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Specifications.

Work will also include turning points and the equations of tangents and

normals.

Function Differential

lnx 1

x

emx memx

Sin t Cos t

Cos t -Sin t

Tan t Sec2 t

Sec t Sec t Tan t

Cot t -Cosec2 t

Cosec t -Cosec t cot t

Sinn t nSinn-1 t Cos t

Cosn t -nCosn-1 t Sin t

Sin (g(t)) g’(t)Cos (g(t))

Cos (g(t)) -g’(t)Sin (g(t))

Tan (g(t)) g’(t)Sec2 (g(t))

Chain Rule

C3 1

dy dy dv

= ×

dx dv dx

Product Rule

d dv du

( uv) = u + v

dx dx dx

Quotient Rule

du dv

v −u

d u dx dx

=

dx v v 2

Composite Functions

y = (mx + c)n

dy

= nm ( mx + c ) n −1

dx

y = (f(x))n

dy

= nf' ( x ) × ( f( x )) n −1

dx

Example 1

C3 2

Differentiate the following with respect to x simplify your answer as far as

possible.

a) (x + ln 4x)7

b) 6 sin2x + sec 2 x

d) x5 e5x + 5

cos5x5

e)

3x

d

a) (x + ln 4x)7

dx

By chain rule

du 1 1

So y = u7 =1+ not

dx x 4x

dy

= 7u6

du

C3 3

So

d 1

(x + ln 4x)7 = 7u6 × 1 +

dx x

1

= 7(x + ln 4x)6 1 +

x

du

then y = 6u2 = cos x

dx

dy

= 12u

du

By chain rule

dy dy du

= ×

dx du dx

= cos x × 12u

So finally:

C3 4

d

(6sin2 x + sec2x) = 6 sin 2x + 2 sec 2x tan 2x

dx

c)

times it by the second and then add the differential of the second times

d(uv) du dv

=v +u

dx dx dx

d 11

(x tan13x) = 11x10 tan13x + 13x11 sec2 13x

dx

d 5 5x + 5

d) (x e )

dx

d 5 5x + 5

(x e ) = 5x4 e5x + 5 + 5x5 e5x + 5

dx

= 5x 4 e5x + 5 (1 + x)

C3 5

d cos5x5

e)

dx 3x

d cos5x5 d x −1 cos5x5

=

dx 3x dx 3

x −1

Let u = v = cos5x5

3

du −x −2 dv

= = −25 x 4 sin 5x 5

dx 3 dx

Therefore:

cos 5x 5

d

3x = − x cos 5x 5 − x × −25x 4 sin 5x 5

−2 −1

dx 3 3

=− +

3x2 3

Example 2

dy

Given that x = 8sin(7y + 3), find .

dx

C3 6

dy 1

=

The only thing that is new here is that dx dx

dy

x = 8sin(7y + 3)

dx

= 56cos(7y + 3)

dy

dy 1 sec(7y + 3)

= =

dx 56cos(7y + 3) 56

Example 3

1 x

The curve with equation y = e meets the y axis at the point A.

6

the y coordinate of C.

C3 7

8

6 Normal

B

4 C

y=1/6ex

Tangent

A

0

-5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

1

y=-26 ex

Normal

a) First find at x = ln36

the gradient:

Tangent at x = 0

dy 1 x

= e

dx 6

1

At A, x = 0 therefore the gradient is as is the y coordinate.

6

y = mx + c

1 1

= ×0+c

6 6

Therefore

1 1

y= x+

6 6

and hence 6y = x + 1

b) Find the equation of the normal at the point B with x coord of ln 36.

1 x

From part (a) the gradient function is e hence the gradient at B is 6 and

6

C3 8

−1

so the normal gradient is . (y coord also 6)

6

y = mx + c

− ln36

6= +c

6

−x ln36

y= +6+

6 6

The normal then meets the tangent from part (a) at the point C.

1 1 −x ln36

x+ = +6+

6 6 6 6

2x = 35 + ln36

1

x = 17.5 + ln36 = 17.5 + ln 6

2

6y = x + 1.

6y = ln 6 + 17.5 +1

1 37

y= ln 6 +

6 2

C3 9

Example 4

7

The curve c has equation y = 4x 2 − ln 4x , where x > 0. The tangent at the

9 + ln 4

Prove that the x coordinate of A is .

13

7

y = 4x 2 − ln 4x

dy 5

1

= 14x −

2

dx x

y = mx + c

4 – ln4 = 13 + c

13x – 9 – ln4 = 0

9 + ln 4

x=

13

C3 10

Differentiating Quotients

Example 5

4x2 − 16x + 7

Given that y = , x ≠ 2,

(x − 2)2

dy 18

Show that =

dx (x − 2)3

It is obvious from the question that by using the quotient rule it will be

u

d v du − u dv

v = dx dx

dx v 2

du dv

= 8x − 16 = 2(x − 2)

dx dx

Therefore:

C3 11

dy (x − 2)2 (8x − 16) − (4x2 − 16x + 7) × 2(x − 2)

=

dx (x − 2) 4

=

(x − 2)3

=

(x − 2)3

18

=

(x − 2)3

Example 6

C3 12

π

y = (10x – 3) tan 3x, 0≤x<

4

As soon as you see the word minimum your first thought should be to

Differentiating a product:

y = (10x - 3) tan 3x

dy

= 10 tan3x + 3(10x - 3)sec2 3x

dx

sin3x 3(10x − 3)

0 = 10 +

cos3x cos2 3x

Multiply by cos2 3x

0 = 10sin3xcos3x + 3(10x − 3)

0 = 5 sin 6x + 3(10x − 3)

If x = K

30K – 9 + 5 sin 6K = 0

C3 13

A lot of the ideas outlined above are not complicated and the final example

below deals with turning points and the differential of exponential functions.

Example 7

x

y=

9 + x2

b) Given that

5

(

y = 1+e 4x 4

)

dy 1

find the value of at the point x = ln 3 .

dx 4

u

d v du − u dv

v = dx dx

dx v 2

u=x v = 9 + x2

du dv

=1 = 2x

dx dx

C3 14

dy 9 + x2 − 2x2

=

dx (9 + x2 )

dy 9 − x2

=

dx (9 + x2 )

dy

Turning points exist where = 0 therefore the numerator must equal zero

dx

x 1 −1

y= 3, and 3,

9 + x2 6 6

b) Given that

5

(

y = 1+e 4x 4

)

dy 1

find the value of at the point x = ln 3 .

dx 4

power, multiply by the differential of the bracket and then multiply by the

C3 15

5

y = (1 + e 4 x ) 4

dy 5 1

= × 4e 4 x × (1 + e 4 x ) 4

dx 4

dy 1

= 5e 4 x (1 + e 4 x ) 4

dx

1

Let x = ln 3

4

dy 1

dx

(

= 5eln 3 1 + eln 3 ) 4

dy 1

= 15 4 4

dx

C3 16

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