MCI1335C

MARINE CORPS INSTITUTE

FUNDAMENTALS OF DIESEL ENGINES

MARINE BARRACKS WASHINGTON, DC

-= •

UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS MARINE CORPS INSTITUTE

WASHINGTON NAVY YARD

912 POOR STREET SE

WASHINGTON, DC 20391-5680

13.35c 23 Jul97

MCI 13.35c FUNDAMENTALS OF DIESEL ENGINES

1. Purpose. MCI course 13.35c, Fundamentals of Diesel Engines, has been published as a part of the Marine Corps continuing education program to provide instruction on the fundamentals of diesel engines to all Marines having duties as a diesel engine mechanic.

2. Scope. MCI course 13.35c, Fundamentals of Diesel Engines, addresses in-depth construction and operating principles of the diesel engine including fuel efficiency, engine efficiency, advantages and disadvantages, engine measurements, and main components. The course also covers the areas of two and four-stroke cycle operation, combustion chamber design, and the combustion process. Supercharging, cooling, and fuel quality are discussed as well as how these characteristics affect engine performance. Finally, the fuel system is examined to provide the student with a basic knowledge of fuel system functions.

3. Applicability. This course is intended for instructional purposes only. It is designed for use by Marines in the ranks of Pvt - Sgt who are tasked with duties that involve working closely with diesel engines.

4. Recommendations. Comments and recommendations on the contents of the course are invited and will aid in subsequent course revisions. Please complete the course evaluation questionnaire located at the end of the text and return it to:

Director (CDD3)

Marine Corps Institute Washington Navy Yard

912 Poor Street SE Washington, DC 20391-5680

G. White

Lieutenant Colonel, U.S. Marine Corps Deputy Director

ERRA TUM CHANGE PAGE TO COURSE MATERIAL

1. Purpose. The purpose of this change is to give the student current instructions regarding the instructions for the Review Lesson Examination page.

2. Action. Change the instructions found on page R-l of this book to read as follows:

"The purpose of the review lesson examination is to prepare you for your final examination. We recommend that you try to complete your review lesson examination without referring to the text, but for those items (questions) you are unsure of, restudy the text. When you finish your review lesson and are satisfied with your responses, check your responses against the answers provided at the end of this review lesson examination.

Select the ONE answer that BEST completes the statement or that answers the item. For multiple choice items, circle your response. For matching items, place the letter of your response in the space provided."

3. This page is to be filed directly behind the Promulgation Letter of this course.

COURSE TITLE

CONTENTS

Contents "'; .

Student Information .

Study Guide

Study Unit 1

Lesson 1

Lesson 2

Lesson 3

Study Unit 2

Lesson 1

Lesson 2

Study Unit 3

Lesson 1

Lesson 2

Review Lesson

Bibliography

Fundamentals of Diesel Engines

Fuel Efficiency and Engine Measurements .

Exercise .

Engine Output and Efficiency .

Exercise .

Main Components and Classifications of Engines .

Exercise .

Principles, Performance, and Combustion Process of the Diesel Engine

Operating Principles of the Diesel Engine .

Exercise .

Combustion within the Diesel Engine .

Exercise .

Diesel Engine Fuel Injection Systems

Fuel Injection Systems .

Exercise .

Governors .

Exercise .

Page

111

v

1-1 1-16 1-19 1-30 1-32 1-50

2-1 2-12 2-15 2-25

3-1 3-26 3-28 3-35

R-l

Student Information

Number and Title

MCl1335C

FUNDAMENTALS OF DIESEL ENGINES

Study Hours

4

Course Materials

Text

Review Agency Commanding Officer, Engineer School Marine Corps Detachment

FT. Leonard Wood, MO 65473

Reserve 5 Reserve Retirement Credits

Retirement

Credits (RRC)

ACE American Council on Education in August 1995 and determined to have 2 equivalency credits at collegiate level.

Assistance For administrative assistance, have your training officer or NCO log on to the MCl home page at www.mci.usmc.mil. Marines CONUS may call toll free 1-800-MCl-USMC. Marines worldwide may call commercial (202) 685- 7596 or DSN 325-7596.

111

Study Guide

Congratulations Congratulations on your enrollment in a distance education course from the Distance Learning and Technologies Department (DLTD) of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI). Since 1920, the Marine Corps Institute has been helping tens of thousands of hard-charging Marines, like you, improve their technical job performance skills through distance learning. By enrolling in this course, you have shown a desire to improve the skills you have and master new skills to enhance your job performance. The distance learning course you have chosen, MCI 1335C, Fundamentals of Diesel Engines, provides instructions to all Marines who work closely with diesel engines or who have the duties of an engineer equipment mechanic.

Your Personal • YOU ARE PROPERLY MOTIVATED. You have made a positive

Characteristics decision to get training on your own. Self-motivation is perhaps the most important force in learning or achieving anything. Doing whatever is necessary to learn is motivation. You have it!

• YOU SEEK TO IMPROVE YOURSELF. You are enrolled to improve those skills you already possess, and to learn new skills. When you improve yourself, you improve the Corps!

• YOU HAVE THE INITIATIVE TO ACT. By acting on your own, you have shown you are a self-starter, willing to reach out for opportunities to learn and grow.

• YOU ACCEPT CHALLENGES. You have self-confidence and believe in your ability to acquire knowledge and skills. You have the selfconfidence to set goals and the ability to achieve them, enabling you to meet every challenge.

• YOU ARE ABLE TO SET AND ACCOMPLISH PRACTICAL GOALS. You are willing to commit time, effort, and the resources necessary to set and accomplish your goals. These professional traits will help you successfully complete this distance learning course.

Continued on next page

v

Study Guide, Continued

Beginning Your Course

Leafing Through the Text

The First Study Unit

Reading the Learning Objectives

Completing the Exercises

Before you actually begin this course of study, read the student information page. If you find any course materials missing, notify your training officer or training NCO. If you have all the required materials, you are ready to begin.

To begin your course of study, familiarize yourself with the structure of the course text. One way to do this is to read the table of contents. Notice the table of contents covers specific areas of study and the order in which they are presented. You will find the text divided into several study units. Each study unit is comprised of two or more lessons, lesson exercises, and finally, a study unit exercise.

Leaf through the text and look at the course. Read a few lesson exercise questions to get an idea of the type of material in the course. If the course has additional study aids, such as a handbook or plotting board, familiarize yourself with them.

Tum to the first page of study unit 1. On this page, you will find an introduction to the study unit and generally the first study unit lesson. Study unit lessons contain learning objectives, lesson text, and exercises.

Learning objectives describe in concise terms what the successful learner, you, will be able to do as a result of mastering the content of the lesson text. Read the objectives for each lesson and then read the lesson text. As you read the lesson text, make notes on the points you feel are important.

To determine your mastery of the learning objectives and text, complete the exercises developed for you. Exercises are located at the end of each lesson, and at the end of each study unit. Without referring to the text, complete the exercise questions and then check your responses against those provided.

Continued on next page

VI

Study Guide, Continued

Continuing to March

Preparing for the Final Exam

Continue on to the next lesson, repeating the above process until you have completed all lessons in the study unit. Follow the same procedures for each study unit in the course.

To prepare for your final exam, you must review what you learned in the course. The following suggestions will help make the review interesting and challenging.

• CHALLENGE YOURSELF. Try to recall the entire learning sequence without referring to the text. Can you do it? Now look back at the text to see if you have left anything out. This review should be interesting. Undoubtedly, you'll find you were not able to recall everything. But with a little effort, you'll be able to recall a great deal of the information.

• USE UNUSED MINUTES. Use your spare moments to review. Read your notes or a part of a study unit, rework exercise items, review again; you can do many of these things during the unused minutes of every day.

• APPLY WHAT YOU HAVE LEARNED. It is always best to use the skill or knowledge you've learned as soon as possible. Ifit isn't possible to actually use the skill or knowledge, at least try to imagine a situation in which you would apply this learning. For example make up and solve your own problems. Or, better still, make up and solve problems that use most of the elements of a study unit.

• USE THE "SHAKEDOWN CRUISE" TECHNIQUE. Ask another Marine to lend a hand by asking you questions about the course. Choose a particular study unit and let your buddy "fire away." This technique can be interesting and challenging for both of you!

• MAKE REVIEWS FUN AND BENEFICIAL. Reviews are good habits that enhance learning. They don't have to be long and tedious. In fact, some learners find short reviews conducted more often prove more beneficial.

Continued on next page

Vll

Study Guide, Continued

Tackling the Final Exam

Completing Your Course

Graduating!

When you have completed your study of the course material and are confident with the results attained on your study unit exercises, take the sealed envelope marked "FINAL EXAM" to your unit training NCO or training officer.

Your training NCO or officer will administer the final examination and return the examination and the answer sheet to MCI for grading. Before taking your final examination, read the directions on the DP-37 answer sheet carefully.

The sooner you complete your course, the sooner you can better yourself by applying what you've learned! HOWEVER--you do have 2 years from the date of enrollment to complete this course.

As a graduate of this distance education course and as a dedicated Marine, your job performance skills will improve, benefiting you, your unit, and the Marine Corps.

Semper Fidelis!

viii

STUDY UNIT 1

DIESEL ENGINE OPERATION

Introduction. The diesel engine bears the name of

Dr. Rudolph Diesel, a German engineer. In 1897, he was credited with constructing the first successful diesel engine that used liquid fuel. His objective was to develop an engine with greater fuel economy than the steam engine, which used only a small percentage of the energy contained in the coal burned under its boiler. Dr. Diesel originally planned to use pulverized coal as fuel, but in 1893, his first experimental engine was a failure. After a second engine failed, he changed his plan and decided to use liquid fuel. The engine then proved successful.

In this study unit, we will cover in depth the basic construction and operating principles of the diesel engine to include fuel efficiency, engine efficiency, advantages and disadvantages, engine measurements, and main components.

This will provide you with a firm basis of the fundamentals of how and why a diesel engine operates. Good luck! Let's get started.

Lesson 1. FUEL EFFICIENCY AND ENGINE MEASUREMENTS

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. Identify, by selecting, the three main reasons why diesel engines have high fuel efficiency.

2. Identify, by selecting, charateristics of diesel engine efficiency.

3. Identify, by selecting, the differences between gasoline engines and diesel engines.

4. Identify, by selecting, the procedures used to compute various engine measurements.

5. Identify, by selecting, the major advantages and disadvantages of the diesel engine.

6. Identify, by matching, the definition of various engine measurements.

7. Identify, by selecting, the characteristics of various engine measurements.

1-1

1101. Fuel Efficiency

In the Marine Corps, diesel engines are used in a variety of applications. They come in all sizes from the small 2-cylinder diesel generator set to the 2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, and 12-cylinder inline and v-type engines found in construction equipment, motor transport equipment, amtracks, and tanks. Horsepower ratings range from the 10-horsepower engine in the small 5 kw generator sets to the 750-horsepower engines in the M60 tank. Various types of engines are found in the Marine Corps, but the diesel engine makes up the bulk of these engines. Heavy equipment and most armored vehicles used in the Marine Corps operate on diesel fuel. Did you know the diesel powered engine has proven to be more fuel efficient than the gasoline engine? It's true, but you may be asking "Just what is fuel efficient?" Well, this means that the diesel powered engine can get more miles per gallon of fuel than an engine powered by gasoline. The three main reasons why the diesel engine's fuel efficiency is high are air-fuel ratio, compression ratio, and heat value of the diesel fuel.

a. Air-fuel ratio. The air-fuel ratio is the amount of air in relation to fuel that enters the engine for burning. A ratio of 12:1 (12 to 1) means that there are twelve parts of air to one part of fuel, by weight, in the mixture. This is considered a rich mixture because of the high fuel content. A mixture of 18:1 (18 to 1) has more air than the 12:1 (12 to 1) mixture and is called a lean mixture. The leaner the mixture, the higher the fuel efficiency. Engines differ, however, in their ability to operate on lean mixtures. A gasoline engine operates in a range between 18:1 and 12:1. Mixtures leaner than 18:1 cause miSfiring and loss of power in the gasoline engine.

However, the air-fuel ratio in a diesel engine varies from 100:1 at idle to 20:1 at full load. In a diesel engine, only air is drawn in on the intake stroke, and because air intake is unrestricted, the cylinder fills with air on every intake stroke. The high compression ratio causes the air temperature in the cylinder to be raised above the ignition temperature of diesel fuel. Fuel is not injected into the compressed air until it is time for ignition. The fuel being injected into the cylinder is mixed with the air in the cylinder by turbulence. Since the air temperature is hotter than the ignition temperature of the fuel, the fuel ignites and burns completely when it comes in contact with the compressed air.

b. compression ratio. The second reason why diesel engines are more efficient than gasoline engines is the higher compression ratio. This indicates how tightly the air and fuel mixture is compressed on the compression stroke. The compression ratio is computed by first measuring the volume of a cylinder when the piston is at the bottom of its stroke and dividing it by the volume of the cylinder after the piston is moved to the top of its stroke. For example, say the volume of the cylinder is 100 cubic inches when the piston is at the bottom of the cylinder. If the piston goes to the top, and the air and fuel are squeezed

1-2

into an area only 10 cubic inches in volume, the engine would have a compression ratio of 10 to 1.

The tighter a mixture of air and fuel is squeezed, the higher the pressure build-up inside the cylinder will be. This leads to a higher engine compression ratio, which means that an engine can get more power from a given amount of fuel.

The diesel engine uses a much higher compression ratio than the gasoline engine. Compression ratios for gasoline engines range around 10 to 1 while diesel engines use ratios around 20 to 1. The higher compression ratio of the diesel engine allows the engine to turn more of the fuel's heat energy into mechanical energy. When air and fuel are burned in the cylinder, the pressure in the cylinder increases. Remember that the pressure in the diesel cylinder is already high due to its high compression ratio, but it increases even more during combustion. The increase in pressure in the combustion chamber forces the piston down in the cylinder, resulting in greater power output per power stroke.

c. Heat Value. The third reason for greater fuel efficiency of the diesel engine is the heat value of the fuel. If a fuel gives off more heat per unit, less fuel will be needed to give the same power output. This is true for diesel fuel when compared to gasoline. The heat value of Number 2 diesel fuel is approximately 11 percent higher than that of gasoline.

Due to the high air-fuel ratio, compression ratio, and heat value, the diesel engine produces more power during the cycle of operation with less fuel than a gasoline engine.

1-3

1102. Gasoline Engine Versus Diesel Engine

When the Marine Corps replaced the M151 Jeep with the M998 series High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), out went an era of a gasoline engine vehicle that spanned as far back as the Second World War. The diesel engine vehicle is designed to provide a broader range of uses than its pre-existing counterparts.

In many respects, the four stroke cycle gasoline engine and the four stroke cycle diesel engine are very similar. They both follow the same cycle of operation consisting of intake, compression, power, and exhaust strokes. They both use the same type of intake and exhaust system. But, they are different. Let's examine the differences between the two engines.

a. Fuel ignition. The fuel and air mixture is ignited by the heat generated by the compression stroke in a diesel engine versus the use of a spark ignition system on a gasoline engine. The diesel engine doesn't need a spark ignition system. Diesel engines are often called compression-ignition engines because of the method of fuel ignition. This is what makes them different from the spark ignition engines. These latter engines use gasoline as fuel, and the mixture of gasoline and air is ignited by an electric spark.

b. Volume of compression. The fuel and air mixture is compressed to about one-twentieth of its original volume in a diesel engine. In contrast, the fuel and air mixture in a gasoline engine is compressed to about one-eighth of its original volume. The contrast between the two engines is shown in figure 1-1.

1-4

3 COMPRESSION
4 RATIO 8:1 0
5
6

7
8 IT
0
BOTTOM DEAD CENTER
TOP DEAD CENTER
GASOLINE ENGINE 5 COMPRESSION
10" RATIO 20:1 0

ll.

20 IT
0
BOTTOM DEAD CENTER TOP DEAD CENTER
DIESEL ENGINE Fig 1-1.

Comparison of diesel and gasoline engine compression strokes.

1-5

c. Fuel and air mixture. Unlike the diesel engine, the gasoline engine mixes the fuel and air before it reaches the combustion chamber. In a diesel engine, fuel is put into the combustion chamber directly through an injection system. The air and fuel then mix in the combustion chamber (fig 1-2).

AIR ENTERS FUEL IS

FUEL MIXES

WITH AIR FUEL AND AIR MIX IN COMBUSTION CHAMBER

MIXTURE ENTERS

_ AIR FUEL MIXTURE

DIESEL ENGINE

GASOLINE ENGINE

Fig 1-2. Comparison of diesel and gasoline engine intake strokes.

d. Power control. The engine speed and the power output of a diesel engine are controlled by the quantity of fuel admitted to the combustion chamber. The amount of air is constant. This contrasts with the gasoline engine where the speed and power output are regulated by limiting the air entering the engine (fig 1-3).

1-6

ACCELERATOR

Without referring back, try your hand at listing the main reasons for high fuel efficiency in the diesel engine.

1.

-

GASOLINE ENGINE

AIR

MOTION OF RACK REGULATES FUEL DELIVERY

FUEL INJECTOR

DIESEL ENGINE

Fig 1-3. Comparison of gasoline and diesel engine regulation

of power.

2.

3.

Now list the main differences between a gasoline engine and a diesel engine.

1.

2.

3.

4.

1-7

Well, let's see how you did. If you answered the first challenge (1) Air-Fuel Ratio; (2) Compression Ratio; (3) Heat Value, you are right.

Your response for the second challenge should be: (1) Fuel ignition; (2) Volume of compression; (3) Fuel and air mixture; (4) Power control.

If your responses do not match those given above, refer back to paragraphs 1101 and 1102.

Now that you have examined the differences between the gasoline and diesel engine, let's continue with the advantages and disadvantages of the diesel engine.

e. Advantages

(1) The diesel engine produces tremendous low-speed power and gets much more fuel mileage than the gasoline counterpart. This makes the engine very suitable for military equipment.

(2) Because the diesel engine does not reauire ignition tuneups, it can operate reliably for longer periods of time between services. The gasoline engine must have the spark plugs changed regularly to get good fuel mileage and to keep emission levels low. Fuel and air filters are changed at similar intervals for both engines.

(3) Because diesel fuel is less volatile than gasoline, it is not as likely to explode in a collision.

f. Disadvantages

(1) The heavier weight and limited RPM (revolutions per minute) of the diesel engine result in an engine with generally lower power output. Therefore, the diesel engine vehicle is generally heavier and slower than a similar gasoline model. Design advancements have helped eliminate this problem and make the engine more practical for most uses.

(2) The diesel engine is much noisier than a gasoline engine.

The engine emits a loud, clattering noise, especially after a cold start and during idling. This knocking characteristic results from the diesel's combustion process. Between the start of fuel injection and effective ignition, air-fuel mixing takes a minimum of 0.001 seconds and a maximum of 0.002 seconds. This "pause" is called ignition delay, and it is at its greatest with a cold engine or under low load. Longer delays result in more fuel entering the combustion chamber and igniting violently. This in turn results in more engine clatter.

1-8

Continuing improvements in fuel injection systems have helped to reduce diesel noise to acceptable levels.

(3) Diesel fuel creates a large amount of fumes. This is caused by poor fuel combustion--the hydrocarbons do not burn completely (blue smoke). sometimes carbon or soot forms during combustion if there is not enough air (black smoke). To achieve optimum combustion for greater power and fuel economy, the fuel injection system must operate properly.

(4) Because diesel fuel is not very volatile, the diesel engine is difficult to start in cold weather. For reliable starting, the diesel requires heavy-duty or even multiple batteries, glow plugs or pre-heaters, and reduction starter motors.

without referring back, list three advantages of the diesel engine over the gasoline engine.

a.

b.

c.

List four disadvantages of the diesel engine.

a.

Your response for the first challenge should be: (a) tremendous low-speed power; (b) does not require ignition tuneups; (c) diesel fuel is less volatile.

b.

c.

d.

Your response for the second challenge should be: (a) low power output; (b) noisier than a gasoline engine; (c) creates a large amount of fumes; (d) difficult to start in cold weather.

If your responses to the challenges do not match those given above, refer back to paragraph 1102.

1-9

1103.

Engine Measurements

Before you are introduced to the various parts of the diesel engine, you must understand a few terms and definitions associated with piston engines in general. Let's cover them one at a time.

a. Bore and stroke. The size of an engine cylinder is usually indicated in terms of bore and stroke (fig 1-4). Bore is the diameter of the cylinder. stroke is the distance the piston moves in the cylinder or the distance between top dead center (tdc) and bottom dead center (bdc).

b. Engine piston displacement. Piston displacement (fig 1-4) is the volume of space that the piston occupies as it moves from bottom dead center to top dead center. The engine displacement is determined by the cylinder bore diameter, the length of the stroke, and the number of cylinders.

I ~~ __ BORE_-t·1

DISPLACEMENT

TOP

_ DEAD CENTER_

T

STROKE

1

PISTON n TRAVEL 0

BOTTOM --DEAD CENTER-

Fig 1-4. Bore, stroke, and displacement.

1-10

To better understand bore and stroke and engine piston displacement, take a look at the following example:

c. Atmospheric pressure. The air around us is always under a pressure which we call atmospheric pressure or barometric pressure (fig 1-5). This pressure is produced by the weight of the envelope of air which surrounds the earth (air really has weight--12 cubic feet of air weighs about a pound). At the outer limit of the atmosphere, the air is under no pressure. As the elevation decreases, the weight of all the air above presses down with more and more pressure until at sea level the atmospheric pressure is 14.7 pounds per square-inch (psi). Why don't you

1-11

feel this pressure on your body? You don't feel the pressure because the pressure inside you balances with the pressure exerted on you. This same atmospheric pressure forces air into the cylinders of a four-cycle engine.

/

ATMOSPHERIC 1- 1-

PRESSURE r--T--,

D \ I I 1 SQUARE INCH

\ I :'--COLUMN OF AIR

\ ' WEIGHS 14.7 PSI

, I

\ I

\ '

\ I

\ I

\ '

\ I

\ I

\ :

, I

, ,

\ ,

, I

, I , , , ,

" ~

....... _......,_jJJ~--- ,I,

l

14.7 SEA

PSI LEVEL

Fig 1-5.

Atmospheric pressure at sea level.

d. Vacuum in the cylinder. How does atmospheric p~essure force air into the cylinder? Well, we could say air is "sucked in" when the piston descends on the intake stroke with the inlet valve open. That's an easy way to explain it, but really, air isn't "sucked in" at all. What actually happens is the descending piston makes a partial vacuum, that is, it lowers the pressure inside the cylinder below that of the outside pressure. Air is then forced into the cylinder as a result of the this decrease in the atmospheric pressure inside the cylinder (fig 1- 6) •

1-12

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE FORCES AIR IN TO FILL EMPTY CYLINDER

PISTON MOVES DO\\-N

Fig 1-6. Vacuum in the cylinder.

e. Volumetric efficiency. The atmosphere exerts considerable pressure and rapidly forces air into the cylinder on the intake stroke. However, the engine is not able to fill 100 percent on each intake stroke because of design limitations. Factors such as valve and port diameters, manifold configurations, valve timing, engine speed, and atmospheric pressure all affect volumetric efficiency. To sum it up, volumetric efficiency is the ratio of the actual volume of air taken into the engine cylinder during the intake or suction stroke as compared to the volume of air displaced during the piston's movement. The actual volume of air the piston takes in is stated in terms of standard temperature and atmospheric pressure: 60° F and 14.7 psi. Thus:

1-13

Figure 1-7 demonstrates a typical engine with a volumetric efficiency of 80 percent. As the piston moves from top to bottom dead center, the volume of space inside the cylinder increases by 100 cubic inches. But, due to the engines rpm's, which determine how fast the piston moves up and down inside the cylinder, only 80 cubic inches of air is allowed to enter the cylinder.

80 CUBIC INCHES OF AIR ENTERS CYLINDER

CYLINDER VOLUME INCREASES BY 100 CUBIC INCHES

Fig 1-7. Demonstrating volumetric efficiency.

Using the volumetric efficiency formula and the example shown in figure 1-7, let's calculate the volumetric efficiency of the engine.

1-14

Now, let's examine how to measure volumetric efficiency and how increasing volumetric efficiency affects a diesel engine.

(1) Measuring volumetric efficiency. As you now know, volumetric efficiency is the measurement of the amount of air that actually enters the cylinder during the intake stroke of the engine. The greater the volumetric efficiency, the greater the amount of air entering the cylinder; and the greater the amount of air, the more power the engine cylinder can produce. At low speeds, more air can get into the cylinder; and the power the engine produces during the power stroke is greater.

Thus, at low speeds, the volumetric efficiency is high. But at high speeds, the shorter time taken by the intake stroke reduces the amount of air entering the cylinder. Thus, at high speeds, the power the engine produces during the power stroke is less. Consequently, the volumetric efficiency is lower. In addition, the air expands as it is heated when it passes through hot manifolds on its way to the cylinder. This further reduces the amount of air entering the cylinder and the volumetric efficiency.

(2) Increasing volumetric efficiency. As stated, volumetric efficiency is higher at low engine speed because more air gets into the cylinder. Volumetric efficiency can also be improved by installing a blower or air-compressing device on the engine. These devices raise pressure of the intake system above atmospheric pressure by forcing more air into the cylinder. with more air in the cylinder, fuel can be burned more completely and the engine's power output increased. Blowers and the aircompressing devices will be discussed further in study unit 2.

Lesson Summary. This lesson provided you with the knowledge and skill to identify and determine various engine measurements. It also introduced you to fuel efficiency, the differences between gasoline and diesel engines, and the advantages and disadvantages of the diesel engine. In the next lesson, you will examine engine output and efficiency. But first, check your knowledge by answering the following questions. Good luck!

1-15

Exercise:

Complete items 1 through 16 by performing the action required. Check your responses against those listed at the end of this study unit.

1. What are the three main reasons for high fuel efficiency in diesel engines?

a. Fuel ignition, compression ratio, and power control

b. Air-fuel ratio, heat value, and volume of compression

c. Power control, fuel and air mixture, and fuel ignition

d. Air-fuel ratio, compression ratio, and heat value

2. In a diesel engine, the

100:1 at idle to 20:1 at full load.

varies from

a. compression ratio

b. heat value

c. air-fuel ratio

d. volume of compression

3. When you divide the volume of air in a cylinder with the piston at BOC by the volume of air in the cylinder with the piston at TOC, you are computing the

a. compression ratio. c.

b. heat value. d.

air-fuel ratio. power control ratio.

4. How is the fuel ignited in a diesel engine?

a. By spark plug

b. By hot compressed air

c. By glow plug

5. The four main differences between a gasoline and diesel engine are fuel ignition, volume of compression, fuel and air mixture, and

a. power control.

b. heat value.

c. method of cooling.

6. What controls the diesel engine's power and speed output?

a. The quantity of air entering the combustion chamber

b. The quantity of fuel entering the combustion chamber

c. Limiting device in the chamber

1-16

7. What are three advantages that the diesel engine has over the gasoline engine?

a. Tremendous high-speed power, fewer ignition tuneups, and less fuel volatility

b. Fewer spark plug changes, tremendous low-speed power, higher fuel mileage

c. Intervals are longer for changing fuel air filters, requires fewer ignition tuneups, and higher fuel mileage

d. Produces tremendous low-speed power, does not require ignition tuneups, and diesel fuel is less volatile than gasoline

8. What are four disadvantages of the diesel engine?

a. Requires glow plugs for reliable starting during cold weather, noisier than a gasoline engine, creates a large amount of fumes, and requires a blower to reduce rpm's

b. Low power output, noisier than a gasoline engine, creates a large amount of fumes, and difficult to start in cold weather

c. Requires high-performance spark plugs for reliable starting, higher compression to compensate for poor fuel ignition, requires a blower to increase rpm, and noisier than a gasoline engine

1-17

Matchina: For items 9 through 13, match the definition in column 1 to its type of engine measurement in column 2. Place your responses in the spaces provided.

Column 1

Definition

9. The distance the piston moves in the cylinder

10. Shows the amount of air forced into the cylinder verses the maximum possible amount of air that can be forced into the cylinder

11. Created by lowering the pressure inside the cylinder below that of the outside pressure

12. The weight of air that surrounds the earth

13. The volume of space the piston occupies as it moves from bottom dead center to top dead center

Column 2

Measurement

a. Engine piston displacement

b. Stroke

c. Vacuum in the cylinder

d. Atmospheric pressure

e. Volumetric efficiency

14. The size of an engine cylinder is usually indicated in terms of

a. cylinder displacement.

b. bore and stroke.

c. block size.

d. piston size.

15. At lower speeds, the volumetric efficiency is

a. higher.

b. not changed.

c. lower.

d. fluctuating.

16. What method is used to increase volumetric efficiency in a diesel engine?

a. Larger injector

b. Hotter spark plug

c. Blower

d. Heavier piston

1-18

Lesson 2.

ENGINE OUTPUT AND EFFICIENCY

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. Identify, by matching, the definitions of four factors of engine output.

2. Identify, by selecting, the unit of measurement for the work capacity of an engine.

3. Identify, by selecting, the equipment that was first used to determine engine power.

4. Identify, by selecting, the equipment that is used to measure horsepower at the driving wheels.

5. Identify, by selecting, what is meant by engine efficiency.

6. Identify, by selecting, the term that is used to show the relationship between heat energy in the fuel and indicated horsepower.

7. Identify, by selecting, the reason that a diesel engine has higher efficiency than a gasoline engine.

8. Identify, by selecting, the most common form of mechanical loss in an engine.

9. State, in writing, the two ways an engine's efficiency is decreased.

1201. Factors of Engine output

As you are probably aware, engines vary in size and output. A manufacturer designs an engine by considering the work the engine will be required to do. The work an engine is able to perform is called engine output. To better understand this concept, let's become familiar with the four factors involved in the measurement of engine output.

a. Work. Work is the movement of a body against an opposing force. It is measured in units of foot-pounds. One foot-pound of work is equivalent to lifting a l-lb weight vertically one foot. When sliding an object horizontally, work is measured by the force required to move the object multiplied by the distance that it is moved. Work is always the force exerted over a distance. If you attempted to move a box by applying force to it, and it does not move, no work is accomplished.

1-19

b. Energy. Energy is the second factor relating to engine output, and it is the ability to do work. It takes many forms such as heat, light, sound, stored energy (potential), or an object in motion (kinetic energy). Energy performs work by changing from one form into another. How does this relate to an engine? Well, an engine is capable of converting energy into work. To illustrate this, let's consider the operation of an automobile. From start to finish, it will do the following:

(1) When it is sitting and not running, it has potential energy stored in the fuel.

(2) When the fuel is burned, its potential energy is changed into heat energy. The auto's engine then transforms the heat energy from the burning fuel into kinetic energy by forcing the car into motion.

(3) The action of stopping the vehicle is accomplished by the brakes. By the action of friction, the brakes will transform the kinetic energy of the vehicle back into heat energy, and the vehicle will be stopped.

c. Power. Power, the third factor related to engine output, is the rate at which work is performed. It takes more power to work quickly than to work slowly. Engines are rated in terms of the amount of work they can do per minute. A large engine that can do more work per minute is more powerful than a small engine. The work capacity of engines is measured in horsepower. The horsepower unit was developed about the time that steam engines were being developed. It was found that an average horse could pull a weight of 200 pounds a distance of 165 feet in 1 minute (fig 1-8).

The amount of work involved Fig 1-8. Horsepower.

here is 33,000 foot-pounds (165

x 200). If 100 pounds were lifted 330 feet, or if 330 pounds were lifted 100 feet, the amount of work would be the same, 33,000 foot-pounds. When this amount of work is done in 1 minute, then 1 horsepower is required. Thus, 1 horsepower equals 33,000 foot-pounds of power.

1-20

A simple horsepower formula may be written as follows:

Horsepower = distance in feet per minute x force in ~ounds 33,000 x time in minutes required to move he weight

There are different ratings for horsepower, and we will be covering them later in the lesson.

d. Torgue. The fourth factor of engine output is torque. It is the turning or twisting force which rotates or tends to rotate an object. For example, when the lid on a jar is loosened, a twisting force or torque is applied to it (fig 1-9). Torque is measured in pound-feet (not to be confused with work, which is measured in foot-pounds). For instance, suppose a wrench is used to tighten a nut on a stud. If the handle of the wrench were 1- foot long and a 10-pound force is applied to the end of the wrench, you would then have 10 pound-feet of torque being

applied to the nut (fig 1-9). If the handle were 2-feet long and a 10-pound force is put on its end, 20 pound-feet of torque would be applied.

10 POUND FORCE

1 rr

10 FOOT-POUNDS OF TORQUE

REMOVING A JAR LID

Fig 1-9. Torque effect.

1-21

A tool called a torque wrench

(fig 1-10) is used to measure the force you place on a nut when you are tightening it.

Torque can be converted into work with the formula--

ft-lb (work) = 2yn x lb-ft (torque)

or

ft-lb = 6.2832n x lb-ft

--where n is the number in revolutions per minute.

Fig 1-10. Torque wrench.

The engine also exerts torque through gears and shafts connected to the wheels so that the wheels turn and the vehicle moves. The amount of torque that an engine produces varies with engine speed (fig 1-11). Note that torque increases and then, at an intermediate speed, begins decreasing. The reason for this variation is, with increasing speed, the engine is turning faster and is thus capable of supplying a greater twisting effort or torque. However, with further speed increases, volumetric efficiency decreases. Recall our earlier discussion about fuel efficiency in lesson one. Less air enters the cylinders with each intake stroke and thus, the power strokes are not as powerful; consequently, torque decreases.

e. Torgue-horsepower-speed (rpm) relationship. Figure 1-12 shows the relationship between speed, torque, and horsepower for a given engine. As illustrated, horsepower will continue to increase with speed even after torque begins to decrease. The reason that this happens is because horsepower is dependent on speed and torque. The horsepower will continue to increase due to the speed increase offsetting the torque decrease. At a

1-22

point, however, the torque begins to decrease so sharply that the increase in speed cannot offset it and horsepower also decreases.

700

OPERATIONAL
SPEED RANGE



I'
, ...
~ , RATED SPEED
MAX TORQUE I'-

\

\ RATED SPEED

650

!i: 700
CQ
..J toO
Ul 500
:::l

Q::
~ 2*1
2.
~ 110
~
2 140
~
~ 100
0
:r: = MAX TORQUE

MAXHP ~

......
./
_."
RATED
SPEED
~ "'
./ 1"'- ~ 600 § 550 o

IX

~ 500

450

400 12 16 20 24 28 32 RPM (HUNDREDS)

12

1.

20

2.

RPM (HUNDREDS)

Fig 1-11. Torque output versus speed.

Fig 1-12. Torque-horsepowerspeed relationship.

A rated speed is indicated in figures 1-11 and 1-12. This is the speed at which the governor is usually set in military vehicles. The rated speed is usually just under the maximum horsepower rating of the engine.

1202. Horsepower Ratings

Horsepower ratings may be required at different power points of the engine; consequently, there are different ways of rating horsepower. To fully understand engine performance, it is necessary to understand the different ratings.

a. Indicated horsepower. Indicated horsepower (ihp) is the horsepower actually developed inside the engine cylinders. It is called "indicated" horsepower because an indicating device is required to measure this horsepower. This device measures the pressures developed in the engine cylinders and, by a series of steps, translates this data into indicated horsepower. Indicated horsepower is always considerably greater than horsepower delivered by the engine because power is lost from the engine in a number of ways (friction, heat-loss, etc).

b. Friction horsepower. Friction horsepower (fhp) is the power required to overcome the friction of the various moving engine components. In other words, it is the horsepower lost by the engine running.

1-23

c. SAE horsepower. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) developed a simplified method of calculating horsepower based on engine dimensions. This rating was used only for commercial licensing of vehicles. This method is as follows:

_NB2 hp _

2.5

Where N is the number of cylinders and B is the cylinder diameter in inches.

d. Brake horsepower. Brake horsepower (bhp) is the actual power delivered by the engine to the flywheel. It is the usable horsepower. BHP is always less than the power developed in the engine cylinders because of the friction and mechanical losses. Indicated horsepower (ihp) minus friction horsepower (fhp) equals brake horsepower (ihp-fhp=bhp).

The term "brake horsepower" tends to be misleading because it has nothing to do with the brakes. The term originated from the equipment that was first used to determine the power developed by the engine. This piece of equipment is known as the prony brake.

A prony brake (fig 1-13) may be used to measure the actual usable or bhp that an engine can deliver. The device consists of a flywheel that is surrounded by a large braking device. A pressure arm is attached to this braking device. The other end of this arm exerts pressure on a scale. To actually use the prony brake, an engine is attached to, and subsequently, drives the flywheel. The braking device is then tightened until the engine is slowed to a predetermined rpm (fig 1-13 illustrates 3,000 rpm). As the braking device slows the engine, the other end of the arm attached to the scale, exerts pressure on the scale (fig 1-13 illustrates a reading of 250 lbs). Based on the reading at the scale and the engine rpm, a bhp value is ~etermined.

1-24

3000 RPM

TIGHTENING DEVICE

FRICTION MATERIAL

250 LBS WEIGHT READING ON SCALE

PRESSURE ARM

-LENGTH OF ARM---

Fig 1-13. Prony brake.

To calculate the bhp value with the prony brake, use the following formula:

bhp = 6.2832 x length of arm x engine rpm x scale reading 33,000

6.2832 is a given and 33,000 ft-lbs represents 1 horsepower.

BHP can also be measured by a dynomometer (fig 1-14). It is the modern method used to determine engine power output. One type of dynamometer is used to check the output of the engine at the crankshaft. The horsepower of the engine can also be measured at the driving wheels of a vehicle by using a chassis dynamometer.

1-25

1203.

VElllCLE WHEEL

DRIVE ROLL

TORQUE BRIDGE

POWER ABSORPTION UNIT

ROTOR STATOR

INPUT

Fig 1-14.

Chassis Dynamometer.

Engine Efficiency

Now that you have identified the various factors of engine output and how to measure the output, it's time to examine engine efficiency. First, you must identify what efficiency is.

The term "efficiency" is used to designate the relationship between results obtained and the effort required to obtain those results. It is expressed as:

ff' , output

e 1c1ency = input

Ten percent of the effort was lost to frictional forces within the pulley system. No machine is 100 percent efficient; all machines lose energy as explained later in this lesson.

Now that you can see how efficiency is expressed in a formula, let's take a look at engine efficiency and the principle considerations of the internal-combustion process.

1-26

Engine- efficiency is the amount of power

developed compared to the energy input. Energy input is measured by the heating value of the fuel used. The efficiency of any operating cycle is equal to the output divided by the input. The efficiency of the diesel engine cycle is considerably higher than the constant-volume cycle of a gasoline engine because of the higher compression ratio and also because combustion starts at a higher temperature.

In other words, the heat input is at a lOO~

higher average temperature in diesel 6~

engines.

Theoretically, the gasoline engine using the four-stroke cycle could be more efficient than the four-stroke cycle diesel engine if equivalent compression ratios could be used. However, in practice,

gasoline engines cannot use a compression ratio comparable to those of diesel engines because the fuel and air are drawn into the cylinder together and compressed. If comparable compression ratios were used, the fuel would fire or detonate before the

piston reaches the correct firing position. since temperature and the amount of heat content which is available for power are proportional to each other, cycle efficiency is computed from measurements made of temperature.

Fig 1-15. Pulley system with a 90 percent efficiency.

a. Indicated thermal efficiency. Indicated thermal efficiency is the relationship between the heat energy in the fuel and the energy produced in the engine (indicated horsepower). Thermal efficiency is defined as using, producing, or causing heat. Thermal efficiency relates to the heat energy of the fuel and the work output. The heat energy is the amount of heat the fuel will produce as it burns. Much of this heat is lost through the cylinder walls. The engine's cooling system and exhaust gases also contribute to heat loss. Heat that is lost cannot aid the engine in producing power. Therefore, only a relatively small part of the heat in the burning fuel can contribute toward pushing down on the pistons and thereby cause the engine to produce power. In actual practice, because of the great amount of heat lost to the cooling water and lubricating oil and in the exhaust gases, thermal efficiency may be as low as 20 percent.

In other words, as much as 80 percent of the energy in fuel is lost. However, the remaining 20 percent is sufficient to operate the engine normally. Practical engine-design limitations prevent engines from operating much above the thermal efficiency level of 25 percent.

1-27

The thermal efficiency of an engine is commonly expressed in heat units called British Thermal units (Btu). One Btu is equal to 778 foot-pounds of work; therefore, the horsepower output of an engine can be readily converted into Btu per unit of time.

Indicated thermal efficiency = indicated horsepower in Btu fuel input in Btu

b. Mechanical efficiency. The mechanical efficiency of the engine is the relationship between the power developed in the engine cylinders (ihp) and the power delivered by the engine (bhp). Internal engine losses from friction and other factors always prevent brake-horsepower from equaling indicated horsepower.

1-28

c. Overall engine efficiency. Now that you know how to compute the indicated thermo efficiency and the mechanical efficiency, it is possible for you to calculate the overall engine efficiency. The overall engine efficiency is the relationship between the power input and the true power output or the brake horsepower.

Use the following procedure to calculate the overall efficiency of the engine description in the previous example.

1204.

Decreasing Engine Efficiency

Now, let's change gears slightly and examine two ways that engine efficiency is decreased. Efficiency of an engine is never at one hundred percent. This is due to engine losses that affect engine performance. As the heat content of a fuel is transformed into useful work, during the combustion process, many different losses t~ke place. These losses can be divided into two general classifications: thermodynamic and mechanical. The net useful work delivered by an engine is the result obtained by deducting the total losses from the heat energy input.

a. Thermodynamic losses. Thermodynamic losses are a result of cooling, lubricating, and exhaust systems. Additional, losses result because of the lack of perfect combustion.

Heat energy loss from both the cooling water system and the lubricating oil system is always present. Some heat is conducted through the engine parts and radiated to the atmosphere or picked up by the surrounding air by convection. The effect of these losses vary according to the part of the cycle that the engine is operating.

1-29

b. Mechanical losses. There are several kinds of mechanical losses, but all are not present in every engine. The most common form of mechanical loss in an engine is friction. Friction is a source of energy loss in any mechanical system. For example, if a heavy plank is dragged across a rough floor, it offers some resistance to the movement. This resistance to movement would be less if the plank and floor were polished smooth. Resistance would be even less if the plank floated in water. This resistance to movement is called friction. Friction can be visualized as being caused by tiny irregularities, or high points, in the surfaces of the moving objects. These irregularities catch on each other and particles are torn off. This action of catching and tearing requires force to overcome. If the plank and floor are made smooth, then the projecting points are much smaller and have less tendency to catch and tear off. Therefore, less force is required to pull the plank across the floor. If the plank is floated in water, the surfaces can no longer rub against each other even though there is still some friction in the liquid. In the engine, friction occurs at all moving parts, even though the parts are, in effect, floating in films of oil.

Lesson Summary. This lesson provided you with various aspects of engine output. You were introduced to equipment that aids in measuring engine output formulas used to measure engine efficiency and how efficiency can be decreased. You should now be well prepared to test your knowledge. Good luck!

Exercise:

Complete items 1 through 12 by performing the action required. Check your responses against those listed at the end of this study unit.

Matching: For items 1 through 4, match the definition in column 1 to the form of engine output in column 2. Place your responses in the spaces provided.

Column 1

Column 2

Definition

Engine output

1. Rate of performing work

a. Work

b. Energy

c. Power

d. Torque

2. Turning, twisting force

3. Movement of a body against an opposing force

4. Ability to do work

1-30

5. How is the work capacity of an engine measured?

a. Energy

b. Power

c. Torque

d. Horsepower

6. What is the name of the equipment that was first used to determine the power developed by an engine?

a. Prony brake

b. Dynamometer

c. Torque wrench

d. Power meter

7. What equipment is used to measure horsepower at the driving wheels?

a.

Prony brake c. Chassis dynamometer d.

Torque wrench Power meter

b.

8. The relationship between results obtained and the effort required to obtain those results is

a. efficiency.

b. friction.

c. work.

d. power.

9. What is the relationship between the heat energy in the fuel and the indicated horsepower called?

a. Engine efficiency

b. Friction

c. Mechanical efficiency

d. Indicated thermal efficiency

10. Why is the efficiency of a diesel engine operating cycle considerably higher than the constant-volume cycle of a gasoline engine?

a. Fuel detonates earlier

b. Faster cycle

c. Combustion starts at a lower temperature

d. Higher compression ratio

11. What is the most common form of mechanical loss in an engine?

a. Convection

b. Friction

c. Vibration

d. Motion

12. What are two ways that engine efficiency is decreased?

a.

b.

1-31

Lesson 3.

MAIN COMPONENTS AND CLASSIFICATIONS OF ENGINES

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. Identify, by selecting, the purposes of selected engine components.

2. Given several illustrations of engine components and a list of functions, match the components to their functions.

3. Identify, by selecting, the three methods used to classify piston engines.

1301. Main Components of the Diesel Engine

Diesel engines vary greatly in appearance, size, number of cylinders, cylinder arrangement, and details of construction. Thus, it is not possible to cover all components of all engines in this lesson. However, there are basic components that are common to most diesel engines, and we will discuss the construction and operation of these and some of their auxiliary components.

a. Cylinder block. The cylinder block (fig 1-16) is the largest component of a diesel engine. Most modern diesel engines use a single block made of cast iron.

The cylinder block provides a housing or foundation for all other components. The cylinder block has holes or bores drilled for the piston and liner assemblies, water or coolant passages, and oil or lubrication passages.

For engines that have the camshaft located in the block, there will be bores drilled to support it. The bottom of the block is commonly called the crankcase. It is designed to hold the main bearings and support the crankshaft. The oil pan bolts to the bottom of the cylinder block.

Fig 1-16. Cylinder block.

1-32

Some engine cylinder blocks have the cylinder holes bored right in the block. Other blocks are designed to use cylinder liners or sleeves. There are advantages and disadvantages of each type. The application determines the type used.

(1) Dry sleeve (fig 1-17). This is a simple thin sleeve pressed into the cylinder block. It is held in place by the cylinder head. Coolant doesn't come in contact with the sleeve.

(2) wet sleeve (fig 1-17). This sleeve comes in contact with the coolant. The sleeve is thick because it is not completely supported by the block. It is normally sealed by a machine surface fit at the top. The bottom of the sleeve is usually sealed by an o-ring.

DRY SLEEVE WET SLEEVE

SLEEVE IS THICK - FOR STRENGTH

SLEEVE RECEIVES FULL LENGTH SUPPORT FROM BLOCK

SLEEVE SUPPORTED AT TOP AND BOTTOM

SLEEVE

COOLANT SURROUNDS LARGE AREA OF SLEEVE

Imi!i!i!!!!!i!m

COOLANT

Fig 1-17. cylinder sleeves.

1-33

Air-cooled engine blocks are designed for a different type of cylinder. They have no coolant passages; fins are added on the outside of the cylinder to dissipate heat. Each cylinder on multi-cylinder engines are cast separately and are bolted to the crankcase.

b. Cylinder head. The cylinder head (fig 1-18) is a single one-piece casting that may cover one or more cylinders.

In most diesel engines, it forms part of the combustion chamber and contains the valve guides for the valves, passages for intake and exhaust gases, drilled bores for the fuel injection nozzles, and passages for the coolant. Depending on its use, the cylinder head may be made of cast iron alloy, or aluminum.

c. Piston. piston rings. and connecting rod assembly. The piston (fig 1-19) is the component of the engine that receives the energy from the combustion and transmits it to the crankshaft. Various metals such as aluminum alloy and malleable iron are used in the construction of pistons. Aluminum is used in many four-cycle diesel engines because it is light and transfers heat quickly.

Fig 1-18. Cylinder head.

PISTON HEAD

RING GROOVES

PIN BOSS AREA

Fig 1-19. Piston.

1-34

Many diesel engine pistons are of the trunk type illustrated in figure 1-19. It is made up of the piston head, piston pin boss (bearing area), ring grooves, and the piston skirt. The head of the piston helps to form the combustion chamber. The skirt is the portion below the piston pin. It guides the piston in the cylinder. The piston pin boss area provides support for the piston pin. The ring grooves are machined to fit the piston rings. Aluminum pistons are normally cam ground or elliptical in shape. This allows the piston to fit in the cylinder regardless of the temperature. Piston rings vary in design and quantity used, but there are basically two types: compression and oil control (fig 1-20).

Fig 1-20. Piston rings.

1-35

Compression rings are located at the top of the piston and are designed to form a seal between the piston and the cylinder, thus preventing the high-pressure combustion gases from escaping into the crankcase. They also help transmit heat from the piston to the cylinder wall and damp out part of the fluctuations of the piston side thrust.

The oil control rings are designed to control the flow of oil onto the cylinder wall when the piston is moving upward, and scrape the oil back off the wall when the piston is moving down. Holes are drilled into the piston ring grooves to permit the return of the oil to the crankcase. Figure 1-21 illustrates how the piston rings function.

PISTON RINGS KEEP OIL FROM ENTERING TIlE COMBUSTION CHAMBER

PISTON RINGS STOP BLOWBY

COMBUSTION GASES ESCAPE INTO CRANKCASE

OIL FROM CRANKCASE ESCAPES TO THE COMBUSTION CHAMBER

COMBUSTION GASES

-

OIL

\\lTH PISTON RINGS

WITHOUT PISTON RINGS

Fig 1-21. Purpose of piston rings.

1-36

The connecting rod attaches the piston to the crankshaft. It is made of a very strong steel alloy and shaped like an I-beam

(fig 1-22). It has a hole bored in one end for the piston pin. The other end has a larger bore with a removable cap so that the rod can be connected to the crankshaft. Most connecting rods have a drilled passage so that lubricating oil can reach the piston pin. The piston pin connects the piston to the connecting rod. It is supported in the rod by a precision bushing. The connecting rod bearing is a precision friction type bearing.

CRANKSHAFT ATIACHING END

REMOVABLE BEARING CAP

Fig 1-22. Connecting rod.

1-37

d. Crankshaft, main bearing journal, flywheel, and vibration damper (fig 1-23). The crankshaft is the engine component that changes up-and-down (reciprocating) movement of the pistons into usable rotary motion to operate the powertrain. The crankshaft drives a number of engine components including the camshaft, oil pump, coolant pump, fan, alternator, and injection pump.

The main bearing journals allow the crankshaft to be mounted to the crankcase. counterweights are used to offset the force generated by the up and down movement of the pistons.

The flywheel is mounted on the rear of the crankshaft. It helps smooth out the power impulses and provides a place to mount the transmission connecting device. The starter drive gear also meshes with the ring gear on the flywheel.

On the front end of the crankshaft a vibration damper is mounted. It is designed to dampen the twisting action of the crankshaft.

CONNECTING-ROD JOURNAL

\

VIBRATION DAMPER

VIBRATION DAMPER MOUNTING

MAIN BEARING JOURNAL

Fig 1-23. Crankshaft, flywheel, and vibration damper.

1-38

I

e. Main bearings. The main bearings (fig 1-24) support the crankshaft and allow it to rotate. Along with the main bearings are main bearing caps which bolt the main bearings and crankshaft assembly to the crankcase. The main bearings are similar to the connecting rod bearings. They are a split type precision insert bearing made of the same type material. The bearings have oil holes and grooves to provide a means of lubricating the bearings and the crankshaft journals.

CRANKSHAFT BEARING

CRANKSHAFT THRUST BEARING

~

I

~ CONNECTING

~RODSHAFT

~ ~ CONNECTING

~ ROD BEARING

CRANKSHAFT I

BEARING Th

CRANKSHAFT THRUST BEARING

Fig 1-24.

Crankshaft main bearings.

1-39

f. Camshaft and associated components (fig 1-25). In most modern diesel engines, the cams and the shaft are forged or cast in one piece. The main function of the camshaft is to control the operation of the engine valves. In some cases, it may also operate the fuel pump, oil pump, and fuel injectors. This is usually accomplished through various intermediate parts such as timing gears, push rods, cam followers (lifters), and rocker arms. The number of cams or lobes on the camshaft depend on the type of engine. The lobes are designed to change the rotary motion back into up and down movement to operate the valves, and in some cases, the injectors.

jOa

CAMSHAFr REAR BEARING BORE PLUG

BEARINGS

CAMSHAFT

THRUST PLATE

~

~

Fig. 1-25. Camshaft support.

1-40

The camshaft is driven from the engine crankshaft by various means. Figure 1-26 shows three different types of camshaft drivers. Figure 1-26a shows helical gears, which are used because they are stronger. They also tend to push the camshaft rearward during operation to help control thrust. There are two common types of timing chains. Figure 1-26b shows a roller-link chain drive, which is used in heavy-duty applications. Another common type is a silent link-type chain (not shown) that is used in standard and light-duty applications. Figure 1-26c shows a belt drive, which is limited to overhead camshaft engines.

TENS lONER

A. GEAR DRIVE

B. CHAIN DRIVE

C. BELT DRIVE

Fig 1-26. Driving the camshaft.

1-41

The following components work in conjunction with the camshaft to operate the valves and injectors. Refer to figure 1-27.

ROCKER ARM

LIFfE

CAMSHAFT

Fig 1-27. Engine components.

• Lifters or cam followers-are sleeve-like plungers that fit into bored holes in the block. They ride on the camshaft and transmit the motion from the cam to the pushrods.

• Push rods and push tubes are long, hollow or solid rods that fit into the lifters on one end. The other end fits into a ball socket on the rocker arm.

• Rocker arm and shaft provides a pivot point between the push rod and the valve or injector. The rocker arms are mounted on a shaft supported by brackets bolted to the cylinder head. They work like a lever to operate the valves or injectors.

1-42

g. Valve assembly. Valves (fig 1-28) are used to admit air into the combustion chamber and to allow exhaust gases to escape.

Each cylinder of a four-stroke-cycle engine has at least one exhaust valve. Two-stroke-cycle diesel engines do not have intake valves, but they may have more than one exhaust valve per cylinder. The large portion of the valve is called the head or crown and the shaft is called the stem. The head of the valve has a precision-ground tapered face that, when closed, seals against a seat located in the cylinder head. When the valve is pushed open by the movement of the camshaft, either gas or air is allowed to move around the valve head and into or out of the cylinder. Intake valves are usually larger in diameter than exhaust valves because they must admit the slow-moving, lowpressure intake charge. Exhaust valves may be smaller because the exhaust gases are denser and leave the cylinder under higher pressure. Valve guides are bored or pressed into the cylinder head to support or keep the valve in alignment. The valve is pulled closed by the valve spring which is retained on the stem by a spring retainer. A key is used to secure the spring and retainer to the valve.

Now that you have covered the main components of the diesel engine, try your hand at a couple of challenges.

VALVE SPRING

VALVE

Fig 1-28. Valve.

1-43

1. The purpose of the is to provide a

housing or foundation for all other components.

a. cylinder sleeve

b. cylinder block

c. cylinder head

d. piston block

2. What is the purpose of the oil control rings?

a. Form a seal between the piston and the cylinder

b. Scrape the oil back off the wall when the piston is moving down the cylinder

c. Prevent the high-pressure conbustion gases from escaping into the crankcase

Your first response should be (b) cylinder block.

The purpose of the oil control rings is to scrape the oil back off the wall when the piston is moving down. It is also designed to control the flow of oil onto the cylinder wall when the piston is moving upward. Your response should be

(b) •

How did you do? If you did not answer either challenge correctly, review section 1301 again before continuing with the course.

1302.

Classification of Piston Engines

Engines are commonly divided into three classes using a different basis for division. They are classified by the method of cooling, valve arrangement, and cylinder arrangement. To better understand these classifications, let's cover each one separately.

a. Methods of cooling

(1) Air-cooled. Equipment operated by engines that use air as a cooling medium playa vital role in the Marine Corps. Equipment that generally uses an air-cooled engine are aircraft and small equipment such as motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles (ATV), and gasoline powered tools. You can usually identify the air-cooled engine by removable cylinders with cooling fins covering the outside surfaces. Figure 1-29 illustrates a typical air-cooled engine.

1-44

COOL AIR IN

Fig 1-29. Typical air-cooled arrangement.

(2) Liquid-cooled. Equipment operated by engines that use liquid as a cooling medium make up the bulk of vehicles in the Marine Corps. You can identify the liquid-cooled engine by a radiator and associated plumbing (fig 1-30).

Fig 1-30. Typical liquid-cooled arrangement.

1-45

b. Valve arrangement. An engine can be classified by the arrangement of its valves and valve train configuration. The various valve train configurations may be grouped into two categories based on the location of the valves. The first category is the group of engines with the valves located beside the pistons and cylinders in the cylinder block. Commonly known as flathead engines, this type of engine is virtually obsolete in all current automotive applications. The second category, which is the most common, is the group of engines with the valves located over the pistons in the cylinder heads. This type is known as the I-head engine. Let's cover this category in depth.

Engines that have the valves in the cylinder head also fall in two groups. The first group, overhead valve (ohv) engines, have their camshafts located in their cylinder blocks. The second group, overhead camshaft (ohc) engines, have their camshafts located in their cylinder heads. A typical ohv cylinder head is shown in figure 1-31.

CAMSHAFT

Fig 1-31. Overhead valve cylinder head.

1-46

Let's take a look at the methods used to operate the valves.

(1) Standard overhead valve (fig 1-32). As you can see, the overhead valve engine (I-head) gets its name from the letter formed by the piston and the valve. This engine has the camshaft located in the cylinder block, and the valves are operated through the lifter (cam follower), push rod, and rocker arm.

CAMSHAFT

Fig 1-32. Overhead valve engine.

(2) Single overhead camshaft (fig 1-33). The camshaft of this engine is located on the cylinder head. When the single overhead camshaft configuration is used, the intake and the exhaust valves are both operated from a common camshaft. The valve train may be arranged to operate the valves directly through the lifters as shown in view A or through the rocker arms as shown in view B.

1-47

CAMSHAFT

c

VIEW A

LIFTER

VIEW B

Fig 1-33. single overhead camshaft configurations.

(3) Double overhead camshaft

(fig 1-34). This configuration has its camshafts located on the cylinder head.

When the double overhead camshaft is used, the intake and the exhaust valves each operate from a separate camshaft. Each camshaft operates the valves directly through the lifters. This configuration provides maximum engine performance and is used mostly Fig 1-34.

in more expensive

automotive

applications.

Double overhead camshaft configuration.

1-48

c. Cylinder arrangement. Multi-cylinder engines classified by cylinder arrangement can be divided into four groups: in-line, v-type, opposed, and radial. For this course, only in-line and v-type cylinder arrangements will be covered.

(1) In-line (fig 1-35). This is the simplest cylinder arrangement in automotive and truck applications alike. It is commonly built in four- and six-cylinder arrangements.

Fig 1-35. In-line cylinder arrangement.

(2) v-type (fig 1-36). The bulk of equipment in the Marine Corps such as the tank (with the exception of the Ml tank which incorporates a turbine engine) Logistics Vehicle Systems (LVS), High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), and Assault Amphibious Vehicle (AAV) all use v-type cylinder arranged engines. The v-arrangement is common for engines with 6 Fig 1-36. V-type cylinder

to 18 cylinders. If an arrangement.

engine has more than 8

cylinders, it becomes

difficult to make a

sufficiently rigid frame and crankshaft with an in-line arrangement. The v-arrangement, with two connecting rods attached to each crankpin, permits reduction in the engine length by one-half, thus making it much more rigid with a stiff crankshaft. The cylinders are usually arranged at 90 degrees to each other with opposing cylinders sharing a common crankpin.

1-49

Lesson Summary. This lesson provided you with the knowledge needed to identify the main components and functions of the diesel engine. You were also introduced to the three classes of piston engines.

Exercise:

Complete items 1 through 11 by performing the action required. Check your responses against those listed at the end of this study unit.

1. The function of the camshaft is to
a. control the operation of the engine valves.
b. transmit energy from the combustion chamber to the
crankshaft.
c. damp out part of the fluctuations of the piston
thrust.
d. change reciprocating motion into rotary motion. 1-50

For items 2 through 5 refer to the following illustrations.

a.

d.

b.

e.

c.

Matchinq: For items 2 through 5, match the component function to its corresponding illustration given above. Write each response in the space provided.

2. Attaches the piston to the crankshaft.

3. Receives the energy from the combustion and transmits it to the crankshaft.

4. Supports the crankshaft and allows it to rotate.

5. Provides the combustion chamber and the intake and exhaust passages.

1-51

For items 6 through 9 refer to the following illustrations.

a.

d.

e.

b.

c.

Matching: For items 6 through 9, match the main component function to its corresponding illustration given above. Write the letter of each response in the space provided.

6. Provides a housing or foundation for all other components.

7. Used to admit air into the combustion chamber and to allow exhaust to escape.

8. Changes reciprocating movement to rotary movement.

9. Controls the operation of the engine valves, and in some cases, the fuel injectors.

1-52

10. The three purposes of piston compression rings are to

a. form a seal, provide weight and force, and spread the load.

b. form a seal, damp out part of the fluctuations, and increase vacuum.

c. form a seal, transmit heat, and damp out part of the fluctuations.

d. increase vacuum, transmit heat, and spread the load.

11. What three methods are used to classify piston engines?

a. Method of cooling, valve arrangement, classification

by horsepower

b. Method of fuel injection, speed, operating cycle

c. Operating cycle, piston action, power output

d. Cylinder arrangement, valve arrangement, method of cooling

UNIT SUMMARY

This study unit provided you with the knowledge of fuel efficiency and engine measurements. It also addressed engine output and efficiency as well as engine components and classifications. Study unit 2 will cover diesel engine principles, performance, and the combustion process.

1-53

Lesson 1 Exercise Solutions
Reference
1. d. 1101
2. c. 1101a
3. a. 1101b
4. b. 1102a
5. a. 1102
6. b. 1102d
7. d. 1102e
8. b. 1102f
9. b. 1103a
10. e. 1103e
11. c. 1103d
12. d. 1103c
13. a. 1103b
14. b. 1103a
15. a. 1103e (1)
16. c. 1103e(2)
Lesson 2 Exercise Solutions
Reference

1. c. 1201c
2. d. 1201d
3. a. 1201a
4. b. 1201b
5. d. 1201c
6. a. 1202d
7. b. 1202d
8. a. 1203
9. d. 1203a
10. d. 1203
11. b. 1204b
12. a. Thermodynamic 1204a
b. Mechanical 1204b 1-54

Lesson 3 Exercise Solutions

Reference
1. a. 1301f
2. c. 1301c
3. c. 1301c
4. a. 1301e
5. b. 1301b
6. b. 1301a
7. a. 1301g
8. c. 1301d
9. d. 1301f
10. c. 1301c
11. d. 1302 1-55

STUDY UNIT 2

PRINCIPLES, PERFORMANCE, AND COMBUSTION PROCESS OF THE DIESEL ENGINE

Introduction. As you have seen from the preceding study unit, the diesel engine can be a complex piece of equipment. The basic knowledge introduced in the first study unit provided you with a firm platform on which to build. In this study unit, you will expand your knowledge by gaining information in the areas of two- and four-stroke cycle operation, combustion chamber design, and the combustion process. You will also examine turbocharging, supercharging, cooling, and fuel quality, and how these characteristics affect engine performance.

Lesson 1. OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF THE DIESEL ENGINE

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. Given four illustrations, identify by selecting each phase of the four-stroke cycle in the correct order.

2. Identify, by selecting, the action that takes place within the cylinder during each phase of the four-stroke cycle.

3. Given three illustrations, identify by selecting the operation that takes place within the cylinder of the two-stroke cycle engine.

4. Identify, by selecting, the action that takes place within the cylinder during each phase of the two-stroke cycle engine.

5. Identify, by selecting, the difference between a supercharger and a turbocharger.

6. Identify, by selecting, the advantages of supercharging.

7. Identify, by selecting, the purpose of an aftercooler.

2101. Four-stroke cycle principle

Power in many of the diesel engines used in military vehicles is developed through a series of events known as the four-stroke cycle. A cycle is one complete series of events that is constantly repeated. When the piston moves from the top of the cylinder, called "top dead center" (tdc), to the bottom of the cylinder, called "bottom dead center" (bdc), one stroke occurs. When the piston moves from the bottom of the cylinder to the top another stroke has occurred. A series of four strokes is used to develop power in the four-stroke cycle diesel engine.

2-1

In the top of the cylinder, there are two holes or ports that can be opened or closed as needed. One allows air to enter and is called the intake port. The other opening provides a passage for getting rid of the exhaust gases left after combustion, and it is called the exhaust port.

There are four definite phases of operation that an engine goes through to complete one operating cycle. Each one of these phases takes place in one piston stroke. Because of this, each phase is also referred to as a stroke. Since it takes four strokes to complete an operating cycle, the engine is referred to as a four-stroke cycle engine. The four strokes are intake, compression, power, and exhaust.

a. Intake stroke (A, fig 2-1). The intake stroke begins at tdc. As the piston moves down, the intake port opens. The downward movement of the piston creates a low pressure area in the cylinder, which causes the air to be drawn through the intake port. Remember, the diesel engine is not like the gasoline engine where there is a carburetor to mix the fuel with air prior to entering the cylinder. The cylinder fills completely with air on every intake stroke. As the piston reaches bdc, the intake port closes.

b. Compression stroke (B, fig 2-1). As the piston starts upward for the compression stroke, the intake and exhaust ports are closed. The piston travels upward, compressing or "squeezing" the air in the combustion chamber. The pressure rises to about 700 psi, and the temperature rises to about 1,475°F. As the piston reaches tdc, the compression stroke ends and fuel is injected into the combustion chamber.

c. Power stroke (C, fig 2-1). The intense heat caused by the compression of the air ignites the fuel, and it burns quickly causing a rapid pressure rise in the cylinder. This pressure forces the piston down in the cylinder on the power stroke and causes the crankshaft to rotate. The exhaust and intake ports are closed.

d. Exhaust stroke (D, fig 2-1). The fourth stroke of the piston (exhaust) is an upward stroke. The exhaust port opens and the piston pushes the burned gases out through the exhaust port. As the piston reaches top dead center, the exhaust port closes and the intake port opens. The engine is now ready to begin another operating cycle.

2-2

@

@

A. INTAKE STROKE

B. COMPRESSION STROKE

@

@

C. POWER STROKE D. EXHAUST STROKE

Fig 2-1. Four-stroke cycle (diesel). 2-3

Let's review what we've covered. The diesel engine has developed power with four piston strokes:

• Intake - The piston moves from the top of the cylinder to the bottom. Air is drawn or forced in through an open intake port and the exhaust port is closed.

• Compression - The piston moves up compressing and heating the air trapped in the cylinder. The intake and exhaust ports are closed. As the piston nears the top of the compression stroke, the fuel is injected into the cylinder.

• Power - The exploding gases caused by combustion forces the piston down. The intake and exhaust ports are closed.

• Exhaust - The piston moves up pushing burned gases out of the cylinder through an open exhaust port. The exhaust port is open and the intake port is closed.

2102. Two-stroke Cycle Principle

Some automotive diesel

engines work on the fourstroke cycle principle and others work on the twostroke cycle principle. An engine that can complete its operating cycle in just two piston strokes is called a two-stroke cycle engine (fig 2-2). Often we shorten the name and just call this engine a "two-stroke" or a "two-cycle" engine.

Remember that a stroke is the movement of the piston from the top of the cylinder to the bottom or when the piston moves from the bottom back up to the top. A cycle is an action that is

repeated over and over. Unlike the four-stroke cycle engine which requires a separate stroke for each

operating phase, the two-stroke cycle engine completes all four phases of operation in two strokes of the piston. The strokes are usually referred to as compression and power. Since the intake and exhaust strokes are eliminated, an air pump is used to expel the exhaust gases and fill the cylinder with fresh air.

The two-stroke cycle diesel engine must have this air pump to force air into the upper cylinder. Air pumps will be discussed later in this study unit.

CONNECTING ROD

CRANKSHAFT

Fig 2-2.

Two-stroke diesel.

2-4

Now let's determine just how the two-stroke cycle diesel engine performs its cycle of operation and how it differs from that of a four-stroke engine. We've already concluded that the intake and exhaust strokes are eliminated by the use of an air pump. Well, just how does the engine perform all four phases of operation found in its four-stroke counterpart? This question can be answered by understanding a principle called scavenging.

a. Scavenging (fig 2-3). The two-stroke cycle diesel engine performs intake and exhaust during part of the compression and power strokes. This process is called scavenging. It begins with the piston moving downward through the lower half of the cylinder. The intake ports are uncovered in the cylinder wall and the exhaust ports are open. Air is forced into the upper cylinder through the intake ports by the air pump. The pump is commonly referred to as a blower. As the air is forced in, the burned gases from the previous operating cycle are forced out of the exhaust ports.

EXHAUST PORT OPEN

'-

EXHAUST PORT OPE~

. AIR

Fig 2-3. scavenging.

2-5

b. Compression (fig 2-4). As the piston continues toward top dead center, it covers the intake ports and the exhaust ports close. This seals the upper cylinder leaving clean air. As the piston continues upward, the air in the cylinder is tightly compressed. As in the fourstroke cycle diesel, a tremendous amount of heat is generated by the compression. As the piston reaches tdc, the fuel is injected into the hot compressed air.

c. Power (fig 2-5). The intense heat of compression causes the fuel to ignite and the pressure caused by combustion pushes the piston down, giving power to the crankshaft. The power stroke ends when the exhaust ports open and the piston returns to the point where the intake ports are uncovered. One operating cycle is then completed and scavenging begins again.

Fig 2-4. Compression.

FUEL

Fig 2-5. Power.

2-6

To summarize, the two-stroke engine completes the entire combustion process in two strokes. On the upward stroke, the piston compresses the air as it moves to tdc and on the downward stroke, the piston is pushed down the cylinder as a result of combustion. The scavenging process takes place when the piston is in the lower part of the cylinder on either stroke. The crankshaft turns one complete turn or revolution during these two strokes.

Now that you have covered the operation of the four- and twostroke cycle engine, try your hand at the following challenges. Circle the best answer for each challenge.

1. The intake valve is open on a four-stroke cycle diesel

during the stroke.

a. intake

b. compression

c. power

d. exhaust

2. Both ports are closed and the piston is moving up on the

four-stroke cycle diesel during the stroke.

a. intake

b. compression

c. power

d. exhaust

3. Both ports are closed and the piston is going down on the

four-stroke cycle diesel during the stroke.

a. intake

b. compression

c. power

d. exhaust

4. In a two-stroke cycle engine, scavenging takes place at
, and the ports are
a. top dead center -- exhaust -- open
b. bottom dead center -- intake -- closed
c. top dead center -- intake -- closed
d. bottom dead center -- exhaust -- open
5. A two-stroke cycle diesel,develops power every a. one-half crankshaft revolution

b. complete crankshaft revolution

c. two crankshaft revolutions

2-7

Now, let's see how well you did. The answers to the challenges are: 1. a; 2. b; 3. c; 4. d; 5. b.

If you answered any of the challenges incorrectly, you may refer back to sections 2101 and 2102.

In the next paragraph you will examine supercharging.

2103. Supercharging

supercharging is the process of forcing fresh air into the cylinders above atmospheric pressure during the intake stroke.

In most applications, supercharged air is provided either by positive displacement rotary air pumps or centrifugal blowers. The most common type of positive displacement pump is the Rootes blower and the most common type of centrifugal pump is the turbocharger. Now, why do we want to force air into the cylinders rather than merely allowing the pistons to draw it in naturally? Well, do you remember studying the advantanges of increasing volumetric efficiency? Remember that when you force more air into the cylinders, the fuel can be burned more completely and the engine's power output increases.

Supercharging also reduces exhaust smoke and emissions. Both four- and two-stroke cycle engines may be supercharged; however, some type of air pump is definitely required to accomplish the scavenging process of the two-stroke cycle engine. Let's now explore just how the two most common types of air pumps function.

a. Turbocharger (fig 2-6). A turbocharger uses the force of the engine exhaust gases to force the air, under pressure, into the engine. It consists of a turbine housing, compressor housing, and center housing. The turbine housing contains a turbine wheel mounted on a turbine shaft that is spun as hot exhaust gases are directed against it. The exhaust gases are discharged into the atmosphere after passing through the turbine housing. The turbine shaft drives a compressor wheel that is located in the compressor housing. The spinning wheel draws air through the air cleaning system and forces it into the engine. The center housing serves to support the rotating assembly, bearings, seals, turbine housing, and compressor housing. During operation, the turbocharger responds to load demands by reacting to the flow of exhaust gases. As the engine output increases or decreases, the turbocharger responds to deliver the required amount of air.

Some turbochargers may use what is called a wastegate (bypass valve) to control exhaust gases. Turbochargers are very common to four-stroke cycle engines; however, they may also be used in two-stroke cycle engine operation.

2-8

COMPRESSED AIR TO CYLINDER

TURBINE HOUSING

AIR FROM AIR FILTER

TURBINE WHEEL

EXHAUST GASES EXIT

b. Supercharger. Unlike the turbocharger, which uses the force of the engine exhaust gases to force air into the engine, superchargers are engine driven air pumps that force air into the cylinders. These air pumps are mechanically driven by chains, belts, or gears from the crankshaft.

t

EXHAUST GASES ENTER HERE

The most common type of air pump is the Rootes blower. Depending on its use, it could be classified as either a blower or a supercharger. Don't confuse supercharging with scavenging. Scavenging is the process that takes place in two-cycle engines where a blower is used to carry a small amount of air into the cylinders to push out the spent gases and replace them with fresh air. Supercharging goes a step further and packs the cylinder with still more fresh air. The Rootes blower is commonly used on two-stroke cycle engines to supply fresh air for both combustion and scavenging. It is engine driven, usually by gears, from the

Fig 2-6. Turbocharger.

2-9

crankshaft. It consists of two rotors of either two, three, or four lobes each, enclosed in a housing (fig 2- 7). The rotors are designed so that they do not come in contact with each other or the housing. The air entering the blower from the air cleaner is picked up by the rotor lobes and is carried to the discharge side of the blower. The continuous discharge of fresh air enters the air chamber of the cylinder block and sweeps through the intake ports to scavenge the combustion chamber and supply fresh air for combustion.

Some manufacturers install a blower and a turbocharger combination. with this installation, both torque and fuel economy is further improved. Because of the close tolerances, rotors are very sensitive to dirt.

When a supercharger is applied to a four-stroke engine, the main change required in the engine design is a change in timing of the intake and exhaust ports. The intake valve opening time is advanced and the exhaust valve closing is retarded. The two ports are designed to stay open simultaneously for about 80 to 160 degrees, the selection depending upon the normal engine speed. This simultaneous opening is called valve overlap. Tests have shown that an overlap of 40 to 50 degrees increases the power output of an engine about 5 percent if the supercharging is very small. This is sufficient only to eliminate the vacuum in the cylinder during the suction stroke. The power output of an engine is increased up to 8 percent with a supercharger pressure of 12 inches mercury, as compared to an overlap of 10 to 20 degrees commonly used in unsupercharged engines. The total power gain due to supercharging varies from 20 to 50 percent depending upon the supercharging pressure. In present day engines, this varies from 5 to about 12 inches mercury.

It should be noted that, simultaneously with an increase of the mean effective pressure, supercharging also increases the maximum, or firing pressure, and the maximum temperatures. On the other hand, the fuel consumption per horsepower-hour (hp-hr) usually decreases with supercharging due to an increase of turbulence and hence better mixing of the fuel with the air charge.

1-::;--':::1

.e ... ,

AIR

Fig 2-7. Rootes supercharger.

2-10

2104. Intercoolers and Aftercoolers

As a result of supercharging or turbocharging, the intake air temperature increases considerably. cooling the air makes it more dense, which results in more air entering the cylinders. Cooling is accomplished by using either engine coolant or air as the cooling medium. This cooling is accomplished by using either an intercooler or aftercooler.

The term intercooler or aftercooler is often used interchangeably. Where the cooler is located usually dictates what it is called. Intercoolers are common on some engines that employ both turbochargers and blowers. The intercooler is located between the turbocharger and the blower. It cools the air that's leaving the turbocharger before it reaches the blower (fig 2- 8). This permits a more dense charge of air to be delivered to the engine.

The aftercooler mounts in the cylinder block opening between the cylinders, beneath the blower assembly. The aftercooler cools the air going into the engine after it passes through both the turbocharger and the blower.

Fig 2-8. Turbocharger intercooler mounting.

Fig 2-9. Aftercooler mounted in cylinder block.

2-11

Lesson Summary. This lesson presented the operating principles of the diesel engine. You examined the four phases of operation that an engine goes through to complete one operating cycle. In the four-stroke cycle engine, each operating phase--intake, compression, power, or exhaust--is completed in one piston stroke; and four strokes complete one cycle. In the two-stroke cycle engine, all four phases occur during two piston strokes. In addition, you covered the methods of increasing volumetric efficiency of an engine by supercharging, thus increasing power output. Turbocharging is much like supercharging. The difference lies in the method used to force the air into the cylinders. The turbocharger uses exhaust gases and the supercharger or blower is driven by the engine. Intercoolers or aftercoolers are used to cool intake air making it more dense, which results in more air going into the cylinders.

Complete items 1 through 13 by performing the action required. Check your responses against those listed at the end of this study unit.

Exercise:

Items 1 and 2 refer to the illustrations that follow. Each illustration shows one phase of the four-stroke cycle engine. Look at the illustrations carefully, then answer the items.

il

a.

b.

c.

il

d.

1. From the illustrations above, identify each phase of the four-stroke cycle. Place your response in the space provided.

a.

c.

d.

b.

2-12

2. In what order does each phase of the four-stroke cycle occur?

a. a,b,d,c

b. b,a,c,d

c. c,d,a,b

d. d,a,b,c

Items 3 through 5 pertain to the operation of the four-stroke cycle diesel engine. Complete each statement by placing your response in the space provided.

3. Both the intake and exhaust ports are closed and the
piston is moving toward tdc during the
stroke.
4. The intake port is open during the stroke.
5. Both the intake and exhaust ports are closed and the
piston is moving toward bdc during the
stroke. Items 6 and 7 refer to the illustrations that follow. Each illustration shows a phase of the two-stroke cycle engine operation. Look at the illustrations carefully, then answer the items.

a.

b.

c.

6. Which illustration shows the scavenging process?

a. a

b. b

c. c

7. Which illustration shows the power stroke?

a. a

b. b

c. c

2-13

8. During the compression phase in a two-stroke cycle

engine, the intake ports are and the exhaust

ports are

a. covered -- open

b. covered -- closed

c. uncovered

d. uncovered

closed open

9. In a two-stroke cycle engine, scavenging occurs at
, and the ports are
a. top dead center intake -- closed
b. bottom dead center -- intake -- closed
c. bottom dead center -- exhaust -- open
d. top dead center -- exhaust -- open 10. A two-stroke cycle engine completes one operating cycle every

a. complete crankshaft revolution.

b. one-half crankshaft revolution.

c. two crankshaft revolutions.

11. The main difference between the turbocharger and supercharger is

a. the turbocharger is able to increase volumetric efficiency above the limits of a supercharger.

b. the turbocharger uses exhaust gases to force the air, under pressure, into the cylinder and the supercharger is gear, belt, or chain driven.

c. the supercharger needs a wastegate to control the amount of exhaust gases being recirculated into the engine.

12. The advantage of supercharging a system is that it

a. decreases volumetric pressure in the cylinder by increasing the air-fuel ratio.

b. increases efficiency because it emits exhaust gases back into the combustion chamber.

c. reduces the quantity of fuel injected in the combustion chamber.

d. increases volumetric efficiency generating greater power output.

13. What is the purpose of an aftercooler?

a. Cools the exhaust gases that leave the turbocharger to help control emissions

b. Cools the intake air, which results in more air going to the cylinders

c. Cools the air prior to entering the turbocharger which helps keep the turbocharger cool

d. Cools the fuel air mixture prior to entering the cylinders to help in more complete combustion

2-14

Lesson 2.

COMBUSTION WITHIN THE DIESEL ENGINE

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. Given a list of four types of combustion chambers and a list of characteristics, match each type of chamber to its corresponding characteristic.

2. Identify, by selecting, what causes turbulence of air inside the combustion chamber design.

3. Identify, by selecting, two major advantages of the open combustion chamber design.

4. Identify, by selecting, how the turbulence chamber produces combustion within the cylinder.

5. Identify, by selecting, how the Lanova combustion chamber differs from other chamber designs.

6. Identify, by selecting, four advantages of the Lanova combustion chamber design.

7. Identify, by selecting, the three most important qualities of diesel fuel.

2201. Combustion Chamber Design

Gasoline and diesel engines provide maximum efficiency only when they mix fuel and air properly. Diesel engines achieve this somewhat differently than gasoline engines.

In the gasoline engine, the fuel and air is mixed before it enters the cylinders. It is mixed in the carburetor, or as in the case of fuel injected engines, it is mixed in the intake manifold.

In the diesel engine, however, the fuel injector sprays the fuel (as fine particles) into the cylinder after the piston compresses the air.

To secure complete combustion, each particle of fuel must be surrounded by sufficient air. To obtain that condition, turbulence (violent swirling motion) is created in the combustion space. Turbulence distributes the compressed air as evenly as possible throughout the chamber to produce maximum efficiency.

The well-designed diesel engine uses a combustion chamber designed for the engine's intended purpose. The injectors used in the engine should complement the combustion chamber. The combustion chambers described in the following sections are the most common and cover most designs used in current automotive designs.

2-15

a. Open chamber (fig 2-10). The open chamber is the simplest form of chamber design. It is suitable for both slow-speed, four-stroke cycle and two-stroke cycle diesel engines. The fuel is injected directly into the combustion space at the top of the cylinder. The combustion space, formed by the top of the piston and the cylinder head, is usually

shaped to provide a swirling action of the air (turbulence) as the piston starts its compression stroke. There are no special pockets, cells, or passages to aid the mixing of the fuel and air.

This chamber does require high

inj ection pressures and. a great degree of fuel atomization to obtain an acceptable level of fuel mixing. Two major advantages of the open combustion chamber are its high fuel economy and simple design.

Fig 2-10. Open chamber.

Before you continue, try your hand at a couple of challenges.

1. What causes turbulence of air inside the combustion chamber?

2. What are the two major advantages of the open combustion chamber design?

a.

b.

Your response for the first challenge should be "the shape formed by the top of the piston and the cylinder head."

Your response for the second challenge should be: a. high fuel economy; b. simple design.

2-16

b. Precombustion chamber (fig 2-11). In some engine designs, a portion of the clearance volume is placed in a separate chamber located in the cylinder head or in the cylinder wall. This chamber is known as a precombustion chamber and is connected to the space over the piston by one or more passages. As air is compressed within the cylinder, it is given a high degree of turbulence as it passes through the narrow passageway into the precombustion chamber.

The precombustion chamber enhances combustion by conditioning the fuel for final combustion in the cylinder and distributes the fuel through the air so that complete combustion is assured.

At the beginning of fuel injection the precombustion chamber contains a definite volume of air. Combustion is started at that point. Because of the limited amount of air available, combustion is incomplete, but the resulting heat and highpressure forces the fuel at a high velocity into the cylinder.

The entering mixture hits the hollowed-out piston top, creating turbulence in the chamber to ensure complete mixing of the fuel charge with air. This mixture ensures even and complete combustion.

This chamber design provides satisfactory performance with low fuel injector pressures and coarse spray patterns because a large amount of vaporization takes place in the combustion chamber. This chamber is more suitable for high-speed applications.

PRECOMBUSTION CHAMBER

INJECTION BEGINS POWER STROKE

Fig 2-11. Precombustion chamber.

2-17

What is the purpose of a precombustion chamber?

If your response was "to condition fuel for final combustion in the cylinder," you are right. The precombustion chamber also distributes the fuel through the air so that complete combustion is assured. Next, let's cover the turbulence chamber.

c. Turbulence chamber (fig 2-12). The turbulence chamber is similar in appearance to the precombustion chamber, but its function is different. There is very little clearance above the piston when it is at the top of the compression stroke. When the piston reaches top dead center, virtually all of the air has been compressed within the turbulence chamber.

The chamber is usually spherical, and the air passage becomes smaller as the piston reaches the top of the stroke, thereby increasing the velocity of the air in the chamber. Fuel is injected into the turbulence chamber. Injection is timed to occur when the turbulence in the chamber is the greatest. This ensures thorough mixing of the fuel and the air and results in the greater part of combustion taking place in the turbulence chamber. The pressure created by the expansion of the burning gases is the force that drives the piston downward on the power stroke.

TURBULENCE CHAMBER

INJECTION BEGINS

POWER STROKE

Fig 2-12. Turbulence chamber.

2-18

Now that you have familiarized yourself with the turbulence chamber, without referring back, try to correctly answer the following challenge.

1.How is combustion produced in the turbulence chamber design?

a. As the piston reaches bottom dead center, fuel is injected into the turbulence chamber where amortization takes place. As the piston moves to top dead center, the fuel-air mixture is forced into the cylinder where it is ignited. The pressure created by the expansion of the burning gases forces the piston downward on the power stroke.

b. As the piston reaches top dead center, compressed air is forced into the turbulence chamber. Fuel is then injected into the main chamber where the greater part of combustion takes place. The pressure created by the turbulence of the burning gases is the force that drives the piston downward on the power stroke.

c. As the piston moves to top dead center, air is compressed wi thin the turbulence chamber. Fuel is then inj ected into the turbulence chamber where the greater part of combustion takes place. The pressure created by the expansion of the burning gases is the force that drives the piston downward on the power stroke.

Your response for the challenge should be c. If you did not respond correctly, refer back to 2201(c} before continuing with the course.

The final design you will examine is the Lanova combustion chamber.

d. Lanova combustion chamber (fig 2-13). The Lanova system, which is of divided chamber construction, basically is a combination of the precombustion chamber and the turbulence chamber designs. This construction is named after its originator.

2-19

Fig 2-13. The Lanova combustion chamber design.

The Lanova combustion chamber design has two rounded spaces, which form a figure eight and make up the main combustion chamber. This combustion chamber is cast in the cylinder head. As in the case of the open combustion chamber design, the main volume of air is in the main combustion chamber and the principal combustion takes place there. However, unlike the open combustion chamber design, combustion is controlled. In some designs, both intake and exhaust valves are located directly above the figure eight shaped combustion chamber. On others, one valve is located in the top of the chamber, while the other is in the flat portion of the head.

Like the turbulence-chamber type, the Lanova system depends on a high degree of turbulence to promote thorough mixing and distribution of the air and fuel. In this design, about 90 percent of the combustion chamber is directly in the path of the in and out movement of the valves. The turbulence is dependent upon the thermal action, and not on engine speed, as is the case in the open combustion chamber designs.

2-20

Primarily, the sequence of operation of combustion of the Lanova system involves the combination of the combustion chamber and a small air chamber known as the energy cell. In its latest development, this energy cell is composed of two separate chambers. The inner chamber, which is the smaller of the two, opens into the narrow throat between the two lobes of the main combustion chamber through a funnel-shaped venturi passage. The larger outer chamber connects with the inner one through a second venturi. Directly opposite the energy cell is the injection nozzle.

Figure 2-14 illustrates the sequence of combustion in the Lanova system. During the compression stroke, about 10 percent of the total compressed volume of air passes into the energy cell; the remainder stays in the figure-eight shaped combustion chamber. The fuel is injected in the form of a pencil stream directly across the narrow throat of the combustion chamber, where most of it penetrates into the energy cell. A small portion of the boundary layer of fuel follows the curvature of the combustion chamber lobes and swirls into the vortexes within them. The fuel entering the energy cell is trapped for the most part in the small inner cell, but a small part passes into the larger outer cell where it meets a sufficient quantity of super-heated air to explode violently. This explosion produces an extremely rapid rise in pressure within the energy cell. This pressure blows the main body of the fuel lying in the inner cell back into the main combustion chamber so that there is a swirling action of fuel and air around the two lobes of the combustion chamber where combustion is completed.

Because of the restrictive action of the venturi connecting the energy cells, the blowback of fuel into the combustion chamber is controlled and takes appreciable time. The result is a prolonged and smooth combustion.

2-21

FUEL INJECTION

c.

COMBUSTTON TN ENERGY CELL

b.

FUEL IGNITION

d.

COMBUSTION IN MAIN CHAMBER

Fig 2-14.

Combustion sequence.

In addition to smooth combustion, an engine of this design possesses high performance, smooth operation, and excellent economy of operation advantages.

Now that you have covered the four types of combustion chambers, the next section will concentrate on the three most important qualities of diesel fuel. But first, let's test your mastery of the Lanova combustion chamber by answering a few challenges (on page 2-23).

2-22

1. The Lanova combustion chamber differs from other combustion chamber construction in that it is

basically a combination of and

design.

2. The four advantages of the Lanova combustion chamber design are

a. smooth operation, low fuel requirements, high horsepower, and high engine speed.

b. smooth combustion, high performance, smooth operation, and excellent economy of operation.

c. high performance, absence of diesel knock, operates on a wide range of fuels, and excellent economy of operation.

d. atomizes fuel efficiently, high horsepower, low fuel requirements, and smooth operation.

The correct response for the first challenge is pre-combustion -turbulence. The correct response for the second challenge is b.

If your answers were different from those just given, you should go back and study this section again before moving on to the next one.

2202.

Qualities of Diesel Fuel

The fuels used in modern high-speed diesel engines are a product of the petroleum refining process. They are heavier than gasoline because they are obtained from the leftover crude oil residue after the more volatile gasoline and kerosene have been removed. The large, slow running diesel engines used in stationary or marine installations will burn almost any grade of heavy fuel oil, but the high-speed diesel engines used in automotive applications require a fuel oil as light as kerosene. Although diesel fuel is different from gasoline, its specification requirements are just as exacting. Of the various qualities to be considered in selecting a fuel for diesel engines, the most important are cleanliness, viscosity, and ignition quality.

a. Cleanliness. Cleanliness is the most necessary quality of a diesel fuel. The fuel should not contain more than a trace of foreign substance; otherwise, fuel pump and injector difficulties will occur. Because diesel is heavier and more viscous than gasoline, it will hold dirt in suspension for longer periods of time. Therefore, every precaution must be taken to keep dirt out

2-23

of the fuel system or to eliminate it before it reaches the pump. water is more objectionable in diesel fuels than it is in gasoline because it will cause ragged operation and corrode the fuel system. The smallest amount of corrosion of the accurately machined surfaces in the injection equipment will cause the system to become inoperative.

b. viscositv. The viscosity of an oil is the fluid property that resists the force which causes the fluid to flow. The viscosity of a diesel fuel must be sufficiently low to flow freely at the lowest temperatures encountered, but it must also be high enough to properly lubricate the closely fitted pump parts and injector plungers. It must also be sufficiently viscous so that leakage at the pump plungers and dribbling at the injectors will not occur. The viscosity of a fuel also determines the size of the fuel-spray droplets which, in turn, govern the atomization and penetration qualities of the spray.

c. Ignition quality. The ignition quality of a diesel fuel is its ability to ignite spontaneously under the conditions existing in the engine cylinder. The spontaneous-ignition point of a fuel is a function of temperature, pressure, and time. since it would be difficult to reproduce these factors artificially, the best apparatus for measuring the ignition quality of a fuel is an actual diesel cylinder running under controlled operating conditions. The ignition quality of diesel fuel is expressed as a cetane number. A cetane number rating is obtained by comparing the fuel with cetane, a colorless, liquid hydrocarbon which has excellent ignition qualities, and is rated at 100. The higher the cetane number, the shorter the lag between the instant the fuel enters the combustion chamber and the instant it begins to burn. By comparing the performance of a diesel fuel of unknown quality with cetane, a cetane rating may be obtained.

Lesson Summary. This lesson presented the combustion process within the diesel engine to include combustion chamber design and qualities of diesel fuel. Each chamber design--open, precombustion, turbulence, and Lanova--is used depending on the application requirements. Each design has advantages and disadvantages, but all are reliable and will properly mix fuel and air to obtain maximum efficiency. Cleanliness, viscosity, and ignition quality remain the three most important qualities of diesel fuel. Because petroleum research and development has led to improvements in fuel quality, diesel fuel is the Marine Corps' choice for automotive applications.

2-24

Exercise:

Complete items 1 through 10 by performing the action required. Check your responses against those listed at the end of this study unit.

Matching: For items 1 through 4 match the type of combustion chamber design in column 1 to its corresponding characteristic in column 2. Place your responses in the spaces provided.

Column 1

Column 2

Combustion Chamber

Characteristic

1. Open

a. The chamber that has very little clearance above the piston when it is at the top of the compression stroke, and the greater part of combustion takes place outside the main chamber

b. The simplest form of chamber, and is suitable for both slow-speed, four-stroke and two-stroke cycle diesel engines

c. The turbulence this chamber creates is dependent upon thermal action, and not on engine speed

d. This chamber conditions the fuel for final combustion in the cylinder and distributes the fuel through the air so that complete combustion is assured

2. Pre-combustion

3. Turbulence

4. Lanova

5. What causes turbulence of air inside the open combustion chamber?

a. The speed at which the piston travels inside the cylinder

b. The rate of air flow into the combustion chamber

c. The shape formed by the top of the piston and the cylinder head

d. The level of atmospheric pressure that forces air into the combustion chamber

6. Simplicity of design and high fuel economy are the advantages of the

a. open combustion chamber.

b. pre-combustion chamber.

c. turbulence chamber.

d. Lanova combustion chamber.

2-25

7. How is combustion produced in the turbulence chamber design?

a. As the piston reaches bottom dead center, fuel is injected into the turbulence chamber where amortization takes place. As the piston moves to top dead center, the fuel-air mixture is forced into the cylinder where it is ignited. The pressure created by the expansion of the burning gases forces the piston downward on the power stroke.

b. As the piston reaches top dead center, compressed air is forced into the turbulence chamber. Fuel is then injected into the main chamber where the greater part of combustion takes place. The pressure created by the turbulence of burning gases is the force that drives the piston downward on the power stroke.

c. As the piston moves to top dead center, air is compressed within the turbulence chamber. Fuel is then injected into the turbulence chamber where the greater part of combustion takes place. The pressure created by the expansion of the burning gases is the force that drives the piston downward on the power stroke.

8. The Lanova combustion chamber differs from other combustion chamber construction in that is basically a combination of

and design.

a. open -- pre-combustion

b. turbulence -- open

c. divided -- turbulence

d. pre-combustion -- turbulence

9. The four advantages of the Lanova combustion chamber design are

a. efficient fuel atomization, high horsepower, low fuel requirements, and smooth operation.

b. high performance, absence of diesel knock, operates on a wide range of fuels, and excellent economy of operation.

c. smooth combustion, high performance, smooth operation, and excellent economy of operation.

d. smooth operation, low fuel requirements, high horsepower, and high engine speed.

10. The three most important qualities of diesel fuel are

a. cleanliness, color, and odor.

b. viscosity, consistency, and ignition quality.

c. heat value, octane rating, and flash point.

d. cleanliness, viscosity, and ignition quality.

2-26

UNIT SUMMARY

This study unit provided you with knowledge about the operating principles and combustion within the diesel engine. Study Unit 3 will cover injection and control of the diesel engine.

Lesson 1 Exercise Solutions

Reference
1. a. intake 2101
b. compression 2101
c. exhaust 2101
d. power 2101
2. a. 2101a-d
3. compression 2101b
4. intake 2101a
5. power 2101c
6. a. 2102a
7. b. 2102c
8. b. 2102b
9. c. 2102a
10. a. 2102
11. b. 2103
12. d. 2103
13. b. 2104a
Lesson 2 Exercise Solution
Reference
1. b. 2201a
2 . d. 2201b
3 . a. 2201c
4. c. 2201d
5. c. 2201a
6. a. 2201a
7. c. 2201c
8. d. 2201d
9. c. 2201d
10. d. 2202 2-27

STUDY UNIT 3

DIESEL ENGINE FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

Introduction. The diesel engine relies on its fuel injection system. Regardless of the design or type, the major function of the injection system is to inject fuel into the engine in correct amounts and at the correct time.

In this study unit, you will identify the different types of fuel systems, fuel injection methods, types of injectors, fuel injection pumps, and governors and characteristics of the different systems.

Lesson 1. FUEL INJECTION SYSTEMS

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1. Identify by selecting the fuel injection system's five main functions.

2. Identify by selecting the two basic methods of injecting fuel into the combustion chamber.

3. State in writing the four principal types of mechanical fuel injection system.

4. Given a list of three mechanical fuel injection systems, and a list of characteristics, match each injection system to its appropriate characteristic.

3101. Fuel Injection system Functions

The diesel fuel injection system performs many more functions than the carburetor on the automobile. Not only must the system meter the quantity of fuel required, according to the load and speed of the engine, but it must also develop the high pressure that is required to inject fuel into the cylinder. Additionally, the system must control the atomization, rate, and timing at which the fuel is injected and distributed throughout the combustion chamber. Fuel injection must start and end abruptly. Let's look at each of these five main fuel injection functions separately.

a. Develop pressure. At the time of fuel injection, the air in the combustion chamber is at maximum compression; consequently, the fuel system must pressurize the fuel high enough to offset this pressure. To build up the pressure required to inject the fuel into the engine with a compression ratio of approximately 15 to 1, a high degree of precision is required. Some systems develop up to 5,000 psi at the rated load and speed.

3-1

b. Meter the fuel. Each cylinder of the diesel engine must operate at a uniform speed and each must deliver the same power output. Fuel metering must be accurate. Not only must the same amount of fuel be delivered to each cylinder during each power stroke, but the quantity must be varied according to the load on the engine and its speed. If the fuel quantity varied in the different cylinders, the power per cylinder would vary, and rough operation would result.

c. Time the injection. The fuel must be injected at the correct instant. Early or late injection results in power loss. If the fuel is injected too early in the cycle, ignition will be delayed because compression will not be at its maximum and the temperature will be low. When the fuel is injected late, the fuel will not all be burned until after the piston has traveled past top dead center. This will cause a power loss because maximum expansion of the burned fuel will not take place.

d. Control the rate. Fuel is not injected in one single spurt, but extends over a period of time. If the fuel is injected too fast, it has the same effect as early injection. similarly, if the injection is too slow, and it extends over a long period of time, the effect is similar to late injection. The injection rate varies with different engines. It is affected largely by the type and contour of combustion chambers, engine speed, and fuel characteristics.

e. Atomize the fuel. Fuel is injected into the combustion chamber as a spray. The degree of atomization (breaking up of fuel into small particles) will vary depending on the design of the combustion chamber. Proper atomization increases the surface area of fuel which ~s exposed to the oxygen of the air and results in improved combustion and maximum power development. To avoid simultaneous combustion of all spray droplets, fine droplets are usually formed to start ignition and larger droplets for further combustion. The extent of atomization is controlled largely by the diameter and form of the injection nozzle orifice, the injection pressure, and the air density into which the fuel is injected.

To recap, the fuel injection system's five main functions are to develop pressure, meter the fuel, time the injection, control the rate of ignition, and atomize the fuel. NOw, let's look at the two methods of injecting fuel into a combustion chamber.

3102. Fuel Injection Methods

There are two basic methods of fuel injection; they are air injection and mechanical injection. However, since systems that use the air injection method have been largely replaced by systems using mechanical injection, our focus will be on the systems that use the mechanical injection method.

3-2

a. Air injection. An air injection type system uses compressed air to force the fuel into the combustion chamber. The main components for this type system would be an air compressor for building up pressure, a fuel pump to meter and deliver the fuel to each atomizer, and a cam mechanism for operating the atomizers.

b. Mechanical injection. The four principal types of mechanical (often called solid) fuel injection systems are multi-plunger injection pump, pressure time, unit injection, and distributor. There are many different engine manufacturers that use these different types of fuel systems. Below are a few of the systems that are used by some engine manufacturers.

The multi-plunger injection pump system is used on many fourstroke cycle engines manufactured by Perkins, Deere, and Caterpillar.

The Cummins Engine Company uses a pressure time system on engines that they manufacture.

Detroit Diesel Allison has a unit injector system for use on both its two- and four-stroke engines.

General Motors uses a distributor pump system on various makes of four-stroke engines.

In this next section, you will be studying each of these mechanical fuel injection systems in detail. Some of these systems are complicated, so pay close attention and follow the illustrations provided.

3103. Mechanical Fuel Injection Systems

a. Multi-plunger injection pump system. In the multi-plunger injection pump system, each cylinder has an individual injection pump which meters the fuel and delivers it under high pressure to the spray nozzle mounted in each cylinder. The pumps, which are mounted in a common housing, are operated by an internal camshaft, and utilize the same control mechanism to ensure that an equal amount of fuel is delivered to each cylinder at the proper time. Figure 3-1 shows the fuel flow and a phantom crosssectional view of a typical multi-plunger pump. The unit is mounted on the engine in a manner that permits it to be driven by the engine. Normally, the camshaft is gear driven from the crankshaft.

The pump camshaft, located at the bottom housing, has cam lobes arranged to activate the individual pumps in the same sequence as the engine's firing order. On the four-stroke cycle engine, the injection pump is driven at one half the engine speed; on the two-stroke cycle engine, it is driven at engine speed.

3-3

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful