the &quot. Soul by air supported. from the Kenoma or phenomenal universe. same the The source. from Finally phumena. why Logos. the recover Philoso- following lines it .&quot. From a ix. this is That. we Psalm. . .flesh&quot.&quot. is that of the Demiurge (the material force of the aetheric spaces. and Hippolytus gives what he from asserts to be a Valentinian interpretation the latter point of view. why and that the Psalm new-born the endeavoured to explain was babe the &quot. Such mystic utterances could from both the microcosmic of course be interpreted and macrocosmic standpoints us . The &quot. . &quot. of Basilides) the Demiurge hangs from the Spirit. &quot. is the Hyle (the Hebdomad of Basilides). the Ogdoad &quot.307 VALENTINUS.soul&quot.

tinus &quot. that no one has hitherto been able to make any consistent scheme out of their chaotic and contradictory representations in the writings of the Fathers. bursting with life. 150). world of ideas. Yet or rather eight.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. In the MS. the Blessed Treasure of the aeons and this . the God beyond being. To fragments it might seem proper to the which Irenseus (cap. 11) copied account append from a former haeresiological writer. in the Kingdom of the Midst. but an idea with the lines quoted. joyous words. and even at that early date in assumed that this . prefixed by the disconnected word Hilgenfeld accordingly speaks of Valen- hymning the Great Harvest. shreds of fragments in all. the subordinate details of which are so abstruse and so complicated.&quot. or Living ^Eon. which a very connect is difficult to the poor sum total of our information as to what Valentinus actually taught himself nine. This is the Valentinian chain of being. he was a mere summarizer. simple idea of the Great Firmament) Horos from the Pleroma. was struggling with the contra- .&quot. from the Abyss or Great Depth. in the midst of the dullness of the refutators rhetoric. the Father. of The Philosophumena the above is fragment &quot. grandiose conception. It is generally these more ancient authority was Justin Martyr but whoever he may have been. Thus the Demiurge hangs from Sophia Sophia from the Great Boundary or Horos (a further differentiation of the Basilidian . 308 and from another is Sophia or Wisdom. haeresiology (dr. Such is what strong. . Harvest.

whose name was nevertheless the best known of all. may think himself lucky to escape a lunatic asylum. Not only in the case of the Valentinian cycle of but also in every other phase of the Gnosis. ! he. words and terms have been followed as clues instead of ideas. instead of being a cut-and-dried system of dead vocables. Thus we take our farewell of the &quot. and whose doctrines. on the contrary. consider &quot. who seeks the idea behind the The Ariadne Thread out of the Maze. . whose influence was the &quot. therefore. I.309 VALENTINUS. as leaders out of the labyrinth. in Gnosticism. in endea voring to bring order into this chaos. most far-reaching. have proved the despair of scholarship. But the Adriadne s thread which takes us out of the maze is spun out of ideas. were so animate with that the kaleidoscopic repre sentations of them by his followers in the first place. Valentinian dictory accounts he had heard of the as no more this source Gnosis. s . We have nothing of the teaching of Valentinus the only search on which we are engaged. reason of this for the most part is that. and the puzzled and puzzling summaries by the Fathers of these life protean representations in the The second. &quot. not of names. and that at present it is summaries Valentinian doctrine found in so-called Fathers.great un known of Gnosticism. The Gnostics were ever changing their nomenclature the god of one system even be the devil of another He who might makes a concordance of names merely. of special notice than the other worthy of the general writings the of certain to learn in himself. these delusive guides have been generally followed ideas.

We shall now. and those who refuse to use this living key must be content to have the treasury closed against them. who shall blame them ? Though they contradict one another. these contradictory accounts together and treat to the are a critical general analysis. would forget all that before. 310 name. meantime we will attempt. for reader. and religion of their time in striving to find a decent vestment for the naked truth. Gnostics have ever had intuitions of a real state of being. would it is to whom either close has gone be them feared that sketches these our pages in or. will often find himself in a realm of great Men like the beauty and harmony of thought. if he despair attempted to follow the details and the weighing of probabilities. attempt. not rendered follow.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. . opens the mysteries of the Gnosis. as all men must so long as they are imprisoned in If the Gnostics exhausted the philosophy a body. from the chaos of summaries. them of . before dealing with the followers of Valentinus. of definite and precise realms of consciousness . they do not contradict themselves for The idea is the key which the follower of ideas. as they thought they saw it. in the view of the word-hunter. to sift out some of the leading ideas of the ValenIf we were to bring all tinian cycle of the Gnosis. to give an exposition of the system of &quot. and be totally unfit to comprehend what is to Such technical work must be reserved for treatment elsewhere. be reduced to such a state of mental perturbation that he written. yet each has caught but a glimpse of the reality.

orders and hierarchies bounded at the utmost limits of space and time. by the Great marks Firmament. because superabundance of its brilliancy.&quot. and &quot. speaking of transcends all though of the it as life. . darkness to mortal eyes. &quot. It is a Boundary off the everywhere and no where. into the sethereal spaces and thence invisible. the star-worlds. Ring Pass Not. Here we bid farewell to time and space. . of . IN order to elevate our thought to a contemplation of the transcendent xproblems towards which the Towards the these of our refresh Basilidian From in was Gnostics with memory which system the through we should carried. mind given the of above. our earth. reach the region of paradox. definite system SOME OUTLINES OF ^EONOLOGY. This is the Pleroma. Valentinus indeed if they 311 had ever a single but merely to sketch some outlines of their ideas on seonology. the sketch been has the world of men. for mortal man has still to speak of it in terms of phenomenal things calling it a region. heaven. spaces and regions. its light is the Living ^Eon.SOME OUTLINES OF ^EONOLOGY.&quot. we must pass sublunary spaces. and their infinite inhabitants. though it hymning it as the Light-world. visible we must pass beyond the the moon-firmament. thought Great Silence. although it is not a region. the &quot. which phenomenal universe from the universe of reality out of space and time. the world of perfection.

perfect types back from it. the we meet with such . that Our Gnostics are The Depth this Beyond Being. or ideal type of all universes. the Pistis Sophia absurdity. the Great Deep Profundity. at rest in the Silence of contemplation. and yet the man with Onward there is a voice that can beyond still. the spirit is at peace. unable to within cries unto spirit brook no denial Then &quot. hierarchies. beyond &quot. Such a conception as a beginning &quot. and infinitude has no beginning. of union with the Supreme Divine.beginning&quot. a hierarchy of Deeps and curiously enough in . : ! The mind falls comprehend. we can speak of some beginning special phenomenal universe. but there is an infinitude of such universes. name to that short of so obvious a truth ? the By no means. to goes through have or of conception Bythus. to seek a &quot. the Codex Brucianus and in them assumed also find treatise. intuition of ! what lay beyond Being. 312 and perfect harmony. t Profundity. &quot. then. . are we to think Valentinians fell all. symbols. no thoughts can further The mind avail. was what ? Silences more unspeakable than there and Depths deeper than the Deep How the Valentinians would have laughed at the notion of ascribing a monistic or dualistic theory to their Silence. mute. What infinitude ! was low down in in the scale of being of &quot. the within of is which permeates things. no still . Beyond the Pleroma. &quot. some of them taught of the Beyond the Deep. said all. with begun Abyss of Basilides had the already shown how impossible it was the God beyond all. and Silence no words. * but this is a mistake. and of making .FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

depth&quot. the inward world. or etc. shut off the Pleroma from the Depth beyond Being by a still higher Boundary than the Great Firmament. a &quot. We next have to treat of the Pleroma of the aeons. or were out of time and outside the Pleroma. The phenomenal world was &quot. The idea connoted by the term from all know it. evident that until Emptiness. was an image or deficiency. &quot. however. &quot. that to is space.being&quot. and introduces it to the notion of &quot.SOME OUTLINES OF ^EONOLOGY. and the nature of the life of these was shown forth in beings &quot. therefore called &quot. through in every direction at the same time. This highest Boundary was within the innermost depths of the Pleroma itself. Image.being&quot. no possible human language can serve us to express modes of being which transcend cosmogonic operations. was also.fullness&quot. Everything say. &quot. or perfection. And yet the hardihood of the . is.) this the basis of dividing Western school ! and many modern critics have done. just as the Great Boundary was beyond the depths of the phenomenal external world. as it that were. inside and out as well. &quot. their names. Every 9 &quot. It by such names as the Kenoma the we reach the phenomenal world.&quot. everything in the phenomenal universe. in its turn. the of in this T world &quot. ideas of &quot. on the contrary.&quot. takes thought away we three dimensional matter. Fullness of Being (Pleroma) &quot. Let us then leave the mystery in the Silence of Depth beyond Being a Silence which. for they They were called aeons. 313 them into an Eastern and Yet that is what Hippolytus (II. eternities. as &quot.

the attention bestowed on these was because solids by of this school. to the works of a young Senor Soria y Mata. species. Not that the Gnostics worked from below upwards. such It is &quot. Proclus. Now in Pythagoras and Plato. declared that physical matter the was ultimately all things a of &quot. but of every genus. which were ex hypothesi out of time and space. were of the Elements of Euclid. their expositions symbol. that in Thus the five regular formed the summit of the geometrical know solids It ledge of the Platonic school. and the moderns laugh at universe. but so it is. to lie at the back not only of earth-formation.God geometrical geometrizes. nature.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. that posterity has called the five the Platonic The whole Solids. which is were attempts to describe a living said to have been shown them in vision. they received from above and brought it down into matter. says an introduction this but to science These polyhedra were believed of the perfect solids. 314 Gnostic genius had to find some method whereby it could adumbrate the manner of being of the aeons. and the instructors Mysteries. Spanish scientist. For the re-discovery and elaboration of a part of this science within the last six years I must refer the &quot. and individual in the material strange that no subject in mathe matics has been so neglected as that of the regular solids. doulx lecteur &quot. in brief.&quot. &quot. Let us then turn our attention to one of the methods whereby this was attempted. puerilities of the ancients. No one of course who is entirely ignorant of the .

and Platonic mathematics. which was the same as the said to have been called &quot. and so we say. Let us then attempt to make a few suggestions on the subject. but from the living side of Pythagorean the &quot. gnosis&quot. . brought forward of this sweeping generality. not from the numbering ascribed to Marcus.SOME OUTLINES OF ^ONOLOGY. It is. and no scholar has so far further proof. to point in certain directions. was Valentinianism based geometry of Pythagoras and No on the numbers and Plato. our work is simply to set up sign-posts return to our task. some one may . are. one of the earliest followers has some system of a kabalistic numbering assigned to him. . is supplied the missing link. even by the gnosis of things that Pythagoras himself. &quot. Marcus. however. that the (which are all variations of one in various combinations with itself) have some connection with five solids the typical elements which build up the invisible molecular structure of physical matter. to do with the Valentinian Gnostics ? we may answer. It was then perhaps along this line of thought &quot. But even supposing.) declares that the whole of of Valentinus. what has that A great deal.&quot. nevertheless. not to the traveller along the road and the accompany &quot. entirely credible that the seonology of the Valentinian School was based partly on such considerations. mathesis and which is &quot. and in connection with this Hippolytus (II. subject. gentle reader who requires such personal conducting must seek it For the present in Senor Soria s admirable essays. will be able to ing general indications is comprehend 315 fully the follow but the nature of finger-posts .

a sphere. while &quot. which the Valentinian I do not. ever. how Gnosis envisaged in its seonology. this living the symbol of world-formation in vision. though invisible to the eye. that the most advanced of the Gnostics were shown . These points were not pure &quot. From of Gnostic thinkers living symbolism. the order ing of which.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.&quot. as we should riow-a-days say. yet greater than the great as energy. the symbolism could be pushed back a further stage from the molecular to the atomic we should say now-a-days. any symbol is immensities . mathematical but abstractions. actual centres of force. ever contracting all &quot. It was the atom and its combinations.points&quot.) of &quot. said by some to be a spherical (&quot. as regular solids The were thus the eventuation in physical matter of certain systems of perfect equilibrium of in space. This was the region of the atom. 316 that some the sought for a which should adumbrate in some fashion the manner of being of the aeons. and systems were efforts to explain such various visions. generative of self -motive. bearing certain relations to one another. earth. and yet from figure. the and expanding. Of course.&quot. The atom was thought of as a living thing of force. equili brated by a law of polarity or syzygy. the region of definite polyhedrical matter. on the contrary. conical motions. immovable. for a moment suggest that any Gnostic philo sopher thought of the atom in the same way as a modern physicist does I believe. as pertaining to It is smaller than the small as matter. could yet be imagined in the mind.foundations most perfect it is itself another point of view the swirl. then.

who as a rule confine their attention solely to plane figures. the world of life and light. is the five regular tetrahedron. so it is in the series. is the mode of life or and when this is learned being of the symbol . the Pleroma. In solids this symbol is &quot.&quot. may be taken as symbols of the aeon-world. In order to see this more clearly. two by mutually interpenetrated from this union come the cube and The dodecahedron come from the mutual congress and octahedron. and thus deal as it were with the &quot. or a double syzygy or couple in perfect The nature of the relationship of equilibrium. its modes simplest of Thus the atom and differentiated being. solids. For a to speak. a quintuplication. removed from the reality. Thus we have our The fundamental type and the force-system behind it icosahedron of five tetrahedra. beyond time and space. but the 317 endeavour to imagine. the interlaced triangles or Solomon s Seal.&quot. the undecaying heart of the eternities. then the symbol becomes alive and thus the forces . represented tetrahedra . or the privilege of being shown. the living type lying beyond the simplest types of physical matter-formation.SOME OUTLINES OF ^ONOLOGY. consists of two pairs atoms. only a shadow of a the living system of force behind or within the latter which is the first spark of life plane figure dead solid . is at any rate nearer the reality - than any dead physical shape. let us take a familiar symbol. shadows of the dead. is. of these atoms or spheres to each other. The following view may then be of interest to students of symbolism. and of the interplay of their motions.

or swells out. and place them in mutual contact.fourth dimension. so that they of expansion. and quite and this side of by regarded rightly. For it is only along this line of thought that there hope of the As the matter of Gnosticism. The intelligent student of symbolism will thus The &quot.&quot. endeavour to free his mind from the limitations of three-dimensional space. of the first importance for a student and at the same time one of great following line of thought may be Think of an suggested as a preliminary exercise. position. Reduce these spheres in thought to mathematical may .&quot. 318 which the of the &quot. as a which or atom. it is the present age of intelligent enquiry as a superstition.&quot. of rules of &quot. reasons &quot. hand are in the One form &quot. rational thing.shadow&quot. the solver of of solid symbolizes. thumb. the vast majority slightest idea the Needless to say that practised the art. be done in an infinite number of ways. that is to be in any direction the one with the other. sphere generates itself. the &quot. the faintest is of conception is seonic any being. which wandered far beyond the of this idea. especially practised in consisted of a most complicated extension Egypt. difficulty. moment This Take two of and refunds the gives itself simple again idea of such spheres at the same say two equal This can spheres. for their Magic for the general was never a It consisted of an infinite number performances.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and think within into the state of the so-called &quot. limits of the geometrical symbols.dead&quot. monad. had not who the of &quot. consequently. mystery. Fourth Dimension. of ancient magic. from a point into that point.

and try mutual touch and Reduce them in their positions require space Finally. or boundaries of a line. Reduce them in thought to points. and requires the conception of another dimension something to do with the content of &quot. The two points are the extremities points. Next. the spheres the idea of This does not through. retracing the path so far followed. so to say. we have For instance. three-dimensional space is for normal those who have inner sight bounded by surfaces . and we have three points not in a straight line. &quot. the fourth link in our chain. dimensions. If this is so. . lying in a plane surface. take three similar spheres and bring them into mutual contact. or pleroma of conscious ness the nirvanic atom. all the This cannot be imagined in three rest. how each one can to imagine contact. ( four-dimensional an object &quot. and inwards once more itself towards the point. tents of e. of three dimensions. &quot. &quot.&quot.SOME OUTLINES OF ^ONOLOGY.g. which when reached will become the illimitable circumference. hence consciousness turns is the turning point. involution of perception. Then take four such spheres and bring them into mutual contact. 319 and we have the simplest idea of extension one dimension. seem to be so much a fourth dimension as an &quot. vision &quot. spread a surface. sight) say that the con a watch appear..&quot. their turn to points. take five such spheres how they can be brought into that is to say. then three-dimensional space. in some out before them as on incomprehensible way. They can be placed in any the direction one to the other. or superfices of two dimensions. &quot.

to use terms some theosophical students. is .320 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.&quot. an endless energy which nothing human can perceive or know. the lightor type. a breath ever outbreathing and in breathing. ancient or hiranya-garbha. we have the conception of an infinite sphere of Light.&quot. The object of their contemplation was identical with the primal the world of ideas. egg. now Let us to try imagine how the Gnosis symbolized the ideal universe. Light which transcends the glory of the most brilliant sun. but we should remember that call all a change the states we are attempting thus to symbolize. which is everywhere and nowhere. the the . reality an ever-existing it is in infinite state of consciousness out of time and space. yet through it it of a there there were from and to is Light beyond naught but infinite Light ever a something going. It is the Life-breath of the universe at the zero-point of being. The Eternal scends the flame As yet thought. of forth. as rush-light . or noetic world. and though in thought we are to follow out a kind of emanation or evolution. resplendent germ. . eternal come &quot. and modes of self -differencing and self -emanation within itself. universes all &quot. its motions. as that sun s glory tran First. its centre. In this ever-pulsating field of universal energy . the type of all universes atom or monad. of Plato world of ancient Iran from which Khem . of which has been intuitively set forth in philosophical terms by Leibnitz in his of the Upanishads all Monadology. then. next proceed to what we must familiar to We of state . in reality exist simultaneously .

always. &quot. a something slightly less brilliant than the transcendent The Law is Light. In following out our symbolic imagery. now symbolized as two spheres. multiplicity must follow and not only multiplicity but universality. first Being separate. Polarity is thus stated to be a mode is of being of the Pleroma. for they are every where and nowhere at once.SOME OUTLINES OF ^ONOLOGY (which arises everywhere and nowhere). which we symbolize as an oval or egg-like swirling. but of this we can get no of Syzygy. takes place everywhere. yet each manifests the qualities of the other. as it were. are gradually developed. the law of affirmed. qualities are at once and communicated to the whole of the great Light-sphere. inner periphery of the egg-envelope contracts in the midst through the action of the two foci. of . foci swells. syzygy But duality arising. of positive symbols law of syzygy or pairing. the The two part asunder. as The 321 Within it this pulsates two and &quot. are the syzygy of asons. Prof oundity and Thought. the and negative. however. One is these positive. For the Pleroma must be simultaneously the type of the One. another mode of motion as it were. and monotheism. ever may swelling-out and in-drawing. . polytheism and pan theism must each find we its source therein. Many and All. the other is negative. Bythus and Ennoea. and simultaneously with every other process and manner of being. of equilibrium. cannot think the whole at once. in some mysterious fashion they are differently affected by the great out-breath and inbreath. We try to conceive that whatever process we gain an intuition by means of our symbols.

when they touch.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. The negative progeny. then. from the negative a veil or mist is shed forth and as The law ^ on tion. differentiates by the positive lightthe of Light-world being. universe. &quot. &quot. &quot. differentia- light-sphere and to is into differentiated &quot. the other as negative. aeon far transcends the lowest radiance brilliant of and perpetual At each contract the negative sphere light and more passive as it were. the great Light-sphere.planes&quot. sphere. say. another by following out the behaviour of a single To proceed pair of our living symbols. most interesting upwards. but positive or negative in its negative In thought we will treat relationship to the other.&quot. though in reality the &quot. into impregnated That veils the in developes substance. lines of densification less &quot. each positive- itself. &quot. *s becomes its &quot. &quot. &quot. &quot. that the seonic hierarchy of the Valentinian said to have been an ogdoad. 322 We can only pass from one process to mental image. As the twin spheres in their turn expand and contract. firmaments. if he would follow out this out the matter problem in greater detail and work For the moment it is sufficient to state for himself. first is . Thus we have spheres evolving. one as positive. But what kind ? I must refer the reader again essays on the most there is are how many and to Sefior Soria s the polyhedric origin of species for of perfect only possible series of physical systems from two equilibrium of spheres of equal diameter. or group of which was sometimes considered as a dual Pleroma eight. declared. and thus try to in imagine the changes of mode. were it &quot.

the negative regarded She is now the type sphere. of the soul. and. of Isis seven-robed while Bythus is the Nature.SOME OUTLINES OF ^ONOLOGY. Here we have the type of the one sphere of sameness. these phases Word-Life. &quot. for reasons which are somewhat obscure. of and the syzygies. &quot. is that ten naturally comes before twelve. or syzygy. seeing of course . and the positive sphere) that is. also here their types. A point of interest which should not be over tetrad looked. . and Man-Church. and to which we shall return later on. and the seven spheres six like unto herself Pythagorean and Platonic WorldThe Ogdoad and Hebdomad of Basilides have of difference. as . to one or other of the The accounts of their genesis are entirely contradictory sometimes also the decad placed before the dodecad. We are next told of a dodecad and decad of aeons which owe their existence s y z ygi es f the ogdoad. 323 in living symbols. or modes of were called Mind-Truth. &quot. the aether. Thus having declared the law of duality. The negative sphere and is now seven spheres (herself. polarity. Great Deep or Water. has produced offspring. three pairs of aeons. a single pair Enncea. The Bythus and Emicea are no longer Pleroma. . however. the is consideration to be noticed as following the of mode ogdoadic of from the The Three and the Seven. These are the three great stages or spaces of the Pleroma. we next find the law of triplicity asserted in the triad of syzygies into which the negative sphere is differentiated. the system of equilibrium behind two equally interpenetrated tetrahedra. Osiris. the critics The Twelve and Ten.whirl.&quot.

the one and the seven can be represented by the curious geometrical fact that if seven equal circles be taken. Thus the ogdoad was divided into a higher and lower tetrad. and in various other ways. each circumference respectively will be found to exactly touch two adjacent circles and the one in the middle.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. from the other in reality (they eternally). the dodecad and the decad in turn not that one came shall therefore take the . by the Platonists as they are by the moderns. and six be grouped round the central one. including the one and the seven as described above . and fact is is This is shadow of a symbol. and therefore includes all the permutations of their complementary progeny (the cube and octahedron). but experience leads us to choose the the more correct account. less likely as What on earth being should have induced some of the Valentinians to put the twelve before the ten necessitated such an order We if their symbolism had not ? main phases of the Pleroma to be those symbolized by the ogdoad. but because existed together living symbols are all the described in a dramatic myth. The matter is at best purely conjectural in such a chaos. a mnemonic but the of course but the only intended to serve as curious. The ogdoad is a term connoting the operations of the living processes behind the symbol of two inter penetrated tetrahedra. 324 have without exception preferred this order. and such natural facts were not so lightly regarded . while the greater circle can be described round all seven. especially when they had to do with the . one of the variants of which we shall shortly present to the reader.

If we further mention of a &quot. the natural circles symbols of perfections or pleromata. we should find equal that each sphere was surrounded with exactly twelve if to filled other spheres spheres to be elastic. signs of the mere irrational hypothesis then we may be inclined to think that there was good reason for insisting on the dodecad as an important phase of seonian being. thirteenth in aeon. the mode of being of the Pleroma is we were now the dodecad. Moreover. most perfect figures and spheres. a rhombic remember that there is frequent assume a dodecagonal dodecahedron. twelve remained a &quot. on one of such systems of twelve. . zodiac have hitherto &quot. we should imagine the and that pressure be brought if moreover. We have now come to a stage where the differen tiation of the primal simplicity is to be represented by groups of twelve. the dyadic stage. who . a curious fact that It is with spheres all of imagine space in mutual and diameter contact. on every side at once. that we . each phase of the Pleroma is supposed be positive to the succeeding phase. was the symbol are assured of the material by some who have psychic or clairvoyant vision to-day that the field of activity of the atom is contained by a rhombic and that the dodecahedron .325 SOME OUTLINES OF POMOLOGY. the commentators which has hitherto that the Pythagoreans and Platonists and Indian philosophers asserted that puzzled all the dodecahedron universe .&quot. the central or thirteenth sphere would to bear form fact. Thus the Pleroma as a whole is positive to the dyadic stage in to . Bythus is positive to Ennoea.

in system of thirteen. and we have to add in and out. Every sphere is at once. decad. 326 The sevenfold becomes various and sevenfold. and thus. and a motion that is no motion we can imagine. which consists is of thirteen spheres. the decad. as motions on a higher plane it were.e. left.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN... the dodecad to positive stage. back. do from finally Perhaps somewhat in this way. right.). so to speak. to these which begins. front. 13. moving in all ways exter yet in another sense motionless. 12. etc. we get from the dodecad to the atomic matter to the perfect form ? then. etc. 3. dealing with the living type behind. down. The seven motions. Each modes of these thirteen contains in itself the seven of being of the preceding phase. . arrangement or perfection. number denoted by ten. to be the perfect How. and living. 2. another (1. there is in reality a every multitudinous progeny. And thus we reach a new phase of being through round seven in the decad or series of all ten. The Decad. i. These are the children of that phase of being which we may call the multi like plicity of sameness. that is to say the system of thirteen spheres which eventuate the dodecahedron in the physical world. Pleroma here we are shall be dealing and thus be without the . the atomic ocean of contiguous spheres and they in their turn undergo a change which will eventuate in a harmonious . If we we think of the dodecad as the dodecahedron with the phenomenal universe. in and every . then 11. or modes of life. in the aeon-world. The types of nal motion are up.

Thus the hundred of development obtained along the line of and dodecad. namely (7 x 13 or) 91. found into the myth themselves of the Pleroma-drarna. the of the Vaidic 8 Vasus. and in all we have 100. led factors. to Pleroma was which we may add Christ and the Holy Spirit the representatives of the By thus and Sige (Silence) beyond the Pleroma and finally the That beyond all. the three number deities. and Heaven and Earth. by the the ogdoad addition of two new new syzygy.and To The one out-breathing. so getting thirtythree. pantheon of thirtyAdityas and 10 12 Rudras. or the operation of a another by path of simplification to the ten. Now the number of root-seons in the + said to be thirty (8 12 -f 10). these we add the two higher modes. with a supreme Rudra at their head. the in. and so introduced Christ and the Holy Spirit Pleroma. in hundred is number (10). The number 100 also gives a hint whereby to .SOME OUTLINES OF ^EONOLOGY. are simple in the great sphere which surrounds the thirteen the fourteenth or boundary of the system but in the subordinate thirteen spheres the modes of motion act and react . If we add as rulers the seven simple rates of all we have 98 (91 -f 7) different modes. to these motion. the number of consummation. x 10) of the perfect later on how the Gnostics. in their perfecting of the compelled to add two aeons. 327 system of thirteen spheres. the perfection (10 We shall see in one of their systems. on each other (for each subordinate sphere contacts so many others) and produce a number of other modes of a subordinate nature.

But now a new change &quot. But how. But to continue employed for the same purpose. with our seonology.&quot. as found in the system attributed by Hippolytus is made (II. out of the perfection of the Pleroma (f or every one of the aeons was a perfection or pleroma in its turn). . matter to come. images of the universe were to be formed the of the Pleroma ? has living symbol produced perfect spheres. mention one hundred-fold. Pythagoras was also.-and they doubt followers less pressed into their service his theological arithmetic and geometry to aid in their expositions but this was only one means out of a number which they . &quot. . was the imperfection. in nature and in the science of the time. Chaos. a light and darker globe for the twelve and ten. of cosmic serve as the substance out of which the &quot. they analogies to what they . less light or &quot. where and sixty-fold &quot. I moment do not for one suggest that these I speculations were the basis of Gnostic aeonology believe the Gnostics were shown their aeon-lore in and that found vision. all in pairs. 328 explain the ordering of the subordinate phases of the Pleroma. I believe. were shown. The Gnostics were acquainted with the system of his a system of which unfortunately only the merest fragments have reached us. The various phases have been brought about by the light globes acting on the darker ones. &quot. shown the same truths and worked them out in mathematical symbols. consist of pairs.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. &quot. which should deficiency. &quot. just like the eight.thirty-fold. creatures far or &quot. &quot.) the of the to Docetse. or So &quot.

as it were. of the aeons of themselves cannot effect their purpose. the an and living aeon so But powers acts upon endows it this is only &quot. in one sense out of the Pleroma. as being lower than it. This is the living symbol of the world-drama. The idea seems to have been that the abortion. and with form and creates the universe. shot forth by the light-seons. &quot. the logical detail. There is an interaction of &quot. Pleroma is one. and rest. ness. just as the organs and corpuscles of the human body do when anything goes wrong in it. globes. enforming according to essence enforming according to which pertains . it is cosmic matter. burns finally carries it or other. for the Pleroma is the spiritual body But the various Heavenly Man. light-spark. or not of When this takes place. knowledge.SOME OUTLINES OF POMOLOGY. formlessness From every one combine together. as it were.&quot. of all the aeons . and the result is no longer a perfect sphere innate with motion. containing the &quot. there shoots the rays of light.&quot. which the is &quot. or chaos. but an amorphous mass. a single thing. to right itself. or &quot. abortion. form a it into shape. the thirty of forth a ray. shapeless.&quot. and all new aeon or globe which rounds off the amorphous mass. they can on act only when they &quot. in their T1 os. enters into back to the it. as it were. the whole system its nature. somehow &quot. . The vortex is the linger of fire. there is also or conscious to the soteriological part of the drama.dark&quot. endeavours. 329 takes place. or aeons. was destitute of the life-swirl or vortex. the &quot. &quot. and was worked out by the Gnostics in much mytho To everything below the Pleroma.

The Logos takes a body.crucified incarnated into where infinitude &quot. the the fashion or materialize it. in the when the plane where there cut off from the great The spirit in grand sweep man is is scale of being there is the spirit is incarnated into male and female. the father- warms the plasm of the universe. the cosmos. so to say. the universe and the symbol which the wise have chosen for that this crucifixion is . negative spheres cannot shape abortion. the perpetual self-sacrifice. no disgrace the cross is the body of the Heavenly Man. thrown out of the ideal world into the cosmic plane. let us say. and is is it in space it. is the figure of the Heavenly Man with arms outstretched pouring His life and love and light into His creatures. Far lower down another crucifixion. the Nirvanic the Ocean of Life. and is thus and motion of the Pleroma. or rather. &quot. crucified.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and His body is The Heavenly Man is crucified in space. &quot. and ideal world. mystery. But we must return fashioning. from the cosmic breath is plane into the plane of a star-system for the human mind cannot grasp such immensities as those of the . This plasm now. He is the source of all good to the universe. all we can do is to single out a finite example from the infinitudes of space. as that which is were. . life no longer consciously in of the Great Breath. 330 positive phases. Anything thrown out of the great cosmic sweep and the life of the aeons is.&quot. But it no shame. but can only densify or the mother-breath cools. or rather leaves the plane of one with the Father.. to cosmic substance This substance is so fine and its and rare and .

of Orpheus. according to this scheme of Cosmos. the Pleroma. called the the beginning of the evolution of the cosmos. He also the spiral life-force or primordial atom fashions it without. &quot. dust. is the highest vesture with which the spirit could be clothed. a whirling mass of starbecomes the flying serpent. &quot. &quot. the new-born system. or Vast Whirlpool.&quot. the spermatozoon and ovum of &quot. It is forth the Magna the fiery creative power there is as it were the puri He enters into the fication of the spaces by fire. We universal philosophy. The aetheric spaces destined to be the home of the future system are void From and formless. We have now arrived at all the aeons. &quot. &quot. the . be more modest. the solar embryon. we know of of so mar called it Wisdom subtle. That which gives Wisdom her first herself. irradiate with life. must. formlessness. the spiral vortex the Vorago. and confine our attention to the beginning of a solar system instead of the origin of the cosmos. and becomes the thing which it lacked. that it transcends all substance indeed the mother-substance of cosmos vellous a nature that the Gnostics . if our imagination is to stand the strain. serpent and the egg again. is the potency of Common Fruit of the Pleroma. &quot. fullness of potential energy. in other words. The atom comet. the a sphere. The mother-substance becomes . . enformation. there the comes stream of power. We have now reached a stage where we have to deal with the differentiation of this nebula according to the types in the Divine Mind.331 SOME OUTLINES OF ^EONOLOGY. however. which as it were first hovers over the motherIt is the substance.

and before going land any farther give a specimen of their mythological treatment of the aeon-process. 332 Pleroma.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. we must select one as a specimen. will. but the present essay does not give us scope even to The matter suggest a few indications of the subject. We in many details hope. while the Excerpts are most pitifully mutilated and misplaced. that the sketch of the trend of ideas will we have given above throw some light on all accounts. but as we have not the space to give all. is. however. It is at this point that the intuitions of antiquity and the most recent discoveries of modern science should meet face to face. but his account is selection. but are merely enabling the general reader to while away an hour or two among the Gnostics. more or less a reflection of the way in which a Gnostic looked at the matter. As we have already remarked more than once. therefore. in front of him (seeing that he invari ably adheres more closely to his written authorities than any of his predecessors) shall guide us in our Hippolytus. As for . break off here on the borderbetween the geonology and cosmogony of the Valentinian circle of Gnosticism. We Mythology. is and we are not at present technical. may be quoting from a late writing compared for instance with the Excerpts from Theodotus . This most desirable union of the past and the present so distant an event as one I believe. exceedingly engaged on such a task. the accounts in the Church Fathers are inconsistent and contradictory. in his Philosophumena. might be not led to suppose.) seems to have had a Gnostic MS. and the fact that Hippolytus (II.

and of the human anthropogenesis. in the Midst. she tarrieth at the Entrances [of the Light.. however. it 333 at best a sorry patchwork. herself (Prov.SOME OUTLINES OF ^ONOLOGY. is ever the main interest world-mind mind in of the secret science. &quot. for she taketh her seat by the Gates of the Powerful Ones. Wisdom was the end of of the whole Gnostic Gnosis. and rested it on Seven Pillars&quot. the it is ever the evolution of the initiates old of have sought to The emanation and evolution of the in cosmogenesis. according to our Gnostics. . Below the Ogdoad was the Hebdomad or Seven Spheres Wisdom built Truly hath a House.She is in the lofty Heights she stands in the Midst of the Paths. however. mind that teach us. so the the As pivot mythological drama was the For whether we interpret the macrocosm ic or micro- so-called Sophia-Mythus. taken from some circulating private not is library the of Valentinian school. The dwelling of as Sophia. be of interest to give the reader by the idea of the general personified important role played Wisdom in Gnostic mythology. viii. was the World-Soul.World] (ibid. that the account of Hippolytus also a patchwork. in main pattern the nevertheless treatise It is manifestly the is patched together. between the upper or purely spiritual worlds. Irenaeus summary. 2). psychic substance. says the Wisdom in its Jewish tradition. &quot. It may. The SophiaMythus. and again: for &quot. is Not. before dealing with the account some of Hippolytus. of ix. . and the lower psychic and material worlds. in the Ogdoad. their allegories from cosmic standpoint. 1).

But why should Wisdom.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. the or Mother. solve. mind set himself to . the Virgin . &quot. . Left-hand the the as Holy opposed Right-hand the Manthe Matrix Prouneikos or Lustful one to the Christos. and at the same time pro jected the Types or Ideas of the pleroma into the cosmos. the Gnosis this was dramatized in the clature of the of redemption by Sophia the Christ. who delivered her from her ignorance and sufferings. Sophia was the Mediatrix between the upper and lower spaces. 334 Moreover. . . an exile from her true Dwelling ? Such was the great mystery which the Gnosis endeavoured to Seeing again that this Fall of the Soul cosmic or individual) from her (whether original purity involved her in suffering and misery. the Spirit. various Among again. be in the Middle Space. sorrow that Gautama Sakyamuni Moreover. woman these possessed All-Mother. Mother of the Living. become one with the the instruct to was &quot. Barbelo . the solution of the two systems was cause of sorrow to solve. identical in that they traced the Ignorance. and for its &quot. Achamoth . reflection self -analysing The material mind was Way. and so In the nomen spiritual mind. be the to to be purified. or Shining Mother. who was originally of a pneumatic or spiritual essence. then. that we should find The Mother Names. Paradise may of mentioned be : of Power Above. aspects of the . was identical with the problem of &quot. &quot. removal pointed out the Path The Mind was of Self-knowledge. She Him . her the Sophia in many names. the object which the Gnostic philosophers had ever before them. &quot. &quot. Eden . . It is not surprising. &quot.

THE SOPHIA-MYTHUS.

335

Merciful Mother
of Light
One
Revelant of
Masculine

Daughter
the

;

Consort of

;

the

;

Mysteries

Perfect

;

Mercy

;

whole Magnitude; Hidden Mother; She who

of the

knows

who
and

many

Perfect

Revelant of the Mysteries

the Mysteries of the Elect;
has given birth to Twins
;

Lost

the

or

Wandering

Holy Dove

the

Ennoea

Sheep,

Ruler

;

;

Helena, and

other names.

These terms refer to Sophia or the Soul" using
the term in its most general sense in her cosmic or
"

individual aspects, according as she is above in her
perfect purity; or in the midst, as intermediary; or
below, as fallen into matter. But to return to
:

HIPPOLYTUS ACCOUNT OF ONE OF THE
VARIANTS OF THE SOPHIA-MYTHUS.
"

VALENTINUS and Heracleon

the entire

school

of

these

and

and

Ptolerngeus

[Gnostics],

disciples

of

Pythagoras and Plato and following their guidance,
laid down the
arithmetical science
as the funda
mental principle of their doctrine.
For them the beginning of all things is the
Monad, ingenerable, imperishable, incomprehensible, The
"

inconceptible, the

difference

declare

of

and

creator

that are generated.
the Father.
Now

as

to

its

is

and

without

a

all

called

things

by them

nature,

there

them.

For

opinion among
that the Father

....

femininity,

cause of

Monad

This

is

is

a

some

devoid

of

syzygy, and solitary;

Father

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

336

whereas

think

others

is
impossible that the
creation of all things should be from a single male
it

and so they are compelled

principle,

Father of

all,

in order that

the syzygy Silence.
a syzygy or not, let
themselves.

.

.

He may

But as

them

to

to

add to the

be a Father,

whether Silence

settle this dispute

is

among

."

Hippoly tus has missed the point as usual there
were Fathers for every plane, the monads or monadic
;

state

of being,

and

also Father-Mothers, the

dyads

or dyadic state of being, and as forth.
In the beginning, says [the

Gnostic whose
MS. Hippotytus had before him], naught was that
was created. The Father was alone, increate, without
"

space, or time, or

any with whom

to take counsel,

any substantial nature capable of being conceived
by any means. He was alone, solitary, as they say,
and at rest, Himself in Himself, alone. But since

or

seemed good to Him at length
to create and produce that which was most beautiful

He was

creative, it

and most perfect
no longer lover of

in

Himself.

solitariness.

He was [now]
For He was all love,
For

says [the writer of the MS.], but love
to be loved.
there be nothing
c5
"

Therefore,
The
Parents ot
the

.<Eons.

the

Father,

alone

is

as

not love

He

if

was,

emanated and generated Mind -and -Truth, that is
to say, the dyad, which is Lady and Beginning,

and Mother of
Pleroma.

And

emanated from

all

the

aeons

they reckon in the
been
having

Mind -and -Truth,
the

Father,

possessing

the power

His creative parent, in imitation
of creation
of the Father, emanated Himself also Word -andlike

THE SOPHIA-MYTHUS.

337

And Word-and-Life emanates Man-andAnd Mind-and-Truth, when He saw
His own creation had become creator in His

Life.

Church.
that

turn, gave thanks to the Father of all, and made
an offering unto Him of ten aeons, the perfect number.
For, says [the writer], Mind-and-Truth could not offer

the Father a more perfect number than
it needs must have been that the Father

For

this.

who was

perfect, should be glorified with a perfect number;
now the ten is a perfect number, for the first

number

of the series of multiplicity is perfect.

[The

10 begins the series of multiplicity in the system
of numeration with radix 10.]
The Father, however,

was more perfect still for increate Himself, alone,
by means of the first single syzygy, Mind-and-Truth,
;

He

succeeded in emanating

the roots of things

all

created.
"

And when Word-and-Life

also

saw that Mind-

and-Truth had glorified the Father of all in a perfect
number, Word-and-Life also wished to glorify His

own

father-mother,

Mind-and-Truth was

Mind-and-Truth.
create

and

not

But

since

possessed of

perfect fatherhood, [or] the quality of parentlessness
[ingenerability], Word-and-Life does not glorify his

own

Mind with a perfect, but with an imperfect
Thus Word-and-Life offers Mind-and-Truth

father

number.
twelve

aeons."

The reader need hardly be reminded that
of the variant of the

this

has confused

summary
myth
what we have supposed to have been the original
order of the Ten and Twelve, as may be seen from
the next paragraph but one of Hippolytus.

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

338
"

The Names

So then the

first

created roots of the seons

.

.

.

Mind - and - Truth, Word - and - Life,
Man and Church, ten from Mind - and - Truth, and

are as

f ollows

:

eight and twenty in
[The ten, consisting of five syzygies,] are called

twelve from Word-and-Life
the following names

;

all.

by
and
-Commingling,
Depthlike-

:

Unageing and Union, Self productive and Bliss,
Immoveable - and - Blending, Alone - begotten - and-

Happiness."

In this nomenclature

shadow forth the

we have an attempt

to

and negative aspects

of

positive

the father-motherhood (polarisation) of the creative

mind, androgynous and self-generative.
then continues

Hippolytus

:

"

These are the ten aeons which some derive from

Mind -and -Truth, and others from Word-and-Life.
Some again derive the twelve from Man-and-Church,
and others from Word-and-Life and the names they
;

Comforter-and-Faith,
give these [six syzygies] are
-and -Love, Ever
Mother-like
Father-like -and -Hope,
:

lasting

and Understanding, Church-like-and-Happi-

Longed-for-and- Wisdom."
It is evident that this list has suffered damage in
we can, however, make out
the hands of copyists
ness,

;

some resemblance
spirit,"
"

in Paul

s

to the list of the

"

fruits of

the

Letter to the Galatians (v. 22, 23),

love, joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness,

faith,

mildness,

"Happiness"

of

is

temperance."

The word

a different form from the

translated

"Happiness"

the decad, but both come from the same

root.

It

in the present
impossible to represent the difference
also call
We
would
at
our
have
disposal.
English we

is

THE SOPHIA-MYTHUS.
the attention of the student to

female aspect of the

first

339

the term

and sixth syzygy

for

the

Faith-

Wisdom

(Pistis-Sophia).
Epiphanius gives a totally
a set of nomina
different set of names for the aeons
"

which have so far proved the despair of
every philologist, and with which, therefore, we need
not trouble the general reader. The Greek terms,
barbara"

however, for the positive aspects of the six syzygies
are probably in part reflections of the characteristics
of the higher triad of aeons, in part prototypes of the
characteristics of the

Holy

Spirit.

Mind-and-Truth,

Word-and-Life, Man-and-Church, seem to appear in
the terms Father-like and Mother-like, Comforter and
Longed-for, Everlasting and Church-like the female
aspects of the higher triad being male aspects in the
hexad. I believe that the names of the aeons are
;

probably doctrinal variants or attempts at translation
of original Zoroastrian terms
of Hormuz and the

Amshaspands and the
that the

terms

;

"

rest of the Light-beings

barbara nomina

the ideas

"

and schematology

of

however, are demonstrably Egyptian.
tinue with our Hippolytus.
"

of

Now, the twelfth

the eight and

and

of these twelve,

twenty

and

are a relic of these

aeons,

the aeons,

But

to con

and the

female in

last

nature, The World-

Wisdom

(Sophia), beheld the number
and power of the creative aeons; she ascended [or
returned] to the depth of the Father, and perceived

that

called

whereas

themselves

all

create,

the rest of the aeons, as being
created through a syzygy, the

Father alone created without a syzygy. She, there
fore, longed to imitate the Father and create by

Mother.

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

340

herself without her consort (syzygy), and so achieve a
work in nothing inferior to the Father in ignorance
;

that

the increate alone, the absolute cause, and

is

it

and

root,

and

breadth,

[creations],

who

universal

the

of

depth

has the power of creating by Himself

whereas Wisdom, being created and coming into
being after a number of others, is thus incapable of
For in the
possessing the power of the increate.
alone,

the

increate,

says

whereas

in the

of

writer, are

all things together,
the feminine has the power

create

[or substance], while the

emanating the essence

masculine

the

possesses

of

power

enforming

the

essence emanated by the feminine.
Wisdom, there
fore, emanated the only thing which she could,

namely, a formless essence, easy to cool

And

shape].

words

of

Moses

unwrought
Seventy].

the

this is
:

The

[according
This, says

was

earth

he,

[into

meaning, says he, of
the

to

Celestial Jerusalem, into

down

is

and

invisible

translation

the Good

the

of

the

[Land], the
to lead

which God promised

the children of Israel, saying, I will lead you into
a good land flowing with milk and honey.

The

to

And

thus ignorance arising in the Pleroma owing
Wisdom, and formlessness through the creature
"

of

Wisdom,
lest

fear]

like

tumult

the

arose

creations

in

of

Pleroina

ths

the

aeons

manner become formless and

destruction

in

[themselves].
selves

to

no

long

Accordingly

praying

the

time

seize

they
Father

all

to

[from
should in

imperfect, and
on the aeons

betook
put

an

them
end

to Wisdom s grieving, for she was bewailing and
which she had
abortion
groaning because of the

THE SOPHIA-MYTHUS.

341

for thus they call

produced by herself

And so
Wisdom and
it.

the Father, taking pity on the tears of
giving ear to the prayers of the aeons, gives order for

an additional emanation.
emanate,

the

says

For He did not Himself

writer,

but

Mind-and-Truth

emanated Christ-and-Holy-Spirit for the enforming
and elimination of the abortion, and the relief and
appeasing of the complaints of Wisdom. Thus with
Christ-and-Holy-Spirit there are thirty aeons."
Here we have the type of the dual world-creator

and redeemer

Christ, the Logos,

by

whom

all

things

were made, and the Holy Ghost, the Comforter.
At any rate some of them think that the
"

made up

way, while
others would unite Silence to the Father and add the
triacontad

aeons

of

[aeons of the

is

in this

Pleroma] to them.

"Christ-and-Holy-Spirit, then,

being additionally

emanated by Mind-and-Truth, eliminates this form
less abortion of Wisdom s, which she begat of herself

and brought into existence without a consort, from
the universal aeons, so that the perfect aeons
should not be thrown into confusion at the sight of

among

its formlessness."

These passages throw great light on the term
"only-begotten"

Orthodoxly the phrase The Term
taken to mean that Christ begotten."

(^oi/oyewj?).

only-begotten son
was the only son

"

"

is

Father.
of
the
Apologetic
the
means
that
it
asserted
has
philology, moreover,
decad
of
the
In the list
only one of his kind."
of aeons given above, the male aspect of the last
"

syzygy

translated

name, where I have
alone-begotten." In the above passage,

called

is

"

it

by

this

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

342
the

term, and
of

of

"abortion"

herself,"

Wisdom

by the same
which she begat

called

is

have translated

I

"

it

being no doubt that the term

there

means nothing of
usually translated only-begotten
the kind, but created alone," that is to say, created
"

"

"

from one principle and not from a syzygy or pair.
There are many instances of this meaning of the
word, not only
lines of

then proceeds
"

The

Cross,

among

the Gnostics, but also in the

Orphic and Egyptian

tradition.

Hippolytus

:

Moreover, in order that the formlessness of the

abortion

should

finally

never

visible to the perfect aeons, the

again make itself
Father Himself also

sent forth the additional emanation of a single aeon,
the Cross [or stock], which being created great, as
[the creature]

of the great

and perfect Father, and

emanated to be the guard and wall
[lit.,

the

of

protection
paling or stockdale] of the aeons, constitutes
Boundary of the Pleroma, holding the thirty

aeons together within itself.

they which form the [divine]
The word translated by

For these

[thirty] are

creation."

in

"cross"

the

N.T.,

means generally a stock or stake. As we learn from
Gratz, it was the custom of the Jews, as a warning
to others, to expose

on a stake the bodies of those

who were

the

stoned,

cruel

pain

of

penalty being in later times mitigated

the

Mosaic

by a soporific

draught of hyssop and other ingredients. The phrase
hanging on the tree is thus comprehensible also.
"

"

But, as previously remarked, for the Plerdma, we have
to deal with living and not with dead symbols, and

the cross-idea

is

thus transformed into the conception

343

THE SOPHIA-MYTHUS.
a great wall

of

Mou

"

is

(sc.

by which the living
can be bounded

sphere),

"

bounded

if

an

infinite

the prototype of the mystic Christ
by a finite
bound to or in the tree of the body.
The idea was simple, the expression of it in

words exceedingly confused.
Thus Hippolytus writes
:

"

Now

off the

called the

it is

Boundary because

it

bounds

(hysterema) from the perfection
is called the Partaker, because

deficiency

it

(pleroma); again
and also the Cross
it partakes of the deficiency;
is fixed immovable and
it
because
or
stock],
[stake

unchangeable

that

so

mind];

without repentance or change of

[lit.

nothing

the deficiency should

of

approach the seons within the Pleroma."
It is difficult to reconcile the various characteristics
It
boundary as given by Hippolytus.
or
Firmament
course the Great
Limitary Spirit

of this great
is

of

of Basilides,
treatise.
power"

It

and the Last Limit of the Pistis Sophia
was there that the glorious "robe of

had

been

left

behind,

when

the Saviour

descended for the regeneration of the cosmos without
the Pleroma, and with which he was again clothed
his task, as

at his final initiation, after perfecting

opening pages of the
the Limit "against which none shall

magnificently set forth in the

MS.

This

prevail,"

is

until

the

Day

Come-unto-us of the so-called
the

Askew Codex

perfectioning

for

the

Be-with-us,

Book of

the

Day of
Dead and

the day of final initiation or
rare individuals who have

the

made themselves worthy

to

become gods or

(and thus a day which perpetually

is),

christs

but for the

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTON.

344

average mass of humanity the end of the world-cycle
when all things pass into pralaya, as Indian philo

sophy

calls it

(and thus the

the present universe).
This
robe of power

final

consummation

of

"

"

is presumably the
highest
or
principium individuitatis, which
spiritual body,
participates of the divine and human natures, that is

up the realms of the divine world to the
man, and makes him a partaker of eternal being.
Thus its living symbol is a O, the reflection of the

to say, opens

body, or self -limitation, of the sexless Heavenly Man,
the Logos, whereby He limits Himself and crucifies

Himself for the good of humanity. Lower down in
the scale of being this becomes the dead symbol of
the orthodox cross ( + ), the man of sex.
It is to be noticed that this Limit is

due

to the

Father alone, and by its means He consummates and
perfects the whole of the divine world of aeons, which
accordingly become one entity, the Living ^Eon, to
every creation outside the Pleroma. But to continue

with Hippolytus summary
Without, then, this Boundary, Cross, or Partaker,
:

"

is

what they

call

the

Ogdoad

;

this is the

Wisdom-

without-the-Pleroma, which Christ-and-Holy-Spirit,
when they had been after-emanated by Mind-andTruth, shaped and wrought into a perfect seon, so that
she should finally become by no means inferior to any
of those within the Pleroma.

When,

then,

Wisdom -

without had had shape given her, seeing that

it

was

impossible that Christ-and-Holy-Spirit, in that they
were emanated from Mind-and-Truth, should remain

along with her outside the Pleroma, Christ-and-Holy-

THE SOPHIA-MYTHUS.
ascended

Spirit

Mind -and -Truth

to

glorification

singleness of

within the
to

peace and

Pleroma,
glorify

.several syzygies,
[single] offering of

the

Father.

the

since at length there was, as

"And

longer

within

the aeons in their

Boundary, to join the rest of
of

345

it

the

harmony

the

all

aeons The Mystic

seemed good to them no
Father by means of their

hymn His

glory by a

fruits to the Father.

The whole

but also to
fit

of

were, the

it

thirty aeons accordingly agreed to emanate a single
aeon, the common fruit of the Pleroma, as the sign of
their

as

unanimity and peace. And inasmuch
an emanation of all the aeons unto the Father,

unity,

it is

they call it the Common Fruit of the Pleroma. Thus
were the things within the Pleroma constituted.
And now the Common Fruit of the Pleroma had
"

been emanated

High

great

is His
name), the
Wisdom-without-the-

Jesus (for this
Priest

;

when

Pleroma, seeking after the Christ who had enformed
her, and the Holy Spirit, was thrown into great
lest

terror,

she

should

who had enformed and

now

perish,

He

that

her had with

stablished

drawn."

This operation of enforming Wisdom, or cosmic
substance, is apparently the making of a boundary
the

for

Ogdoad

(the

aetherial

space) in

its

turn,

following the law of similitude, and then fashioning
the separated substance according to the types of the
aeons.
This is dramatically set forth as follows
:

"

She mourned and was in great doubt, pondering
who the Holy

on who was her enformer [the Christ]
whither had they departed
Spirit
;

;

;

who prevented

or Cosmic
Jesus,

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

346

them from being with her who envied her that fair
and blessed vision. Plunged in such sufferings, she
betook herself to praying and beseeching Him who
had left her.
Thereupon the Christ within the
Pleroma and the rest of the aeons took pity on her
prayers, and sent forth out of the Pleroma the
;

The Grief

Common

be Consort of Wisdom-without,
and corrector of the passions which she suffered in
Fruit, to

seeking after the Christ.
"And so the Common Fruit
coming forth from the
and
her
afflicted
Pleroma,
finding
by the four primal

namely, fear, grief, doubt and supplication
her sufferings
and in doing so He per

passions

set right

;

was

proper [on the one hand]
that such passions, as being of the nature of an aeon
and peculiar to Wisdom, should be destroyed, nor [on
the other] should Wisdom continue in such afflictions

ceived that neither

as fear

and

it

grief, supplication

and doubt.

Accord

ingly, inasmuch as he was so great an aeon, and
child of the whole Pleroma, He made the passions

depart from her, and turned them into substantial
essences and fear he made into psychic essence, and
;

grief

into subtle matter [hylic essence],

into elemental [daemonian] essence,

and doubt

and conversion

He made

and

into a path
supplication
upwards, that is to say repentance and the power
of the psychic essence which is called
right.

prayer

"

Just

as

the

passions in

man

are

regarded as

being of a material nature, so are the passions of the
cosmic soul imagined as substantial essences by the
dramatisers of the world-process in this scheme of
universal philosophy.

THE SOPHIA-MYTHUS.

347

We

have now come to the stage of the Wisdomdrama which represents the constitution of the The
intel
world, as distinguished from the
But before we
to use Platonic terms.
"

"

sensible

ligible,"

"

proceed with Hippolytus summary, a few words of
explanation may be added to guide the student

through the maze of Gnostic technicalities.
The lower or fallen Wisdom is the

prime

World-mother, chaotically moved
afflictions
impulses, her primal

or

substance,

by

"

four

"

great

or

"

passions."

From

is rescued
by the
of
the
the
from
Divine Power
above,
powers
synthesis
Chaos becomes
of the intelligible or noetic universe.

cosmos

;

her chaotic state she

un-order, order.

The

"
"

passions

(fear, grief,

doubt and supplication) are separated from her, and
she is purified and remains above, while the passions
contract into denser phases of substance, constituting
the sensible universe. Above them broods the Power,

the representative of the three highest planes (the
intelligible universe or Pleroma) and of the One

beyond, the Supreme Deity.
called the Common Fruit.

The four

This Divine Power

is

are separated from Sophia,
passions
and she remains as the substance of the highest of
"

"

the lower planes.
Fear and grief become the sub
stances of the psychic and hylic (or physical) planes
Doubt is regarded as a downward
respectively.

tendency, a path downward to even more dense and
gross states of existence than the physical; while
supplication (prayer, repentance, or aspiration) is

regarded as a path upwards to the Heaven- world.

Sensible

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

348

the power of the soul which

This

is

the

tendency downwards into matter being called

We may now

"

left."

is

"

called

right,"

return to the consideration of

our text.
"

The

fabricative power [proceeds] from
fear.
the meaning of the scripture, says the writer,
fear of the Lord is the beginning of Wisdom,

This
JJ

8
.

is

The

Demmrge.
for

it

was

Wisdom.

the

She

doubted, and

beginning
[first]

of

the

then

feared,

of

sufferings

grieved,

then

then flew for refuge to prayer and
Moreover, he says, the psychic sub

supplication.
stance is of a fiery nature, and they call

it

[Middle]

Space and Hebdomad and Ancient of Days. And
whatever other statements of this kind they make
this

concerning

[space],

they

reality]

[in

refer

to

the [cosmic] psychic substance, which they declare
to be the fabricative power of the [physical] world.

And

it

is

a

of

fiery

nature.

Moses

also,

says

The Lord, thy God, is fire
burning and consuming, for thus he would have

the

it

writer,

declares,

written."

The

action

the

of

emotion of

fear

is

said

to

contract and densify the aura or subtle envelope of
man. The psychic plane is a contraction or densification of the mental,

and the material again

the

of

psychic.
"

Now

there

is

a

the power of
fire

quenched and

which
.

.

is

fire,

he says,

is

twofold

;

for

all-devouring and cannot be

."

A

lacuna unfortunately occurs here perhaps to
and another that is
be filled up by the words,
;

"

quenchable."

it . of If power]. from the Ogdoad. as far as the Hebdomad. but is. that according to them. &quot. The next sentence has a wide lacuna.THE SOPHIA-MYTHUS. the first and : [of the Sensible World] was an image. stance or grief was] the Accuser (Diabolus). which is. is [or dsemonian] substance. namely the Workman (Demiurge) while the power proceeding from the material sub greatest power .&quot. a [and not pleroma. proceeding stance. According to &quot. the day of perfect forms [that is.As. is it 349 then. &quot. that above. substance] immortal] being as psychic . and entereth into the Ogdoad. therefore. moreover. [The power.) below the Ogdoad [the mind or spiritsubstance] where is Wisdom. but above the hylic matter [the which it is then the soul the fashioner [or demiurgic made like unto the things is becomes immortal. [For] they say the Workman knows nothing at all. the sun-space]. the partly (It is [both] the Hebdomad [the sublunary space] and [also] the means of bringing the Hebdomad to an end. and knows . mindless and foolish. the ruler of this world. is. is to say the material passions. then and it is destructible perishes. [and not from an aeon or pleroma]. the soul [that partly mortal [and were a kind of mean. [And] Wisdom herself energises from above. that is to say Beelzeboul. the Jerusalem above the heavens whereas if it be made like to matter. he says. and the Common Fruit For it is the Pleroma of earth-space]. which proceeds] from the elemental doubt. this. which I have endeavoured to bridge over as follows from the psychic sub &quot.

planes.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. while the Accuser (Diabolus) is the Ruler of World [Body]. The contents of the and Wisdom (who is Ogdoad are also subdivided the mother of all . and ignorance energised him everything he made so he no began to say am I : . The four passions are of course very far from the Tetraktys proper they are only a reflection of it on the lower &quot. Pythagoreans divided into twelve and sixty and have further as has been shown in the ! law of finally For just as the [? ten] and thirty subtleties on subtleties. is called and the Workman Spirit. is now constituted both psychic and This is meant by Hippolytus material. &quot. Wisdom Soul . same way these (Gnostics) also subdivide the creations within the Pleroma.Moreover. Wisdom to his Owing and strengthened for and.&quot. &quot. 350 not really what he does or works. &quot. this &quot. and beside me there is other. living [the . they declare that the aeons within the Pleroma emanate a new series of thirty other aeons following the similitude. in order that the Pleroma should be grouped into a perfect number. Such is what they tell us. matical basing their teaching on all considerations. . and our Wisdom from which the whole creation Valentinus. to be ironical and a sneer both at Pythagoras and Valentinus. Here then we have our Tetraktys according to &quot. a source of ever-flowing nature having roots. and Beelzeboul the Ruler Daemons [Chaos]. as I of mathe have said before. God. he imagined it was himself who had of himself achieved the fabrication of the universe. though it was she who had done so.

&quot. in the heavens. as indeed I &quot. face] the breath of life. and the them to According the latter the children of Abraham. taking bodies for the of the saying. according historicizing narratives. of the nations among the Jews in contradistinction to the twelve tribes of Israel. Some critics have preferred a reading which would make Wisdom and the Common Fruit emanate but though this was the number seventy words &quot.&quot.. I prefer to follow the to the reading have done in every case. formed of elemental substance. &quot. also emanated souls. . this is the God fashioned man. Abraham. and her salem is Wisdom-without. but material. Souls. called psychic when it dwells in the body of hylic matter. bridegroom is the Common Fruit of the Pleroma.&quot. for &quot. the seventy (standing were chosen after the seventy-two) apostles &quot.Words others who are the heavenly Angels. for which reason also &quot. destructible.&quot. expression the Abraham s bosom. for he is of the Codex. and breathed into his person [lit. the inner man. twelve. &quot. Citizens of For this Jeru Jerusalem Above. This [soul] * according to them.THE SOPHIA-MYTHUS 351 cosmic Eve] according to them) and the Common Fruit of the Pleroma (the Word) have emanated &quot.or . nomenclature (A otherwise very which absurd would explain &quot. and man became a living soul.The Workman substance the former is of souls. And clay from the earth.&quot. It was moreover from the material and elemental substance that the Workman made And meaning souls. when [its vehicle is] is.) &quot.&quot. imperfect.

the Church Father could not eliminate the meaning of the Gnostic writer. says [the Gnostic in the scriptures [Paul s For this cause Father and I bow my Lord of Lord Jesus Christ. I have. that God may vouchsafe to our you that that Christ should dwell in your inner man that is to say. at another of the soul and dsemonian existences [elementals]. r man. says [the Gnostic writer]. And this material man is. 352 Hippolytus here seems to be the summarising otherwise very elaborate cosmogenesis and exegesis of the Valentinians into a few brief paragraphs. And this what was written Letter to the Ephesians] knees to the God : and is. the soul alone. for they are foolishness to him . according to them. Bodies. even so. at another of the soul and words [or angels] which are words sown from Common Fruit of the Pleroma from the above and Wisdom into this world. and the reader should never forget that the summary is made by an unfriendly hand. is the power of the Work- . the psychic and not the bodily man is the know what be to Depth ye may strong that is. however. the Boundary of that and what is the Greatness that is. and what the Father of the universals the Breadth the Pleroma is the Cross. &amp.lt.*f is.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. does not receive the things of the Spirit and foolish. an inn or dwelling-place at one time of all &quot. of God. thought it good to let the student see for himself that. with her. dwelling in the body when daemons cease of clay together with the soul. to cohabit writer]. says [Paul elsew here Wherefore the psychic in his lirst Letter to the Corinthians]. as it were. the Pleroma of the seons.

that is the Workman. For which cause. who infused energy into him for the forma tion of the universe without his knowing it. they were at that time unknown. the world-formation evolution [revelation] of the Workman [the was to Sons of God revelation] was ended the unveiling The New that is to say of the consist of which had [hitherto] which. says he. he &quot. according to the saying Holy Spirit shall come upon thee and Power of Highest shall Spirit is Wisdom new evolution] : for Highest is the Workman born of thee shall be called holy. having a veil over his heart. the new man. future therefore. and thought that he was fashioning the world unaided. For he was not born of the Highest alone. was z of the Holy Spirit that is to say . spake about any of the things of which we speak. like as men overshadow thee that which is fashioned after the type of Adam owe their origin to the Highest alone. All who came before me are and the Apostle The mystery which was unknown to former generations. &quot. according to the writer. [that 353 the power (or soul) sent forth by the for he himself was foolish and mindless. the psychic man had been hidden. says he. therefore. When. man. the Saviour says thieves and robbers : : . spake from the Workman. the Ogdoad. none of the Prophets. the Mother. Jesus [as the raised and these of the first example was born through Mary. foolish know-nothings of a foolish God. been hidden therefore. When.THE SOPHIA-MYTHUS. is. All the Prophets and the Law. in the veil was to be mysteries revealed. being ignorant that it was Wisdom. For writes. Workman]. Jesus. the virgin.

spirit was a &quot. his . and so he might be a heavenly word. They [who are Heracleon and of Jesus was because of and the other the get their teaching] Ptolemseus. the direct progeny of aeons. furnish the moulding and of his body. and. like a dove. and raised He who raised Christ says the writer. them Now there is much to this subject. from Italy. according to them. festation of one of the Sons of God. This psychic [body]. the saying also will dead from the your mortal bodies vivify For the clay it was that is to say. the word of the Mother from above. Wisdom and united with his him from the dead. the cycle of generation.&quot. who together These sons are all The logoi. That is to say. and one teaching is called the Anatolic. Hence their doctrine is divided in twain. nature of such a man was said to be advanced words or whole body was made by the power which furnished other men s souls his soul was of the same nature as the spirits of other men and his Thus one stage. . at his baptism the Spirit. this. who had transcended the necessity of He was the mani rebirth. but the Holy make Spirit supply his essence or [substance]. born from the Ogdoad through Mary. descended upon him that is to say.&quot. that Jesus was the type of the perfected man. of say that the Italic- whom body [originally] of psychic constitution. The Mystic the Christ.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. : . word. and investigation devoted the starting-point it is by of schism and disagreement. 354 Wisdom the up Workman but of the Workman might in order that also. psychic [bodies]. make up the Divine Sonship. partaker of the Pleroma. according to this nomenclature. is. &quot.

)&quot. and [so too] anyone else who may like to carry on such investigations. but Soteriology. say that the body of the Saviour was For the Holy Spirit that is to say spiritual. . but through Wisdom he &quot. and beside him there was no other. whom of derive are their teaching] from Axionicus and Ardesianes Bardesanes]. he received the &quot. muesis&quot. epopteia&quot. but was not given the higher power or initiation. might be fashioned. Whereas those [who the 355 East. were those on the plane of the Ogdoad. goes on to say that. and the first initiation.THE SOPHIA-MYTHUS. says and unto earth shalt thou return. whereby he could become a teacher or initiator in his turn. know only] the Better [Deity]. learned to [however. the curse. else. The terms used denote that the Demiurge received instruction. came under which thou [Moses]. The writer. in had been given [substance] which order that that to Mary. and was [thus] taught the mighty mystery of the Father and the aeons and [thus] he could reveal it to no one .&quot. not the &quot. the Workman s art. as he thought. art. then. set right. that he was not God alone. and also the power of [? the Highest. moreover. &quot. For earth. Wisdom came upon Mary. elementary instruction from her [became a catechumen]. We may leave them. so also (For the Workman was taught by Wisdom. and further those on the plane of the Hebdomad were also corrected. to investigate such matters by themselves. He received. the Wisdorn-without. just as the imperfec tions on the plane of the aeons within were corrected.

so again did the Saviour. summarizing process nevertheless. according to the writer. the Saviour.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Just as Christ was emanated by Mind-and -Truth for the that is righting of the sufferings of Wisdom-without. the reader some general notion of the cycle of ideas in which these Gnostics The exposition of the Gnostic writer has moved. nor explained who is God. but I kept to myself in secret the Mystery which I heard from Wisdom. The above will doubtless suffered to which it give much in the has been subjected . that things here might be righted. For this cause Jesus. even if it had been given in full.) then the things above [in the Pleroma. and then re-formulate tenets of the followers of in his . of his words unto Moses is &quot. I am the God of Abraham.&quot. it would be necessary first of all to the contents of the analyse (1) the above account. through Mary. it would have to be ascribed to a pupil and not to a master of the Gnosis such as In order to obtain a more Basilides or Valentinus. born to say the abortion additionally . come for the righting of the sufferings of the soul. and (3) the summary Ptolemy given by Irenams the opening chapters. and the have not made known unto them - to say. 356 the meaning. I have not declared the Mystery. consistent cycle of and detailed exposition of the Valentinian ideas. and the God of Jacob. by the same law of succession the things here [on earth] &quot.Since were to meet with their proper regulation. Ogdoad and Hebdomad] had been set right. was born through Mary.(This : and the God name that God of is of I Isaac. (2) of the Excerpts from Theodotus.

Of Theodotus and Alexander we know nothing. &quot. We shall. confine our attention to Marcus. a Right and Left. &quot. Heracleon and Bardesanes. and of Secundus only the fact that he divided the highest Ogdoad. two into Tetrads. them of and so we return to a consideration of Valentinus. whole. account. We now give a brief outline of the teachings of the more prominent leaders of Gnostic thought in shall this period. brief notices of whom will bring our information derived from indirect sources namely. Let us then turn to first treat of Marcus and &quot.&quot. though we are of course not to suppose that he originated such a fundamental notion. the Patristic writings to a conclusion. therefore. within the Pleroma. them his of Valentinus number-symbolism. and . and a more detailed exposition would be out sufficient to of place in these short sketches. is quite acquaint the reader with the general outlines. Hippolytus 357 however. Ptolemaeus.THE SOPHIA-MYTHUS.

man he had never seen. or at best Egypt ! Irenaeus professes first of all to describe what took place at the initiation-ceremonies and secret rites of the Marcosians. A Sources. LONG section in Irenseus is our almost exclusive source for a knowledge of Marcus and his followers. much To to his picture own of satis reports and descriptions. a their influence. and the worthy Pres Lyons was especially anxious to discount populace of the byter of He begins the attack by retailing all the scandalous stories he can collect about Marcus. while our information from other sources is a question of paragraphs. and therefore we shall not at present trouble the faction. the Marcosians however. seems It is that and in the case of Marcus more painfully patent than some of the adherents of the school were to be found even among the rude Rhone valley. all of these reader with the Presbyter s statements on the subject. and paints a graphic charlatanry and debauchery. and to point out to the student that the account seems to be a very . The unreliability of Irenseus as a chronicler of Gnostic views is already and not lines known to our of readers. THE NUMBER-SYMBOLISM OF MARCUS. and the Marcosians usual. gave a most emphatic denial.358 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Hippolytus and Epiphanius simply copy Irenseus and add nothing but new terms of condemnation. except to remark that he himself acknowledges that he depends entirely on hearsay. and who had not been nearer to the sheepfold of Lyons than Asia Minor.

in his opening paragraph. probable that this is merely rhetorical as is the case with Hippolytus. the ritual of which partly preserved to us directly in the Askew of the MSS. The original of the document Irenseus ascribes to Marcus himself. To the student Gnostic doctors as of states who regards the men who made a Gnosticism cultured brave effort to formulate Christianity as a universal philosophy. but for the most part contents himself with a summary. two hundred years afterwards.THE NUMBEK-SYMBOLISM OF MARCUS. middle of the second the somewhere about placed in Asia Minor.cnv desist [from his imposture] although &quot. He apparently quotes some passages verbatim. or rather as a divine science springing from the ground of a philosophy of religion. is Codex and one Irenseus next proceeds to give a resumd of a Marcosian MS. thirty or forty years afterwards. the attempt of Marcus to adapt the Hebrew number-letter Number- . . or at any rate . who.&quot. which had fallen into his hands. predicts that the result of his exposure of Marcus will be that he will n. that he was an Egyptian. 359 distorted caricature of the ceremonies. Of Marcus himself we know nothing beyond the of the earlier pupils of fact that he was one belonged to the earlier His date is vaguely circle of Valentinian ideas. and Jerome. so that what the writer of the document really said. however. the body of the Gnostic doctor had long been laid in the grave. he is said to have taught century Valentinus. whom throughout we can by no means be sure the whole section he apostrophises as a contemporary. it is. of the Codex Brucianus.

tradition that to some extent justified his the attempt. is no reason for us to deride the efforts made that we have not even to-day. That these attempts doomed to failure. is a point of great interest.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. as far as general compre hension was concerned. not only of superphysical existence. Rabbis. evolved a sufficient symbolism. worked out Every the of in letter of the making Chaldseans was cosrnogenesis and the symbolism of sacred language had a certain numerical equivalent. &quot. with were all . our elaborate mathematical formulas. be that the Hebrews copied from the Greeks or that both derived this method from Egypt. Marcus with attempted this gigantic task it is with means too that means. religion O and mathematical. As must be patent to everyone. appear to our prosaic minds to-day as fantastic and even worthless nevertheless he was not without a insufficient . to the Greek kabalistic alphabet. is no reason for denying the all of possibility such an achievement within certain limits in future ages. true. the methods of symbolism of the Gnostics were very numerous many attempts were made to convey to the physical . consciousness some idea of the modes. and so work out a number-symbolism for the too abstruse aeon-genesis and world-process of the It may. but also of what was definitely stated to be suprarational being. The ancient astronomical evolution were numbers. and thus words and sentences could be constructed which could be interpreted numerically. 360 system. however. . devised by &quot. Gnosis. and be finally made .

and thus contained originally a wonderful magical potency. the mathematical to the initiate into the ancient star-lore key given might thus open the door to the sacred nature and man as known to the seers of of Chaldsea. was one of the main centres of this peculiar learning. however. True. A . on their return from presumably captivity. number-system has come down to the present times with the tradition of the Kabalah. and later on proceeded to turn it to account as a means. Mathematicians the celestial sacred &quot. Itis to be observed. and &quot.THE NUMBER-SYMBOLISM OF MARCUS. and especially Alexandria. brought with them some notions of this method of number-letters. that the Rabbis adapted relic of this the system to a heterogeneous library of works of various dates and many recensions. The Rabbis of the Jews. and natural of explanatory Since processes. derived to a large extent from their contact with Oriental ideas during of reading into the old fables the new and years method of captivity and of mystical exegesis This subsequently. but the relentless logic . was number-letters by developed to a marvellous extent by the Hellenising Rabbis among the tendencies of the cultured Diaspora and Egypt. are said to 361 phenomena books the of have been written with this definite object in view. they believed that every word and letter of the Law had been directly inspired by God. which were not composed with this end in view. science of that ancient civilisation. both of explaining away much that was distasteful to the cultured mind in their ancient traditions. and cosmogonic and patriarchal spiritual meanings.

Needless to were now almost exclusively written. 362 of modern Biblical research has to a overturned this fond hypothesis. 70. give sketch of some of Marcus ideas. conveying knowledge otherwise acquired. the Greek alphabet would not stand the strain . the new world-science. There is little doubt that Valentinus and pupils were acquainted with all there was his to learn at Alexandria of Rabbinical exegesis. and. in which the hopes of the Jews were more than ever centred after the destruction of the second temple in A. It is therefore but little surprising hnd that one of them busied himself with adapting this ancient method of symbolism (if indeed it was to not already native to Grecian tradition) to the Greek alphabet. This exercise in correspondences was naturally no contribution to knowledge. as far as it is possible . as they firmly believed. nevertheless it was a good exercise for a pupil of the Gnosis. a brief reader the to of interest be however. in which the documents of the new faith.books of the ancient Chaldeans.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and offered wide scope for the use of much ingenuity. but only a means of It will. and as legitimate only for such small parts of the documents as scribes for the may have who were been composed in Babylon by already versed in the Chaldaic method. and number-processes must now extent large their pious most part be regarded as the development of apologetic Rabbinism. They were also perfectly familiar with the Pythagorean number-philosophy.D. say. the symbolism of which no doubt had many resemblances to the number.

&quot. its masculine in India. appearing before Him. of the document s inspiration is ascribed to the Supernal Four. greatness. who.THE NUMBER-SYMBOLISM OF MARCUS.&quot. power and effulgence of The same idea is current &quot. Devi). The MS. became the means of His seeing what He himself was namely Himself appearing in the form of His own like invisibility. The whole of what based upon the Greek texts of Hippolytus (Duncker and Schneidewin) and Epiphanius (Dindorf ) who copied from the lost Greek text of Irenseus and upon the oft-times unintelligent and barbarous Latin version of the Greek original of Irenseus (Stieren). &quot. who is neither male nor female. The God (Deva) uses his power. When first Word the Father. as his means of communication with mortals his own form . and His invisibility take beyond form. the highest hierarchy of the Pleroma. all possibility of He opened His mouth and uttered a Word. 363 them from the contemptuous summary of the Marcosian MS. apparently opened with the following passage descriptive of the speaking forth of the of the Supernal Father. for the world cannot bear the &quot. which however only reveals itself to mortals in its feminine form. no mortal can behold and follows is live. the not even the One. . by Irenseus in his polemic. unto Himself. &quot. They to recover are also additionally interesting as showing intimate points of contact with the Coptic treatises we have so often referred The source to. the Goddess (Shakti. thought and being. willed that His ineffability should come into being.

But no element is acquainted with the form of the sound of which it is an element in fact. 364 Now The Father spake the wise. which he had come across his elsewhere in his heresy-hunt. . apxn&quot. probably derived from some numerical exegesis of the Prologue to the fourth Gospel. and does not cease sounding until it arrives at the very last letter of the last sub-element in its own peculiar tongue. &quot. Beginning the Prologue. but only to its utterance. character. it thinks it is sounding forth the whole Name. namely interjected note.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. For each of the elements. it pays no tions . the of &quot. configura and images. Irenseus has dragged into summary a suggestion of his own.&quot. Name was His Name was Word the first the utterance of the Great . Now the consummation or restitution of all things . Thus the utterance of thirty elements and four the fourth and last of twelve. breaks into the thread of the Thus he evidently summary with the &quot. on this note of the second the third of ten . Further. Thus uttering knows. a sound of four elements sound was also of four elements . attention even elements in own its to the own utterance of its associate sound-hierarchy. Name was the whole of sounds or groupings. After the words the &quot. letters. each single element of the thirty has own its peculiar utterance. enunciates its own all that it peculiar sound as the whole Word. a sound of four first note of His Name was elements. so far from knowing its parent-sound. being a part of the whole Name.

Church &quot. the the Lord who con for elements these words. with all its sub-sounds.spoken&quot. send forth one and same utterance.authentic&quot. name. and it is this series which is the cause not only of the elements The Echo of Name. &quot. coming to one and the same letter or note. names. &quot. mysticce many instances of the cypher-equivalents of which will be found in the Coptic Codices. Calling Forth. of the Tetrad. names are distinguished from &quot. which transcended all idea of Harmony which were the Living substance and generation. roots.&quot. a substitute for an &quot. was contained in the phase of the Divine Being to which the symbolic name of Church notes. 365 takes place when all these original elements. had been means the given. When of these the last note the of supernal peculiar sound. seeds. and gave birth to another series. plenitudes (pleromata). The &quot. the means of giving form to ^Eon. The term &quot. or pair. It chanting of the sacred word Amen was these notes of the scale of the Primordial &quot. The Church was the female aspect of the fourth and last syzygy. or letters. when speaking referred To such forms of the angels &quot. or voces. the .authentic&quot. in the image of all these elements and sub-elements. fruits.THE NUMBER-SYMBOLISM OF MARCUS. or Holy Four. which was only revealed to the initiated members of the school. tinually behold the face of the Father. the echo of sub-element last had uttered elements . it went p its i own i forth. the which was the a symbol of in unison. Now every divine element.&quot. (Ecclesia) the Heritage of the Elect. the Lords of the Pleroma. The ordinary spoken names are : aeons.

while the echo descended to the parts below. and so on infinitely. as as soon delta you name it. A epsilon. . but also of those elements which have a prior existence to those of our world. namely A delta. and the power or name of each sub-element in turn is manifested or spelt by other minor sub-elements. A alpha. the sub-elements as it were spell out the name. from which the last note. whereby the twenty-four letters Truth. illustration is N nu E . The O omicron. A lambda. the Greek alphabet. E epsilon. is resolved into lambda. iota. descended below. consisted of thirty letters or elements.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. I on Again E. Marcus brought home this grand idea to the by pointing out an analogy in Thus take any single letter. and so certainly graphic enough. minds of his pupils . of which echo rang on echo downwards. The Gnostic MS.* the Greek alphabet were assigned in pairs to the . then proceeded to describe a method of symbolizing the Great Body of the The of Body oAhe Heavenly Man. and remained as though This parent-sound cast out of the Pleroma. was wafted upwards by its own parent-sound to complete and consummate the whole Name. The last divine note itself. infinitely. and so on infinitely. containing potentially the utterance of the parent -sound. That is to say. 366 of world which the we know. you have five say A. T tau. or manifest the power. of the main element letters or elements. epsilon. psi. or element. and each of these contains other by means of which the name of each root-element is spelt. letters.

planes. &quot.ordering.&quot.) or is (ii.&quot.) a note of music. I omit here all mention of Mark s diagram of the . and its is now a janus-faced art. we have taken the word ypa^/ma in its third sense. in which it consanguinity with the great art of systematising the elements and powers of nature. last the as reflection (i.) a the TOV y/DayUyuaro?). and powers. or (ii. also the glyph (or character) of the the Man of Truth. or a mathematical figure or diagram.&quot. hierarchies economy. is the drawing main feature diagrams (yantras). one of the the treatises of which contains a whole moments of the various series of diagrams of emanation of the creative deity under this designation.) Harmony which as the last note of the Divine sung forth by the Supernal Logos or Word. or ordering of the universe.limbs. The character. To avoid complication and symbols of symbols. ypdjuL/ma letter of the alphabet.) Tautrika white and black. to represent the con figuration of the elements and powers which the of magical operator desires to use. or configuration. its regions. declares its (&quot. glyph.THE NUMBER-SYMBOLISM OF MARCUS. In the phrase glyph of the figure &quot. presumably figure (or diagram) of God of Truth of the Codex Brucianus. twelve was The Body &quot. the graphic symbol of of 367 Heavenly Man the the ideal dispensation. known in India as tantra systematising. regarded letter of the four-lettered Great Name. (6 \apaKTvjp means word either (i. would thus be the symbol or (iii. This symbolic representation was called the schema of the one element (TO o-x^a TOV or configuration and a-TOxeiov).) of the super-spiritual Pleroma. &quot.

The consonants symbolise the ineffable or sound- . there is semi-sounds). and this is known only to them who are akin to the Logos in their with hearts. consonants (or soundless letters). Man-Church) and the sum of the six. the male energy of the middle pair or syzygy of the trinity (Mind-Truth. Christ Jesus. as the consideration would take up too much space in these short body of it sketches. Now the Word. a symbol . the self -generator of who bestows fatherhood (TrarpoSoTopa On earth this Word becomes Ao yoi ) the name known commonly to all Christians. or images. those Him Now whose angels or greatnesses are for all time. and seven vowels (or sounds). Christians. attached to the various limbs of the Body of the the Heavenly Man diagram. twenty-four letters of the alphabet. alone of the elect its power is known to the Jesus is &quot. and of another form and type. and &quot. is really a substitute for a very ancient name. namely. o n a ll things. issued forth from the mouth of Truth. are the symbols. name down But Jesus only the sound of the here and not the power of the name. of the emanations of the three powers which contain the sum total or Pleroma of the aeonic in the And a further analogy to For there are nine their nature in the alphabet. the universe.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. This Word is the Logos or Supreme Reason of all things. It is the six-lettered the seons of the this is only Pleroma it is manifold. among But even name. eight liquids (or elements above. 368 of the Heavenly Man. Word-Life.

That is to his seat with the Father (Mind). and these again spaces fourfold. Moreover. there might be a common product of a single power from all of the 7 obtained the them power of in all of them. 8. to restore the divine creation to a state of equilibrium. get and . sent forth to the one He was separated (the Church). and receive the back the ascent from the manifested below. 8 . the unities of the Pleromas (or three phases of the Pleroma or ideal cosmos) being reduced to an equality. triads and tetrads. from it to 888. if we take or Jesus. and the vowels represent the elements of Man-and-Church. 8. This reminds us of the elaborated division of the Platonic world of ideas into three spaces: (1) noetic. 3 and these added together are 24. 8. midway between the soundless letters and the sounds. typify less . (2) both noetic and noe ric and (3) noeric. 24 in all. the JThe Numbers. 6 in all. For the echo of His voice in vestured them with form._ the numerical values of which amount say. essay on Orpheus). Thus we have the 1 from 9 and add six-lettered name the of letters He who had left his seat whom to series 9.THE NUMBER-SYMBOLISM OF MARCUS. 7 7. eights. and descended. we (itiarovs). elements of Word-and-Life. (See my . if you would find the 6 among the 24 . the 8. in dyads. the reflection of the elements of the Unnameable. elements of Mind-and-Truth 369 the liquids. which receive the emanation from the unmanifested above. Thus and the three became equal in their numbers. in order that. namely. Now these three spaces or elements are each two fold (positive and negative). for sound going forth through the Man enf ormed all things.

subtle and mental planes presumably The the &quot. however. he ascended Elias of the familiar Gospel-narrative. &quot. and elsewhere in the Old Covenant library we need not. (-Try). is to say. three srotdpanna. stage since the disciple he ascended into the &quot. the of matter becomes of deep interest for the theosophical student.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. andgdmin . but as symbolic of the drama initiation. for the higher C5 He with three and was joined and James the John. Z ((5?). To make this further apparent. you will find it hidden in the letters of B double letters (*?).six that days. and Moses and Peter. That by ascended the fourth and became the sixth. on the path. is to say. follow them into this field of letter. 370 the alphabet. but as allegory. Thus they symbolic said that the transfiguration-story (ev OfJLOttofJMTt etVoYo?) as manifested in the man of the divine seeking perfection was economy . With much ingenuity our Gnostics found Gospel these numbers and processes in the prologue to Genesis. sakaddgamin and The two in the Buddhist tradition. &quot. a graphic symbol states of consciousness. and not only as allegory. which are only images of the real elements. and we have again a symbol to the 24 Add this 6 of the 30 aeons of the Pleroma. in other words. After &quot. we will use terms already familiar to some of our readers. two. degrees of &quot. are the powers he had already won over the gross. find that they treated the Gospel-legends also not as history. of a certain stage of initiation.&quot. But when we numbering. in the seventh first set his feet mountain &quot.

called by the Marcosian writer the &quot. and 80 (TT) 200 300 (r) + (&amp. or region of the seven spheres of difference.&quot. It was this &quot. . sixth 100 (p) + (/o) + day. &quot. and thus he becomes sixth.&quot.lt. when the initiate was nailed to the cross. &quot. Trepia-repd. being in reality of the same essence as the World- mother. &quot. which had descended and been detained in the Hebdomad. sameness.&quot. The dove the Alpha and and 800) of the diagram. &quot.six&quot.dove&quot. birth or regeneration of the first man or man of the earth and further the passion began in the sixth hour and ended in the sixth hour. said the Marcosians. is Omega (1 &quot. 371 are the representatives of the spiritual and divine powers which welcome and support him. tion.THE NUMBER-SYMBOLISM OF MARCUS.r) -f Again. typified in the number 6. it + 5 (e) + + 100 5 (e) was on the &quot. or possessed of the spiritual conscious the arahat stage. the eighth encircling sphere of which is above or beyond these seven. All of which was designed to indicate the power of creation (inception) and regeneration or rebirth (consum mation). &quot. the &quot. 10 1 (a) the (i) = + 801. ness. manifested the last man. prepara that the divine economy. or order of things. or . for the new &quot.&quot. the first and last of the numbers. representing the Moreover the word for in Greek is head. Sons of the Light. The six (the arahat) being thus of the same essence as the World-mother (Wisdom) contains essentially in him self the whole number of all the elements or powers a fact already typified in* the stage symbolised in the baptism -myth by the descent of the dove. to those who were admitted to the mysteries of initiation.&quot. &quot.&quot. while still in the body. the man from heaven. six.

and regeneration 3. and thus was constituted the soul of the visible makes use of this all. 372 &quot. uses as his minister. The Mind. but the seven of spheres of the world-soul (the cosmic life) copies the seonic spheres which no cosmic spheres can really to the will of represent are in reality hand-maidens the Divine Life. however. seven-numbered to of the Sensible the World. as creator. The building. symbolized by the &quot. and thus remaining apart It is by the power and from or outside the Pleroma. is regarded as a fabrication. greatness (that is say. Sons of the Man. . according to the similitude of the septenary power above. enformed by Him. as though it The demiurge had come into existence through his own will alone. that is to say by triads. in order that the fruit of His meditated meditation may be manifested. but as it were separated or cut off. the supernal Mother. work our cosmos. by means of his own emanation or life (the reflection of the Life of the Pleroma). the Pleroma or Mind of the Logos. the septenary hierarchy of the ideal universe.&quot. as to the creation of the sensible universe : the Logos. purpose of the Divine Logos. 6. &quot. is. or servant. seven vowels). for the Greek will carry both meanings. Creation by 2x3 Now The that 2. or ascent = to say is the number is represented by the by dyads. that the demiurgic power. self- creation of our particular universe (or solar or system). according to a type in the Divine reflection a as it or builder fabricator creative were. ensouled the cosmos of seven powers. of the universal Logos.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. For creation or descent number and . .

(c. emanated. xv. now appears to have come to the end of the MS. Before all (c. while the echo of their hymn of glory the modeller and is borne to earth. the intelligible (or ideal) source of all. the second the E. the fifth the O. quce ad nos pervenerunt ex Us &quot. 3). carried up the Forefather of the Pleroma (the to Divine Logos). the third the H. prior even to The that state which is inconceivable. the sixth the Y.THE NUMBER-SYMBOLISM OF MARCUS. and becomes generator of them upon the earth. and so proceeds to give the friend to whom Irengeus he is writing. He returns once more to a consideration economy of the Pleroma. . as many other details of Marcosian ideas as he has picked up from scraps of quotations or from hearsay.). which I number as Noughtness. unnameable. and to an from which he has already quoted a scrap exposition of the eternal in another connection &quot. universes as follows there is a : source (or beginning) before the primal source. although they did not really emanate. sounds forth the sound or vowel A. This Noughtness and Oneness. him by whom they were emanated (the system-logos and the glory of the sound is or world-builder) . Now the first 373 of these seven spheres. or heavens. ineffable. xi. the which are in reality one. ingenerable and invisible. the fourth and midmost the I. &quot. With this No-number consubsists a power to which I give name Oneness. and the seventh and fourth from together in And all uniting and glorify send forth a sound harmony the middle the Q. to which speech gives the name of Monad (or Nought).. that is to say the souls of men.

letters (Ao yo?) and (e/c/cX^cr/a) of 5 . 374 With stance this Monad (6^ooJ&amp. respectively of 7 7 and twice So also 5. &quot. specimens of which are given in the fragments from the Books of the Saviour attached to the Pisti* Sophia document and in two of the treatises of the Codex Brucianus. names known to the Son alone. Oneness. of the one reality being referred to the Father alone. are really incapable of representation in human speech they are the holy of holies.) is circle containing all the numbers passage shows the distinct influence of Basilides..FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and 5. the O or the no-number. with the substitutes for the names of the second tetrad (avOpcoTTos) the Greek words for which consist : Word and Church consisting respectively in all 24. The substitutes for these names are Ineffable (afipyros) and Silence (ere*-/?/). this final knowledge &quot. Noughtness&quot. but among the best critics opinions are divided as to whether it should be assigned to This Marcus or Heracleon. the root of the &quot.&quot. and Life (fan}). monad. while even He does not know what the Four really are. . The names of this highest tetrad or tetraktys. These names pertain to the &quot.T(o?) consubsists a with it. and 8 and 8 . sub These powers. Father (-jrar^p) and : Truth (aXyOeia) . Noughtness.sacred language. monadity&quot. or twice the 24 elements of the Pleroma.lt.&quot. and 5 and 7 letters. send forth the rest of the emanations of the aeons. (lit. Nought and One. of equal power which I call One. however. Man the Greek names 3.

And since all numbers come from the One. Similar number-permutations are also found in the letters of the word Christ. the name = 888. for all our modern physical science is based upon exactly the same considerations of measure and number. but also that the so-called Seventy was God and in the second. is called From her the All-Mother. 2. might number- The Mar- perhaps the reader will say. the comprehensible numbers.THE NUMBER-SYMBOLISM OF MARCUS. which believed not only in the literal inspiration of the Hebrew text of the Old Covenant. Noughtness. consists of 6 letters. Again the spoken or Jesus name (irja-ovs). symbolism an of forcing arms in the first place plead in excuse the example of Philo and Alexandrine Judaism. : these number-equivalents. = 24. Oneness and Nought. this tetrad Above. they might perhaps have said The Greek names for the aeons are but substitutes for other names which have the Greek version of written by the finger of . But of enough alphabet unwilling this apparent the into of a cosians. permutation. effable name of the Saviour. however. the the 1. of our initiation. Theological . lower tetrad. while As consists of 24. by another 375 His ineffable stated above. The and pertain to the secrets part of the system is the number-process as a natural symbolism of primeval evolution. it is not enough to label this Pythareally scientific goreanism and so dismiss it with a sneer. Now the One contains in itself implicitly the three incomprehensibles. and thus. Thus the One is the representative of the upper tetrad. as a or Wisdom proceeds daughter.

or 6. These eternal types and processes were to be seen Jesus in nature and theMagter. 8 + 4 = 12. the enformation according to &quot. This was the regeneration by means of knowledge. Jesus. just before she was fashioned arid regenerated. congress with the 8 and itself makes 800 so that the 8. &quot. was the enformation according to substance but there was another enformation of a higher kind. 10 + 2 = 12. &quot. is separated into three spaces. But ogdoad. He took flesh as Jesus. the 10 + 2 is the decad with the twin 2+ the dodecad. &quot. which must be regarded as 8 potentially. or 6 x 2 is the doubling of the . world-soul was in ignorance Master. by means of the Christ. The 8 + 4 is the ogdoad with the first tetrad added to it. seeing that the 1 mani fests the unmanifestable One. in . .FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. for 1 this decad by congress with the 8 makes this And and by 80. 376 3 and the the 4. the ogdoad contains the decad.&quot. in all 888. . so were men in ignorance and error before the coming of as the Great the One. history. the consort of the 4 + or last number of the lower tetrad. Thus in the case of the great . This enformation of the world-substance by means by means of the creative 888 or Jesus of the decad &quot. the representative of the unmanifestable tetrad. The Wisdom below is thus reckoned as or 8. and 800. Wisdom Below. 8. 80. &quot. which is the number of her enforming power or consort Jesus. + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10. or world-mother. the creative Logos from above.&quot. powers of the upper and lower tetrads added to it the (1 + 2 + 3) x 2. enforming power or its ascent into itself. Now 6x 2 = 12. the 1 + 2 3. (1 + 3)x 2 = 12.

ture. Gabriel this. and ceased Life. Again. Name. And order that unto descend to the perception of recognized Him ascended from Death who they from Ignorance. &quot. &quot. or perfect illumination. He might men on earth.THE NUMBER-SYMBOLISM OF MARCUS. was shown &quot.&quot. &quot. and the that of the Church. Man powers emanating from these four Holy Ones watch over the birth and mould the lower tetrad And the lower vehicles of the Jesus on earth. which soars again to heaven. &quot. containing in itself both the Father the them And of and the Son. Life. thus perfectly constituted (or ing to substance). the Mother. the enforma- tion according to knowledge. unto the Father of Truth. the dove. Now is spoken of as Word and And and Church. the &quot. . sufficiently developed to act as a is fit vehicle. or Logos). the Power of the Highest &quot. And in the Christ subsists the seed of descend and ascend with Him. Christ which descends is unnameable power who the power of the the seed of the Pleroma. Virgin that of the Man. to say. was said. its upward course completing the Jesus (or 6) and making him into the Christ (or 12). His 377 &quot. and Silence. For this reason a man was chosen by His will whose constitution was image of the power above (the lower after the that tetrad). or Power. leading them For it was the will of the All-Father to put an end to Ignorance and destroy Death. &quot. it clearly in the allegorical scrip takes the place of the Word (Reason Holy Spirit that of the Life. at the baptism there descended upon the enformed accord Jesus. And the ending of Ignorance is the Know ledge (e-TT/yi/axTf?) of Him (the Christ).

and moist. seven spheres. and their four characteristics. xvi. descending on Jesus and becoming one with Him. this Peace and Comfort. Ireneeus resumes the subject of Marcosian number-correspondences in cap. had thus in tion the him both the Man and Word and Father and the Ineffable. however. by the removal of ignorance. and revealed the Father. is the Holy Spirit. and Jesus made Jesus is Him known really the as his Father. It was this Saviour who put an end to death. quent souls passion so faulty that. water. with the imperfections of the dodecad and the conse &quot. &quot. and proclaimed itself as Son of Man. the Christ. and Silence and Truth and Life and Church (for the Master is one who is at-one with these). and in addition the sun and moon. It was this Spirit which spoke through the mouth of Jesus in the Gospel-narratives. but the reading of the key-passage which deals . the aeonic types are The two economy of the cosmos. And he who was the vehicle of this Great One. as yet. and the eighth which encompasses them. After three sections of abuse. earth. the adaptability and forma name has been given to the Man who was to descend into him (in other words. and air. name perfected in his lower nature but because of initiate). The decad is shown in the cold. 378 (which is only known through Now the aeons. This traced in the .. of xvii. hot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. I is make nothing out With The image? of the cosmic soul cap. dry. its of the (that man who was is to say. the Master). tetrads are shown in the four elements fire. and the rest of this power of Silence. and individual have been able to it. them).

are not the of either astrology or astronomy. so he represented Eternity in times and seasons.&quot. desired to copy when he the infinite. or a twelfth part. in 30 days and the sun completes its cyclic return in 12 months. each of which has again 30 sub-divisions. invisible and timeless nature of Eternity. There &quot. the lower boundary. Thus him and it was that truth abandoned he . shows that the clearly &quot. This retarding sphere was thus regarded as an image of the Great Mother of thirty Boundary which surrounds the names or Pleroma. planets. seven spheres &quot. seeing that he himself was the result of a deficiency in this model of its eternal nature. or time-spirit.&quot. Now the motion of these seven spheres is exceed ingly rapid. the tradition of the common source of the ancient Chaldsean and Egyptian religions.THE NUMBER-SYMBOLISM OF MARCUS. &quot. the moon encompasses its &quot. are moreover 12 hours in every day. thinking by a manifold number of times to imitate its infinitude. For the world-fabricator. was not able to make a abiding and eternal nature. the result is that the whole mass takes some 30 years to pass through a sign. aeonian. whereas the eighth sphere. Again. . the earth again has 12 All of which is doubtless to be referred to climates. of the zodiacal belt. 360 in all. heaven. and each hour is divided into thirty parts. and as it were balances or checks their otherwise too rapid motion by pressure on their periphery. &quot. or heaven. and numbers of many years. the dodecad is shown 379 Finally in the so-called zodiacal circle. according to the 12 great divisions of the zodiac. is much slower than the motion of the seven mutually interpenetrating spheres.

the original Hebrew. communion of [thy] powers. (the who art above every Thou who art called Light and Thou hast reigned in the body. Name Name above). Christ the Living One. Next we have what purports to be the translation a Hebrew invocation to the Christ Irenseus gives union. and Life . in which Jesus.380 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. work will next three chapters (cap p. lie. clothed himself in the zones (or girdles) of Light. O Light.&quot. but in such a woefully corrupt guise that it has baffled the ingenuity of the best of scholars. although the Marcosians denied their accuracy. redemption. of the Father. the is of little interest . but in Bishop of Lyons gives us some of the formulae used by the school. [I invoke] the and lordship. followed after a are fulfilled his and therefore when the times come to an end. chapter xxi. Father of the universals. the Mother of unto Him who descended on Jesus. and these are of greater interest.&quot.-xx. one of : Truth. angelic redemption angelic redemption was the means whereby the candidate became one with his &quot. and of . unto Truth. &quot.&quot. the &quot. I power Spirit invoke thee. through the Holy Spirit. of the Marcosian Irenaeus devotes his From the Marcosian Ritual xviii. Next follows the formula of the restoration or . unto the all. &quot. &quot. angel is then given hidden from every godhead of the higher degrees of Gnostic initiation. Thus he says that the words of the baptismal consecration are as follows [I baptise thee] unto the Name of the unknown : &quot.) to what he has heard This interpretation ot scripture. for angelic redemption. The formula for of the rite of &quot. the Nazarene. [the Name] of the Christ.

and the powers of the &quot. regions is cator. generation. or &quot. ! And then &quot. is or am beyond sa/riisa/ra. They who solem restitution. The final apology made to the powers surrounding the world-fabri &quot. of the Father : &quot. One. I came who I. for they are Wisdom s. and runs as follows a vessel more precious than the female : am power [lower Wisdom] who made you. ! There were also prayers for the dead. There : no separation between is 381 my heart. Your mother . the Living Then the redeem I . of which the following are given by Irenseus as specimens I am the son of the Father.&quot. May I enjoy &quot. am I the candidate replies : confirmed and redeemed soul from this seon (world) name from. : this Name doth rest &quot. [into existence] to see mine own and things not mine. who redeemed of &quot. from birth And then they of the purgatorial is I pass through the various planes realms. assistants rejoin Peace unto all on whom my that cometh there unto redemption in Christ. thy Name. nize the rite declare as follows &quot. and the Super-celestial Power. and return again unto mine own whence I came forth. its soul.THE NUMBER-SYMBOLISM OF MARCUS. O Saviour of Truth my spirit. make way before them. His son. in the and all IAO. the final consecration. the sphere of rebirth] while in existence. who is [my] female [counter But I derive my part] and made them for herself. yet not wholly not mine. all existence [that is to say. and also formulae for the soul in passing through the seven gates of the seven purgatorial spheres. I demiurge.&quot. Him who beyond existence.

casting off his chains. of . of the great known Valentinian Gnostic initiations in The degrees all clearly which formed part of this initiation were more and Irenseus may secret as they became more real. nor any male was a female born from a female you. the One. 382 knoweth not the root from which she came. baptism distinguishable cycle circles. apologies. and I invoke the incorruptible She it is Father. [self -generated]. but I know myself and know whence I am. that is to say. to the . on to his own.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. But aid. but the higher grades could only be under stood by the picked disciples of these very intellectual and highly mystical schools. all of and chrism. the soul.higher degrees the hands of the Church Fathers. The documents pertaining seem never to have come into &quot. the Mother But consort. it mother. who made Wisdom [above]. Living prayers for the dead. who is who is the Mother of your mother. or lower nature. It is evident that we have in the above an so he passeth same range of ideas which we find worked out with such elaboration in the Pistis Sophia and Codex Brucianus treatises the light-robe of the indication of the : Master. the invocations. have heard of some of the formulae of the lower more grades.&quot. one who knoweth invoke her Mother to And the who hath no but thinketh herself to be alone I in my not her Mother.

but Gnos whether or not Ptolemy himself was alive when the Presbyter of Lyons wrote the opening chapters of his Refutation. was It of the pupils of some Ptolemy mainly that become acquainted with a rough of the ideas of the developed ticism of this line of tradition.. 383 PTOLEMY. letter to a lady called Flora. and emotions intelligible to the We student of Gnosticism.D. whereas with Valentinus these substances aeons had been included in the sum of the Godhead. and then the interpretation of the Logos-doctrine Proem.) outline of absolutely nothing.). Valent. it is impossible to say.. somewhere about A. not the teaching of Ptolemy had from that of his master or differences it is at present impossible to decide . will first consider the Letter to Flora. through some Irenaeus (I. 4) that with Ptolemy the names and numbers of the were separated into personal substances external to Deity. affections. i. 185-195. Whether essential any Valentinus.-viii. as is perfectly un sensations. xxxiii. viii.PTOLEMY. and the copied statement of Tertullian (Adv. The The Letter to Flor* Letter to Flora gives the view which the Valentinian .. one of the oldest pupils of life we know Valentinus. and a to the fourth canonical Gospel (Iren. Of the writings been preserved Proem : Ptolemy two fragments alone have an interpretation of the magnificent of of the Beginnings still extant in the Prologue I. OF the of Ptolemy. quoted by Epiphanius (Hcer. 5).

Diabolos).j&amp. for the Saviour Himself declared that a house divided against itself long ago robbed of (awTTOG-TGLTov things were cannot stand its &amp. But all gnosis. in the words. the may Law evidently imperfect.gt. the old Covenant theology. the god of this world (the Accuser or Both of these extreme views are unwise. orthodox &quot. ideas foreign to the nature and judgments of the God of the Christ and on the other. condemns as strongly such false gnosis as later the now-called &quot. others maintaining the absolute contrary. from God and the Father (the Logos). all the Logos. at this time the phrase knowledge called was not a condemnation of all &quot. &quot. made by Him.&quot. are divided some holding the one extreme and contending that the Jews Law . orthodox &quot. the destroyer. baseless &quot. Christian Clement of Alexandria and others have so well shown. Opinions. headed by condemned Irenaeus. the world-process cannot be the work of an unjust power.ro&amp. for there gnosis. and the documents of the Jewish law. wisdom of such liars. as still was an &quot. &quot. as be seen from the crude ideas ascribed to God in is some of the documents. falsely so gnosis.lt.iav) sting the and the . and not by a god of destruction. says Ptolemy. &quot.Apostle&quot. then.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. fj Ptolemy. are held only by those who are ignorant of the causative law. On the one hand. . &quot. 384 tradition held concerning the world-process. Such views. extremists being ignorant of the the one God body of of Justice (the . and de came direct claring that it emanated from the opposite power. Fathers. like the rest of the Valentinians.lt.

three sources may be (3) laws added by the elders. the only possible one. : (2) given by Moses under enacted by Moses himself laws (1) laws . the other of the AllFather. expediency. to be on based the words of Jesus. whom the Saviour was the first to know and proclaim to the Jews. only many Books ascribed law. Saviour it . Flora entirely in called the Higher of &quot. This division is borne out by the &quot. 385 framer of the karmic law). . opposed this old truth of karmic duty to the ignorant which taught that anything mother by the child was a gift a phrase which Ptolemy quotes differently from the tradition of the elders. The to is Moses. recovered by modern scholarship after centuries of obscurantism.PTOLEMY. whereas the laid down beginning not be sundered. as set forth in the Five not from and said but of of the taught that Jews God from the of the that husband and wife should The law of of it Moses was simply an was not the Law. immediately position self-evident to the cultured Gnostic genius. Moreover. God distinguished inspiration . In fact. Law Words He for with regard to divorce was permitted by Moses only because enactment long not from one source. The Gnostics held a middle position between these extremes. For the inspired Law taught that honour was due to father and mother and Jesus had . given to father or BB ^. Ptolemy thus proceeds answer to the doubts the spirit of what he lays Criticism now down a is &quot. that is to say. the traditions of the elders were equally not the Law. hardness of heart. her Criticism. . alone. &quot.

inspiration Mosea in establishing such observances ? From a . ye shall in no wise find the &quot.&quot. Grenfell and Hunt.&quot. which He set law of retaliation and &quot. teaching of Christ aside. that circumcision was not anything physical. still preserve it . which the Christ sabbath the cision. but of the spiritual heart. Again. such as circum and fasting. 1897). &quot. : endorsed and . receivest from me. From what source. an eye . but spiritual thanksgiving. Thus with regard to the third element. came the of things. is a gift to God. as to the first division. London. translated from their sensible and phenomenal forms (3) the typical into their spiritual and This invisible meaning. : Kingdom of God and except ye . then. only one of which can be referred to what can in any sense be called revelation. is borne out in a remarkable fashion by one of the Jesus saith. offerings to God were not to consist and the slaughter of irrational animals. and goodwill and good of incense of works to our neighbours. the &quot. and symbolical rites. this in its resolvable into three elements (the Decalogue). shall not see the ye Father. &quot. (See Sayings of Our Lord. &quot. 386 readings of either of the synoptic documents that whatsoever benefit thou namely. sabbatize the sabbath. the Christ &quot. eye for (2) a (1) turn is a good element the by completed bad element. that keeping the sabbath was resting from evil works of . and in like manner fasting was from baser and not from physical food.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. taught that the &quot. Thus three distinct sources are to be distinguished. Except ye newly discovered Sayings fast to the world.

nor good). soul enforming body. the world-soul. by his knowledge of the unseen world and understanding of the teaching of The Source Inspiration. the power of the evil . and whose matter is material and manifoldly divided. creation is really (the alone being evil).&quot. alone But ingenerable. or our &quot.&quot. or world. soul &quot. that Moses received his inspiration. in which the Gnostic doctor. not good inferior source. midway between source God over all or realms. of the cosmic spaces of the ingenerable cosmic spaces. the is that is to &quot. the world. universals. of God (for This source Perfect Deity only or just. our world is power which opposes good but imperfect.&quot. earth . But the substance superior to the opposer. and it is from one of its powers &quot. is 387 the world of the from the intermediate to say. that . men and fabricative of power Moses inspiration was not the Perfect Deity of the Christ. adjuster or arbitrator. . as opposed to the cosmic planes as the distinguished from the terrestrial) and Father (the is incorruptibility simple and one. and so is it inferior to ness and justice of God. So far the sensible letter of Ptolemy to Flora. The substance of these cosmic spaces self -existent Light. but an The source this physical world. planetary enforming the This soul is an image of the ideal cosmos.PTOLEMY. earth. inferior to the conditionally righteous the perfect righteous The maker or soul of the generable. &quot. say. is creator of the divine world-maker the is whose substance is destruction and darkness. entiated in differ an incomprehensible manner into two powers or aspects.

We will now proceed to consider the interpreta tion which Ptolemy gave to the glorious Proem now stands at the head of the fourth Gospel. &quot. was was (one) in the was the Logos. intuitively applies to the contents of scholarship of our The Proem to the Fourth a canon of criticism the Pentateuch. 388 the Christ. the phrase irpos rov Qeov by the words &quot. and the Logos was God.&quot. the philosophical meaning of the term the cause of action rov Spd/maro? (fj Logos is &quot. This Logos in His turn contained in Himself the whole substance of the ^Eons. seeing that the simple does not convey the sense . treat of the divine hypostases. which the best own century has taken a hundred years to establish intellectually. He Beginning (one) with I translate God. being by God.&quot. which substance the Logos enformed.one with with God. called Mind. therefore. According to the Lexicon of the Alexandrian Hesychius.&quot. with &quot. *} TTpo? TQV Trarepa ei/axn?). things in germ. and the Logos with God. The next phase of being was the emanation of the Logos (Reason or Word) in the first principle. and not by the simple and familiar on the authority of Ptolemy (^ Trpo? aXXr/Xoy? d/ma /ecu &quot. or potentially. brought forth by the Father alone). The Beginning is the first principle brought into that Gospel. God. Son. the Beginning or Mind. In the Beginning &quot. The opening words.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and in the Father emanated it all This Beginning is and Alone-begotten (that is to say. &quot. English preposition of the Greek.

akin to Him. &quot. the cause of the divine or aeonic creation. In in the came All For the God. and then they in order that first the are at-oned. &quot. And the Life was the Light of signifying first of all the supernal &quot. God. Him its &quot. Beginning the Beginning was the is Son the Logos was (one) with Beginning the &quot. being in Him is Life the syzygy or consort of the Logos. consequently. the in the Logos.The Light shineth in the .- And she who is in Him. Church. &quot.&quot.PTOLEMY. Thus far concerning the Pleroma or divine world. for they were enlightened. and. or identified . Beginning and Logos.&quot. is more who came into being through united to Him and bears fruit than they For she is through Him. The ^Eons came into being through Him. First of there all is 389 a distinction made between the three. the For what is of God.And &quot. the (or Mind). that which has was in him. spouse. and without the Logos was is. is into being through nothing had That being. The next verse. emanation of the two from the one of the from may be shown Beginning or Mind) and of the Logos the Father) and then the identification or Son (or at-one-ment of the two with each other and with the Father be indicated. is Logos Him He was for Logos. but But Life &quot. the men men Man and his &quot. is God. Him. &quot. Beginning and from Well said is it then. one with God. or brought to light through Life. may For in the Father and from the Father and Beginning.&quot. is one.

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Father. and here we must reluctantly leave him. and It is the And this ^Eon is thus Truth and not.&quot. name Word and Father Life. For though the not. distinct reference to the tetraktydes Truth. Word made in the cosmic process. given unto Him by the glory. &quot. Such was the nature of the exegesis of Ptolemy with regard to the Proem of the Logos-doctrine. Man and Church contained is Proem. full of Grace (another Peace) and Truth. And two in the for Silence and thus. what he had picked up concerning the tenets &quot.&quot. for we have no further information. 390 Darkness and the Darkness comprehended it to the sensible universe. the glory of the Alone-begotten Son. flesh. refers chaos of the sensible universe was made into cosmos by the passion of the Divine ^Eon. of the aeon-process and Sophia-mythus drama already differs familiar account of Hippolytus. and Mind and Silence. the sensible world knew Him Life. Irenaeus summary. said Ptolemy. the Divine ^Eon or Pleroma.&quot.them outlines of of of but slightly from the Ptolemy. in his opening chapters.&quot. beheld His enlightened only who have &quot. to our readers from the .

and by Hilgenfeld in his Ketzergeschichte (1884). His Corathe Fourth . 391 HERACLEON.D. school of iv..&quot. i. The Gnostic Heracleon is commentator of canonical Christianity. The date this commentary. and desired to remain in .HERACLEON. These fragments were by Grabe in his Spicilegium. of body. except contain ing a commentary on the fourth Gospel. these Valentinian system as a basis the background. In &quot. the General Christian members but bigotry finally drove them out because they dared to say that the teaching of the Christ contained a wisdom . life dria (Strom.most we again know nothing Valentinus. and 1891 finally in from a new re-edited collation eight known (only three having pre been collated) MSS. the first on any book of the of New Testament thus the first generally ascribed to collection. The Gnostics were they were still still members assumes Heracleon fragments &quot. and considerable fragments of his work have been preserved by Origen in his own Commentary on the Johannine Gospel. is the decade 170-180 A. that he wrote certain Memoirs (vTro/uLvti/uiaTa). and his exegesis by Origen. OF the of Heracleon. reprinted so-called first collected by Massuet and Stieren in their editions of Irenseus. 4. whom 9) calls the Clement of Alexan esteemed of the &quot. by Brooke in Texts and viously of all the Studies. but is the kept in often endorsed it is the Christian ranks.

on July llth. . most probably in the same city. and in almost the same position as the views of Clement and it Origen. Gnostic distinct Heracleon. or Bar-daisan (so called from the river Daisan (the Leaper). and died. You may find a way &quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 392 which transcended the comprehension the of majority. Gnostics. 155 A.D. e. will now end &quot. Bardesanes was the &quot. last of the Gnostics. sketches rough which we from reconstruct the of have disfigured the last of the and so bring to the Christian endeavoured scraps to the of originals preserved in Patristic literature.&quot. BARDESANES. in 233. at the age of 78. an treat of Bardesanes. need of so to say. as Hilgenfeld calls him. The commentary not detain of us.g. these theosophists. and often reappeared guises. I among Common Christianity for studied in secret for centuries. His parents. still she will home. for it between is. in the sense of being the last who attempted to make any propaganda of the phase of the Gnosis we are dealing with. in the pages of history in other the so-called Manichsean movement. for pitch out nature with a fork. on the banks of which he was born). WE Biography. the ranks of the Gnosis was still . Nuhama and Nahashirama. Bardesanes... was born at Edessa. however. outside the circle exegesis stands it . midway and General Christianity.&quot.&quot.

&quot. 393 and young Bardaisan not only received the best education in manners and learning which was procurable. Bardaisan was also a history of Bardaisan great student of Indian religion. Harmonius. but in his youth won great fame . which he found in the fortress of Ani. compelled to call so that even him &quot.BARDESANES. prince who afterwards succeeded to the throne as one of the Abgars he not only shared the young prince s martial exercises. where he composed a history based on the temple chronicles. He for his skill in archery. but induced the Abgar to make it the state religion. married and had a son. Caracalla Bardesanes of the Christian faith before the representative of the is credit of state. but even the titles which he was said to be of most of them are now lost. almost a confessor. and thus (it is uncertain . from which the Platonist Porphyry subsequently quoted. . and translated it into Syriac. said) Bardesanes establishing the dethroned the must have the first Christian Abgar Bar-Manu made manful defence Epiphanius indirectly When in 216. Roman Emperor. and wrote a book on the subject. At what age he embraced Gnostic Christianity is but his eager spirit not only speedily con verted his royal friend and patron. Syriac and also Greek. This Armenian was the basis of the subsequent history of Moses of Chorene. but was brought up with a were rich and noble . Subsequently he went for a time to Armenia. Writings. But it was as a poet and writer on Christian theology and theosophy that Bardaisan gained so wide a reputation he wrote many books in . of master.

The Stable and and Concerning Fate. He preserved in the Old was the first to adapt the still Syriac tongue to metrical forms music. is entitled Boole Unstable.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. these has of the Laws summary set forth of Countries. The Light and the Darkness. and of the polemic of Ephraim in particular. 394 His most famous work was a collection of 150 Hymns or Psalms on the model of the Psalm-collection of the second temple. these the in only and set the hymns became immensely Edessene kingdom Syriac tongue was spoken. but Bardesanes leave him whom his . tries to In fact. and carry him orthodoxy. The Syriac text and an English translation were published by Cureton in 1855 and once more (as in the case of the dis . among the Nitrian MSS. This MS. as of Bardaisan s views by one of his pupils. the latest view (that of Hort) rob Gnosticism of Bardesanes. and purports to be a on fate or karman. The Spiritual Nature of Truth. the name derived it at might from those least of cases . Of the rest of his works words to popular. Nothing of come down to us except a Syriac treatise. based on the hearsay of the Fathers generally. as Covenant documents. the same policy off into the fold of will no surely doubt since be adopted in other Orthodoxy has cursed throughout the ages. which was brought to the British Museum in 1843. As more is known and understood about the Gnostics. covery of the Philosophumena MS. and Basilides) the possession of an approximately first-hand source has revolutionised the old view. not the but wherever we hear of such titles as Dialogues against the Marcionites.

the very different views of both teachers and pupils being hopelessly jumbled against their together. . but also music of he disciples. and demons in his heart. Thus he apostrophizes Bardaisan as a garrulous sophist of tortuous and double mind outwardly orthodox. Marcionites and Manichseans. 395 master Valentinus learned his wisdom. Lord in his mouth. a greedy sheep-dog in league with a faithless servant a cunning dissembler heretic in secret the wolves . and who had been so loved and admired by all who knew him. quoted in the last two Hymns of Indirect Source*.&quot.fate. are an indiscriminate polemic against not only Marcion. practising deceit with his songs. Bardaisan and Mani. But before &quot. and be Gnostic let him still. In his zealous fury. s fifty-six the metre from our appropriated Gnostic poet.&quot. We are indebted what we know mainly to Ephraim of Edessa. Of the temper of this saint when combatting a dead man who had done him no injury. for which was as yet unborn Ephraim instance. let of value considering Bardaisan s views on us see whether we can abstract anything J 6 from the indirect sources. Hymns and against Heresies. although Bardesanes strongly opposed the views of the former. . a . The only clear traces of Bardaisan are four scraps from his Hymns. we may judge by the epithets he w ith the applied to Bardesanes.BARDESANES. . Ephraim confuses Bardesanites. who wrote some 120 years later than our Gnostic. . however. who (he avers) died for T &quot. and the religion of the latter when the Gnostic doctor wrote.

or in the midst of the seven spheres. From his translation first three are as follows. however.&quot. which is is &quot. With (2) &quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. caressest ? generally referred to the usually placed above the third of the seven heavens. Which Father and Mother In their union have sown. after thee To me be a daughter A &quot. rather to refer to the Ogdoad or space above the seven phases of psychic substance. The second fragment appears to be an address of the Divine Mother to the elder of her two daughters. the Wisdom above in the Pleroma and the Wisdom . at length shall it be ours To look on thy banquet. The daughter thou sett st On thy knee and The first fragment idea of Paradise. 396 The Ephraim. the Jerusalem Above of the Valentiriians. (1) &quot.Let have made their steps her who comes fruitful.Thou fountain of joy Whose gate by commandment Opens wide to the Mother. (3) sister to When thee. in Hort s : Hymns. Which Beings divine Have measured and founded. it seems.&quot. To see the young maiden.

both in the world-drama. alone ? cry was ascribed to the lower Wisdom by Valentinian school.fate. his conception of karman. The to third fragment Mother Divine the and to refers when process. and also in the aeonic the spirit fallen into matter. where is 397 the spiritual Heaven- world. the aid of her world-fashioner. consummation the the souls spiritual Holy Spirit.): a boy that is to say.&quot. and made one with their divine spouses at the Great Wedding Feast. when the world-substance invokes the consort. most probably an address is of the all. the in Wisdom the of Space the Light-maiden. and quote a few passages from Cureton s somewhat unintelligible translation of The . below in the Ogdoad.astrology&quot. as in the Pistis Sophia treatise. Bardaisan in s other is ever views on words. (4) My God and Hast thou This the my Head left me &quot. to or.D. Mabug Ancient of Eternity young. the sorrowing Sophia. Let by the preserved &quot. is turn &quot.BARDESANES. above. Nothing more of a certain nature can be deduced soul-tragedy of from the polemical writings of Ephraim. the world- of shall be taken from the Ogdoad into the Pleroma.The &quot. and the only scrap of interest we can glean from other writers is a beautiful phrase Philoxenus of us &quot. now and Syrian writer (about 500 A. and is as follows consists of only two : &quot. The remaining fragment lines.

as I also once loved it [before he met with the teaching of Valentinus]. This dialogue was written by a pupil of our Gnostic. the pupils only break in here and there with a short question for We literary effect.The Book of the Laws of Countries. for it has been said by me. and all that they do wrong. . in tact. sqq. or that Fortune does not exist at all. how that this art is a lie of the Chaldseans. pp. and Bardaisan is introduced as the main . know that there are are called Chaldeans. and they are governed by them. that the soul of man is capable of knowing that which many do not know. chance. 398 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and the same men [sic] meditate to do. and in defects of the body. but it is an empty name and all things are placed in the hands of man. and in sickness and in health. not only of Bardaisan on fate or karman. but also of the Gnostics of his school. and all the things which happen to them in riches and in poverty. The following extracts from the speeches of Bardaisan will throw much light also on the astro logical ideas in the Pistis Sophia. and others who men love this knowledge of the art. may be therefore fairly confident that we have in this a treatise faithful reproduction of the views. speaker. Book of the Laws of Countries (in his Spicilegium ftyriacum.). . But others say that whatsoever a man doeth. and all that they do good. they befall them. great and small and bodily defects and faults happen and befall him by . But there are others who say the opposite of these things. who I likewise . . 11. which are called the Seven. it is from the influence of those Stars. in another place. &quot. .

we men and by Fortune differently. But I say that God. Karman. power. true. and has ordained the Governors. evil things which happen to him. it appeareth to me that three sects are partly true. is plainly visible that Free-will in everyday experience. therefore. and Nature also. and in that in which they have no power they may know that they have a Lord.&quot. as that everything is not in our own Free-will. They men see mistake . them. as I have said : that the goodness of God may be seen in that in which they have power. which has established the worlds and created man. which fashion the are because they see. and the Angels. Thus are found to be governed by Nature its part. by the Free-will that has and the faults and defects and been given to him. And that is is. is not absolute. them For he that is power in One is but powerful everything they have power in some things. and the Governors. &quot.&quot. and the Powers. and in some things they have no these orders of all given to . and men and animals have this power . Fortune also plays but is not absolute. also. Fortune. but which I have spoken have not in everything. he receiveth as he doeth of his But as for myself. and God is richer than they. and partly these a false. There the Chaldaeans say. men speak and how happen things because the wisdom of to after because. . and has given to all things the power which is suitable for each one of them. punishment from God. 399 own will. in my humble opinion. and the Elements.BARDESANES. equally. and by our Free-will each as he wishes.

is Fortune able to preserve the body of man in nor even life. intelligences [minds. but also become bodies of the as also manner in same the to procreate. again. Neither. governed by Nature. for the assistance of that which . the consummation of till in turn. . nor able to is Fortune give them children at that time at which the body has not the Nature to give them. egos] are coming down their are changed by changed by the soul. same law for old age from bearing. God and by grace has been by the favour of and assisted. and souls to be with coming down their of the Powers and the with the to be body and this alteration itself is called the Fortune and the Nativity of this assemblage. is being [Compare in the system of Basilides the and being benefitted is it assisted. therefore. and the body is not constrained nor assisted by Fortune in all the things which it for a man does not become a does individually . to prevent it . the soul also suffering with and perceiving. not only procreate. ] all. deprived of the natural power of begetting while other animals which are also governed by are . is an order and according to this procession order. also. which is being sifted and purified. father before fifteen years. 400 That which &quot. benefiting The body. when without eating and without drinking it has meat and drink.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Fortune Nature. their men when they are grown old do not procreate. nor does a woman And in the become a mother before thirteen years. there women become because is effete a . and manner. procession which Elements by God and Fortune is called is given to . own Nature before those ages which I have too old specified.

401 from dying. and . . for these and many other things pertain Nature itself but when the times and manners of to . and the timid the brave. boys should be chiefs the wise and that in . connection of males is the and females. But Fortune causeth that over the aged. govern the valiant. among then comes Fortune apparent fulfilled. assists and at another hinders increases. same Fortune gluttony. and fools over time of war the weak should the brave over the timid. And know ye distinctly that. and affliction of the bodies and thus. upon cc whom that alternation is which is called . children are deformed . it Nature and and hurts. from the bodies . For Nature sickness and defects in the body. whenever Nature is disturbed from its right course. again. and extravagance which is Nature ordains that old men should be is not requisite. judges for the young. and the pleasure of but from Fortune comes abomi the both heads [sic] nation and a different . and sometimes they die untimely. For Nature is birth and children and from Fortune sometimes the . Nature there is a sufficiency in moderation cast From for all and from Fortune comes the want of food.BARDESANES. and wise for the foolish and that the valiant should be chiefs over the weak. and from another effecteth things that are distinct one and at one time . Nature are these. because those Heads and Governors. its disturbance is from the cause of Fortune. manner of connection the filthiness and indecency which men do and all for the cause of connection through their lust. and sometimes they are away. and from Nature cometh the growth and perfection of the body but apart from Nature and by Fortune come .

excellency and those they the in whenever the stand sphere. and the water. because they do not know that these sects and divisions and justification and condemnation proceed from that which given in Free-will by God. And those of them which are called Right. Free-will. Nature and Fortune and Free-will. they assist and add Nature.&quot. occupy the places of height. and Nature the three great factors of the karmic law. some men have supposed that the world is governed without any superintendence. and not only injure men. also animals. as we see that Fortune crushes Nature. but. Fate. own portions are and . at different times. . under their of these divisions and sects control. helps procession to which high places. and fountains of and the produce of the year. 402 Nativity. should be maintained in their lives until the proces sion be accomplished. and whenever they. and the as it state of all Beings Bardaisan thus and makes Natures. they are opposed to Nature. which And on exist account the among Powers. that those actions also by the power of themselves may influence is be justified or condemned. which are the in in their called Left are evil. are in opposition one to the other. and the measure and number be seemed good before Him who ordained how should be the life and perfection of all creatures. all . fulfilled. will of repelling . its them.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and everything that is in the Nature which is trees and fruits. as also Fortune itself doth not repel Nature in everything for it is proper that the three things. too. so we can also see the Free either man and crushing Fortune herself but not in everything.

a is were the fact. of Wright (Apochryphal Acts of the Apostles. ii. he says.&quot. to Die call has been 1885). Fate or Fortune with soul. Syriac form of the apocryphal Thomas. are: &quot.&quot. who. first (See Apostelgeschichten. taught that there were Seven Essences (Ithye). entire it is now generally admitted that the beauti .. 1871). much work has been master-piece of religious poetry. ful &quot. however. and Free-will with spirit. scholars Lipsius 299. 238 245. initiation. the absolute being in God alone. it has now quite recently (1898) been re translated by Be van. that the translation of the pupil is to be prefered to that of the teacher. first as called. considered not only to have superseded Wright s. but to be the best on the subject. The high probability of the Bardesantist origin of the poem is based on the following considerations The three main accusations of the orthodox Father : Ephraim against Bardaisan. of the Hymn imbedded in Judas Museum codex. of Nature has to do with body. preserved in the British is almost undoubtedly from the the of Acts Soul. none is 403 hand absolute.BARDESANES. sqq. By a strange chance. It was to the attention apokryphen and it Nb ldeke and Macke stylus of Bardaisan.(l)That . and Professor Sevan s work must now be &quot. one of the hymns of Hymn the great *poet of Gnosticism has been r preserved to us The of the Soul. as the Cambridge Reader in Arabic justly calls it. three being ultimately in the re-acts on each. Each God. using Wright s version Since the time of Wright so done on this as a basis. beautiful translated legend by i. None of them is absolute.

&quot. to deny a material resurrection more absolutely. represents the emphatic declaration that the garb left in their is takable meaning.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. according to the poet. (3) that he believed in a number of lesser gods/ that is to the subordinate to say. it is remarkable. it country would be human filthy The body. the Mother.] As for the Father of Life. the Living. and the Son of the unto sin . &quot. in an alle gorical piece. believed in reincarnation. such a conception as the Bardaisan. same physical body must have been regarded by him as a gross superstition of of identity of Such a the ignorant. says Professor Bevan. proof doctrine as is here brought foward could hardly resurrection of the &quot. eternal beings supreme God. is the ideal and will form which resume after death. Since like all the great Gnostics.&quot. he held the theory of a divine Mother who in the Father of Life gave birth conjunction with the Son of the Living to a being called . &quot. which the prince puts on as a disguise and casts away as soon as his mission is accomplished. they here figure as the Father the King of .&quot. 404 he denied the resurrection and regarded the separa tion of the soul from the body as a blessing (2) that . that these three Poem the appear distinctly in There can be no doubt that heresies before us. all the Egyptian garb.The true clothing of the soul. &quot. it left behind in heaven [Only after the death Light-robe is not for all.Now. and unclean conveys an unmis difficult. occur to one who has realised the meaning of the doctrine of rebirth.

gods If * 405 of the kings. he will be able to trace the basic similarity of ideas in the outer and inner traditions. and note how the inner expands and explains the outer. &quot. no authority in the text for the title. Thus. the East/ and Finally the lesser obey the command who kings. in most recent translation runs what I will venture to call: . so beautifully described in &quot.&quot. the crown of victory at the end of the Path. the opening pages of the Pistis Sophia. then. the Brother appear as of the King the Gnostic the of Queen the next in rank.&quot. He sang of the wedding garment. and the Gnostic poet had a far more definite theme in mind. the robe of initiation. the Mother kings. student.BARDESANES.&quot. in will reading this masterpiece of bear in mind the beautiful poesy. not of any vague generalities but of a very definite goal towards which of the he was running. I do not know on what authority this beautiful poem has been called the Hyrnn of the Soul there is . He sang consummation of the Gnostic life. as preserved in the third Synoptic. Parable of the Prodigal Son.

the identification of some of them has entirely baffled scholars. was familiar with the great caravan 1 India to Egypt. 3 And silver of Gazzak the great. or vesture. kingdom. presumably. the East. for the mind-body. See Bibliography). iron. might bear it unaided I . The following notes are all mine... Either the Pleroma or Ogdoad. or his son Hannonius. 2 a load. And rubies of India. yet light. 4 A symbol. some of which Bevan has omitted as too doubtful. the spiritual realms. having equipped me. in Father s my house. but the whole is allegorical. 3 Beth. When I was a little And dwelling in my child. Bardesanist wrote the poem. And Of in the wealth my From My and the nurturers had my glories pleasure. and used this knowledge as a substructure. 2 A Gnostic technical term. (Since writing this note some excellent work of interpretation on these lines has route from been done by German scholars. sent And of the wealth of our treasury They had Large it So that Gold of tied for up me me forth. are substitutes for states or regions of the higher planes. It is highly probable that all the names of countries and towns.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 1 our home. parents. . And agate (?) from the land of Kushan And they girded me with adamant 4 Which can crush And they took (?). off from me the bright robe.Ellaye (Wright). and the identification of the rest is mostly unsatis No doubt Bardaisan. 406 THE HYMN OF THE ROBE OF GLORY. was. or whatever factory.

5 which is laid over it. presumably. : down thou goest into Egypt. gross and snbtle. I quitted the And I was young to tread it. Which was measured (and) woven And they made compact with me. East (and) went down. passed the borders of Maishan. 8 The powers that compel to rebirth representatives of the Father and Mother. I entered the walls of 9 . And with thy Thou 7 6 Brother. the These are apparently various planes or . I And And 1 I reached the land of Babel. purple toga. were three. The meeting place of the merchants of the East. Two of the higher vestures of the Self. 1 2 And bringest the one pearl. 2 The 3 Of matter. . Which is in the midst of the sea 3 Hard by the loud -breathing 4 serpent. The body. to many Gnostic schools. The higher ego presumably. 8 For the way was dangerous and difficult. our next in rank. (Then) shalt thou put on thy bright robe And thy toga. Which in their love they And my 407 had wrought for me. Perhaps the elemental or animal essence in matter. shalt be heir in our kingdom. Next in rank to the Mother and Father. There being with me two messengers. of which there 4 5 Gnosis. states. a technical term common . to And wrote should not be it in forgotten &quot. If my heart that it my stature.&quot.THE HYMN OF THE ROBE OF GLORY. 6 7 9 Sarbug (Wright).

whom I dwelt. eat. which inhere in the elemental essence. pearl. 1 (Waiting) till he could slumber and sleep. I betook me straight to the serpent. they should arouse the serpent against me. a free-born man. Hard by his dwelling I abode. whom I shared my to me. merchandise. And I could take my pearl from him. 1 . From among the Easterns. and he came and attached himself made him comrade with my intimate. One of my race. And I served their king . But some way or other They perceived that I was not their countryman So they dealt with me treacherously. And when A I was and single stranger to those with alone. I beheld A youth fair * And A I I there and well-favoured. in Moreover they gave me their food to I forgot that I was a son of kings. 408 I went down into Egypt. And my companions parted from me. . To take away the And (?) .FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. The serpent is presumably the passions. warned him against the Egyptians And And against consorting with the unclean I put on a garb like theirs. Lest they should insult from (lest) me because I had come afar.

should speed to our gate. &quot. all So they wove a plan on my behalf. the Mistress of the East. . Filled with longing to penetrate the mysteries of the Gnosis. King and princes of Parthia And all the nobles of the East. Up and And arise from thy sleep. To thee our son. But all My parents perceived and were grieved for me a proclamation was made in our kingdom. Bardaisan first of a]l has the misfortune to fall into the hands of some sensual and self-seeking school of magic. . 17 sqq. the King of kings. meets with a friend on the same quest as himself. who art in Egypt. . Of course this speculation is put forward with all hesitation. our next in rank. 2 Come unto Names are powers. greeting : &quot. That I might not be left in Egypt. And That those things that befell me. 1 Is it possible that in the also been woven into the poem &quot. reason of the burden of their For which And by a deep I lay in . Only after this bitter experience does he obtain the instruction he sought in the initiation of the Valentinian school. And they wrote to me a letter. 1 sleep. but it is neither an impossibility nor an improbability. It H may even be a lost page from the occult life of Bardaisan himself. Compare the beautiful us passages in the Song of the Powers of the Pistis Sophia. he There he joins a caravan to Egypt and arrives at Alexandria. words of our listen to the letter ! ! above a real piece of biography has I am inclined to think so. And every noble signed his name2 thereto From thy Father. And 409 I forgot the pearl.THE HYMN OF THE ROBE OF GLORY. . my parents had sent me. And thy Mother. pagg. And from thy Brother. and forgets for a time his real quest.

1 . free soul longed for its natural state. I . 410 Call to mind that thou art a son of kings See the slavery whom thou servest Remember the pearl ! ! For which thou didst speed to Egypt Think of thy bright robe. (and) read to what was traced on according Were the words of my letter written. . When thy name hath been read out in the list of the valiant. The king of all birds 2 It flew and alighted beside me. And with thy Thou Brother. letter (was) a letter the (To keep King it) sealed with his right hand.&quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. the children of Babel. I took And And it up and kissed it. kingdom. I loosed remembered that And my I 1 3 its seal (?). was a son my heart of kings. remembered the pearl. And remember thy glorious toga. . At its voice and the sound of its rustling. our shalt be And my Which [? [? king] in our next in rank]. I started and arose from my sleep. And from the savage demons of It flew in the likeness of an eagle. . from the wicked ones. ! Which thou shalt put on as thine adornment. Sarbug (Wright). And became all speech. The descent of the Holy Ghost or spiritual consciousness. .

began to charm him. it (So) too with its light had awakened me. I stripped off. the powers of the immortal principles in man. during the initiation. I And the name of our next in rank. passed by Babel on my left hand. the Queen of the East l And I snatched away the pearl. ****** It also encouraged And with I me his (?) love And was drawing me on. 2 He left his body behind in trance. I The had been sent I 411 slumber For my to sleep and him lulled to . went I left to speed. And To and as with awakener. 3 He goes to &quot. And turned to go back to my Father s house. the right and other Mysteries. found before I left it in their straight to come the light of our home. took I And my 2 country.. &quot. forth. the East. And of my Mother. me on its voice the road. was leading me it Shone before me with its form.THE HYMN OF THE ROBE OF GLORY. Son.. For which And terrible loud-breathing serpent. . 3 reached Maishan the great. 1 The names of Father. Father s name named over him. that is to say. like all the initiates in the Orphic . him hushed I to Egypt. And their filthy and unclean garb . And with its voice and its guidance. my way And my letter. and Holy Ghost.

That sitteth on the shore of the sea. Heft of the 4). Who brought it to me. which I had stripped And the toga wherein it was wrapped. That they were twain (yet) one likeness. infancy in the Pistis Sophia. The mystery v. you and As Others saw Rim. And my bright robe. Agrapha (Texte u. I saw in like manner. Bd. in (facing) it. Of his hands that restored to me (?) My treasure and my wealth by means My 1 Compare the logos: &quot. of sees himself in a Eesch. bright embroidered robe..412 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. I faced my whole self it all Moreover it.88. in himself. yet again one in one likeness. By Who in their faithfulness could be trusted there with. 2 For one kingly sign was graven on them. the hand of their treasurers. distinction. so let Untersuchungen.&quot. 36 I. parents sent thither. the treasurers also. I saw me like a mirror of in For we were two in And And to l my whole self. of the . mirror. And because I remembered not For in my childhood I had its fashion my left it in Father s house On a sudden as I faced The garment seemed myself.As any him see Me. ****** The haven of the merchants. 2 of them. From the heights of Hyrcania (?) My off. compare the story p. syzygy.

is the same . l to speak if it over in the Pistis Sophia 4 contains all &quot. deeds&quot. knowledges 2 &quot. its And the image of the King of kings was depicted in full all over it. I also That itself my ready. Whom they reared my fathers. And it its tones.413 THE HYMN OF THE ROBE OF GLORY. And in the hands of its givers 1 Q-nosis robe the . to his 3 It tf down(?) perceived in myself stature labours. with glorious Which With gold and with beryls. (yvaxTsi?). And rubies and And sardonyxes colours . saw that I Again The motions And as of all knowledge I saw I heard the sound of Which also making &quot. (Wright) used several times in the Askew Codex.I 3 am The &quot. And were stirring . body or vesture which constitutes the higher ego. And like the sapphire stone also were its mani fold hues. (Wright).I . the active in causal &quot. uttered to those it Saying. who brought it for him (?) in the presence of was growing according in its kingly motions was spreading itself out towards me. was made ready in its home on high(?) And with stones of adamant It also All seams were fastened. 4 &quot.It simile as poured itself entirely over me&quot. agates (?) varied in colour.

in I clothed its whole breadth. . and the subject of the third and fourth lines from the end.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 1 . and did homage To the Majesty l of my Father who had . of its colours I adorned myself toga of brilliant colours around me. All his servants glorify him. and ascended To the gate of salutation and homage I bowed my head. I . sent it to me. myself therewith. And I was with him in his kingdom. . And bringing I should Well may my gift and my pearl appear with him before our King. it. 414 It hastened that I might take it. For I had done his commandments. W hat T then have we not lost by the Hymns of Bardaisan ? barbarous destruction of the This seems to be One different from the Father Himself. mingled with his nobles For he rejoiced in me and received me. Professor Bevan call this glorious hymn it is not master-piece of religious poetry only as but magnificent poetry.. &quot. occult fact. And me That And I too my love urged on should run to meet it and receive I stretched forth With the beauty And my I cast and received it . priceless as a record of a &quot. And he promised that also to the gate Of the King of kings I should speed with him. And he too had done what he And at the gate of his princes promised. And with the voice .

but were subsequently worked over by orthodox eagerly editors to suit doctrinal prejudices.SOME TRACES OF THE GNOSIS IN THE UNCANONICAL ACTS. says : Almost every fresh editor of such narratives. for example. using that freedom which all antiquity was wont to allow &quot. FOREWORD. Most of these originated in what are now called heretical circles. JUST as there existed. for which he would substitute other formulae of 415 Acts.. and As on the subject. embraced by the Catholic Lipsius. many other narratives professing to record the doings and sayings of the Apostles and Disciples of the Lord. etc. speeches. so there existed. . would recast the materials which lay before him. dealing with literary monuments. the greatest authority Church. excluding what ever might not suit his theological point of view itself in dogmatic statements. prior to and alongside of the selected or canonical Acts. prior to canonical Gospels. prayers. many and alongside of the other settings of the Sayings The Gnostic and Doings of the Lord.

in early years they were entirely credible. to these onslaughts the Gnostics made no reply. but to every shade of Christianity . technical inner teachings of Gnosticism the Church Fathers. formed the intermediate link between the those These General Church and the inner teachings of Gnos ticism. as we have seen. and on the other doctrines of the inner vulgar debate.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 1883. for these main means formed the The public propaganda. and they could not be disposed of by ridicule. 416 own composition. Smith and in incorporated into his exhaustive Die apokryphen Apostelgeschichte. or as the immediate (Art. . most probably because they were bound by their oaths of secrecy on the one hand. and expanding and abridging after his own pleasure. object which he had in view might dictate. They may seem vastly fantastic to modern criticism. as has been assumed by some. but to the general Gnosis of the second century. often no doubt based on actual occurrences of the inner life. life knew could not be decided by The inner teachings were for those within well that the of their Gospel to the rest they were foolish But the Acts-romances.&quot.Apocryphal Acts of the Wace s Dictionary. assailed with misrepre of Gnostic sentation and overwhelmed with ridicule. that their Gnosticism is not to be ascribed to the third century Manichaeism. were not of so difficult a character. further Apostles. etc.&quot. There was a very wide circulation of such religious romances in the second century.) The main point of interest for us is that some of these edited and re-edited documents still preserve traces of their Gnostic origin and Lipsius has shown . his &quot. ness.

fragments which mass of literature a few preserve traces of old Gnostic original works in which these still The teachings. were early made Gospel. as we hope to show our readers in the sequel. this teachings were first formulated. unless &quot. or enter into a treatment of their sources our only object critical . from rescue to is. 417 As Lipsius says Catholic bishops and teachers knew not how better to stem this flood of Gnostic writings and their Another method had to be used. Can it be that the new-found . but of course no reliance can be placed on this latter assertion. poison are still to be found. replacing them hands of the form in this purified false in the people. than by boldly adopting the most popular narrations from the heretical books. after carefully eliminating the poison of doctrine. the in the opinion of at a time DD and not one of rate when the so-called Zahn the original Leucian this collection Gnostics Acts was were not yet Early . the faithful. who is said to have been a disciple of John . : &quot. &quot.FOREWORD. have disappeared has been badly mutilated by many editors and scribes.John&quot. &quot.&quot. the tradition Coptic Acts of Peter of may give us the translation an original untampered-with text The ? earliest collection of these Gnostic Acts is said have been made by a certain Leucius (there are no less than eighteen variants of the name). At any . Fortunately the &quot. It would be out of place in these short sketches to plete. is taken for the writer of the Fourth Twelve. purification and some traces of the has not been com &quot. attempt a description of these Acts. or Leucius to Charinus. influence among and.

and an analysis of all the Gnostic fragments and references preserved in the Apocryphal Acts. that is However Leucian Acts were a second this may be. Another early certain Linus. I must refer the student to Lipsius great work on the subject. for Clement of Alexandria was they were also probably acquainted with them collected at Alexandria. I Bonnet and of use these the Lipsius. considered heretical. . .FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Acts are most recent untranslated texts of in Zahn. prior to 150 A. the century collection. For a full discussion of all these points. The Abdias- nothing certain probably have lived at Rome. collection is too late to be noticed in this connection. We now present the reader with the most important of these fragments. of He may collector whom of Gnostic Acts was a is known. English .D. 418 to say. so that he may judge of their will Some nature.

Fortunately. Her neck towereth step-like the first worldbuilder did build it. Truth crowneth her head Joy sports at her feet. . Light s daughter in . her head the King sitteth. The Maiden more to be gleaned from them. with food free from death feeding them at His table. . their life would not have been preserved in vain. Her tongue is like the entrance veil. it is of Thomas had given of the Soul. she lets stream Two and thirty forth. point toward the City s &quot. . WE have already given the reader the most important fragment preserved in the Acts of Thomas. moved by them who enter in only. (-rraerro?) doth stream with and pour forth scent of balsam and sweet herbs. them streameth scent Throned o er of sweet odours. She openeth her mouth as becomes her all songs of &quot. Hymn the beautiful posed in every likelihood com by Bardesanes. . bridal chamber Gates. a translation of the beautiful Ode is is called. are they who sing praises . proclaiming them (?) her fingers . If the Acts us nothing else than this grand Gnostic Hymn of the Robe of Glory. Like to spring flowers are her garments from s radiance is treasured. however. there is The following is as it to Sophia. to . praise &quot. . . &quot. &quot. . &quot. and King delightsome. Her light. 419 FROM THE ACTS OF THOMAS. her the Majestic her look. Her hands suggest the band of blessed ^Eons. or Judas A Hymn Thomas .FROM THE ACTS OF THOMAS. in radiant beauty she shineth.

420 myrrh and savoury plants with and masses of sweet flowers tis wreaths myrtle Her bridal couch is decked with strewn within. to which . and put on robes of light. seven she hath picked them herself.&quot. (?). no more. delicious scents of reeds . and sing their suffer fleshly lust. is beautiful. and both shall joy in bliss and &quot. are they in number are her bridesmaids Seven. For of His glorious radiance they ve received and at the sight of Him. bridesmen are grouped round her. that we had the original for even the faulty remains So with the Living Father. &quot. &quot.Her . and serve and the for them with Him For ever with &quot. are they look &quot. .Twelve their ever eyes He may fill lasting . that Bridegroom. they have been &quot. and remain at that banquet of which the Eternal (aiwvioi) alone are deemed worthy. Hymns looks back Can of this beautiful and distorted version that it be that of Bardaisan to the ? sacred we have here In any case marriage of the Sophia with her Bridegroom the Christ. will they be in joy ever will take their seats at that feast where the Great Ones assemble. their Lord. They ve drunk of wine that makes men thirst filled with light. who attend her. too. nor Spirit they glorify Truth praise to Would hymn.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. exultation. singing praise the to Father. In kingly dress shall they be clad. They have received from Him immortal food that knows no waste. light. another of the the hymn s Wisdom s Mother. dancing before her.

and doubtless does not preserve the original. The &quot. they such lofty vibrate in of heights songs praise. so in the perfectioning of the individual the soul one with the Self within. Above her in the Lightis . can move to alone of Wisdom s tongue in praise can make the subtle substance God. The following verse is difficult to understand. made in 421 our sketch of In this marriage the cosmic Sophia was received back into the Light-world.FROM THE ACTS OF THOMAS. the bride-chamber shrine. realm throned the King of Glory. identical perhaps with the City of which we read in the superior MS. and united with her This was to take place at the heavenly spouse. Great Consummation. mystically. At this high initiation the whole Pleroma (the two and thirty ^Eons) sing songs of rejoicing that the victory is Tis only such perfected souls who won. the initiation is given the Jerusalem Above. the Christos. . where the is the Pastes. it was ever taking place for those their Higher As in who united themselves with Selves. but. City is the Pleroma . giveth the food of deathlessness to the Spiritual Souls (Pneumatics) who are worthy to be bidden to sits who the Feast. of the Codex Brucianus. the holy place. the Lords of the Light-realm. the consummation of the universe the World-soul was reunited with the World-mind. reference has already been the Basilidian Gnosis. &quot. The Maiden was made the daughter of the Pleroma of Light she reflects the splendour of the Kings.

own The twelve are now whereby the Light of the In the phrase. 422 Thither the purified soul pairs or syzygies of powers. Angel reunited the who always soul with its behold the Face of the Father. This and who exhaust much its full hymn reveal to those many pages would not else does the the Gnosis. heart &quot. both &quot. is reflected. ! The second runs thus : . conducted by seven Rising aloft she takes is with her the twelve. &quot. &quot. where she has so long been chained in the bonds of desire.&quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. . . five of the seven Come Thou who holy Limbs Thy mansions come. her servants. no longer her rulers as in the lower world. Reflection. purge Thou their reins and ! . come come Spouse of Him. &quot. Reasoning commune with those of later birth Come Holy Spirit. &quot. rest ! more ancient art far than the Mind. But we must hasten on Two Invocations. to the remaining frag- ments in the Acts of Thomas. both shall joy in bliss and exultation. and so present our readers with a translation of two interesting sacra mental prayers or invocations in hymn-form. Thou Mother concealed. the Man come Thou Revealer of the mysteries all ! . end. refers to those Angels &quot. first runs as follows The Name above : &quot. for love meaning. Thinking. Thought. come Perfect Mercy come highest gift Thou Mother of compassion. names. of the third verse from the her Christos purified powers. who in the eighth hath found &quot. &quot. come Power from above. Come Thou Holy Name of Christ.

the Christ. &quot. They are one of the highest orderings of the limbs. seal of perfection. come Hidden Mother.&quot. dost share in come the noble striver s struggles. The five limbs are presumably the Pentad of the asons referred to in the new-found Gnostic Gospel of Mary. of one more ancient than the five limbs. His shakti (to use a term of Indian theosophy) or syzygy. Come Silence.&quot. the Christos. or The &quot. come of the Chosen s mysteries. but the &quot. the spouse of the Sophia or Holy Spirit. are the neophytes awaiting &quot. The . and make the secret plain Come Holy Dove. &quot. Thou knower who . or members. and commune with us come in this thanksgiving (eucharist) which we are making in Thy name. . mother of two young twins &quot. descend Thou . the Those of later birth initiation of the &quot. and the names of them are very similar to those mentioned in the Simonian &quot. we have the name Marcosian Gnosis which The Name Name is Power not already given. of which we read so much in the Bruce and Askew Codices. revealed in deeds alone Come Thou who givest joy to all who are at one ! &quot. system.FROM THE ACTS OF THOMAS. ! &quot. Christos. . all ! Thou Revealer of the mighty things of all the Greatness come Thou who dost make manifest the hidden. . Thy call ! These sacramental invocations are to be referred same to the of ideas as the formulas of the circle A Note thereon. &quot. of the Heavenly Man. Come 423 highest Gift Thou Perfect Mercy.&quot. in this love-feast (agape) to which we have assembled at &quot. with Thee . is the Man.

and the is is supplied says The . to a trader from the East as a slave &quot.water. Before leaving the Acts of Thomas it interesting to give the reader a specimen stories with which filled. the sublunary and terrestrial regions. they were presumably the productive World-earth and procreative World. the bitter opponent of soul . being questioned as to his knowledge of masons or carpenters work professes The King asks great skill in either department. 424 things of the whole Greatness&quot.. pp. The Palace before that Thomas Built. 337. 1897. he begin till the winter months. be the of romances were Twin or the fabled to have received India is Jesus. money he can can. the Bardesanists. says that they were called Shame whether of the Dry and Image of the Water .mighty according to the Gnosis of Bardaisan. The Apostle Judas Thomas. however. The Holy Dove is again the Sophia or World&quot. &quot. which. such may Thomas by lot of for at first does not wish to go. palace. were really their these names or not. makes a plan He then commissioned replies which is to build abundantly work. 338). carpentry. him the he if he that approved the for cannot build and He him a palace.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. When Thomas arrives in India. in other words.skilled in We take the following summary of the story from Salmon s Introduction to the New Testament (8th ed. religious his apostolic sphere of work. his master. are the mysteries of the Pleroma. the builders of the material world . she had two daughters. he is brought and King. Ephraim.&quot. but is sold by Jesus. with of.

and his soul was taken up by the angels to see all the heavenly habitations. the city. had built. lived on bread and The water. Thomas. sent for Thomas. with salt. King thinks this strange. Have you King. himself employs preaching the Gospel. and had but one garment. whose love for him he . When he desired to dwell in none but that. he learns that Thomas has never done anything but go about preaching. But that same night the King s brother died. he learned that belonged to his brother.425 FROM THE ACTS OF THOMAS. built you can t see it now. He sent for the King. but you will see it when you go Enraged at being thus mocked. Let me see it/ me a palace? Yes. he begged and obtained that he might return to life in order that he might buy it from him. for in money on that which he must have more money. until he could out of this world. his skill acquiesces. So as they it were putting grave-clothes on the body. of building. instead but being convinced of But when the King goes away. and spends all the the poor. know how Thomas sends back word finished all but the roof. They asked him in which he would like But when he saw the palace which Thomas to dwell. Oh. and when he makes inquiry about the palace. giving alms to the poor. committed Thomas to prison. After a time the King sends to the work is the palace going is on. it returned to life. and He seemed healing diseases. to be a magician. and this is supplied accord ingly. yet he never took money for his cures. the King devise some terrible form of death for him. in great anger. and is spent by Thomas on the widows and At length the King returns to orphans as before.

he refused it. The two brothers then received instruction and were baptized. but to sell the consoled his brother with the promise that Thomas. should build him a better one. mansion he hoped to inhabit himself. fourteenth century MS. in which is preserved for of the occult of is us a life of most Jesus. Nearly the whole of the fragment consists of a monologue put into the mouth of John. belonging they do to the Leucian collection. 426 knew. Seeing that Clement of Alexandria quotes from them. we must assign the third quarter of the second century to them as the terminus ad quem. this interesting tradition The whole setting and the fragment point to our of know Gnostic Docetism was the rank growth of the . our interest in which is further increased The by the fact of its distinctly Gnostic nature. who was still alive. much of which has never been It has been rescued from a previously published. We have therefore before us an early document. the remarkable christology is docetic thus a most valuable addition ledge on tradition. by M.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.&quot. Texts and Studies (Apocrypha Anecdota series II.. IN a recent volume of that most valuable A Recently Fragment. R. FROM THE ACTS OF JOHN. The of these Acts is as original early. James. preserved in Vienna. there is a long fragment of The Acts of John. 1897). and implored him to when the King sell him the learned the truth about But palace.

could even be made sensible to touch.&quot. and of those of tradition of its marvellous original teachings of initiation which became and which John sums up in subsequently historicized. perfect man. but was.FROM^THE ACTS OF JOHN. &quot. as I the of believe. the lines is the personification of one the protean docetism. to the ordinary physical body. to the latter cycle of tendencies. or could return.&quot. and teach His followers among the inner communities. 427 powers ascribed to the which were woven into the many legends of certain occult &quot. will. also. and this was the part origin of the protean Gnostic tradition of an inner instruction.illusory&quot. and salvation. body But just as the external tradition was gradually J transmuted. origin in an occult fact. compared &quot. an hence the term docetic. . He returned in the only way He &quot. in a psychic body this body could be made visible at &quot.&quot. : by a dispensation toward men. and of the &quot. &quot. spiritual &quot. veritable historical fact. the John which had of the notion docetic huge soteriological The Acts of by Gnostic genius. that the Lord contrived all things symbolically and &quot. &quot. of a which has been obscured out by the many historicizing narrations After His death the Christ did return of all recognition of the origins. and christological theories soteriological Gnostic philosophers and . so the internal extended tradition to John and of department every structure raised pertain &quot. namely. for their conversion Tradition. Poor finally * exalted Men &quot. Jesus The Evolution of from the position of a prophet into the full power and glory of the Godhead itself. the words I held firmly this one thing in myself. .

&quot. and &quot. while &quot. rather bald. that the tradition of these and other such its happenings should have been handed down without exaggeration and fantastic embellishment.&quot. Moreover. sometimes as of a man small and &quot. &quot. would be entirely con trary to Mystic Stones of Jesus. there was seen in Him such a light as it is not possible for a man that useth corruptible &quot. but a thick and flowing beard. &quot. given in the god Hindu scriptures. That he could appear to others in a maydvi-rupa. &quot. like in prayer and when Jesus was contemplation. sometimes tender. we are told that at the calling of James and John. &quot. . while James asserted that He appeared as a youth whose &quot. . speech to tell what it was like. this is one of the signs of a &quot. Many changes of appearance did John remark. and then again as one reaching to heaven a fact quite credible when related of a pupil in &quot.&quot. But stranger still. Moreover. &quot. &quot.428 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. uncomely. Strangely enough. lay upon his breast. another peculiarity which John remarked. and change But appearance at will. is quite possible of credit.&quot. be smooth stones. human experience in such matters. sympathetic contact with the powerful presence or of a Master. when John glory &quot. first of all James saw Jesus as a John saw Him first as a man fair and comely and of a cheerful countenance afterwards he saw Him as one having a head child. and it was felt of me to sometimes hard. as it is called in India. then. Thus. beard was newly come. was that His eyes never closed. That the Christ was possessed of spiritual powers of a very high order is easy of belief to any student of occult nature.

have I done. concerning the touch of yogins when in certain tion. at because He into And we a distance loved me. (The ecstasy are at all to be credited. and His head reaching unto heaven. and leave the Lord alone. tell suffered great pain in that place upon my John. and stood looking at His back. drew nigh unto Him softly as though He should not And I beheld see. therefore I. saying again went : Him and we beheld Now praying. James of states translation). Him that He was not in any wise clad with garments. * . but was seen of us naked thereof. of small stature. But Peter and James were wroth because I spake with the Lord. He that The Christ 8 Jesus. and But what you. The following naive story smile to the face time it will at the 429 end bring a the reader. brethren. but at the same of hidden nature proof not based entirely on the imagina will give the student of that the legend is but pertains to the domain of occult fact. Lord And ? I said And I my beard and pulled unto Him. the ground there was lighted up by His feet . so that . be not unbelieving. current in India. and beckoned unto me that I should come unto them. And I went. not a busybody.FROM THE ACTS OF JOHN. if at any rate the many similar legends. and they both said unto me. it and took hold of and said unto me. and not in any wise as a man and His feet whiter than any snow. quotations are for the most part from Dr. &quot. to Me. I where he took hold beard for thirty days. so that I was afraid cried out and He turned and appeared as a mana nd . Again in like manner he leadeth us three up Come ye the mountain. &quot.

ye learn shall if ye inquire of Again. who was He ? for we heard both of them speaking. go . That us. do they whom thou hast chosen still not believe in thee ? And my Lord said unto Him. An Interesting again is the simple story that when Jesus and His disciples were each given a loaf by Great some well-to-do householder. the time of the ministry. also I heard saying unto my Lord. well our loaves &quot. watched from under my garment what He did and first I heard Him say. I alone. having &quot. wrapped myself up. and each was it his portion.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. John. and thus &quot. . for they are men. and supplying a basis on which the gorgeous oriental imagination could easily were saved whole in time construct the legend of the feeding of the . in &quot. The Christ was the Great Jesus was the man through whom He taught during Master . an incident credible enough to any student of occultism. my opinion. Jesus would bless the Early of the loaf and divide satisfied with among them. Here. when I considered was speaking with the His great grace and His unity which hath many faces. And I. once when all of us His disciples were sleeping in one house at Gennesaret. Jesus. Thou sayest well. is the direct tradition of an inner fact which led to the subsequent great doctrinal distinction between Jesus and the Christ in Gnostic Christianity. 430 Lord when he was upon the top of the mount. and His wisdom which without ceasing looked upon Him. and thereupon I feigned to be asleep saw another like unto Him come down. whom thou to and I sleep. said.

brethren. before was sung The the lawless Jews. . I. Now these things. they It is intone in chorus the sacred word &quot. assistants. would loose. evidently some echo of the Mysteries.&quot. Next follows the &quot. &quot. Such incidents were thousand. Amen. &quot. and peradventure cannot at all be either uttered or heard. five writer deemed advisable to many more there were tell a of 431 all that the to the uninitiated nature too . sacred or too far from credibility to be revealed to the outer circles.Amen. for the for the initiator (the Christ). as which holding one another s hands so as to make a ring round Jesus.&quot. and to each line He sings.&quot. C. the con fusion is so great that it is impossible to venture on a I disappeared. &quot. I. &quot.&quot. . Ritual from the Mysteries. I And I would be And I loosed. &quot. suggestion. would be I saved. date. stands for the candi and A.&quot. however. I speak unto you for the encouragement of your faith toward Him for we must at present keep silence concerning His mighty and wonderful works. A. and the rubrics have almost entirely have therefore permitted myself a few conjectures in some passages. &quot.FROM THE ACTS OF JOHN. would save. The Hymn stands at present in a very confused and mutilated form. C. I.&quot. In the following C. &quot. He was taken by described are disciples Hymn &quot. and the cere mony is that of a sacred dance of initiation. inasmuch as they are mysteries .&quot. who stands in the midst.&quot.

would I And eat.&quot. stay.&quot. the Sophia] would pipe A. would I &quot. C. would bring I to birth.. &quot. &quot.&quot. would be I eaten. The Ogdoad plays to our dancing. I pierced. &quot. A. Amen.&quot. &quot. I would [have thee] I. C.] who danceth not. I. &quot.&quot. would be I And &amp. Amen. [The reading of this line is hopeless. would be understood.&quot. &quot. wash. would I And hear. &quot. pierce.lt. knoweth not what done. (Grace I &quot. &quot.&quot. I. Amen. Amen. &quot.&quot.&quot. &quot. &quot.&quot. &quot. I would be And would I Amen. &quot. &quot. would be I heard. &quot. A. He Amen. C.&quot.&quot. And born. A. I. A. [i. dance dances.&quot. washed. A. C. &quot. Amen. Amen.&quot.&quot.&quot. C. is being .. &quot. A.432 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.&quot. A. Amen.e. &quot.&quot. The Dodecad danceth above [us].&quot. I.&quot. C. &quot.&quot. C. Amen.&quot. all of you. &quot.&quot. &quot. A.)&quot. would be I &quot.&quot.&quot. I would &quot. being all understanding (mind). flee. I.&quot. &quot. . &quot. Amen.&quot. I would be robed And I would robe [in nt garments].&quot. [thee]. &quot. I.

&quot. When thou didst look on My passion. I . am I a door to thee who knockest at Me. thou Me as suffering thou stood st not firm. &quot. Amen.&quot.&quot. C.&quot.&quot.&quot. Amen.&quot. &quot. A. (Dancing. hast seen respond thou to what my dancing. &quot. &quot. &quot. A. &quot. I suffer.&quot.&quot. I a lamp to thee who Amen. piercing. and when thou keep silence on My mysteries. a wayfarer.&quot.) passion (suffering) of the Man which I am to suffer (perform). I. A. rest thou upon That shalt thou know when Me. &quot.&quot. Amen. I. A. I Father. Amen. am I a way to thee. &quot. n I ? for a couch. A. I have no temple. I. &quot.&quot. see . am I have houses. I 433 &quot. Observe what I do.Amen. &quot.&quot. and have no place.] couldst never [alone] have understood I am thy Word (Logos was sent by the Highest what Self).&quot. would be at-oned.&quot. I. beholdest Me. for thine is this I do. Amen. have temples. and &quot. &quot. and &quot.See thyself in &quot. [Here probably followed a mystery-drama of the and crucifixion Thou &quot. &quot. &quot. &quot. I And would I at-one. Now &quot. I. Thou hast Me Who am depart.&quot. places. A. am I a mirror to thee who perceivest Me.&quot. I have no house. I I have Amen.&quot. didst wast shaken completely. &quot. I.FROM THE ACTS OF JOHN. Me who speak. but &quot.&quot. Amen.&quot.

&quot.&quot. not that of thy betrayer. I thee. things most done. Grace. &quot. we reflect that at this might be &quot. the &quot. light thrown on the meaning of the passion Christ as it was originally understood.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. I am I am now thou shalt see when thou thou hadst If am seen to be. back going round in a ring. Father. &quot. disciples. Father . thou wouldst have had the power not to suffer. O Light. each to Amen! Thee. as well as of the instructive &quot.&quot.Glory &quot.&quot. interesting relic of inner Gnostic ritual . So run the mutilated fragments of The Doxology. am I &quot.&quot. most this in the version The Acts of John from which we are quoting. to suffer.&quot. ! we give thanks to Thee. . of the When. Holy Amen One .Amen. &quot. Amen!&quot. wherein dwelleth no darkness. things ceremony. I. comest. moreover. Word glory to Thee. In Me know thou the Word of wisdom.&quot. myself will not. that I known how not but . praise Thee. That which thou knowest &quot. thy God. power not to suffer. Glory Amen &quot. Know then suffering and thou shalt have the &quot. &quot.&quot. to to Thee. Spirit glory to We Thy glory. 434 What &quot. would be brought into harmony with holy I souls. what &quot. teach &quot. &quot.&quot.&quot. . much said. this so-called Hymn begins and ends with the of doxology.&quot. glory to Thee. ! Glory to Thee. C. most precious fragments of .&quot. which of line the are said to answer &quot. following &quot. If we had only a description of the drama.

He showed me a cross and about the cross a great multitude. When the Lord was hung upon the He appeared unto John. and who put it in thy heart to ascend this mount. sometimes Jesus. 435 hidden part of earliest Christendom are being discovered almost yearly. .&quot. not having one form. &quot. is abundantly proved by these same Johannine Acts. world]. the mystic was understood crucifixion. saying unto me that one should hear these things from : have need of one who is sometimes called the will hear. for I This cross of light Word by Me for your sakes. To the multitude The Mystery of the Jerusalem [? the Jerusalem Below Lord filled it below.Our and in bush of the fled unto the Olives. is needful Me. this mystery of the cross. is to thee Twas I now I speak. but only a voice and a voice not such as was familiar to us. it is not too wild a hope that some tattered leaf may give us further light. and I saw the Lord Himself above the cross. 5 And having thus spoken. who had cross. not having any shape. stood in the midst of the cave with light and said. I am being crucified. John. sometimes Christ. the &quot. by the Gnostics in a fashion far different from the literal historic narrative.FROM THE ACTS OF JOHN. &quot. Mount of &quot. but a sweet and kind voice and one . and gall and vinegar pierced the physical given Me to drink. sometimes Mind. . &quot. hearken to My words. That.&quot. and with lances and reeds. another multitude. that thou mightest hear what disciple must learn from Master. it truly of God.&quot. however. and therein one form and one likeness and on the cross of light set up. and man from God.

sometimes Bread. . Wrath. the many. be neither seen nor spoken of. sometimes Way. Satan. sometimes Son. therefore. there are on the Right and Daemons. As. and then compacted &quot. as conceived of in itself the marking off (delimitation) of all things. This. [still] say of Me what is base and not of Me. all is not the cross of wood which thou wilt when thou upon the hast descended cross. &quot. one aspect that is about &quot. the to thee it is harmony of Wisdom. sometimes Faith. though I am not what I was. much more shall I. Now &quot. is the cross which fixed &quot. the things below it. sometimes Father. nor am I He that is thou seest not but only hearest a voice. and marked off the things that come from genesis. and Threats. in truth. the Lord of that Place. Grace. Accusers. sometimes Life. 436 sometimes Door. the nature of the things in genesis. the firm necessity of those things that are fixed and were unsettled. Energies. Sources. sometimes Resurrection. By the others. Now the multitude of. whom now . And be what I they will worthy &quot. the Place of Rest is neither seen nor spoken of. sometimes sometimes Truth. these things but as to what it is and as spoken of it is toward men called as .FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. * all things apart by Reason. [Below] the Lower Root from which hath proceeded and Left Powers. Principalities. see This into one whole. And whereas it is Wisdom in harmony (or fitly ordered). then. sometimes Spirit. I have been thought to am not. sometimes Seed.

In a word those things that they pierced. callest not hearing thyself Mine. then shalt thou be as I am. shall become as thou art. then. yet did I suffer. to the this thou if art. and none else.437 FROM THE ACTS OF JOHN. Pay no many. and I shall be what I was. that blood flowed from Me. the cross thou seest form. yet it flowed not. Nothing therefore of the things which they will say of Me have I suffered. suffered not. on is lower the is race the cross. when I have thee as I am For from with Myself. I will that it be called a mystery. and shall no longer be what it now is. obedience to even as I My am voice now. and those whom they have not one The because not yet hath every Limb of tation came down been gathered together. nay. yet I . Me. For what but what I am that thou seest that did I show thee I alone know. . and them outside the mystery think little of for know that I am wholly with the Father and the Father with Me. it Him who But when the and the nature. and behold Me in truth that I am. for thou art kin to Me. if nature shall be upper which is repairing taken up. dance. yet was I not hanged. that I was hanged. Thou that I hearest that I suffered. . yet I suffered not. but above them [of the world]. but what thou art able to that which is know. attention. For so long as thou But not what I am. I am thou hearkenest unto Me. and that which is thine behold thou through Me. that suffering also which I showed unto thee and unto the rest in the &quot. not what I said. that I was was not smitten. Suffer me then to keep Mine own. in to then that which [as yet] hears Me not. . &quot.

Me the slaying of a Word (Logos). And by a Word I mean Man. for I know that thou wilt understand. shalt thou understand the Lord.&quot. received illumination and &quot. is we have It is evident that The the Initiation of the initiation called the Cross. How is not formed in him. is On apparently and a lower left.. the death of a Word. &quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. the nailing [? fixing or joining] of a Word. the wounding of a Word. then First. schools as and thirdly the Man. Here he meets the Master. shadow forth and the things that they say Now what they are I will not. then. and in trance his soul ascended the mountain of initiation. &quot. understand the Word. the blood of a Word. the hanging of a Word. to enunciate with such labour. perfect Osiris higher stage. but only hears His voice not yet can he see Him as He is. these echoes from the old and what light they throw on things other It was these inner wise entirely incomprehensible experiences of the soul which were the life and teaching.. (riddle) for thee. See thou therefore in passion of a Word. the the &quot. to here the tradition of the mystery great of . inner . having a right. as the Shepherd of . it the body candidate presumably was bound. I had not. experiences in which the com plex systems that the tongue of flesh endeavoured &quot. .. and what His passion. height within. 438 say of Me. The Cross limbed. those I suffered. the piercing of a Word. joyous light. a like the Egyptian tau. ! strength of the Gnosis. the &quot. three arm. for all his limbs are not yet gathered together. but will be at a when he is are beautiful at-oned with the Christ. the of &quot. light sweet.

and another.&quot. but as the spiritual nature develops he will become . and grow into the stature of the Heavenly Man the Supreme Self. I stood and drew nigh for to hear. describing one of these visions on the Mount. Hermes the Thrice-greatest has it.. the lower and higher such circles of initiation selves. and heard as it were a &quot. from whencesoever thou thou gatherest Me. . Of the idea of the Little and Great Man. on a lofty mountain and saw a mighty Man. I have sown no children to &quot. in we hear elsewhere from The Gospel of Eve (Epiph. dwarf &quot. I have gathered together my limbs that The Higher and Lower . a dwarf. The &quot. xxvi. in the aether of the heart man &quot. : (or scattered) in all . Well now we can imagine the significance of the greeting among such The mystery of that scholars of the hidden way as &quot. and it I am thou and thou art I spake unto me and said and wheresoever thou art I am there. : which hangs twixt heaven and earth be with you. and gathering Me wiliest thou gatherest Thyself. presumably corresponds to the thumb of the size of a &quot. It is an apology or defence to be used there by the soul in its ascent to the Heaven-world. greater than the great.&quot.439 FROM THE ACTS OF JOHN. is a passage cited by Epiphanius (ibid. as it passes through the middle spaces. of the Upanishads as yet he is smaller than the small. but have torn up his roots. I the Ruler [the lord of this world].. and runs as follows: have recognised myself and gathered myself together from all sides. As to the scattering and collecting of the Limbs. which throws some further light on the subject. 3). 13) from The Gospel of Philip. and I am sown voice of thunder.

but Thee alone ? which hath been Power] offering. True Pearl Treasure. and ineffable.&quot. speak of We glorify Thy Name [i. So much for what we can glean from the text of the latest published fragment of these most instructive Acts from the . the Thee. for it is imaged in Thy man Thy alone. Grace.. . . Salt. Faith. Root For of Thou alone Deathlessness. is found in the beautiful treatise of Hermes Trismegistus known as The Secret Sermon on the Mountain God . A Prayer of Praise to Christ.&quot. Love. greatness that can alone be contem plated by the Pure.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Power. and know I who thou thee art. the Father . : Thou thus cries to Thee through art the fire. Rest. Freedom. several other is already known a prayer of praise put into the sacred It is addressed to the Christ.Thy man. shall we. Frankness. 440 were scattered abroad. The same phrase. Net. Thou been called for us. Plough. we glorify Thy Name which spoken by hath been spoken through the Son we glorify the Resurrection shown unto us through Thee we glorify Thy Seed. Hope. Truth. and Gnosis. and Going-for- Son of to refuge Lord. air. what thanksgiving. What there texts are The following the mouth of John at fragments of interest. Thy man &quot. that we invoking Thee by them. art and the Source one of All these hast Incorruptibility. Word. in breaking bread.e.&quot. feast prior to praise. Diadem. Him who hath been called for our sakes the Man. may know that as we are we never can embrace Greatness. Greatness. &quot. &quot. Statute. . Seat of the ^Eons. what his departure from life.

spirit. J ye know how signs. how many John from violence. put in the mouth of John by the Gnostic composer or compiler of the Acts. punishments. are amply shown in the farewell address to level to his disciples. of Address Community. therefore. The high ideal of the Gnostic life. glories. &quot. 441 creatures. : behalf]. . earth through these Thy But indeed the whole of the so-called through water. fast in Him. He knoweth the plotting. what reliefs. &quot. gifts. the Spirit]. For s Farewell many powers the Lord hath granted you through me how many wonders. merciful and holy. kingdom and co-heirs of the Lord. graces. the pure and spot less one. in every deed remembering Him. guidings. bestowings of faith.&quot. the one and only one. The Lord Himself exhorteth you through me Brethren. Poimandres collection of the Trismegistic literature comes from the same source as the Gnosis. &quot. . He knoweth the punishment that comes through them who obey not His commandments. healings how many. Him the you. Let not then our Good God be grieved.FROM THE ACTS OF JOHN. Brothers and co-partners in the fellow-servants. how many ye see given unto you. and the lofty which these strivers after the sinless state aspired. compassionate. unchangeable. teachings. gifts [of services. I would be free from grief [on your &quot. knowing wherefore the mystery of the dispensation towards men is being worked out. nor these with your ears hear ! Stand ye. how many communions own eyes that neither these eyes of yours can see. plottings. He knoweth the violence that comes from He knoweth the dishonour.

Thou only one who ever doest good. . God . than any attribute that we can name or think. . protector of own. Thou only saviour. blossoms whose into scent sown these healer who hast woven this wreath by Thy Thou who hast united these many that can sweet never fade. . I end of to you Ye have ? the pledges of our the sureties of His goodness which can never leave you. which has been brought to an end for me by the Lord. . For what else can I say &quot. Jesus. stranger to arrogance. ye turn back into such paths more. may He rejoice at state .&quot. May He be glad of us as citizens of a well-ruled higher and loftier &quot. Jesus our God. hastening to the my appointed task.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. may He delighted by dwelling laugh with joy at our prudence. of Immediately on this there follows the last prayer John to the Christ on behalf of his brethren. These things do say unto you. our love for Him. having once known Him and having received of His mercy. and ye shall have neither portion nor mercy before Him. heal st for naught. Thou who weaving. . may He rejoice at our living in purity may He have rest by our reverent behaviour may He be free from care by our continence may He be our in brotherhood. . 442 speckless who knows purity. ye have ye have His presence If then ye sin no He doth forgive you all that ye have done in ignorance but if. then shall your former sins be put to your charge. the friend of man. Thou only merciful. not guile or wrath. &quot. flower Thou of who Thine hast Thine Words.

Once on a time John and his companions were On their journey The a-journey ing for apostolic purposes. the party stopped at an uninhabited caravanserai. p. who with Thy gifts and Thy compassion dost screen on Thee. God. who ever seest 443 things and art in all all and always ever-present. &quot. where there is so much beauty. They found clothes on it there but one bare couch. while the rest of the party laid themselves down to sleep on the story . summary. Lord. of it legends that were current the people. ( Op. The rest of the prayer has also a strong Gnostic colouring.. supra cit. as a specimen of the among in else of documents but instructive But so many it is. an uncommon commodity in the circles We take the account from Salmon s of the pious. do well know those all that do . the contents The Story and we give &quot. and having laid they made the Apostle lie on it. and also because it is not deficient humour. and that many theo logical students of these know nothing John and the Bugs. but sufficient has already been quoted to give the reader some idea of the lofty thoughts which animated such communities of the early days. story should have been singled out this particular for most frequent quotation. Thou who dost right [all] them who hope us wrong and who Thou only Lord.&quot. 350). Christos. Lord. this!&quot. righteous one. &quot. o er Thy servants and protect them yea. watch blaspheme Thy holy Name. It is strange that. But before leaving The Acts of John we cannot refrain from presenting the reader with the best known story that has crept into their compilation. Jesus.FROM THE ACTS OF JOHN.

so as not to disturb him. and The they saw a great multitude of bugs standing. climbed up the And John legs. having heard the voice of a man.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and how &quot. 444 But John was troubled by a great multitude floor. the first to awake went to the door. have obeyed. and go to rest in a place from the servant of God. my grateful obligation to the : No sooner had he charge. home is far for this night. At which this the disciples laughed. of his bugs than of the comfort next of the O ye succeeding traveller) he said have kind and since been have observed ye bugs. until after having tossed sleepless for half the night. while the Apostle turned to sleep. and saw and at last St. but we. rest collected to view. O ye bugs. and risen from the couch. hearing the voice of God. he said to them in the hearing of all: I say unto you. than the bugs all in a run rushed from the door to the couch. of bugs. John awoke Then (mindful rather likewise. creatures. In the morning. said this. said and disappeared into the See how these joinings. be ye kindly considerate leave your . return to your place. neglect and disobey. long ? : . and they conversed gently.

for thou hast been planted in world to make fast things unstable. of . engine.Rejoicing I come whom giver. now know material thou Cross.FROM THE ACTS OF ANDREW. what has been already quoted from The Acts of John and with the rest of the Gnostic ideas on For the Gnostics the Cross was a the subject. 445 FROM THE ACTS OF ANDREW. Thy head stretcheth as forth. that up those that lie beneath the earth and are held fast in and mayest join &quot. sunk in the deep. foot into heaven. the regions beneath them to those in heaven. plainly to be derived &quot. cosmic of symbol as processes crucifixion of the soul in matter and tion. to flight one. to put the envious and hostile power of the evil thou [sci. is well and as of the of its regenera to be regretted that our information it is The following Address put into Andrew has been worked over by so fragmentary. thou mayest draw are scattered abroad.. &quot. Cross I the underlying from the Gnostic to thee. Thy Thy heavenly Logos. most skilfully devised. that thou it that them is the mayest gather together into one limbs] that set in the earth. the middle parts are stretched were hands to right and left. the lifeto be mine. O the the forth mayest symbol head of all things. FROM The Andrew Acts of to the Cross is the following Address when compared with of great interest. mouth the Catholic of but scribes. it. Cross. up is circle of ideas. I know thy mystery.

Thou alone Fitly wert with head on high. fruit O Cross most O venerable. Cross. Thou hast stood . Cross most worshipful. and after men Man forth man s ever raised . the world from sin. who bearest as grapes the Master. summonest sinners home through repentance &quot. For we. O I Lord. invincible trophy of the conquest of Christ o er His thou life-giving Cross. foes. are born from Adam. roots planted tree. pure men and sinners. in the DfiSCGHt of Man. but Thou art God of God. ! FROM THE TRAVELS OF PETER. The To the above the mouth be added the final speech put into romance of his Travels. treasured in heaven. before to all aeons become for thought worthy without stain of man. and the reasons for this Peter. glorious Saviour. Light. fruitage of faith through confession the to God bringest worthy through the Gnosis and . dost bear too the Thief as thy thou who fruit. on earth. or may of Peter. strange proceeding are given as follows in the faulty Latin translation. &quot. Circuits (Tours). of It is found in the The the Linus-collection. sweet thing and sweet name. 446 men by salvation given unto O the Highest. passion too Light of true them . stretched on who the cross hast redeemed all of have desired to imitate Thee in Thy yet would I not take on myself to be hanged upright. who the true vine.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. called fragment f Martyrdom of The legend says that Peter insisted on being crucified head downwards. Thou ever upright.

with head reversed. &quot. But of His came down own Power Above into the world. I represent by my position. to him who by a just decree had been cast down into the and earth. The Jonah-myth was a type of the initiate.&quot. for that his birth was death and lacked the life-stream. my the ears of your heart. Lord. But for the brethren there instruction as to the &quot. so that on high. of this life presumably refer to the powers that bring the man to birth. For right what ! first . the Jerusalem Below. after being three days and three nights in the belly of Sheol or Hades. eternally above are sons of the the right our state this life. 447 We. who have the right to hear. hanged upon the Cross. and by Thy holy preaching hast Thou rescued those about to is the left. is is the left doth right become in that changed in those who are the authors of left. (Adam). The authors &quot. that is to say. &quot. this world. and understand what The Mystic must be revealed to you the hidden mys- But brothers. ye. men according to the man flesh. who sunk his being in the earth. &quot. me tery of every nature and the secret spring of every For the first man. preached to those in Nineveh. whose fall in human generation is shown forth.FROM THE TRAVELS OF PETER. For we are brought to birth in such a way. that we do seem to be poured into earth. who. this die. by means of corporal substance. doth symbolize his birth into destruction. lend now meaning was a still further of the Mystic Cross. whose race thing composed. hast found us like the Ninevites. this world down below doth think the world in which Thou. and by the means of this compassion the .

but by .FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN 448 most us holy calling [the did make for and (which had Cross]. even as ye have turned you from that way of error where ye trod. Whence in a mystery the Lord hath said If : y e make not the Right like as the Left. Therefore with Jesus. us exaltation the for restore present things He men s and those that men Left into eternal the Right of did then remained unchanged by till unrighteous error) into the Left. way of flesh behold . hearing these words and by your nature and changing of your life perfecting them. so keep ye running and strive towards the peace of that which calls you from above. living the holy life. ye. hath changed all the signs into their proper nature. say: Christ Word in truth is symbolized is the by that straight stem on which I hang. ascend the Cross one and only Word. The . ye shall not know God s kingdom. Christ. with features not to be ascribed unto God s nature. This saying have I made manifest which your eyes this is the way hanging. Before as the Behind. Above as the Below. It figures forth the &quot. the cross-piece of the cross is is thought to figure forth that human nature which suffered the fault of change in the first man. true God. considering as good those thought not good. For that the way on which ye travel there is Christ. the Left like as the Right. beloved. and those men thought malefic most benign. unto the most sure conversion of state of faith. But in my brothers in me. me of the first man. [As for the Voice ] since that voice a thing of flesh. had taken He these In things. He hath been made for us the Whence also doth the Spirit Word and Voice of God.

449 the help of God-and-man. each must decide for himself. Other speeches and innumerable isolated phrases. to of the unseen is Afterword. The to show the general quotation is one the sayings from The Gospel according to the Egyptians. which still preserve traces of the Gnosis. joining twain in one. received again its real mind. they were ideas put forward by men vastly nearer the time of the origins than ourselves by men whose whole by every experience lives means were devoted to purify to the Christ. conversion The Latin repentance. That. could be from the existing remains of the uncanonical sufficient has been written to give Acts. first of Compare changing of the Right and Left also the with the conversion of the spheres in the opening pages of the Pistis Sophia treatise. Right in the centre. striving themselves.FROM THE TRAVELS OF PETER. from those view which eventually gained the upper hand. . but enough of the translation Greek the obscures and is meaning has been preserved drift of the thought. Whether or not these ideas throw light on the Christ s teaching. but the reader an idea of the extensive popular cited literature of this kind which emanated from Gnostic circles in the early years. the source of the second is not known. very faulty and often original. is set the nail of discipline. and to show him that very different ideas prevailed among those who were in touch with the inner of that exclusively historical tradition. in themselves the truths and world and realize the teachings of the Master amply FF manifest.&quot. however.

.

THE GNOSIS ACCOBDING TO ITS FRIENDS. .

Sempiterna Lux! Nee divitias nee honor es peto. Defence of . 1692). me modo Divince Lucis radio illumines! From An Essay of Transmigration in Pythagoras (London.

So far we have endeavoured to recover some fragments of flotsam and jetsam from the pitiful wreck of the Gnosis. prior 1785). and Akhmim Codices. we will some rough idea of the some Gnostic treatises.SOME GREEK ORIGINAL WORKS IN COPTIC TRANSLATION. wrought by the hands of its bitterest foes. Askew British at the The Askew (presumably a little written on vellum is the Upper Egyptian . THE ASKEW AND BRUCE CODICES. Bruce. so far immediate attention to The Askew Codex was bought by the Museum end of to from the the last heirs century The MS. which have been try to give the reader contents of preserved to us in Coptic translation by the hands of its friends. shall reserve the notice. since little is Akhmlrn Codex for later known of it. We have to consider the contents of three precious documents known as the Askew. the now orthodox Church Fathers . in 453 of Dr. and so give our the Askew and Bruce Codices. the last of which was only discovered in We 1896. in Greek uncials.

to a heading in the middle of the general added narrative. to from England o Upper Egypt in 1769 by the famous Scottish traveller Bruce. and many examination of the Codex two distinct MSS. in Upper Egyptian seventy-eight leaves. The treatise has no superscription or subscription. two distinct Gnostic The superior MS. which custom has given the name Pistis Sophia. is . better material and finer handwriting. and though there is owing a long incident in it dealing with the passion and redemption of the Sophia. The general contents consist of a treatise to only are missing. and bequeathed to the care of the Bodleian It is written Library. other parts of equal length might just as well be called The Questions of Mary. in the and dialect. A of and scientific reveals the fact that it on papyrus. by another hand. dialect. as Harnack has suggested. the . It consists of 346 quarto pages. and for the most part is in an excellent state of preservation a few leaves . The Codex a copy and not an and the was a translation from the original original Greek. Greek cursive characters. but without a title. book-form. Oxford. and Matter long prior to The Codex also contains a short inset and a him. in in a most terrible are dilapidation. contains a treatise of great sublimity. For a further description I must refer the reader to the Introduction of my The Bruce Codex was brought o The Bruc translation. of consists of containing the remains of at least works and some fragments.. state of consists Its leaves disorder are missing. and is not in roll but in book-form.454 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.. lengthy appendix entitled Extracts from the Books of the Saviour.

are of treatises such a marvellous and complex nature. and to comprise calls respectively the First The contents these of two parts which he and Second Book of leou. first and last 455 The other MS. translation of Extracts the even this but him no adequate conception of the com the contents of the Codex Brucianus. In the following resume&quot. of which. In 1891 Amelineau published a text and French translation of the Bruce Codex with a brief introduc was based on Woide s copy of the Codex made a century ago. In 1892 Dr. The student may. This is taken by Schmidt to be the general title. there is as yet no English translation.THE ASKEW AND BRUCE CODICES. Carl Schmidt. having with admirable patience collated the copies of the Codex made by Schwartze and Woide with the original at Oxford.. that I despair of giving the general reader any adequate conception of them. whose leaves were jumbled up in inextricable confusion. but his text MSS. form some the idea of the Pistis from the will give plexity of task by Sophia Books of reading treatise the my and Saviour. and placed published translation a their respective leaves in critical text. pages being fragments of at least the title The Book of the Great Logos according to the Mystery.. MSS. contains two separate books. still greater acumen and industry separated and with the two order. however. with regard to the Codex Translation*. with a German and a voluminous commentary. and the French savant had no idea that he was dealing with two distinct tion. and preserves lost. unfortunately. .

but I speedily found that in spite of the years of work I had already given to Gnosticism. I published a translation of the Pistis Sophia I had intended to follow it up with a commentary. Schmidt competent and translation by far the most and no praise is is Difficulty of the s authority in the field. ere I could satisfy myself that I was competent to essay the task in any really satisfactory fashion I have . so that the general reader may obtain some notion of our Coptic Gnostic treatises. he is entirely baffled on just those very which seem to have been of greatest interest points to the composers documents. breaking silence being that my there of the contents only excuse for is absolutely nothing as yet in English on the contents of the Bruce Codex. 456 Brucianus. I shall follow Schmidt The not Amelineau s. have spared make myself acquainted with his pains labours but. no to . research. though Schmidt throws light on many points. innumerable problems are still left untouched in fact. I feel as yet a very tyro in the Gnosticism revealed in these treatises. For. even with his help. When. with all his admirable scholarship and infinite . I have before me a rough translation of the whole of Schmidt s voluminous and work. Mean time. . in the present short sketches nothing more is attempted than a very tentative summary.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. or compilers of these Gnostic in 1896. there were still many years of labour before me. too high a tribute to pay this most distinguished Coptic scholar for his unwearied patience. accordingly reserved that task for the future.

numerous other fragments are always arranged in their proper sequence is by no means quite certain. but that we can I. first of of the summary all attempt a summary so-called Pistis of the Extracts Books of the Saviour. definitely The whole summary stand under the Great to Books will there the general title. to transpose Schmidt s main and place what he calls The Second Book of leou before what he calls The First. of the Bruce Codex. . It is quite true that the beginning his second division starts on the verso of the of papyrus the recto of which contains the end leaf. though I frankly confess I so far see no more position of satisfactory ordering of the chaos myself.THE ASKEW AND BRUCE CODICES. of We will. including both the introductory matter and also the leaves sur of to rounded by a border. the contents then a treatise. for the general subjects of his first group of fragments seem shall venture. Programme. but this only assures us the correct two That the adjacent fragments. That we have among these fragments part of the original contents of The Books of leou mentioned in the Pistis Sophia seems highly probable. This will be followed by a summary of the fragments con tained in the inferior MS. distinction. I however. of the other. then. inserted after this treatise in the 457 in Sophia from the and following Askew Codex. which Schmidt adds as an But it must be understood that this appendix. the Logos according without further Mystery. and assign II. order. to me to follow the subjects of his second. rather than the contrary. is fore in our The Book our fragments not so certain.

to place the roughly in Coptic such a sequence that the reader may be led from lower to higher grades of the Gnosis. but they are not revealed. the Pistis of the first. and the I therefore disciples are made to see face to face. as far as in this general possible. of This will be followed by the fragments of the untitled treatise contained in the superior MS. . 458 There may be several a tentative arrangement. the Bruce Codex ought to be assigned for anything we know to the contrary.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. I am perfectly aware that higher mysteries (the three Spaces of contents of translations these the Inheritance) are spoken of and explained in the Pistis Sophia treatise than in the rest of the matter. treatises to which the fragments of the inferior is MS. though it was summary place Saviour some of probably composed last. In The Book of the Great Logos and in the Extracts from the Books of the the mysteries are given. The purpose that has guided me arrangement is.

world only. month Tybi. received day Jesus all of the was the fullness. had spent eleven years The with His disciples. So far. THE begins by informing us that Jesus. at sunrise. instructing them. The of light was not one radiance. They of all ends did not that this First Mystery was the lowest of series It of still came know a vast higher mysteries. so that he became lost to view in the ineffable radiance which stretched from earth to heaven. apparently up to the outermost realms of the Light. and that the First Mystery the Father in the likeness of a and the gnosis of- dove all was the end gnoses.459 SUMMARY OF THE CONTENTS OF THE SO-CALLED PISTIS SOPHIA TREATISE. aloft into heaven. but its rays were every kind and type and in it the Master soared . from the dead. as they thought. howtreatise after rising ever. the day sitting apart. and yet even so far with omissions of many points which they were as yet incapable of understanding. to pass. they beheld a great light-stream pouring over Him. in the twelfth year. was It the of the full when. leaving the disciples in great fear he Mystic Transfiguratiou and the Twelfth . therefore. He had taught them the mysteries of the inner world up to a certain point only. that the disciples were assembled with the Master on the Mount of Olives. rejoicing that they had. But so wonderful had been the instruction imparted that the disciples imagined that all had been revealed to them. fifteenth moon.

appears in His familiar form once more. which he had left with the First Mystery. them rejoice. things authority has now been given Him by the First Mystery to reveal these things unto them. On The Master returns to His the ninth hour of the morrow they saw Jesus descending in infinite light. the com passionate and merciful-minded. and ask Him. the robe of glory. for that now He will tell them all bids from the beginning of the truth to the end face to face. it is I . but Jesus.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and the disciples come to worship. saying : Take courage.&quot. now speaking as the glorified Christ. 460 and confusion From as they silently gazed the third hour of the fifteenth after day Him. glory transcending glory. in the Of the clothed Mystic Incarnation of the Twelve. while songs of praise interior of the interiors. He may the He speak to mysteries. spake unto them.&quot. Master. The disciples were dismayed and in great fear. without parable. more brilliant far than when He had ascended the light was now of three . be not afraid. but . all these The Master. degrees. &quot. Disciples. lowest hath in the spaces received of it human kind and the supernal in order that reveal all Light-realm. &quot. until the ninth hour of the morrow (thirty hours) the Master was absent. and during this time there was a shaking of all the regions and great confusion and came forth from the fear. whither didst thou go ? or on what saying their prayer &quot. For this cause is it that He hath again been vesture of light. : ministry wentest thou ? or wherefore are confusions and shakings?&quot. for that thereof. At Jesus withdraws His great light into and Himself.

If ye will receive who. the Master continued in His conversation and said unto in them. conceal nothing from you from perfectness will I perfect and all perfection. and also His own another power instead of was born. Yet a little while and I will tell you the mystery of the pleroma and the pleroma of the pleroma I will all . I said. come These him. as light-sparks. which things. them &quot. : Lo. but in whole pleroma. before For to the Twelve. in the Concerning *&quot.THE His order. was &quot. but the soul of John was the soul of is bom in reborn Elias explained before. Into Mary. this hour. in the height. a part of Himself. of all first whom He He came 461 PISTIS SOPHIA. Twelve the are hath chosen from the beginning He chose twelve . you and every mystery. in He is said things &quot. . It is by reason of these powers that they are not of the world. into the wombs of their mothers. and power hath been given Me by the First Mystery. the body which I bore Of for to . &quot. and when He descended into the world cast them.&quot. that through them the whole world might be saved. also He had implanted a power higher than them all. so be found And so Jesus that no soul of the world-rulers should but one of a higher nature. for the power in them is from Him. I have put on My vesture. not That Soul of Elias only so. into the world. powers. His mother. It was He Himself who had watched over the birth of His the soul. receiving them from the hands of the twelve Saviours of the Light-treasure. had He the Baptist. : Elias. but they had not understood. when John the Baptist it. and disciples. So too another of His powers was in John the the Baptizer with water for the remission of sins.

I will tell you all mysteries from the exterior of the exteriors. for we are Thy fellow-mem together. indeed. &quot. which have befallen Me. I vesture. Ozza. pleroma of all pleromas. last limit. We are one and the same. therefore. we have and . Thee at the mystery from the Now. that a great stream of light My vesture. &quot. Ozai. He came Now. all of us. forth we which also That also is sent Thee Thy . as I And have said unto you. the same which descended in which was I had laid up in the four-and-twentieth mystery. interior. Because of It their : It projected all It is all evolution emanations and all and all all things mysteries exist and all regions. therein. are the of perfection all the perfections. This is the First Mystery. and the gnosis of all gnoses. bers (or limbs). And this is the interpretation thereof: The Mystery w hich is beyond the world. that : r &quot. Rachama. We are all one with Thee. therefore. to the interior of the interiors. before the all is Name thereof is live together for the last part of us. and Thou art one and the same. will I Hearken. Zama. written in these five found a mystery in My words which pertain to the height Zama. who hath existed from the beginning in the Ineffable.462 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. the Great Day &quot. whereby all things exist involution .&quot. &quot. when tell all you things the sun had risen in the regions of the east. which are in My vesture. Hereupon the Master recites the hymn of praise and welcome sung by the powers at His investiture on The Hymn Come unkT the day of this Come unto us all His Limbs are gathered when supreme initiation. Come unto us. It came to pass.

Mystery gave us two vestures to clothe Thee. or emanations. by commandment of the same. without any [of the powers] knowing it from the First Statute downward because the glory of its . since Thou art worthy of them. until its time fulfilled. to us. we have : &quot. is Thine from the beginning. of the orders . the twin spaces of the First Mystery. or powers. besides the one we have sent Thee. I give stand near to clothe Thee with the First Mystery and all His glory. .Lo. which also didst leave in the last limit. of all the mysteries. Make haste. in that the First and art prior For this cause. its time being we us. Come unto Lo. it Thee. 1 of all the that the second contains spaces of the Ineffable the whole glory of all the names. and the regions from the First Statute not]. two therefore. according to the commandment of should be the First Mystery. which. for all fulfilled. and came into being before us. &quot. The hymn proceeds to explain how that the first the whole glory of all the names The Three 68 mysteries of all the orders of the Light* vesture hath in it &quot.THE vesture. indeed. the last mystery from the interiors. the First vestures. light was hidden spheres with in it all their downwards [knew it [the First Statute]. sent Thee this [third] vesture.&quot. that the third vesture contains all the glory of the powers of the emanations of all the spaces and sub-spaces of bslow these supernal realms as far as the earth. Mystery hath sent for Thee through us the mystery of His glory. The hymn then continues therefore. therefore. which Thou is 463 PISTIS SOPHIA.

And all the powers firmament were in great confusion because transcendent light.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. the ministry appointed for Thee by the Ineffable. and shalt leave the Come. then. have we been in need of Thee. And our knowing without us pleroma changed of the interiors they all sang together to the interior it. according to the commandment of the First Mystery. : &quot. shining with a radiance forty-and-nine times as great as before. by order of Lo. on hearing the hymn of the powers. 464 clothe Thyself with this vesture. until ministry of the perfections of the First Mystery. for yet a little while. Come. He donned the lowest robe of glory. He to the passed upwards and inwards First Sphere above the firmament. and so the gates were opened and He entered the mansions . they How hath the Lord of the saying worshipped. Come unto for ever. leaving &quot. the Ineffable by was fulfilled. in order that we may clothe Thee. to us quickly. in order that we may Thou hast accomplished the full clothe Thee. Mystery. a very little while. is therefore. therefore. and Thou shalt come to us. fulfilled. therefore. the glory of the First world. changed into pure light.&quot. to us quickly. until the time appointed us. ! a hymn And of praise in harmony. the Master said. The Journey 6 Height Thereupon. soared upwards and came to the lower firmament. and on seeing the the of that of mystery of their names or powers bowed their inscribed in down and ranks. and. to clothe Thee with the two [remaining] vestures. Come. that Thou mayest receive the whole glory. the time the First Mystery. quickly.

in the ignorance fought against light. took from them a third of their power.that &quot. and bowed and worshipped and sang hymns to the interior of the interiors. the Fate-Sphere. all set.THE PISTIS SOPHIA. He soared higher within. so that for six months they faced the Left and for six months the Right. is to say. by Ieou the . like the unknowing among men. they had been Overseer of the Light. over which For by order of the First Statute and First Mystery. Those of them called the Tyrants.and -nine all times still the orders and rulers of the ^Eonic Space were amazed. And so He changed they are lords. Thence upward and inward he passed to the Second of the Sphere. 465 and the powers were changed and and worshipped. accomplish But now they were changed ing their influences. sang hymns of rejoicing as before. so that if men should invoke them for evil in the magic practices which the transgressing Angels brought down from above. and of the earth them down and became as the inhabitants who are dead and who have no breath in fell &quot. that they should no more prevail in their evil doings And He . Still still shining with radiance further increased. they should not be able to work their will as heretofore. under their great leader Adamas. facing the Left. to the Space of the Twelve ^Eons. And forty. deprived of the light-spark. for they only expended their strength one against the other. and the powers of that sphere did as them beneath them. but in vain. GK* The Master . shining with a light nine-and-forty times still more intensified. Sphere. continuing His triumphal flight.

a interprets passage from Isaiah by the light of the new teaching. third of it . command of the First Mystery. The passage begins with the words forward. for He has changed all the influences. otherwise the of perfected souls number would have been kept back from accomplishment. the Master having invited questions and interpretations of the mysteries He has revealed. said is to mean the &quot. for He has not taken away the power in that Space. and in reply to her further questioning. 466 The Questions of Mary. But those who know the mysteries of the magic of the Thirteenth ^Eon will accomplish them perfectly. it is explained that this conversion of the spheres has been effected according to the Why the Rulers have been robbed. by means of the mysteries. who is throughout represented as the most spiritual by far of all the disciples. In reply to a question by Philip. ordainers of Egypt O Egypt. then. Mary Magdalene. and shall dwell in the Lightits treasure. : &quot. that is to say. The power of the Rulers is in the matter . the Master explains that all their power has not been taken from these Rulers of the Fate. but only a the ordainers of the hour chance on the Fate or the Sphere turning to the Left.inefficacious matter (hyle)r Mary is commended for her intuition. &quot. of those who shall be counted in the heritage of the height. they will say what is to take place. but if they chance on it turning to the Right they will not be able to prophesy.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Hereupon. where are thy diviners and the hour ? and among other things Where. conies and being granted permission to speak. to aid the salvation of souls. by the third robe so that if of glory.

took away a third part of their power I their revolution. changed and caused their path to be lightened. I . is graphically described as &quot. as it became purified. It always had been that their power. of completion crown of and in every the evolution. and the sweat of their bodies&quot. was gathered back to the higher world by Melchisedec.the breath of their mouths. and so their &quot. By the of a third this of the Master power has victory been taken from them. But power was gradually taken from kingdom began to be dissolved the as their them. it.&quot. . way number So it of came strove to delay the perfect souls the to pass that they He fought against the great soul of the Master as He changed them and and and from that influences. I shortened their circles. their . it by the quickening of evolution owing The substance of the Rulers to the influx of Light. and they were &quot. the Great Receiver or Collector of Light. by the spheres being that is to say being continually liberated made to turn more rapidly. so that it should not be made into souls of men and so be purified. the tears of their eyes. the matter out of which souls are made. it is this third part of their power how s was taken away. Rulers therefore began to devour their own matter. In answer to Mary further explained further questioning. which they make into souls. and converted to a higher of the world substance.THE 467 PISTIS SOPHIA. configurations hour they have not had the power to turn towards the purgation of their matter to devour passed through them.

Elect who souls had not &quot. she began to sing a song to the light which is in the height. 468 greatly hurried. containing the whole glory of her mystery. /Eon. and her syzygy. powers of the ^Eonic Spaces. outside the He Sophia. (Pneumatics) are the perfect number indeed shall receive the mysteries . &quot. mourning and the grieving because she had not been brought into Thirteenth ^Eon. her proper region in the height. the mystery of the Thirteenth ^Eon.&quot. Here. and from that hour they have no more had the power of matter devouring the of the purgation of the brilliancy of their light. Thus had He shortened their times and hastened The Shortening of the Times. &quot. And He so Thirteenth passed inward to the veils of this Space. I this cause I said unto you before. After these explanations the Master continues the All the great narrative of his heaven -journey. Rulers. And as she sang. one of the three Triple Powers. my Elect. adored and sang hymns to the interior of the interiors. and her two-and- . when they saw what had happened to their Tyrants.there would not have been a single material (hylic) soul saved. the times been shortened.&quot. but they would have perished in the fire which is in the flesh of the The Heavenjourney continued. which she had seen in the veil of the Treasure of Light. the veils of the Thirteenth /Eon were drawn apart. But when she saw the radiant light-vesture of the Master. evolution. sitting alone. have shortened the times because of The of For &quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and were thrown into confusion in their path. &quot. found Pistis She was grieving because of the sufferings brought upon her by Arrogant.

He keep the it for Thirteenth her. Hereupon the Rulers in the Twelve ^Eoiis below hated her. and caused the Sophia to look down into the lower regions. power Arrogant of the joined himself to the Twelve ^Eons and fought against the He sent forth a great power from his light Sophia. and desired realm. Pistis of order of the First Mystery. but could not. Hereupon follows the mystic story of the suffer In the beginning she was The Myth Sophia. led apparently &quot. Sophia. that one of the three Triple Powers of the Thirteenth ^Eon who The Enmity refused to give the purity of his light for the of benefit and himself Mori. to ascend into that of She ceased to glorious do the mystery ^Eon and ever sang hymns to the of the Thirteenth Light she had seen. into Chaos. the disobedient one. number of be so the but desired ruler to of onslaught against conservative the this Space. is others. And Arrogant.THE 469 PISTIS SOPHIA. gazed upon the light of His vesture. ings in the Thirteenth ^Eon with her companion ^Eons. the reflections of of the the powers and emanations above. twenty fellow-emanations within the ^Eon. and other powers from his matter. that she might see this power and imagine .matter&quot. she gazed into the height and saw the light of the veil of the Treasure By Light. making together four-and-twenty emanations who came forth from the Great Invisible Forefather and the two other great Triple Powers of that Space. because she had ceased to do their mystery the mystery of intercourse or sexual union and desired to go into the height and be above them all.

&quot. into Chaos. interpretation of a Temple collection To attain to the knowledge of the Light. But all the material emanations of surrounded her. This light-power of Arrogant is that of which. gradually descended to the regions of Chaos.cried called Pistis songs of (Faith) repentance.&quot. was greatly weakened and beset out exceedingly.&quot. says the Master.470 it was the in &quot. FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. the . 42-181 of the Coptic translation. without for me. Sophia]. laldabaoth &quot. &quot. and drew nigh to the light-power which Arrogant had sent below. which the ^Eons The Fall in the Height may go of to the And aspired. I have &quot. to have produced Light of lights. she cried on high to that Light of lights which she had seen in the beginning. in which she had trusted [hence is she and so Sophia &quot. real Light to take the light. and her thirteen repentances and songs of praise are a mystical number of the Psalms of the Second and of five of the Odes of Solomon.&quot. spoken to you many And times. and began to sing whereby she might be converted or taken back to the Light. into Matter. and as for her matter they cast it . The lengthy incident of the Pistis Sophia occupies pp. and the light-power of Arrogant Arrogant set to work to devour all the lightit expelled her light and powers in the Sophia swallowed it. . to devour it. go into that region. so that I is descended she ignorance I will which she my of Light so saying : consort.&quot. which heights. Thus pondering she went forth from the Thirteenth ^Eon and descended into the Twelve but and so she they pursued her. into matter.

The Sophia first utters seven repentances. own region and fell into This perhaps refers to the dawning of the consciousness of the higher ego in the lower viz.&quot. and still yearning for the Light. T her pilgrimage.THE human soul (as the 471 PISTIS SOPHIA. presumably the Her chief is enemy the false counterfeit spirit of which light on the desire-nature. from the descend into matter (hyle). which is hear later we shall assisted by four-and-twenty material powers. . . recites her penitential hymns or repentances. may not be turned from her. that she quitted her Chaos. desiring the Light. the turning point of some sub-cycle of its Repentance . descends towards its reflection. matter. At the fourth of these. before world-soul it) has to Hence the Sophia. At the sixth the Light remits her transgression. her pilgrimage begins to lead upward to spirit again. the supernal projections.. powers or co-partners of the Sophia. into the depths of Chaos or Unorder. the whole looked at from reflections of the without making an ordering into forty-nine.the mystery which is made the type of race. rounds the turning point of her cyclic course. &quot. and changing the tendency of her thought or mind or nature. through the Twelve. and the path of she Chaos. The O f the Mou. she prays that the image of the Light and . it by the powers of Having descended to the lowest depths of at length reaches the limit. .. regarded the &quot. Thus she reaches the middle point of balance. where she seems in danger of Thirteenth entirely losing all her own continually deprived of being innate light or spirit. for the time is come when those who turn in the lowest regions should be &quot.

Chaos. &quot. to raise her still higher in Chaos. mand therefore. . so that she recognises it. But as yet the command has not come from the First Mystery to free her entirely from personality. where she pleads that she has done it all in ignorance. three degrees of purification from the chaotic elements of the lower nature. without the First Mystery. ninth stage that the First Mystery partly accepts her repentance and sends Jesus in the form of the Light to her help. Jesus again. This may refer to the higher illumination the consciousness of the true spiritual soul is obtained. There are.the delivered wholly from her transgression lower desire-nature. and sent it to aid Sophia. her syzygy (without the First Mystery) raises her up to a slightly less confined region in Chaos.472 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. while at the same time she prays to be . &quot. The After the thirteenth repentance. as it seems. until the com should come to free her entirely. but Sophia knows not by whom It is it is at the only still done. and are of the nature of thanksgiving. Jesus. Her next four hymns are sung knowingly to the Light. when Therefore at the conclusion of her seventh repent ance. closely compared with the description of the three vestures of glory in the opening pages of the Codex. of himself. emanated a e of purifica- brilliant power of light from Himself. Next follows a description which are to be of the light-powers. and of declaration that justice will shortly overtake her oppressors. through her love for the Light.

and further supported on either hand by Michael and Gabriel.&quot. When all this completely purified. coming forth from the First Mystery looking within. and it became a great light-stream. The wings of the great &quot. and her hyle The &quot.&quot. which are emanated and directed by the subtlest powers of cosmos. For the higher she won. unfolds its The Final . which joined with that already emanated by the This Light. stream was nothing else than the First Mystery Himself looking without. join themselves with the new vesture of light which has descended upon her.THE 473 PISTIS SOPHIA. the sun and moon. &quot. and established own of with new light. and so fell error. they proceed to change their shapes. But all is not yet over . &quot. winged globe&quot. &quot. the final victory is not yet rises the stronger are the powers or projections sent against her. while Sophia pours forth hymns of joy. flutter. and the &quot. material (or to Light- be entirely propensities) begins while the spiritual light-powers which she has succeeded in retaining during her long combat. Then. bird&quot. purified. by light. Then is the law fulfilled. their without that Sophia in the beginning reach into and filled co-partner whom accomplished the Sophia is her light-powers are re is syzygy had thought to unaided. the Light of lights. the power becomes a crown to her head. and the First Mystery in His turn sent forth another great light-power. Thereupon Sophia is not only crowned but entirely surrounded with the light-stream. so that she now has to struggle against still greater foes.

destroying its seed down casting her passions and makes the Sophia tread underfoot the incarnate. pinions. for the com mand has not yet come from the First Mystery Still looking within. is the great Self-willed one and Adamas. as we know them. great preparatory to battle The its Thus flight. to matter. are not yet entirely subdued. and opposing host. begins. my mother according Mary. Treasure of the Great Light be opened and the heights very holy be crossed by the pilgrim. thou in whom I dwelt&quot. First attack against Mystery looking without the &quot.). sumably until the end of the seven cycles or ages.&quot. Therefore does the First Mystery looking without seal their regions and those of their rulers until three times are accomplished. however. so henceforth. basilisk with seven heads. many interpretations of scripture given by the disciples and women disciples. the Mother of Jesus (&quot. the Tyrant.&quot. a state out of time and space.cruel crafty directs powers. who is also . when the perfect number humanity who reach the interplanetary Nirvana of those of perfection will pass into to use a Buddhist term. In the course of the otherwise n Stoyof the infancy. that no the last can arise from the rest of it the &quot. pre &quot.474 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.&quot. of which the present is said to be the fourth. and therefore can be reached now and within by men who can attain the highest degree of Then shall the Gates of the spiritual contemplation. Thereupon Sophia sings triumphant hymns of praise on being set free from the bonds of Chaos. hyle. Thus she set free and remembers. is This Nirvana.

when Thou wert in the vine yard with Joseph. that Thou didst understand. concerning the word which Thy power prophesied Mercy and truth are met together. : My Master. &quot. vine poles. that I may see Him in this place. until I had gone to find Thee and Joseph. &quot. &quot. but thought And He said unto me. Where I Brother. therefore. and thought it was a phantom tempting me. We went together.THE women one of the and tells 475 PISTIS SOPHIA. my in the house. and was Thou. and through David. like knew Him not. to wit. when Thou didst hear me saying this thing unto Joseph. . we entered into the house. the Spirit came down from the height. I seized Him and bound Him to the foot of the bed which was house. And when He had said this unto me I was in doubt. It came to pass. Where I am pass. . word wert a down from heaven Thy of old concerning Thee. and Thou wert joyful and saidest. before the Spirit descended upon Thee. that is expecting Him ? he was disturbed. that I may go to meet Him unto that is ? He Jesus. And Mary answered and said permission to the Infancy. had child. righteousness and peace have kissed each other truth hath flourished on the earth. Nay [rather] And it came to when Joseph heard Thee say these words. receives a quaint of story speak otherwise entirely unknown. disciples. righteousness hath looked prophesied this power When Thou &quot. He. and came unto me Thee. and I found the vineyard Joseph was putting up the you in the you in in my field .

of or of Mary asks : the four-and- Sophia]. or what shall I say concerning them ? For there is is Glory of [the how what quality of their light Saviour. ten thousand times. as I have already told you on another occasion. But. therefore. we found the Spirit bound to the bed. four-and-twenty &quot. Mary : What is comparable to them what region in this world is like unto them ? Now. and found that Thou wert like unto Him. but the Light of the Sun in its true form. Master and &quot. every one of the Invisibles nine times greater than the Heaven [the lower firmament]. I say unto you. the Invisibles are more radiant you. of what quality &quot. .&quot. And He that was bound to the bed was unloosed. to what shall I liken them. and the Twelve Amen. And Of the Them of th are co-powers . He embraced Thee and kissed Thee. than the light of the sun which is in this world. is more .476 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. in the space of the Virgin of Light. there is nothing in this world which is of the quality of heaven. ? Jesus answered and said unto &quot. [Again] there is no light in this world which is Amen. Indeed. as I have told you before on another occasion which is . there in this world which : or nothing in this world with which I can compare them nor is there a single form to which I can liken them. is zEons all together.My twenty Invisibles what is type. Amen. and we gazed upon Thee and Him. and the Sphere above it. I say unto superior to that of the sun. and Thou also didst kiss Him ye became one and the same being. . At the end of the story of the Sophia.

the cross). to bring them all finally into the Twin Spaces of the First Mystery. Ineffable. you. ten . as far as the and ye &quot. it be in ever increasing glory of light with each higher space. because for this it of will the be as a enormous by which [the Fate-Sphere] will be distant and because of the enormous superiority of quality over And will darkness. will the men of this received the mysteries of light be The Perfect J shall be Kingdom than the emanations of Higher than &quot.THE than radiant the 477 PISTIS SOPHIA. the Thirteenth ^Eori (or the Left). within (sci. thousand times more . . four-and-twenty. superior distance from dust of it.&quot. at Emana- &quot. the lower appearing as a speck of dust from its sublimity. Then Mary asks world Right the Light-world. The Master promises further. and the Inheritance of Light who have Master.&quot. they really are. as they are taken through the Twelve ^Eons. . : higher in Thy the Treasure of Light the answer \1 the Master explains the ordering and nature and functions of these great emanations. A J And in and how that. when he takes them through the various spaces of the unseen world. radiant.. the Midst. ? Tl/T 1 tions of Li ht in the ! the final time of the completion Kingdom. bring you into the region of the rulers ye shall see the glory in which The of the Fate-Sphere. of the cosmic it. When &quot. they Scale so shall it.&quot. ye world regard and of their greatly the world as when ye gaze down men. I supreme Space of the shall see all their configurations as without similitude. whole the speck its of with compared glory. darkness on and are.

. neither quality nor light which resembleth them. concerning the word which Thou hast spoken. shall in the Inheritance of Light take precedence of all the Rulers who shall the region of repent. these have a higher place in His Kingdom.&quot. Thou hast said unto us aforetime. but also no comparison in those &quot. All the souls of human kind which shall receive the speakest. mysteries of light. however. be last shall are the whole race of Light-kingdom first. And Mary The hall be hath and ears. the last shall be first in the Light and the . shall take precedence. but But high above all of all shall this time has not yet come. : comprehend every word which Thou I Now. therefore. in treat will teaching. men who so also they that . and all them of who those space on are the the Treasure of word. supernal spaces the glorious beings and spaces. of whole the concerning this Master. them the men who have of souls received the mysteries of light. there in detail inner the to up but Mystery. in the greatness of the five . describes He. to wit. not only in this world. The Master then continues in His conversation The Three and Spaces of of tells which further First them consciousness. my The first and Right. are [now] in the space of the height are the first. &quot. Master.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. He for of those will not &quot. in this of the Height of lofty language &quot. Righteousness. Master. shall be last that is. said indweller of light my &quot. of He Space of the within these treat in the is no His physical possibility of world there is speaking of them nay. 478 of the aeon and the ascension of the pleroma.

that is The Mystery &quot. Mystery. to say. from from . &quot. to the depth. a higher space or a lower according to the degree of the mysteries each shall have the power of he has received .THE 479 PISTIS SOPHIA. Amen. and another. within below . and from the depth to the height. exploring and he shall have the power of remaining in the all region which he shall choose in the Inheritance of the Light-kingdom. in the dissolution King over all the orders of the of the world. . the exploring without. all . from from the . this man. To these supernal realms of the Inheritance shall come those who have received the light-mysteries. and each shall occupy the space according to of Light. and Mystery of the he who Ineffable. have shall orders of the from without above height below. one after the power of Inheritance of within. above or within which is the inner Space of the First Mystery. into going all regions below Inheritance the of him. shall be Inheritance received is Myself. shall that have man The Gnosis 6 Mystery of the . the of Light. I say unto you. . from the length to the breadth. in a word. above. and from the breadth to the length . the twelve mysteries of the First Mystery. the mystery he has received. but not of ascending higher. he shall have the power of the regions of the Inheritances of Light. . Great Supporters of the outer Space of the First Mystery. exploring of Light. and above all the Space of the Ineffable. But he who shall have received the complete mystery of the First Mystery of the Ineffable.

chaos and inheritance of rest of the light righteous and punishment of sinners and and baptisms fire of . ending with death and life. in great phrases describing the supreme Mystery. judgment of light. But the disciples are Gnosis of this greatest Mystery and lose courage. clouds and rain. and the manner of words which thou hast spoken concerning it ? all the &quot. and upwards through into nature all the supernal amazed at the glories of the realms. And the Master said: &quot. sin . therefore. blasphemies and to the and so on through many pairs songs light of opposites. while of the I supreme not yet ended. you the whole Gnosis tell of the disciples. who is the man sna11 be able to understand that Mystery and all its gnoses. so on. &quot. Hearken. . if the Gnosis of all se Courage Anc^ Mary said The &quot. It is the and everlasting increase of beasts and creeping things.&quot.480 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. And darkness. seas. Hereupon follows a magnificent recital of the Gnosis of such a one. But the Gnosis is recital of the greatness of the &quot. and so on working downwards from man of destruction . My disciples. Mystery Ineffable. punishment seals of . C O Master. for the Master continues: now O My further. and earth. who knows of the is wisdom the reason of the existence of all things: darkness of darkness and light and the treasure of light. for perfect : That Mystery knoweth why there and why light. . Gnosis of pitilessness and compassion.&quot. : ment^Tthe these in things this world is in wno that Mystery.Grieve not. and metals. light.

for My burden is light and My yoke easy.rf - hierarchy. will I tell renounce the whole world and you : all shall Whosoever shall and shall therein. 481 concerning the Mystery of that Ineffable. Let them not be dismayed at the vast complexity emanation of the pleroma and the worldfor the emanation of the process. pleroma is its Gnosis. and leading Word the them higher and higher into the supernal heights Ineffable through space after space. and renounce all the cares of this aeon. all its unto you aforetime : ye that are oppressed with cares and labour under their weight. HH of stupendous being and its emanation.&quot. therefore. who shall renounce the evil thoughts that are therein.THE PISTIS SOPHIA.&quot. every one s who shall give ear unto you. and I will give you rest. . The Master then continues His description of the Gnosis of the Mystery of the Ineffable. Now. shall grow into and they the being of the pleroma and so possess all its Gnosis. shall it . and hierarchy after the point &amp. Jt to him that Mystery J J more easy than all the mysteries of the he Hi &hest Mystery is the Simplest of them All. of that Mystery. and come far simpler to understand is it is to a far clearer than knowledge them hath renounced the whole of this world and For cares. Amen. submit himself to the Divinity. and shall renounce the whole world. I say unto that is and you. resuming it at Concerning where He had broken off. this cause Come unto Me all have I said all. Mystery yours. Let but the Christ be born in their hearts of the &quot. thinking that ye will not understand it. all &quot. and all the matter therein. shall be far of Light Kingdom than all He who the rest.lt. by their forsaking the delights of the world.

and the whole Gnosis of each of them. . of is a truth of all. 482 up to the Mystery itself. I One Mystery the Ineffable. but there is another [Word] on the Tongue of the Ineffable it is the rule of the &quot. one after another.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. why they of exist all this is the One Word (Logos) of the Ineffable.&quot. the great spaces and their indwellers. and of which I shall speak of which He in treating of the emanation of the pleroma.&quot. and of what I that which have not yet spoken unto you. therefore. it is the Mystery of the Ineffable which knoweth why all of which I have spoken unto &quot. you hath come into existence. naming He promises to explain at length in His further teaching. then explained how that he who receives One and Only Word. which He now recites of the Ineffable. of And the Gnosis of have said unto you. Him. interpretation unto the words which I have spoken you. He is them &quot. Now. He all this the Mystery is the emanation of them the re-absorption of them all. when he comes forth from It this of all is . and the support all. The Mystery of the Ineffable is the One and Only Word. This Mystery of the Ineffable is in all those have spoken. hath existed because of which in them all. that is to say. simply. but of all of which I shall speak when treating of the [full] emanation I the pleroma. the First Mystery who knoweth why He came forth from the Last Limb All this. in is them and which He is the is the Mystery all.

right &quot. sing hymns of praise. Ineffable. yet man is in he a not of the world. bow down before the vesture of light in which he is and clothed.&quot. the world but a King in the Light. and ends as follows: &quot.Amen. I say unto you. &quot. and I man. Though he in the world.&quot. hierarchies of beings from angels upwards. these men are Myself. The Glory of Receives the . &quot. and &quot.Amen. Hereupon follows a such a of the greatness of &quot. of body 483 PISTIS SOPHIA. apology powers . with the Limbs of the Amen.THE the becomes a the matter of the Rulers. he great light-stream. and so he passes upwards and onwards.&quot. Though he be a man man who is &quot. that man is Myself. man be a recital Beginning with the words. Though he be a man in the world. yet is he higher than the whole region of the Treasure. Though he be a man in the world. I say unto you. &quot. am that And He is a in the world. yet is he higher than all soul.&quot. they shall sit on My hand and on My left in My Kingdom. yet shall he be King with Me in My Kingdom. he shall be in all the regions during the time a man can shoot an arrow. at the great consummation all such men be fellow-kings with Me. and in the same form shall far all it recites surpass them the grades of the supernal all. and soars into the height need of or for all no in stands symbol. I shall am these men. and shall be exalted above the whole of it. through all the Inheritances and higher still until he becometh one of Light. I say unto you. angels.

and yet be more excellent than theirs.&quot. a multitude of is Word Words. another Mystery of the Ineffable and another of the whole Gnosis.And all men that Ineffable shall be on right. _ Mysteries. They I am left hand and on My they and they are Myself. Then Mary asks whether those who do not receive The Degrees of the the Mystery of the Ineffable before they die. the Light- Kingdom. ? The Saviour answered and there said &quot. that every one any one of who receives them. : virgin shall be higher than all the disciples. shall be your thrones My shall your equals in all things. He might have added. Nay. : Yea. but Mary Magdalene and John the &quot. &quot. shall after a mystery of light. there also will be my twelve ministers.&quot. surely there is no other Word of the Mystery of that Ineffable. who shall receive the Mystery in &quot. Gospel In the place where I shall be. verily . protests : whole Gnosis of the &quot. but no one who has not become a Christ will know the all openness Gnosis of the whole pleroma. for whole of the I am the Gnosis pleroma. death find rest in the Light-world appropriate to his mystery. and &quot. &quot.in . thinks that this must be the end of things and the Gnosis of all and so There are all other Logoi.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 484 Of the Thrones in There then follows apparently an interpolation consisting of a quotation from some now unknown Wherefore have I said unto you aforetime. nor any other Word gnoses.&quot. will The Master answers enter the Light-kingdom. Master. and throne shall be more excellent than yours and [than those of] all men who shall have found the My Word of that And Mary Ineffable.

when he leaves the The Boons they Grant. Master. same Mystery. body. that is to say.perform them in all their configura tions. the strict renuncia a cannot &quot. And Mary asks &quot. so that he shall not be punished. The answer this five. and so on up to the twelfth. of the First Saviour in the Light-realm. : how is it that the First Mystery hath twelve mysteries. ineffable. while still remaining one different aspects or types of the . after his death. which shall find the Truth and the higher But as shall God of mysteries. in whosoever the whole The Limbs Space of the Ineffable. but he will be sent back again a righteous body. is is that they are really one Mystery. all. whereas the Ineffable hath but one Mystery?&quot. man Of course such be brought into the Light until he have performed the whole polity of the light of those mysteries. &quot. ordered into twelve. his appropriate lot in the Inheritance. but they further bestow boons with regard to others. . that is to when he say shall have created those himself. If a man &quot. . tion of the world into &quot. and also into Mystery and again into they are all three. mysteries they give the power of further enabling him to protect one who is not a for participator in the Words of Truth. and also all the other sweet mysteries which are in the Limbs of that Ineffable.THE So he who receives the first mystery of the First King over the spaces shall be Mystery 485 PISTTS SOPHIA.&quot.&quot. for the highest mystery of receive the Mystery which is &quot. The two higher mysteries of the three not only ensure the possessor of them.

when The say. just as it is one detail. or why how many Limbs what are all Its I tell It is called the out with Its why It lies stretched all there are therein. there shall he inherit up to the region which he shall have received. and the type of each of them of as I have not told you I it is Ineffable. throughout the [such souls] are for nor apology nor symbol. or Limbs. the and number the of Mystery perfect shall souls be is shall to be accomplished . 486 which have not yet spoken unto you. But when the pleroma is completed. each region has its receiver. but only when I come to speak of the emanation of the [whole] pleroma . the First Mystery looking within . together one. the Space of the First Mystery looking without. of which each shall receive the mystery in the Space of that Ineffable. own sum Limbs. Light. which belong to the regulation of the One and Only One. But for the third Space. will [then] for you every emanated together hath It Word.&quot. So of also for the second Space below this. YeaS of reached. receivers. or regulations. without symbol and have no regions. the Space such souls require no apology. and the manner in which they are constituted. apologies. explanation. the changeless God of total of all its Truth in the region. that &quot. and symbols. [as far as] the whole region of the Space of that Ineffable nor shall he give explanation . nor will I say this unto you immediately.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. both con cerning their emanation. therefore. with by Its with the in Itself. of all of which the Master will speak in due course.

the spirit in Him. and can reach such lofty heights. myriad year of the of years of the world make a Light. he says. . Now single its three the mysteries of these three Inheritances of Light are exceedingly numerous.&quot. The glories of the Light-kingdom with Realms and Kings is then described. all Rulers. &quot. and He long shall suffer you ? cried Ye bear with you. so that thirty-six myriads of years and a half a &quot. and from the Tree of were in the Paradise of Adam. all Archangels. Do ye still not I are ye ignorant ? Know ye not and do ye not understand that ye are all Angels. then. which Enoch wrote when I spoke with him from the Tree Knowledge. according to the years of Light.&quot.THE 487 PISTIS SOPHIA. : shall moved How I said these words. . Gods and Lords. of Hereupon Andrew cannot believe that which great amazement. This matter.&quot. ye have no need thereof. but ye shall find them in the two Books of leou. &quot. all the great are Goda. Ye shall find them The higher ones The Books but as for the rest of the lower mysteries. according to which the pleroma is the pleroma.&quot. two great Books of He will reveal unto them in the leou. and of the world like themselves is men Life. a day of the Light is a thousand years in the world. is hard for me. &quot. When Andrew had of the Saviour was out and said how long know and &quot. in can have so high a destiny reserved for them. reigning over all the emanations of the Light and the whole number of perfect souls who shall pass a shall have received Now all the mysteries. I thousand years.&quot.

ye are the purgations of &quot. of a in ye are the purgation of all of ye have been in great afflictions and word. Inarnati&quot. pure light itself. great tribulations. of the emanations of the Light with all their that ye are of yourselves and in your from one mass and one matter. torn themselves asunder. Whereas. . their &quot. .n ^e Treasure. I have brought unto them the mysteries of light. ye are the pur gations of all the invisibles and all the rulers. And after all these afflictions which came from yourselves. y e are the purgations of the region them that are on the Right. ye have struggled and fought. . all. Now . matter. those of every all the Great them that are on the Right. ye others. . . most pure. 488 all Invisibles. the race of human kind I have torn myself asunder. region of Ones those of the Midst. nor have they been in any affliction. all poured themselves into different bodies. selves in turn. and ye have become of Light. . is Amen. . say unto you. And them. and transformed you into refined light. I of matter. undergone nor have they at reality] nor changes of region. in your pourings into different bodies in this world. and one substance ye are all from the same mixture. nor sufferings. &quot. which have purified you. for they are the purgations of all the matter of &quot. in it . The great Light-emanations have not at all [in glory . . to purify them. . renouncing the whole world and all the matter that and ye have not held your hands in the until ye found all the mysteries of the Kingdom is fight.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. the Light-emanations have no need of any .

unto say and who buyeth and the all selleth eateth and drinketh of his in his own cares and all his Renounce the them. blasphemy. mysteries and . magic potions. renounce false mourning. are exceedingly material purgations. villainy. hardness of heart and impiety. whole world. . are to calumny. matter therein for he . witness. doctrines of error. gluttony. sloth.&quot. who liveth own associations. garrulity. and be saved from all the torments which are in the word. cause. the associations that are in all it. They spells. Say unto them. superstition. murder. &quot. slandering. . ignorance. desire of avarice. all its cares. in this world. .THE 489 PISTIS SOPHIA. mystery. for all men are purgations of . Renounce the whole world and the matter that is in it. wicked ness. that they may escape The O f the . For this therefore. in a that ye may be worthy of the mysteries of light. judgments. adultery. amasses ever fresh matter from his matter. pitilessness. reviling. for they are pure but the human race hath need of purification. saying. &quot. the love of the world. . he who own matter. evil caresses. followed by a long instruction on the is nature of the preaching of the disciples to the world when the Master shall have gone unto the Light. robbery. Cease not to seek day Mysteries and night. and all its associations. in that the whole world. pillage. until ye have found the purifying &quot. matter. all its sins. preach ye to the The Preaching of the whole human race. and all that is therein. quarrelling. wrath. evil words. and they shall make enquiry This of every one according to his purity. atheism. boasting and pride.

they shall be &quot. be loving unto God. and live the life &quot. These are all the boundary marks of the paths of them that are worthy of the mysteries of light. that ye may receive the mysteries of light. how will it be with them after death ? &quot. yet who has not received . righteous man who is perfect in all righteous answers the Master. for the remission of all the which they have committed from the beginning. &quot. are the mysteries to be is that they make this It is because of sinners that I have brought these mysteries into the world. the things to be The abandoned but for the positive. They are to be gentle. of absolute self-renunciation. &quot. sins Wherefore have not to The Afterdeath State of the Uninitiated Righteous. merciful. in that state. the end &quot.&quot. Be . A ness. 490 the torments of of fire an elaborate Great Dragon and hell. : Paths of the Mysteries. the things to be done. frozen up &quot. Boundary Marks of the they are to Say unto the men of the world. &quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. I came &quot. call I said unto you aforetime. the righteous. Unto such and such only given. and righteous.&quot. of the aeon . ye diligent. compassionate. Thus far for the negative side. and other graphic horrors ice capped by the torments of the inexorable Outer Darkness. and enter into the height of the Kingdom of Light. where such absolutely unrepentant souls shall be without existence until &quot. the of reserved for the greatest of sins. peacemakers. the absolute condition renunciation and repent. The question now arises as to good men who have not received the mysteries. to minister unto the poor and sick and afflicted.

and then it shall be taken to the Virgin of Light the creatures of the and sealed with an excellent seal carried into a righteous of the aeons.THE 491 PISTIS SOPHIA. mysteries again ? The Saviour answered and sin not only Remit ye his but Amen. The question next arises as to the sinner who has repented. in detail. Wilt Thou or not that transgressions unto we remit his seven times.Three days shall they journey round with that soul in all world. and give him the &quot. : unto seven times. and then has fallen away. &quot. tell you these types when emanation of the pleroma &quot. . provided he be not a hypocrite &quot. and received the mysteries. instructing it therein. Amen. you. even though a not committed any sin at all. the mysteries of light.&quot. say unto you. remit ye Of Those and again . .&quot. he shall be sent back into the world according I will to the type of the sins he hath committed &quot. I say unto said &quot. and pass it through all the elements of the judgments. and again repented. on going forth from the body. So with a man who has only sinned twice or thrice. as is taken charge of by the Receivers of Light distinguished from the Receivers of Wrath. He must have gnosis as well as righteousness. But Amen. righteous man have impossible to take I I shall come to explain the &quot. it unto him many times seven times. so that it may in body next birth its find that may it the signs of be the and inherit the Kingdom of Light mysteries of light for ever. him because the sign of the Kingdom of the Mysteries is not with him. it is into the Kingdom of Light.

and is in ye shall not remit his sin again from nor any more accept his repentance let him be for you a stumbling-block and transgressor. &quot.&quot. so that he Light.Amen. but it shall dwell in the habitation of the Dragon of the Outer Darkness. for the First Mystery is compassionate &quot. . and merciful-minded.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. man again transgresseth. 492 and each time give ye him the mysteries from the beginning. and shall save it. he shall receive a host proper of additional glories for the souls which he shall glory in have saved. In know the disciples have no choice if they sincere.&quot.gt. mysteries up to the three highest mysteries of the First Mystery. the Saviours unto a single light in the further receive an which he soul Kingdom shall Kingdom additional of Light. Concerning But if an y kind of ^at nour that sin. I say unto you. that brother. The Added may . shall have no more probation for the world of the height that hour. the mysteries which are in the first Space from the exterior perchance ye will win the soul of . in addition to own proper his shall inherit the I say &quot.&quot. . the soul of that man Amen. . &amp. &quot. and not a hypocrite or merely all of this a man is . provided always the man sincerely repent and is not a hypocrite all . but the higher mysteries as well. For Amen. Nay. he glory for the have saved. the Glory. in addition to his shall of unto you. he who shall give life soul. so that he who own save a host of souls. I say henceforth from that hour. they shall not only give the lower mysteries. . these three mysteries shall witness against his last repentance for him from unto you.

and grant remission of sins at any time. mimicking us and mysteries. Supposing they give the mysteries in error to those who are hypocrites Of those who Mimic the .&quot. but they have [merely] copied [what we did] give back [therefore] that mystery unto us.&quot. Beyond the giving of these three higher mysteries they have no power. for they have not sufficient knowledge. however. after is not Of . compassionate and merciful- minded. it . The question is now raised. great judgment. in the hands of the Infinite Compassion the First Mystery and the Mystery of the Ineffable alone. These alone can accept repentance from such a man. them for ever strangers to Thy Kingdom. they must give him these mysteries if he be one who has and not withhold them. are to what then are appeal to the First The mystery which we have given Mystery. for these Mysteries are &quot. and grant him the remission of his sins. even never received any of the lower mysteries for should they hide them from him. .&quot. But the case of a man who has fallen away receiving the highest mysteries they can give. made a mock making of the mysteries forgeries of our they to do ? In this case they &quot.THE curious to PISTIS SOPHIA know what kind 493 of things the rites of the mysteries are. saying unto these impious and iniquitous souls. : not performed in a manner worthy of Thy mystery.. is. and make . \ entirely hopeless . they have &quot. and who have deceived them and have afterwards Mysteries. In that hour the mysteries such impious souls . they will be subject to a .

so that they favourable another may their for be sent back into conditions receiving the mysteries in life. arid multitudes pursue us because that Thy name. life. the latter of those may by their prayers and invocations procure a better state for their relatives and lot in the after-death friends. the deaf. they are in exceeding great number who persecute us because of Thee. ye. which not only shall achieve the mystery of the healeth] gave of unto you healeth sufferings. mystery] whosoever these mysteries and achieve them. 494 have received. But they will be able to help others. possessions. But it is not said that the pains of martyrdom can be avoided. the the of I dead. Can the Pains of Martyrdom be Avoided. we shall of utter we be submitted to the the mystery. who has highest) of the three the time comes to leave the body. that we may if immediately depart from the body without suffering pain. . can shall return to them. but all men who resurrection demonian disease. from receive pardon the of Mystery no and such people one save the only Ineffable. In the case of the unbelieving friends and relatives who have received the mysteries. [the aforetime from every lame.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.e. and the blind. The answer accomplished not clear is the first (i. shall soar into the Kingdom of Life without need of apology or sign. and the the shall receive and which &quot. asked whether the mysteries will save For the disciples from the pains of martyrdom.. It is then &quot. for The Mystery of the Resurrection of the Dead. also [which halt. in every one .&quot. dumb. so torture. when higher mysteries.

and the poverty or riches. so that they do such wonder-deeds. disease or health. saying that the rest of the mysteries which have been committed unto them they may give to others. The Master continues His teaching.&quot.they you. all your The next point question: &quot. of every resurrection of the dead.THE if ask he for 495 PISTIS SOPHIA. : O Saviour. the blind. our souls have and they travail mightily.&quot. yearning go forth from us into the height to the region of Thy Kingdom. but not the mystery of the resurrection of the dead and the healing of disease.&quot. because of the transcendent heights which Thou hast revealed unto become to frenzied. for they came forth from Thee. they him. if whosoever he ask any of the things shall at once be have just said unto you.&quot. that ye preach the God have faith in words. Now. power of healing the and the dumb. and disease in a word. &quot. unto granted which I Hereupon the disciples out cried together in with very The transport ot *he great frenzy J because of the transcendent height which &quot. is will the This Thafc fchis Mystery is to be kept . the deaf. therefore. us. This they are &quot. and exaltest our and they have become paths on which we travel to come unto Thee.Who will of perfection. of every suffering shall achieve this mystery. it and all its namings. strength. souls. or the whole healing of the body. the lame. Thou hast revealed unto Thou us. of instruction constraineth a and taken up man to when believe en sin?&quot. any whatever thing weakness or hereafter. to retain as the sign of their mission. for that mystery pertaineth to the rulers. Thou excitest us Disciples.

the region of the Mixture (sei. soul. from the portion of evil in the delights..&quot. The power senseth which is vices. each sensing according to its nature. The power within impelleth the after the region of light soul to seek and the whole Godhead . The babe eateth of the delights of the world of the power absorbeth from the portion of the power which is in the delights. it. and gives rise to a very interesting exposition f of ^ .&quot. counterfeit very feeble in as yet for &quot. When the child is first born. after the light of the height the soul senseth after the region of mixed righteousness. &quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. light-power.&quot. and body from the unperceptive matter in the spirit the delights. are all them hath sense enough any work. &quot. the soul the lower mind. the counterfeit the Rulers . the &quot. So. Gnostic psychology. spirit. little by little. None of and &quot. . all these constituent elements in man develop. it matter.&quot. and the counterfeit spirit the animal nature. of Light and and the counterfeit spirit seeketh after all Matter) .&quot. opens up the whole subject of the constitution of man.&quot. &quot. body. destiny. The power is evidently the higher mind. 496 The Constitution of Man. There also another factor called the is which remains as it &quot. and . because of the exceeding great weight of oblivion. &quot. and of sensing unless strength from but the body hath no be an impulse to gain sins. came into the world and takes nothing from the delights.&quot. the soul from the portion of the soul in the delights. power desires. whether good or evil.

n After-death State of tha Sinner.&quot. persistently . the counterfeit spirit and destiny accompany that withdrawn itself unto the soul... . . which enemy not. kind iniquity constraineth . and is the the soul. it And even when man sleepeth by night or by day. . travel round with that soul through all the regions. The &quot. &quot. for three days the Receivers of Wrath that soul lead And &quot. his is destiny In this world. but the power . causing it to do what it would it is which constraineth a man to sin. and the counterfeit spirit becometh the receiver of that soul. &quot. . and haunteth it. something foreign persisteth its enemy. and maketh it commit all these sins and and soul. soul is then brought down into Chaos. it the Rulers have decreed for it. and . that which leadeth the Then come the Receivers death. .&quot. of Wrath to bear witness will constrain the soul to to all the sin which commit.. .. it plagueth him in dreams with the desires of the world. The Evil Desire which Constrainto Sin.THE 497 PISTIS SOPHIA.. evils . . every and to the is as soul. The Cycle of the taking it through all the seons of the world. for the future. still always haunted . Virgin of The . whereas the counterfeit down draggeth spirit the commit and and mischief and 01 sin. T to it . and causeth the him to long after all the things of a word. . &quot. The soul then rises higher.. bindeth the soul to all the actions of of This man Wrath to to out of the body. rebuking it in every punish ment because of the sins which it hath caused it to commit it is in exceeding great enmity to the soul.. .. bringing them into operation against the soul because of what it has done in the past more it spurreth on the Workmen over.. Light..

&quot. demerit. it is still subjected to the punishments of its counterfeit spirit. sins which it hath committed. 498 by the counterfeit spirit. and region. of Light sealeth that soul of her receivers. according to its &quot. the First Man and the Virgin &quot. and so they cease the Rulers bind it impede the and the destiny departeth soul. and also the destiny. however. then the counterfeit spirit followeth after that soul. it uttereth the mystery of the breaking of the seals and all the bonds of the counterfeit spirit. until of the Way comes to the Ruler between the lower firma of the Midst ment and the it Here earth-surface. to the soul . unto you she will not suffer that soul to escape from transmigrations into bodies. They follow after it in the it way whereby shall pass into the height. Righteous.light apparently the sublunary regions and taken to the It is of the Judge. when the time of that soul come is for its passing from the body. whereby &quot. to the Rulers of the the counterfeit of the spirit to the Rulers of the Fate- Way . until it hath given signs of being in its last cycle according I say &quot. according to the com mandment of leou. then brought by the counterfeit spirit to the the Way of the Midst being sun. to its to own of the Midst.&quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. . and one that hath received the higher mysteries of light. to its record of And of the &quot.Amen.destiny.And before it goeth into far the height. In the case of a righteous soul.&quot.&quot. the Virgin of Light. &quot. &quot. which is the and will record of and handeth have it the it over to one carried into a body.

bear witness concerning the sins of the souls. requires such apologies and which seals. becometh a glorious light-stream it to its inheritance. Agree with thine enemy whilst thou art in the way with him. sin . the Virgin of Light. all of the Master promises to give them in His detailed For exposition of the emanation of the pleroma. the present He simply states what spaces have to be traversed and what are the rulers. another body. and the Master replies: The counterfeit spirit beareth witness to every which the soul hath committed not only J doth &quot. Such a soul requires no seals or apologies.THE And Sphere.&quot. soul. lest at any time thine enemy deliver thee to the judge. thou shalt not come out thence till thou hast paid the officer. pertain to the light. But one that hath received the lower mysteries only.&quot. uttermost officer cast as referring to the Judge. for who of light for that for 499 PISTIS SOPHIA. She further interprets the saying. it it . Enemy. and the judge deliver thee to the &quot. for that no soul migration until it is gives signs of free from trans being in its last cycle. but sealeth every sin that it may be stamped on the The stamping of the Sins on the . &quot. . Mary next enquires as to the nature of the mysteries of the baptisms which remit sins. of including the statements one which the with Master unto us aforetime by the mouth of Paul spake our brother. and the thee into prison. so and passeth up of that soul. Mary compares some former sayings. and the receivers become wings will be a vesture of light it. and the recasting of the soul into farthing.&quot.&quot. &quot.

and separateth of baptism remaineth the one from the other. so that all the rulers of may know sinners that and may be informed it is it number hath committed. And the mystery between the two. hath implanted in And when the it. so that the counterfeit spirit. then further explained that all the twelve and other mysteries of the First Mystery and of the Ineffable are still higher than the mysteries of the . They chase and after the counterfeit spirit and the destiny.&quot. burneth up sins. that the soul may cleanse and power matter. the mysteries enter into the the fire cut them may off body occultly. that secretly pursue after the pursuers with the body.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. the punishments of the soul of a sinner. by the number of the which the counterfeit spirit that they chastise it. and the soul and power into another. and the body may be separated into one group. fierce. exceedingly which wise. to separate them from the power and the soul. so number of which sins the fashion in may which it hath which of sins the seals stamped upon of the according hath committed. the destiny. 500 soul. &quot. when a man therefore. mysteries a mighty of the receiveth the baptisms. This is to it they treat the soul of the sinner. in order that them and make them may not be fouled in It is it pure. those mysteries become fire. and place them with the body. The Burning Sins by the Baptism Now. they enter into the soul secretly and devour all the sins which the counterfeit spirit &quot. hath purified all the sins spirit hath implanted in the fire which the counterfeit soul.

and those he weareth the royal mantle. power over everything to do as they will. who are lords of the whole pleroma. even a king of to-day. and the soldier there committeth murders and other grave offences worthy of death. and other I say. in the case of a woman Of Infinite . Again. and sendeth him to shall &quot. it of the First Mystery who are lords over the height and all them of the depth Thereupon the Master whether he is makes all them of &quot. it is in the horrible and power even capital crimes. granteth boons unto them who are like unto him. The &quot. Ineffable who have received the Mystery. who of one is a if. then. man much more then have that and that First Mystery. to see compassionate.THE 501 PISTIS SOPHIA. and grant remission of sin unto every one of the world to act thus. a man of the world. with enquiry they have unending insisted well understood. the case them who are mantled in the [is with] mysteries of the vestures of that Ineffable. baptisms. ! trial of Peter. the opportunity the by light offered by a recapitulation of some of the being Mary gives points by the Master. if even a king of to-day investeth a soldier with a royal mantle. and yet they are not brought home to him. interpretations of passages of scripture of the new teaching. compassion of as whether to the the is Especially Mysteries highest upon. If he if and moreover granteth pardon unto murderers. foreign regions. them that are guilty of intercourse with males. because how much more. but all of this will be explained in a further teaching.

and the mystery be perfected [the mystery] into existence. I will then shut the Gates of the Light. also all the matters that are human kind being still upon it. that hour no one shall any more enter into the Light. Such men know not when the number of perfect souls [shall be tilled up] for when the number of &quot. the Master bids the indifferent. the firmaments and the whole world. &quot. to those who are thinking they have many births before and need not hasten. still in it. and from that time none will be to come in thereby. men : Preach ye unto the whole world. for the number of perfect souls shall be [completed]. the race of . in the belief that ye will succeed in obtaining the mysteries when ye return to the world in another cycle.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. before may purify the aeons. them disciples &quot. and enter Put not off from day to into the Kingdom of Light. has received the mysteries and fallen away and not repented. . is far worse than that of the impious man who has never known As them. From and I am of the First whereby all Mystery hath come that mystery. and Peter comes out of the trial successfully. For at a Certain Time the Gates of the Light will be shut. perfect souls shall be completed. that it and veils. and I set fire to the world. in that the time of the number of perfect souls shall be fulfilled. saying unto : Strive together that ye may receive the mysteries of light in this time of stress. day. and from cycle to cycle. It is then explained that the lot of a man who But Delay not to Repent. 502 who had fallen away after receiving the mystery of baptism. and none shall come forth. nor will any go forth able thereafter.

the to depart punishment. ye who have practised ways.&quot. the type of the Outer of the spaces and regions The Dragon to then follows description of the space-dragon of this whose Forthwith Outer Darkness. in or &quot. saying. open unto us. the high Wherefore the Darkness and the number of on us not iniquity go teach didst ye know are. they will find that I have shut the Gates of Light. and its twelve Darkness. I know not whence And they will say unto Me. and we have fulfilled all I will Thy doctrine. the faith shall &quot. Those souls then will cry within through the And Gates of Light. And I will answer unto them. ness. weeping and gnashing of then asks as and tail is in where teeth. I who ye are. and And many days. Outer Darkness. and shall find complete. consummation number of the of perfect souls. saying. We have ye are. then.I its an elaborate Outer Dark mouth. which is the Consumma First Mystery and the Gnosis of the of perfect souls the tion of mount up to that the number shall is Pleroma. [and in those days] they shall find the mysteries of light.At forth 503 PISTIS SOPHIA. saying: Master. know Thou &quot. itself also the mysteries in those souls shall pass through the cycles body and come back into the world in those days and among them shall be some who are now alive and hear Me teach concerning the of transmigrations of .&quot. show that time.THE more and more. * answer unto them. They the Gates of Light. and they there is Mary evil into [hence] will even unto this day. and that from that hour no one can come go forth thereby. received the mysteries. . and shall receive them.

It is further explained that the saying. He who The Parents shall not leave father and mother and follow after we are to Leave. and how that the souls who know the names escape from the Dragon and are is taken to leou. The manner of the fashioning of a how then described. the seed of manner of desire and and that deadly draught all .FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. the Fate and the Draught of Oblivion iniquity. . and degrees of the fires. promised new soul is inbreathed and on a more future occasion. or fashioners of the refers to the Me. . detailed this is set information the power forth is is generally. and their subsequent fate. &quot. . &quot. and hence they call it the counter unto feit the in soul spirit. like every way. and into it . it is how explained the names are contained all what are the torments and one another. Then comes fresh instruction as to the Rulers of The Oblivion. Thereupon follows the teaching how the souls of the uninitiated may be saved. all of body external to the soul. and the It is further explained names efficacy of the of the twelve rulers of the dungeons explained. with filled forgetfulness oblivion becometh a . &quot. and how finally the will save even those Mystery have no more chance of who rebirth. of the doors and angels that watch at them. and what souls pass into the Dragon and how in . how the initiated become and streams of light-flames Mary pleads for light.&quot. and its perfect resemblance. parents &quot.&quot. with their authentic faces and names of the rulers. them who have neglected the mysteries. 504 dungeons.

you. the less 505 PISTIS SOPHIA. far and spirit. to save them. and various And other questions of a like nature. . mother of the physical of the occult gestation. for the sake of sinners have I torn myself asunder and come into the world. when I spake to him from the Tree of Knowledge. of the destiny . emanation when of I the leou again. on whose head is the foot of . Now. and from the Tree of Life.THE and counterfeit eoul parents. the of parents our not earthly light-power the Saviour and His mysteries. find leou. the latter surroundeth all the ^Eons and the Fate-Sphere I set [then] this Ruler to preserve the Books of leou from the flood. incarnation of the various constituent elements in man physiognomy the nature and how a man comes by his death occult . stages of incarnation the father and parents . three- its hundred and sixty-five also is number the embryonic the karmic compulsion of the in . Saviour continues then the : &quot. who have never done committed never which are in should sin. and which I made him deposit in the rock of Ararad that is leou and I set Kalapatauroth. within information Further and counterfeit spirit given as to the elemental builders. . the and have mysteries which I made Enoch write down in Paradise. therefore. the mode of process body. and [also] lest any of the Rulers These out [books] have finished pleroma.&quot. the Ruler over Skemmut. of will telling enmity I should unto give you the destroy them. the Books of evil. and also because it is necessary that the righteous.

FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. that ye may be perfect in every gnosis. which remit the sins souls. that be they may formed into pure light. plainly. from the interior of the interiors to the exterior of the exteriors. and be trans and be brought into the . but they will be sent back into of righteous bodies and inherit the Kingdom.&quot. &quot. mysteries. : Tis He who Keys of the Thou hast brought the keys of the mysteries the Kingdom of Light. and every deep of the depths. The treatise all to mysteries and an end with the : Mary answered and said men the find itself brings following paragraphs &quot. Light. and in every pleroma. that &quot. &quot. And Mary answered and said to the Saviour Now we know. the prophets or patriarchs had as yet entered into the Light. all The Saviour answered and His disciples : said unto I will also reveal Mary and unto you the all grandeurs of the height. freely. so : Blessed are we before because of these great [truths] which Thou hast revealed unto us. and in every height of the heights. The Christ the First of this to Enter the fc Before the coming of the First Mystery no soul of n j g humanity had fully none J entered into the Light to . O Master. of of cleansed. 506 But few &quot. surely. thousand a in comprehend the higher that there will be found one you and two in ten thousand for only I tell will consummation of the mysteries the of the First Mystery.

apart from which there is no treasure. apart from which there is no individu but there are other words ality in the world all of . to you in a of so that the it is Limbs (or Members) manifest that [in there are but only one body. have not revealed the [whole] word in truth. correspondence. But the Mystery of the Ineffable and every &quot. 252 Codex. the eye according to the dignity of the eye. many members. and runs as follows first : &quot. the ear according to the dignity of the and the ear. they that The dwell in the Mystery of the Ineffable and they that dwell in [that Ineffable] and also the three Spaces which follow after them. other mysteries. they are the And each is according to of the Ineffable. [? logoi]. 507 SUMMARY OF THE EXTRACTS FROM THE BOOKS OF THE SAVIOUR. and other regions. that have not emanated of is Ineffable. the head according to the dignity of the head.EXTRACTS FROM BOOKS OF THE SAVIOUR. in truth and Treasure of verity. of Limbs the dignity of its glory. And they which lie that are worthy the mysteries thev are to say. To use a Mystery. according to the mysteries. those that Tlie Immaneot prior to the First Limbs of the similitude and correspondence in the Ineffable. speech that ye may understand. I speak and a similitude. like fashion] rest . but not in the reality of its configuration I . I am the them. THE 254 of the Askew extract occurs on pp. Of this a paradigm. all that [is Myself]. Limb which is in It that is to say. Christ .

say unto you. occupying pp. Ineffable. &quot. dead on came saying: to the together therefore. Him. he who hath found the words of these mysteries in the Truth of God Amen. because of these words and mysteries. concerning which I speak unto you this day. The Gnoais who of the Christ. The universe verily oweth its being to these words and mysteries. Wherefore is he equal to desire of all For he hath found also the words of them]. For which cause he who hath found he is its the words of these mysteries. [? the God I of Truth]. the words of the third Space towards the interior.Now. set down Limbs of for the namely. peer. found the words he is logoi] of the mysteries of the He is who hath the the midst. It begins &quot. third unto Master. : day. Him have after they had He rose from And the disciples that and mercy besought upon us. with the words came It The Initia tion of the crucified Disciples on the Mount. He is the very Pleroma itself more excellent than the universe) (or the object of who are in that third Space who hath found the Mystery in which they [all] are. towards the found hath [? second Space in and every free of men] [among mysteries of the Space He is a God. pass.&quot. 508 Blessed therefore. that man is chief in the Truth. for . [all which logoi] of the mysteries. the Jesus. [? a in you have I the similitude. is equal to the Chief [of It is the gnosis of the Gnosis of the Ineffable all]. The second series of extracts is far longer and comes at the end of the Codex. our Master. space a Saviour found words of the mysteries.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. who hath the exterior. 357 390. and in which they are [all] set.

white in an altar and at with His disciples turns to the four quarters. Sea of the Ocean. surrounded by his disciples. the words of Thy truth which I have cried . and makes invocation with solemn prayer. This is The pleroma hath A. &quot. &quot. : that they may believe in all the grant unto them unto Thee.&quot. the mystic vowels and authentic names. O. : followed . Treasure. by a mystic formula. for I the Treasure of Then mentho. invoking The interpretation of three times the name IAO.&quot. which is O Father of every fatherhood of interpreted as the boundless [light-spaces]. we have and mother. world. Jesus. Jesus stands robes. which is They shall end of ends. of consists interspersed with formulae &quot. the Father of mystery-name Name saying : of Let authorities. Hear me. The prayer Light!&quot. and father left whole the &quot. powers and all the visible Gods [their three the of Light. whom I have brought into Thy presence. gone forth return within. O Father. the of all know whose invokes the rulers. male and female. works of Abera- is Father of The Fint mysteries Drawn and the mystery-names S1 all In being e . Father of all father saying &quot. hear Me because of My disciples. &quot. The disciples women linen are stand disciples behind. Name the &quot. round grouped clad all the Him.EXTRACTS FROM BOOKS OF THE SAVIOUR. and have followed Thee. things for all the the archangels. We 509 are at once introduced to an atmosphere of Jesus stands by the ceremonies and invocations. There shall be an I. : Boundless hood.

male and female. Ares. Over them leou has set world of five other Great Rulers. the father of My to a pure atmosphere near the light of the sun. or sexual union. the regions. And Jesus and His disciples soar aloft into the They enter aerial the Way of the Midst. and father. called in the human kind by these names : Kronos. and decans.&quot. to the lower regions speed to the of the sun and of the left of the disk the moon. and come to of the Midst. labraoth have repented and practised the mysteries of &quot. Here the The Ordering of the disciples are instructed on the nature of this space and its rulers. the first order of Way of the Way the Midst. and angels. work They have accordingly been bound procreated rulers and archangels. 510 given] withdraw themselves and roll themselves on to the right. They are told that above them there are Twelve Mons. hundred and sixty of this brood. its helms. and at the prow is the face of a cat. being two dragons. The six under Adamas have refused the mysteries of light. and drawn by four others figured as horses. it is drawn by two oxen. mounted on seven powers. six being ruled by The six under h Described! Adamas and six by labraoth. and persisted in the mystery of intercourse. or steering oars. and again eighteen hundred (1800 = 360x5) in each aeon. all Thereupon west. There are now three by leou in the Fate-Sphere. and have therefore been carried by leou. . The car of the moon is figured as a ship. and steered by a babe on the poop.&quot. men. The disk of the sun vast dragon with is its tail symbolically described as a in its mouth. light.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

&quot. Zeus is good. and Zeus. that ye all the mysteries and every be called the Sons of the Pleroma. and their genesis is also given. The peculiarity of Zeus is that he has two aeons for his habitation. judgments of the Ways of the Midst. &quot. mystery of of the the the mystery of Baptism the Baptism of them of the Right and the great of the Treasure of mystery Light.&quot. and passes three months in the revolutions of the remaining four &quot. indeed are ye beyond all men who are on the earth.&quot.&quot. The Master in answer promises to give them the the mystery of the Twelve mysteries of all gnosis souls to the : of the Rulers.EXTRACTS FROM BOOKS OF THE SAVIOUR. are set over great torments. mystery-names Zeus the head of the four. I will give gnosis. for the Sons of Light In these Ways have come in your time. . their numbers. below the Fate-Sphere. desires to be informed as to Ways of the Midst. so that every ruler in which he ruling powers. lest the receivers carry off our why the aerial and which &quot. as the chief questioner. but Mary. &quot. for leou reflected is that they had need of a helm to steer the world and the aeons of the spheres. lie &quot. Aphrodite. cometh is freed from his iniquity. their seals. in which they are. like manner vEon (the Thirteenth them the mystery the Left) the Midst . and the manner of invocation to enter into their regions in . unto you may Blessed perfect in every gnosis and every mystery. All this refers to the ordering of the Fate-Sphere who is also in these Extracts represented . 511 Their incorruptible Hermes. She beseeches the Saviour to have mercy upon them.&quot. of of . Midst are further bound of the All Mysteriet O f the Light- i .

the brood of of great rulers are further estabthem. and hurry off all the souls that they can harry and ravish. But when the great Lights withdraw again. then.&quot. of these dsemonial hier these the times first as are an cometh to pass after these years. Aphrodite).. These two great Lights descend at appointed seasons. to destroy them &quot. the Little Sabaoth (that is sphere to say. the legate of all the light-powers which are purified among the Rulers. 512 by leou three hundred and sixty The Punishments of the Ways of the Midst Adamas. smoke of their darkness and their evil The times that souls must pass in each in the The Duration of the Punish ments. and march against &quot. of regions archies of punishment and given. and . the five how take fire. are ordered by given. the light-powers of the souls. this done when the number and time of is come their task to pass. in a sort of reflection of the five The sub-hierarchies of explained how the providence authentic these all is of all five names. and the rulers and types. [it cometh to pass that] the veils between them of the Right and . leou. to gather together the pure radiance of the light from those they have cleansed among the Rulers.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.&quot. which is the Balance. Zeus) revolveth so as to come into the first aeon of the Sphere. she [Aphrodite] shall have come into the seventh house of the Sphere.It the of of Bubastis (that is to say. then the Rulers again rebel because of the wrath of their iniquity. lished over space above. which is called in the world the Ram example when : &quot. are to brought an To end. It is who is gods and powers which are in the matter of the Light of the Treasure. when. and by Zorokothora (Melchizedec).

These then are the operations of the Ways of the Midst concerning which ye have questioned Me.EXTRACTS FROM BOOKS OF THE SAVIOUR. And so for the other four the of five. the Good. : O have Master.&quot. and have mercy upon the whole race of human kind for they not. saying this. among them forth from the height. the Great Sabaoth. &quot. Master. our Saviour. and that all the souls which are in her torments may the into be brought forth and again led they are perishing in the for Sphere. lie in wait for their souls. and he gazeth down on the regions of Paraplex [the ruler of the first dsemonian hierarchy]. have mercy upon us. [lord] of the whole world But before he glanceth forth. they Save unto for they ! the darkness. O Master. 513 of the Right. upon us. may torments Woe sinners. and Have mercy upon us. woe unto the children like we that us. Have mercy. &quot. be mercy upon from these malignant preserved which them are ! are prepared for the blind feeling of in men us. of all the Sphere. because of the forgetfulness and ignorance in O which they are. therefore. with appears that leou and Melchisedec are powers behind or symbolized by the appropriate modifications. And when the disciples had heard bowed down and adored Him. in seeing the great blindness in which we are.&quot. them of the Left are drawn and there glanceth aside. It sun and moon. ! The Disciplt Mercy to . that they may be dissolved and perish. as to tear them in and pieces lions for their prey. . torments of Paraplex. make food for their torments. preserve us from this great stupor KK &quot.

that &quot. said unto His say unto you. I Have courage. towards the four angles of the world. I brought down the wine and the blood from the region of Barbelo. water and this fire wine and blood. which no man mark what ye And they The Vision of the Baptism Mysteries. : &quot. He uttered the Great Name over their heads. save this I tire brought down the from the region of the Light of light. and the regions of the Midst were hidden from view and His disciples remained an in exceeding great light. I will give them unto you. again say unto you. Ye remember that I have already lords over all said unto you before of the you the keys My crucifixion kingdom unto I will give : Now of the heavens. ! &quot. and place them in subjection under your feet. : of the and Jesus atmosphere Come unto turned of Me. saw a great in the He Look up. and blessed them and breathed on their and raised their eyes unto the height and exceedingly brilliant. and mark what ye see We see tire and water.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. . I came.&quot. I have brought to say Amen. He &quot. 514 Jesus said unto His disciples fear not. : &quot. see light. for ye are blessed .&quot. : Jesus. ! world could describe. and wine They said and blood. Look into them a second time the light. said unto &quot. He chanted an I They Enter an Atmos phere of Exceeding Great Light. Jesus said unto His disciples And they came unto Him. When Jesus had thus spoken. &quot.&quot. disciples : is Aberamentho. I nothing into the world when and water. will make you these. : nay. Jesus said unto them eyes. from the Treasure of Light. &quot. invocation in the Great Ways Name.

&quot. .gt. nature the Baptism disciples the Baptism the of further enquire Holy of Eucharist. and the wine are for cleansing the sins of the world the blood I had as a sign &quot. &quot.&quot. according to a former saying this the living water the Samaritan woman should have asked for this &quot. Jesus said unto them &quot. the &quot. . And shortly after My Father sent unto Spirit in the form of a dove. this the water &quot. and the Spiritual Chrism. &quot. their names merely. . After this Jesus again gives the command that the powers of the Left return to their own region. These are the mysteries of the light which remit &quot. cast on the earth &quot. cup of wine in the eucharist that came from His side. of the body region of Invisible human of kind. : which ye seek after. into the regions of is The souls thafarT* Truth Revealed. Incense Spirit. &quot. Hereupon Jesus celebrates the mystic eucharist and the first Baptism of Water. . . &quot.The all Me 515 all and bringeth them into the region souls Light. This is the &quot. there higher than them. that is to say. arid ask that the Mystery of the Light of Thy Father be revealed to them. &quot. They As is to these mysteries no mystery which will bring your into the Light of lights. with ceremonies The and invocations almost identical to those in the of the Codex Brucianus. The as the of [&amp. fire He came to &quot. draweth of the Holy the water. &quot. sins and the Mount disciples find themselves once more on the to Earth - of Galilee.EXTRACTS FROM BOOKS OF THE SAVIOUR. the great power of the Divine while the Spirit [? the Thirteenth ^Eon] . fire. to Fire]. and I received in the it Barbelo.

&quot. and the &quot. ineffable. if he repent. but even the of sinners. Name which is which sums up all their higher all their than them names. of him who hath intercourse with males. of for the birth of those shall find the mysteries is described. No mystery is higher than the mysteries ye seek save after. shall inherit the greatest Kingdom. and the text The Punish the all. unceasing. into the region where there is neither female nor male. who . is the middle of a totally different subject. but only Light. of the of him that murderer. and to the soul. 516 and Righteousness. but As The Cup Wisdom The time favourable for the &quot. only the mystery of the Seven Voices and their Nine-and-Forty Powers and Numbers. the Good. of resumed curseth. him he bringeth a cup and wisdom. in his next birth he shall not be given the there cometh a receiver of oblivion. mention of which compassion of the Master to The few remaining pages stirs the infinite wrath and denunciation. into the region of the Holy of all Holies. full of intuition prudence. and of a still fouler act of Reborn. of the Codex are taken up with a description of the after-death state of the a righteous man who has not received the mysteries .FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. the Name their lights. the Evil Bodies they Receive when and powers. the sorcery. the in It treats of thief. draught of the little Sabaoth. all Here follows a lacuna. and giveth it casteth the soul into a body which will not be also . of of the the contemptuous. of the blasphemer. nor form in that region. and of the Midst. righteous man who has not been initiated. ments of Sinners in the Lower punishment Regions and slanderer. man must suffer for each separate sin.

&quot. able to fall asleep and forget. And thus was known the Kingdom of God in all the land and in all the world of Israel. of the Virgin of Light. : They went forth three by three to the four points heaven they preached the Glad Tidings of the &quot. end with the disciples again and Tfh have mercy upon them Jesus to beseeching the whole Codex is terminated by the note of a scribe describing the preaching of the apostles Extracts . the Christ being active Kingdom with them in the words of confirmation and the signs in the and wonders which accompanied them. until it hath found them. of . .EXTRACTS FROM BOOKS OF THE SAVIOUR. whole world. in order [that that by order soul] inherit the Light for may The ever.&quot. but will be ever pure in heart and seeking after the mysteries of light. [and this] is a testimony for all the the nations which are from the east even unto west. because 517 of the cup of prudence which hath been given unto it.

This is editor or .&quot. of the Mind. it is : of the Gnosis of Jesus the Living One. and by . of the Gnoses of tne ^msibie - I first nave ve(l l g f o }} owe d the Gnoses Book means you and longed by J the statement the of (pi. by which all the hidden mysteries are the of of revealed to the the headed with the beautiful words is page elect. they desire to be instructed in the Life of the of the Father.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Jesus saith &quot. THE 00 ^ &quot.&quot. Logos of Jesus sent Life. who taught His disciples This is the only doctrine. fulfilled it The Father. and according to the will apostles beg the Master to tell them this Word. is by the Father from the mankind. : Blessed is the man who crucifieth the world and doth not let the world crucify him. : Invisible you is God Life. the Saviour of Souls. and Book &quot. Jesus answers that the Life of His Father consists in their purifying their souls and making them that they may to be from all become the Race filled earthly stain. 518 SUMMARY OF THE FRAGMENTS OF THE BOOK OF -THE GREAT LOGOS ACCORDING TO THE MYSTERY. for they have left all and followed Him. so with understanding. the .) to give This &quot.&quot. He then explains that such a man is he who hath The Hidden found His Word. saying doctrine in which all Gnosis dwelleth. : evidently an introduction written by an immediately after there begins compiler a dialogue between Jesus and the disciples. Light-world the one and to &quot.

he will be a &quot. and be saved from the Rulers of this world and its endless snares. His teaching perfect themselves. . : Blessed is the man who knoweth [Word] and hath brought down the Heaven. Jesus saith &quot. those of the second birth). and this it [the Earth] becometh the midst. the evil powers will envy them because they know Him. Nay. perhaps. break into praises of the Master who hath Light shining in the daylight disciples enlightened their hearts until they receive the Light by means of the Gnosis which teacheth the of Life. Let them then hasten to receive the Gnosis Word His The as the He for is free from He is to impart all stain of the world. &quot. that He is not of this world and that no evil cometh from Him. this (who Mind) bring down Heaven to Earth. and he will become the of these Gnoses (pi. that they will be above the Ruler and no longer subject to him as heretofore . The raising of Earth to Heaven is the ceasing from being an earthly intelligence.519 BOOK OF THE GREAT LOGOS. that is to say. they have no part in the Kingdom of the Father. The Heaven Word is explained as being the invisible They who know of the Father. D-* rk j|a ig Explained. by become children of Word receiving the the true and becoming Thus will they be saved from World. to them. the Ruler of this midst (that is to say. nothing. But as no effect for those who are born in the flesh of unrighteousness (and are not children of the Righteous Race. hidden wisdom of the Lord. for it is a &quot. have nothing on them).) a Dweller in Heaven. and borne the earth and raised it heavenwards.

according to the flesh&quot. 520 The Flesh of Ignorance. Lord Jesus. nowhere in the MS. Schmidt s Second Book of leou are introduced to the following narrative.&quot. The disciples ask to be instructed in the nature of ignorance (ayvota. for they have been born &quot. teach us the Fullness and it sufficeth Here unfortunately the text breaks off and pages us. and the Master tells them that. Jesus bids the twelve disciples and also Taking we The women theTraurare ^ disciples rev eal to them surround Him. whereby will they learn to first know Him in the Fullness (Pleroma) of the Father.&quot. and first. Thou Living One. the flesh of of But their unrighteousness ignorance. and seek to understand the teaching of the Word. the promises the great mysteries of the Treasure of Light. The apostles answered and &quot. yvuxris). but the is flesh the to not that flesh. which no one in the Invisible God knows (that is to say. no one even of to powers of the Thirteenth Mon the ^Eon which surrounds or is beyond or within the Twelve ^Eons over w hich the Invisible God is the T If these mysteries are consummated. is a direct continuation to be found. . the Invisible God can endure them nor comprehend them. Thereupon the disciples are in despair. and have known Him Master the bodies and only &quot. neither Rulers of the Twelve ^Eons nor those of the ruler). said.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. to understand this great mystery. are lost. the opposite of gnosis.according explains meant. they must put on His virginity and righteousness.&quot. and His robe (of glory).

in who practise whose God is the son rites. its gods and powers. These mysteries are to be guarded with utmost in the secrecy. Now inasmuch as the disciples have left father . consummated.BOOK OF THE GREAT LOGOS. and revealed to none who are unworthy . of the Uncontainables innermost space of the Light-treasure. those nor gold nor silver. Sabaoth Adamas the enemy sorcerer. neither anything for woman nor this world. and powers. ever within inward. whether conscious or unconscious. to sister nor brother. and bear it through all inferior spaces into the Light-treasure. the sins of that soul. Yea. and submitting themselves the one to the other. giving ear to one another. through all Light-realm. The mystery-name of this power is given and its monstrous form described. of the Kingdom of Heaven. all Beyond no to most certain foul of the Great Ruler. Alone - . Those alone are worthy of the mysteries of the Light-treasure (the emanation of the Unapproachable God) who have abandoned the whole world and all that pertains thereto. Revealed neither to father nor mother. are blotted out. orders. 521 for they are the great mysteries of the interior of the When these are interiors of the Treasure of Light. worthy nor to any relative neither for meat nor drink. the Receivers of the Light-treasure come and take the soul from the body. to the space its all spaces. as do the children of the Light. and have centred their whole faith in the Light. and the soul becomes And not only does the purified soul pass inferior spaces. the chief of the six non-repentant Rulers. but also within into the pure Light.

them of the Middle. the Baptism of Fire. they must fulfil the nay nay commandments. Jesus promises that He will reveal to them the mysteries as follows The mystery of the Twelve fulfilled His : ^Eons and their Receivers. of them of But before all He will give them the the Right. not to rob. love silver nor gold. had been that they should be given the mysteries of the Treasure of Light. etc. the greater. nor even to swear at all . 522 and mother and brethren and Him and all their possessions. command The Lesser and have followed Mysteries. but to let their yea be yea and nor to in a word.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. Moreover will the Spiritual Chrism. . nor to curse. neither nor commit adultery neither to to steal nor covet other men s goods neither to fornicate . so that the disciples Thirteenth may pass through the mystery of the Invisible God (the ^Eon) and his Receivers (them of the Left). and thereafter the Mystery of Holy Spirit. when they in turn they must command that. etc. nor calumniate rail. Seeing then that the disciples have not only . mysteries of the three Baptisms the Baptism of Water. . them not to swear falsely. good The disciples remind Jesus that His first promise their . nor invoke the names of the seventy-two evil Rulers or of their angels for any purpose falsely. and the Baptism of the He give them the Mystery of Withdrawing the Malice or Naughtiness (KCLKIO) of the Rulers. But they must remember The Good Command ments. ments. . give these mysteries to others. . of their spaces . and the mode of their invocation. which are above these lower mysteries of which He has spoken.

opened and the Wardens give them their seals and their Great Name. etc. so that they pass through their spaces. 523 things in the world and kept all the commandments. So they pass within successively through the various Orders. but have further now followed Him The abandoned all them that He for twelve years. Jesus assures further them give treasure.BOOK OF THE GREAT LOGOS. this Mystery transmutes the soul into pure light. however. which bestows upon a man all the rest the Mystery of the Forgiveness of Sins. the Gates Gates of are the Light- to them. another yet supreme Mystery. the will (? mystery) Trees. until at the . or is The beyond. to the left. all the /Eons the west. that is of the Great Light which of the . Light-treasure and are immortal Gods at death. Such souls have already inherited the Kingdom of may it God while in the on earth they have their share The Power* . of the Forty -nine Powers the mystery of the Great Name of all names. so that be received into the Light of lights. where the successive seals and master-words the Five Trees and Seven Voices . the mystery of the Child. There is. contains. Seven Voices. master-mysteries of the Light-treasure are those of the Five Trees and of the Seven Voices and of the Great Name. of the Three may of the Child of the Five Amens.. yea. they receive within into still farther * . flee And and leave the body. wit to the mysteries The : the of of mystery Greater will Light- Nine the Guardians of the three Gates of the Light-treasure and the way of their invocation. when they disperse and their still to arrive souls treasure. the Treasure of Light.

that they may be called Children of &quot. thence ever within to the inner Treasures the spaces of the interior of the interiors. plant into their mouths. to the Silences. the spaces of their inheritance the Order of the Thricespiritual until they reach the space of the leou. in those Everlasting Spaces. to Peace Eternal. : mystery of the Rulers The Mystic Rite of the Baptism of the Water of Life. within. to the Orders of the to Parentless. round Him with the words and receive the three Baptisms. disciples. the within of the within. puts a certain . the Fullness (Pleroma) perfected in The Master then gathers His all mysteries.&quot. two vine branches. and ranges them in order round the sacrifice. and (o-vvovaria). They do so. that is to say. . the Lord over the whole Treasure the middle Treasure . He woman bids them go &quot. men and Come all of you women.524 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. ! to Galilee and find a man or whom the greater part of evil (or the superfluity of naughtiness) is dead. spices round the vessels He then makes the disciples clothe themselves in white linen robes. ere I tell you the &quot. All of these mysteries Jesus promises to give to His disciples. and the Master also sets forth a place on the right and strews certain berries and of offering (Oucria). and on it places a cup. who has ceased from intercourse or sexuality in and receive from such a one two jars of wine and bring them to the place where He is. and the number of the Seven Voices and also another plant in their hands. Jesus then spreads a linen cloth. and bread or loaves according to the number . placing one wine-jar and one on the left.

and Zorokothora come and bring the Water into one of these wine-jars The wonder takes of the Baptism of Life &quot. art in the Treasure of Light ! the Supporters [or Ministers (Trapao-Tarai)] come. . and gives them of the sacrifice. and the wine in the and Jesus baptizes right-hand jar becomes water them. and interpretation of are given). My Boundless Light. ! place. also in the it authentic name. and seals them .] May they come and baptize My disciples with the Water of Life of ! the Seven Virgins of Light. and continues as follows &quot. and if Thou hast forgiven their sins and blotted out their iniqui the heirs of ties. inter spersed with triple Amens. May who Father. and the disciples are com manded to set their feet together (an attitude of prayer). Hear Me. Father of who all : fatherhood. and if they have been numbered among Light. then the may of Kingdom a wonder be done. of the He disciples. and on the heads 525 surrounds this with olive- puts wreaths of olive-branches He next seals their of His disciples. also foreheads with a certain seal (the diagram of which.BOOK OF THE GREAT LOGOS. He then offers a prayer which is prefixed with an invocation in the mystery-language. and wash away their sins and purify their iniquities. branches. secret cypher The Master then turns with his disciples to the four corners of the world. serve the Seven Virgins of Light who preside over the Baptism of Life [The mystery-names of the Supporters are here given. and number them If now among the heirs of the Kingdom of Light Thou hast heard Me and hast had pity on My ! disciples.

herself.. fire of this nature of sacrifice. the o f the Seven Voices being again employed. Water the of asked for in is &quot. materials of incense. L vine-branches are used before. wonder is not the stated. but as the final sealing after the rite the seal of the suppose that they A wonder again O the givers of the Baptism. but the Virgin of Life. baptizes the disciples. of the Baptism are not men The supernal givers is with Seven Virgins of Light. rSaptistn of Fire. but the seal is different. longer the Ministers of the Seven Virgins. but is not further takes place. the details are &amp. the num J3 er otherwise very similar. are next given In this rite the The eucharist prepared as is rest of the details are almost identical of the Seven Voices is .&quot. to their great jyThis J he . again used. a name now The A the Baptism of Fire. IT are specified.?f Holy Spmt.lt. After this we have the Mystery of Withdrawing . is What the interpreted as Melchizedec. the and the number they are strewn with various . The prayer is longer than the preceding one. Jesus was. but to the same purpose the supernal baptizers are no all . and them seals their foreheads it of the eucharistic with the seal of the Virgin of Light. we may tioned. brought about by the agency of Zorokothora. Next follows the Baptism of the Holy Spirit. gives a 8m ?he fragrant wonder and incense. we a description of the Baptism of Fire.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. 526 with the seal the of (? Supporters). is the Baptism of Water . the Judge she it is who gives . In this rite both the wine-jars and vine-branches are used .

. those of Sabaoth Adamas. give them the apologies (defences or whereby they will now be able to enter to formulae). and can follow Jesus into all spaces whither they would go. and the seal take is away their Rulers (the evil ) At the end from the or naughtiness the disciples disciples.BOOK OF THE GREAT LOGOS. Jesus having now given the disciples the mysteries of the Baptisms.Wi^drawthe Evil is The number offering. and the of it Rulers have no longer any power over them they have now become immortal. six great ^Eons (those apparently repented and believed in the Light). and pass through them. and authentic names. are sealed with the seal of the Second Amen. but in other respects the ceremonial very J similar. the soul. they will be detained until they receive the Mystery of the Forgiveness of Sins. when out of the body. they enabled. The Mystery have of the Forgiveness of Sins is said to its being in the interior of the interior of the Treasures of Light. promises of invoking the powers. very elaborate. who will disperse before them. There the Evil of the Rulers. and consists of an elaborate incense. to pass will be through the The realms apparently of the six ^Eons which have not repented. the mode their numbers. & that of the First is Amen and t ing of the Rulers. The prayer asks that Sabaoth Adamas and all his chiefs may come. into the interior of the spaces or realms of these powers. So far as they have been taught. He who it is the perfect salvation of receives it is more excellent Powers Mysteries . is 527 here no mention of the eucharist. these with all their rulers and indwellers But on reaching the of labraoth. seals.

that all the ways by which the disciples will have ascended will be to the twelfth. And when they have received these and go out of Jesus will the body. and they will pass upwards and ever inwards through the following Treasure will spaces. It is this the Great Mystery of the is the perfection of all soul all-perfect. It will be at this point that give them the apologies. is Unapproachable God mysteries.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. seals. of the Child of their : . making the it . which Mystery of the the ^Eons will withdraw to as veils before the eyes. up then be so purified by the Light of the Light-treasure. fire. and they will see Heaven from below. purified . and numbers of the Mystery with their interpretations. But with the i?Con?eS* aid of the rite of the Forgiveness of Sins the west. And then the Guardians of the Gates of the open to them. beyond the elements of water. seals. and names of power the Orders of the Three Amens. the powers therein rejoicing and giving them mysteries. Mystery which will enable the disciples to pass into the ^Eons of the Invisible God that is. to the all left. the spaces that no physical eye can see. and air (or aether) the of mysteries baptismal which have been already given. they will become pure light and soar upwards into the Light-treasure. will and moreover the exterior of the Light- treasure (the exterior being the Space of the Thirteenth ^Eon) will be revealed. 528 than the the gods and powers of the twelve God (the Ruler of the Thirteenth all of the Invisible The Pctajive- This Mystery ^Eon).

of the Silences and of Peace. of the Impassables. of the Great lao the Good. of the Immovables.BOOK OF THE GREAT LOGOS. of the Veils which drawn before the Great are treasure. unto the Great Man the whole Light-realm. of the Inheritance. the name is King of leou. of the Five Sup porters. the Orders of the Unstainables. of the Thrice-spiritual. of the Great Sabaoth. of the Triple Power. of the Seven The Amens. the Orders of those who are before and beyond time and space) the Uncontainables and Impass ables. those that are before them . and no one has succeeded in reconstructing in detail the elaborate scheme of the Gnosis presupposed by the compiler or compilers of our treatises. but I have omitted them in the The summary in order not to confuse the reader. the Child. whose King the Light- of himself. arid of those (in who are and before the Orders and of those who are before and beyond them. the Orders of the Five Impressions. of the Seven Voices. the Orders of the Parentless. is exceedingly difficult. Still upwards and inwards are they to soar to the Space of the Great Light which surrounds or transcends the outer Treasure of itself. These spaces and orderings are also mentioned in the Pistis Sophia. treatise. of the First Precept (or Statute). of the Five Trees. of the Three Spaces. Orders of the Uncontainables. leou Light LL . the of 529 Twin the Saviours. in a so subject far owing great Codex measure to Brucianus insufficient data the on fragmentary state the one hand and of the Askew Codex of the to the on the other. and of beyond them.

530 there too.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. it will shine forth from behind the disciples. There are twelve Great Powers with twelve Chiefs Orders (of which the authentic These Twelve will stand apart given). and therefore are they not to back from approaching Thy Light- Treasure. the take twelve Un- disciples]. Then will the True God in turn invoke the . and they will reach the Space of the and cause all True God. for the All hath come out of the Alpha. he is is Great the Light this . in this Space and invoke the True God with this in each of their names are &quot.&quot. Thereon the True God will send forth his Lightpower. the Treasures of the Second Light-realm to withdraw.] : is it to will imperishable forth Thy great follow these Twelve say. is the Second or inner Light Treasure. for they have Forgiveness be held verily received the Mystery of the of Sins. thence inwards to the twelfth Order of the twelfth of the Triple Great Power of the emanation of the True God. prayer). Light-power. saying (? Hear O us. Name &quot. : Father. Father of all fatherhood ! [Here follows a sentence in the mystery-language containing four of the vowels each seven times repeated with the interpretation Father of all and will return the consummation of Names We will all to the is to say. and that [that Omega when consummations now invoke Thy Thou mayest send that containables That fatherhood. God - &quot. place. The guardians will open the Gates and they will pass into the Orders Powers of the Second Light Treasure.

The Mystery but before receiving it. into the Space of the True God. God is in a space alone in the with Mous in them. and attained to hereupon ask to be given this Great Mystery. . 531 Unapproachable God. In the thirteenth JSon the Great Virginal Spirit is the Great Invisible God. for invoke I names these being superior [other of mystery the Light- treasure]. they have received the Mystery of the Forgiveness of the Space of the True God. of numbers. seal-diagrams. names. while still in the body. and apologies &quot. names etc. and He will send forth a Light-power invocation out of Himself. their seals. (? Barbelo) and the four . though servants of the Invisible God. they must be told the mystery Twelve disciples the Twelve (supernal) JEons. Barbelo many and the Ingenerable God.) Mou. for. names. drawn before him. and Unapproachthe disciples shall be perfected in all fullness and be made into an Order in that Treasure.BOOK OF THE GREAT LOGOS. the last being in the form [mystery names]. the Master promises that He will give it. have a little good Rulers of these the In the twelfth JEon are veils God and the Invisible is Barbelo and the Ingenerable God. The sixth Midst. The Sins. These are given. ye Rulers of the h rst Make way (second. and apologies. and The Invisible twelfth JEon that Mon in other gods called the great rulers of the JSons.&quot. They shall sing hymns of praise to the Unapproachable God. for it seventh) JSon is called the Little belongs to the six ^Eons which have (? believed on the Light. that is to say the One and Only One.

They themselves have received the mysteries of the Treasure of Light. are called the Triple-powered Gods. 532 and twenty emanations The Thirteenth of the Invisible God. and when they emerged was preached to them. all the emanations of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth ^Eons). numbers . the mysteries .. and also the invocation of the higher names of the Light-treasure in which are contained a series of triple omegas four times repeated. for when the First Power came forth (from the Light-kingdom) they first of all remained in from &quot. and so these powers themselves receive further powers from The the disciples.&quot. Kingdom them. but without the Treasure of Light. however.&quot. Here also are but without the Treasure of Light. I it the gave it (the Power). and apologies. Master. and a series of The names of these triple etas four times repeated. and another Great God called Great Just One &quot. (XPI&TOS) he is a power of the three Light-rulers which are within all the ^Eons. numbers.e. emanations are said to be their names the &quot. powers of the Light-treasure. and are above all others. are given the proper seals. The powers of emanations. the &quot./Eon disciples in order that they may perform the mysteries of Jesus in those spaces. The mystery-names of these four and twenty are given. so that the withdraw. Now The Three powers shall the three Great Rulers that are within these Invisibles Great (i. Yet higher The Fourteenth in the fourteenth ^Eon is a second Great Invisible God.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.from beginning. will try to detain the of this . of Light says the &quot.

above whom the of The with are Father.gt. and hierarchies.BOOK OF THE GREAT LOGOS. spaces. which are said to be the language of my (to &quot. who are in the last [highest] of all the Mystery of the Forgiveness of Sins. orders. and we come to the end of Schmidt s Second Book of leou. and authentic translated is name as the of Concerning leou the Bmanatorof Demiurgos. . complexity. I shall separate all the ^Eons. for is no place of punishment in those indwellers received the Mysteries (?of Baptism). but. No one can pass beyond them till he have received the Mystery of the Forgiveness of Sins.. they are not to fear on this account. for there their spaces.in Father. will give to these three Rulers of the Light. when . say unto you that I. and apologies of these powers given. God. Light-realm. store houses of riches and fullness). treasures is one and narrator. Taking now Schmidt s First Book we next come to a description of its the Ruler. Treasures Jesus is ot still the of immense emanations.authentic&quot. Demiurgos of The is Truth. and hosts of me) absolutely unintelligible &quot. because they have believed in the Mystery of the the ^Eons&amp.&quot. names. which I have given unto you. but them the Mystery now Therefore I 533 have not given I of the Forgiveness of Sins. con tinues the Master. S the Middle the Pleroma Light-world. (i.e. then are breaks suddenly off.&quot. and here unfortunately the text seals. the the supernal True God or God given in Greek transliteration as . The names. . with diagrams and symbols. subject infinite middle the True the Light-world.

by adding the vowels of Adonai to V H. It is now Yahweh generally written . as a simple emanation from the Ineffablo Treasures of the forth emana Father. But to continue with our summary. leou or lao are there is probably attempts in Greek transliteration at the same Semitic name.lt.ent tions by the command of the Father. further in corrupted into lacchus was the mystery-name of the creative power in that great mystery tradition. which Schmidt into transliterates German as Jeu. combination of letters and signs is A said to strange be the . has apparently taken his with Him through the inner spaces of the unseen world. from which He gives the mystic instruc tion on the creative dispensation of the universe. the name hidden Yahoo Yahuwh or per lacchus (Yach). but no certainty in the matter. beyond the fact that Jehovah is absolutely wrong. . it has been pronounced the unpronounceable YH Jehovah. which contained letters totally unrepresentable in Greek chance. before he has in his turn &amp. us labe Samaritans the that (lave) and Since lao. Bacchus was the name in the popular cult. and brought them to the plane of this True God. Jesus. the Theodoret tells tetragrammaton of the Kabalah. I The Tetra- would suggest that leou of the four-lettered a transliteration is mystery name the creator of according to Semitic and Chaldaean tradition. name this pronounced Jews the the six teenth century. still Bacchus by the Greeks. first shows them leou in his own nature. in disciples the Realm He of Light. the Living One. 534 leou.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN.

leou. and they Orders (or hierarchies) of the Treasures Myriads of myriads will arise out of them. and subsequent emanation Further. either the planes below or sub-planes of that plane. This ordering but the True God is is by Jesus as the Logos the father of all of these fathers or fatherhoods. or shells. emanated. 535 according to the treasures that is to say. name God &quot. with a smaller egg or nucleus within it containing three lines or strokes. Light-beam lacking. this square containing The Type said to be the type Treasures. proceed other hosts to shall be called of Light. within which three lines. and he before emanated. from each of the subordinate will proceed. a direct emanation through him and from him s. for effected he is . are in their each of these also to be called leou. Next follows a diagram a square surrounding a &quot. But out of leou are to come a host who through the command of the Father. leou from all through the command of the Father. The diagram is like an egg. of . which are outside this region circle. are next given a diagram which We to be the of type Jr the True God is said before he The Type the True . of both the egg and the nucleus are as though to represent the creative from the Father streaming into them. the Father. that is to say when the subsequent God emanations lay potential within him. is the also type leou of will himself rule. . will fill the treasures. turn to become fathers of treasures fathers is of emanations. We are therefore in the Light-kingdom. another is diagram is which leou the treasures over of it &quot. this of &quot. The upper circum ferences.BOOK OF THE GREAT LOGOS.

strokes or Voices is of the same size as spermatozoon. The three lines are said to be the three Voices. and this triad acting within the tetrad of the squares produces the infinite ordering into twelves or dodecads. for we have to take into account the translating and copying and re-copying by ignorant scribes. and . and only one is so far manifest. for this is how the creative song of praise is sung.to praise the Father.&quot. is curious to notice the that symbols used closely resemble a spermatozoon and ovum. for the substance of one plane or phase becomes the energy of the plane below. in these represent treasures or substance-side. that is to say. which has also a two of the lines or there are thus still latent. which leou will send forth when he is ordered &quot. the innermost of which has a diameter and the head of the similar diameter . The three strokes seem to represent the potential triad or trinity latent in manifestation. Next we have a diagram of the first moment of Cosmic 1 ryo ogy * this emanation it . so that it very well represents the head and tail of a spermatozoon. squares may that therefore. Within a square is a small circle with its diameter produced. should also recollect all We that in all probability reproduction of these we have only a very faulty diagrams. to emanate. Following this comes a diagram the upper half of which apparently repeats the preceding diagram. 536 It The Mystic is diagrams very probable. while circles the represent gods or may the energy-side but these can interchange.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. the ovum consists of three concentric circles.

characteristics. and leou. the top and bottom sides of the six squares. which are said to denote the paths whereby one must travel if he would enter into the leou is space of the father of the treasure. in to response an invocation of Jesus as the Logos. s.Greatnesses&quot. cutting through placed. calling upon the Name of His Father. root of the spaces or regions in which the particular Above and below. the seal God is caused by True God of a Light-power This emanation from the True the streaming into the from the ineffable treasures above. are two parallel lines. gticsofthe now impos The diagrams carelessly copied. but The upper within one squares. off.&quot. within the smallest square is the word leou. &quot. The Light-power is called the it &quot. latter is circles called The Seal on the (xapaKrtjp) upon the face or forehead of Forehead is said to be the type of the treasures. lower the consists half six of concentric The with a point in the centre. 8^^! What These paths . These names are generally placed over a small oblong figure (or two lines). which are said to stand for the &quot. &quot. What We follows is beyond my power have diagrams of a series of of summarizing. and the special mystery-name of the leou or treasure for which the diagram stands.537 BOOK OF THE GREAT LOGOS. Schmidt supposes have been present certain general consists very thirty. of six part generally the other. though is but or Ideas in the Divine Mind. twenty-eight leou before the text again breaks suddenly was the full number in the original is sible to say appear to . has to to signify that all energize power compared to the real it creation. Little little presumably Idea.

alphas. is a Jesus sings to the First Mystery. and treated as place.gt. With the twenty-eighth diagram off suddenly according to hymn which After the text breaks and the next subject we meet with. treasure has twelve orders. as we learn from the Pistis for that Myself. . with circles exceedingly them. refers to Sophia.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. It is followed by these words of Jesus From these orders I will take Twelve and range them series . as to its &quot. together with the authentic names of the three Guardians or the of each of Watchers of the Gates.f Jesus. : This they may serve Me. which are said to stand for the curtains or veils which are drawn before the Above each diagram of squares we find the three lines or strokes. these seals are varying difficult to trace contents. pages fragments of . Schmidt s ordering of the leaves. the Order half of each diagram consists of the upon the forehead of the leou. printing Schmidt came to this in fragment this the conclusion that these must be separated. 538 where they cross the sides of the square are marked by Greek letters. which are now said again to be the three Gates or Doors of each treasure. The lower seal mostly :&amp.&quot. the of the of souls prototypes probably the disciples which Jesus chooses for Himself before their incarnation. Each father. rhe Twelve. the authentic Heads names of which are appended. but it is any connection between Between the second and third leou diagram is another figure differing entirely from the rest of the meaning I have no notion.

Give Thou : ear unto me. since the foundation of the world all this ^Eon. peculiarity of the praise-giving with regard Thirteenth JEou consists in the fact that The final petition is Thirteenth it or is treated apparently By command space. each of which has its with leou. the leou of of tions. one for each ^Eon.BOOK OF THE GREAT LOGOS.. their ministers and workmen further to this space of the Thirteenth ^Eon are assigned the three gods. mystery [i. 539 another work. ministers. which ^Eon. father or creator. plane lords.] &quot. signifying There are thirteen praise- 8U ngin the en liturgi. with space four and all of the separate First brought into this the space a as their twenty rulers. by command of . &quot. workmen. and abroad in the ! concluded by a threefold Amen. and decans called and rulers. Moreover. and therein establish its and ministers. the emana arch angels and angels. rulers. on the ground that they could not be brought into organic unity with the rest. . powers. [Then follows the imperishable name of Save all my Members (Limbs). but the text of the first The general tenour of each petition four is missing.e. the &quot. toSe First y servants. while I sing Thy praises. or its subordinate ^^ givings. into the Light The The to have been scattered the rulers. and gather them them all workmen of together and receive &quot.&quot. is as follows &quot. O who didst shine forth in his First Mystery. the mystery of that particular ^Eon] it was Thy Light which caused leou to order this ^Eon . ministers. We now are in the lower space or plane of the Thirteen ^Eons. workers. Mystery existence invisible gods.

we may remind the reader of Epiphanius quotation from The Gospel of Philip I have recognised myself and &quot. Jesus subject. and not thirty only as Schmidt supposes. the Middle five-fold God that &quot.&quot. : gathered myself together from all sides. ordering as well. but through disciples. ordering. and immanent in of the of a the universe. all dwells in the Middle say. and numbers.&quot. but have torn up his roots I have gathered together my limbs that were scattered abroad. With regard to the scattering of the Limbs. but each apparently was regarded from five different called an each view-point being standpoints. for all the intervening pages are lost. are here told I am inclined to think From what we that there were also sixty diagrams of the leou s. 540 the First Mystery the six Rulers under labraoth. There was thus a twelve-fold order or ordering. the five. are now new introduced to a taking His Order. names whereby these and passed through. can Treasures There our narrative are be sixty begins entered these of only in the the fifty-sixth. and I know thee . who thou We The Sixty art.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. God two are . are set just who have below this Thirteenth MOIL in a space of pure the air. I have sown no children to the Ruler [the lord of this world]. in Of the leou. Light-world. the twelve the Treasures of the Middle is them giving the Treasures. Fundamentally there were presumably twelve main treasures. and authentic seals. believed in the Light-kingdom. is who to Light-world. six unrepentant Rulers being apparently assigned to the lower impure atmosphere.

and names. It is He.&quot. is a Door or Gate.&quot. Each treasure is said be surrounded by six to regions or spaces. Little Jesus Idea. its emanated perfect likeness Me and image. represented by the squares of the diagrams. By a use of the seals (a series of very curious diagrams). When This was it had the First Voice. the Guardians. the first emana- Little . Father the of It was He in streamed forth. the First Voice. interior. numbers. sending forth the Second Voice all these spaces. is revealed. The Third Voice streamed forth and emanated the rulers of all these spaces. burst forth and freed Myself therefrom.BOOK OF THE GREAT LOGOS. which came forth one after another. Orders. called two the the exterior. and Veils are said to disperse and the inner most space of the father of the treasure and so the secret of his authentic . the first emanation there I from. Again it shone forth and emanated. I shone forth and it emanated Me. I stood before it. Himself. 541 and one the middle order. having has Little this My withdrawn Idea into that being in the Father. presumably the father of the treasure himself. I the the disciples fatherhoods The &quot. ask On the conclusion of this exposition. reached. but the inner gate has but one. Jesus. and each of the outer Gates has three Moreover within each treasure without three Gates name is Guardians. replies which that the it is Father behind and not withdrawn into Himself. because of has left all else &quot. how all these spaces and their have come into being.

for continually. have told and do not repeat the spaces disquieted because of the glory &quot. said in the Space of the the in the &quot. now. so that . have invoked the of all the withdraw &quot. has them given the powers whereby they may pass through all these spaces within. that tion. Then the rulers may therein. I own form.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. every treasure.into spaces. all their continued the Master.&quot. It is to be then True God. and then followed by the request that all the paths to the fatherhood be free to the disciple. guard all it. of the Father ? Name (the first mention of this title) replied Name of the Great Power that is in : spaces. whereby every space could be traversed without the weari- some repetition ot each ot the separate names the Name that was the key to unlock every gate in The Christ &quot.&quot. the True God.&quot.&quot. you the [master-name] it I be withdrawn. The disciples then remind The Name of the Great Power.&quot. left Great Name of the will all the veils Lo. He had Jesus that promised to give them the one master-name.&quot. God &quot. Nay. to the innermost space of the ruler of them all. they will &quot. and taken them through all the spaces. He gives them this authentic name apparently a sentence in cypher. space of which belongs to the space of the The name must be invoked. may they Him serve He . but the the all they ask. interspersed with the triple repetition of the seven vowels. the Great Is this. and disperse. turning to interiors exteriors. the four corners of the treasure. not be . 542 who has gathered together His own Order the Twelve.

The third emanation is the bringing into being the powers and rulers of the Moreover Light-spaces. &quot. The Father addressed is first by the Ineffable Name.&quot. : &quot. then as &quot. O Unapproachable God ? The subject of the hymn is that God has with drawn Himself into Himself. Father. this of treasure ordering. The second emanation brings into being the spaces Jesus is which surround the Father. only one Little Idea.&quot. and goes yet farther within. into His Truth. that is. these powers are energized by a Great Power emanated by the Father. This Light is Jesus. as to the Father because for He sings a hymn of praise of the emanation of the treasures. : &quot. the perfect likeness and whole image of God. and ends with the question For what now is Thy will. which are called Treasures. shining within the Father. words for that Thou didst shine forth in Thyself. 543 Hereupon Jesus commands His disciples to follow Him. apparently but must be be the seventh some other Seventh Here He commands them to surround Him. but that all this should be. My and then as the Unapproachable One. cannot the sixty.God. Thou Unapproachable God. and answer Him with a threefold Amen every praise-giving. Gods in Truth (presumably as dis- all Hymnlto the able^focT . It is a radiance of the Father within Himself.BOOK OF THE GREAT LOGOS.&quot. so that they are called True Gods. into the seventh treasure . the one emanation of the Father through His will. The form of each praise-giving begins with the I praise Thee. save &quot. the space of which He has left as the shining Light-world. symbols of which are given. according to His will.

in two meanings. Thou O Unapproachable God. 544 tinguished from the Gods of the vulgar pantheons). &quot. the glory of the Father. This same Power is further called the [First ?] Mystery and the LightIt is also this image surrounding the Father.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. &quot. The Great Logoi according to the Mystery. for that Thou hast emanated didst shine forth in Thyself . yet what is else Thy one and only will but that we should draw nigh Thee in them. in this Great Logos Thy One and Only according to the Mystery of leou. which is Thyself. Thou who art an unapproachable God even for these Logoi. in whom is &quot.&quot.&quot. O God that none can approach. Mystery. is Logoi are continues also called leou The s. I praise Thee. hymn then : &quot. the father of all leou s. This leads us to suppose of the title of the treatise the same as the First Mystery. Great Logos that the &quot. Thus also are emanated the Guardians or Watchers and the sixty fatherhoods. These Light-spaces are called the Spaces of the Great Logoi according to the Mystery. but also in the subordinate powers. the Great Power. &quot. These sixty are called the Orders of the Five Trees. The Great and therefore identical with Jesus. Power which has brought into existence the seals and the great name. It generally is here used means Reason or . to whom never theless we have drawn near in Great Logos this &quot. It is this Power that energizes not only in the various fathers of the treasures. according to the Mystery of leou ? I am inclined to think that Logos &quot. one for each treasure. Thou art an unapproachable among them.

Word here . or Teaching. Him- Ttie Univer sal Idea. Discourse. purified that is to say. The hymn ends with is praises in which the Father again said to have withdrawn. for the power that is in disorder cosmos). with a in hymn final triple of praise. &quot. The Earth in the midst of the Ocean became The whole vast matter of the Ocean became purified. And so Amen. existing therein. The contents of the hymn are as follows. it 545 seems to mean also Sermon. universal it Glory. in order that from the beginning should be completed. and mighty Mysteries might be manifested. self with the single exception of the Little Idea. leaving as a means whereby His boundless Riches. the Sea and in them was order (? MM all the Sea and all species Through shining forth it sealed that are therein. who didst shine forth in the Mystery that is Thy Mystery. The two remaining fragments are put by Schmidt an appendix. The Great or Universal Idea and the Little Idea are thus seen to correspond in the ideal spiritual world to the ideas of the macrocosm and microcosm. while I sing Thy praises.&quot. the imperishable names being added after each technical term : The Mystery shining forth became Water of the Ocean. The first fragment is part of a ends this remarkable hymn. or inbreathed. its (? chaos) against the existing Jhe M y ster7 . entirely into His Universal Likeness and Idea. each praise-giving of with the words which begins : Give ear unto me. Thou Mystery before all Uncontainables and Impassables.BOOK OF THE GREAT LOGOS.

in that they are The surrounded by single-lined borders. and of the regions of the imperishable fear. is He is the successor of the Ruler of the Outer Darkness. Books of the Saviour. of that space which changes all forms. He is spread out on the Way of the Midst. leaves on which these fragments are found differ from the rest of the MS. and the names of these ministers. 546 The hymn here breaks The Way of off suddenly. so that he may carry off the souls like a robber.&quot. are the of the Way of the Midst as given same as the Rulers in the Extracts from Great Powerful Ruler is filled with wrath. This further described as he who the &quot. and we have a description of the passing of the soul through the dsemonian powers.mystery of their escape from their the orders of These are the spaces of the various great ministers of the Great Powerful Ruler in the Way of the Midst.&quot. recoverable from this scrap. . the the of soul can &quot.FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. names whereby clutches.

It is whom the All moves. THE beginning is lost. that towards the City in which strive they might In this City Image. Mind. He He it is it is is to whose Voice hath gone forth the first Tone. it is that they move and House of the Father. too. their Th e the the First is is is This Space. . Pillar He. . He first He is the King of the Intangibles. He it is whose Limbs (Members) make a myriad of myriads of Powers. whereby the All doth sense and comprehend. Vesture of and the Being. this the Great He is One whose the self -produced is the Depth of the real being is deeper whom the All did come. 547 SELECTIONS FROM THE UNTITLED APOCALYPSE OF THE CODEX BRUCIANUS. and Eternal. He He in and First . [the God beyond Being] established Him. is it live. and the Power of the Mother. (or is Sup Father The Second Being. self -generated He All. be and and port) second space came into being. the of Image Father of Fullness the All (Pleroma). for unspeakable and incomprehensible is He. It is He in whom it gave (the All) Form. &quot. and Man.THE UNTITLED APOCALYPSE. and the leaves that are left us plunge into the midst of a description of the supernal beings and spaces as follows : He &quot. . The All was silent before Him and spake not to Him. and the the Son. each one of which comes from them. the Source first into all spaces. and Father and LOP-OS fe and Source. which is Demiurge. He is This the is the Overseer.The to called Limitless. is the He . He is than the Depth.

and Peace. in every whom came is the . and Faith. and Hope. whose Pleroma surrounds [that transcends] the Twelve Depths. from Him who is Father and Mother to Himself alone. and Life. and the Outline of his Face is the type of the The Hairs of his Face are the number of the ^Eons. from which the desired Man whom no man He is the Father He is the Source Silence wells. the out-spreading . has the rays. The source can comprehend. The Twelve Depths. The Supernal Cross. These are the ninefold which have come from the Father of those who are without begin ning. and all Love. and Rebirth. beyond all possibility Worlds those Worlds is outer The Light Him. for it is the things in their received Gnosis. and the Seal. is . 548 the of vEons All The Outline of He . Eyes penetrates the Spaces of the Outer Pleroma. all Worlds are as Monad which has moved And they have out-shining. The Hair of His Head is the number of the Hidden Worlds. knowing it. form of His Face which seek ever and they long Head their desiring to gone forth into Face. is it a of his know them. and the Word which comes forth from his Mouth pene Above and Below [of the Outer Worlds].FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and the out-spreading of his Hands trates the the manifestation of the Cross is of the Cross is the ninefold. of the Cross forth the Monad like a light-spark. Outer Worlds. on the Right and the Left. and Resurrection. &quot. in comparison with which (Monad) [? darkness] . to see forth shooting His Word His for the in whose upon wreath. He it is who is He is the Father from Space.

all &quot. &quot. &quot. 2. 5.3. father. The second Depth is the All-wise One from which all Wise ones have come. it of is .9. all the All-holy from which is Depth The sixth Depth &quot. The eighth Depth is the Forefather from 8. The fourth Depth is the All-gnosis from 4. The tenth which Depth is the All-power from Powers have come. &quot. which all &quot. all The eleventh Depth &quot. 6. all first the All-source from which is Depth 549 Sources have come. &quot. the Truth from which Truth hath come. in The ninth Depth is the All-father-Selfwhich all Fathers exist. The seventh Depth is the Gate which hath no substance. this which it this the Mother of which surrounds Monad unknowable the is is all incom which has Source . which all Gnosis hath come. 7. them all that in which is is the have come. this is the Monad.THE UNTITLED APOCALYPSE. This [the second surrounds the Depths]. &quot. the is the ^Eons This prehensible or . from which all Substances have come. The &quot. &quot. The third Depth is the All-mystery from &quot. 1. all fifth Holiness hath come.10. Mysteries have come. First Invisible. as this . is Father.11. is space. the Silence from which is Silence hath come. He being the only father they have. all from which The twelfth Depth 12. which a the Truth which embraces The p ri ma i Image Truth of the All [their] Depths. is is all Invisibles this all. whom Forefathers have come. The &quot.

and brought forth in . the Pleroma. as Names those all or all all of firmament in the night. This Members the Father and the Source of All. no Seal (or Mark). blessed for prehensible. so do the outer Worlds the stars of men Solitary. the eternal is incom unthinkable. which . This the Father. is arose who In this . or Single. whose is are gathered together and completed. Power. untranscendible Seals all This Father which the All became joyous joyful. The Unman ifested. All Names have come from the Father whether such Names as Ineffable. come for into He it being. through the Breath of His Mouth Forethought made the &quot. ineffable. . He doth give Life. it its . The Mani fested. being. because of his invisibility which is round about Him. or Invisible. These are the Worlds from which the Cross upsprang Man &quot. the second Demiurge. which are ever and ever. this rejoiced is it in and was myriads of joy myriads of ^Eona^ they were called the Births of Joy/ because it (the All) had joyed with the Father. or whether which are named in from the Father. is that -which -is -not. in is Father the this . or Incompre hensible. through the commands the will All The of to that -which -is -not Him. them come the outer Worlds behold silence alone whom or the desire to see the Father.550 FRAGMENTS OF A FAITH FORGOTTEN. and For ever to the ^Eons through His Word hath [? Atom] learnt to know the Monad and by His Word hath the holy Pleroma come into the Indivisible . or Unknowable. or All -power. out of these incorporeal Members did the arise. As desire to see the sun.

and six Supporters for each Gate.e. and there is the Perfect Mind. there [within] a Depth which is called the Light or the Shining One. Righteous in that space is Adam [the Man] who belongs to [i. The ineffable face of the Overseer looks within to the Holy of Holies that is. One of his faces looks without the Gate to the &quot. There [above] is the Forefather. for every Gate. wise hath in it making four and twenty and Supporters. and every twelve Dodecads for every Gate. and the other looks on Setheus. the one Sonship contained in the four Monads]. a Monad for each Gate. and his three