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1- Pareto chart 2- Histogram 3- Fish Bone 4- Flow Chart 5-Check points 6- Scatter Diagram 7- Control Charts
Pareto chart is one of Total Quality Management Tool and also usually used as one of six sigma tools in define phase.
It is simple role say that: 20 % control 80 % ,, simple isnâ¼t it. That means, 80 % if problems come from 20 of reasons, 80 % of results come from 20 of work 80 % of cost come from 20 % of spent area â¼¦ and so on.
When to Use
- When there are many problems or causes or opportunities and you want to focus on the most important. - When analyzing data about the frequency of problems or causes in a process. How to create Pareto chart:
collect the data for each category .(in our case .(lets say you want to know what is the most categories you spent your money in . Common measurements are frequency. Telephone. let's say Food.1-Decide what categories to compare between them. going out) 2-Decide what measurement is appropriate. Place the tallest at the far left. Personal care. I think it will be money) 3-Decide what period of time the chart will cover: One Month? One full day?A week?A year? (let's say 1 week) 4-Now in a table. 6-Construct and label bars for each category. quantity. cost and time. Gas.how much you spent in each category over the week and calculate the sum of the money for each category.(as in table below) 5-Arrange categories in descending way. then the next tallest to it is right and so on. .
Pareto analysis Histogram One of Total Quality Management Tool is Histogram. starting at the top of the first bar. so it will by more easy to understand the data . 8-Calculate and draw cumulative sums: Add the subtotals for the first and second categories. Continue the process for all the bars. To that sum add the subtotal for the third category. Pareto diagram. and place a dot above the second bar indicating that sum. It looks very much like a bar chart. Example . it is the most commonly used graph to show frequency distributions. Draw a left vertical axis and label it with Frequency. The last dot should reach 100 percent on the right scale. When to Use: When the data are numerical. and place a dot above the third bar for that new sum. Connect the dots.7-Calculate the percentage for each category: the total for that category divided by the total for all categories. and you want to see it in graph .
as shown on the following table: There are 50 measurements. prepared form for collecting and analyzing data. Right ? . Histograms can be constructed to provide more usable information as below. . To understand the application of histograms. But it is difficult to draw specific conclusions about the data without further analysis«. ( also called tally sheet ) . Check points Description: A Check points is a structured. This is a generic tool that can be adapted for a wide variety of purposes. consider a simple example: exam results data were collected from a training class of 50 individuals.
Decide when data will be collected and for how long. defects. Flow chart The Process Flow Chart provides a visual representation of the steps in a process. Set it up so that data can be recorded simply by making check marks . 5. record data on the check sheet. Example: The figure below shows a check sheet used to collect data on telephone interruptions. Procedure: 1. When collecting data on the frequency or patterns of events. problems. . Label all spaces on the form. defect location. Decide what event or problem will be observed.When to Use : When data can be observed and collected repeatedly by the same person or at the same location. Each time the targeted event or problem occurs. 4. ( for example telephone interruptions ) 2. The tick marks were added as data was collected over several weeks. Design the form. defect causes. etc. ( lets say 5 days ) 3.
Helps to identify non-value-added operations. the more common symbols are shown below: . because of the following benefits : 1. .Facilitates teamwork and communication.The next step is to identify the process steps and link them together with direction arrows. 3. 2.It give you and everyone a clear understanding of the process. Method: There are many symbols used to construct a flowchart.When to Use: Constructing a flowchart is often one of the first activities of a process improvement effort.
-Following is an example of a very simple flowchart for the process of getting out of bed in the morning: .
.......... When to Use When you try to know possible causes for a problem... Write it at the center right (Fish Head) of the flipchart or whiteboard..... Procedure: 1... Ishikawa Diagram Description: Identifies many possible causes for an effect or problem........... Draw a box around it and draw a horizontal arrow running to it.. It immediately sorts ideas into useful categories. ....FISHBONE Fish Bone Diagram Also Called: Cause-and-Effect Diagram.> Problem ... It can be used to structure a brainstorming session. Especially when a team¶s thinking tends to fall into block way.Agree on the problem (effect)...
Layers of branches indicate causal relationships.: When the group runs out of ideas. N.Brainstorm the major categories of causes of the problem (5M ).Write the categories of causes as branches from the main arrow.Brainstorm all the possible causes of the problem. 5. write it as a branch from the appropriate category (5M ). focus attention to places on the chart where ideas are few. 4. Continue to ask ³Why?´ and generate deeper levels of causes. Ask: ³Why does this happen?´ As each idea is given. Write sub-causes branching off the causes.B.2. . Methods Machines (equipment) Manpower (People) Materials Measurement Environment 3. Causes can be written in several places if they relate to several categories.Again ask ³why does this happen?´ about each (CAUSE from step 4).
â¼¢ After brainstorming causes and effects using a fishbone diagram. â¼¢ When trying to identify potential root causes of problems. Procedure: . â¼¢ When determining whether two effects that appear to be related both occur with the same cause. to determine objectively whether a particular cause and effect are related.SCATTER DIAGRAM Scatter Diagram Is used to investigate the possible relationship between two variables that both relate to the same "event". When to Use: â¼¢ When you have paired numerical data.
5. 6.) 3. . Count X/2 points from top to bottom and draw a horizontal line. 4. If number of points is odd. N = A + B 14. Draw a graph with the independent variable on the horizontal axis and the dependent variable on the vertical axis. For each pair of data.1. Q = the smaller of A and B 13. complete steps 4 through 7. so that you can see both. Divide points on the graph into four quadrants. you may stop. If the data clearly form a line or a curve. Find the smaller sum and the total of points in all quadrants. the two variables are related. draw the line through the middle point. Do not count points on a line. The variables are correlated. 7. Count the points in each quadrant. 15. You may wish to use regression or correlation analysis now. Add the diagonally opposite quadrants. If Q is less than the limit. If there are X points on the graph. touching. B = points in upper right + points in lower left 12. 2. put a dot or a symbol where the x-axis value intersects the yaxis value. 10. (If two dots fall together. Otherwise. put them side by side. 8. Look up the limit for N on the trend test table. Look at the pattern of points to see if a relationship is obvious. 9. A = points in upper left + points in lower right 11. Collect pairs of data where a relationship is suspected. Count X/2 points from left to right and draw a vertical line.
the pattern could have occurred from random chance. affected by special causes of variation). The top chart monitors the average. If Q is greater than or equal to the limit. or the width of the distribution. Data are plotted in time order. an upper line for the upper control limit and a lower line for the lower control limit. . you can draw conclusions about whether the process variation is consistent (in control) or is unpredictable (out of control. The bottom chart monitors the range. These lines are determined from historical data. or the centering of the distribution of data from the process.A control chart always has a central line for the average. Control chart for variable data are used in pairs. CONTROL CHARTS Description: Control charts are graphs used to study how a process changes over time. By comparing current data to these lines.16.
the cause and how it was corrected. . 3. what you learned. construct your chart and analyze the data. and the range is how tightly they are clustered.If your data were shots in target practice. mark it on the chart and investigate the cause. When to Use: When controlling ongoing processes by finding and correcting problems as they occur. Control chart for attribute data are used singly. When determining whether a process is stable (in statistical control). Determine the appropriate time period for collecting and plotting data. Document how you investigated. Choose the appropriate control chart for your data. Basic Procedure: 1. When predicting the expected range of outcomes from a process. When analyzing patterns of process variation from special causes (non-routine events) or common causes (built into the process). the average is where the shots are clustering. When one is identified. When determining whether your quality improvement project should aim to prevent specific problems or to make fundamental changes to the process. 4. Collect data. 2. Look for ³out-of-control signals´ on the control chart.
o Obvious consistent or persistent patterns that suggest something unusual about your data and your process. 12 out of 14 or 16 out of 20. o A run of eight in a row are on the same side of the centerline. o Two out of three successive points are on the same side of the centerline and farther than 2 from it. point sixteen is above the UCL (upper control limit). . o Four out of five successive points are on the same side of the centerline and farther than 1 from it. In Figure . Or 10 out of 11. 5. point 4 sends that signal. In Figure . In Figure . Continue to plot data as they are generated. In Figure .Out-of-control signals o A single point outside the control limits. point 21 is eighth in a row above the centerline. check for new out-of-control signals. point 11 sends that signal. As each new data point is plotted.
. If so. the control limits calculated from the first 20 points are conditional limits. recalculate control limits. the process may be out of control.6. When you have at least 20 sequential points from a period when the process is operating in control. When you start a new control chart.
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