Bosch's Dreams: A Response to the Art of Bosch in the Sixteenth Century Author(s): Walter S.

Gibson Source: The Art Bulletin, Vol. 74, No. 2 (Jun., 1992), pp. 205-218 Published by: College Art Association Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3045869 Accessed: 27/10/2010 04:28
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7 Nevertheless. now preserved at Venice in the Palace of the Doges. 3. the so-called Heaven and Hell. see G.2 In the process of dissemination. ' For medieval descriptions of Hell. the Fall of the Damnedand the Hell (Figs. Bosch. 2-3). West Point. (as 3). Hzeronymus 3For Bosch. See Problems Belief Medzeval PopularCulture: of and Perception. 19.etc. ed.Jahrhundert. original text with German trans. 27-28." in the Effigies of Dominicus Lampsonius. 248. 118-119.N. Lampson. especially in the case of Bruegel.6On the other hand. 1903. Hollingsworth. Berlin. Bak and P. known to us chiefly as the great landscapist and depictor of peasant life. 4 Der AnonzmoMorellano (MarcantonMzchzel's Notzzzad'operedel disegno. P. As for the other two pictures. supporting his head on one hand and oblivious to the demons harassing him. T. they are often identified with a set of four panels by Bosch.'"4 The picture with Jonah and the whale is unfortunately lost. J. This chapter deserves a closer examination because it shows one way in which Bosch's imagerywas changed and adapted to the tastes of a later age and of a milieu different from his own." and "a canvas representing Fortune with the whale swallowing Jonah. 20. Martinand M.Baden5 For this identification.Premises Motifs Renaissance and Princeton. Cinotti. It is probable that Bosch intended to show a damned soul in remorse because he realizes that he is forever denied the sight of God. 17-42. no. Hieronymus Bosch gave a new and frightening pictorial expression to the vision of Hell that had evolved in Western Europe for almost a millennium and a half. moreover. furtherreferences.J. 26. 1980.see C. esp. n. not the canvas mentioned by Michiel. Unverfehrt. published in 1572. . Chatelet.5 Two of these pictures in particular. E. however. But one of the four Venice panels.A whole school of painters existed at Antwerp reproducing more or less successful imitations of Bosch. xvI. whole legions of ugly misshapen creatures who swarm through his infernal landscapes and subject their victims to an eternity of torment and pain."Nederlands kunsthzstorzschjaarboek. For the Poenadamnz. in trans. used as a synonymfor "storm". Gurevich. 1969. Michiel's description of one of Bosch's paint- ings as a "Fortune with the whale swallowingJonah" may seem "fortune" often was enigmatic. 1). Vienna. a good survey of Bosch's influence. Giorgzone's see wzth Tempesta Comments Giorgione's Allegories. 1896. 1982.but in the MiddleAges and Renaissance. see E. This tradition is a tenuous one. for it is significant that Michiel characterizedone of the Bosch paintings as simply depicting "dreams. 61. "Surun Jugement dernier de Dieric Bouts. in October 1989. shows a nude figure prominently placed in the foreground. 185-186. Vzszons of Heaven and Hell beforeDante. see A. was better known to his contemporaries as the second Hieronymus Bosch. Painof Loss. C.Die RezeptionseznerKunstzm fruihen16. it is tempting to suppose that if Michiel actually saw this painting.TheComplete Pazntings London. New York and London. see C. 22. or Paris. 6 See Unverfehrt in n. and G." There is no extant work by Bosch that can be convincingly identified with this subject. held at the United States Military Academy. a 7 In a manualfor exorcismwrittenin the 15th century. he misinterpreted the remorseful soul as a sleeping man whose troubled dreams have generated the monstrous forms around him. whose manifestations are sporadicbut nonetheless persistent. His paintings were avidly collected and copied." "a canvas representing dreams.. 2 Bruegel is called "a new Hieronymus Bosch. 353. 1988. See D. ed. and Hell panels. and it finds expression.' His artistic genius is especially evident in his depiction of devils. correspond in subject with the picture that Michiel described as "Hell with a great variety of monsters.3 But one of the most interesting chapters in this story has not been properly recounted. How Bosch drew upon these traditional accounts of the underworld will be discussed in my study now in progress on his Hell scenes. New York. Mussi. They comprised "a canvas representing Hell with a great varietyof monsters. Liege. its power to terrify the viewer and convince him of the reality of what he saw. Puraye. 1956. von Frimmel. Patrides. in literature and especially in art. 98. Les Effigzes despezntres cdlibresdes Pay-Bas. his repertory of monsters was endlessly repeated and varied by several generations of artists. such an identification cannot be rejected altogether. This essay was expanded from a paper delivered at the Fourth General Conference of Studies in Medievalism. 1969. But even if this was not the work described by Michiel. Forthe subjectmatterof the Heaven ofBosch. 1966. trans.J. 1969. New York. n. Wind. A.as the and zn majortormentof the damned. his journal entry is important because it forms part of a tradition that linked Bosch's imagery with dreams. Bosch's art gradually lost much of its original serious meaning. The story of Bosch's posthumous reputation and the transformation of his imagery by later artists has been told many times. We begin with an entry that Marcantonio Michiel made in his journal in 1521. Hzeronymus Baden. and Pieter Bruegel the Elder. de Tolnay. the Hell. describing three paintings by Bosch he had seen in the palace of Cardinal Grimani at Venice. repr. 7. 1965. M. London. ed. on Poetzc Oxford. Cambridge. Gibson For Conrad Rawskz In such works as the Vienna LastJudgment Triptych and the Hell panel of the Gardenof Earthly Delights(Fig."isnot the loss of seeing Christin personthe most painfulof all tortures?" A. Gardiner. G. A.. soul from Hell is asked.Bosch's in Dreams: the Sixteenth Response Century A to the Art of Bosch WalterS. Williamson. My quotations are taken from The Anonzmo:Notes on Pictures and Worksof Art zn Italy by an AnonymousWrzter the SzxteenthCentury." This identification is by no means certain: the Heavenand Hell series is painted on wood. Bosch's vision of the demonic world had great appeal in the sixteenth century. a deprivation that most medieval theologians agreed constitutes the most grievous pain suffered by the damned in Hell. 19.. with Thought Lzterature. 102-103. and there is no real evidence that it was ever in the possession of CardinalGrimani. 1989. no.

who produced many scenes in the style of Bosch. 10 G. and his twin brother Gillis studied with Jan Mandyn. Haarlem. and accompanied by Latin verses by the Libge poet Dominicus Lampsonius." in MiscellaneaJ. and imaginings. see H.. . Edmund 8 Lampson (as in n. ed. vii. In any case." Perhaps these represent an unknown aspect of Mostaert's career as an imitator of Bosch. Frans was a pupil of the landscape painter Herri Bles. 1969. Pieter Bruegel of Breda imitated him. in the passage that precedes this. 135. trans. and the like. 1927. After all. W. 9 vols. Scritti sulle arte. 1187-89. see S. Ciardi. published in 1568.ed. a third. 4" -4W i0. Engravings and Woodcuts.G. 1604. Vasari has actually very little to say about Bosch. Traum. Het Schilder-Boeck. possibly three characterizations of Bosch's imagery as "dreams" may have only limited significance.'3 perhaps Vasari confused Mostaert and Bosch at this point in his text." However.. songe. except that he died young and probably painted landscapes. Florence. Hollstein."8 Some twelve years later. 16. it is noteworthy that subject matter presumably not unlike Bosch's imagery was associated in Vasari's mind with dreams."" We know very little about Frans Mostaert.2 vols. he rendered it as cloeckedroomen(C. basically activities of the waking mind."9 A less certain reference that associates Bosch with dreams occurs in the second edition of Giorgio Vasari's Lives of the Artists. Vasari may have obtained his information on Flemish painters from Lampsonius.'2 and no works have survived from his hand that would fit Vasari's description of "fantasies. Niederldndische Landschaftsmalerei im Zeitalterdes Manierismus. Vasari. II. 261a. 1450. repr. sogno. 61. of course. 234a). The poet characterizes Pieter Bruegel the Elder as "this new Hieronymus Bosch who brings his master's ingenious dreams [ingeniosa magistri somnia] to life once more. Franz. most likely this is the print of the Feast of Saint Martin inscribed "Jheronimus bos inventor. R." although Bosch's responsibility for the original design may be doubted. 305. van Mander. droom-has always functioned as a synonym for vain imaginings. Graz. 13 According to Van Mander (as in n. Deurne. fol. Madrid. and imaginings. but he does describe a print of Saint Martin that he says was published after Bosch by Hieronymus Cock. Hell. Toronto. the word dream in many languages-somnium. 8). IIn. particularly that part of it traditionally considered the seat of fantasy... Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo refers to "Girolamo Boschi fiamengo. l Vasari. 1878-85. dreams. Museo del Prado (? Museo del Prado) 12 For Frans Mostaert. fantasies.1700. with some emendations. H. from the Gardenof EarthlyDelights. less so. When Carel van Mander translated this phrase in his biography of Pieter Bruegel the Elder.'0 Elsewhere Vasari simply mentions "Jerome Hertogen Bos. no. II. Sulzberger "Dominique Lampsonius et Italie. Le opere. 1942. and New York. v. fol. that these two. he tells us that a certain Frans Mostaert "was of some skill in painting landscapes in oils and fantasies.B. 9 Paolo Lomazzo. London. Iv. My quotations. 584. 253. that is.P. Milanesi.206 THE ART BULLETIN JUNE 1992 VOLUME LXXIV NUMBER 2 The literary texts occur in the last third of the sixteenth century. dreams. in his Trattato dell' arte della pittura. in addition to its primary meaning. I. The Saint Martin print is illustrated in F. 237-238. 2). bizarre things. A. Amsterdam (1951). G. 1969. Lives of the Painters. 439. Hinds. published in 1584.2 vols. It could be argued. Utrecht. Two of them are unambiguous. Dutch and Flemish Etchings. The earliest association between Bosch and dreams in writing can be found in the Efigies. Is it possible that Van Mander was confused on this point? Perhaps Frans studied with Mandyn. 1973-74. 2 vols. Florence. bizarre things [bizzarrie]. who in the representation of apparitions and extraordinary and horrible dreams was unique and truly divine.00 "k'k 1 Hieronymus Bosch. Gessler. a series of engraved artists' portraits issued by the widow of Hieronymus Cock in 1572.ca. are from G. Vasari.

. ii.. The Fall of the Damned. acknowledging Bosch's original and bizarre genius..XLIx.. and in a straightforward way. Feendes. But it is possible that Bosch's demonic art was also interpreted as the product of actual dreams. Palace of the Doges (photo: Osvaldo B6hm) 3 Hieronymus Bosch. ''J" 2 Hieronymus Bosch. "Diirer's Dreams. attributes to "Phantastes" (fantasy or imagination personified) the power of creating "idle thoughts and fantasies/Devises and dreams. Hags. Hell. ." as well as "Infernal 14For some valuable remarks on the concept of fantasy in the Renaissance.!' .A 16TH-CENTURY RESPONSE TO BOSCH 207 i.14 Thus it is possible that Michiel. Massing. ix. . 50). . "'00 . . Hippodames.Venice.." Journal of the Warburgand CourtauldInstitutes. Lampsonius. 1986. 238-244. Centaurs. .. This is sug- . Venice.. Y" • . . and Lomazzo were simply." and similar creatures (Faerie Queene. *.M.... see J. Palace of the Doges (photo: Osvaldo B6hm) Spenser. for example.V.

1931 5 Battista Dossi. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Dream of Raphael. Allegoryof Sleep. engraving. Staatliche Kunstsammlungen (photo: Pfauder) .208 THE ART BULLETIN JUNE 1992 VOLUME LXXIV NUMBER 2 4 Marcantonio Raimondi. New York. Dresden. Exchange.

can be found in an engraving by Marcantonio Raimondi.C. if distantly.D. but again they are accompanied by Boschian devils in the foreground and a city burning in the 15For previous literature. distance. 20 I would like to thank Anny-Claire Haus. 290-294. Unverfehrt (as in n.' " Ph. with further references. done around 1507-08 (Fig. discussed below. Duke of Mantua. University of Kansas. 5). It has been suggested that both Marcantonio's print and Battista Dossi's Allegoryof Sleep. Lawrence. Ph. 35. even earlier that Michiel's journal entry.H. and he interprets the picture as an allegory of Sleep. For the connections of Dosso and Battista Dossi with Mantua. Some years later. University of Washington. Gibson. 7). conservator of the Cabinet des Estampes. as many scholars have noted. de Tervarent. with a man kneeling or crouching behind her. at their feet are four demonic creatures that. Horsley and Annie Townsend Bequest gested in striking fashion by a number of works of art in which his influence can be discerned. reflect a lost work by Giorgione. "The Fire Landscape: Its Sources and Its Development from Bosch through Jan Brueghel I. a painting also at Dresden. Princeton. Sodomand Gomorrah. nos. see I. Zehnpfennig. 1981... und 17. cat. 1976. See also M. 12. cat. Corwin. 78-89. where he may have seen some of Bosch's paintings. '6 Ibid.16 All that we can say for certain is that the monsters are clearly.S. The Engravings of MarcantonioRaimondi. produced in the region of Alsace probably sometime during the second quarter of the sixteenth century (Fig.D. Purchase. The Ackland Art Museum. 29. 38. see F.. no. if they were indeed in his collection that early. Gibbons. 91. Battista Dossi painted a work that is now in the picture gallery at Dresden (Fig. 221-223. It shows two nude women sleeping on the bank of a river. with Special Emphasis on the Mid-Sixteenth Century Bosch 'Revival.A. Mus6e des Beaux-Arts. "Mirrorof the Earth": The WorldLandscapein SixteenthCenturyFlemish Painting. 92. University of North Carolina. see Gibbons (as in n. 17). have been inspired ultimately by Bosch. 60-61. 4). around 1540-45. shows Awakening in the guise of one of the Horae releasing the four steeds of Apollo from the stable. Dosso and Battista Dossi. diss. the Roman god of slumber. Spencer Museum of Art. 26. Shoemaker and E. 1968. 1989.. in 1535. diss." BurlingtonMagazine.15 In the right middle ground a city burns beneath a heavy. cloud-filled sky." The burning city in the Allegory Sleeprecalls many of of the Bosch imitations of this period depicting the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah (Fig.A 16TH-CENTURY RESPONSE TO BOSCH 209 6 Attributed to Herri Bles.. Perhaps he saw the panels owned by Cardinal Grimani. and modern interpretations of its imagery are equally unconvincing. N.Montreal. Eberhard-Karls-Universitit. Princeton. 74.19 The appearance of Boschian devils in the company of sleeping figures can be found in Northern Europe in at least three instances.18 Battista may have seen some of the twenty fire scenes that were offered for sale to Federigo Gonzaga. whose companion piece. Jahrhunderts. cat. of Boschian origin and that the print was probably made when Raimondi was in Venice for a few years. 1979. possibly a painting by him described in a Venetian inventory of 1705.. N. 17G. now in Strasbourg.20 Executed in black highlighted with gold on a and cardboard. surrounded by a great variety of hellish creatures. Perhaps the earliest instance. exh.. These monsters are somewhat more indebted to the Flemish tradition of Boschian imagery is See N. 74-75. Here we see only one sleeping woman. "Instances of Flemish Influence in Italian Art. Strasbourg. One is a very curious painting. for information on this painting. 6). and Chapel Hill. where the work is erroneously described as an engraving. "Traum" und "Vision"in Darstellungen des 16. 3). 201-222. Lxxv. .J. this time a man. The print has been titled "The Dream of Raphael" for no apparent reason. The subject shows many parallels with Raimondi's print. although in this case Guy de Tervarent has convincingly identified the male figure in Battista's painting as Somnus. For the attribution of the two Dresden paintings to Battista Dossi. Kan. Broun. 19W. 1944. Tiibingen. it shows a single support of papier-mAfch6 sleeping figure.

The second example is a drawing probably of Flemish origin. executed around the middle of the sixteenth century or shortly thereafter (Fig. 22The connection with Bruegel's prints has been noted by. 1986-89.. here identified by the signboard suspended from a tree branch above his head as "Guillot le Songeur. animal. Popham. thus. Flames leap from one of its windows.Vol. Porcher. It is no wonder.23 In 21 A. One demon holds a vessel vaguely resembling a urine flask above his victim. 200-201.E. v. the London drawing may have been a preliminary design for a cartoon intended for a painting.22 But who is "Guillot le Songeur"? Guillot appears in the French farces of the period as a name for peasants and servants. Catalogue of Drawings ky Dutch and FlemishArtists Preservedin theDepartmentofPrints and Drawings in the BritishMuseum. and it may be that the anonymous artist had seen works by followers of Bosch working at Antwerp. several more perch on the ruined tower at upper left. these creatures do not molest the sleeper physically. 13. . among others. Squared for enlargement. Unlike their counterparts in the Alsatian painting. in contrast to their counterparts in the Italian works. a series of prints issued by Hieronymus Cock around 1560 after Pieter Bruegel the Elder. however. another jabs an implement of some sort into his side. one ceremoniously bearing a candle. the devils attack the sleeper. I would like to thank Professor Barbara Bowen for this reference. A horde of other monsters fills the courtyard and beyond. The third Northern example comes from France (Fig. although no painted subject quite like this has come down to us in Flemish art. Many of these figures show disparate human. Dutch and Flemish Drawings of the XV and XVI Centuries. Tissier. 9). this time near the entrance of an imposing building. 4. Paris. This circumstance suggests that the French woodcut was executed sometime after this date. The scene recalls traditional depictions of the temptation of Saint Anthony. it also shows a sleeping male figure. London. no.21 Once more we see a sleeping man. the saint was never shown asleep. Recueil defarces (1450-1550). Geneva. I. 1530. 5 vols." The fantastic creatures who caper around him seem to have been influenced by several sheets of the Seven Deadly Vices. 1932. Strasbourg. J. n. Similarly. that the sleeping man writhes in acute discomfort. 23 A. and inanimate parts assembled with an inventiveness almost worthy of Bosch himself. where it is attributed to a Bosch imitator around 1550-60. Muste des Beaux-Arts (photo: Mustes de la Ville de Strasbourg) than we have seen in the two Italian works. but to my knowledge.ca. 1959. An anonymous woodcut. Les Songes drolatiquesde Pantagruel et l'imagerie en Franceau XVIesikcle. 190. 8). which apparently serves to house a hellish ritual of some sort. Sleeping Man with Monsters. ix. the door is approached by two mysterious figures.210 THE ART BULLETIN JUNE 1992 VOLUME LXXIV NUMBER 2 7 School of Alsace.

London. ca. 16th century. 16th century.A 16TH-CENTURY RESPONSE TO BOSCH 211 8 Flemish School.drawing. woodcut. British Museum (courtesy: Museum) 9 French School. Sleeping Man with Monsters. 1560 . Guillot le Songeur.

31 Fisher. II. letters of the alphabet designate the various symbolic figures. cited by J.D.R. 30Sebastian Brant. 499. entitled "Brieve exposition de la painture ensuyvante que a este semee en France concernant le present estat de la Court.. 61. HzeronymusBosch. 20). 1743. the author explicitly states that others are more qualified than he to explicate the names of these creatures and their mystical or allegorical meanings. 220-226. Bern and Frankfurt am Main. The Vzszons Tundalfrom the Lzbrary of of J." Archzv not been able to consult A. 1960. 100. 2 vols. Cambridge. Paul Getty Museum. fol. Thus it is likely that the publisher of Les Songes drolatiques.Le Gothzque fantastzque. such as the Somnia Danielis. French 16th CenturyBooks. Traumbticher des LI. I have Spitmittelalters. but no such letters occur on the print illustrated here. If this description can be accepted at face value. drolatzques. it is evident that his vision has been interpreted as a dream whose contents occupy the space around him. Schmitt. this would be the earliest and perhaps the only time that Bosch's imagery was employed for political propaganda." The figures are not by Rabelais." was discovered by de Thou in a manuscript (MSR. that contains a whole army of Boschian devils. 26 See Porcher (as in n. Revezlset prodzges. was simply exploiting names well known to the reading public.. Fisher. nn. Tundal is shown awake. We can also find little help in the popular "dream books" of the period. The document in question. Finally we have a book. Catalogueof Booksand Manuscrzpts. 1964. trans. 61. published at Paris in 1565. In the short text that prefaces the suite of woodcuts. G. 612-613. 1990. "Rasis' Traumlehre. repr. he who dreams of counting gold and silver may expect a prosperous time to come." This was inspired by a medieval account of a visit to the otherworld by an Irish knight. Tolnay (as in n. 1691). The Complete SomnzaDanzelis Collation." a reference." said of someone who muses profoundly on how to extricate himself from a troublesome situation.D." In the description of 1561. Malibu.. Hoffmeister. and commentary E. 14). This interpretation is accepted by J. 1969. Dzctzonnazre under songeur.28 In most depictions of this subject.26 No sleeping figures can be found among them." Ph.. 220-223. et unzversel. 14. 27 For a brief summary of this poem and its relationship to Les Songes de see L. the invention of Master Frangois Rabelais and the last work of the same. who returned to tell the living of his experiences. published in part in 1562. and published in many languages from the sixteenth century on. de Tolnay. the Songes de Pantagruel. surrounded by his enemies. Calif. 137-159. or the Oneirocritzcon. In these cases. London and Paris. Cabinet des Estampes. but on the title page (Fig. King of Navarre. Kren and R.. Baltrusaitis. 20). Zeidel. and it contains no references to monsters. 3rd ed. However. see T.Paris. Furetiere. published at Paris in 1542. cites this proverb from A. 6 vols. with Special Reference to Girolamo Cardano's SomnzorumSyneszorum. 1708. 67-68. 1962... 22) with references to earlier literature. 25 Louis I de Bourbon.Paris. II. Richard Breton. New York. possibly one preserved in the "Cabinet de quelques curieux. Harvard College Lzbrary. 3-8. 20). La Estampesatzriqueet burlesqueen France 1500-1800. 362. Multzlzngual S. the "Vision of Tundal. however. 5). 655. Margaretof York. these creatures are identified as "the droll dreams of Pantagruel .27 An account of how Pantagruel was visited in a series of dreams by Gargantua and Panurge. How can we account for this persistent association of Bosch's imagery with dreams? One possible answer is suggested by a subject popularized by Bosch's followers. the poem is indebted to Rabelais only in the names of its characters.25 According to the document. XLVIII.212 THE ART BULLETIN JUNE 1992 VOLUME LXXIV NUMBER 2 Marianne Zehnpfennig's discussion of this woodcut. see also W. which de Thou dated to sometime in May or June of 1561. It may be noted in passing that Tolnay cited several of the old dream books to elucidate certain details of the central panel of the Gardenof EarthlyDelzghts.see C. the modern dream books: to dream of a white garment. she calls attention to a proverbial expression. 1561 and one written in June of the same year.30 The interpretations offered by these volumes are as commonplace as those in their descendents. written by Artemidoros of Daldis in the second century A. Rotterdam. for the recreation of witty minds. Indeed. Basel." Archzvfur Kulturgeschzchte. des sczences des arts. Wieck. Sainean. Such pictures are relatively rare. Madrid (Fig. of course.H. no. Bibliotheque Nationale. Tundal. for the Madrid panel and other depictions of the Vision of Tundal by Bosch's followers. 21-22.. Browne. as in a panel in the Museo Laizaro Galdiano. Mass. 1930. 99. one hundred and twenty of them (Figs. Arts. 1971. 1944. Libri 4. probably among the "books of dreams" condemned by Sebastian Brant in his Narrenschiff (chapter 65). 303. L'Influenceet la rdputatzon Rabelazs.. De Thou had already suggested that the "painture" was a print. to the fifth book of Gargantua and Pantagruel. including the relatives of the Conde and Guise families and Marie de Medici. where the same proverb appears.29 Occasionally.1) between a letter dated May 14. 1966. signifies joy. fur Kulturgeschichte. 4. Mortimer. 1937. See also Unverfehrt (as in n.. de Thou. the title under which the woodcuts appear may well have been inspired by the title of a poem by Frangois Habert. and they have very little to do with the admittedly odd creatures that we encounter in the adventures of Gargantua and Pantagruel.. I have consulted an earlier edition of Furetiere (The Hague and Rotterdam. Mortimer notes an earlier suggestion that the figures were inspired by the Seven Deadly Vzces print series after Pieter Bruegel the Elder.. prince de Conde. None of this does much to elucidate the meaning of the images. 712. however. 1950.. and it is doubtful that they were sufficient to have initiated the deployment of Bosch's monsters in the context of the dream. and I do not believe that Panurge has ever seen or known a more admirable country when he recently made his last sea journeys. Tundal is represented sleeping in one corner of the foreground.see A Alphabetzcal MedzevalDreambook. 97. 13-14. . Prince de Conde (153069). and figs. who points out to him the various torments of Hell. the sleeping man is identified as Antoine de Bourbon. "16th Century Beliefs on Dream.Departmentof Przntzngand Graphzc Part I. "to lodge with Guillot the dreamer.24 Jean Adh mar has connected the print with an image described in a document published by de Thou in his edition of the memoirs of Louis I de Bourbon. New York. 5). 1982.L. 218. And never are we told why these monsters are labeled dreams. Memozresde Conde servant de et d'eclazrczssementde preuves al'hzstozre M. 28 For a good introduction to the Vision of Tundal. accompanied by a guardian angel. 181-217. 10-12). R. the anonymous author (possibly Breton himself) tells us that "these figures are of a fashion as strange as one will be able to find throughout the world. Paris. . perhaps. 48 and 79 respectively. The Shzpof Fools. Adhemar. we are told. in fact. and Zehnpfennig (as in n. University of London. 29 Zehnpfennig (as in n. II.31 References to monsters occur 24 Zehnpfennig (as in n. no. with further references. For the SomnzaDanzelzs. "Das Traumbuch des Hans Loberzweig. diss. 13). 17. For this and other dream books of the period.

RueS. D. pourIarectcation des bons efprits. Paris. Par RichardBrcton. ou fontcontenues pluficurs figures dc de l'inuention maiftreFrat. A P ARI S. M. ES . Harvard University) 11 A Monster. Iaques. d'celay.woodcut illustration from Les Songes drolatiquesde Pantagruel (by permission of the Houghton Library.A 16TH-CENTURY RESPONSE TO BOSCH 213 10 A Monster.woodcut illustration from Les Songesdrolatiques de Pantagruel (by permission of the Houghton Library. LX V. Harvard University) . Harvard University) LE S SONG TIQVES DROLADE PANTAGRVEL. pois Rabelais:& re aeuure derni••.woodcut illustration from Les Songes drolatiques de Pantagruel. 1565 (by permission of the Houghton Library. 13 Title page from Les Songes drolatiques Pantagruel (by perde mission of the Houghton Library. i l'Efcreuiffei'argcnrt. Harvard University) 12 A Monster.

H. 41-42. Commentary the Dream of Scipio. but for Macrobius. and here the great authority is the late Roman writer Macrobius (active ca. 1952."32 Some enlightenment. des guten und widerwartigen. 1530. the nightmare was only a dream in which the sleeper experiences "vexations similar to those that disturb him during the day. 1696.D. see p. trans. the prophetic dream (visio). Museo LaizaroGaldiano but rarely in the dream books. we are told that "you must understand. are vain hopes of things that shall not fall out.). which. for the phantasma or apparition. according to popular belief. Madrid. ca. To this class belongs the incubus."34 A nightmare of this type. 88-89. the oracular dream (oraculum). the enigmatic dream (somnium). he thinks he is still fully awake and imagines he sees specters rushing at him or wandering vaguely about. Stahl. and hold in general. 87-92. see pp. a German translation of Petrarch's De remediis. whose Commentaryon the Dream of Scipio was widely read throughout the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. New York. which "comes to one in the moment between wakefulness and slumber. 34 Macrobius.."3 Except for the reference to "delightful" things. according to the course of nature. and the apparition (phantasma). however. with notes W. Of these.. The Interpretationof Dreams Digested into Five Books by that Ancient and Excellent PhilosopherArtimedorus . 32 I quote from an English edition. all that Monsters and impossibilities. the one most relevant for our purposes is the apparition. and intro. on 33 Macrobius. rushes upon people in sleep and presses them with a weight they can feel. differing from natural creatures in size and shape. For the popularity of Macrobius's text in the Middle Ages. Macrobius discerned five main types of dreams. either delightful or disturbing. Visionof Tundal. in the so- called 'first cloud of sleep': in this drowsy condition. or Remedy of Fortune.214 THE ART BULLETIN JUNE 1992 VOLUME LXXIV NUMBER 2 14 Flemish School. the nightmare (insomnium). can be seen in a woodcut in the Von der Artzney bayder Gluck. 89. and a host of diverse things. 79. incidentally. 400 A. this may sound to the modern reader rather like the definition of a nightmare. can be found when we turn from the interpretation of specific dream images to more theoretical discussions of dreams in general. .. London. In one case.

D. 1528. Washington. Rosenwald Collection) .des guten und widerwartigen..A 16TH-CENTURY RESPONSE 10 BOSCH 215 15 A Nightmare. Augsburg. 1532 (photo: Mus6es de la Ville de Strasbourg) 16 Lucas van Leyden. woodcut from Von derArtzneybayder Gluck.C. OrnamentwzthTwo Sphinxesand a Wznged Man. engraving (courtesy National Gallery of Art.

chei Et d'ogniparte 'bantrafittoer morfo.Lyons. Williamstown. Et benchbe eigridi. Mapoco. Si traggondelpadron ltingata fame. Mass. e i canper nonecbiatne.216 THE ART BULLETIN JUNE 1992 VOLUME LXXIV NUMBER 2 Ateone lacerato da fuoi Cani. the vedebenfe qindinon jilpfaccia.) . cangli danla caccia. affiettatoflo 11 rifer ii ch' bauerpotrebbe lacerato dorfo. 1559 (photo: Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute. come ffjnte. d 4 17 Page with woodcut border decoration from La vita et metamorfoseo d'Ovidio. 4 3 Cacciator dificcia cangiar il corfo.al.

and highly influential in the Renaissance. L."Art Bulletzn. Lyons. 15). in fact. The Ten Bookson Archztecture. . with Supplement. I am very grateful to Dr. considering its forms as pregnant in meaning as the Hzeroglyphzcs Horapollo. under OxfordEnglzshDzctionary. we may suppose.35 Illustrating Book II. into new entities." the woodcut shows an avaricious woman in bed. in 4 pts.. 20 vols. But long before the Augsburg publication. that Bosch's terrifying evocations of the eternal night of the damned were transformed into the stuff of dreams.L. 506-507. 438. ed. Mass. 1970.. and other devils.H. Satzres. Dacos."41 It cannot be denied that Bosch's demonic repertory has much in common with the grotesque. 7). de wztch. could you. Id. trans. Dzctzonnazre la languefranfazse. and to spread feathers of many a hue over limbs picked up now here now there. as the apparitions of a mind whose reason is in abeyance. Oxford. ed. La. 290..43 Further study might reveal other incursions of Boschian devils into the playful world of sixteenth-century decoration. Fairclough (Loeb Classical Library). Indeed. and vegetable forms.S. century viewers as well is suggested by a Metamorphose an illustrated book based on Ovid's Metamorphoses. or grotesques. no. Rawski for letting me consult the typescript of his translation before it went to press. her sleep troubled by the dream of a thief stealing her purse. pt. "If a painter chose to join a human head to the neck of a horse.published by Jean de Tournes at Lyons in 1556-57 and in an Italian edition in 1559.. Muchembled. however.. It was in this manner. animal. like the apparition. quite like such pictures would be a book whose idle fancies shall be shaped like a sick man's dreams [velut aegri somnia]. still another route through which Boschian imagery could have come to be linked with dreams. But whether Bosch's repertory of monster types was assimilated to the Renaissance grotesque or was interpreted as the product of nightmares. par. so that neither head nor foot can be assigned to a single shape. Williamstown. La vzta et metamorfoseo d'Ovzdzo. 129. 42 Illustrated here is a page from the Italian edition." and he concluded that grotesques "are called [the] dreams of painting. Dze Holzschnztte Petrarca-Mezsters. etc. often with great ingenuity and sometimes with a total disregard for the original functions of their constituent parts. 38 Horace. 26). these two phenomena have at least one thing in common: in both. in portions of the ruins mistakenly identified by the Renaissance as grottos.R. 2 vols. 36See W.C. 40 N. chapter 87. trans. not even metaphysical ones. 508. cat. repr. Hollander. see R.A 16TH-CENTURY RESPONSE TO BOSCH 217 published at Augsburg in 1532 (Fig.. 405. the witch.H. "Von der Unruhsamheit der Traume. III. We know this from the heated condemnation of this type of ornament expressed by Vitruvius in his Ten Books on Architecture (vii. H. were widely imitated all over Europe (Fig. S. Hzeronymus Bosch. Roeper. Jean de Tourne. 1985.see Petrarch's Remediesfor Fortune Fazr and Foul. For the popularity of Horace in the Middle Ages and Renaissance. Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute.R. 1914. 1969. 1988. Bosch's devils are treated not as realities. des Berlin. in his Italian translation of Vitruvius published in 1556. One of these was Pirro Ligorio. 129-132.. 1964. the nightmare. That these similarities were evident to sixteenthfiguree. 16). who of nevertheless describes grotesques as "fantastic forms as of dreams". Cambridge. Cochrane. 37 "Wytche. 1990. Gibson in BookIllustratzons from Szx Centurzes the Lzbrary of zn the Sterlzng and Francine Clark Art Instztute. refrain from laughing? Believe me . suppressed in sleep. the word "nightmare" in several languages also designated "witch. Cologne. C. 35The chapter is entitled De znquietudine somnzorum. Ind.39 and from numerous examples that have survived from the ancient world. 39 Pollio Vitruvius. the writer asks us.Epzstlesand Ars Poetzca. 120. clephyd nighte mare" can be found in a text of 1440. they represent confusedly the images of things.36 The action of the devil suggests that he is ultimately the cause of the sleeper's nightmare.42 A number of pages display woodcut borders in which Renaissance grotesques mingle with fanciful composite creatures whose Boschian ancestry is clearly apparent (Fig. exh. mixed of various species.London and Leiden.. Warren. 1955. 1. as well as inanimate objects. 123-124... 203. xx. The dream is materialized in the miniature figure of a man fleeing across her bedcovers. Bolgar. 1. Rawski.. ed. 5. not necessarily by sucubi or incubi. where the sleeper is besieged. New York. "Pirro Ligorio and Decoration of the Late Sixteenth Century at Ferrara.sec. Bloomington. Both systems of imagery fuse fragments of various human. 5 vols. had become associated with the incubus and sucubus. 1991.R. Dacos. and London.. jabbing her pillow with a long grappling hook. Weltbzlder und Traumwerk. but as phantoms. my friends. Morgan. M. 41 Cited from Dacos. A Modern Englzsh Translatzonof De by remedzzs utrzusqueFortune wzth a Commentary."38 Hybrid forms much like those described by Horace were in fact employed by Roman artists in their wall paintings and stucco work. to describe grotesques as "deformities of nature. Several scholars. La Dicouvertede la DomusAurea et a laformatzondesgrotesques la Renazssance. see The 2nd ed. 84. The decorations thus known as grotteschi. 1863-97. H. 35. New York.40 The most notable instance can be found in the so-called Domus Aurea of Nero at Rome. 182. The Classzcal Heritage and Its Beneficzarzes from the Carolngzan Age to the End of the Renaissance. Mass. In the Ars poetzca. but certainly by a swarm of infernal creatures who cause his nocturnal unrest. The equation of cauchemarand witch in the 16th century is noted by R. have related them in style both to the woodcuts in the Songes drolatiquesof 1565 and to the Guillot le Songeur. 17). Baton Route. Littre. London and New York. composed by Horace in the first century B.3rd rev. 125 passzm. notes that there were other writers of the 16th century who took ancient grotesque decoration much more seriously.xxxvII. 1559. See the entry on this book by S. Certainly as fantasy in a dream. so that what at the top is a lovely woman ends up below in a black and ugly fish. 1955. under cauchemar. 1960. Popular Culture and Elite Culture in France 1400-1750. 5). no. cat. 211. 43 See Mortimer (as in n."37And it seems to be precisely this type of nightmare that is the subject of the Alsatian painting (Fig. And it could have been the memory of Horace's characterization of such monstrosities as the product of "a sick man's dreams" that inspired Daniele Barbaro. Coffin. as a devil stands at the left.trans. 3. See also E.. with further references. Scheidig. as well as their intimate associate. This passage has already been cited in connection with Bosch by H.. see D. There is. 451. 1989.Paris.

CaCase Western io Cleveland. 11989 [Department on. Cleveland. journals. Bruegel. Flemish Painting Century. GiGibson is zs tthe author f oks nd American aand appeared appeared inin American . Western Reserve tton.2218 18 TTHE HE AART RT BULLETIN BULLETIN JJUNE UNE 11992 92 VOLUME VOLUME LXXIV NUMBER LXXIV NUMBER 22 ve artzcles artzcleshahave is Bruegel. hhis HiHis s European European journals. [Department oof ArArt. OhOhio 44106]. f he e World LandLandmomost recent st ok "Mirror oof tthe Earth": Earth": ThThe World recent bbook isis "Mirror Princeoof tthe Sixteenth f he inin Flemish Sixteenth Century. University. nd he Walter . f t. 44106]. PrincePainting sscape cape se 989 Reserve University. bson Bosch aand author oof bobooksonon Bosch Walter SS.