# Nagoya University

:

2008

1

Problem 1. Let RN denote an N -dimensional Euclidean space, and let d be a metric on RN . Then, for a ∈ RN and r > 0, call Br (a) = {x ∈ RN |d(a, x) < r} an open ball with radius r centered at a. Also, for a subset S ⊂ RN , deﬁne S = {x ∈ RN |B (x) ∩ S = ∅ ∀ > 0}. Then answer the following. (1) For x ∈ RN and a subset S ⊂ RN (S = ∅), show that x ∈ S if and only if there exists a sequence {xn }∞ in S so that xn → x as n → ∞. n=1 Proof. (⇒) Suppose ﬁrst that x ∈ S. Then, for every positive integer n > 0, B1/n (x) ∩ S = ∅. So deﬁne a sequence {xn }∞ by xn ∈ B1/n (x) ∩ S. Now consider an arbitrary open n=1 neighborhood U ⊂ S of x. Since U is open, there is an > 0 so that B (x) ⊂ U . Moreover, there exists a positive integer M > 0 so that 1/M < . Therefore, if n > M , xn ∈ Bn (x) ⊂ BM (x) ⊂ U and thus the sequence {xn }∞ converges to x. n=1 (⇐) Conversely suppose that there exists a sequence {xn }∞ of S that converges to x. Then, n=1 by the deﬁnition of convergence of a sequence, B (x) ∩ S for every > 0. Therefore x ∈ S as desired. (2) Using open balls, state the deﬁnition of continuity of a map f : RN → RN . Solution: For every a ∈ RN and every > 0, there exists some δ > 0 so that f (Bδ (a)) ⊂ B (f (a)).

(3) Based on the deﬁnition given in (2), show that if f : RN → RN is continuous, then f (S) ⊂ f (S) for every subset S ⊂ RN (S = ∅). Proof. Let y ∈ f (S) be taken arbitrarily. Then there is x ∈ S so that y = f (x). And, for every > 0, there is some δ > 0 such that f (Bδ (x)) ⊂ B (f (x)) because f is continuous. Moreover, Bδ (x) ∩ S = ∅. So there is some x ∈ Bδ (x) ∩ S = ∅, i.e. x ∈ Bδ (x) and x ∈ S. Therefore, f (x ) ∈ f (Bδ (x)) and f (x ) ∈ f (S). f (Bδ (x)) ⊂ B (f (x)) implies that f (x ) ∈ B (f (x)) and then f (x ) ∈ B (f (x)) ∩ f (S). Hence B (f (x)) ∩ f (S) = ∅ and y = f (x) ∈ f (S) as desired.

Nagoya University