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TABLE OF CONTENT

SL. NO.

TITLE

PAGE NO

 

Chapter 1: Background

 

1.1

Introduction

1

1.2

Objective of the study

2

1.3

Scope of work

2

1.4

Methodology

3

 

Chapter 2: Industry Profil;e: Pulp and Paper

 

2.1

Status of Pulp and Paper Mills in India

5

2.2

Classification of Pulp and Paper Mills in the country

11

 

Chapter 3: Manufacturing Processes

 

3.1

Generalised Paper /Paper board making process

16

3.2

Different industrial processes in pulp and paper sector

17

3.3

Chemical recovery from black liquor

36

 

Chapter 4: Water consumption pattern in other countries

48

 

Chapter 5: Present Water consumption pattern prevailing in pulp and paper sector in India

 

5.1

Background

52

5.2

Water consumption Scenario

52

5.3

Water consumption: Norms/Standards for paper and pulp

52

5.4

Water consumption: Latest Trends

54

 

Chapter 6: Unit Process/operation specific water consumption factors

 

6.1

Background

58

6.2

Existing Water Consumption Status

62

 

Chapter 7: Formulation of Standards for water consumption by different categories of pulp and paper manufacturing units

 

7.1

Background

79

7.2

Proposed categaries of pulp anf paper mills for standards

78

7.3

Proposed types of Water consumption standards

82

7.4

Development of category specific water consumption standards

83

7.5

Proprosed category specific wastewater discharge standards

90

 

Chapter 8: Water conservation options identified for

92

 

different categories of pulp and paper mills Conclusion

115

Annexure I: Copy of Questionnaire Annexure II: List of pulp and paper mills in India Annexure III: Compilation of Questionnaire data

PROJECT ADVISOR

STUDY TEAM

Dr. A. K. Saxena, Group Head

TEAM LEADER

Mr. Rajat Gupta, Senior Consultant

TEAM MEMBERS

Mr. K. K. Sinha, Senior Consultant Ms. Shukla Pal, SeniorConsultant Mr. S. Baskaran, Consultant

From other Regional Offices

Mr. Kaliprasad V, Senior Consultant, RPMG, Hyderabad Mr. Hemantha S S, Consultant, RPMG Bangalore

SECRETARIAL ASSISTANCE

Mrs. H. K. Sarna Mr. R.K. Ahuja

LABORATORY ASSISTANCE

Mr. S. K. Jain, Laboratory Analyst Mr. Bhupinder Singh Yadav

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

National Productivity Council (NPC) places on record its sincere thanks to the Central Pollution Control Board for entrusting the study on “ Development of Guidelines for Water conservation in Pulp and Paper sector”. NPC is grateful to Shri P. M. Ansari, Additional Director, CPCB and Shri S. K. Gupta, Senior Environmental Engineer, CPCB for their cooperation and assistance at various stages of the project in collecting information from State Pollution Control Boards and in selecting representative pulp and paper mills. NPC is also thankful to all State Pollution Control Boards for providing list of operating pulp and paper mills in their respective states.

NPC places on record its sincere thanks to all the management of following pulp and paper mills for their full cooperations during conduction of field studies in their mills:

  • 1. M/s Tehri Pulp & Paper Ltd, Muzaffarnagar

  • 2. M/s Shreyan Industries Ltd., Ahmedgarh

  • 3. M/s HNL, Kottayam

  • 4. M/s ITC (PSPD) Ltd., Bhadrachalam

  • 5. M/s Seshasayee Paper & Boards Limited, Erode

  • 6. M/s Indo Afrique Paper Mills (P) Ltd., Pune

  • 7. M/s Pudumjee Pulp & Paper Mills Ltd. Pune

  • 8. M/s. Shalimar Paper Mills (p) Ltd., Muzaffarnaga

  • 9. M/s The Simplex Mills Co. Ltd. (Paper Division), Gondia

10. M/s KAWATRA PAPER Mills Ltd., Dadri

NPC also extends its thanks to various pulp and paper associations for providing information on pulp and paper mills operating in India.

Last but not the least, NPC is thankful to all those who have been associated with the project studies either directly or indirectly.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The pulp and paper industry is one of India's oldest and core industrial sector. The socio-economic importance of paper has its own value to the country's development as it is directly related to the industrial and economic growth of the country. Although paper has many uses, its most important contribution to modern civilization is its use as a medium to record knowledge.

Paper manufacturing is a highly capital, energy and water intensive industry. It is also a highly polluting process and requires substantial investments in

pollution control equipment. In India, around 905.8 million m 3 of water is

consumed and by this sector 1 .

around 695.7 million m 3 of wastewater is discharged annually

India’s current average fresh specific water consumption of about 150 m 3 /tonne of product is far above the global best specific water consumption of 28.66 m 3 /tonne (for large scale wood based pulp and paper mill) and this large gap is primarily attributed to the use of obsolete technology / equipments and poor water management practices.

The large water requirements and consumption by the Indian pulp and paper industries has led to, water fast becoming a scarce commodity and lowering of the groundwater table and thus increased pumping costs and more importantly water shortage in many regions. Realizing the importance of water and excessive usages of water by pulp and paper sector, Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has taken initiative to develop the water conservation guidelines and water consumption standards and entrusted National Productivity Council to undertake the study to address these issues.

India produces 5.96 million tones of paper per year (2003 – 2004) through 309 paper manufacturing mills at a capacity utilization of approximately 60 percent. The number of paper manufacturing mills has increased consistently from just 17 in 1951 to around 600 in Year 2002 with an annual installed capacity of 6.2 million to meet the increasing demand. However since 2001 – 02, the number of mills have fallen sharply to 309 in the year 2004 primarily due to increased environmental regulatory pressure, water shortage etc.

The profile of Indian pulp and paper sector including the various aspects like product consumption pattern, operational scale, state wise industry inventory, production process used, raw material used is presented in the Figures E-1 to E-3 and tables E-1 to E-3.

Table E-1: Consumption pattern of paper and paper board products in India

Type of paper

Main varieties

% of total consumptions

Cultural paper

cream woven, maplitho, bond paper,

41%

Industrial paper

Chromo paper kraft paper, paper board – paper board - single layer board, multilayer board, duplex board,

43%

1 Source: Estimated by CSE based on the wastewater discharged data published by CPCB in "Water quality in India (Status and trends) 1990 - 2001".

Security paper, grease proof paper, electrical grades of paper glazed, non-glazed 4% Specialty paper Newsprint 12%
Security paper, grease proof paper,
electrical grades of paper
glazed, non-glazed
4%
Specialty paper
Newsprint
12%
Figure E-2: Distribution of Pulp and Paper Mills Based on Products Manufactured 250 227 200 187
Figure E-2: Distribution of Pulp and Paper Mills
Based on Products Manufactured
250
227
200
187
174
150
No of
Mills
100
66
62
57
Producti
50
on, 104
20
21
22
TPA
12
12
3
0
Specialty
Pulp
Newsprint
Industrial
Cultural -
low grade
Cultrual -
high grade

Table E-2: Distribution of Pulp and Paper Mills (Number of Mills) Based on Pulping Processes and Operational Scale

Sl.

Pulping Process

 

No of Mills

Installed Capacity,

No

 

million tonnes/yr

 

Large

Small

Grand

Large

%

Small

%

Scale

Scale

Total

Scale

Scale

1

Chemical Soda

   

54

     

18.2

Process

29

26

0.666

4.26

0.106

8

2

Hydro Pulping

   

219

12.80

   

80.0

92

113

7

81.88

0.462

7

3

Kraft/Sulphite

34

2

36

2.169

13.87

0.010

1.65

process

Table E-3 : Summary of classification of pulp and paper sector in different categories

Sl.

Product

 

Large/Medium scale

   

Small Scale

   

No

type

Agro

Integrated

Pape

Wast

Woo

Agr

Integrated

Paper

Waste

Total

based

2

r Mill 3

epap

d

o

Mill

paper

er

base

d

1.

Cultural -

15

1

 

15

14

7

 

1

12

65

high

  • 2 Integrated refers to mill using wood, agro residue and waste paper as raw material

  • 3 Paper Mill refers to mill using pulp produced from other mills to produce directly paper and paper products

Sl.

Product

 

Large/Medium scale

   

Small Scale

   

No

type

Agro

Integrated

Pape

Wast

Woo

Agr

Integrated

Paper

Waste

Total

based

2

r Mill 3

epap

d

o

Mill

paper

er

base

d

 

grade

                   
 
  • 2. Cultural -

2

   
  • 1 1

8

 

1

   

7

20

low grade

 
  • 3. Industrial

19

 

2

50

   
  • 18 1

 

90

187

 
  • 4. Newsprint

1

   
  • 1 2

15

       

2

21

 
  • 5. Pulp

       

4

       

4

 
  • 6. Specialty

2

   

4

     

3

3

12

 

Total

39

 
  • 3 2

92

21

 
  • 26 1

4

114

309

In order to develop water conservation measures for different types of industries in the pulp and paper sector and also the water consumption / discharge standards, 10 mills were identified (in consultation with CPCB) in accordance with the above referred distribution of pulp and paper mills based on operational scale, raw material used, pulping process, end product etc. Detailed studies were conducted in these 10 mills to identify the water conservation measures and also to generate the water consumption profile.

The detailed studies in conjunction with the data from questionnaire survey, literature search and international water consumption norms have been used to develop water consumption standards in the country.

Existing Water Consumption Norms / Standards: India

In India so far, no standards have been set for water consumption by any agency. However CPCB has prescribed standards in terms of wastewater discharge for different categories of pulp and paper industry. The wastewater discharge quantum with additional 21 % (towards evaporation losses) is generally used to give a fair picture of water consumption. The wastewater discharge standard of 150 and 50 m 3 /tonne of product for small agro and wastepaper based mills respectively and 200 m 3 /tonne for large scale mills prescribed by CPCB do not appear appropriate as it does not cater to different categories of pulp and paper manufacturing mills prevailing in India presently. Further, this standard in the current scenario seems to have outdated as the current average water consumption is itself 150 m 3 /tone of product.

As per Corporate Responsibility for Environment Protection (CREP)- 2002, following water discharge standards have been agreed upon by different pulp and paper manufacturing associations:

A. Large scale pulp and paper mills:

Less than 140 cum/tonne of paper within 2 years

Less than 120 cum/tonne of paper in 4 years for mills installed before

 

1992

Less than 100 cum/tonne of paper in 4 years for mills installed after

1992

B. Small scale pulp and paper mills:

Less than 150 cum/tonne of paper within 3 years

This standard is also discharge specific but takes into consideration the operational scale and the age of the mill. This standard also does not differentiate on the basis of pulping process, raw material used, end product etc.

Centre for Science & Environment through their Green Rating Project has reported significant reduction in water consumption in large-scale Indian

paper mills and average figure has been reduced to 135 m 3 per tonne paper in the year 2002 due to increasing awareness regarding water conservation, ever increasing pressure from government regulatory agencies and also due to increasing water scarcity in many regions. The CSE finding gives an indication that most of the industries are already achieving the water consumption norms as agreed upon by them under CREP programme –

2002.

Existing Water Consumption Norms / Standards: World

In developed countries, most of the pulp and paper manufacturing mills are wood based, however, due to environmental implications, trend is changing towards use of recycled fibre as is the case with India.

The average water consumption for wood based large pulp and paper industries primarily producing paper & paper board products from 6 regions / countries namely United States, Australia, Europe, Canada Finland & Spain have been compiled from various documents available on the web and the same is presented in the Table E-4 below :

Table E-4: Region / Country Specific Average Water Consumption in Large Scale Wood Based Pulp and Paper Mills

Sl.

Region /

Average Specific

 

Source

N

Country

water

 

o.

consumption (m3/T of product)

1

U.S.

64

Appendix “W” of Report on Status of Pulp

(Average value in the year 2000)

& Paper in US by Michiel P. H. Brongers and Aaron J. Mierzwa

2

Australia

28.66

APIC Public Eco-efficiency Report 2003

.

( Average value for the year 2003)

3

Europe

 

APIC Public Eco-efficiency Report 2003

.

40

4

Canada

 

APIC Public Eco-efficiency Report 2003

.

67

5

Finland

40

Pulp Fact

- Environmental Implications of

Sl.

Region /

Average Specific

 

Source

 

N

Country

water

 

o.

consumption (m3/T of product)

.

   

the

Paper Cycle” by

Nigel

Dudley, Sue

Stolton and Jean-Paul Jeanrenaud WWF

International 1996

 

6

Spain

30

Pup Fact – Environmental Implications of

.

the paper Cylcle by Nigel Dudley, Sue Stolton and Jean Paul, Jean Renaud – WWF International 1996

The average water consumption for wood based large pulp and paper industries primarily producing paper & paper board products in developed countries varies from 30 – 70 m3/tonne of Product. Whereas average water consumption in waste paper based pulp and paper mills in developed countries varies from 8 – 10 m3/Tonne of product.

Current Water Consumption: A Revisit - Questionnaire Response

In order to review present water consumption levels in pulp and paper sector in India, questionnaires were circulated to all the pulp and paper manufacturing mills. Based on the questionnaire responses by industries (44 mills responded out of total of 309), specific fresh water consumption range (excluding domestic) has been compiled and is as given below:

     

Specific Water Consumption

S.No.

Raw Material

End Product

 

(M 3 /T of product)

Min Max

Remark

Large Scale category

 
   

Cultural high grade

     

1

Integrated

including newsprint

105

202

   

Cultural grade

     
  • 2. Wood Based

including newsprint

68

168

 
  • 3. Wood Based

Newsprint only

74

 

There is only one mill

         

Only one mill in this

  • 4. Wood Based

Rayon pulp

130

category responded

 
  • 5 Agro Based

 

73

 

-do-

   

Cultural - high grade Cultural - low grade

     
  • 6 Agro Based

including newsprint

46

-do-

 
  • 3 Waste paper

Newsprint

29

 

-do-

Medium Scale category

 
 
  • 1 Agro Residue

Cultural – high grade

102

219

 
         

Only one mill in this

  • 2 Agro Residue

Industrial grade

28

category responded

 

Waste Paper

       
  • 3 Based

Cultural – high grade

40

-do-

 
  • 4 Waste Paper

Newsprint

16

 

-do-

     

Specific Water Consumption

S.No.

Raw Material

End Product

 

(M 3 /T of product)

Min Max

Remark

 

based

       
 

Waste paper

     

One mill reported 5.5 m3/T & operating with

  • 5 Based

Industrial grade

5.5

35

zero discharge system

Small Scale category

 
         

Only one mill in this

  • 1 Agro Residue

Cultural - high grade

156

category responded

         

Straw board making

  • 2 Agro Residue

Industrial

7

mill

         

Only one mill in this

  • 3 Waste paper

Cultural - high grade

18

category responded

 
  • 4 Waste paper

Cultural - low grade

14

25

 
 
  • 5 Waste Paper

Industrial

7

80

 

Current Water Consumption: In depth Study Findings

Keeping in view, the above mentioned variation prevailing in Indian pulp and paper sector, ten representative mills were selected in consultation with CPCB official for carrying out detailed field studies. During the field studies, detailed water balance, material balance (with respect to fibre and water) audits were carried out. And based on studies, specific water consumption in each mill was estimated. The specific fresh water consumption estimated in each representative mill is as given in table E-5 below:

Table E-5: Specific Water Consumption in Selected Field Study Mills

Mill

Operational Scale & Raw

End Product

 

Water

Code

Material

 

consumption,

m3/T

Large Scale

1

Wood & Wastepaper based

Newsprint

80

manufacturing

 

2

Wood & wastepaper Based

Cultural

high

77

grade

3

Wood, Agro& wastepaper

Cultural

high

67

grade

Medium Scale

 

4

Agro & waste paper based

Cutural

high

80

grade

5

Agro & waste paper based

Industrial grade

47

6

Waste paper based

Cultural

high

48

grade

Small Scale

7

Agro & waste paper

Cultural

high

110

grade

8

Agro & wastepaper based

Industrial grade

93

Mill

Operational Scale & Raw

End Product

 

Water

Code

Material

 

consumption,

m3/T

9

Waste paper based

Cultural

low

13

grade

10

Waste paper based

Cultural

low

129

grade

Proposed standards for water consumption in pulp and paper sector

Based on the detailed pulp and paper mill’s inventorisation and observations from the dry and detailed field studies conducted during the course of this study, it became evidently clear that water consumption varies significantly depending upon the raw material used, scale of operation and the end product. Realizing these variation it was clear that one or two general standards would not suffice for the entire pulp and paper sector. Accordingly, considering the prevailing characteristics of Indian pulp & paper mills in the country, following six categories of pulp and paper mills with respect to water consumption pattern have been proposed for formulation of standards:

  • A. Large scale Wood based and integrated pulp and paper mills manufacturing cultural grade paper & paper board and / or Newsprint

  • B. Small/Medium Scale Agro based pulp and paper mills manufacturing high grade cultural paper

  • C. Small/Medium Scale Agro based pulp and paper mills manufacturing industrial grade paper

  • D. All wastepaper based pulp and paper mills manufacturing high grade cultural paper with “De-inking”

  • E. All wastepaper based pulp and paper mills manufacturing cultural grade paper without De-inking

  • F. All medium / small scale waste paper based mills manufacturing industrial grade paper

While developing the water consumption standards for the above referred categories following factors have been considered.

The standards developed should ensure continuous reduction in water consumption.

The

standards

should

be

such

that

they

trigger technological

interventions as well as reuse / recycling opportunities and thus lead to

quantum reduction in water consumption in long term.

The standards should be India specific and practicable and feasible to implement.

The standards should also even out the huge water consumption disparities among the similar type of mills in short term.

Considering all the above factors, three levels of standards have been formulated. The three levels are

Benchmark Standard: This standard refers to minimum water consumption required after implementation of best available technology (economically viable and currently practiced / demonstrated in India), recycle and reuse practices. This standard has been developed by identifying the various mill operations involved in each specific category and also identifying the least water consumption actually achieved by any of the mills studied in that particular category. The total of water consumption in each of the mill operation / process would be the benchmark standard for that specific category.

The idea of developing this standard is to ensure

o

Quantum reduction in water consumption: No mill in the above referred categories is currently operating at this level. To achieve this level most of the mills would need to undertake certain technological modifications and complex recycling / reuse measures to achieve the quantum reduction in the water consumption and comply with these standards

o Development of feasible standards: Further these standards reflect the feasible and demonstrated mill operation specific water consumption norms already practiced in one or the other industry in India and thus expected to be appreciated and followed by industries.

Since complying with these standards would need technological and complex recycling / reuse systems interventions, which require significant time and resources at the industries end, it is proposed that these standards to be considered for implementation after four years from the acceptance year of this report.

Best Achieved Standard: This standard refers to the minimum water consumption already achieved by a mill (or can be achieved by implementation of simple recycling / reuse measures) simple in the specific category.

This standard is developed with the perspective of bringing the other mills to the currently best achieved and demonstrated level in the country. This standard can be achieved by implementation of simple water recycling and reuse practices and minor technological changes.

This standard is proposed to be considered for implementation from two years from the acceptance year of this report. The three years grace period is proposed to enable other industries to undertake technologies feasibility (technical, economical, environmental etc) and implementation.

Relaxed Standard: This standard provides 20 % relief over the best achieved standard in each specific category. This standard is proposed

for immediate reduction in water consumption by most of the high water consuming industries and thus bridge the huge gap between best performing and worst performing mills in a short time. It is estimated that this standard can be achieved by other industries in each categories by implementing simple reuse, recycling and other minor modification.

This standard is proposed

to

be

implemented after six months from the

acceptance of this report. The six months grace period is proposed to enable other industries to undertake the reuse, recycling and other minor

modifications.

The process of developing above referred benchmark standards would also identify mill operation / process or section specific water consumption benchmark figures that can be used by the industries for continuous improvements.

The consolidated proposed water consumption/wastewater discharge* standards for each category of the pulp & paper mills are compiled and tabulated below in table E-6:

Table E-6: Proposed Water Consumption/Wastewater Discharge Standards

Sl

Category Description

 

Proposed water consumption/wastewater discharge standard in m 3 / Tonne of product

 

Benchmark

Best

Relaxed

achievable

1

Large scale Wood based and integrated pulp and paper mills manufacturing Newsprint, Cultural grade paper and paper board

  • 63 / 50

/ 53

  • 67 / 63

80

2

Small/Medium Scale Agro based pulp and paper mills manufacturing cultural grade paper

  • 38 / 30

/ 63

  • 80 / 75

95

3

Small/Medium Scale Agro based pulp and paper mills manufacturing industrial grade

  • 18 / 15

/ 37

  • 47 / 44

56

4

All wastepaper based pulp and paper mills manufacturing high grade cultural paper and / or news print with “De-inking”

  • 19 / 15

/ 32

  • 41 / 38

49

5

All waste paper

based

pulp

& paper mills

  • 9 / 7

/ 10

  • 13 / 12

15

manufacturing high grade cultural paper without “De-inking”

6

All Medium / Small scale wastepaper based pulp and paper mills manufacturing industrial grade paper

  • 6 / 5

6 / 5

7 / 6

* Wastewater discharge standards have been evolved with an assumption that around 21% of the input fresh water is lost as vapour in fourdreineir machine (drier section) and in boiler section and the balance is discharged as wastewater.

Further, it is recommended to reuse this wastewater as much as possible for irrigation purpose.

Water Conservation Options Evolved and Recommended to Achieve Quantum Reduction in Fresh Water Consumption in Pulp and Paper Sector

The high water consumption in Indian pulp and paper industry is mainly due to obsolete process technology, poor water management practices and inadequate wastewater treatment.

In order to evolve techno economically feasible option, detailed field studies were carried out as mentioned earlier. Depending upon the category and scale of operations, water conservation options have been recommended. They are briefly described below:

Low – cost improvements

General Housekeeping Measures: General housekeeping measures deals with low-cost improvements like leak detection, repair, production scheduling, use of press type tap, auto close valve hose to reduce wastage due to negligence, etc

Using better quality raw material to achieve desired brightness:

Manipulation of raw material quality enables use of lesser quantity of bleaching chemicals, hence requires less water quantity for bleaching and washing

Dry de-dusting of straw for removal of fines and dust / Dry depithing of Bagasse / Dry debarking of Wood

Collection of black liquor spills in a common tank: This reduces fresh water consumption required for floor washing.

Design stage procedures (new plant/equipment)

Use of Better pulp washing technology: Various technologies available in decreasing specific water consumption are potcher washing, hydraulic washing, vacuum drum washing, Pressure washing, diffusion washing, chemi or belt washing, twin roll press washing. Among all, potcher washing has maximum specific water consumption (55 - 60 m3/BDMT bleached pulp) and twin wire roll press has minimum specific water consumption (26 m3/BDMT bleached pulp). However, a

twin wire roll press washer for a 300 OD TPD fiberline costs approx. 1081 million INR. Where as a vacuum drum washer would cost only 10 – 25 million INR, hydraulic washer would cost 2.5 million (works good with lower capacity). Therefore, techno-economic feasibility is required before identification of suitable washer in the individual mill.

Use of More Efficient Deinking Plant : The clarified water is reused in different mill operations: Helicopulper, H D Cleaner, Pulp Dilution, Centricleaner, Pressure screen

Membrane filtration technique in deinking process instead of conventional floatation method: Membrane separation technology is a potentially attractive method for the removal of flexographic ink residues from the wash filtrate effluent of deinking mills and thereby enabling recycle of wash filtrate

Installation of Indirect & More Efficient Heat Transfer System for Blow Heat Recovery In Digestor Section: This avoids generation of contaminated wastewater (in direct heat transfer, waste gases are directly injected to water) and enables reuse of cooling wastewater.

Replacing barometric leg (direct) condensor cooling by surface (indirect) condensor cooling: The wastewater from barometric leg is generally discharged to ETP and cannot be completely recycled back

Process modifications including recycle/reuse

Optimum use of cooling wastewater:

A. Collection of once-through cooling water and reuse it in different process operation

B. Converting once-through system into a closed –loop system by installing a cooling tower

Recovery and re-cycling of clean water from vacuum pumps

Installation of

Vacuum flume tank to recycle vacuum pump sealing

water

Replacement of water seals in Process Pumps: Mechanical seal pumps can be used to avoid usage of sealing water. Also seal less pumps are extensively used in chemical industries which can also be used pulp and paper manufacturing mill.

Use of modified design of nozzle in Decker thickener shower

Use of efficient Decker thickener/ vacuum drum showers

Use of efficient shower system and Regular monitoring of low pressure and high pressure showers and in the paper machine section

Use of Enzymatic deinking process

Recovery of bleaching chemicals through membrane separation & reuse (closed loop bleaching): For Mills with Elemental Chlorine free bleaching process.

Reuse of secondary condensate in raw material preparation section, Brown Stock Washing / Bleach Washing

Reuse of Spout cooling wastewater

Reuse of barometric leg wastewater: This wastewater is suitable for reuse in Brown stock washing.

Reuse of wastewater from DM plant (regeneration & sandfilter backwash), softner (regeneration & sandfilter backwash) for ash conditioning / quenching

Process redesign which includes improvement in quality and management of paper machine wastewater

Choosing right type of saveall system: There are different technologies to clarify paper machine white water like polydisc saveall, Krofta saveall, sedimentation type saveall, drum filter, inclined or Hill screens, etc. Depending upon the usage of clarified water and quality required, type of saveall needs to choosen. In large scale mills, polydisc saveall is advantageous. The clear filtrate generated from the saveall can be directly used in high pressure paper machine showers.

Optimum use of paper machine clarified wastewater in sections other than paper machine: Various application areas are :Decker thickener showers, Vacuum washers, Centricleaner reject dilution, Pulp dilutions before bleaching stage, Johnson screen showers, etc. this requires provision of sufficient storage capacity. A modified storage capacity similar to ‘Stawford” separator helps in further separation of solids and fibres from the clarified water

Use of back or recycled water in low pressure showers: Various locations in paper machine section where back water can be used are:

Wire section - Breast roll, wire turning and wire-return rolls, knock – off shower, trim knock – off shower, wire cleaning shower ( low pressure).,Press section - Cleaning of rolls

Total system closure with zero liquid effluent

Tertiary treatment of wastewater for recycling: In tertiary treatment, Aluminum oxide, ferric oxide and poly electrolytes assist coagulation of waste in the effluents, which are then sand filtered. The quality of treated wastewater after the tertiary treated is fit for recycling back completely to the system especially in wastepaper based mills and partially for other mills.

However, there is a limitation to continuous recycle of wastewater within the plant for a long period as it leads to slime generation. This is prevented by optimized addition of biocide and chemicals in the water at regular intervals.

Conclusion

Existing standards are passé.

The questionnaire responses, CSE’s green rating project and the detailed field studies have clearly indicated that the majority of industries in-fact actually performing better than both the existing standards and the CREP standards they have agreed to.

Common standard not far-sighted

It has also clearly emerged from the in depth studies that water consumption varies significantly based on the scale of operation, raw material used and the end products manufactured. Hence a common standard for all type of industries would not be prudent and accordingly standards have been developed for six categories of pulp and paper industries considering operational scale, raw material used and the end product manufactured.

Recommended standards a challenge already conquered

While comparing with the existing standards, the currently recommended standards may seem to be a challenging task to achieve but actual practice these have already been achieved in totality by an Indian enterprise (Best achieved standard) or partially i.e. at a mill process level by one or the other Indian enterprise (benchmark standard). Hence the proposed standards are practical and feasible to achieve. The industries may refer to the water conservation measures identified under the study to achieve the water consumption standards.

Let’s not stop, we need to go further

The currently developed and recommended water consumption standards are still comparably high in light of the latest world wide trends on water consumption. The currently developed standards should be treated as short term applicable for about 8 years. It is further recommended that these standards should again be revisited after 6 years.

***************

Final report on water conservation in Pulp and Paper Sector

Page No.1

CHAPTER 1 BACKGROUND

1.1

INTRODUCTION

The pulp and paper industry is one of India's core sector industries. The average production in the year 2003 – 2004 is 5.96 million tonnes per annum.

The socio-economic importance of paper has its own value to the country's development as it is directly related to the industrial and economic growth of the country. Although paper has many uses, its most important contribution to modern civilization is its use as a medium to record knowledge. Paper represents the perfect adjustment of a basic material to any use and purpose.

Paper manufacturing is a highly capital, energy and water intensive industry. It is also a highly polluting process and requires substantial investments in pollution control equipment. In India, around 905.8 million m 3 of water is consumed and around 695.7 million m 3 of wastewater is discharged annually by this sector 1 . Looking into the serious nature of pollution, the pulp and paper industry in India has been brought under the 17 categories of highly polluting industries.

In global comparison on specific water consumption (the global best specific water consumption is 28.66 m 3 /tonne for large scale wood based pulp and paper mill), India is still far behind ( India’s average fresh water consumption in pulp and paper sector is 150 – 200 m 3 /tonne of product) and this is largely attributed to the use of obsolete technology / equipments and poor water management practices.

At the same time, water has been increasingly becoming a scarce commodity and several industries are experiencing acute water shortages especially during non- monsoon periods. While most large industries are located near abundant water supply source (the rivers), The majority of small / medium scale agro residue/waste paper based mills are in clusters and have to depend on groundwater. The continuous exploitation of ground water by these industries has led to lowering of the groundwater table and thus increased pumping costs and more importantly water shortage in many regions. This has forced many industries to curtail their production levels and some closed down their mills for want of adequate amounts of water.

However, in large scale mills, the situation is slightly better with regard to water conservation and environmental compliance because of better technology / equipment employed by them, large scale of operation and also access to latest information / developments. Despite this, water management is very poor in pulp and paper industry and it requires immediate attention as its excess use is affecting the water availability particularly during non-monsoon.

1 Source: Estimated by CSE based on the wastewater discharged data published by CPCB in "Water quality in India (Status and trends) 1990 -

2001".

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Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has therefore approached National Productivity Council (NPC) to develop suitable guidelines for water management in different types of pulp and paper mills through out the country.

  • 1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objective of the study is to evolve appropriate guideline for conservation of water based on the existing water management practices and identify optimum recycle/reuse options for water.

  • 1.3 SCOPE OF WORK

For the above objective, following scope of work has been defined:

(i)

Inventorisation of pulp and paper manufacturing mills through out the country

(ii)

Classification of the mills in different categories according to scale of operation, raw material usage, products manufactured

(iii)

Selection of 10 representative mills for detailed studies

(iv)

Preliminary survey of the selected mills, followed by detailed studies. Detail study comprises of:

Collection of background data regarding t he raw material consumption, product output, installed and operating capacity of existing process and utilities etc.

Study of the manufacturing process.

Identification of the sources and characterisation of the wastewater generated from each process operation

Compilation of material balance for complete process

Identification of the water conservation, waste recycling/reuse options, if any adopted by the mill

Compilation of the water balance for the complete mill and

Generation of water recycle/ reuse and other conservation options with or without mild treatment.

(v)

Cost benefit analysis for optimum reuse and recycling of waste water in terms of reduction in pollution load reaching ETP and fresh water consumption for each type of pulp and paper industry

(vi)

Evolve limits for water consumption and discharge from the processes assuming the optimum water consumption level for each type of industry

(vii)

Formulation of guidelines for water conservation for each type of pulp and paper industry

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1.4 METHODOLOGY

The following methodology is being adopted to accomplish the above said scope of work:

Phase I

(i)

Questionnaire for seeking information on the type of product, scale of operation, production process, water management practices followed, etc was prepared in consultation with CPCB officials and Pulp and Paper manufacturing Association’s members. A copy of questionnaire is placed as Annexure I.

(ii) The inventorisation of pulp and paper mills and other relevant information on pulp and paper mills was compiled through various agencies, research institutes, pulp and paper manufacturing associations, state pollution control boards, and associated bodies.

(iii)

Questionnaires were sent to around 622 pulp and paper manufacturing mills through out the country.

(iv)

Responses received from the Questionnaire survey has been compiled. Based on the responses, typical wastewater characteristics from pulp and paper mill has been generated.

(v)

Literature survey was carried out with respect to production process, water consumption, wastewater generation, etc for different types of pulp and paper mills has been procured from pulp and paper manufacturing associations, printed matters and internet.

(vi)

Based on the literature survey and questionnaire survey, criteria for selection of representative mills has been developed.

Phase II

(vii) Based on the information obtained from Pulp and paper mill associations and other Institutions, pulp and paper mills through out the country have been classified according to scale of operation, raw material usage and product manufactured.

(viii)

Ten representative mills were identified as per the criteria developed in

(ix)

consultation with CPCB and based on the questionnaire responses. Detailed studies at the individual mill were carried out as given below:

Background data with respect to raw material consumption, product output, installed and processing capacity, existing process and utilities, etc. were collected from stores and inventory, raw material preparation section, pulp mill section, chemical recovery section, stock preparation section, paper machine section, utilities department, engineering department, projects, quality control and technical services department.

The manufacturing process was studied in a detailed manner. Following general process related information were collected:

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  • - Yield

  • - Cooking temperature and time

  • - Cycle time

  • - Makeup chemical type and amount

  • - Bleaching stages and time

  • - Temperature and charge to bleaching towers

  • - Dilution factor in washing

  • - Black liquor solids content before and after evaporation

  • - Black liquor quantity

  • - Product target data

This was followed by collection of specific process related details, engineering drawings and verifying them by conducting a shop floor walk through. Simultaneously, different input and output streams were identified at each process step

Different sources of wastewater generation was identified and marked. Sampling and monitoring of wastewater at these points was carried out. The samples were analysed for relevant parameters for characterization of inlet process water and wastewater stream.

Material balance for the complete process was compiled. TSS balance was also carried out to ascertain the fiber loss from the process.

Water conservation measures as adopted by the mills were identified and the total water saved per unit of the product was computed.

Water balance for the complete mill along with the water used in the utility was made.

Water conservation techniques/technologies were identified and techno- economic feasibility of the identified technologies/techniques were studied. The impact of implementation of these were also ascertained so as to determine the effect on the pollution load.

Phase III

  • (x) On the basis of the studies carried out in all the ten mills, limits for water consumption level for each type of industry was established.

(xi)

Subsequently, general guidelines for water conservation for each type of pulp and paper industry were evolved.

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CHAPTER 2 INDUSTRY PROFILE : PULP AND PAPER

  • 2.1 STATUS OF PULP AND PAPER MANUFACTURING MILL IN INDIA

Growth Pattern

The pulp and paper mill sector in India is one of the oldest industries. The first paper manufacturing mill was commissioned in 1812 in the eastern state of West Bengal. At the time of independence (1947) there were less than 20 mills in India with a total annual capacity of 100,000 tonnes. The number of paper manufacturing mills has increased from just 17 in 1951 to around 600 in Year 2002 with an annual installed capacity of 6.2 million tonnes and has then fallen to 309 in year 2004. The reason has been non-availability of techno –economic solution for black liquor recovery/treatment for agro based pulp and paper manufacturing process. Due to regulatory pressure, several small/medium scale agro based pulp and paper manufacturing mills have been forced to closed down in recent years.

The capacity utilization is estimated at around 60-65 percent of the total installed capacity. The growth of paper mills from 1950 onwards along with average installed capacity is as given in the Table 1.

Table 1: Number of paper mills in India with installed capacity during 1950 to

  • 2004 2

Year

No

of

Installed Capacity

Actual Production

Mills

(million

tonnes/

(million

tonnes/

annum)

annum)

  • 1950 – 51

17

0.137

 
  • 1970 – 71

55

0.768

 
  • 1980 – 81

137

1.816

 
  • 1990 – 91

325

3.304

 
  • 1999 – 01

600

6.2

 
  • 2001 02

594

8.500

 
  • 2003 04

309

7.8

5.6

In India, the average size of a pulp and paper mill is only about 25,000 tonnes per annum (tpa) when compared to 85,000 tpa in Asia and about 300,000 tpa in Europe and North America. The low capacity utilisation in the industry is due to high incidences of sickness in many small / medium mills and thus most of these are operating either at lower capacity or closed. The state wise distribution of the closed mills during 1999 to

  • 2002 is given in Table 2 below.

2 Source: IARPMA & indiastat.com

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Table 2:No of mills closed between 1999 and 2002 3

State-wise Number of Paper Mills Closed Down in India (01.01.1999 to 31.10.2002)

State

No. of Sick Paper Mills

Andhra Pradesh

3

Bihar

1

Chattisgarh

1

Goa

0

Gujarat

11

Haryana

0

Kerala

2

Karnataka

2

Madhya Pradesh

2

Maharashtra

18

NCT Delhi

9

Orissa

0

Punjab

7

Rajasthan

0

Tamil Nadu

7

Uttar Pradesh

13

West Bengal

4

Total

80

Product Portfolio

Indian industries produces different types / grades of paper for variety of uses. The paper and paperboard product segment constitutes of cultural paper, industrial paper and specialty paper. Cultural paper comprises of writing and printing paper, Art/Media paper, Bond paper, Copier paper, Cream wove, Maplitho, Ledger paper, etc. Industrial paper comprises of Duplex Board/Paper, Kraft Paper, Other Board/Paper.

The major types of paper that are produced in the country along with main varieties and their consumption pattern (demand indicator) are presented in the Table 3 below:

Table 3: Consumption pattern of paper and paper board products in India

Type of paper

Main varieties

% of total consumptions

Cultural paper

cream woven, maplitho, bond paper,

41%

3 Source: (www.indiastat.com)

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Type of paper

Main varieties

% of total consumptions

 

Chromo paper

 

Industrial paper

kraft paper, paper board – paper board - single layer board, multilayer

43%

Specialty paper

board, duplex board, Security paper, grease proof paper,

4%

Newsprint

electrical grades of paper glazed, non-glazed

12%

In India, the cultural varieties (writing and printing paper) account for about 41% of the production, specialty papers including coated papers for about 4% and newsprint for about 12 %. This leaves about 43% for kraft and boards. The world consumption of paper and paperboard at present has been estimated to be over 300 million tonnes a year which includes 30% of cultural papers, 14% of newsprint, and the balance of kraft / packaging paper and specialty paper.

State wise Distribution of Pulp & Paper Mills

The statewise distribution of pulp and paper mills (including further distribution based on raw material used) in the country from 2000 to 2004 is given in Table 4 through Table 6.

Figure 1 depicts the present distribution of pulp and paper mills in India. Annexure II gives the list of industries operating in 2004

Table 4: No of pulp and paper mills as on 2000 4

State-wise Number of Paper Mills in India (As on June 2000)

States/Uts

No. of Paper Mills

Andhra Pradesh

22

Assam

4

Bihar

9

Chandigarh

8

Gujarat

68

Haryana

15

Himachal Pradesh

15

Jammu & Kashmir

1

Kerala

7

Karnataka

17

Madhya Pradesh

21

4 Source: IARPM

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State-wise Number of Paper Mills in India (As on June 2000)

States/Uts

No. of Paper Mills

Maharashtra

115

Meghalaya

1

Delhi

6

Nagaland

1

Orissa

9

Pondicherry

3

Punjab

37

Rajasthan

8

Tamil Nadu

22

Uttar Pradesh

100

West Bengal

26

India

515

Table 5: No of Pulp and Paper Mills as on 2002 5

State

Agro based

Waste Paper

Wood Based

Grand Total

Andhra Pradesh

17

20

5

42

Assam

 

1

2

3

Bihar

4

3

 

7

Chattisgarh

2

7

 

9

Gujrat

4

91

2

97

 

7

9

1

17

Haryana Himachal Pradesh

1

5

1

7

Jammu & Kashmir

 

1

 

1

Jharkand

 

2

 

2

Karnataka

2

15

3

20

Kerela

 

10

2

12

 

3

26

1

30

Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra

13

83

4

100

Nagaland

   

1

1

Orissa

1

2

3

6

Pondicherry

1

6

 

7

Punjab

16

59

 

75

Rajasthan

1

9

 

10

Tamil Nadu

2

33

2

37

Uttar Pradesh

32

64

1

104

Uttaranchal

8

7

1

16

West Bengal

8

14

4

26

Grand Total

122

466

33

622

5 Source: (www.indiastat.com)

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Table 6: No of Pulp and paper mills as on 2004 6

State

Agro

Wastepaper

Wood

PaperMill

Integrated

Sub Total

Andhra Pradesh

6

6

4

   

16

Assam

   

1

   

1

Bihar

1

1

     

2

Chattisgarh

3

1

     

4

Gujarat

2

46

1

   

49

Harayana

7

4

1

1

 

13

Himachal

           

Pradesh

1

1

2

J & K

 

2

     

2

Karnataka

1

8

3

   

12

Kerela

 

9

2

   

11

Madhya

           

Pradesh

2

7

1

10

Maharastra

10

7

53

1

4

1

69

Nagaland

   

1

   

1

Orissa

 

4

2

   

6

Pondicherry

 

5

     

5

Punjab

9

11

 

1

 

21

Rajasthan

 

8

     

8

Tamil Nadu

 

22

2

 

2

26

Uttar Pradesh

17

20

1

   

38

Uttaranchal

4

1

1

   

6

West Bengal

2

5

     

7

Total

65

213

21

6

4

309

  • 6 Source: (IPPTA)

  • 7 Out of 10 Agro based mills, 9 have now shifted to waste paper based.

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Final report on water conservation in Pulp and Paper Sector Page No. 10 National Productivity Council,

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  • 2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF PULP AND PAPER MILLS IN THE COUNTRY

At present, around 309 8 pulp and paper manufacturing mills are operating in the country. Out of these, 198 mills are operating under large scale category with actual capacity of 5.2 million tonnes per annum and 111 mills are operating under small scale category with actual capacity of 0.3 million tonnes per annum.

  • (a) Based on Scale of operation

The pulp and paper mills based on the scale of operation are classified as those having an installed capacity of 25,000 tonnes per year & above as large scale and less than 25,000 tonnes but greater than 5,000 tonnes per year as medium scale and up to 5000 tonnes per year as small scale. The distribution of large/medium and small scale pulp and paper mills in the country is given below in Table 7.

Table 7: Distribution of Large/Medium and Small scale pulp and Paper Mills

 

Sl.

Scale of operation

No of Mills

Actual

   

No

Capacity,

 

million

tonnes

per annum

 

1

Large/Medium Scale

198

5.2

94.5%

 

2

Small Scale

111

0.3

5.5%

(b)

Based on Raw material Usage

 

The pulp and paper industry is segmented as wood/forest-based, agro-based and waste paper based with the former accounting for 21 %, agro-based 71 %, waste paper based 7% wood based and integrated for 1 % of the total actual production.

The number of pulp and paper mills under each classification is given below in Table

8

Table 8: Distribution Pulp and Paper Mills Based on Raw Material Used

 
 

Agro

Integrated

Wastepaper

Wood

No of Mills

   

66

3

 

219

21

% No. of Mills

 

21

1.0

 

71

7

Production, million TPA

 

1.0

0.14

 

2.8

1.6

% Production

18.0

2.5

 

50.5

28

In Large/medium Scale Category.

 

In the large/Medium scale category, 63% of the mills are wastepaper based, 25% agro based, 11% wood based and 1% integrated pulp and paper mills

8

Source: IPPTA Directory, 2004

 

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Category

No of Mills

%

Production,

%

million TPA

Agro

49.0

24.6

0.89

16.8

Integrated

2.0

1.0

0.1

1.8

Wastepaper

126.0

63.3

2.5

47.2

Wood

21.0

11.1

1.8

34.2

In Small Scale category,

In the small-scale category, 83.6 % of the mills are wastepaper based, 15.3 % agro based, and 0.1% integrated pulp and paper mills

Category

No of Mills

%

Production,

%

million TPA

Agro

17.0

15.3

0.0460

18.4

Integrated

1.0

0.1

0.0015

1.6

Wastepaper

93.0

83.6

0.2025

80

  • (c) Based on Products manufactured

The Indian paper industry is classified broadly into two categories based on product manufactured:

Paper and Paper board products Newsprint

The number of pulp

and paper mills

producing Paper and Paper board and

Newsprint along with actual production in the country is given in Table 9 below:

Table 9: Distribution of Pulp and Paper Mills Based on Raw Material Used

Category

No of Mills

%

Production, million TPA

%

Cultural - high grade

66

21.3

2.27

41

Cultural - low grade

20

6.5

0.57

10.2

Industrial

187

60.5

1.74

31.4

Newsprint

21

6.8

0.62

11.2

Pulp

3

1

0.22

4

Specialty

12

3.9

0.12

2.2

In the Large/Medium Scale category, 28% are involved in manufacture of high quality cultural paper and paper board while only 7.5% are involved in low quality cultural paper, 1.51 % only pulp, 3% only specialty paper and rest industrial and newsprint grade paper as shown below:

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Category

No of Mills

%

Production, million TPA

%

Cultural - high grade

56

28.28

2.24

42

Cultural - low grade

15

7.57

0.55

10.4

Industrial

97

48.98

1.55

29

Newsprint

21

10.60

0.62

11.5

Pulp

  • 3 1.51

 

0.22

4.1

Specialty

  • 6 3.03

 

0.11

2

In Small Scale Category, maximum mills (about 81%) are involved in the production of industrial grade paper followed by 9% high grade cultural paper manufacturing, 4.5% are involved in low grade cultural paper manufacture, 9% are involved in high quality Cultural grade paper, 5.45% specialty and rest industrial grade as shown below:

Category

No of Mills

%

Production, TPA

%

Cultural - high grade

10

9.0

32879

13.1

Cultural - low grade

5

4.5

16734

6.7

Industrial

90

81.1

194970

78.0

Specialty

6

5.4

5415

2.2

  • (i) Paper and Paper board products

The major producers of paper in the country along with their installed capacities are given in Table 10.

Table 10: Major players in paper board product segment

Major players

Capacity

in

Product mix

tpa (FY2002)

 

98,500

 

AP Paper Mills Ballarpur Industries

2,47,500

creamwove, maplitho, kraft maplitho,creamwove, bond,others

 

2,00,000

creamwove

Hindustan Paper Corp. ITC Bhadrachalam

1,82,500

duplex board, maplitho, kraft, security

Orient Paper & Industries

1,61,000

paper, MG poster creamwove, kraft, maplitho, duplex board

Sinar Mas

1,10,000

coated writing & printing paper

The West

Coast Paper

1,19,750

creamwove, maplitho, kraft, MG poster

Mills

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(ii)

Newsprint

In the News print segment around 21 mills in Large scale category (4 in central public sector, 2 in state public sector and 15 in private sector) with an installed capacity of about 0.658 million TPA are operating.

The major mills in the newspaper/newsprint segment with their production capacities are given in Table 11.

Table 11: Major mills in Newsprint segment

Company

Capacity Million tpa

Hindustan Newsprint

0.1

NEPA

0.08

TNPL

0.18

Rama Newsprint

0.15

  • (d) Based on Pulping Process

Generally speaking, the pulp and paper industry divides itself along pulping process lines: chemical pulping (e.g., kraft chemical pulping), mechanical pulping, and semi- chemical pulping. The pulping process affects the strength, appearance, and intended use characteristics of the resultant paper product. Pulping processes are the major source of environmental impacts in the pulp and paper industry; each pulping process has its own set of process inputs, outputs, and resultant environmental impacts. The different types of products resulting from various pulping processes are listed as below:

Bleached Paper grade Kraft and Soda / Unbleached Kraft: Bleached or unbleached kraft process wood pulp usually converted into paperboard, coarse papers, tissue papers, and fine papers such as business, writing and printing.

Paper grade Sulfite: Sulfite process wood pulp with or without bleaching used for products such as tissue papers, fine papers, and newsprint.

Semi-chemical: Pulp is produced by chemical, pressure, and mechanical (sometimes) forces with or without bleaching used for corrugating medium (for cardboard), paper, and paperboard.

Mechanical pulp: Pulp manufacture by stone groundwood, mechanical refiner, thermo-mechanical, chemi - mechanical, or chemi-thermo - mechanical means for newsprint, coarse papers, tissue, molded fiber products, and fine papers.

Non-wood Chemical pulp: Production of pulp from textiles (e.g., rags), cotton linters, flax, hemp, tobacco, and abaca to make cigarette wrap papers and other specialty paper products.

Secondary Fiber Deink: Pulps from waste papers or paperboard using a chemical or solvent process to remove contaminants such as inks, coatings and pigments used to produce fine, tissue, and newsprint papers.

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Secondary Fiber Non-deink: Pulp production from wastepapers or paperboard without deinking processes to produce tissue, paperboard, molded products and construction papers.

Fine and Lightweight Papers from Purchased Pulp: Paper production from purchased market pulp or secondary fibers to make clay coated printing, uncoated free sheet, cotton fiber writing, and lightweight electrical papers.

The distribution of pulp and paper mills in the country based on pulping processes is given in Table 12 and Table 13 based on number of mills and installed capacity.

Table 12: Distribution of pulp and paper mills based on pulping processes ( number of mills)

   

No of Mills

Sl. No

Pulping Process

Large Scale

Small Scale

Grand Total

1

Chemical Soda Process

29

26

54

2

Hydro Pulping

92

113

219

3

Kraft/Sulphite process

34

2

36

Table 13: Distribution of pulp and paper mills based on pulping processes (installed capacity)

Sl.

Installed Capacity, million tonnes/yr

 

No.

Pulping process

Large Scale

%

Small Scale

%

1

Chemical Soda Process

0.666

4.3

  • 0.106 18.3

 

2

Hydro Pulping

12.807

81.9

  • 0.462 79.9

 

3

Kraft / Sulphite process

2.169

13.9

0.01

1.7

 

Grand Total

15.642

 

0.578

 

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CHAPTER 3 MANUFACTURING PROCESSESS

This section describes the major industrial processes within the pulp and paper industry, including the materials and equipment used, and the processes employed. This section specifically describes the details of commonly used production processes, associated raw materials, the products produced, and the materials recycled. This discussion, coupled with schematic drawings of the identified processes, provide a concise description of where wastes may be produced in the process.

  • 3.1 Generalised Paper/Paper board making process

In general, paper is manufactured by applying a liquid suspension of cellulose fibers to a screen, which allows the water to drain, and leaves the fibrous particles behind in a sheet. The liquid fibrous substrate formed into paper sheets is called pulp.

Processes in the manufacture of paper and paperboard can, in general terms, be split into three steps: pulp making, pulp processing, and paper/paperboard production. Paperboard sheets are thicker than paper sheets; paperboard is normally thicker than 0.3 mm. Generally speaking, however, paper and paperboard production processes are identical. First, a stock pulp mixture is produced by digesting a material into its fibrous constituents via chemical, mechanical, or a combination of both. In the case of wood, the most common pulping material, chemical pulping actions release cellulos e fibers by selectively destroying the chemical bonds in the glue-like substance (lignin) that binds the fibers together. After the fibers are separated and impurities have been removed, the pulp may be bleached to improve brightness and processed to a form suitable for paper-making equipment. Currently, one-fifth of all pulp and paper mills practice bleaching. At the paper-making stage, the pulp can be combined with dyes, strength building resins, or texture adding filler materials, depending on its intended end product. Afterwards, the mixture is dewatered, leaving the fibrous constituents and pulp additives on a wire or wire-mesh conveyor. Additional additives may be applied after the sheet- making step. The fibers bond together as they are carried through a series of presses and heated rollers. The final paper product is usually spooled on large rolls for storage.

A typical process for the manufacture of paper is shown in Figure 2.

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Figure 2: A typical process for Paper manufacture

Raw material Preparation section

Pulping Section

Pulping Section Pulp Washing & Bleaching Section Stock Preparation system Paper Machine

Pulp Washing & Bleaching Section

Pulping Section Pulp Washing & Bleaching Section Stock Preparation system Paper Machine

Stock Preparation system

Paper Machine

Raw material

Water

Chemicals

Water

Final report on water conservation in Pulp and Paper Sector Page No. 17 Figure 2: A
  • Wastewater

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Water

Alum, Rosin

Water

Final report on water conservation in Pulp and Paper Sector Page No. 17 Figure 2: A
  • Wastewater

Final report on water conservation in Pulp and Paper Sector Page No. 17 Figure 2: A

Additives

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  • Wastewater

Finished Paper

  • 3.2 Different industrial processes in pulp and paper sector

Based on the type of raw material used, the manufacturing processes are classified into

Wood Based Pulp and Paper manufacturing Process

Agro residue based Pulp and Paper manufacturing Process

Secondary fibre based Pulp and Paper manufacturing Process

Figure 3 shows the schematic diagram of different manufacturing processes of pulp and paper making from raw material sources.

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Figure 3: Generalisedl Process of Paper making from different types of raw material Chipping Mechanical Pulping
Figure 3: Generalisedl Process of Paper making from different types of
raw material
Chipping
Mechanical Pulping
Timber
Paper making
Chemical Pulping
Agro residue
Washing & Bleaching
Chemical Additives
Wastepaper
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Hydro- Pulping

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  • 3.2.1 Wood Based Pulp and paper manufacturing Process

Pulp Production: Various Methods of Pulping

Wood consists of two primary components: cellulose and lignin. Cellulose, which is the fibrous component of wood, is used to make pulp and paper. Lignin is the “glue” that holds wood fibers together. Pulping is the process, which reduces wood to a fibrous mat by separating the cellulose from the lignin.

Pulping processes are generally classified as chemical, mechanical, or semi- chemical.

Mechanical Pulp (yield 90%): Mechanical pulp uses mechanical abrasion to separate cellulose fibres which are held together by lignin. In the process called “Groundwood”, wet wood is ground by large stones. In Thermo mechanical pulping (TMP), metallic plates rub steam heated chips at high speeds, separating fibers.

Mechanically produced pulp has a higher proportion of broken cell fragments (called 'fines') among the fibres. Thus, when used to make paper, the long fibres form the matrix of the sheet within which the fines are trapped. Paper derived from mechanical pulps, therefore, tend to be denser and is often a component of newsprint and other printing papers.

However, because mechanical pulps are not chemically processed they still contain lignin and other natural wood substances, and paper with a high component of mechanical pulp tends to yellow quickly in sunlight.

Mechanical pulping processes all use a lot of electrical energy and water. However, they also provide 80-90% recovery of total fibre. Mechanical pulp processes are cheaper to operate than more sophisticated chemical based systems. There are also fewer environmental issues, such as chemical contamination of sites and unpleasant smells.

Chemical Pulp (yield 50%): Chemical pulping achieves fiber separation by dissolving the lignin that cement the fibers together. In chemical pulping, fibres are less likely to be damaged than in other pulping processes. Chemical pulp is more expensive then mechanical pulp, but it has better strength and brightness properties. There are three chemical pulping methods known as Soda, Kraft (or Sulfate), and Sulfite. The choice of the chemical pulping method depends upon the type of raw material available and the product end use.

1. Soda Pulping

Soda pulp is the original chemical pulp and is produced by cooking chips of (usually) deciduous woods in a solution of caustic soda under pressure. This leaves a relatively pure cellulose pulp which is then washed and bleached. Soda pulp produces relatively soft, bulky papers (as a filler with other pulps) used in books, magazines and envelopes. Caustic soda dissolves most of the lignin in wood while having little effect on the cellulose. Cooking liquor is recovered during the washing process. Currently this process is primarily used for agro residue based material pulping.

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2. Kraft / Sulfate Pulping

In a chemical pulping process, heat and chemicals are added to wood chips in a pressure cooker called the digester. In the kraft process, an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, known as white liquor, selectively dissolve the lignin and make it soluble in the cooking liquid. After 2 to 4 hours, the mixture of pulp, spent pulping chemicals and wood waste is discharged from the digester. The pulp is washed to separate it from the black liquor - the pulping chemicals and wood waste. Kraft pulping is a low yield process - only 45% of the wood used becomes pulp. The pulp, called brownstock at this point in the process, is ready to be bleached. Softwood pulp from a conventional cooking process contains about 4.5% lignin. This lignin will be removed and the pulp will be brightened during the bleaching process.

In response to concerns about the amount of organic waste in the effluent, as conventional pulping processes remove only about 95% of the lignin from the pulp, there are few mills that have started extended / oxygen de-lignification for further lignin removal. Today, a well run oxygen de-lignification system can remove 55% of the lignin from the unbleached pulp. Figure 4 shows the oxygen delignification tower installed in one of pulp and paper mill in India.

Fig 4: Oxygen De-lignification Tower
Fig 4: Oxygen De-lignification Tower
Final report on water conservation in Pulp and Paper Sector Page No. 20 2. Kraft /

The kraft process is applicable to almost any wood and produces a pulp with strong fibres, but which also takes more bleaching that other chemical pulps. It is suitable for even quite resinous pine species. Kraft pulp is used where strength, wear and

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