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Submitted by Sriram Venkateshan (B. Tech EE IV) Sreshtha Mohan (B. Tech EE IV)

Submission Date: 06.12.2010

Wireless energy transfer

Acknowledgements

We are greatly indebted to Prof Pramod Agarwal for accepting to guide us in such an unorthodox topic, that we chose for this project and for providing us full support in all respects. We thank Prof Vipul Rastogi for referring us to the appropriate material and helping us understand the concepts involved. We thank Mr. Gautam, for assisting us with the lab work, procuring us the needed components, instruments, and allowing us to work in the lab. We also thank our close classmate Mohit Choradia for sharing/spending time with us throughout the time we worked on this project.

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Wireless energy transfer

Table of contents

Acknowledgements Table of contents List of figures and tables 1. Abstract 2. Introduction 3. The Evanescent Magnetic Field 3.1. The far field 3.2. The near field 3.2.1. The radiative near field 3.2.2. The reactive near field 3.3. Summary 3.4. Alternative explanation for the method of coupling 4. Theory 4.1. Analysis of the scheme 4.2. Theoretical model for self-resonant coils 4.3. Simulation and results 5. Design and description of the experimental setup 5.1. Design of the coils 5.2. Design of the supply 5.3. Design of the load 6. Experimental observations and results 6.1. Frequency characteristics 6.2. Distance characteristics 6.3. Observational remarks 7. Conclusions References

1 2 3 4 5 7 7 8 8 9 9 11 11 15 17 21 22 22 23 24 24 25 26 27 28

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Wireless energy transfer

**List of Figures and tables
**

Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Theoretical frequency characteristics Theoretical distance characteristics Schematic of the experimental setup Non-inverting amplifier circuit using OPA 548 Experimental frequency characteristics Experimental distance characteristics Scheme for implementation of the discussed scheme in DC load applications

Table. 1 Table. 2

Experimental readings for frequency characteristics Experimental readings for distance characteristics

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Wireless energy transfer

1. Abstract

Wireless energy transfer based on coupled magnetic resonances is a new technology which energy can be transferred via coupled magnetic resonances in the non-radiative near field. A simple energy transfer system structure is analyzed in this project. Based on the power and distance specifications of the energy transfer in question, the experimental setup is designed and with available resources, realized. The back electromotive force (back-EMF) in the receiving coil and the efficiency of the transfer related with different transfer distance and with driving frequency is observed with the realized apparatus. These results, along with the theoretical predictions for the same, can be used to prove that the scheme used is appropriate for energy transfer over midrange distances. Some basic modifications which could be done to improve the scheme’s performance, but could not implemented due to lack of time and resources, are also suggested.

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Wireless energy transfer

2. Introduction

In the early days of electromagnetism, before the electrical wire grid was deployed, serious interest and effort was devoted (most notably by Nikola Tesla) towards the development of schemes to transport energy over long distances without any carrier medium (i.e. wirelessly). These efforts appear to have met with little success. Radiative modes of omni-directional antennas (which work very well for information transfer) are not suitable for such energy transfer, because a vast majority of energy is wasted into free space. Directed radiation modes, using lasers or highly-directional antennas, can be efficiently used for energy transfer, even for long distances (transfer distance LTRANS >> LDEV, where LDEV is the characteristic size of the device), but require existence of an uninterruptible line-of-sight and a complicated tracking system in the case of mobile objects. The use of such schemes in layman applications is very complex and thus limited. However, unlike the time of Tesla, now we are faced with an entirely different challenge. Since the existing electrical-wire grid carries energy almost everywhere, transmission of power over long distances for power wheeling, is not at all in the question. Even a medium-range (LTRANS ≈ few LDEV) wireless energy transfer would be quite useful for many applications. Rapid development of autonomous electronics of recent years (e.g. laptops, cell-phones, house-hold robots, that all typically rely on chemical energy storage) which has led to invention of various gadgets, justifies revisiting investigation of this issue. Wireless energy transfer involves the second major difficulty as the radiation of the energy into space. This is due to two primary problems: one, which is the efficiency. For radiation of energy, a significant amount of energy could get radiated into free space and thus wasted. This would drastically decrease the efficiency. The second is the concern on the safety of the scheme, and its effects with respect to life and health. Because of the above reasons, normally non-radiative schemes are preferred. There are several currently used schemes, which rely on non-radiative modes (magnetic induction), but they are restricted to very close-range (LTRANS << LDEV). In contrast to all the above schemes, an experiment conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology investigated the feasibility of using oscillatory resonant electromagnetic modes, with localized evanescent field patterns, for efficient wireless non-radiative mid-range energy transfer. The proposed method is based on the well known principle of resonant coupling (the fact that two same-frequency resonant objects tend to couple, while interacting weakly with other offresonant environmental objects) and, in particular, resonant evanescent coupling (where the

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**Wireless energy transfer
**

coupling mechanism is mediated through the overlap of the non- radiative near fields of the two objects). This well known physics leads trivially to the result that energy can be efficiently coupled between objects in the extremely near field (e.g. in optical waveguide or cavity couplers and in resonant inductive electric transformers). Detailed theoretical analysis shows that even an efficient mid-range wireless energy exchange can actually be achieved, while suffering only modest transfer and dissipation of energy into other off-resonant objects, provided the exchange system is carefully designed to operate in a regime of ‘‘strong coupling’’ compared to all intrinsic loss rates. The physics of ‘‘strong coupling’’ is also known but in very different areas, such as those of light-matter interactions. In this favorable operating regime, the following question can be addressed quantitatively: up to which distances can such a scheme be efficient and how sensitive is it to external perturbations? The omni-directional but stationary nature of the near field makes this mechanism suitable for mobile wireless receivers. It could therefore have a variety of possible applications including for example, placing a source (connected to the wired electricity network) on the ceiling of a factory room, while devices (robots, vehicles, computers, or similar) are roaming freely within the room. Other possible applications include electric engine buses, RFIDs, and perhaps even nano-robots.

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Wireless energy transfer

**3. The evanescent magnetic field
**

The coupling of the two systems used in transmission, can be done in any manner, until the resonant modes of the oscillation in both the systems match. However, if the coupling occurs with every object, no efficient transfer would occur. Thus, reactive magnetic fields are being used in the scheme considered. The field surrounding a transmitting system can be categorized as follows:

**3.1. The far field
**

The far-field region is the region in space around the oscillator, where the angular field distribution is essentially independent of distance from the source. In the far field, the shape of the angular energy distribution is independent of distance from the transmitting oscillator. If the source has a maximum overall dimension ‘D’ that is large compared to the wavelength ‘λ’, the far-field region is commonly taken to exist at distances from the source, greater than Fresnel parameter S = D2/(4λ), S > 1.

**3.2. The near field
**

The near-field, which is inside about one wavelength distance from the transmitter, is a region in which there are strong inductive and capacitive effects from the currents and charges in the transmitter, which do not behave like far-field radiation. These effects decrease in power far more quickly with distance, than does the far-field radiation power. Also, absorption of radiated power in this region does have effects which feedback to the transmitter, increasing the load on the transmitter that feeds the transmitter by decreasing the system impedance that the transmitter sees. Thus, the transmitter can sense that power has been absorbed from the nearfield zone, and if this power is not absorbed, the transmitter does not draw as much power. The transition zone between these regions is the distance from one to two wavelengths from the source, in which both near and far field effects are important, and in which near field behavior dies out and ceases to become important, leaving far-field effects as the dominant interaction. The near field is further divided into two sub parts, as below:

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**Wireless energy transfer
**

3.2.1. The radiative near field

This field is seen where the effects of the feedback cannot be clearly seen due to significant lag in phase between the feedback and generated fluxes. This field does not contribute to any extra power input from the source as its effect is not detected at the transmitter at all.

**3.2.2. The reactive near field
**

In a close range to the source, (the terminology just implies that the range is small compared to the far field transmission distances used in radio communications) the relationship between the strengths of the E and H fields is often too complex to predict. Both field component (E or H) may dominate at one point, and the opposite relationship dominate at a point only a short distance away. This makes finding the true power density in this region problematic. This is because to calculate power, not only E and H both have to be measured, but the phase relationship between E and H must also be known. In this reactive region, not only is an electromagnetic wave being radiated outward into far-space, but there is a "reactive" component to the electromagnetic field, meaning that the nature of the field around the transmitter is sensitive to, and reacts to, EM absorption in this region (this is not true of absorption far from the transmitter, which has no effect on the transmitter or the near-field). Very close to the transmitter, in the reactive region, energy of certain amount, if not absorbed by a receiver is held back and is stored very near the transmitter surface. This energy is carried back and forth from the transmitter to the reactive near-field by electromagnetic radiation of the type that slowly changes electrostatic and magneto-static effects. For example, current flowing in the transmitter creates a purely magnetic component in the near-field, which then collapses as the transmitter current begins to reverse, causing transfer of the field's magnetic energy back to electrons in the transmitter as the changing magnetic field causes a selfinductive effect on the transmitter that generated it. This returns energy to the transmitter in a regenerative way, so that it is not lost. A similar process happens as electric charge builds up in one section of the transmitter under the pressure of the signal voltage, and causes a local electric field around that section of transmitter, due to the transmitter's self-capacitance. When the signal reverses so that charge is allowed to flow away from this region again, the built-up electric field assists in pushing electrons back in the new direction of their flow, as with the discharge of any uni-polar capacitor. This again transfers energy back to the transmitter current. Because of this energy storage and return effect, if either of the inductive or electrostatic effects in the reactive near-field does transfer energy to electrons in a different (nearby) conductor, this energy is lost to the primary source, and thus an extra drain is seen on the

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**Wireless energy transfer
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transmitter circuit, resulting from the reactive near-field energy which is not returned. This constitutes the coupling that is required in the Coupled Mode Theory (CMT) equations.

3.3. Summary

Solving Maxwell's equations for the electric and magnetic fields for a localized oscillating source, such as an antenna, surrounded by a homogeneous material (typically vacuum or air), yields fields that, far away, decay in proportion to ‘1/r’ where r is the distance from the source. These are the radiating fields, and the region where r is large enough for these fields to dominate is the far field. More generally, the fields of a source in a homogeneous isotropic medium can be written as a multi-pole expansion. The terms in this expansion are spherical harmonics (which give the angular dependence) multiplied by spherical Bessel functions (which give the radial dependence). For large r, the spherical Bessel functions decay as 1/r, giving the radiated field above. As one gets closer and closer to the source (smaller r), approaching the near field, other powers of r become significant. The next term that becomes significant is proportional to 1/r2 and is sometimes called the induction term. It can be thought of as the primarily magnetic energy stored in the field, and returned to the transmitter in every halfcycle, through self-induction. For even smaller r, terms proportional to 1/r3 become significant; this is sometimes called the electrostatic field term and can be thought of as stemming from the electrical charge in the transmitter element. Very close to the source, the multipole expansion is less useful (too many terms are required for an accurate description of the fields). Rather, in the near field, it is sometimes useful to express the contributions as a sum of radiating fields combined with evanescent fields, where the latter are exponentially decaying with r.

**3.4. Alternate explanation for the method of coupling
**

The fields around a transmitter can be thought of as due to two main reasons. They are given below. The transmitter itself, when visualized as a waveguide, gives rise to several modes of oscillations within it. Some modes, due to indices of the material of the transmitter and the surrounding medium, portray themselves as leaky, and thus the radiative fields originate in the space around the transmitter. Also due to TIR at the surface of the so called waveguide, the incident wave is totally manifested as the reflected wave inside the material. This gives rise to a non travelling wave solution in free space, which decays in the direction perpendicular to wavefronts of the solution, which are called evanescent waves.

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Wireless energy transfer

Mathematically, …3.1 represents the real power of the wave. As all the power of the incident wave is seen at the reflected wave, assuming lossless reflection, the wave at the transmitter surface has either …3.2

or

As, the medium outside need not be lossless, the first case is impossible. So, by second case, the wave ceases to be a travelling wave. However, the conclusion from the fact that the absorbed energy is zero is from the fact that, if there was a coupling through these evanescent waves, and power was consumed by them, the source would just feed in the extra power to maintain the power in the transmitter waveguide unchanged. So, a coupling with these waves can produce an energy transfer as needed. Also, as these waves do not die out with time, they can be stable and thus maintain the energy transfer method with any attenuation with time. These waves, for a coil as the transmitter, are predominantly magnetic and thus do not harm people and life. So, they can be used without any difficulties. Moreover, normal substances, which may block the line of sight between transmitter and receiver, are diamagnetic and thus do not change the field, thus producing no effect on the power transferred.

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Wireless energy transfer

4. Theory

4.1. Analysis of the scheme

Using the above discussions, we can start analyzing the scheme. The range and rate of the proposed wireless energy-transfer scheme are the first subjects of examination, without considering yet energy drainage from the system for use into work. Efficient midrange power transfer occurs in particular regions of the parameter space describing resonant objects strongly coupled to one another. An appropriate analytical framework for modeling this resonant energy-exchange is that of the well-known coupledmode theory (CMT). Using coupled-mode theory to describe this physical system, we obtain the following set of linear equations:

…4.1

where F1,2(r) are the eigenmodes of 1 and 2 alone, and then the field amplitudes a1(t) and a2(t) can be shown to satisfy, to lowest order:

…4.2

where

where the indices denote the different resonant objects. The variables a m(t) are defined so that the energy contained in object m is |a m(t)|2, ωm is the resonant angular frequency of that isolated object, and Γm is its intrinsic decay rate (e.g. due to absorption and radiated losses). In this framework, an uncoupled and undriven oscillator with parameters ω0 and Γ0 would evolve in time.

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**Wireless energy transfer
**

This is given by

…4.3

The κmn = κnm are coupling coefficients between the resonant objects indicated by the subscripts, and Fm(t) are driving terms. We limit the treatment to the case of two objects, denoted by source and device, such that the source (identified by the subscript S) is driven externally at a constant frequency, and the two objects have a coupling coefficient κ. Work is extracted from the device (subscript D) by means of a load (subscript W) that acts as a circuit resistance connected to the device, and has the effect of contributing an additional term ΓW to the unloaded device object’s decay rate ΓD. The overall decay rate at the device is therefore Γ’D = ΓD + ΓW. The work extracted is determined by the power dissipated in the load, that

…4.4

Taking the case of two objects as above, the equations are

…4.5

…4.6

Here, the source has a forcing term, which is the supply. But the receiver side has no source, but on the other hand, has an extra loss term representing the load on the receiver coil. Differentiating the two equations, we get

…4.7

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**Wireless energy transfer
**

…4.8

Using the equations 4.7, 4.8 and substituting 4.5 and 4.6 in them, we get

…4.9

…4.10

Multiplying by appropriate terms and adding 4.9 and 4.10 to eliminate aD(t), we get

…4.11 This can be solved in the frequency realm to yield a result, through Laplace transforms as

…4.12

…4.13

In frequency domain, s = iω, so

…4.14

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**Wireless energy transfer
**

The efficiency is given by

…4.15

Substituting 4.14 in 4.15 and maximizing G by putting ω=ωD, we get

…4.16

To maximize this efficiency, differentiate 4.16 with respect to Γ W, and equate to 0. Then we get

…4.17

Substituting 4.17 into 4.16, we get

…4.18

This increases when the term,

So, this is chosen as the figure of merit for the scheme. This is commonly referred to as the strong coupling regime. Resonance plays an essential role in this power transfer mechanism, as the efficiency is improved by approximately ω2/ΓD2 (≈106 for typical parameters) relative to the case of inductively coupled non-resonant objects.

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**Wireless energy transfer 4.2. Theoretical model for self-resonant coils
**

The experimental realization of the scheme consists of two self-resonant coils. One coil (the source coil) is coupled inductively to an oscillating circuit; the other (the device coil) is coupled inductively to a resistive load. (Fig. 5.1, page 21). Self-resonant coils rely on the interplay between distributed inductance and distributed capacitance to achieve resonance. The coils are made of an electrically conducting wire of total length ‘l’ and cross-sectional radius a wound into a helix of n turns, radius r, and height h. Assuming the simple quasi-static model, calculations are made for the field distributions of the helical coils. It can be observed that the current must be zero at the ends of the coil, and we can make the educated guess that the resonant modes of the coil are well approximated by sinusoidal current profiles along the length of the conducting wire. We are interested in the lowest mode, so if we denote by s the parameterization coordinate along the length of the conductor, such that it runs from −l/2 to +l/2, then the time-dependent current profile has the form I0 cos(πs/l) exp(iωt). It follows from the continuity equation for charge that the linear charge density profile is of the form l0 sin(πs/l) exp(iωt), so that one-half of the coil (when sliced perpendicularly to its axis) contains an oscillating total charge (of amplitude q0=λl/π) that is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to the charge in the other half. As the coil is resonant, the current and charge density profiles are π/2 out of phase from each other, meaning that the real part of one is maximum, when the real part of the other is zero. Equivalently, the energy contained in the coil is at certain points in time completely due to the current, and at other points it is completely due to the charge. Using electromagnetic theory, we can define an effective inductance L and an effective capacitance C for each coil as follows:

…4.19

where N=number of turns R=radius of the coil μr=relative permeability μ0=permeability of free space a=cross-sectional radius of the wire

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Wireless energy transfer

…4.20 Where the formula is just empirical and gives an approximate of the capacitance, in conjunction with the geometry of the object. As defined, L and C have the property that the energy U contained in the coil is given by

…4.21

Given this relation and the equation of continuity, the resulting resonant frequency is

…4.22

We can now treat this coil as a standard oscillator in coupled-mode theory by defining …4.23

We can estimate the power dissipated by noting that the sinusoidal profile of the current distribution implies that the spatial average of the peak current squared is |I 0|2/2. For a coil with n turns and made of a material with conductivity σ, we modify the standard formulas for Ohmic (Ro) and radiation (Rr) resistance accordingly:

…4.24

…4.25

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**Wireless energy transfer
**

The first term in Eq. is a magnetic dipole radiation term (assuming r << 2πc/ω, where c is the speed of light); the second term is due to the electric dipole of the coil and is smaller than the first term for our experimental parameters. The coupled-mode theory decay constant for the coil is therefore Γ = (Ro + Rr)/2L, and its quality factor is Q = ω/2Γ. We find the coupling coefficient κDS by looking at the power transferred from the source to the device coil, assuming a steady-state solution in which currents and charge densities vary in time as exp(iωt):

…4.26

where M is the effective mutual inductance, the subscript S indicates the current in the source. We can then conclude from standard coupled-mode theory arguments that …4.27

When the distance D between the centers of the coils is much larger than their characteristic size, κ scales with the D−3 dependence characteristic of dipole-dipole coupling. Both κ and Γ are functions of the frequency, and κ/Γ and the efficiency are maximized for a particular value of f. Thus, picking an appropriate frequency for a given coil size, as we do in this experimental demonstration, plays a major role in optimizing the power transfer.

**4.3. Simulation and results
**

The above equations are used to calculate the performance of the setup theoretically. Using the solution of the differential equations mentioned above, and the parameters given below, we get the plots which are shown later. MATLAB is used for the calculation and plotting of results. The code implemented and the resulting plots are shown below. Here, the values of the setup dimensions and parameters are taken the same as the values for which the experimental apparatus is designed, for the sake of clear comparison of the results.

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Wireless energy transfer

%INIT.m: %Constants j=sqrt(-1); MU0=4*pi*1e-7; EPSILON0=8.8541878e-12; c=3e8; %Source specifications Vs=8; %OMEGA=2*pi*2e5; %Apparatus dimensions and materials %D=.1; RL=5000; %Source end: ap=.8e-3; the source coil Rp=4.55e-2; Np=53; coil N=13; the transmitter coil a=1.8e-3; coil R=5.64e-2; transmitter coil SIGMA=5.8e7; coil %Circuit parameters

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%Distance %Load resistance

%Cross sectional radius of %Radius of the source coil %Number of turns in source %Cross sectional radius of %Radius of the transmitter %Number of turns in %Conductivity of transmitter

**Wireless energy transfer
**

L=(N^2)*R*MU0*(log(8*R/a)-2); C=1e-8; OMEGA1=1/sqrt(L*C); R0=(sqrt(MU0*OMEGA/(2*SIGMA)))*N*R/2/a; Rr=(sqrt(MU0/EPSILON0))*pi*(N^2)*((OMEGA*R/c)^4)/12; %Performance analysis GAMMA=(R0+Rr)/(2*L); M=pi*MU0*N*N*((R*R)^2)/(4*(D^3)); KAPPA=OMEGA*M/(2*sqrt(L*L)); GAMMAw=RL*((N/Np)^2)/2/L; F=(N/Np)*Vs/sqrt(L/2); Gds=j*KAPPA/(j*OMEGA-j*OMEGA1+GAMMA+GAMMAw); AmpGds=abs(Gds); ETA=GAMMAw*(AmpGds^2)/(GAMMA+(GAMMA+GAMMAw)*(AmpGds^2)); %END %MAIN CODE: D=0.12; for i=400:1000 OMEGA=2*pi*i*1e3; freq(i)=OMEGA/2/pi; INIT eff(i)=ETA; end OMEGA=2*pi*612e3; for i=1:100 D=i*2e-3; dis(i)=D; INIT eff(i)=ETA; end

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The plots using the simulation are shown below:

Frequency Characteristics

Fig. 1 Distance Characteristics

Fig. 2

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Wireless energy transfer

**5. Design and description of the experimental setup
**

With respect to the specifications of power and distance of the power transfer, the system is designed as shown below. The equations used, which are also shown side by side, are all derived from the basic equations of 3. Specifications: Supply voltage = 10 V amplitude. Maximum power transfer distance = 20 cm Maximum power that may be transferred ≈ 10 W Maximum current through the input or output side = 2 A

The schematic of the experimental setup is shown in the figure below

Fig 3 A is a thin copper coil of radius 4.64 cm that is part of the driving circuit, which outputs a sine wave with frequency 100-1000 kHz. S and D are respectively the source and device coils referred to in the text. B is a loop of wire attached to the load (light bulb). The first coupling from the source is inductive, as the distance is very small and the frequencies do not match very well. The same can be said on the load end as well, where the load and the receiver coil do not have matching resonant frequencies. The middle coupling is made strongly resonant by careful construction of the two coils, which are completely similar. However, a weak direct coupling also occurs from the source to load coil due to similarity in their construction.

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**Wireless energy transfer 5.1. Design of the coils
**

As the evanescent field propagation is upto 1 to 1.5 times the device size, for 20 cm, let the diameter of the coils be 10 cm. So, R = 5 cm Resonant frequency of the coil is dependent on both the inductance and the capacitance, which would yield the resonant frequency near a midrange of the supply capacity i.e. 500 kHz, if we choose a cross-sectional diameter of 1.626 mm (from the standard wire gauge to support maximum 2A with copper having tolerance 4A /mm2), we would have to take on C = 0.98463 nF So, for a given resonant frequency as 500 kHz, L = 0.10504 mH Then the value of N is N ≈ 14 turns The experimental values of inductance agree with the theoretical prediction. So the resonant frequency would come in the required range. Now, for the source and load coils, if we design both with the same dimensions for the ease of construction, as the maximum driving current of the supply is 100 mA, the no load current should be 1 percent of this, making the inductance of the coil as L = 0.31 mH, designing at 50 kHz Then for a small diameter, which yields higher inductance, the value of N can be calculated as N > 32 A large value of N is chosen to make to safe for low frequencies as well. Thus, N ≈ 50

**5.2 Design of the supply
**

The supply provided was capable of handling 100 mA at a high frequency, and should give a true sine wave at this frequency. The primary idea would be to construct a power oscillator. But, as this involves a lot of high frequency components (as is the case with any power amplifier for the high frequency), we use a power Opamp, OPA 548.

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**Wireless energy transfer
**

The basic non-inverting amplifier circuit using the OPA 548 is shown below

Fig. 4 Without the capacitances, the opamp can still function properly without, any damage and fluctuation in the output. So, the above circuit is used without the capacitors shown. The supply signal to the power opamp is given by a function generator with peak amplitude as 15 V. The regulated dc supply is used for biasing the opamp. Gain is set at 10 by putting R1 = 1 kΩ and R2 = 10 kΩ. Supply in put is adjusted for a faithful output without clipping at saturation levels.

**5.3 Design of the load
**

Though a more suitable load could be chosen, a simple resistance in series with small LED’s could serve the same purpose without any hindrances. The values of Γ W calculated for optimum efficiency is 5-10. So, for the above inductance of the load coil, the resistance is 10-30 kΩ. Waveforms for measurement of efficiency are all observed through a cathode ray oscilloscope.

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Wireless energy transfer

**6. Experimental observations and results:
**

6.1. Frequency characteristics

The setup is supplied with various frequencies at a fixed distance, and the frequency response of the scheme is checked. As expected theoretically, the resonance can be observed. The readings are shown below Supply voltage = 7.625 V Load resistance =10 kΩ Time lag between the current and voltage = 434 ns So, pf = 1.807 × 10-3 Supply resistance = 100 Ω Distance = 10 cm Time period of the input voltage = 1.738 μs

Frequency (kHz) 500 520 540 560 580 600 620 640 660 680 700

Input Voltage(mV) 303 316 327 334 347 358 366 380 389 400 411

Load Input Voltage(mV) power(μW) 186 41.7 237.25 43.55 269.75 45.07 266.25 46.03 241 47.82 208.25 49.34 183 50.44 161.75 52.37 144.5 53.61 132.75 55.13 123.75 56.64 Table 1

Load power(μW) 3.459 5.628 7.276 7.088 5.8081 4.336 3.349 2.616 2.088 1.762 1.531

Efficiency (%) 8.29 12.92 16.14 15.39 12.14 8.788 6.639 5.00 3.89 3.196 2.703

Fig. 5

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**Wireless energy transfer 6.2. Distance characteristics
**

Frequency = 552 kHz Supply voltage = 7.19 V Supply resistance = 100 Ω Time lag between the current and voltage waveforms of the input = 434 ns Time period of the supply voltage = 1.811 μs Power factor angle = 89.8˚ Distance (cm) 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 12 15 Supply Voltage(mV) 331 325 327 329 327 327 325 327 333 Load Supply Voltage(mV) power(μW) 586 83.07 535 81.57 439 82.07 379 82.57 337 83.07 308 83.07 286 81.57 275 82.07 273 83.58 Table 2 Load power(μW) 34.34 28.62 19.27 14.36 11.36 9.49 8.18 7.56 7.45 Efficiency (%) 41.34 35.09 23.48 17.39 13.68 11.42 10.03 9.21 8.91

Fig. 6

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Wireless energy transfer

6.3 Observational remarks

Characteristics of the scheme shows that the efficiency is maximum at a specific frequency, proving that this is not the ordinary inductive coupling, through which the energy transfer is taking place. The efficiency of the scheme decreases as the cube of the distance due to the variation of the mutual inductance of the two coils in consideration.

The difference in theoretical and experimental observations is apparent, and can be explained in the following ways o Tuning is intrinsic and the exact matching of resonant frequencies has not been achieved. This is due to the fact that tuning would require variable inductances or capacitances to fine tune the resonance of the two coils. o The system realized, though easy in analyzing, consists of two inductive coupled systems (one at the source and the transmitting coil, the other at the load and receiving coil). This causes considerable leakage and leads to low power factors. The input power measurement, which has been primarily done through measurement of voltages, currents and time lag between them, gets adversely affected by the low pf, as even a small error in the measurement of the time lag, causes a considerable change in the pf, and thus the input power. (Output power is measured just by the square of the output voltage).

The low power involved in the experiment is mainly due to lack of an appropriate power supply. This could be solved by use of high frequency power oscillators.

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Wireless energy transfer

7. Conclusions

Mid range energy transfer is observed to be possible by evanescent magnetic field coupling, and the efficiency is significant enough for low power (upto a few watts) applications. The range of transfer, as determined by the characteristic size of the devices, could be maintained unchanged even when decreasing the size of the receiver, by making the product of the sizes of both devices constant. Hence, although the two coils are currently of identical dimensions, it is possible to make the device coil small enough to fit into portable devices without decreasing the efficiency. Though in our considered apparatus, tuning has been inherent and required no external tuning, we can still conclude that the matching of the resonant modes of both the coils plays the most important role in the energy transfer. A slight detuning would cause the system to deliver near zero power. External objects have a noticeable effect only when they are within a few centimeters from either one of the coils. Some materials (such as aluminum foil, Styrofoam, and humans) mostly just shift the resonant frequency, which can in principle be easily corrected with a feedback circuit; other materials (cardboard, wood, and polyvinyl chloride) lower Q when placed closer than a few centimeters from the coil, thereby lowering the efficiency of the transfer. Using appropriate drive circuitry for the supply side could facilitate the derivation of the high frequency supply needed for the transfer, and a high frequency rectifier on the load end, would enable the scheme to power dc loads and devices. Such a scheme is shown below.

Fig. 7

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Wireless energy transfer

References

[1] André Kurs, Aristeidis Karalis, Robert Moffatt, J. D. Joannopoulos, Peter Fisher, Marin Soljacic “Wireless Power Transfer via Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonances” SCIENCE, Volume 317, 6 July 2007. (www.sciencemag.org) [2] Aristeidis Karalis, J.D. Joannopoulos, Marin Soljacic “Efficient wireless non-radiative mid-range energy transfer” Annals of Physics 323, (2008) 34-48. (Accepted 17 April 2007) [3] www.wikipedia.org [4] Herman A.Haus, Weiping Huang “Coupled Mode Theory” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 79, No. 10 October 1991 – Invited Paper. [5] B. E. Little and W. P. Huang “Coupled Mode Theory for optical waveguides” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, PIER 10, 217-270, 1995. [6] Chunbo Zhu, Kai Liu , Chunlai Yu, Rui Ma, Hexiao Cheng, “Simulation and Experimental Analysis on Wireless Energy Transfer Based on Magnetic Resonances” IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conference, September 3-5, 2008, Harbin. [7] Henk F. Arnoldus “Evanescent waves in the magnetic field of an electric dipole” Journal of Modern Optics, No. 9, 15 June 2005, 1215-1241. [8] David W. Knight “The self-resonance and self-capacitance of solenoid coils” Version 0.01, 9 May 2010. (www.g3ynh.info). [9] Shahrzad Jalali Mazlouman, Alireza Mahanfar, Bozena Kaminska “Mid-range Wireless Energy Transfer Using Inductive Resonance for Wireless Sensors” Proceedings of IEEE, Vol. 978, 517-522, 2009. [10] Ajoy K. Ghatak, K. Thyagarajan “An introduction to fiber optics” Cambridge University Press, 1998. [11] Carlo G Someda “Electromagnetic waves” CRC Press, January 2006. [12] Texas Instruments - high-voltage, high-current operational amplifier OPA548T datasheet.

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