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• Soaps have been used for more than 3000 years. In ancient times, soaps were
made from plant ashes (contain potassium carbonate) and animal fats. Plant ashes
were dispersed in water, and fat was added to the solution.
Ash + Lime boiled Caustic Potash

(K2CO3) (CaO) (KOH)

Caustic Potash + Animal Fats boiled Soap

• Animal fats contain fatty acids which helped to get the process started. In the end
of the Middle Ages, slaked lime used to causticise the alkali carbonate. Through
this process, chemically neutral fats could be saponified easily.
• The introduction of the Leblanc process for the production of soda ash from brine
and by the work of a French chemist, Michel Chevreul, who showed that the
process of saponification is the chemical process of splitting fat into the alkali salt
of fatty acids (that is, soap) and glycerin help in the manufacturing of soap.
• Soap is the sodium or potassium salts formed when a fatty acid that contain 12 to 18
carbon atoms per molecule is neutralized by an alkali.
Fats or vegetable oils + concentrated alkalis soap +glycerol

• Soap is cleansing agent made from animal fats or vegetable oils by saponification.
• Saponification is the alkaline hydrolysis of ester using alkali solutions.

• Some examples of soaps are shown below.

a) Sodium palmitate, C15H31COONa

b) Sodium oleate, C17H33COONa

c) Sodium stearate, C17H35COONa

The process through which soap is prepared

• Soap is prepared by heating fats and oils with an alkali such as sodium hydroxide,
NaOH. The oil and fat malecules are hydrolysed to form glycerol and fatty acids.
This process is also known as saponification as is the reverse of esterification.
Saponication of oils or fats
O l
R”— C—O—CH + 3H₂O l
O OH—CH₂ fatty acids
R”’—C—O—CH₂ glycerol

Neutralization of fatty acids


Salt or fatty acids or soap

• The fatty acids formed react with sodium hydroxide, NaOH a form a salt and water.
This salt is the basic form of soap.
• The soap produced can be precipitated by adding sodium chloride, NaCl to the
reaction mixture. Sodium chloride, NaCl reduces the solubility of soap in water. As
a result, the precipitation of soap occurs.
• The preparation of sodium palmitate when glyceryl tripalmitates (ester) is boiled
with concentrated sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution, saponification occurs and a
mixture of sodium palmitate (soap) and glycerol is obtained.

The structure of soap molecule

• When soap is dissolved in water, it will dissociate and produce sodium ions and
carboxylate ions (RCOO-). For example, sodium stearate dissolves in water to
form sodium ions and stearate ions.

C17H35COONa (s) + water C17H35COO- (aq)

sodium stearate stearate ions

+ Na + (aq)

• The active substance in soap is the carboxylate ion, for example, stearate ion. The
stearate ion consist of two parts : the ‘head’ and the ‘tail’. The ‘head’ id negatively
charged and the ‘tail’ isOa long hydrocarbon chain.
• The ‘head’ contains the -C-O- ions which dissolves readily in water (hydrophilic)
but does not dissolve in oil. Conversely, the ‘tail’ contains a long hydrocarbon
chain which is insoluble in water (hydrophobic) but dissolves readily in oil.

• Soaps made from palmitic acid are known as sodium palmitate. Figure 5.2 shows
the structure of the palmitate ion in soaps.

• The figure 5.3 9a) shows the molecular model of palmitate ion and Figure 5.3 (b)
shows the simple representation of the structure of the palmitate ion.

The molecular model of the palmitate ion.

The diagrammatic representation of the soap ion.

• Detergent is the salt formed when an alkyl hydrogen sulphate is neutralized by
an alkali
• Detergent is synthetic cleansing agent made from hydrocarbons obtained from
petroleum fractions.
• Detergents can be classified into three main types, depending on the charge on
the detergent ion.

a) Anionic detergents where the head of the detergent particle contains a

negatively charged ion.
Example: R – O – SO3-Na+ (Sodium alkyl sulphate) charged

b) Cationic detergents where the head of the detergent particle contains a

positively charged ion.
Example: R – N (CH3)3+BR- charged

c) Non ionic detergents

Example: R – O – CH2CH2OH

• There are two types of anionic detergents :

a) Detergent molecule with a benzene ring such as sodium alkylbenzene


Where R represents a
long hydrocarbon chain.

We can represent the detergent ion, alkylbenzene sulphonate ion, more simply as :

b) Detergent molecule without a benzene ring such as sodium alkyl sulphate.

We can represent the detergent ion, alkyl sulphate ion as:

R – OSO3-

The process through which detergent is prepared

i. Preparation of of sodium alkyl sulphate
i. Reaction with concentrated sulphuric acid

ii. Neutralisation with sodium hydroxide, NaOH solution

• Preparation of sodium lauryl sulphate from the production of lauryl

hydrogen sulphate followed by the neutralization of lauryl hydrogen
• An example of a long chain alcohol is didecan – 1 –ol,
CH3(CH2)10CH2OH. The detergent prepared from dodecan -1 –ol is called
sodium dodecyl sulphate (IUPAC name) or sodium lauryl sulphate
(common name). CH3(CH2)10CH2O-SO3-Na+ .
• Sodikum alkylbenzene sulphinates, were first used in 1940s. It can be
prepared in three steps. The starting materials for making this detergents in
a long chain alkene, RCH = CH2 , obtained from the cracking of petroleum.

• Preparation of sodium alkylbenze sulphonate

a) Alkylation – introduction of the sulphonic acid group to an organic


b) Sulphonation – introduction of the sulphonic acid group , -SO3H to

an organic molecule to form sulphonic acid

• Alkylbenze reacts with sulphuric acid to form alkylbenze

sulphonic acid

c) Neutralisation
• Alkylbenzene suphonic acid reacts with sodium hydroxide to form
sodium alkylbenze sulphonate (detergent)
The structure of detergent molecule
• Detergents dissolve in water to form sodium ions, Na+ and detergent ions.
• The detergent ions consists of two parts; the head and the tail.
• The head is the sulphate group, -OSO3- or the sulphonate group, -OSO3- , which
is negatively charged and hydrophilic (dissolves in water).
• The tail is the long hydrocarbon chain, which is neutral and insoluble in water
(hydrophobic) but dissolves readily in oil or grease.
• The structure of alkyl sulphate ion in detergent

alkyl sulphate ion

Alkylbenzene sulphonate ion

The cleansing action of soap and detergent

a)When soap or detergent is added to the dirty surface of a piece of cloth, the hydrophohic
part of the soap or detergent ions dissolves in grease. The hydrophilic part of the soap or
detergent ions dissolves in water.
b) If the water is agitated and lifted off the surface.
c) The grease is lifted off the surface and suspended in water. The hydrophilic part of the
soap or detergent ions surround the grease.
d) The grease is dispersed into smaller drops that float in water. Heating, rubbing, and
scrubbing can help this process.
e) When the cloth is rinsed with water, the grease droplets will be removed.
The Effectiveness Of soap And Detergent as Cleansing Agent

Advantages of soaps
1. Soaps are effective cleansing agents in soft water, that is water does not contain Mg2+ and
Ca2+ ions.

2. Soaps do not cause pollution problems to the environment. This is because soaps are made
from chemical found in animals and plants. This means that soaps are biodegradable, that
is they can be composed by the action of bacteria.

Disadvantages of soaps
1. Soaps are ineffective in hard water, that is, water that contains magnesium and calcium

2. In hard water, soaps will react with Mg2+ and thus, soaps do not lather in hard water.

3. Scum is grey solid that is insoluble in water. It consists of magnesium stearate and
calcium stearate.

4. Soaps are not also effective in acidic water, for example rainwater containing dissolves
acids. H+ ions from acids will react with soap ions to produce carboxylic acids molecular
size that are insoluble in water.

5. Stearic acids and other carboxylic acids do not act as cleansing agents because they exist
mainly as molecules and do not anionic hydrophilic ends (’head’) that dissolves in water.

Advantages of detergents
1. Detergents are cleansing agents that are effective in soft water as well as hard water. This
is because detergents do not form scum with Mg+ and Ca2+ ions found in hard water.

2. The detergents ions (R –O – SO3- and R – SO3- )react with Mg+ and Ca2+ ions in hard
water. However, the magnesium salts and calcium salts which are formed are soluble in
water. Hence, the scum is not formed and the detergents are still active in hard water and
lathers easily.

3. Detergents are synthetic cleansing agents. This means that the structure of the
hydrocarbon chain can be modified to produce detergents with specific properties.
Nowadays, different types of detergents have been synthesised for specific uses such as
shampoos and dish cleaner.

4. Furthermore, detergents are also effective in acidic water because H + ion is acidic water
do not combined with detergents ions.

Disadvantages of detergents
1. Most detergents have branched hydrocarbon chains and are non-biodegradable, that is,
they cannot decomposed by bacteria. As a result, non-biodegradable detergents cause
water pollution.

2. Phosphates in detergents act as fertilizers and promote the growth of water plants and
algae. When the plants die and decay, they will used up the oxygen dissolves in water.
This will decrease the oxygen content in water and kill fishes and other aquatic lives.

3. Detergents produce a lot of foam in water. The layer of foam that covers the water surface
will prevents oxygen from dissolving in water. This condition will cause fish and other
aquatic life ti die from oxygen starvation.

4. Additives such as sodium hydrochlorite (bleaching agents) releases chlorine gas in water
that is acidic. Chlorine gas is highly toxic and kills aquatic life.
Additives in detergents
1. Modern detergents used for washing clothes usually contains a few types of
additives to :

a) Increase their cleaning power.

b) Make them attractive and saleable.

2. Only about 20% of the substances in a detergent are cle4ansing agents (sodium
alkyl sulphate or sodium alkylbenzene sulphonate). The other substances are
additives. The examples of addictives and their functions are described as follows :
3. Builders : Sodium tripolyphosphate (Na5P3O10)

a) Sodium tripolyphospathe is usd to soften hard water. In the presence of

sodium tripolyphosphate, Ca2+ ions and Mg2+ ions are removed.

b) Sodium tripolyphosphate increases the pH value of water. In this way,

muddy dirt can be removed.

4. Whitening / bleaching agents : sodium perborate

a) Bleaches (bleaching agents) remove coloured stains by oxidation process.

When coloured stanis are oxidized, the colour will disappear.

b) The whitening (bleaching) agents commonly used in detergent are sodium

perborate (NaH2BO43H2O). Sodium perborate decomposes in hot water to
release oxygen (an oxidising agent) which is responsible for the whitening
(bleaching) action.

c) Unlike chlorine, oxygen does not bleach the colour of dyes are not
damaging to fabrics. When properly used, the perborate bleaches make
fabrics whiter than chlorine bleaches and the colourful dyes of the fabrics
do not fade when dirty stains are removed.

d) Besides sodium perborate, sodium hypochlorite, (NaCIO) can also be used

as bleaches in detergents. The IUPAC name of sodium hypochlorite is
sodium chlorate (I).

e) Sodium hypochlorite releases chlorine that bleaches with dirty stains.

However, high concentrations of chlorine can be quite damaging to
fabrics. These bleaches do not work well on synthetic fabrics (polyster
fabrics), often causing a yellowing rather than the desire whitening. Also
chlorine causes the dyes on fabrics to fade.
5. Biological enzymes : Amylase, lipase, and protease

a) Protein stains such blood, milk, and tomato sauce cannot be removed by
the ordinary detergents because these types of stains are insoluble in water.

b) Biological enzymes in detergents can break down fat and protein

molecules in food stains. The fatty acids, glycerol and amino acids
produced are soluble in water and are removed during washing.

6. Brighteners

a) Figure below shows the action of brighteners. The brighteners absorb the
invisible ultra-violet and re-radiate it as blue light.


b) Brighteners make fabrics appear whiter and brighter because the blue light
can hide any yellowing on the fabrics. Blue light added to the yellow light
reflected on old fabrics make them look white.

7. Drying agents ; Sodium sulphate and sodium silicate

Anhydrous sodium sulphate and sodium silicate (Na2S2O3) are used as drying
agents to ensure that the detergent in powdered firm is always in a dry condition.

8. Stabilisers

a) The functions of stabilizers is to prevents the formation of foam.

b) In an automatic washing machine, excessive foam can stop the pump

working. So, washing powders for automatic washing machine are made
using detergents that are good at removing and emulsifying grease, but do
not produced foam.

9. Perfumes

Perfumes are added to make clothes smell fresh and clean.

Food additive
• Food additive is any substance that is added to food in small quantities to
preserve or improve its flavour and appearance.

Uses of food additives

To make food last longer (to extend the shelf life)
To make foods taste better and look better

Types and example of

food additives

Preservatives: sodium
nitrite, sodium benzoate
Effects on health
Antioxidant: ascorbic acid
Flavouring: Monosodium
Allergy: MSG
glutamate(MSG), aspartame
Carcinogenic: NaNO₂
Stabiliser and thickener:
Brain damage
gelatin and acacia gum
Dye: azo compounds,
triphenyl compounds
Functions of food additives

Preservatives: to inhibit or prevent the

growth of moulds, yeast and bacteria that
spoil foods
Antioxidants: to prevent spoilage of food
due to oxidation by oxygen
Flavouring agents: to enhance the taste of
Stabilisers and thickeners: to improve the
texture of foods
Colouring agents: to restore the colour or
to enhance the natural colour

Functions of food additives

- Preservatives are chemicals that are added to food to retard or to prevent the
growth of microorganism such as bacteria, mould or fungus, so that the food can
be stored for a long time.

- In ancient times, food additives from natural sources such as salt, sugar and
vinegar were used to preserve food and to make the food taste better.

- Nowadays, synthetic preservatives are use, table below shows the types of
preservatives commonly used. Many of the preservatives are organic acids and
salts of organic acids.

Preservative Molecular formula Uses

Sodium nitrite NaNO2  To preserve meat, cheese and dried fish.
Sodium nitrate NaNO3  To prevent food poisoning in canned
 To maintain the natural colour of meat
and to make them look fresh
Benzoic acid C6H5COOH  To preserve sauce (olyster, tomato or
Sodium benzoate C6H5COONa chilli), fruit juice, jam and margarine
Sulphur dioxide SO2  Used as bleaches and antioxidants to
Sodium sulphite Na2SO3 prevent browning in fruit juices.
 Maintain the colour and freshness of
 To prevents the growth of yeast

- Antioxidants are chemicals that are added to foods to prevent the oxidation of fats
and oils by oxygen in the air.

- Foods containing fats or oils are oxidized and become rancid when exposed to air.

- When the fats and oils are oxidized, rancid product are formed. This makes the
food unpalatable. The rancid products are volatile organic compound with foul
odors (for example, butanoic acid, C3H7COOH).

- Antioxidants are added to fats, oils, cakes, sausages, biscuits and fried foods to
slow down the oxidation process so that these foods do not become rancid.

Flavouring agents

- There are two types of flavouring agents: artificial flavours and flavour enhancer.
They are added to foods to make them taste better.

- Flavour enhancers have little or no taste of their own. They are chemicals that are
added to food to bring out the flavours or to enhance the taste of food.

- An example of a flavour enhancer is monosodium glutamate (MSG). MSG is used

to enhance the flavours of other foods.

- Artificial flavour includes sweeteners and other flavours such as peppermint or

vanilla. Aspartame and saccharin are examples of artificial sweeteners.
- Both aspartame and saccharin can be used as a substitute for sugar to enhance the
sweetness in food and drink. However, the used of saccharin is banned in many
countries because it is carcinogenic. Aspartame has largely replaced saccharin as
the artificial sweetener or choice.

- Many esters have fruity odours and tastes and are used as artificial flavours. Table
below shows some examples of esters that are used in making drinks.

Ester Benzyl Octyl Ethyl

ethanoate ethanoate butanoate
Flavour Strawberry Orange Pineapple

Stabilisers and thickening agents

- Stabilisers and thickening agents improve the texture and the blending of foods.

- Stabilisers are chemicals that are used to enable oil and water in the food to mix
together properly in order to form an emulsion of oil and water. Examples of
stabilizers are gelatin and acacia gum.

- Stabilisers are added to improve the texture of foods. For examples, stabilisers are
added to ice-cream and peanut butter to keep them smooth and creamy.

- In the presence of stabilisers, the emulsion of oil does not separate from water.
This means that the stabilisers improve the stability of some foods such as ice-
cream and salad dressings (mayonnaise).

- Without stabilisers, ice crystals would form in ice-cream, particles of chocolate

would settle out of chocolate milk, oil and vinegar in salad dressing will separate
as soon as mixing is stopped.

- Thickening agents are chemicals that are added to foods to thicken the liquid and
to prevent the foods from becoming liquid. Thickening agents (also called
thickeners) absorb water and thicken the liquid in foods to produce a jelly-like

- Most thickening agents are natural carbohydrates. Gelatin and pectin are added to
help jams and jellies to set.

- Dyes (colouring agents) are chemicals that are added to foods to give them colour
so as to improve their appearance.
- Some foods are naturally coloured, but the colour is lost during food processing.
The foods industry uses synthetic food colours to :

a) Restore the colour of food lost during food processing.

b) Enhance natural colours, so as to increase the attractiveness of foods.

c) Give colour to foods that do not have colour.

- Some dyes are naturally plant pigments while others are synthetically prepared.
The synthetic colours used in foods are azo and triphenyl compounds. Both these
compounds are organic compounds.

- The synthetic dye, brilliant blue, is an example of triphenyl compound. The

synthetic dye, tartrazine and sunset yellow are examples of azo compounds.

- Azo compounds are organic compounds containing the diazo group, - N = N -, and
are usually yellow, red, brown, black in colour. Triphenyl compounds are organic
compounds containing three phenyl groups, -C6H5, and are usually green. Blue or
purple in colour.

Effect of food additives on health

- The types of food additives allowed and the quantity permitted are controlled by
the 1983 Food Act and the 1985 Food Regulation.

- The permissible quantity depends on the type of food and the food additives. For
example, benzoic acid added must not exceed 800 mg per kg in cordial drinks,
whereas sodium nitrite must not exceed 100 mg per kg in meat product.

- The excessive intake of food additives for a prolonged period of time will ruin our
health. The side effects arising from taking food additives are allergy, cancer,
brain damage and hyperactivity.

a) Food additives such as sodium sulphite (preservative), BHA and BHT
(antioxidants), MSG (flavouring) and some food colours (e.g, Yellow No.
5) can cause allergic reactions in some people.

b) The symptoms of MSG allergy are giddiness, chest pain and difficulty in
breathing. This condition is called the ‘Chinese restaurant syndrome’

c) The presence of sodium nitrate or sodium nitrite in food can cause ‘blue
baby’ syndrome that is fatal for babies. This syndrome is due to the lack of
oxygen in the blood. Hence, the use of nitrate and nitrite is allowed in baby

a) Chemicals that cause cancer are called carcinogens. Sodium nitrite (a
preservative) is a potent carcinogen.

b) The nitrite reacts with the amines in food to produce nitrosamine which
can cause cancer.

Brain damage
Excessive intake of nitrites for a prolonged period of time can cause brain damage.
In this condition, the supply of oxygen to the brain is disrupted and this cause
brain damage.

a) Food additives such as tartrazine can cause hyperactivity.

Children who are hyperactivity become very active, find it difficult to relax or sleep and
are very restless.

Traditional medicines

 Traditional medicines are derived from mostly different types of plant parts or
animal parts. They are generally less harmful over a long period of time when
compared to drugs.

Examples of traditional medicine and their uses.

PlantLocal nameUsesAloe veraLidah buayaSap used to

relieved pain from burnsBetelSirehLeaves relieved sore
eyesBitter gourdPeriaFruit used to cure
diabetesCoconutKelapaYoung coconut water reduces
feverGarlicBawang putihReduces infection and
hypertensionGingerHaliaReduces inflammation and
improves blood circulation and
digestionGinsengGinsengRoots maintain good
healthHibiscusBunga RayaLeaves relieves headache and
hair lossTurmericKunyitCures pimples
Modern medicine
- Modern medicines can be classified as follows based on their
effects on the human body.

- Some examples of modern medicines are:

a) Analgesics

b) Antibiotics

c) Psychotherapeutic drugs

Type of modern drug Example

Analgesics Aspirin, paracetamol, codeine
Antibiotics Penicillin, streptomycin
Psychotherapeutic drugs Stimulant, antidepressant, antipsychotic

Fucntion of each type of modern drug

- Analgesics are medicines that relieve pain. Examples of
analgesics are aspirin, paraccetamol, and codeine. Analgesics are
sometimes called painkillers.

- Aspirin and paracetamol are mild painkillers whereas codeine is

powerful painkillers.
- Analgesics relive pain but do not cure the disease. Table 5.6
shows the chemical aspect and functions of some analgesics.

Type of
Chemical aspect Function

IUPAC name: acetyl salicylic

- Relief pain and has anti-
Functional groups: a carboxylic inflammatory action.
- Used to:
a) Reduce fever
group and b) Relieve headaches,
muscle aches and joint
ester group
COOH c) Treat arthritis, a disease
Aspirin carboxylic acid
caused by inflammation
O of the joints.
d) Act as an anticoagulant.
║ It prevents the clotting
of blood and reduces
O – C – CH3 the risk of heart attacks
and stroke.
ester group

Thus, aspirin is acidic in nature.

Paracetamol Structural formula: - Similar to aspirin in its

effects but it does not
H O reduce inflammation.
- Reduces or relieves flu
│ ║ symptoms such as fever,
bone aches and runny
HO N – C – CH3 nose.

Thus, unlike aspirin,

paracetamol is neutral in

- Used relieves minor to

moderate pain. It is more
powerful than aspirin and
Codeine is an organic paracetamol but less
compound that contains the powerful than morphine.
Codeine Codeine and morphine are
elements carbon, hydrogen, narcotic drugs.
oxygen and nitrogen. - Also used in cough
mixtures for suppressing

Antibiotics : Antibacterial medicine

- Antibiotics are chemicals that destroy or prevent the growth of
infectious microorganism.

- Two examples of antibiotics are penicillin and streptomycin.

- Antibiotics are used to treat diseases caused by bacteria.

- Antibiotics are not effective against diseases caused by viral

infections such as influenza, measles, or small pox.


a) Penicillin is derived from the mould Penicillium


b) Penicillin is used to treat diseases, caused by bacteria, such

as pneumonia, gonorrhea and syphilis.

c) Penicillin is only effective on certain bacteria. For example,

it cannot be used to treat tuberculosis.

- Streptomycin is the antibiotic that is effective in treating

Psychotherapeutic medicines
- Psychotherapeutic medicines are a group of drugs that change
the emotional and behavior of the patient and are used for
treating mental or emotional illnesses.

- Table 5.7 shows the types and functions of psychotherapeutic

Type of psychotherapeutic Function Examples Comments
Stimulants - To Caffeine - It is found in
These are drugs that stimulate maintain or coffee, tea, and
(excite) the activity of the increase Cola drinks
brain and the central nervous alertness - It is a weak,
system - To naturally
counteract occurring
- normal stimulant
fatigue Amphetamine - A strong synthetic
- To elevate stimulant
mood - It increases the
heart and
respiration rates
as well as blood
Antidepressants - To alleviate - Barbiturate They are substances that
These are drugs that increase depression - Tranquiliser depress the central nervous
the brain’s level of - To relieve system and cause drowsiness
neurotransmitters and thus anxiety or
improve mood tension
- To make a
person feel
calm and
Antipsychotic medicine To treat mental illness - Lithium carbonate - Mental (psychotic)
such as schizophrenia (Li2CO3) patients have
(madness) - Chloropromazine extreme mood
- Haloperidol swings. Their
mood changes
rapidly from high
spirits to deep
- Antipsychotic
medicine do not
cure mental
illness but it can
reduce some of
the symptoms to
help the person
live a more
normal life
Side effects of traditional medicines
- It is generally believed that traditional medicines have little side
effects compared to modern medicines. In fact, traditional
medicines are sometimes used to counteract the side effects of
some modern medicines.

- However, taking high doses of quinine for a prolonged period may

cause hearing loss. German health officials recently reported 40
cases of liver damage which were linked to the herbal medicine
containing kava-kava.

- While the use of traditional medicine is rising globally, health

experts have insufficient data about how it affects patients.

- The World Health Organization (WHO) hopes to set up a global

monitoring system to monitor the adverse side effects of
traditional medicines.

Side effects of modern medicines

- Table 5.8 shows the side effects of modern medicine.

Type of modern
Side effects
• Can cause bleeding in the stomach because aspirin
is vey acidic.
• Can cause allergic reactions, skin rashes and
asthmatic attacks
Amphetamines • People who abuse amphetamines are excitable and
• Psychologically additive and can cause heart attack.
• Can cause anxiety, sleeplessness, aggressive
behavior and decrease appetite.
• Can cause enlarged pupils, heavy perspiration and
trembling hands.
Codeine • Can cause addiction.
• Can cause allergic reactions.
• Can cause death for people who are allergic to it.
• Can cause nausea, vomiting, dizziness, rashes and
Streptomycin fever.
• Can cause loss of hearing following long-term use.
Stimulants • Can cause addiction.
• Can cause addiction.
Antidepressants • Can cause headaches, grogginess and loss of
• Can cause dry mouth, blurred vision, urinary
retention, constipation.
• Can cause tremor and restlessness.
• Sedation (make people calmer, or to make people