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Ngee Ann Polytechnic

Electronic and Computer Engineering Division

Internetworking 1

Experiment 6

IP Addressing

Objectives

• Name the five different classes of IP addresses


• Describe the characteristics and use of the IP address class
• Identify the class of an IP address based on the network number
• Determine which part (octets) of an IP address is the network ID and
which part is the host ID
• Identify valid and invalid IP host addresses based on the rules of IP
addressing
• Define the range of addresses and default subnet mask for each class

Class / Group: _________________ Date:

Name:

EXPT6 - updated July 2007 1 REV2008


Ngee Ann Polytechnic
Electronic and Computer Engineering Division

Background

This lab will help you develop an understanding of IP addresses and how TCP/IP
networks operate. IP addresses are used to uniquely identify individual TCP/IP
networks and hosts (computers and printers) on networks in order for devices to
communicate. Workstations and servers on a TCP/IP network are called HOSTS and
each will have a unique IP address which is referred to as its HOST ADDRESS.
TCP/IP is the most widely used protocol in network.. The Internet or World Wide
Web uses only IP addressing. In order for a host to access the Internet, it must have
an IP address.

In its basic form, the IP address has two parts: a NETWORK ADDRESS and a HOST
ADDRESS. The network portion of the IP address is assigned to a company or
organization by the Internet Network Information Center (InterNIC).

Routers examine the IP address to move data packets between networks. IP addresses
are 32 bits long (with current version IPv4) and are divided into 4 octets of 8 bits
each. They operate at the network layer, Layer 3 of the OSI model and are assigned
statically (manually) by a network administrator or dynamically (automatically) by a
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server. The IP address of a
workstation (host device) is a logical address meaning it can be changed. The MAC
address of the workstation is a 48-bit physical address which is burned into the NIC
and cannot change unless the NIC is replaced. The combination of the logical IP
address and the physical MAC address help route packets to the proper destination.

There are 5 classes of IP addresses (Class A to E). Only the first 3 classes (Class A,
B, and C) are used commercially. Class D is reserved for multicasting, and Class E is
for experimental, and is used for research.

Class C Address

8 bits of
110 0
Remaining 0 address
21 bits of network 0 host address

Subnetting

8 bits of
110 0
Remaining 0 address
21 bits of network 0 host address
Up to 6 subnet
bits can be used

EXPT6 - updated July 2007 2 REV2008


Ngee Ann Polytechnic
Electronic and Computer Engineering Division

Tools/Preparation

• Subnet mask template

Subnet Mask Template

Host address bits

128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

128 192 224 240 248 252 254 255

Possible Subnet Address

Procedures

Step 1 – Create subnets using a Class C address

a. An Internet Service Provider (ISP) has assigned a Class C address


195.63.1.0 /8 to your organization.
How do you know it is a Class C address?
Its 1st octet is within the range of a class C network which is 192 to 223. In this case,
its 195._______________________________________________________________
b. This organization has 6 departments.

How many subnet bits do you need to use and why?


We have to use 3 subnet bits. With 3 subnet bits, we have 2^3 = 8 subnets which is
more than enough subnets to support and separate the 6 departments, each with its
own subnet and range of ip addresses.

EXPT6 - updated July 2007 3 REV2008


Ngee Ann Polytechnic
Electronic and Computer Engineering Division

Write the subnet mask in binary and convert it to dotted decimal notation.
11111111 11100000 00000000 00000000 255.224.0.0 /11 <<< epic phail.
11111111 11111111 11111111 11100000 255.255.255.224 or /27

Step 2 – Create subnet address and valid range of IP address

Subnet 4 Subnet 6 5
Subnet
a.

Subnet X Subnet Z
E0 E0
Subnet Y
S0 S0

Use the following information and drawing to calculate the subnet address.

Subnet X Subnet Y Subnet Z


4 5 6

What is the subnet address for subnet no. 4?


195.63.1.0 195.32.0.0 <-- You phail.
195.63.1.01100000->96
What is the valid range of IP addresses in this subnet?
195.63.1.01100001->97
195.63.1.01111110->126

What is the subnet address for subnet no. 5?


195.63.1.10000000->128

What is the valid range of IP addresses in this subnet?


EXPT6 - updated July 2007 4 REV2008
Ngee Ann Polytechnic
Electronic and Computer Engineering Division

195.63.1.10000001->129
195.63.1.10011110->158

What is the subnet address for subnet no. 6?


195.63.1.10100000->160

What is the valid range of IP addresses in this subnet?


195.63.1.10100001->161
195.63.1.10111110->190

What is the broadcast address of subnet no. 6 ?

195.63.1.10111111->191

How many usable IP hosts address can be used in each subnet ?

2^5 - 2 = 30? (:

Step 3 – Assign IP addresses

a. Assign IP addresses to the router’s interface and NICs in subnet X. You do not
need to assign any IP address to a hub. Use the valid range of IP address in subnet
X above and assign the addresses in sequence. In network design, the few host
addresses are often assign to the router interfaces.

Subnet 4 (X)
Orchard router E0 interface (often use 1st valid host address)
PC1 NIC (any valid host address)
PC2 NIC

b. Assign IP addresses to the routers’ interfaces in subnet Y. Use the valid range of
IP address in subnet Y above and assign the addresses in sequence.

Subnet 5 (Y)
Orchard router S0 interface
Somerset router S0 interface

c. Assign IP addresses to the router’s interface and NICs in subnet Z. Use the valid
range of IP address in subnet Z above and assign the addresses in sequence.

Subnet 6 (Z)
Somerset router E0 interface (often use 1st valid host address)
PC3 NIC (11th host address)
PC4 NIC (20th host address)

EXPT6 - updated July 2007 5 REV2008


Ngee Ann Polytechnic
Electronic and Computer Engineering Division

Reflection
What is the range of numbers in the first octet that determines a Class C address?

What is the default subnet mask for a Class C IP address if no subnet bit is used?
255.255.255.0 <--- FUCK YOU REMEMBER THIS.

What is the maximum number of subnet bits that can used to create subnets? Explain
your answer.

EXPT6 - updated July 2007 6 REV2008