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AN ARCHITECTURAL THESIS

Title: Architecture ttiat provides a liealtliy learning


environment for Boy Scouts.

Project: An After-School/Summer facility for the


Boy Scouts of America

Location: Amarillo, Texas

Author: Ryan Niller-Eagle Scout 1996


An After-School/ Summer Flacility for tf fflKa'Bufelliickx, Chalimainartlie^aBMnittee
Boy Scouts of America

By Stephen! L. Flaulk, Thesis Advisor

Ryan Nilier
'Re^SarclhiSchemalierthstruetoc
A Thesis in Architecture

Submitted to the Architecture Flaculty


of the College of Architecture Accepted
of Texas Tech University
In Partial Fulfillment
for the Degree of Aiidrew Vemooy, Dean, College of Architecture

MASTERS OF ARCHITECTURE
Nay 2005
(?y#ftss
{^^^'i PREFACE

ly ^ Preface* After-school/summer programs have


^10, 3 become a successful solution to the problem
of child delinquency. Young people need a
positive outlet that provides opportunities
for growth and self development.

I had the opportunity to be involved with


the Boy Scouts of America for the first sixteen
years of my life, i«iiich culminated when 1
earned Eagle Scout. The skills, knowledge,
and values I acquired have been a major part
of my life. Growing up, my fellow scouts and 1
wished that scouting functions occurred not
only once a week but everyday after school
and during the summer months. After
reading about the increasing need for quality
after-school activities and wanting such
activities myself, 1 realized the potential of a
Boy Scout after-school program.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract 05
Chapter 1: Theory 06
statistics-Youth Dellnc|uency and Gangs 11
Goals and Objectives la
Precedents 18
Figures and References 21
Chapter 2: Facility 22
Mission Statement 23
riaclllty Statement 24
History of the Boy Scouts of America 25
Issues and Design Responses 29
Merit Badge Requirements-Eagle Required 32
Spatial Study 34
Indoor Space Summary 58
Outdoor Space Summary 59
Precedents 60
Figures and References 64
Chapter 3: Context 65
Amarillo City History 66
Demographics and Climate 68
Site Overview and Pictures 70
Site Analysis 74
Issues and Design Responses 78
Precedents 81
Figures and References 85
Chapter 4: Design Response 86
Design 87
Theoretical Solutions 88
Site Design 89
Building Design 92
Materials 98
Structure 100
Mechanical 101
Model Pictures 102
Bibliography 104
ABSTRACT

T h e s i s S t a t e m e n t : Architecture that Scope of Project: This after-


provides not only a moral based learning s c h o o l / s u m m e r f a c i l i t y will b e
environment, for the youth of today, but also a approximately 13,420 square feet and will
place that scouts call their own. house areas such as a ceremony hall,
administration office, multipurpose rooms,
basketballA^oUeyball court, football/soccer
field, camp Are ring, paint ball field, and
cope course (tests abilities and allows one
C o n t e x t S t a t e m e n t : The site, located on to face his or her fears). The Boy Scouts in
t h e outskirts of s o u t h e r n Amarillo, Is Amarillo and surrounding areas will be given
surrounded by businesses and residential opportunities to become. Just as the Scout
units, which are on the north and west side. Oath states, "physically strong, mentally
Open, undeveloped land surrounds t h e awake, and morally straight."
remainder of the site. It is mostly covered with
grass and Is bordered on the south and east by
trees. A large pond occupies the southeast
comer that will be utilized In the design.
THEORY
Supporting Theory:
There is quite a dilemma concerning the youth of Character in the American Boy, boys burning off
today. Extensive research has shown young people energy will get into trouble, and he argues that
seek approval from parents or peers and also want "restless youth" will turn to crime, unless a boy's
to b e associated with a "gang," whether it be ttom organization reach them before teenage years.
an actual gang or an organization such as scouts. Often unsupervised kids turn t o thoughts and
Webster's New World Dictionary defines a gang as "a actions that often lead to unstructured activities.
group of people associated together in some way." For example, FC found that during the after-
The National Incident-Based Reporting System school hours there are approximately 11 million
(NIBRS) discovered that the hours after school lets children that need supervised activities because
out and before dinnertime (3-6 p.m.) is when school 4.5 million children are injured in their homes
aged children try new things like drugs, sex, and each year.
acts of violence, mainly because they are not There have been studies on dilapidated
supervised. Fight Crime: Invest in Kids (FC) is a neighborhoods that show if something is broken
non-profit organization that discovered kids are and is not repaired then a downward spiral
most likely t o experiment with drinking and ensues. For example, Phillip Zimbardo, a
smoking during these three hours. So programs Stanford psychologist, parked a car in PSalo Alto,
need to b e designed that offer supervised California. He camped out behind a duck blind for
constructive activities. a week and nothing happened to the car. So he
The difference between supervised and smashed part of it with a sledgehammer and
unsupervised children Is quite obvious, if they are camped out again, only this time within hours the
monitored by adults, who care about their future car was overturned and destroyed. Similar
then they can enjoy activities that will promote self studies were done and the "broken window"
worth and offer opportunities for learning. theory emerged. It says if a window gets broken in
According to David Nacleod, author of Building a building and no one fixes it and then something

I
I THEORY
else gets broken and is not repaired, then before t o have members of the community start a
too long, graffiti starts to appear and damage neighborhood crime watch, uiiich normally leads
accumulates. Tenants move out and the entire t o community socialization. Once people get to
building starts t o decay. Before long gangs use know one another then they start watching out for
these buildings and crime begins to occiv on a the neighbor's property and report suspicious
regular basis. George Kelling, co-author of the activity.
broken window theory, seiid: Another theory that is similar and to a certain
degree answers the problems of the broken
...if you've got broken windows, you've got to window theory is defensible space. Oscar
fix them pretty quickly. Otherwise, it's a sign Newman's goal of defensible space is "to release
nobody cares and a sign that Icsads to more the latent sense of territoriality and community of
discord as a broken window is left untended. inhabitant s o as t o allow these traits t o be
It leads to more petty crime, then serious translated into Inhabitants' assumption of
crime and, finally, urt>an decay.' responsibility for preserving a sage and well-
maintalned living environment."" He defines it as:
Community Interaction is another important aspect
that has the potential to lower crime. Kelling also a term used to describe a residential
says that elderly people lock themselves inside environment whose physical
their homes and young adults leave ftom their characteristics—building layout and site
garages in the morning and at the end of the day plan—function t o allow i n h a b i t a n t s
they drive back into them. This is detrimental for themselves to become the key agents in
community involvement because if people ensuring their own security. ..A defensible
simply stay inside then they are probably Ignoring housing complex has the appearance of
problems that could lead to crime in their being composed of small, defined areas
neighborhoods. A possible solution or deterrent is controlled by specific groups of residents.
' James q. Wilson and George L. Kelling. Broken Windows. (March 1082), 31.
' Newman, Oscar. Design Guidelines for Creating Defensible Space. Washington, DC: Department of Justice, 1976.
1
THEORY
The effect is an environment that is (Delinquency). There are many issues that can
intensively utilized and continually lead children down wrong paths. One of them is
monitored by its inhabitants. Residents and that, in many families, both parents have t o work
non residents alike feel that they will be to support the family, s o they are not home when
recognized easily by other residents and that the kids are out of school. Even if both parents
their presence can b e questioned.' work, often times they cannot affbrd t o send their
children to an after-school program. An answer to
The solution here is similar to the broken window delinquency is getting children involved with
theory in that residents are assumed t o identify after-school programs or advising high-risk kids
with a place as their home and will treat it as a and their families t o get in touch with services
possession. Thus they will monitor activity within that will keep kids away from drugs, stay in school,
their neighborhood and notify the authorities. or help secure a Job. Well structured programs
Newman says that in some low and moderate have given low-income cliildren the opportunity
Income developments that people are s o scared to develop social skills, which g o hand in hand in
they will not use laundry rooms, parking lots, with doing well in school, being a successful
lounging areas, and playgrounds. His purpose of adult, and reducing the risk of delinquency. Many
defensible space is to return these lost spaces to after-school activities have been modeled from
residents. An example of a place that was abused summer programs and modified t o fit each
for too long was the Pruitt-lgoe project, in St. Louis. situation. According t o Nacleod and FC,
The occupancy rate fell t o an astonishing 15% and successful progi^ms work because they get
in 1972 the housing project, once known for its involved with kids at an early age and teach ways
architectural innovations, was demolished. t o use their time in a constructive manner with
Factors that lead to rundown neighborhoods are adult supervision. The University of Wisconsin
adolescence roaming the streets and getting conducted a study of 6 4 after-school programs.
i n v o l v e d in d r u g s a n d criminal m i s c h i e f Teachers stated that the programs helped

' (newman 4)

1
children with skills that involved cooperation and
handling conflicts. One third of these principles
reported that vandalism at their school had
decreased.
It is imperative for troubled and not-yet-
troubled teens t o secure adult mentor relationships
and t o develop ties with more positive peers if they
are going t o stay out of trouble. This could be done
by getting young people to Join clubs. FC says that
"The Boys and Girls Clubs have proven that they can
succeed in attracting and keeping troubled kids in
their programs..."* The Young Men's Christian
Association (YNCA) is an organization that was
founded t o improve the spiritual, mental, social,
and physical condition of men and boys. Tills
organization was founded by George Williams in
London, to protect children's faith s o it would not
be soiled by the city. Many of these facilities housed
gymnasiums, which was a unique feature especially
during the 1890s. The YNCA is a great organization
for today's youth, however they only take kids from
ten t o sixteen years of age. The boys younger than
ten have to look else vihere to find an organization
and that answer is often the Boy Scouts of America,
which wUl be discussed in the following section.
' Retrieved September 2 2 , 2 0 0 4 , from http//;wwinfl^tcrime.orB
THEORY

Fig. 1-Cities with gangs through 1960. Fig. 2-Cities with gangs through 1970.

Fig. 3-Cltles with gangs through 1980. Fig. 4-Cltles with gangs through 1992.
THEORY
Percent of Violent Juvenile Crime Occurring Each Hour
14% Which of these strategies did police chiefs choose
Vioient Juvenile Crime as the most effective for reducing youth violence?
12% Tripies When the

10%^ ^Hmi School Beil Rings After-school and


child care programs
69%

S%
Try juveniles as 17%
adults
e%

4% ^fiiu.'.tfmiiu
Hire more police 13%

2%

0% 1 Metal detectors and j ^ -]%


6:00 AM

9:00 AM

12:00 PM

cameras in the schools


g s g
o) M ri SctAl Koeler ana Sl^hen M^lrof&kl, Gaorgs Mason 'JnivKd^ 1999

necetng 3nv<. tnT* Fig. 6


Risk-Taking Wliiie Unsupervised
Fig. 5
G a n g A c t i v i t y Has Spread t o M a n y U r b a n , S u b u r b a n , a n d Even Rural Areas

Percent of localities reporlinp pang activity


Cities

250,000 * 100%

100,000-250,000

Counties

Suburban Counties

Rural Counties

ftO% 80% 100% Smoked one or more Drank 11 or more Tried rnarquana
packs of cigarettes drinks o( alcohol
2003 NjtionalMDulh Gang Survey J.L Klchardson ot ai, Prdiatrics Mamvifio''

Fig. 7 Fig. 8

iBI_
THEORY
After-School Programs Produce
Education and Social Benefits
Compared to similar youths left out, boys and girls
who participated in the Quantum Opportunities
After-School Program had far more positive
outcomes
Sctiool

B Boys and girls in after-school


program
Boys and girls not In after-school
• program ("Hord-core
clique"

("Block
clique'

• Core member
o Fringe member
Went to Received an Became Dropped out
post- awarder teen parents of high
secondary honor school
school Fig. 10-Structure of a traditional gang.
Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence. Univerelty of Colorado

Fig. 9
THEORY

Demographic and Nongang Gang


Socioeconomic
Characteristics (%) Male Female Male Female

N 427 499 193 87

5.9 6,2 5.2 10.3


T: 20.4 15.2 17.6 25.3
16 25.1 28,5 29.5 21.8
i-,--i?of raw*;"--.'. 4».7 S0.1 4?.7, •*zi--
Race
Wtiite 2.3 1.2 4.7 3.4
Black 71.9 76.1 65.6 78.2

NumtwTS of Gangs Rcponed in 175 ot the Largest U.S. CUits


Hispanic 21.8 18.4 24.9 ^zs
Asian 3.0 3.6 2.1 4.6
Numbers ol Gangs Rrponcd by 766 Gang Cities. other 0.9 0 2.6 1.1

School status
student 82.9 94.6 61.7 89.7
dropout 17.1 5.4 38.3 10.3

Living with:
birth parents 31.4 30.5 24.9 21.8
parent/stepparent 9.1 9.4 11.9 14.9
single parent 48.7 51.7 54.4 57.5
other adult/independent 10.8 8.4 8.8 5.7

Parents' employment
none 22.7 24.6 24.9 17.2
mother only 15.5 16.0 16.1 20.7
lather only 14.3 14.8 18.1 13.6
txjth parents 47.5 44.5 40.9 48.3

Parents' education
3001- Ortr4000 501- 1001- 1501- 2001- 3001- Over 4000 less than high school 39.3 32.9 37.8 25.3
4000 1000 1500 2000 3000 4000 graduate
Kuititw of U high school graduate 18.7 25.1 22.3 24.1
coileqe graduate 41.9 42.1 39.9 50.6
Niimbci% i>I Gang Members Rcponcd In 739 Cllics. Numbers of Gang Members in 173 ol the Largest U.S. a i i e s .

Fig. 11 Fig. 12 ng. 13


THEORY

Objective: Provide a non-threating


and comfortable place.
Goal! Get youth involved in
constructive activities that offer Objective: Provide a place for
opportunities to learn a positive youngsters to gain physical and
value and moral structure. mental strength.

Objective: Offer indoor and outdoor


challenges that keep the youth
interested and wanting to come back.
THEORY

Objective: Provide a place that is


ordered, practical, and honest.
Goal; Architecture that is a mentor
to scouts.
Objective: Provide areas where scouts
can expand their minds.

Objective; Provide areas that allow


scouts to explore by doing.
THEORY

Objective: Provide areas that scouts


can build things which will become
Goal: Architecture that scouts can part of the building and/or site.
call their own and treat as a
possession. 1
Ol^jective: Provide areas inside and
outside where youngsters can display
their earnings and progress.

IIB
THEORY

Precedents

M
THEORY
Pruitt-lgoe; Precedents

This housing project, completed in 1956,


was located in St. Louis. A few years later,
vandalism, disrepair, and crime overcame the
project. It was know for Its architectural
Innovations, which at the time was skip-stop Fig. 14-Prultt-Igoe
elevators. The elevators created unsafe zones,
thus people started moving out. In 1972 $5
million was spent to try to fix the problem areas
but a year later It was declared unsalvageable
and It was demolished. Fig. 15-V£Uidallzed Corridor
Paralleled with the research conducted by
Oscar newman, this building was doomed from
the beginning. Many high-rise buildings have
problems with crime mainly because there are
too many people. Newman says that the lower Fig. 16-Vandallzed Fiacade
the number of people living off one entrance
the better, solely because you known the
people there and you can distinguish whether
or not someone belongs there.
Fig. 17-Demolltlon of Pndtt-lgoe

IE'
THEORY
Overton Piark: Precedents
The North Overtoil area is one of the oldest and to contribute to the revitalization of
residential developments in Lubbock, Texas, downtown. The replacement is a itliole new
however it was overrun with crime, drugs, and master plan that will have multi-family, single-
prostitution. Delbert McDougal decided to clean family houses, restaurants, retail shops, and
up the area, so he called for the m^ority of the other businesses. McDougal Industries promote
area from University to Avenue Q and 4th Street to social activities in this area; however there is a
Main Street to be demolished. This project is the large metal fence that surrounds the new
largest privately funded urban renovation In the apartments. Often times fencing confines social
United States. interaction, nonetheless he envisions this m^jor
NcDougal has demolished the built and the change to open lines of communication with a
natural environment In this area. With that in neighborhood that facilitates neighbor's
mind, his goals stre to reclaim the neighborhood, interaction.
complement the growth of Texas Tech University,

Fig. 18-The Centre In North Overton Fig. 19-Sterllng Apartments In North


Overton

iHtt
THEORY
18. Rendering of the Centre In North Overton. David
Figures! Miller, Interview by author, October 2, 2 0 0 3 ,
1. Klein, Malcolm W. The American Street Gang. Oxford Lubbock, Texas.
University Press. 1995. 92. 19. Picture by author, October 15, 2004.
2. Klein, The American Street Gang. 9 3 .
3. Klein, Hie American Street Gang. 9 4 .
4. Klein, The American Street Gang. 9 5 . References;
5. Retrieved September 2 2 , 2 0 0 4 , from
http//iwww.flahtcrlme.orq
Brazelton, Berry T. N.D. and Stanley I. Greenspan,
6. Http//;www.flghtcrlme.org
M.D. The Irreducible Needs of Children: What
7. http//:www.flghtcrlme.orq
Every Child Must Have to Grow. Learn, and
8. http//;www.flghtcrlme.orq
Flourish. Perseus Publishing, Cambridge,
9. http//twww.flghtcrlme.org
Massachusetts, 2000.
10. Klein, The American Street Gang. 6 1 .
11. Klein, The American Street Gang. 34.
Guralnik, David B. Webster's New World Dictionary
12. Klein, The American Strcset Gang. 35.
of the American Ltmguage. Prentice-Hall, inc.,
13. Huff, C. Ronald. Gangs In America. Sage
1976. pp 390.
Publications, Inc. 1990. 214.
14. http://defenslblespace.coniybookAllustratlons.htm
Newman, Oscar. Design Guidelines for Creating
Retrieved October 5, 2004.
Defensible Space. Washington, DC: Department of
15. http://defenslblespace.coni/bookAllustratlons.htm
Retrieved October 5, 2004. Justice, 1976.
16. http://defenslblespace.com/book/illustratlons.htm
unison, James Q. and George L. Kelling. "Broken
Retrieved October 5, 2004.
Windows," The Atlantic Monthly. (March 1982), pp
17. http://defenslblespace.coni/bookAllustratlons.htm
Retrieved October 5, 2004. 29-38.

SD
CHAPTER 2: FACILITY

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FACILITY

Mission Statement; As the youth of today are pressured, by peers and others,
to partake In negative activities this facility will provide a
place of refuge. The Boy Scouts In Amarillo and
surrounding areas will have an opportunity to acquire skills
and knowledge that will help them succeed now as
youngsters and later Into adulthood.

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FACILITY ;l

facility Statement;
The after-school program provides a 1
place that young people can go and ei\joy
positive experiences, while socializing ,,
with peers. The building will house areas
such as a ceremony hall, administration
office, kitchen, multipurpose rooms.
shower and changing rooms, and first aid I
office. The site will host acitlvltles like
basketball/ volleyball courts.
football/soccer fields, campflre ring.
multipurpose areas (scouts will build i

these areas), palntball field, ropes course. :


and flag grounds. These activities will 1!
li
offer Boy Scouts a chance to have fun and i!;
learn skills that promote self
development.

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•—•a*
FACILITY
The Boy Scouts of America;
The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) was started in money, needless t o say that young man helped
Britain by Robert Baden-Powell. In 1907 he took a bring scouting t o the states.
group of boys on the first Boy Scout campout on the Many young boys were interested in scouting,
Island of Brownsea. The primary objective of his but the age ranged from 11 to 17 years old, s o a
action was to use his fame gained in the British similar program was started in 1930 called Tiger
Calvary and help British boys become better men. and Cub Scouts. This program was aimed at boys
After the campout Baden-Powell wrote a book from 6 t o 10 years old. Boys in the first grade can
called Scouting for Boys that outlined the basic Join Tiger Cubs, which is a program that promotes
goals of boy scouting. fun, activities, and building relationships
In 1 9 0 9 William D. Boyce, an American, was between boy and adults. Once a boy Is in the
visiting London and lost his way in a thick fog. A second grade he can become a Cub Scout. The
young boy asked him if he could b e of help, t o which program is based on an Indian tribe called the
he accepted. The boy guided him to his Webelos. The chief of the tribe, Akela, learned
destination, udiere upon arrival the American tried skills from the animals of the forest (wolf, bear,
to tip the boy, t o itiiich the boy said "No thank you, and lion). The tribe's name was actually derived
sir. 1 am a scout."" Needless to say he was from the progression from wolf (we-), to bear (be-
impressed and asked the boy t o tell him about ), to lion (lo-) then to scout (s), which resulted in
scouting. After the story was told, Boyce asked if he Webelos.
would take him to the British Scouting Office. At When a boy Joins scouts he is put in a patrol
the office he met Robert Baden-Powell and decided that normally consists of between eight and
to bring scouting to the U.S. On February 8 , 1 9 1 0 a twelve boys his age. Patrols are a key ingredient
group of leaders and Boyce founded the Boy Scouts of a troop and are normally named after animals.
of America. The boy that helped the American find The patrol's goals are to help boys become a good
his way never gave his name and never asked for outdoors man, be active in the troop and patrol.
' Robert C Blikby, The Bov Scout Handbook (Llbimiy of Congress) 1990, 579.

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FACILITY
get physically fit, become a knowledgeable citizen, patrol, merit badges, number of years active and
and live by the Scout Oath and Law. Troops also office held. The boys are responsible for making
consist of a Scoutmaster, Assistant Scoutmasters, sure that their uniforms are kept in presentable
S e n i o r Patrol Leader, Junior A s s i s t a n t condition.
Scoutmasters, and a Troop Committee. Every week Scouts live by the Scout Oath, Law, Notto, and
the troop holds meetings in which patrols compete Slogan. As stated in The Boy Scout Handbook.
In activities that test scouting skills and once a the Oath Is: "On my honor I will do my best to do
month camp outs are held. On campouts, patrols my duty to God and my country and obey the Scout
and scouts have the opportunity to camp under the Law; To help other people at all times; to keep
stars, observe nature, and once again test their myself physically strong, mentally awake, and
skills. Another event that teaches boys about morally straight." The Law Is: "A Scout is
leadership and professionalism Is the courts of trustworthy, loyal, helpful, friendly, courteous,
honor, in which awards the boys have earned are kind, obedient, cheerful, thrifty, brave, clean, and
presented to them. reverent." The Motto is "Be Prepared" and the
A new scout holds the Scout rank and Slogan is "Do a Good Turn Daily." Both the oath
immediately starts working toward Tenderfoot. The and law are recited at all meetings and outings,
following ranks are Second Class, First Class, Star, for practice and to keep the ideas fresh in the
Life, and finally culminating in Eagle Scout. As they boy's minds. Each time a scout recites the Oath
push through the ranks they are shaped into better or Law he salutes with three fingers, which stand
campers, hikers, and scouts. In order to advance for the three parts of the oath and the little finger
through the ranks, boys have to earn merit badges and thumb represent the bond that unites all
that test skills in numerous areas like cooking, scouts. The Scout badge (next page) was derived
camping, first aid, and machinery. Scouts wear from the north point of a mariner's compass often
uniforms that are decorated with badges and called trefoil. A trefoil Is a flower with three
insignia that tell the council, troop number, rank. leaves and means a Scout can point the right way

IM
FACILITY
in life like a compass In the Held. The 2 stars gang member is at the beginning of a child's
symbolize truth and knowledge and the eagle with Ufe.Thls Is a great opportunity for boys that are
the shield stands for freedom and a Scout's entering the first grade because they can Join Cub
readiness t o defend it. The Scouts, a stepping stone to Boy Scouts, and start
scroll with the Notto Is turned Interacting with their peers.
up at the ends to hint that a Scouts enjoy being around people because
Scout smiles as he does his duty they learn ftom other's experiences and together
and the knot Is a reminder t o do they can solve problems that are too big for one
a good tiun daily. person. Another vital tool scouting teaches and
As mentioned before, quality promotes Is how to treat and act in y o w
a f t e r - s c h o o l p r o g r a m s are community. The BSA says that "What really
sometimes too expensive and matters is how p e o p l e feel about their
kids that are in low-income community." They also say that people, who care

I
Fig. 20-Scout
families are unable
participate and often end up on
the streets. One of the positive
to about their neighbors and the place they live are
willing to keep their community safe. In scouting
boys have many opportunities t o help their
Badge things about Boy Scouts Is that communities. The BSA encourage boys to g o out
It Is accessible to all and there In their neighborhoods and meet the people that
are many opportunities to raise money for any live around them, because they have an
burdensome costs. There are fundraisers that allow interesting story to tell or a skill to teach. As boys
the boys to go around their neighborhoods and meet new people, hopefully, they realize that their
raise money by selling various items. Many troops communlty is not Just rows of houses or an
schedule times where they go to a shopping center unknown apartment complex. Scouting Is an
and sell things as a whole troop. organization that Is based on volunteer work and
According t o FC the most effective and most would be nothing without these dedicated
humane time to prevent a child from becoming a individuals. The leaders of a troop volunteer

M
many valuable hours that help youngsters grow Into In conclusion, the life lessons and teachings
contributing members of society. Scouts have a youngsters receive in Boy Scouts could serve as a
plethora of opportunities to volunteer and help vehicle to start revitalizing and maintaining
their communities. A few of these things are neighborhoods, one at a time. If a strong
recycling, picking up trash, collecting and foundation Is laid then maybe it can spread across
distributing Items for homeless and needy families. America and the world, building on itself Just like
As a Life scout starts working toward the Eagle the Boy Scout Movement did.
rank, the main task Is t o complete a service project
for a community. This Is quite a daunting task for a
young person t o undertake, mainly because of the
project's scale. The scout orgsuiizes the entire
project, MAiich includes planning, coordinating, and
execution. A couple of examples of Eagle projects
are remodeling an apartment at a downtown
women's c e n t e r and repainting playground
equipment in a low-income area. These projects
t e a c h s c o u t s even more about leadership,
organization, and professional skills, all of which
could be carried over and Incorporated a s
youngsters get involved with their communities and
start their lives away from their parents. The Boy
Scouts of America challenges each scout to apply
skills and knoidedge he or she has obtained t o dally
life, not only as an adolescent but also as an adult.

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FACILITY
Issue 1; Safety

Goal: Fiacllity will be safe for Its users.


Design Response: The building, both inside
and outside, will be lit so that there are no
dark areas.

Design Response: Entry and exit spaces will


be safe and secure. Fig. 21

Design Response: There will be no blind VIEWS


comers or areas In the building (uAiere
someone could hide). Fig. 21-Views of entrances and exits

M.
FACILITY
A C T (WITT' A l ^ b f ^

Issue 2; Circulation

Goal; l b promote physical fitness by using the


whole site. Fig. 22-Actlvlty area-Inside and outside

Design Response; Create activity areas


throughout the site and building. Fig. 2 2

Design Response: Provide comfortable shaded


areas outside where scouts can work on
various activities. Fig. 2 3
Fig. 23-Man made and natural shading elements
Design Response: Provide signals, such as a
change In material that help users navigate
the building and site. Fig. 2 4

I AJ
Fig. 24-Floor pattern that provides direction

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FACILITY
Issue 3; Interaction

Goal: To get the scouts t o interact with each Ac.Ti\/\-rY AneASi


other, the community, and the site.

Design Response: Provide a place where the


public and the scouts can interact.

Design Response; Provide the scouts with


spaces t o Interact with each other and the
site. Fig. 25

Design Response: Provide activities, such as


trash clean up, that scouts do on site and that
they can extend into the community.
Fig. 25-Actlvlty areas

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ni
FACILITY
Merit Badge Requirements;
Eagle Required Communications
-Interviewing people
Camping -Know ways to commimlcate-talking,
-Show knowledge of first aid listening, watching, reading, and online
-Know i^at to take camping-clothing, tents,
sleeping bag, etc. Cycling
-Camp for twenty days and nights -Clean and acyust bicycle
-Repel at least 30' ^ -Make right and left turns while using hand
signals
citizenship In the Community -Plan and ride fifty miles in eight hours
-Know history of community and culture
-Know locations of government buildings
-Understand local government Emergency Preparedness
-Know how to react, prevent, and recognize
a emergency situation
citizenship In the Nation -Show how to save people In set situations
-Know branches of the government and -Know communities disaster response
functions
Environmental Science
Citizenship in the World
-Understand environment
-Understand how to become a citizen of
-Build ecosystem In a bottle
America and other countries
-Mark and study four square yards of the
-Understand laws of US and other countries
earth

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FACILITY

Fiamlly Life Personal Fitness


-Know vihat a family is and how it functions -Know importance of personal fitness
-Know uAiat makes it work and identify your -Know about drugs, tobacco, alcohol, and
role other harmful substances
-Know good nutrition
First Aid -Run, walk, sit ups, pull ups, and push ups
-Understand and demonstrate first aid on a
campout-cuts, bites, broken bones, bums, Personal Management
dehydration, frostbite, and hypothermia -Understand family finances
-Periorm CPR -Prepare a budget
-Know and practice money management
Hiking
-Show knoidedge of first aid on the trail Swimming
-Plan and hike twenty miles -Know first aid and water safety
-Swimming test
Life Saving -Practice life safety In the water
-Know safe swinuning techniques
-Practice saving techniques in the water

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FACILITY
Interior Spaces; Exterior Spaces;
Entranc^Lobby ^#^ Basketball / Volleyball Court
"•? *

Restrooms
Football / Soccer Field
Administration Office
Storage
Ceremony Hall , -?
Camp Fire Ring
Kitchen -'-« j*!. ' Z ' Multipurpose Areas !

Multipurpose "; ff Disposal Bin


Storage 'y'::'.^-^Z ' ', 1 J
PahitbaU Field
Changing Room Climbing Wall (Ropes Course)
Shower Parking
Mechanical / Electrical Flag Grounds
Custodian's Room -•; *' : ?f -•-•^••''"

First Aid
"'*'-;,;*,;. ' '-'^'r

HL i'
FACILITY
Space Bubble Diagram;

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FACILITY
Entrance/Lobby; indoor Spaces

Size; 600 ft* Design Requirements;


-At least one half of the ^rits will be here
Issues; Safety, Accessibility, Circulation -Double doors
-Seating close to entrance
Users; 1-10 -Adjacent to Administration Office, Ceremony
Hall, and Restrooms
Activities;
-Point where people enter and exit
-Orientation point
Spatial Analysis;
-Inviting
-Accessible from the parking lot
-Secure
-Easy to locate

ao^'*'^

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FACILITY
Restroom; Indoor Spaces

Size; 4O0 ft* I>eslqn Requirements;


-Adjacent to Entrance/Lobby and Ceremony
Issues; Accessibility, Security, Cleanllnciss, Hall
Acoustics -Comply with ADA and T.A.S. Standards
-Tile floors with center drain
Users; 1-4 -Easy to clean
-Maintain users privacy
Activities; -Fixtures mounted to wall for ease of cleaning
-Serve all users
-Grooming
-Natural functions

Spatial Analysis;
-IMvate
-Clean
-Entrance viewable from Entrance/Lobby

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FACILITY
Administration Office; indoor Spaces

size; 200 ft* Design Requirements;


-Windows for supervision of Ceremony Hall
issues; Accessibility, Acoustics, l^lvacy -Windows on at least two sides (Fig. 26)
-One entry
Users; 1-2 -Locking door
-Viewing of adjacent spaces
Activities; -Ac^acent to First Aid, Entrance/Lobby, and
-Maintain facility Ceremony Hall
-Meetings with users and workers -Secure storage cabinet

Spatial Analysis;
-Comfortable
-Organized
-Professional Atmosphere

Fig. 26-^ew from the Admin Office

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FACILITY
Ceremony Hall; indoor Spaces

Size; 5,300 ft* I>eslgn Requirements;


-Minimum basketball court-84'x50'xl6'
issues; Accessibility, Acoustics, Circulation -Lines for court painted on floor
-Wood floor, sUp-reslstant and non-spUnter
Users; 1-150 -Windows facing north to allow reflected light
Into the hall (Fig. 27)
Activities; -Ac^acent to Entry, Restrooms, Kitchen,
-Social activities Changing Rooms, First Aid, Storage and
-Merit badge classes Custodian ©. Rvn^T^
,
-Ceremonies (Court of Honor) -Acoustical control R...II;;:>^ Cn
-Banquets
-Indoor games
-Guest speakers
-KwahadI Indian dances (a.«.ataaKm
Fig. 27-Northem wall
reflecting light
Spatial Analysis;
-inviting
-Comfortable
-Open and unobstructed
-Visible from Entrance/Lobby

w.
FACILITY
Kitclien; indoor Spaces

Size; 200 ft* Design Requirements;


-Acyacent to Ceremony Hall/Cafeteria and at
issues; Accessibility, I^lvacy, Security, least one multipurpose
Cleanliness -Place between multipurpose If possible
-Tile floor, sloped with drain
Users; 1-6 -Easy to clean walls and floors
-Locking door
Activities; -Direct access to Disposal Bin and delivery
-Fbod preparation area
-Fbod storage
-Food distribution

Spatial Analysis;
-Clean
-Lots of counter space ^ ^
-Storage [ Ceremony Hall/ \
^ — \ CaMeria j
multlpuipose^ ^/\^_^ ^_,/

^—NT )SEb°
r Kitchen 1 ''•^TM

E3D
FACILITY
Multipurpose; Indoor Spaces

Size; 550 ft* Design Requirements;


-At least two 3' doors
issues; Accessibility, Privacy -Storage for patrol and troop Items = 50 ft*
-Adjacent to Ceremony/Cafeteria and Kitchen
Users; 1-30 -Large enough to accommodate 30 people
-6 of these rooms
Activities;
-Board of review
-Scoutmaster conferences
-Platrol meetings
-General meetings
-Merit badge classes
-Indlvldaul testing or review

Spatial Analysis;
-Comfortable
-Open and unobstructed
-Maximize natural dayllghting

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FACILITY
Storage; Indoor Spaces

Size; 400 ft* Design Requirements;


-One point of entry
Issues; Accessibility, Function, Organization -Locking door
-Blend with wall materials
Users; 1-2 -Ac^acent to Ceremony Hall
Activities; ^" i
-Keeping equipment safe
-Storing equipment
Jl
Spatial Analysis;
-Functional •i •'-: •!!

-Organized

« '

pg
FACILITY
Ciianging Rooms; indoor Spaces

Size; 2,400 ft* Design Requirements;


-Mildew resistant
issues; Accessibility, Security, Privacy, -Tile easy to clean
Cleanliness -Ventilation
-Acyacent to showers
Users; 1-75 -Women's room should have two toilets
-Men's room should have one urinal and one
Activities; toilet
-Dressing
-Grooming

Spatial Analysis;
-Clean
-Private
-Warm

=50

JEI
FACILITY
Shower; indoor Spaces

Stee; 150 ft* Design Requirements;


-Mildew resistant
Issues; Accessibility, Security, l^lvacy. -Tile easy to clean
Cleanliness -Ventilation
-Floor drainage around perimeter of shower
Users; 1-8 (Fig. 28)
-Acyacent to Changing Room
Activities;
-Dressing
-Showering
-Grooming

Spatial Analysis;
-Clean
-Private
-Warm Flg. 28-Dralnage around the perimeter of shower

Shower
lO
(Changing Rm
FACILITY
Mechanical / Electrical; indoor Spaces

Size; 1,070 ft* Design Requirements;


-Access to all equipment
issues; Safety, Acoustics, Function -Easy cleanable materials
-Adjacent to Custodian's room
Users; 1-2

Activities;
-House equipment for building
-Storing tools
Spatial Analysis;
-Functionality
-Control noise

~p
FACILITY
Custodian; indoor Spaces

Size; 100 ft* Design Requirements;


-Adjacent to Ceremony Hall and
issues; Cleanliness, Orqanlzatlon Nech/Electrical room
-One point of access
Users; 1-2 -Hidden from public view
-Locking door
Activities;
-Store cleaning supplies
-Custodian break space

Spatial Analysis;
-Clean
-Organized
r Mech/Cle J
-Storage
^Custodian ^ ^ ^ ^ ^N^/"" \^
•——/ Ceremony Hall/ |
\ Cafeteria J

m
FACILITY
nrst Aid; indoor Spaces

Size; 400 ft* Design Requirements;


-Easy to clean walls, floors, and counter
issues; Cleanliness, Safety, Privacy, material
Acoustics -Adjacent to Ceremony Hall
-Connected with a path to outdoor activities
Users; 1-30

Activities;
-Caring for the sick or li^ured
-Training patrols In first aid and safety
-Use during merit badges
Spatial Analysis;
-Clean
-Private
-Organized

io
^O^SiO

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FACILITY
Baslietball / Volleyball Court; Outdoor Spaces
Design Requirements;
-Connected to the First Aid room with a path
Size; 84' x 50'= 4,200 ft*
-Court will follow Fig. 29
-Bleachers provided on the long side(s) of the
issues; Accessibility, Safety Held
LENGTH li-l

Users; 1-10 / r

1 :

Activities; , D I V I S I O N I. N E , ^ - " ^

-Basketl>all and volleyball games L 7,° j > > ^ f y' ^


2 WIOF y f PFcp

-Physical fitness M " j



6 o-
fTACUG ^ , , •*, , r.

-Organized sports and free play 1 / i " •.',

Spatial Analysis; - - • •

-Clear of obstructions V>LANE . •/ /


U; M A R K S
TVP
T H H t t HC:-4l

-Daylight to courts t>P GOAL. -


y

-Artificial light to Illuminate i !


night play

Fig. 29-Basketball court dimensions

so

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FACILITY
Football / Soccer Field; Outdoor Spaces
i>esign Requirements;
-Connected to the First Aid room with a path
size; 330' x 150'= 49,500 ft* that Is covered or open
-Field will follow Fig. 30
Issues; Accessibility, Safety -Bleachers provided on the long slde(s) of the
fleld
Users; 1-22
Activities; s I
-Football and soccer games
-Physical fitness
-Organized sports and free play

Spatial Analysis;
-Clear of obstructions
-Daylight to courts
-Artificial light to Illuminate
night play Fig. 30-Soccer fleld
dimensions

i6o

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FACILITY
Storage; Outdoor Spaces

Size; 200 ft* Design Requirements;


-One point of access
Issues; Organization, Accessibility, Function -Double doora-4' each
-Accessible to all outside activities
Users; 1-5 -Fit into the outside design

Activities;
-Keep equipment safe and secure
-Storing scout equipment
-Storing lawn equipment
Spatial Analysis;
-Functional
-Organized

^ ' °

1
FACILITY
Camp Fire Ring; Outdoor Spaces

Size; 3,750 ft* Design Requirements;


-Semi-circular seating (Fig. 31)
Issues; Safety, Accessibility, Circulation -Entire ring should have a fence or another
type of containing system (Fig. 31)
teers; 1-150 -Entrance should have a framing element (Fig.
32)
Activities;
-Skits
-Plays
-CampHres

Spatial Analysis;
-Entry easy to locate
Fig. 31-Seml-clrcular seating and fencing system
-Movement within should be done
with ease SOO-TE. -^IC- -f-^.f^fSt^

IS
Fig. 32-Fraiiilng element around Camp S
Fire entrance

JB.
FACILITY
Multipurpose Areas; Outdoor Spaces

Size; 1,050 ft* Design Requirements;


-Areas bound by a fence or another type of
Issues; Safety, Accessibility, Cleanliness '^ boundary
-Have only one point of access
Users; 1-25 rss?*':
-Signs posted to remind boys of safety
-3 areas at 150 ft* and 1 area at 600 ft*
Activities;
-Various
-Chopping wood
-Lashing timbers together
-Other activities for merit badge
requirements

Spatial Analysis;
-Clean
-Functional
-Flexible

3a

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FACILITY
Disposal Bin; Outdoor Spaces

Size; 20 ft* Design Requirements;


-Hidden from view of public
issues; Safety, Cleanliness -Aesthetic covering
-in a place that prevailing winds will not carry
Users; 1-2 smells across building

Activities;
-Trash disposal
-Tk^sh collection

Spatial Analysis;
-Clean
-Free of obstructions

,w
FACILITY
Paintbali Field; Outdoor Spaces

Size; 45,000 ft* Design Requirements;


-One point of access
issues; Safety, Circulation, Organization -Fleld contained by a type of fencing system

Users; 1-25

Activities;
-Running, hiding, crawling
-Shooting paint ball guns
-Organized team activities and free play

Spatial Analysis;
-Clean
-Organized
FACILITY
Climbing Wall w/ Ropes Course; Outdoor Spaces

Size; 700 ft* Design Requirements;


-Each station will have rules and safety
issues; Safety, Circulation, Organization guidelines posted
-Boys will help with design and construction of
Users; 1-25 each area

Activities;
-Climbing
-Repelling
-Multiline Traverse

Spatial Analysis;
-Clean
-Supervised
-Functional

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FACILITY
Parking;
size; 25,600 ft* Design Requirements;
-Acyacent to Entrance
Issues; Safety, Circulation, Organization, -Native landscaping will break up parking
Accessibility -Each space at least 10' X 20'
-Covered drop off area
Users; 1-75

Activities; •i., :*

-Piarking
-Driving
-Waiting

Spatial Analysis;
-Clean
-Functional

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FACILITY
Flag Grounds;
Size; 2,500 ft* Design Requirements;
-Noise barrier between the street and the Flag
issues; Circulation, Organization, Location Grounds, such as the building or built up
earth
Users; 1-150 -Three flag poles (United States Flag, Texas
Flag, Troop Flag)
Activities; -Windows In building placed to provide view of
-Flag ceremonies Flag Grounds (Fig. 33)
-Courts of Honor
Spatial Analysis;
-Clean
-Ground level

"%

Fig. 33-1Mndows from building viewing


50 °50
Flag Grounds
FACILITY
Indoor Space Summary;
Room Size
Entrance/Lobby
Restrooms
Administration Offlce
Ceremony Hall / Cafeteria
Kitchen
Multipurpose
Storage
Changing Rooms
Shower
Mechanical / Electrical
Custodian
FlretAld

Total ft' 13,420 ft*

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FACILITY
Outdoor Space Summary;
Room Size
Basketball/Volleyball Court 4,200
FootbaliySoccer Field
Storage
Camp Fire Ring
Multipurpose Areas
Disposal Bin
Paint Ball Fleld
Copes Course
Parking
Flag Grounds
Total ft' 131,945 ft ?50 50

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FACILITY

Precedents

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FACILITY
Camp Don Harrington; I^ecedents

The land that Camp Don Harrington (CDH)


sits on is owned by the Golden Spread Council
of the Boy Scouts of America. CDH Is located
east of Canyon, Texas and covers a total of
almost 856 acres. Water, gas, and electricity
are fed to the majority of the camp. The lake In
the middle of camp allows for boating, fishing,
and canoeing. It is close enough to town to be
convenient for campers, all while providing a
rural setting.
The camp features a COPE course, a nature
lodge, a health lodge, a quartermaster lodge, a
dining hall, a shower building, a trading post, a
shotgun and rifle range, a boat house, and a
council ring (campflre).

Fig. 35-Dlnlng hall


FACILITY
The Copper House, Husky Child I^ecedents
Development Center;
The Copper House, located In Bolton, Ontario, Is
for children up to twelve years of age. The plan Is
shaped somewhat like a boomerang that hugs the
entry, uiiich feels nurturing and motherllke. They
also incorporated many hand made items to add to
the inviting feel.
Anita Olds and Associates designed the center
with four zones: entry, messy, active, and quiet.
Each spaces was defined by varying the ceiling
heights, lighting, floor texture, and furnishings.
Each classroom has a tiled, sun-filled "wet-play
bay" to encourage exploration of messy materials.
The group room was oriented southward to
maximum sunlight exposure, as well as to allow for a
covered porch and play yard.
The center uses passive solar design with radiant
heat floors. The roof Is copper and window frames,
doors, and ceilings are made of wood. The large low
windows provide an Inside and outside feel. The
building cost $3.5 million and consumes 16,000
square feet of an eight acre site.
Fig. 57-Ovei g. 38-Entrance

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FACILITY
Heritage Fiark Community Center; Precedents

The Community Center, located In Chula


^sta, California. Rob Wellington Qulgley
designed the 6,000 ft* facility for a total of
$1.3 million. The main materials are stone,
concrete, and corrugated sheet metal.
Qulgley Is an architect that loves to work with
the community on design because he feels It
Incorporates everyone In the design process.
He was Inspired by the sheds that dotted the
site, however they could not be preserved.
Through the use of materials he keep the
rural theme. Fig. 39-Haln Corridor
The building contrasts with the rest of the 1. Lobby
2. Mi-fting 5. Crafts
settlement which Is wood frame and stucco 3. Kiti:hen 6. ("nurlviiril

houses, unthln the center there is a lobby, 4. .Sl.J.'ilj;,:

meeting room, kitchen, storage, crafts room, Fig. 40-Floor Plan


courtyard, and a stage. Qulgley designed for
maximizing daylight Into the building,
however the windows, for the most part, are
higher and do not allow for visual connection 41-South Entry
with the site.
FACILITY
Figures;
37. Picture of the Copper House. Olds, Anita Rul.
20. Scout badge. Robert C. BIrkby, The Boy Scout Childcare Design Guide. Ncgraw-Hill, 2001.
Handbook (Library of Congress) 1990, 579. 38. Entrance of the Copper House. Olds, Anita Rul.
2 1 . Diagram of safe entry and exit-by author. Childcare Design Guide. Mcgraw-Hlll, 2001.
22. Diagram of activity areas within site-by author. 39. Main corridor. KImm, Alice. "Heritage Piark
23. Diagram of shaded areas-by author. Community Center." Architectural Record. March
24. Diagram showing traffic direction by floor pattern- 2002.
by author. 40. Floor Plan. KImm, Alice. "Heritage Park
25. Diagram showing Interaction spaces-by author. Community Center." Architectural Record. March
26. Diagram showing visual connection between 2002.
Administration Offlce and Ceremony Hall-by author. 4 1 . South entry. KImm, Alice. "Heritage Park
27. Diagram showing reflected northern light-by Community Center." Architectural Record. Narch
author. 2002.
28. Diagram showing drainage around the perimeter of
shower-by author. References;
29. Hoke, John Ray Jr., Architectural Graphic
Standards (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) 2000, 774. BIrkby, Robert C. The Bov Scout Handbook. Library
30. Hoke, John Ray Jr., Architectural Graphic of Congress, 1990.
Standards (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.) 2000, 766.
31. Diagram of seating and fencing systems-by author. Christian, WlUiam and Sanford Newman. 2004.
32. Diagram of framed entrance-by author. America's After School Choice: The Prime Time
33. Diagram of area between Flag Grounds and for Juvenile Crime, or Youth Enrichment and
bulldlng-by author. Achievement. Retrieved September 22, 2004,
34. Picture of council ring at Camp Don Harrington- from http//;www.flqhtcrlme.orq
by author.
35. Picture of Dining Hall-by author. Hurt, H.W. The BoVs Cubbook. Boy Scouts of
36. Floor plan. Olds, Anita Rul. Childcare Design America, New York. 1930.
Guide. Mcgraw-HllI, 2 0 0 1 . __^
CHAPTER 3: CONTEXT

:M
CONTEXT
City History; Amarillo, Texas

Located in the Texas Panhandle and bordered began in 1929 and air mail service in 1930.
by New Mexico and Oklahoma, Amarillo was first Education started with the first schoolhouse
settled In 1887. Two m^or roads bisect the city, built in 1889, West Texas State University (now
one is Interstate 4 0 , which starts on the west West Texas A&eM University) hi 1909 and Amarillo
coast and runs up through the Great Lakes and Junior College In 1929.
the other Is Interstate 27, which g o e s t o Amarillo has the world's largest natural gas
Lubbock. Amarillo was taken from a Spanish development and prorides pipelines to many
word meaning "yellow," because of the color of large cities and thousands of towns connecting
the sub-soil. Early on many houses were painted through to the Atlantic seaboard. Natural gas
yellow t o honor the name. and petroleum discoveries have opened the
Industry in Amarillo thrived during early years city's m^or Industries which produce carbon
b e c a u s e of r a i l r o a d i n g , c a t t l e a n d black, petro-chemlcals and helium. In the 1940s
merchandising. The Burlington Railway was the Pantex was opened, which is the fourth largest
first rail company in 1888. This rail's growth employer In Amarillo. During the Cold War they
through the 1890's allowed Amarillo to become a built nuclear b o m b s , however now they
major cattle-shipping market. Around 1900, dissemble bombs and maintain the nation's
fences were built and iriieat was sewn, which nuclear stockpile.
helped Amarillo grow Into a m^or wheat belt of A natural landmark Just southeast of
America. Amarillo Is Palo Duro Canyon State Park, which
The first newspaper was founded in 1887. The consists of 16,402 acres in Armstrong and In the
Amarillo News, which Is still printed today, was 1930s, the Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
founded in 1892. Scheduled air transportation sent six companies of young men and military

M
CONTEXT
Amarillo, Texas

veterans t o Palo Duro Canyon to develop roads t o


the canyon floor as well as the visitor center,
cabins, shelters, and the park headquarters.
These dedicated Individuals played an Important
role in the establishment of Palo Duro Canyon
State park which officially opened July 4 , 1 9 3 4 .
The canyon is approximately 120 miles long,
20 miles wide and 8 0 0 feet deep. Extending from
Canyon to Silverton, It was formed primarily by
water erosion. The slopes of the canyon reveal
the colorful natural history of the area. This is
quite an active place year round, especially in the
summer months. There are equestrian trials,
camping, hiking, fishing, and an elaborate
outdoor theater production of "Texas."
In many ways Amarillo is similar t o other
cities. In that there Is an eclectic use of
materials, s t y l e s , and structures. Many
residential units utilize composition roof, while
more and more businesses utilize metal roofing.
CONTEXT
Demographics;
Population
1890 482
1900 1,442 Amarillo Labor
1950 74,246 Labor Force (2001 avg) 113,850
1990 157,615 Employment 110,433 (97.0%)
2 0 0 0 173,627 UnempIo3^ment Percentage 3.0%
2 0 0 1 175,180 Texas Unemployment Percentage 4.9%
2 0 0 2 (esthnate) 176,733 United States Unemployment Percentage 4.8%

M ^ o r Employers
Age Amarillo Independent School District 3,863
Under 1 8 4 8 , 4 2 3 28%
IBP Inc. 3,615
18 thru 6 4 103,309 59%
Baptist St. Anthony's Health Care System 2,900
65 and older 21,895 13%
BWXT Pantex 2,869
Texas Department of Criminal Justice 1,811
Race Southwestern Public Service Company 1,810
White 77.5% City of AmariUo 1,712
Hispanic 21.9% Northwest Texas Healthcare Science Center 1,375
Black 6.0% AffUlated Foods 1,100
Asian 2.1% Texas Tech University Health Science Center 984
Other 1 1 . 3 %
American Indian/Alaska Native 0.8 %
Two or more races 2.3 %

w
CONTEXT
Climate Conditions;
TempeFature Jan reb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov D e c Annual
Avg Temp 35 39.2 47.1 56.8 6S.4 74.1 78.6 76.5 69.1 58.S 46 37 56.9
Avg Max Temp 49 92.8 61.6 71.5 79.1 87.6 91.7 89.1 81.8 72.9 99.7 5 0 70.9
Avg nin Temp 21 2S.5 32.7 42.1 SI .6 60.7 65.5 63.8 96.4 44.9 32.3 2 4 43.3
Days with N n Temp
90 F or Higher 0 0 <.5 1 9 13 21 16 7 1 O 0 63
Days with Nhi Temp
Below Freezing 27 22 19 4 <0.9 0 0 0 <.9 2 19 27 111

Heating a n d Cooling
Heating Degree Days 927 722 999 266 89 6 0 0 26 226 970 871 4298
Cooling Degree Days 0 0 0 20 102 379 422 397 149 23 0 0 1394

Precipitation Jan Fieb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct nov Dec Annua
Precipitation (Inches) 0.5 0.6 1 1 2.9 3.7 2.6 3.2 2 1.4 0.7 0.4 19.6
Days with Precipitation
0.01 or More 4 4 9 9 8 8 8 8 6 9 3 1 70

Monthly Snowfall (inches) 4 3.6 2.9 0.6 <.09 <.09 <.05 0 0 0.2 1.9 2.7 19.9

Weather Indicators
Avg wind Speed 13 13.8 19.3 19.2 14.9 14.2 12.7 12 1X8 12.8 13 13 13.5
Clear Days 8 10 11 12 11 18 17 16 10 12 10 13 146

partly Cloudy Days 5 4 3 4 9 9 3 2 1 2 3 5 43

Cloudy Days 5 6 3 9 e 2 2 4 2 4 4 4 44

Percent of Possible Sunshine 69 68 72 74 71 78 79 77 73 79 72 67 73

Avg Relative Humidity 54 62 60 96 97.9 61 60 61 64 61.9 98.9 60 62


CONTEXT
Site Location;
The site is located on the south-central section
of Amarillo, Texas in Randall County. 58'" Avenue
provides a curved border on northwest side and the ®°
CoiKtuK D»n '
•,
-: Boyt Rsnch
j
area to the southeast is mainly undeveloped land. QiuiV °"" ° Claude ^CUrendon

North of the site Is mostly a middle t o low-Income (ii^


°
Raolanil Gr.av
o :*^«™'""',
(4|«,„
residential area. Both the east and south are ' Fort Sumnsr ^^S*«<on PiMla c h i l d r a t .
T«b«n "' •
covered by luscious grasses and trees. The trees 0 Portalis.

block some of the prevailing southwestern winds.


Floyd
o
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" *
Orow Cmutl
s»«t
' EH.
Also located In the southeast comer Is a natural .a^ M^vviaftd
e 2004 MapQuest com, Ine :
pond that will be integrated into the design. Within
Fig. 42-Locatlon of Amiirillo
viewing distance, but not directly acyacent t o the
site, is a business park to the southwest that
houses many different kinds of businesses ftom
insurance t o computer sales. A church, grocery
store, and a few other businesses stand t o the
northwest, across 58'". The church Is oriented
toward the site and the other businesses back the
site, with a wooden picket fence. Traffic along the
road Is constant; however there Is no m ^ o r
intersection, s o access to the site is very easy, l l i l s
calm and relaxing site provides a semi-rural
environment. In which the Boy Scouts can feel right
at home. Fig. 43-Site and Streets
CONTEXT
site:

Fig. 47-Through site looking Southwest.

M
CONTEXT
Site:
m

, ,,, .> 1, t , , —

^^^^^^^^^^^S^^^^^MB^^^^^^^fe^'^-^^-^ttJii^HBi a^^^^Es
^ •- '• •-
«=:»- >•-
^MH^^HWjfc *^^^^S^IHIHH

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^T^"^ ' ij
;fl BBMI^^^E '^^ffl^^^H
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Fig. 48-From businesses looking East.

Fig. 49-Dlrectlon of photos.


Fig. 50-Flrom businesses looking Southeast at pond.

IE
CONTEXT
site:

Fig. 53-From site looking Northecuit.

Fig. 54-Fk-om site looking South.

IM
CONTEXT

Site Analysis
CONTEXT

Fig. 55-Vehlcular & Pedestrian Circulation.

Fig. 56-Clrculation around Site.

M
CONTEXT

Fig. 57-Vlews to & from the site.

Fig. 58-Ralnfall & Drainage.

zpj
CONTEXT

PrevailiQi
SKal^p*^:^
13.5 MPH

rig. 59-WInds.

Fig. 60-Zonlng.

Iffl
CONTEXT

Issue 1;

The building and outdoor activities need to


Design Response; The building will be located
be located where the pond will not Invite at the highest elevation of the site, either the
damage, however the pond will be Integrated north, northwest, or west side.
Into the outdoor design.
Design Response; There will be an outdoor
activity that utilizes the pond. It could be a
structure, like a bridge, that spans the length
of the pond or one that actually utilizes the
water as a design feature.

Design Response; The pond can occasionally


be used to Irrigate the playing fields and the
site.

M
CONTEXT

Issue 2;

Any entrances and exits should be protected


from the rain and wind. Design Response; These areas should have
some type of covering and/or shrubbery
that blocks the rain and wind.

Design Response; Each area should have


an awing or another type of covering that
protects these access points.

Design Response; The roofing system


should be designed so that run-off Is
directed to non-pedestrian areas.

M
CONTEXT

Issue 3;

The building should respect the local scale of Design Response; The facades on the north
the businesses, residential developments, and and west side should use vernacular materials
the undeveloped land to the south and east. and the south and east facades can be more
free with materials.

Design Response; The north and west facades


should display an obvious distinction from the
businesses and residential areas.

M
CONTEXT

Precedents

M
CONTEXT
Travel Information Center; Precedents

The Travel information Center Is located


along Interstate 40, In Amarillo, Texas. The
design team, David and Elizabeth Chu Rlchter,
was Inspired by a camping trip to Palo Duro
Canyon. They noticed the natural carved Fig. 61-North Fiacade
landscape and colors. Chu Rlchter gathered
bags of the colored earth and proposed that the
building match each color. The product speaks
^,Flg. 62-Indoor and Outdoor
of the history and geology of the area by using I Restrooms
seven colors of brick (Fig. 56), weathered wood,
and exposed structural steel.
The 9,265 ft^ building houses an entry plaza, chTavn.Az*

video viewing room, exhibit space. Inside and


outside restrooms. Outside the building is a
dry creed bed that reflects the arid ^
environment of West Texas, vending area,
picnic arbors, metal sculptures of longhoms,
and ranching gate entrances.

Fig. 63-Floor Plan

IM
CONTEXT
Precedents
Floors; Fig. 6 4 Ceilings; Fig. 65

Walls; Fig. 66 Roofs; rig. 67


CONTEXT
Precedents
Windows; Fig. 6 8 Doors; Hg. 6 9

B- B B

Columns; Fig. 70 stairs; Fig. 71

i
.••-•1

\,
'
1 jH
" Z2^^M
r
CONTEXT
Figures; 6 1 . North facade of the lYavel Information Center In
Amarillo, Texas-by author.
4 2 . Nap of the Texas Ruihandle. 62. Picture of Indoor and outdoor restrooms In the
http!/Avww.mapguest.com Retrieved November 5, Travel Information Center-by author.
2004. 6 3 . Floor plan of the Travel Information Center-by
4 3 . n a p of site showing m£^or streets. Author.
http://www.keyhole.com Retrieved November 5, 64. Pictures by author.
2004. 65. Pictures by author.
4 4 . From site looking East-by author. 66. Pictures by author.
4 5 . Nap showing riew of Fig. 4 4 , 4 6 , 4 7 . 67. Pictures by author.
46. From site looking South-by author. 68. Pictures by author.
47. Through site looking Southeast-by author. 69. Pictures by author.
48. From businesses looking east-by author. 70. Pictures by author.
49. Nap showing riew of Fig. 4 8 and 50. 7 1 . Pictures by author.
50. From businesses looking Southeast at pond-by
author.
5 1 . From site looking West-by author.
52. Nap showing riew of Fig. 5 1 , 5 3 , 54.
53. i^om site looking North-by author. References;
54. From site looking South-by author.
55. Vehicular & Pedestrian Circulation. http://www.mapguest.com Retrieved November 5,
56. Circulation around site. 2004.
57. Views to St from site.
58. Rainfall & Drainage. http://www.keyhole.com Retrieved November 5,
59. IMnd patterns. 2004.
60. Zoning areas.

M
CHAPTER 4: DESIGN RESPONSE

M
DESIGN RESPONSE
Design;
The after-school/summer program was
designed for the Boy Scouts In Amarillo and the
surrounding communities. The facilities
primary function will be after-school activities
however, during the summer. Scout Ttoops can
reserve the site for week long summer camps or
weekend campouts.

The primary objective was to create a


healthy learning environment for Boy Scouts In
the Texas Panhandle. Additionally, they will
learn values and morals In an environment that
has been designed specifically for them.

M
DESIGN RESPONSE
Theoretical Solutions they will treat it as a possession and therefore
Preventing child delinquency was the respect it. One way to accomplish this is have
main focus of my theoretical Idea. The m^ority Scouts contribute various aspects of the post
of the research that was conducted Indicates construction such as a swinging bridge or
that the hours between 3:00 and 6:00 PM Is tepees. This way they would have a vested
when unsupervised kids experiment with Interest in the facility and return again and
drugs, alcohol, sex, and gangs. This data again. Theoretical Issues derived from
Inspired the after-school program. Young d e f e n s i b l e s p a c e were c i r c u l a t i o n ,
people would be supervised while performing interaction, and safety. I wanted a high
constructive activities and therefore be less degree of circulation within the site, building,
likely to participate In negative activities. The and flow between the two. The site Itself is
first goal of the facility Is to allow youth very large and interaction between the
Involvement in a c t i v i t i e s t h a t offer building and site, scouts with other scouts,
opportunities to learn a positive value and scouts and building, and scouts and site is
moral structure. The second goal was to design Imperative. Paths were created to provide
a piece of architecture that would serve as a access to all points of the site and in the
mentor-like flgure. When Scouts are involved building as well. There are main circulation
In activities In the facility, they will feel and paths on the first, second, and third floors.
show the respect and admiration toward the Safety is another issue that would be
facility as they would a human mentor. The last addressed by signage and proper training
goal was a facility that Scouts can call their own where needed, especially in the first aid room.
and treat as a personal possession. This Idea 1 feel that each issue was addressed
stems from the defensible space theory, which adequately and critics seemed to be pleased
says that If people Identify with a place then with the outcome.
DESIGN RESPONSE
Site Design at the building. The campflre was placed at
During the course of the semester the the intersection of the two entry roads, which
project went through many time Intensive made a central radiating point. The fire was
revisions. In the beginning there were a few placed in the center, because it is a place that
problems laying out spaces; however the result everyone gathers to enjoy fellowship with
works well with the context. The existing peers, tell stories, and perform skits. The
topography of the site is quite flat and slopes center of the campflre is a point where the
from the northwest the southeast. One of the winter and summer solstice and autumnal
primary goals was to create a theme park feel and vernal equinox Intersect. From this
while Inside the site. To achieve this, a berm point, paths were created that lead to the
was designed around the perimeter of the site multi-use areas. In which the Scouts can
that varies In height from 6' to 8'. Trees and design and build. They could use Joining
vegetation were placed between the each berm techniques learned from merit badges, such
and act as a buffer between the street and site. as lashing or carving. Scouts would have the
This win also spark people's Interest whom are opportunity to volunteer their time and
driving by; as they drive by they can see Into the energy for p e r s o n a l gain and t h e
site and catch a glimpse of activities going on beautlficatlon of the site. Directly north of
Inside. As mentioned before, circulation was the campflre is the flag grounds that hosts all
an important issue. The vehicular paths are types of ceremonies. Trees outline this area
based on existing roads to the north and west and provide shading for paths that lead Into
side of the site. Pedestrian paths, composed of the building. Sports fields (football/soccer,
crushed stone, follow the road to the north and and basketball/volleyball) were placed to the
west. These walkways border the entry roads northwest of the campflre to promote
and continue to the parking lot and finally end physical activity and a healthy lifestyle.

W-
DESIGN RESPONSE
Located in the southeast comer Is an existing most popular attractions on the site would be
pond and dense trees. The pond has been the Ropes course (often called a COPES
modified and now Incorporates an Island. The Course because people face fears and learn to
tree area has been converted into a camping cope with them). This course has a climbing
area for summer or weekend camping. There wall with a zip-line and a multl-Une traverse.
are several merit badges that scouts could earn The parking lot was placed off the north entry,
by utilizing the pond, such as canoeing, with trees and randomly placed planters
swimming, or lifesavlng. An activity that placed to breakup the vast parking lot.
promotes exercise and helps young people
develop skills is the palntball field that lies in
the southwest comer of the site. Another
aspect that makes the site feel like a theme
park Is the ground sculpting of various parts of
the site. Since scouts go exploring on
campouts these sculpted areas offer ample
opportunity to explore and places to teach
environmental related merit badges. The
trenched patterns were derived from the roads
in the residential neighborhood to the north.
In most areas these trenches are up to sixteen
feet deep, which allow passage of vehicles
underneath the bridges. Bridges span across
the trenched areas and connect the multi-use
areas to the campflre. Probably one of the
site Plan

IpH
DESIGN RESPONSE

Campflre Entrance Northwest Aerial

aer 1
1
y"!

^^^^S^^^^MB
—VTC

^^^^^^^^^^K t ^^^^^^^^^B

View from Island North Entrance

M
DESIGN RESPONSE
Building Design the structure protects harsh prevailing winds
Cub Scouting Is based on a Native from penetrating the walls. The overall
American tribe called the Webelos. In order for building form is an abstracted tepee; however
the boys of the tribe to become a "scout," they the top was cropped to emphasize the
have to learn the skills of the wolf, Hon, and shielding back side of the building. To obtain
bear. Upon completion the boy would become a the egg shaped plan, the solstices and
man and hunt with the men of the tribe. Using equinoxes were mapped. During the summer
the Native American idea of a tepee I derived solstice In Amarillo the sun rises at 5:37 AN
the basic form of the main building. An early and sets at 7:59 PN and the winter solstice
design showed the building having a circle occurs at 7:55 AN and 5:33 PN. The autumnal
plan. According to facts about tepees, its floor equinox occurs at 6:55 AM and 6:55 PN and
plan Is not a circle, but rather an egg or oval the vernal equinox occurs at 6:39 AN and 6:39
shape. Another early scheme looked similar to PN. By converting the time Into a unit, such
the final but was doubled in size. My Instructor as inches, I found a proportioning system to
and advisor advised me to reduce the height govern the floor plan. For example 5:37
and bring it down to a human scale. At first I would equal 537 Inches or 44.75 feet, so this
was hesitant and did not want to change it, but dimension was extruded in the azimuth
it does Indeed work better with the human degree for that particular time. This process
scale and It achieves the same thing. When created an oval which ended up having the
Native Americans built a tepee they used the greatest length between the northwest and
winds to strategically orient the entry. The southeast and the shortest length between
back of the tepees faced the prevailing winds the northeast and southwest. The building
(windward side) and the entry was placed on the was positioned around the campflre because
opposing side (leeward side). The backside of it supports the idea that everything radiates

m
DESIGN RESPONSE
around the campflre, which Is open to the sh^ Scouts to read up on merit badges they are
above Just as a campflre In the wilderness. Interested in. Multipurpose rooms occupy
There Is an entry to the basement level from the m^orlty of the space outside the circulation
west. Two paths on the basement plan (east corridor. On the north side of the corridor, is
and west) exit the campflre level and cut more outdoor seating for the campflre.
through the earth, which end up In the Probably the most slgnlflcant Indoor space Is
trenched areas. There Is a pedestrian drop off the third floor corridor. Eletween each of the
point at the intersection of the main road and twelve sets of trusses is information on each
the west campflre entrance. The basement of the twelve Eagle Scout required merit
floor houses the campflre ring, mechanical badges. Also on that floor is the observation
room, stairs, and elevator. The elevator and deck that allows scouts to look at the skyline
stairs follow a slope of twenty-nine degrees of Amarillo or view the stars at night.
which is the sizlmuth of both the summer and
winter solstices. This was done to offer another
playful yet practical element within the design.
Having the most complex layout of the building,
the flrst floor encompasses the entry/lobby,
circulation corridor, administration offlce,
ceremony hall, changing rooms for campflre
skits, flrst aid offlce, indoor seating for the
elderly, kitchen, and shower/locker/changing
rooms. The second floor has a bit more
meaning, in that it has merit badge study areas
between each set of trusses. These areas allow

M
^m

DESIGN RESPONSE
R o o m Key
1. C e r e m o n y tlall
•2. Storage
3 . tfall'way t o O u t s i d e
4 . Hailv^ay
S. Elevator
6. Stair
7. Mechanical Rm
8. Campflre Ring
9 . Entry
XO K i t c h e n
XI. Men's Shoiwer Rm
X2. Men's R e s t r o o m
X3. Men's Locker Rm
X4. W o m e n ' s L o c k e r Rm
XB. U / o m e n ' s R e s t r o o m
X6. IVomen's S h o i v e r R m
X7. First Aid Rm
X8. C h a n g i n g Rm
X9. Ticket Window
2 0 . Display Case
2 1 . Wonien's Restroom
2 2 . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Office
2 3 . Men's R e s t r o o m
2 4 . L i g h tfiKS o u n d R m
25. Indoor Seating
2 6 . Multipurpose Rm
27. Observation Deck
2 8 . E a g l e Merit B a d g e
Study Area
2 9 . Merit B a d g e S t u d y
Area

Basement Floor Plan


N Scale: 1/16" = !'

^ First Floor Plan


TH^"scaie: X/xe" = I '
DESIGN RESPONSE

rs-S S e c t i o n N-S S e c t i o n
R o o m Key
X. C e r e m o n y Hall
2. Storage
3 . Hallivay t o O u t s i d e
4 . Hallivay
5. Elevator
6. Stair
7. Mechanical Rm
8. Campflre Ring
9 . Entry
XO. K i t c h e n
Men's Shoiver Rm
Men's R e s t r o o m
Men's Locker Rm
W o m e n ' s Locker Rm
Women's Restroom
Women's Shoiver Rm
First Aid Rm
C h a n g i n g Rm
Ticket Window
Display Case
IVomen's Restroom
A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Office
Men's R e s t r o o m
L i g h t Sf S o u n d R m
Indoor Seating
Multipurpose Rm
27. Observation Deck
2 8 . E a g l e Merit B a d g e
Study Area N-S S e c t i o n
2 9 . Merit B a d g e S t u d y
Area

Second Floor Plan ^ Third Floor Plan


Scale: X/X6"=l' j H ^ " s c a l e : 1 / X 6 " = X' fM —
n

M -"WT^
DESIGN RESPONSE

-" Ql C

tNorth E l e v a t i o n East Elevation


Scale: l / I S " - ! '
S c a l e : I/B"= f

S o u t h Elevatiori West Elevation


Scnlci 1 / 1 6 " ~ 1 ' S c i l c l 1/8"B 1 '

M
DESIGN RESPONSE

Third Floor Hallway View from Campflre

Campflre

ZpE
^

DESIGN RESPONSE
Materials
Cor-Ten steel sandwich panels are the
primary material use for the exterior of the
building. The average panel measures 3'x 3'
and has 3" of rigid insulation between two thin
sheets of cor-ten steel. Construction, similar
to applying wood or asphalt shingles, would
start at the bottom and flnlsh at the top. Each
panel would overlap the panel below leaving a
3.5" reveal and be bolted to the substructure.
At the intersection of two panels a piece of bent
steel would be applied to cover and seal the
Joint. The bolts used to hold this Joint together
would have exposed heads, which represent the
stitching of animal skin Just like a tepee.
Concrete would be utilized on the covered
entry, stairs, and elevator shaft. Floors In all
three circulation coiridors are covered in
wooden slats that run perpendicular to the
walls. The material was Intended to bring an
element from the outside and utilize It inside.

M
^ .
A
DESIGN RESPONSE
Structure
The structure is composed of twelve sets
of exposed vertical 6" tubular trusses. Spacing
of trusses is determined flrst by the azimuth of
the solstices and equinoxes and second, by
thirty degree increments starting with the
north cardinal direction. This spacing was
done for a few of reasons. One, to allow space
on the third floor to display the twelve eagle
merit badges and two, to represent the twelve
points of the scout law, and three, to allow light
to penetrate during the solstices and
equinoxes. Another reason I chose to use
trusses Is that It allowed the walls to be thin
similar to the walls in a tepee. To balance the
trusses, curved wide flange beams would be
welded to the triangulatlon in the trusses.

IVuss System Axon

H^
DESIGN RESPONSE
Mechanical
The exposed mechanical system supplies
the entire building from the basement level. It
runs vertically between a set of tmsses and at
each level it services the entire circulation
corridor as well as the spaces outside the
corridor. All the ductwork Is supported by the
triangulatlon In the trusses.

Mechanical Axon

101
DESIGN RESPONSE

•y > ty jpr»T

^?*

IMP
f^
* T

Southeast riew of Site


DESIGN RESPONSE

^ew from F^alntball Field Southeast view from Trees

^ew from Island Southeast Aerial of Building & Bridges

lliiir"
BIBLIOGRAPHY
BIrkby, Robert C. The Boy Scout Handbook. Library of Congress, 1990.

Brazelton, Berry T. M.D. and Stanley I. Greenspan, N.D. The Irreducible Needs of Children; What Every Child Must
Have to Grow. Learn, and Flourish. Perseus Publishing, Cambridge, NIassachusetts, 2000.
Guralnik, Darid B. Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1976. pp 390.

Christian, Wlllam and Sanford Newman. 2004. America's After School Choice: The Prime Time for Juvenile Crime,
or Youth Enrichment and Achievement. Retrieved September 2 2 , 2 0 0 4 , from http//;www.flghtcrime.org

Huff, C. Ronald. Gangs in America. Sage Publications, Inc. 1990. 214.

Hurt, H.W. The Boy's Cubbook. Boy Scouts of America, New York. 1930.

Nalleod, Darid I. Building Character in the American Boy; The Boy Scouts. YMCA. and their forerunners. 1870-
1920. University of Wisconsin Press, 1933.

Klein, Malcolm W. The American Street Gang. Oxford University Press. 1995.

Newman, Oscar. Creating Defensible Space. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Office of Policy
Development and Research, 1996.
Newman, Oscar. Design Guidelines for Creating Defensible Space. Washington, DC; Department of Justice, 1976.

Olds, Anita Rul. Childcare Design Guide. Ncgraw-HlU, 2 0 0 1 .

Wilson, James Q. and George L. Kelling. "Broken Windows," The Atlantic Monthlv. (March 1982), pp 29-38.
Vi^and, Rtiy a Principles of Scoutmastership; A Manual of the Standard Course for Scout Leader Training. Boy
Scouts of America, New York.