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What the

Sages of Israel
knew about
the Messiah
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The term Messiah
The term is an Anglicisation of the Latin word which is a trans- messiah messias,
literation of the Greek a translation of the Aramaic , which is in turn a messias, meshiha
translation of the Hebrew term mashiach, which is usually found in the expression
HaMelekh HaMashiach —literally: “the King Messiah” and idiomatically “the Anointed
King.”
Scripture and the Messiah
There was an ancient understanding that, at a deeper level of understanding, all of
Scripture is focused towards Messianic redemption.
Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 99a
All the prophets prophesied only about the —the days of Yemot haMashiach
the Messiah.
Sovereignty and Song
In the series, Volume I (Psalms 1 the rabbis write that Artscroll Tehillim – 30), Adam
had Sovereignty and Song before his fall:
Of all the mighty wonders which Elohim had created, the greatest wonder is
man. For man is nothing less than a microcosm, a miniature world, composed
of all the elements found in the entirety of creation.
An echo of the fearless lion roars forth from every human heart, together with
the gentle bleating of the timid lamb. A strong, tough vein of iron runs through
the fabric of man, interwoven with a strand of soft, pliable reed. Animal,
vegetable, mineral —all the kingdoms are represented within man. But there is
more—side by side with the material elements of the earth, there resides within
man a lofty intellect and a holy spirit, the stuff of heaven. Surely this all-
encompassing man is no less than a tiny universe.
And what is the purpose of the universe? The Psalmist proclaims:
Tehillim 19:2
HaShamayim mesap'rim kevod El u'ma'aseh yadayv maggid—The heavens
declare the glory of El and the expanse of the sky tells of his handiwork.
All the world is a choir resounding with joyous song. In pereq shirah, “The
Chapter of Song,” the sages describe the songs which every creature sings to
the Creator. Every creature, from the mighty sun to the lowly ant, from the little
songbird to the croaking frog, sings one or more verses of Scripture as its song
of praise to Elohim. The earth declares that it and its fullness belong to Him.
The stars proclaim that Elohim alone made the heavenly host. The horse
declares that just as it looks to its master, so must all look to YHWH.
What is the underlying message of these songs? Simply this: YHWH's praise
is sung when each and every part of creation performs its assigned task without
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deviation. Every creature acting out its ordained role is a fine, precision
instrument. Together they form a cosmic orchestra.
However, an assemblage of the finest virtuosos does not yet make a symphonic
orchestra. They need a skilled conductor to harmonise the multitude of tones
into a thing of exquisite beauty. If each musician improvises without regard to
the fused outcome, the result would not be music, but noise.
Elohim placed Adam on the podium and appointed him conductor and
choirmaster of the universe. The diverse elements of creation are bidden to
obey his baton. Adam, who was composed of all these diverse elements, was
provided with a score to follow and instructions on how to use each element of
creation in its proper time and place.
So said the Psalmist of the mission of man: “You gave him dominion over the
works of Your hands, You placed everything under his feet” (Psalm 8:7). Man's
dominion is not merely privilege—it is an obligation. It required balancing,
adjusting, guiding, and coaxing all of the world's divergent forces into a sublime
symphony of service to the Almighty. The describes the talents with Midrash
which Adam was endowed for the sake of accomplishing his mission as […]
sovereignty and song.
Adam was created on the sixth day, on the eve of the first Sabbath…
It is not adequate merely to say that Adam dwelled in Paradise; we would be
more accurate to say that Paradise dwelled inside of him. He was blessed with
the inner joy of security and self-assurance…The inclination for evil did not
exist inside him…only one inclination urged him on—a good and positive one.
No trace of friction or struggle existed inside Adam because he was a perfect
and harmonious blend…
Rambam ([commentary on] Genesis 2:9) comments: “Before the sin Adam truly
resembled the heavens and their hosts who are described as […] 'Creatures of
truth, whose achievement is truth and undeviating from their appointed mission'
(Sanhedrin 42a).”
The fall of Adam
In the series, Volume I (Psalms 1 the rabbis describe the fall of Artscroll Tehillim – 30),
Adam:
Not only did [Adam] fall; he dragged the entire universe down with him…
However, Adam's life was not free of trial and challenge. Although no evil
impulse was found within him—there most assuredly existed a threat from
without. The external inclination towards evil was personified by the
nachash—serpent.
Certainly Adam was inclined only towards good…Elohim said one thing; the
serpent, another! Adam heard the word of Elohim with his ears:
Genesis 2:17
For on the day that you eat of it you shall surely die.
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But the serpent, the adroit master of persuasion, presented an appealing
argument. He reinforced his words with powerful evidence clearly visible to the
eyes. 'Seeing is believing' —a vision is more convincing than a voice.
Genesis 3:6
And the woman that the tree was good for food and an enticement for saw
the eyes.
…The eyes of Adam were led astray by external 'appearances' which seemed
to be 'good and enticing'…
[Before he fell, Adam's] intellectual scope was [immense] and unhampered by
distortion. But sin clouded his vision and brought him to the gates of death.
Proverbs 14:12
There is a way that appears straight before a man, yet its end is the ways of
death.
Adam changed profoundly after he erred. [Before he fell], not the slightest
trace of evil resided within him. However, by eating of the forbidden fruit, Adam
took the enemy into himself and thereby made evil an integral part of his
makeup. His inner harmony was disrupted, his entire being was shattered into
two rival camps.
Now Adam's life became a bitter conflict, an endless struggle between good
and evil, truth and falsehood. No longer could he trust himself. He hesitated.
He stumbled. He fluctuated between going up and coming down, success and
failure. No longer was man reliable and consistent like the never-ending forces
of nature. No longer was he 'A creature of truth whose achievement is truth,
not deviating from the path set for his appointed mission.'
To the extent that Adam's self-mastery vanished, he forfeited his — malkhut
'sovereignty' over the world. The universal —'song' he had conducted shirah
was interrupted—all but silenced.
The Man the Son of Peretz
The ancient rabbis found clear proof in Scripture that Adam was when he diminished
sinned. The Hebrew letter ( the sixth letter in the Hebrew alphabet, represents Y wav),
man, because Adam was created (at the very end of) the sixth day. In Genesis 2:4, the
Hebrew word (genealogy, account, history) is spelled with two letters toldot wav:
This is the of the heavens and the earth when they were created. When t ld t Y Y
YHWH Elohim made the earth and the heavens…
Note that the above text precedes the fall of man, which is described in Genesis 3. In
the rest of the is spelled with one only (as or ), or with no Tanakh, toldot wav t ldot told t Y Y
wavvim toldot at all (i.e. as ). This modified spelling, with a diminished number of
wavvim, is found in:
Genesis 5:1; 6:9; 10:1, 32; 11:10, 27; 25:12-13, 19; 36:1, 9; 37:2
Exodus 6:16; 6:19; 28:10
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Numbers 1:20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42; 3:1
1 Chronicles 1:29; 5:7; 7:2, 4, 9; 8:28; 9:9, 34; 26:31.
The modified spelling does not affect the meaning or pronunciation of the word. How-
ever, the sages realised that it did allude to something very significant. Every word,
every letter in the is significant. The presence of codes is but one Torah Torah
indication of the irrefutable radical inspiration of Scripture. YHWH does not misspell.
So why did He change the spelling of the word after man sinned? To find such a toldot
pattern in Scripture is said to be the greatest fear and greatest joy of a rabbi. In Me'am
Lo'es —The Torah Anthology (Kaplan, 1979: 277), the answer of the rabbinic sages to
this changed spelling, is given. The sages stated that the deeper significance of the (sod)
diminishing of the number of in the word is that man was radically wavvim toldot,
diminished when Adam sinned.
There is only one exception to the above rule: In
Rut 4:18
This, then, is the of Peretz: Peretz was the father of Chetzron… t ld t Y Y
the word is spelled with two just as in Bereshith 2:4, i.e. in exactly the toldot wavvim,
same way that it was spelled before man sinned. The rabbis found this very significant.
It must have meaning, because YHWH is the primary Author of Scripture, and He does
not misspell. They taught that the Messiah would be the Agent in restoring the tzadeqim
(righteous) to the undiminished, immortal state that Adam had before he sinned, and that
the would be a descendant of Peretz. In Vol. 1 Mashiach The Torah Anthology,
(Kaplan, 1979: 277), we read:
Our sages explained that if Adam had not sinned, he would have been
immortal. If he had acted properly, Elohim would have found a way to
safeguard him even from accidents and dangers. But when he sinned, this
caused him to become mortal…
[After man sinned] Death is actually a benefit [because one stops sinning at
death and is not indefinitely locked into a sinful state]…
…For this reason the says earlier, “These are the offspring (toldot) of Torah
heaven and earth” (Genesis 2:4), with the word (tol'dot) spelled out completely,
the letter Wav doubled. In all other places, one of these letters Wav is lacking
[either the first or the second, or both]. The only places where it is spelled out
in full are here (Genesis 2:4) and in the verse, “These are the offspring (toldot)
of Peretz…” (Ruth 4:18).
This teaches that when Elohim created the world, there would have been no
need for death, if only man had acted properly. It was only after Adam sinned
that the Angel [Messenger] of Death was given authority in the world. As a
result, the offspring (toldot) of man are diminished, and this is alluded to by the
fact that the word itself is diminished. But with the coming of the Messiah, who
is a descendant of David, who in turn stems from Peretz, then, “Death will be
swallowed up forever” (Yeshayahu 25:8). The offspring (toldot) of man will then
be complete again, and for this reason the genealogy of Peretz is the second
place where this word is spelled out in full.
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The above analysis explains why one of the rabbinic terms for the is Mashiach ha-ish
ben-Peretz —“the Man the Son of Peretz.” This name for the Messiah is used in the
song, (“Come, my Beloved”) that is sung during Kabbalat Shabbat —i.e. Lechah Dodi
on the day of the week that is a picture of the Messianic kingdom to come. The name
Peretz means, “[he who made] the breach.”
Corporate Personality in Ancient Israel
In the series, Volume I, Artscroll Tehillim the rabbis give us a glimpse of the king of
Israel being a (p. xxxvi-xxxviii): corporate personality
The Heart of the Nation
The king is the heart of his subjects. He embodies within himself their goals
and aspirations. He sets their values and standards.
The king's slightest action sends shock-waves rippling through the ranks. If the
king ascends, all rise. If the king strays, all are lost!
Eicha Rabbasi 2:7
A harp was suspended over King David's bed. At midnight, a north wind
would blow through it, causing it to play. When David heard the music he
would arise and engage in Torah study. When the people of Israel heard
David's voice studying they said, 'If David the king of Israel is Torah,
studying certainly we, too, must do so.' Immediately, they engaged Torah,
themselves in Torah.
…The king wields the sceptre with which he controls the conduct of great
masses of people. Temporal monarchs can dictate only the external behaviour
of their subjects, but only the possesses the unique ability to king of Israel
influence the innermost feelings of his people, for he is nothing less than their
collective heart.
Rambam, Hilchos Melachim 3:6
The was concerned lest the king's heart be distracted as it says, “So Torah
that his heart shall not be turned away” (Deuteronomy 17:17). For the heart
of the king is the collective heart of the entire congregation of Israel. (eidah)
Therefore the exhorted the king more than all others to concentrate Torah
his heart on study, “all the days of his life.” Torah
It was this sense of obligation to the people which especially motivated David to
seek —the Path of the Upright. He possessed an Mesillat Yesharim
unprecedented opportunity. If he could make his heart upright, he could make
upright the hearts of the masses.
David could not tolerate the slightest flaw in his own character because he
realised the effect it would have on the people. In his efforts at purification and
perfection, David strove to model himself after the righteous patriarchs.
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Avodah Zarah 25a
What is the “The Book of the Upright”? This is the book of sefer ha-yashar,
Avraham, Yitzchaq and Ya'aqov [the Book of Genesis] who are called
yesharim “upright.”
Rambam states that the Patriarchs constantly concentrated on Elohim without
distraction or interruption. The Almighty was before their eyes as they grazed
their sheep and as they tilled their soil.
Rambam, A Guide for the Perplexed 3:15
The purpose of all their efforts was to promulgate the Name of Elohim in the
world and to make upright the hearts of men so that they should come to
love Him…their closeness to the Almighty was such that His Name became
known to the world in connection with theirs —“the Elohim of Avraham,
Yitzchaq and Ya'aqov.”
David, too, sought to achieve this level of uninterrupted concentration in the
Almighty's service. It was in this vein that he said,
Psalm 16:8
I have set YHWH before me always, because He is at my right hand, I shall
not falter.
I do not turn my thoughts away from Elohim; He is like my right hand which I
do not forget even for a moment…Therefore I shall not be moved, I shall not
fall.
The king of Israel was seen as the collective heart of his subjects. He embodies within
himself their goals and aspirations. He sets their values and standards. If the king
ascends, all rise. If the king strays, all are lost!
Melekh ha-Mashiach —the Anointed King—should, accordingly, be understood as a
corporate personality —his subjects are “in” him, and he, the representative one,
represents the represented many.
The king of Yisra'el as Saviour
Every king of Israel was seen as a deliverer, a saviour. Psalm 72 expresses this
particularly strongly.
Psalm 72
1
Endow the king with your justice, O Elohim, the royal son with your righteous-
ness.
2
He will judge your people in righteousness, your afflicted ones with justice.
4
He will defend the afflicted among the people and save the children of the
needy; he will crush the oppressor.
5
He will endure as long as the sun, as long as the moon, through all
generations.
6
He will be like rain falling on a mown field, like showers watering the earth.
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7
In his days the righteous will flourish; prosperity will abound till the moon is no
more.
12
For he will deliver the needy who cry out, the afflicted who have no-one to
help.
13
He will take pity on the weak and the needy and save the needy from death.
14
He will rescue them from oppression and violence, for precious is their blood
in his sight.
15
Long may he live! May gold from Sheba be given to him. May people ever
pray for him and bless him all day long.
16
Let corn abound throughout the land; on the tops of the hills may it sway. Let
its fruit flourish like Lebanon; let it thrive like the grass of the field.
17
May his name endure for ever; may it continue as long as the sun. All nations
will be blessed through him, and they will call him blessed.
In its historical fulfillment, kings such as Sh lomo are in focus in this Telilah; its greater
e
fulfilment is in the Messiah.
Melekh ha-Mashiach —the Anointed King—should, accordingly, be understood as a
saviour of his subjects.
The King of Israel as adopted son of Elohim
The term “ben-Elohim” i.e. “son of Elohim” is a synonym for “king of Israel.” In the
following prophecy given through Natan the prophet, YHWH promised everlasting
kingship to the House of David, and sonship of YHWH to the Kings of Yisra'el.
2 Samuel 7:4-16
4
That night the word of YHWH came to Nathan, saying:
12
When your days [of king David] are over and you rest with your fathers, I will
raise up your offspring to succeed you, who will come from your own body, and
I will establish his kingdom.
13
He is the one who will build a house for my Name, and I will establish the
throne of his kingdom for ever.
14
I will be his father, and he shall be my son. When he does wrong, I will
punish him with the rod of men, with floggings inflicted by men.
15
But my love will never be taken away from him, as I took it away from Saul,
whom I removed from before you.
16
Your house and your kingdom shall endure for ever before me; your throne
shall be established for ever.
Since the time of Shlomo, who is in the primary prophetic focus here, every king of
Israel was seen as an This is repeated three times in the book of adopted son of Elohim.
Chronicles:
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1 Chronicles 17:13
I will be his [Shlomo's] and he will be I will never take my love father, my son.
away from him, as I took it away from your predecessor.
1 Chronicles 22:10
He [Shlomo] is the one who will build a house for my Name. He will be my son,
and I will be his father. And I will establish the throne of his kingdom over Israel
for ever.'
1 Chronicles 28:6
He said to me, `Shlomo your son is the one who will build my house and my
courts, for I have chosen him to be and I will be his my son, father.
One of the themes of the coronation of the kings of Israel and Yahudah was Divine
adoption: son of Elohim. the king became an adopted This adoption of the king of Israel
into a filial relationship with YHWH, is seen in the following royal coronation psalm.
Tehillim 2
1
Why do the nations conspire and the peoples plot in vain?
2
The kings of the earth take their stand and the rulers gather together against
YHWH and against his Mashiach.
3
“Let us break their chains,” they say, “and throw off their fetters.”
4 5
The One enthroned in heaven laughs; Adonai scoffs at them. Then he
rebukes them in his anger and terrifies them in his wrath, saying, “I have
6
installed my King on Tziyon, my set-apart hill.”
7
I will proclaim the (coronation-decree) of YHWH: He said to me, “You are choq
my son; today I have become your Father.” Ask of me, and I will make the
8
nations your inheritance, the ends of the earth your possession. You will rule
9
them with an iron sceptre; you will dash them to pieces like pottery…”
One of the titles, then, of Melekh ha-Mashiach —the Anointed King—is “ben-
Elohim” —“son of the Most High” —a synonym for “king of Yisra'el.” On the day of
the coronation of the king, the Father Son relationship is established; the king of Israel :
is shown to all the world as ben-Elohim.
Go'el and Kinsman-Redeemer and Go'el ha-dam:
Avenging Kinsman-Redeemer
The article from the 1903 edition of the Jewish Encyclopedia states: GO'EL
Next of kin, and, hence, redeemer. Owing to the solidarity of the family and the
clan in ancient Israel, any duty which a man could not perform by himself had to
be taken up by his next of kin. Any rights possessed by a man which lapsed
through his inability to perform the duties attached to such rights, could be and
should be resumed by the next of kin. This applied especially to parcels of land
which any Israelite found it necessary to sell. This his , or kinsman, had to go'el
redeem (Leviticus 25:25). From the leading case of Yirmeyahu's purchase of
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his cousin Hananeel's property in Anathoth (Yirmeyahu 32:8-12) it would
appear that in later Israel at any rate this injunction was taken to mean that a
kinsman had the right of pre-emption. Similarly, in the Book of Ruth the next of
kin was called up to purchase a parcel of land formerly belonging to Elimelech
(Ruth 4:3). It would appear from the same example that another duty of the
go'el was to raise offspring for his kinsman if he happened to die without any
(Ruth 4:5). This would seem to be an extension of the principle of levirate
marriage; hence the procedure of was gone through in the case of halizah
Naomi's , just as if he had been her brother-in-law. The relative nearness go'el
of kin is not very definitely determined in the Old Testament. The brother
appears to be the nearest of all, after whom comes the uncle or uncle's son
(Leviticus 25:49).
Another duty of the was to redeem his kinsman from slavery if sold to a go'el
stranger or sojourner (Leviticus 25:47-55). In both cases much depended upon
the nearness or remoteness of the year of Yovel (Jubilee), which would
automatically release either the land or the person of the kinsman from
subjection to another.
As the had his duties, so he had his privileges and compensation. If an go'el
injured man had claim to damages and died before they were paid to him, his
go'el would have the right to them (Leviticus 6:1-7). The whole conception of
the was based on the solidarity of the interests of the tribe and the nation go'el
with those of Elohim, and accordingly the notion of the became go'el
spiritualised as applied to the relations between Elohim and Israel. Elohim was
regarded as the of Israel, and as having redeemed him from the bondage go'el
of Egypt (Exodus 6:6, 15:13). This conception is especially emphasised in
Yeshayahu 40-66.
However, the chief of the duties toward his kinsman was that of go'el avenging
him if he should happen to be slain by someone outside the clan or tribe.
Indeed, it is the only expedient method by which any check could be put upon
the tendency to do injury to strangers. Here again to the family of the murderer,
and the death of one member of a family would generally result in a vendetta.
It would appear that this custom was usual in early Israel, for the crimes of a
man were visited upon his family (Yehoshua 7:24; II Kings 9:26); but at a very
early stage the Jewish code made an advance upon most Semitic codes,
including that of Hammurabi, by distinguishing between homicide and murder
(Exodus 21: 13-14). It was in order to determine whether a case of
manslaughter was accidental or deliberate that the cities of refuge were
instituted (Deuteronomy 19; Numbers 35). In a case where the elders of the
city of refuge were satisfied that the homicide was intentional, the murderer was
handed over to the blood-avenger ( ) to take vengeance on him. “go'el ha-dam”
Even if it was decided that it was a case of unintentional homicide, the man who
committed the deed had to keep within the bounds of the city of refuge till the
death of the high priest, as the could kill the one who committed the go'el
homicide with impunity, if he found him trespassing beyond the bounds
(Numbers 35:26-27).
In the legislations [of other nations] the principle of commuting the penalty by
paying an amount of money as a fine, grew…[the amount of money that had to
be paid] varied according to the rank of the person. Such a method [of paying
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a fine] was distinctly prohibited in the Israelite code (Numbers 35:31). It would
appear that the custom of the still existed in the time of David, blood-avenger
as the woman of Tekoah refers to it in her appeal to the king (II Samuel
14:11)…
The Messiah is not only the redeemer who pays the price that we can not pay, to restore
us into covenant and blessing; He is also the the coming Go'el ha-dam, blood-avenger,
to save the faithful remnant and take vengeance on his enemies:
Yeshayahu 26:20-27:1 (NIV)
20
Go, my people, enter your rooms and shut the doors behind you; hide
yourselves for a little while until his wrath has passed by.
21
See, YHWH is coming out of his dwelling to punish the people of the earth for
their sins. ; she will conceal The earth will disclose the blood shed upon her
her slain no longer.
27:1
In that day , YHWH will with his sword, his fierce, great and
1
punish
powerful sword, Liv'yatan the gliding serpent, Liv'yatan the coiling serpent; He
will slay the of the sea. tannin
Yeshayahu 63:1-6 (NIV)
1
Who is this coming from Edom, from Bozrah, with his garments stained
crimson? Who is this, robed in splendour, striding forward in the greatness of
his strength? “It is I, speaking in righteousness, mighty to save.”
2
Why are your garments , like those of one treading the winepress? red
3
“I have trodden the winepress alone; from the nations no-one was with me. I
trampled them in my and trod them down in my ; their anger wrath blood
spattered my garments, and I stained all my clothing.
4
For the day of was in my heart, and the year of my vengeance redemption
has come.
5
I looked, but there was no-one to help, I was appalled that no-one gave
support; so my own worked salvation for me, and my own sustained arm wrath
me.
6
I trampled the nations in my anger; in my wrath I made them drunk and
poured their blood on the ground.”
Devarim 32:43
Rejoice, O nations, with His people, for he will of His avenge the blood
servants; He will take vengeance on His enemies and make atonement for His
land and people.
Tehillim 79:10
Why should the nations say, “Where is their Elohim?” Before our eyes, make
known among the nations that you of your avenge the outpoured blood
servants.
1
Some modern translations render this as “on that day.” is a 1000 year day, and not a single Yom YHWH
24-hour day.
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Revelation 6:10
They called out in a loud voice, “How long, Adonai YHWH, and true, qadosh
until you judge the inhabitants of the earth and avenge our blood?”
The Seed of the Woman
In Genesis 3:15 we find the promise of a Redeemer for mankind given to Adam and
Chawwah after their temptation and fall into sin. After the sin of Adam and Chawwah
we read that YHWH placed a curse on and promised that the “seed of the nachash
woman” would ultimately bruise the head of (i.e. Satan). nachash
Genesis 3:14-15
So YHWH Elohim said to the 'Because you have done this, you are nachash:
cursed more than all cattle, and more than every beast of the field; on your
belly you shall go, and you shall eat dust all the days of your life. And I will put
enmity between you and the woman, and between your seed and her Seed; He
shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise His heel.
In this passage we see the beginning of the battle between good and evil on planet earth,
between the seed of the woman and Satan's seed, culminating in the ultimate conflict
between the Messiah and Satan. The ancient rabbis clearly understood that this battle
was between the Messiah, the seed of the woman, and the usurper, Satan. In the ancient
commentary on Genesis 3:15, the Targum Yerushalayim states (The Messiah: An
Aramaic Interpretation; The Messianic Exegesis of the Targum, Samson H. Levy
(Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Jewish Institute of Religion, 1974), p. 2.):
And it shall be that when the sons of the woman study the diligently and Torah
obey it's injunctions, they will direct themselves to smite you Satan) (nachash;
on the head and slay you; but when the sons of the woman forsake the
commandments of the and do not obey it's injunctions, you will direct Torah
yourself to bite them on the heel and afflict them. However, there will be a
remedy for the sons of the woman, but for you, there will be no nachash,
remedy. They shall make peace with one another in the end, in the very end of
days, in the days of the King Messiah.
In this Targum we see that the prophecy in Genesis 3:15 was believed to be a reference
to the Messiah and his people who diligently follow the According to this Torah.
passage it would be the Messiah who would provide the “remedy” for mankind. That is,
he was to provide the remedy for man's sin. He would reconcile man back to his
Creator. YHWH's plan of restoration involves the redemptive work of the Messiah. In
the Talmud and other ancient rabbinical literature, the Messiah is referred to as “The
Holy One of Israel, “The Redeemer of Israel,” “The Righteous One” and by many other
exalted titles. In these references of the Messiah there is the emphasis on his character
(being pure from sin), and on the work of redemption that would be accomplished
through his life. As we look further at the mission and work of the Messiah it will
become apparent that his major mission, his major accomplishment was to be the
reconciliation of mankind back to his Creator.
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The Yoted
The Messianic prophecy in Genesis 3:15 states that the Messiah would crush the head of
nachash. There are several foreshadowing prophetic pictures of this in Scripture. In
Shofetim (Judges) 4 and 5 we read the account of how Devorah and Baraq defeated
Sisera and his armed forces. Sisera is a picture of the False messiah and Satan. The
name Devorah means bee (a bringer of sweetness) and is closely related to the term
devar —word. Devorah also means congregation. The woman Devorah was married to
Lappidoth —“the Torch.” In other words, the Congregation who is married to the Man
who is the Torch —the Light of the World —will overcome the enemy. Baraq means
lightning. From Chavaqquq 3:3-4 and Mattatiyahu 24:27 we know that the of Kavod
YHWH will radiate throughout the heavens like lightning that flashes from the east to
the west when King Messiah comes in the of HaShem It follows that both kavod .
Devorah and Baraq are foreshadowing, instructive Torah-pictures of the Messiah and his
people. The Messiah's work involves the defeated of the satan, the crushing of satan's
seed —the resha'im and, specifically, the False messiah.
Ya'el, the woman who killed Sisera after Baraq had defeated his armed forces, used a
yoted —a tent peg—to crush his head:
Shovetim (Judges) 4:21-22 (NIV)
But Ya'el, Heber's wife, picked up a tent peg and a hammer and went [yoted]
quietly to Sisera while he lay fast asleep, exhausted. She drove the peg [yoted]
through his temple into the ground, and he died.
Baraq came by in pursuit of Sisera, and Ya'el went out to meet him. “Come,”
she said, “I will show you the man you're looking for.” So he went in with her,
and there lay Sisera with the tent peg through his temple—dead. [yoted]
This is repeated in
Shovetim 5:26
Her hand reached for the tent peg , her right hand for the [yoted] [yad]
workman's hammer. She struck Sisera, she , she shattered crushed his head
and pierced his temple.
When we investigate the use of the word in Scripture, it becomes clear that it is a yoted
very significant term. It was used in the construction of the (tabernacle): Mishkan
Exodus 27:19
All the other articles used in the service of the tabernacle, whatever their
function, including all the tent pegs for it and those for the courtyard, are [yoted]
to be of bronze.
Exodus 38:20
All the tent pegs of the tabernacle and of the surrounding courtyard [yoted]
were bronze.
In the (Set-apart Place) of the (tabernacle), five vertical wooden HaQodesh Mishkan
posts were used. The central post was called the Pegs, ( ) were also yoted. yotedim
driven into this central post of the of the and the specific HaQodesh Mishkan, kellim
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(vessels and jars used in the (services of YHWH)) were hung on the smaller avodot
yotedim yoted. which were in turn driven into the large
In Yeshayahu 22:15-24, judgement is pronounced over an evil man who is a picture of
Satan and the False messiah. A promise is given that authority and esteem, and the keys
to the house of David, will be given to a righteous man, who is evidently a of the tafnit
Messiah:
Yeshayahu 22:15-24 (NIV)
15
This is what , says: “Go, say to this steward, to Shevna Adonai YHWH Tzva'ot
who is in charge of the palace:
16
'What are you doing here and who gave you permission to cut out a grave for
yourself here, hewing your grave on the height and chiselling your resting place
in the rock?'
17
“Beware, YHWH is about to take firm hold of you and hurl you away, O you
mighty man.
18
He will roll you up tightly like a ball and throw you into a large country. There
you will die and there your splendid chariots will remain—you disgrace to your
master's house!
19
I will depose you from your office, and you will be ousted from your position.
20
“ I will summon my servant, Eliakim son of Hilkiyah. In that day
21
I will clothe him with your robe and fasten your sash around him and hand
your authority over to him. He will be a father to those who live in Yerushalayim
and to the house of Yahudah.
22
I will place on his shoulder the key to the house of David; what he opens
no-one can shut, and what he shuts no-one can open .
2
23
I will drive him like a peg into a firm place [yoted] ; he will be a seat of
honour for the house of his father.
24
All the esteem of his family will hang on him: its offspring and
offshoots —all its lesser vessels from the bowls to all the jars. [kellim],
Note the use of the telltale expression “In that day” in verse 20. This expression makes
it clear that this prophecy will have an eschatological fulfilment in the Day of YHWH.
The prophecy is directed at Shevna o grow vigorously, like a —a name which means: t
weed. It is clear that Shevna is a picture of evil leaders such as the False messiah and
the False Prophet, while the righteous man to whom the authority and esteem and the
keys to the house of David will be given, who is metaphorically called the central post
of the Tabernacle, is a prophetic picture of the Messiah —see Revelation #.
The also figures prominently in yoted
Yeshayahu 33:20
20
Look upon Tziyon, the city of our festivals; your eyes will see Yerushalayim, a
peaceful abode, a tent that will not be moved; its stakes will never be [yotedim]
pulled up, nor any of its ropes broken.
2
This is a key to understanding Mattatiyahu 16:19 and Revelation 3:7 in the Ketuvim of the Netzarim.
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and in
Yeshayahu 54:2
2
“Enlarge the place of your tent, stretch your tent curtains wide, do not hold
back; lengthen your cords, strengthen your stakes . [yoted]
as well as in
Z'kharyah 10:4
4
From Yahudah will come the from him the cornerstone, central post ( , yoted)
from him the battle-bow, from him every . ruler
It is clear that the who crushed the head of the enemy, is a prophetic picture of the yoted,
Messiah, who will crush the head of (Satan) and the seed of nachash
nachash acharit-yamim —specifically Armilus, the False messiah of the .
The Tzemach
Yeshayahu 4:2
In thát day the (Branch) of YHWH will be beautiful and glorious, and Tzemach
the fruit of the land will be the pride and esteem of the survivors in Israel.
Yirmeyahu 23:5
Behold, the days come, saith YHWH, that I will raise unto David a righteous
Tzemach (Branch), and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute
mishpat tzadeqah and (judgment and justice) in the earth.
Yirmeyahu 33:15
In those days, and at that time, will I cause the Branch of Tzemach
righteousness to grow up unto David; and he shall execute (right- mishpat
ruling; judgment) and (righteousness) in the land. tzadeqah
Z'kharyah 3:8-10
8
Listen, O high priest and your associates seated before you, who Yehoshua
are I am going to bring forth men symbolic of things to come: my servant,
the Tzemach (Branch).
9
See, the stone I have set in front ere are seven eyes on that of Yehoshua! Th
one stone, and I will engrave an inscription on it,' says YHWH Tzva'ot, `and I
will remove the sin of this land in a single day.
10
In thát day each of you will invite his neighbour to sit under his vine and fig-
tree,' declares YHWH Tzva'ot.''
Zekharyahu 6:9-13
9
And the word of YHWH came unto me, saying,
10
Take of [them of] the captivity, [even] of Heldai, of Tobiyah, and of Jedaiyah,
which are come from Bavel, and come thou the same day, and go into the
house of Josiyah the son of Zephaniyah;
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11
Then take silver and gold, and make crowns, and set [them] upon the head of
Yehoshua the son of Yehosedech, the high priest;
12
And speak unto him, saying, Thus says YHWH Tzva'ot, saying, Behold the
man whose name is Tzemach (the Branch); and he shall grow up out of his
place, and he shall build the temple of THWH.
13
He shall build the temple of YHWH; and he shall bear the esteem, and shall
sit and rule upon his throne; and he shall be a priest upon his throne, and the
counsel of peace shall be between them both.
The Artscroll Rosh HaShanah Machzor (1985: 32) states,
Zekharyah 6:12 teaches that the Messiah's name will be —literally, Tzemach
the sprouting or flourishing of a plant…the ultimate salvation of Israel is
possible only through the Davidic Messiah.
The Qumran texts also document that the term was anciently understood to be Tzemach
a Messianic title.
4QFlor (Florilegium, 4Q174) fragments 1-3, column I, v10ff: [2 Samuel 7:12-14
cited]
'YHWH declares to you that he will build you a house. I will raise up your seed
after you and establish the throne of this kingdom for ever. I will be a father to
him and he will be a son to me'…This refers to the (branch) of David tzemach
who will arise with the Interpreter of the who will rise up in Tziyon in the Torah
last days, as it is written [Amos 9:11] 'I will raise up the (hut) of David sukkah
which has fallen'…This refers to the 'hut of David which has fallen' who will
arise to save Israel…”
4Q252 fragment 1, column 5) [on Genesis 49:10]
A sovereign shall not be removed from the tribe of Yahudah. While Israel has
the dominion, there will not lack someone who sits on the throne of David. For
the staff is the covenant of royalty, the thousands of Israel are the feet. Until the
Messiah of justice comes, the (branch) of David. For to him and to his tzemach
descendants has been given the covenant of royalty over his people for all
everlasting generations…
The sevenfold gifting of King Messiah
Yeshayahu 11:1-4 is understood messianically in Zohar 2:172b as well as in Talmud
Bavli and Tractate Shabbat 93b.
The Messiah's actions will be in keeping with His nature and anointing, which is
beautifully described in —the great passage about the sevenfold Yeshayahu 11
anointing of the Mashiach:
Yeshayahu 11:1-5
1
A will come up from the stump of Yishai; from his roots a choter netzer (shoot)
(branch) will bear fruit.
2
The Ruach (Spirit; breath; anointing; power) of YHWH will rest on him—
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(1) the ruach of (wisdom) chokhmah
(2) and of (understanding), binah
(3) the ruach of (counsel) etzah
(4) and of (power; might), giburah
(5) the ruach of (knowledge) da'at
(6) and of the (fear of) YHWH, and he will delight in the YHWH. yirat yirat
3
(7) He will not judge by what he sees with his eyes, or decide by what he
hears with his ears; but with (righteousness) he will judge the
4
tzedekah
needy, with (right-ruling; justice) he will give decisions for the mishpat
poor of the earth.
He will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth; with the breath of his lips he
will slay (the ha-rasha wicked one.)
In Hebrew, the last word in the above citation, is a noun, and should be wicked, singular
translated “wicked one.” It was anciently understood to be a term for the eschatological
False messiah, the ruler of the revived Roman Empire of the end-of-days, who Armilus,
will reject the yoke of the Targum Yonathan as well as 2 Thessalonians 2 Torah.
testifies that this was the ancient understanding of the sages of Yisra'el.
Metatron
Jewish tradition teaches that Metatron is the name of the (messenger, “angel”) malakh
spoken of in Exodus 23:21, where YHWH states: “My name is in him,” so that Metatron
bears the Tetragrammaton, “YHWH” (Jewish Encyclopedia, 1912, Vol. 8, p. 519).
Even though he bears the ineffable Name, the rabbis stated (Babylonian Talmud,
Tractate Sanhedrin 38b) that Metatron may not be worshiped —they taught that YHWH
commanded, “Exchange Me not for him.” The sages taught that Metatron is the prince
of the world, a teacher of the and a power in heaven. The (a mystical Torah Zohar
cabalistic work) states that Metatron is the “Son of Man” who is only slightly lower than
YHWH (after Psalm 8:6). Some rabbis also identified Metatron as the Malakh ha-
Panim or “Messenger of the Presence,” spoken of in Yeshayahu 63:9. The term
“metatron” means “guide.” In rabbinic tradition then, Metatron is the unique malakh
(messenger) of the Presence, who bears the Tetragrammaton, YHWH, and guided the
Children of Yisra'el through the wilderness to the promised land. In the pseudepigraphic
book of Metatron is called the “most excellent of the heavenly host” and “the Enoch,
guide to all the treasures of my Elohim.” In some rabbinic works, he is called “Metatron
Messiah” i.e. the “Anointed Metatron.” A specific ancient prayer said on Yom Kippur
by ancient Messianic Jewish believers is directed to the Almighty, “ad-iad Yeshu
Metatron”—through Yeshua Metatron.
Hebrew commentaries on Yeshayahu 63:9, where the Malakh YHWH is called the
Malakh ha-Panim—the Messenger of the Face Presence —say that the title “malakh ´
ha-panim” means “Prince of the Countenance” (Sar ha-Panim).
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The Jewish prayer book (Siddur haShalem) contains a remarkable prayer which speaks
of the Prince of the Countenance. This prayer is said on Yom Teruah when the shofar is
sounded:
May it be thy will that the blast from this shofar should carry to the tabernacle of
Elohim…through Yeshua the Prince of the Countenance and the Prince
Metatron, and may your favour be our part. Be thou blessed, Master of favour.
In Bereshith 32:29-30, Ya'aqov wrestled with a certain “man” from whom he asked a
blessing. Ya'aqov named the place Peni'el, meaning “face of El.” The Midrash Rabbah
comments on this, saying that Ya'aqov “saw the face of El in the Shekhinah.”
It is important to keep in mind that aggadic rabbinic teachings about Metatron are often
of a characteristic playful, speculative nature.
Melekh ha-Mashiach suddenly comes to His Miqdash
Radak (Rabbi Dawid Kimchi) says of Malakhi 3:1, “He who will suddenly come to His
Miqdash” is the King Messiah, and He is Adonai-b rit (My Master of the Covenant).
e
The Renewed Covenant
YHWH promised a renewed covenant with the House of Israel and Yahudah by mouth
of the prophet Yirmeyahu:
Yirmeyahu 31:31-34
“Behold, the days are coming,” declares YHWH, “when I will make a B'rit
Chadashah (renewed covenant) with the house of and with the house of Israel
Yahudah. It will not be like the covenant I made with their forefathers when I
took them by the hand to lead them out of Mitzrayim, because they broke my
covenant, though I was a husband to them,” declares YHWH.
“This is the covenant I will make with the house of Israel after that time,”
declares YHWH:
_1 “I will put my in their minds and write it on their hearts. Torah
_2 I will be their Elohim, and they will be my people (ammi).
_8 No longer will a man teach his neighbour, or a man his brother, saying,
'Know YHWH,' because , from the least of them to the they will all know me
greatest,” declares YHWH.
_4 “For I will forgive their wickedness and will remember their sins no
more.”
The (instruction, teaching) of YHWH is perfect and will endure. The terms of the Torah
Covenant given to them through Mosheh, is that Israel is the (set-apart am qadosh
people) of observe faithfully. Blessings for obeying the YHWH, who should Torah
Torah, and curses for disobeying it, was given (cf. Devarim 28). At that time, however,
man was was just an empty shell of the image of Elohim, so that was to him an Torah
external checklist. Torah Man, with his fallen nature, had to study , watch his step, live
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up to its standards, and endure punishment as a nation and individual whenever Torah
was transgressed without repentance. Fallen man, largely emptied of the Ruach (Breath;
Spirit; Power; anointing) of and consequent ignorance and evil inclination, was YHWH
at fault. The Renewed Covenant changes this between and man, not by relation Torah
altering but by changing man. When the fullness of the redemption to the Torah, Malkut
Shamayim tzadeqim (Kingdom of Elohim) is imparted to the with the coming of the
Messiah, our natures will be radically changed. We will know as we are known. We
will have (knowledge), (wisdom) and (understanding). Satan will da'at chochmah binah
be bound and we will be sealed against the possibility of sin. In other words, the
relationship, “ as learned external checklist” will be replaced with a new Torah
relationship: “ as the human nature of the redeemed.” Torah-observance
This new relation between Israel and which the New Covenant brings, is best Torah
explained by using the term BIOS. A computer's BIOS is its asic nput- utput B I O
System, and controls its most fundamental level of operation. The New Covenant
changes the relation as learned checklist” to “ as BIOS.” A crucial truth is “Torah Torah
that the fault lay with man's fallen nature, his emptiness and evil inclination, and not
with the . YHWH saw that there was no man who could keep He was Torah Torah.
appalled by the depth of our fallenness, our emptiness. So his own Arm (Zeroah)
worked salvation for Him, and his own righteousness sustained (yeshu'ah) (tzadeqah)
Him ( . Under the New Covenant, the stands firm, while man's Yeshayahu 59) Torah
fallen nature is done away with, and knowledge and observance of becomes Torah
regenerated, transformed man's new nature.
Note that the is made with Beit Yisra'el and Beit Yahudah (the House B'rit Chadashah
of Israel and the House of Judah). Not with Gentile nations, but with Israel. So how
can a Gentile have any part in the B'rit Chadashah? Only by being grafted into Israel,
as the metaphor of the olive tree teaches us (Romans 11). Note that Romans 11 warns
those Gentiles who boast against the branches that were cut off, that they themselves
may be cut off too.
The mediating prophet like Mosheh
When Mosheh brought the people of Israel up to Mount Sinai like a bride to the
bridegroom (Exodus 19), they were terrified of the display of the awesome power and
majesty of YHWH and implored Mosheh to be their mediator, to represent them before ,
Elohim, to be their advocate and intercessor, and to speak the of YHWH to them. Devar
In Devarim 5:24-28 we read (NIV):
24
And you said, “YHWH our Elohim has shown us his and his majesty, kavod
and we have heard his voice from the fire. Today we have seen that a man can
live even if Elohim speaks with him.
25
But now, why should we die? This great fire will consume us, and we will die
if we hear the voice of YHWH our Elohim any longer.
26
For what mortal man has ever heard the voice of the living Elohim speaking
out of fire, as we have, and survived?
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27
Go near and listen to all that YHWH our Elohim says. Then tell us whatever
YHWH our Elohim tells you. We will listen and obey.”
28
YHWH heard you when you spoke to me and YHWH said to me, “I have
heard what this people said to you. Everything they said was good.
This account is also given in Shemot 20:19 (NIV):
…and [the people of Israel] said to Mosheh, “Speak to us yourself and we will
listen. But do not have Elohim speak to us or we will die.”
In Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:15-19, YHWH promises the people that another prophet
like Mosheh will come forth from their nation —he would be one of their brothers, i.e. a
Jewish man:
Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:15-19 (NIV)
15
YHWH your Elohim will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your
own brothers. You must listen to him.
16
For this is what you asked of YHWH your Elohim at Horev on the day of the
assembly [ i.e. the first on Sivan 6] when you said, “Let us Yom Kahal, Shavuot,
not hear the voice of YHWH our Elohim nor see this great fire any more, or we
will die.”
17
YHWH said to me: “What they say is good.
18
I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers; I will put
my words in his mouth, and he will tell them everything I command him.
19
If anyone does not listen to my words that the prophet speaks in my name, I
myself will call him to account…”
This promise had prefigurative historical fulfillments in the person of Yehoshua
(Mosheh's successor) and the later prophets. However, it ultimately pointed to thé
Mashiach. mashiach Every prophet of Israel was called a because he was empowered
by the to speak forth the of YHWH every prophet of Israel prophesied Ruach Devar ;
about thé and was a foreshadowing type of Him. Whoever hears the Mashiach, devarim
(words) of this Prophet shall live, but whoever rejects his words, shall die. Here the
Torah clearly establishes that man needs a mediator who is his advocate with YHWH,
and that a Jewish man would one day come to Israel as the Prophet of whom Mosheh
was a foreshadowing (picture or type). Mosheh, the First redeemer, is a picture of tafnit
The Prophet, the Messiah, the Redeemer.
Qohelet Rabbah 1:9 links the Messiah to Mosheh and the king of Z'kharyah 9:9:
Qohelet Rabbah 1:9
Like the first (redeemer), so is the last (redeemer). Just as it is said go'el go'el
of the first redeemer, “And Mosheh took his wife and sons and put them on a
donkey” (Exodus 4:20), so it is said of the last (redeemer), “Gentle and go'el
riding on a donkey” (Z'kharyah 9:9).
Scholars date the origin of this interpretation, attributed to Rabbi Yitzchaq, in the Late
Second Temple Period (Yerushalayim Perspective, November 1987). Deuteronomy
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18:15 is also understood messianically in (published by KTAV, Midrash Tanhuma
1989, pp. 166-167).
Name and Attributes of the Messiah
In Rabbi Abba bar Kahana said that the name of the Messiah is Lamentations Rabba,
YHWH.
Lamentations Rabba 1:51
What is the name of King Messiah? Rabbi Abba bar Kahana said: YHWH is
his name, for it is written, I will raise for David a tzemach of righteousness …In
his days Y'hudah shall be saved…And this is the name whereby he shall be
called: Tzidkenu (YHWH our Righteousness) YHWH (Yirmeyahu 23:5-6).”…
Viewed superficially, this looks like a statement that the Messiah YHWH. That this is
was neither the aim nor the understanding of the sages, is clear from the following
quotation from the Talmud:
Babylonian Talmud, Order Nashim, Tractate Baba Bathra 75b:
Rabbi Sh'muel bar Nahmani said in the name of Rabbi Yohanan: “Three are
called by the name of HaQadosh, baruch hu (the Set-Apart One, blessed be
He), and they are: the righteous, the Messiah and Yerushalayim.”
This statement by the sages is based on Yirmeyahu 23:5-6 and 33:15-16. (inter alia)
In a 1st century C.E. Rabbinic work, The Apocalypse of Avraham, the ancient under-
standing that the messiah will have all the attributes of the Almighty, is stated (quoted in
Patai, (1979: 96)):
Then I will sound the from the sky, and will send my Elect One [i.e. the shofar
Messiah], having in him all my power, and one (measure) of midah all my
middot (measures, i.e. attributes), and he shall summon my despised people
from the nations, and I will burn with fire those who have insulted them and who
have ruled over them in the (the present Age). Olam HaZeh
And I will give those who have covered them with mockery to the scorn of the
Athid Lavo (the coming Age; literally: “the future to come”); and I have prepared
them to be food for the fire of Gey Hinnom…
The Son of Man
In late Second Temple period Judaism, the title was a well recognised title Son of Man
for the . Messiah
Let us study some references to the from 1 Chanoch (Enoch), an Son of Man
apocalyptic work dating from before the Common Era. It presents us with a valuable
window on the concepts, understandings and expectations about the Messiah held in
Yisra'el, 2000 years ago.
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1 Enoch 46:1ff
At that place, I saw the One to whom belongs the time before time .
3
And his head was white like wool,
and there was with him another one,
whose face was like that of a human being.
His countenance was full of grace
like that of one among the set-apart messengers [angels].
And I asked the messenger [angel] who went with me and showed me all the
hidden things about that : Son of Man
Who is he and whence is he, and why did he go with the Head of Days?
And he answered and said to me:
This is the who has righteousness, Son of Man
With whom righteousness dwells,
And who reveals all the treasures of the crowns,
For the Master of the Spirits has chosen him…
…this whom you have seen Son of Man
is the One who would remove the kings
and the mighty ones from their comfortable seats
and the strong ones from their thrones…
1 Enoch 48:2-6
At that hour, that was given a name, Son of Man
in the presence of the Master of the Spirits, the Before-time;
even before the creation of the sun and the moon,
before the creation of the stars,
he was given a name in the presence of the Master of the Spirits.
He [the ] will become a staff for the righteous ones Son of Man
whereon to lean, to stand and not to fall ,
4
He is the light of the gentiles
5
and he will become the hope of those who are the troubled of heart.
All those who dwell upon the earth shall bow
and bend the knee before him in reverence ;
6
they shall esteem, bless, and sing the Name of the Master of the Spirits.
For this purpose he became the Chosen One;
he was concealed in the presence of the Master of the Spirits
prior to the creation of the world, and for eternity.
And he has revealed the wisdom of the Master of the Spirits
to the righteous and set-apart ones,
for he has preserved the portion of the righteous
because they have hated and despised this world of oppression
3
Called “Ancient of Days” in Dani'el 7.
4
Yeshayahu 42:3a.
5
Yeshayahu 49:6.
6
Yeshayahu 45:23.
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[together with] all its ways of life and its habits
and it is his good pleasure that they have life.
…For they (the wicked kings and potentates) have denied
the Master of the Spirits and His . Messiah
1 Enoch 51:3
…the Elect One will sit on the throne…
1 Enoch 52:4
And he said to me, 'All these things which you have seen happen by the
authority of His so that he may give orders and be praised upon the Messiah
earth.'
1 Enoch 62:5-9
…and birthpains shall seize them when they see that sitting on the Son of Man
throne of his (esteem)… kavod
From the beginning the was hidden, Son of Man
And the Most High has preserved him in the presence of his power;
Then He revealed him to the set-apart and elect ones.
And the congregation of the elect and the set-apart shall be sown,
And all the elect shall stand before him in thát day [baYom ha-hu].
And all the kings and the mighty and the exalted and the rulers of the earth
Shall fall down before him on their faces,
and acclaim and pay homage to
and set their hope upon the , Son of Man
and petition him and ask for mercy at his hands.
1 Enoch 62:14
The Master of the Spirits will abide over them;
they shall eat and rest and rise with that forever and ever… Son of Man
1 Enoch 69:29
Thenceforth nothing that is corruptible shall be found;
for that has appeared Son of Man
and has seated himself upon the throne of his kavod;
and all evil shall disappear from before his face;
he shall go and tell to that , Son of Man
and he shall be strong before the Master of the Spirits.
1 Enoch 105:2
Until I [the Ancient of Days of verse 1] and are united with them forever my Son
in the upright paths in their lifetime…
If we read these passages alongside Dani'el 7:13-14, these quotations from 1 Enoch
show that the ancient understanding of the term included the following Son of Man
important elements:
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v In 1 Enoch, the is called the ( ). He is depicted as Messiah Son of Man ben-Adam
a pre-existent heavenly being who is resplendent and majestic, has a divine
nature, has been given all dominion, and sits on his throne of esteem passing
judgement upon all human and spiritual beings. He has the bodily appearance of
a human being and the (radiance; esteem) like that of the set-apart kavod
messengers (“holy angels”);
v Righteousness dwells with the ; Son of Man
v The shall be a staff for the righteous, on which to lean, to stand and Son of Man
not to fall; He shall be a light for all the nations, and hope for the troubled of
heart.
v The is the chosen Covenant Partner of the Almighty who will rule Son of Man
for Him;
v The was hidden in heaven and then revealed to mankind in Son of Man Yom
YHWH (the Day of YHWH). At his revelation, the wicked will be in birthpain-
like agony, while the set-apart and elect will rejoice.
v The pre-existed with the Almighty from before creation. Son of Man
v The task of the is to sow the congregation of the elect and set-apart Son of Man
ones, to bring righteousness to the earth, to destroy evil.
v The is the appointed judge of the world, with authority to pardon and Son of Man
condemn;
v The is who will judge and rule the world with Son of Man King Messiah
righteousness.
v The is the Son of Elohim—a coronation-title of the kings of Son of Man
Yisra'el, signifying Divine adoption.
Why has modern Judaism lost much of the ancient understanding of the transcendence
of the ? In the Vol. 1, page 626 we read the answer: Messiah Jewish Encyclopedia,
The official teachings of the Pharisees, after the rise of Christianity, tried…to
negate all that was superhuman in the popular conception of the . Messiah
In other words, the teachings on the non-transcendent messiah found in modern
Rabbinic Judaism is a embittered reaction against Christianity, and differs radically from
the Messianic expectations in Judaism 2000 years ago.
Midrash Numbers Rabbah also mentions identifies the Messiah with the ben-Adam of
Dani'el 7.
Numbers Rabbah 13:14 [on Numbers 7:13]
…He offered the dish and the basin as symbols of the kings of the House of
David who would in time to come spring from him and who would reign supreme
on sea and on land, kings like Solomon and …How do we know King Messiah
the same of the ? Because it is written 'He shall have dominion King Messiah
also from sea to sea, and from the River unto the ends of the earth'. How do we
know that he will hold sway on land?
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Because it is written, 'All kings shall prostate themselves before him; all nations
shall serve him' and it also says, 'Behold, there came with the clouds of heaven
one like unto a …and there was given unto him dominion…that all Son of Man
the peoples…should serve him', etc.…since the nations brought gifts to
Solomon and will in time to come bring similarly to the … King Messiah
(Midrash Rabbah —Numbers, Volume 2, translated by Judah J. Slotki (Freedman and
Simon, general editors), Soncino: 1983; pages 526-529.)
In Tractate Sanhedrin 98a of the Talmud Bavli, the manner in which the Messiah will
come, is said to depewnd on the condition of Yisra'el.
Talmud Bavli, Sanhedrin 98a
Rabbi Alexandrai said: Rabbi Jehoshua ben Levi contrasted Dani'el 7:13…and
Z'kharyah 9:9…If the Israelites are deserving, he [ ] will come with the Messiah
clouds of heaven; if they are not deserving, poor and riding on a donkey…
In the Talmud Yerushalmi, it is said that the dead will be resurrected when the Messiah
comes:
Talmud Yerushalmi, Ketubot 12:3
…the dead will first come to life in the time of the Messiah
The Second Adam
In one of the most beautiful chapters in all of Scripture, we read about the coronation of
the Son of Adam:
Dani'el 7:13
In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a bar enash,
coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and
was led into his presence.
Bar enash ben Adam is the Aramaic equivalent of the Hebrew —Son of man.
Baldwin (1978: 143) comments on Dani'el 7:13:
To this man— —was bar enash, ben Adam, the Son of Adam, the Son of Man
given This second dominion (cf. Genesis 1:26) and esteem and a kingdom.
allusion to Genesis 1:26 indicates an enlarges status for humanity, greater than
what it received at first, in the person of the representative “man.” All peoples,
nations and languages…will serve this man…the new ruler of the earth…
Joyce Baldwin correctly links the transfer of dominion and esteem to the to Ben-Adam,
Genesis 1:26.
Genesis 1:26
Then Elohim said, “Let us make and let man in our image, in our likeness,
them over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, rule
over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground.”
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There is an intimate relationship between Genesis 1:26 and Dani'el 7:13. After his
creation in the fulness of the (image) and (likeness) of Elohim, a mandate tselem damuth
to rule was given to Adam. He was to rule in a covenant of faithful obedience and
stewardship to the Almighty. The first Adam, however, failed, and was diminished to
the shell of the image of Elohim. He transgressed and his nature became a sin-nature.
Although mankind retained the responsibility of stewardship and the privilege of
rulership of the earth, our lives are not only marked by success and joy, but also by
failure, agony, falling short, guilt, mortality, sickness and —finally —death.
Unredeemed mankind is just a pithy (remembrance) of Adam's original standing zekher
and state. In view of the solidarity of the human race, Adam's failure, and his being
diminished, radically affects all of us. He is the corporate representative of unredeemed
humanity. In Adam, we are all trapped inside a genealogical “pyramid of death.” The
ben-Adam of Dani'el 7:13 is He who is all and more that the first Adam was supposed to
be. He is a corporate personality, the representative One with whom the redeemed enter
into legal and mystical union; they are He is the Redeemer and also represents in Him.
the redeemed remnant of mankind, the new mankind. In Him, the redeemed are
transferred from the darkness of the genealogical “pyramid of death,” to light and life,
not by our merit, but the grace of the Father and the faithfulness of the Messianic
Redeemer. In Dani'el 7 we see how the rulership is given to the Second Adam, now the
representative head of the renewed mankind —who are collectively called the qadishei
Elyonin (the set-apart ones of the Supreme One) —the set-apart ones of the Most High.
(Note: Dani'el 7 falls inside the Aramaic portion of the book of Dani'el, and used the
term for the set-apart ones of Elohim.) The (the set- q Elyonin qadishei Elyonin addishei
apart ones of the Supreme One) receive the kingdom and become the subjects of the new
representative Man, the Second Adam, the Anointed King. Baldwin (1978: 150) states:
…the day is coming when the reigns of government will for ever be in the hands
of a man worthy of the name: man as Elohim, at creation, intended him to be.
Theologians of a historical-critical persuasion, argue that the purpose of the book of
Dani'el was to bolster the national hope of Israel during and after the time of Antiochus
IV “Epiphanes,” so that the transfer of power to the is nothing more than a ben-Adam
statement of a vague expectation that the humbled people of Israel will eventually
triumph and receive the power. In the face of such assertions, Joyce Baldwin (1978:
150) reacts as follows:
Despite assertions to the contrary, this [the transfer of dominion and esteem to
the is not a reference to the expected transfer of power to the bar-Enash]
hitherto humbled people of Israel…
She continues by giving the responsible exegesis of the nature of the (1978: Son of Man
151):
…the one like a [is] of the set-apart ones of the son of man representative
Most High. In [Dani'el 7] verse 13 he appears as an individual figure;
the…priests [of Israel],…had a representative role [among other roles] (Exodus
19:6; cf. Exodus 28:1), so the idea of [corporate, representative personality]
was familiar [in ancient Israel], and Jews of a later period thought of the Son of
Man in Dani'el 7:13 as an individual figure.
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Equally representative [as a corporate personality, i.e. one who represents
many in himself] but closer to the context of Dani'el 7, is the figure of the king;
implicit in that he is given a kingdom, though the One who bestows it is
ultimately the king Psalm 80, addressed to the Shepherd of par excellence.
Israel who is enthroned between the is a prayer for the vine Israel, keruvim,
now ravaged by enemies. Hope is set upon…
14b
…the vineyard your right hand has planted
15
And the [branch; son] You made strong for Yourself… tzemach
17
Let your hand be upon the man of your right hand ,
7
upon the son of man
You made strong for Yourself.
Baldwin concludes her analysis of the term in the words (1978: 154) bar enash
…thus in the Gospels, “ ” implies majesty, as in Dani'el 7. Son of Man
In other words, is a term for the eschatological Anointed King, the Son of Adam
corporate representative of the redeemed, regenerated humanity —the Yisra'el of
Elohim and the Gentile . To Him tzadeqim grafted into the covenant nation of Yisra'el
will be given dominion and a kingdom and esteem; He is the (Arm of) YHWH Zeroah
who will rule for Him:
Yeshayahu 40:10
Adonai YHWH comes in power and His (Arm) will rule for Him. Zeroah
He is the of YHWH who has done valiantly; He is the Gate through which Right Hand
the (i.e. the righteous) will enter into the Kingdom: tzadeqim
Tehillim 118:15, 16, 20
15
Shouts of joy and victory resound in the tents of the righteous:
“YHWH's has done mighty things! right hand
16
YHWH's is lifted high; right hand
YHWH's has done mighty things!” right hand
20
This is the of YHWH through which the righteous may enter. gate
Titles of the Messiah
The term means “anointed, empowered one.” The Messiah is sent forth by messiah
YHWH as the Anointed One who would accomplish the redemption of His covenant
people.
Every king, prophet and high priest of Israel was called messiah. The anointed a
prophets spoke the (Word) of YHWH to his people, served as his instrument to Devar
work (miracles) and interceded on behalf of the people. The high priest served nissim
YHWH in the services of the (Temple), representing the people before Beit HaMiqdash
YHWH in services that taught that without the shedding of there is no remission blood,
7
That is, the place of honour and rulership —see Psalm 110:1.
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of sins. The king of Yisra'el had to rule with justice, as good shepherds who applied the
principles of YHWH's kingship on earth. The king was anointed as the one chosen by
YHWH to represent His rulership in Israel and to bear witness to His esteem before the
nations. These three offices were pictures of the , who is Prophet, High Messiah the the
Priest and King. In Messiah's early ministry, the emphasis is on the prophet who the
speaks the and the high priest who actively interposed his own shed blood Devar
between YHWH and the sinner as a (atoning covering) for sins. At present, kapparah
the emphasis in the work of the Messiah is on the role of the interceding High Priest. In
His coming as reigning sovereign, the emphasis will be on His role as King. Yet He will
always stand in all three these offices.
Some prophetic terms for the Messiah are summarised in Table 1. We leave it to the
reader to extend the list and fill in additional references.
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Table 1: Some prophetic titles of the Messiah
Prophetic Title Reference
The Coming One Malachi 3:1 & Z'kharyah 9:9
The Elect One Yeshayahu 42:1
Adon Tehillim 110:1
Son of Man Dani'el 7:13
The Son Tehillim 2
Immanu'el Yeshayahu 7-8
The Branch Yirmeyahu 23:5b
The Banner Yeshayahu 11:10; 18:3
The Capstone T
(Tzemach)
(Nes)
ehillim 118:22
The Green Tree Rabbinic title (Yechezq'el 20:47)
Seed of the Woman Genesis 3:15
The and the Z'kharyah 12:10; G Alef Tav enesis 1:1
The Man the Son of Peretz Rabbinic title (Ruth 4:18)
Son of the Clouds Rabbinic title (Dani'el 7:13)
The Messenger of YHWH Genesis 22; Exodus 3; …
The Messenger of the Presence Yeshayahu 63:9
The Arm of YHWH Yeshayahu 40-66
The
The Shield (Magen) Psalm
Yoted
84:9; Yeshayahu 21:5b
The Lion of the tribe of Yahudah Genesis 49; Revelation 4-5
The (Redeemer) (many)
The (Servant) of
Go'el
Eved YHWH Yeshayahu 42-53
The Rock (many)
The Prophet Devarim 18
The Good Shepherd Genesis 49; Z'kharyah 11 & 13
The Teacher of Righteousness
8
9
Yo'el 2:23
The Sun of Righteousness Genesis 1:14-18; Malachi 4:2
The Light of the World Genesis 1:14-18; Yeshayahu 9:2
Shiloh Genesis 49:10b
Shiloach Yeshayahu 8:6
Wonderful Counsellor Yeshayahu 9:6
Mighty El
Father of Time
Prince of Peace
8
Moreh Tzadekah.
9
Shemesh Tzadekah.
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In Table 2 we have listed some of the names that ancient Jewish sages ascribed to the
Messiah.
Table 2:
Some names ascribed to King Messiah in ancient rabbinic sources.
(Lamentations Rabba, Midrash Mishle, S. Buber's note to Midrash Mishle, Targum to
1 Chronicles. Quoted in Patai (1979: 21-23, 81-83)).
Name of Messiah Meaning of the name
YHWH Personal Name of the Almighty
Yinnon To continue forever
Tzemach Shoot, Branch
Pele Miracle
Yo'etz Counsellor, advisor
Mashiach The Anointed One
El Mighty One before whom we tremble
Gibor Mighty Hero
Avi'Ad Shalom Everlasting Father of Peace
Tzidqenu Our Justice/Righteousness
Menachem Comforter
[My servant] David (cf. )
Shiloh Him to whom the r
Yechezq'el 34:23 & 37:24
ight belongs
Hanina Favour
Nehira Light
bar-Nifle Son of the Clouds
Anani He of the clouds
The Green Tree
b
Yechezq'el 20:45-49; Luke 23:31
en-Adam Son of Man
ben-David Son of David
ben-Yosef Son of Joseph
ben-Elohim Son of Elohim
haNavi The Prophet
haMoreh The Teacher
We now look at a number of Messianic titles and important terms.
Magen
Shield. A term for the Messiah. Psalm 84:9 says,
“Behold, O Elohim, our Magen (Shield),
and look upon the face of your Mashiach.”
This verse is in the style of Hebrew parallelism—saying the same thing twice, in
different words. Note that the parallelism links the with the Magen Mashiach. If we do
remez with
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Yeshayahu 21:5b
Arise you princes, anoint the magen…
at the interpretative level of the (deeper meaning), reading it in its context, we may sod
read the text as an intimation that the princes (i.e. believers, who have all been made
royalty by the covenantal love of the Father and the faithfulness of the Son) will be
resurrected (“arise”) to witness the coronation of King Messiah (“anoint the magen”)
shortly before the annihilation of eschatological Babylon in Yom YHWH. This
annihilation will precipitate the Chevlei Shel Mashiach
Yirmeyahu 51:7
Babylon has been a golden cup in the hand of YHWH, which made all the earth
drunk. The nations have drunk of her wine; therefore the nations are insane.
catapulting the False messiah into office at an emergency summit meeting held in
Europe (Revelation 17), where 10 extraordinary plenipotentiaries will hand over the
reigns of government to Armilus.
Menachem
Comforter. The manifesting as comforter, as interceding advocate, of Ruach HaQodesh
the individual and the covenant people. Greek: Parakletos. Also a title for the Messiah,
the Comforter of Yisra'el.
Menuchah
Rest. The rest that the will enter into when King Messiah comes, of which we tzadeqim
now have the firstfruits in our hearts.
Acharit yamim
The end of days. The days are pictured as an army marching past. The reshith ha-
yamim acharit ha-yamim is that part that has already passed, while the is the portion of
days that is still approaching. Events said to happen (in the end ba'ha-acharit ha-yamim
of days) often had one or even more partial, prefigurative fulfillments in history, which
serves as a or pattern that foreshadows events that will happen in tavnit Yom YHWH.
The other Hebrew term for eschatology is —Footsteps of the ‘Iqqvot haMashiach
Messiah. Scriptural history is a carefully woven prophetic that tavnit (pattern)
teaches —to those who have ears to hear —the Footsteps of the Messiah.
Qetz yamim
The end of days.
ad-et qetz “until the time of the end.” =
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Ge'ulah shelemah
The complete redemption, in the to be established by Almighty YHWH acharit-yamim,
by the hand of His Messiah. The eschatological messianic redemption.
Green Tree
One of the more difficult sayings of Yahushua is:
Luke 23:31
For if they do these things in the green wood, what will be done in the dry?
The Aramaic literally reads:
That if in a green tree they do these things, what will happen in the dry?
Not in Hebrew and Aramaic the “b-” preposition can mean “in” but idiomatically it can
also mean “with” meaning “to” In this case the passage is best rendered:
That if with a green tree they do these things, what will happen with the dry?
In the Semitic the passage is a clear allusion to 20:45-21:17, where the Yechezq'el green
tree righteous dry tree wicked, is a metaphor for the while the symbolises the who will
be burned up when judgement falls.
In summary: Alluding to Yahushua uses a Yechezq'el 20:45-21:17, kol v'khomer
statement to say:
If they do this with a righteous one,
What will happen to the wicked?
or:
If they do this with me,
What will happen to them?
Luke 23:26-31 and Yechezq'el 20:45-21:17 are parallel passages; Yahushua the Messiah
is the Word become flesh, and the density of His references to the Word, i.e. the
Hebrew Scriptures, is astounding. He did not speak His own words, but the words of
His Father in Heaven. Almost every sentence that He spoke contains references to the
Tanakh —the of the dialogue is exceptionally high. referential density
‘Iqqvot haMashiach
“Footsteps of the Messiah.” A Hebrew term for the time of the coming of Mashiach.
The term is derived from ‘Iqqvot haMashiach
Tehillim 89:50-51
Remember, Adonai, how your servant has been mocked, how I bear in my heart
the taunts of all the nations, the taunts with which your enemies have mocked,
O YHWH, with which they have mocked the footsteps of your Mashiach.
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The suffering Servant: The Ancient Jewish Inter-
pretation of Yeshayahu 52-53
In Yeshayahu 42-53 there are four magnificent prophetic songs about the Servant (Eved)
of YHWH. The fourth prophetic song about the Eved (Servant) of YHWH forms the
climax to the four Servant songs.
The fourth and climatic Servant Song, Yeshayahu 52:13 to 53:12, has been interpreted
in Messianic terms by a wide variety of Jewish commentators over a long period of time.
Though other interpretations have also been offered, the messianic interpretation has a
long history in Rabbinic interpretation of Scripture, as the following references will
show. This refutes the claim, often heard in modern Judaism, that these passages only
deal with the nation of Israel, and not with the calling, the anointing, and the sufferings
of the Messiah as well.
The present-day, non-messianic interpretation of is a relatively recent Yeshayahu 52-53
and forced, apologetic invention dating from the 14 century, when Jews suffered very
th
cruelly at the hands of paganised European Christianity .” The —“the religion of Edom
modern non-messianic interpretation of the prophecy in Yeshayahu 52-53 also Eved
gained in popularity within the Reform Movement in Judaism, which started in Germany
in the 17 century.
th
The view that Yeshayahu 52-53 deals with the messiah, and not with the servant nation
Israel, was almost universal, until Rashi (Rabbi Solomon Yizchaki, 1040-1105) applied
it to the Jewish nation. Rashi's view, although recieved by Ibn Ezra, Kimchi, and others,
was rejected as unsatisfactory by many others, one of whom (R. Mosheh Kohen Ibn
Crispin, of Cordova, and afterwards Toledo, fourteenth century, who says rightly, of
those who for controversial reasons applied this prophecy to Israel, that “the doors of
literal interpretation of this chapter were shut in their face, and that they wearied
themselves to find the entrance, having forsaken the knowledge of our teachers, and
inclined after the stubborness of their own hearts and of their own opinions.” According
to Ibn Crispin, the interpretation adopted by Rashi “distorts the passage from its natural
meaning”, and that in truth “it was given of Elohim as a description of the Messiah,
whereby, when any should claim to be the Messiah, to judge by the resemblance or non-
resemblance to it whether he were the Messiah or not.” Rashi, at an earlier period of his
life —when he wrote his Commentary on the Talmud —actually followed the older
interpretation, which applied Yeshayahu 53 to the Messiah, but he very probably wrote
his Commentary on the Tanakh (in which the new interpretation is first introduced) after
the second Crusade, when the hideous massacres of Jews in Spire, Worms, Mainz,
Cologne by the wild profligate swarm which gathered, after the first Crusaders were
gone, might well have occasioned it.
Here follows important rabbinic commentaries on the prophecy of Yeshayahu Servant
52-53.
Quotation 1:
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The ancient Aramaic paraphrase of the Prophets, renders Yeshayahu Targum Jonathan,
52:13 as:
Behold, My Servant the Messiah shall prosper.
Reference: to Yeshayahu 52:13, various editions (such as Samson H. Targum Jonathan
Levey, The Messiah: An Aramaic Interpretation; the Messianic Exegesis of the Targum.
Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1974, p. 63).
The above shows that this entire prophecy was understood messianically at the time the
Targum was written.
Quotation 2:
The Midrash Tanchuma states: “This is the King Messiah who is high and lifted up, and
very exalted, more exalted than Avraham, elevated above Mosheh, higher than the
ministering angels.”
Quotation 3:
There is a remarkable passage in the very old book Pesikta, cited in the treatise Abkath
Rokhel, Hulsii Theologia Judaica, and reprinted in where this passage occurs, p. 309:
When Elohim created the world, He stretched out His hand under the throne of
His kavod, and brought forth the being of the Messiah. He said to him: 'Will
you heal and redeem My sons after 6000 years?' He answered him, 'I will.'
Then Elohim said to him: 'Will you then also bear the punishment in order to
blot out their sins, as it is written, “But he bore our diseases” (Yeshayahu 53:4).
And the Messiah answered Him; 'I will joyfully bear them' (cf. Zohar, 2:212a).
Rabbi Moses Haddarshan states:
Immediately the Messiah, out of love, took upon himself all those plagues and
sufferings, as it is written in Yeshayahu 53, 'He was abused and oppressed.' "
Quotation 4:
In the Rabboth, a commentary, Yeshayahu 53:5 is quoted, and referred to the sufferings
of the Messiah. In the Midrash Tehillim, an allegorical commentary on the Psalms,
printed at Venice in 1546, it is said at Psalms 2:7:
The things of King Messiah are announced in the prophets, e.g., in the passage
Yeshayahu 52:13 and 42:1, in the Ketuvim, e.g., Ps 60 and Dani'el 7:13.
Quotation 5:
Rav Asher Soloff states that the life of Yosef, as well as Yeshayahu 53, was understood
as alluding to the Messiah in the early cycle of synagogue readings:
We know that messianic homilies based on Yoseph's career (his saving role
preceded by suffering), and using Yeshayahu 53 as the prophetic portion, were
preached in certain old synagogues which used the triennial cycle…
Reference: Rav Asher Soloff, The Fifty Third Chapter of Yeshayahu According to the
Jewish Commentators, to the Sixteenth Century (Ph.D. Thesis, Drew University, 1967),
p. 146.
Quotation 6:
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Jacob Mann concurs:
The addition of Yeshayahu 53.4-5 [to the cycle of synagogue readings] was
evidently of a Messianic purport by reason of the theory of a suffering Messiah.
The earlier part of [the Haftarah] (Yeshayahu 52.7ff.) dealt with the redemption
of Israel, and in this connection the tribulations of the Messiah were briefly
alluded to by the recital of the above two verses.
Reference: Jacob Mann, (New The Bible as Read and Preached in the Old Synagogue
York: Ktav, 1971, © 1940), p. 298.
Quotation 7:
The Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin 98b, states:
The Rabbis said: His name [i.e. the name of the Messiah] is “the leper scholar,”
as it is written, “Surely he hath borne our griefs, and carried our sorrows: yet we
did esteem him a leper, smitten of Elohim, and afflicted.” [Yeshayahu 53:4].
Reference: Soncino Talmud edition.
Quotation 8:
Ruth Rabbah 5:6 reads:
The fifth interpretation [of Ruth 2:14] makes it refer to the Messiah. Come
hither: approach to royal state. And eat of the refers to the bread of bread
royalty; refers to his sufferings, as it is said, and dip thy morsel in the vinegar
“But he was wounded because of our transgressions” (Yeshayahu 53:5).
Reference: Soncino Midrash Rabbah (vol. 8, p. 64).
Quotation 9:
The (10 century), states: Karaite, Yefeth ben Ali
th
As to myself, I am inclined, with Benjamin of Nehawend, to regard it as alluding
to the , and as opening with a description of his condition in exile, from Messiah
the time of his birth to his accession to the throne: for the prophet begins by
speaking of his being seated in a position of great honour, and then goes back
to relate all that will happen to him during the captivity. He thus gives us to
understand two things: In the first instance, that the Messiah will only reach
his highest degree of honour after long and severe trials; and secondly,
that these trials will be sent upon him as a kind of sign, so that, if he finds
himself under the yoke of misfortunes whilst remaining pure in his actions, he
may know that he is the desired one…
Reference: S. R. Driver & A. Neubauer (editors). 1969. The Fifty-third Chapter of
Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters (2 volumes; New York: Ktav), pp. 19-20.
The English translations used here are taken from volume 2. The original texts are in
volume 1. Cf. Soloff, pp. 107-09.
Quotation 10:
Another statement from Yefeth ben Ali:
By the words “surely he hath carried our sicknesses,” they mean that the
pains and sickness which he fell into were merited by them, but that he
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bore them instead…And here I think it necessary to pause for a few moments,
in order to explain why Elohim caused these sicknesses to attach
themselves to the Messiah for the sake of Israel The nation deserved …
from Elohim greater punishment than that which actually came upon
them, but not being strong enough to bear it…Elohim appoints his servant
to carry their sins, and by doing so lighten their punishment in order that Israel
might not be completely exterminated.
Reference: Driver and Neubauer, pp. 23 ff.; Soloff pp. 108-109.
Quotation 11:
Yet another statement from Yefeth ben Ali:
“And Adonai laid on him the iniquity of us all.” The prophet does not…mean
iniquity, but as in the passage, “Be sure your sin will punishment for iniquity,
find you out” (Numbers 32:23).
Reference: Driver and Neubauer, p. 26; Soloff p. 109.
Quotation 12:
Lekach Tov (an 11 century midrash):
th
“And let his [Israel's] kingdom be exalted,” in the days of of whom the Messiah,
it is said, “Behold my servant shall prosper; he will be high and exalted,
and lofty exceedingly.”
Reference: Driver and Neubauer, p. 36.
Quotation 13:
Maimonides, Letter to Yemen (12 century):
th
What is to be and where will be the place of the manner of Messiah's advent,
his appearance?…
And Yeshayahu speaks similarly of the time when he will appear…He came up
as a sprout before him, and as a root out of the dry earth, etc. But the unique
phenomenon attending his manifestation is, that all the kings of the earth will be
thrown into terror at the fame of him—their kingdoms will be in consternation,
and they themselves will be devising whether to oppose him with arms, or to
adopt some different course, confessing, in fact, their inability to contend with
him or ignore his presence, and so confounded at the wonders which they will
see him work, that they will lay their hands upon their mouth; in the words of
Yeshayahu, when describing the manner in which the kings will hearken to him,
“At him kings will shut their mouth; for that which had not been told them
have they seen, and that which they had not heard they have perceived.”
Reference: Driver and Neubauer vol. 1: p. 322. Also: Abraham S. Halkin, ed., Igeret
Teman (New York: American Academy for Jewish Research, 1952). See Soloff pp. 127-
128.
Quotation 14:
Zohar 2:212a (a medieval Jewish mystical work):
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There is in the Garden of Eden a palace named the Palace of the Sons of
Sickness. This palace the enters, and He summons Messiah every pain and
every chastisement of Israel. All of these come and rest upon Him. And
had He not thus lightened them upon Himself, there had been no man able
to bear Israel's chastisements for the transgressions of the as it is Torah;
written, “Surely our sicknesses he has carried.”
Reference: Cited in Driver and Neubauer, pp. 14-15 from section “va-yiqqahel”.
Translation from Frydland, Rachmiel, What the Rabbis Know About the Messiah,
(Cincinnati: Messianic Literature Outreach, 1991), p. 56, n. 27. Note that this section is
(deliberately) omitted, i.e. censored from the Soncino edition of the Talmud, to it hide
from readers not fluent in Hebrew.
Quotation 15:
Nachmanides (Rabbi Mosheh ben Nachman, 13 century):
th
And —because the stripes by which he is by his stripes we were healed
vexed and distressed will heal us; Elohim will pardon us for his righteous-
ness, and we shall be healed both from our own transgressions and from
the iniquities of our fathers.
Reference: Driver and Neubauer, p. 78.
Quotation 16:
Yalkut ii: 571 (13th century):
The …is greater than the patriarchs, as it is said, “ King Messiah My servant
shall be high, and lifted up, and lofty exceedingly” —he will be higher than
Abraham,…lifted up above Mosheh,…loftier than the ministering angels.
Reference: Driver and Neubauer, p. 9. The same passage is found in Midrash Tanhuma
to Genesis (perhaps 9 century), edited by John T. Townsend (Hoboken, New Jersey:
th
Ktav, 1989), p. 166.
Quotation 17:
Yalkut ii.620 (13th century), in regard to Psalm 2:6:
…I have drawn him out of the …The chastisements are divided chastisements
into three parts: one for David and the fathers, one for our own generation, and
one for the and this is that which is written, King Messiah; “He was wounded
for our transgressions,” etc.
Reference: Driver and Neubauer, p. 10.
Quotation 18:
Bereisheet Rabbah 2:4
R. Shim'on ben Jaqish explained: 'And the spirit of Elohim hovered over the
face of the water' (Gen1:2) —this is the spirit of King Messiah, as it is written,
'And the spirit of the YHWH will rest upon him.' (Yeshayahu 11:2).
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Pes. Rab. ed. Friedmann, p.152b
You find that at the beginning of the creation of the world King Messiah was
born.
Quotation 19:
Pes. Rab. 162a
When the Son of David comes they will bring iron beams and put them upon his
neck until his body bends and he cries and weeps, and he says: 'How much
can my strength suffer? How much my spirit and soul? And how much my
limbs? Am I not but flesh and blood?'
Quotation 20:
Pes. Rab. ch. 36
"You have suffered because of the sins of our children, and cruel punishments
have come upon you… you were put to ridicule and held in contempt by the
nations of the world because of Israel… All this because of the sins of our
children… great sufferings have come upon you on their account. And Elohim
says to him, 'Be you the judge over these peoples, and do to them whatever
your soul wishes… all of them will die from the breath of your lips.' "
Quotation 21:
Mid. Konen, BhM, 2:29
"Eliyahu… says to the Messiah: 'Endure the sufferings and the sentence of
your Master who makes you suffer because of the sin of Israel.' And thus it is
written: 'He was wounded because of our transgressions.' (Yeshayahu 53:5) —
until the time of the end comes."
Professor Raphael Patai, The Messiah Texts:
When the death of the Messiah became an established tenet in Talmudic times,
this was felt to be irreconcilable with the belief in the Messiah as the Redeemer
who would usher in the blissful millennium of the Messianic age. The dilemma
was solved by splitting the person of the Messiah in two.
The development of the two-Messiah doctrine also had to do with a messianic parallel to
Moses, who died before entering the Promised Land.
Testament of Judah, 24
A man shall arise from my seed; like unto the sun of righteousness, walking
with the sons of man in meekness, and no sin shall be found in him. And he
shall pour upon you the spirit of grace, and you shall walk in his
commandments… a rod of righteousness to the nations, to judge and save all
that call upon YHWH.
Quotation 22:
Maimonides on Yeshayahu 53
Maimonides (writes to Jacob Alfajumi):
It is said about Him (the Messiah), ‘And his delight will be in the fear of
YHWH’ (Yeshayahu 11:3). He grew up before him as a tender plant and as
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a root out of a dry ground: he has no form nor comeliness: and when we see
him, there is no beauty that we should desire him.
And likewise said Yeshayahu that He (the Messiah) would appear without
acknowledging a father or mother: ‘He grew up before him as a tender plant
and as a root out of a dry ground etc.’ He was despised and rejected of
men; a man of sorrow and acquainted with grief; and as one from whom
men hide their faces he was despised, and we esteemed him not.
Quotation 23:
Zohar (Part II, fol. 212a and Part III, fol. 218a, Amsterdam edition):
When Israel was in the Holy Land, they had their sufferings and afflictions
removed from them by their prayers and sacrifices; but now the Messiah
removes them from the children of the world. When the Holy One, blessed be
He, wishes the recovery of the children of the world, He afflicts one righteous
person from their midst, and for His sake all are healed. How is this known? It is
written, ‘He was wounded for our transgressions, He was bruised for our
iniquities… and by his stripes we are healed’ (Yeshayahu 53:5).
Quotation 24:
About Yeshayahu 53:4-6, Midrash (editor: M. Friedmann) states: Pesikta Rabbati 36
And the Holy One made an agreement with [the Messiah] and said to him, “The
sins of those which are forgiven for your sake will cause you to be put under an
iron yoke, and they will make you like this calf whose eyes are dim, and they
will choke your spirit under the yoke, and on account of their sins your tongue
shall cleave to your mouth. Are you willing to do this?”…
But [the Messiah] said to Him: “Sovereign of the world, with the gladness of my
soul and the joy of my heart I take it upon me, on condition that not one of
Israel shall perish and not only in my days, but also those who are hid in the
dust; and not only should the dead of my own time be saved, but all the dead
from the dead from the first man until now; also the unborn and those whom
thou hast intended to create. Thus I agree, and on this condition I will take it
upon myself.”
Reference: (editor: M. Friedmann). This portion of the Midrash, called Pesikta Rabbati
the was compiled in the 9 century and is based on writings from Talmudic Haggadah,
th
times, i.e. 200 BCE– 400 CE.
Quotation 25:
Rabbi Mosheh Kohen ibn Crispin (14 century):
th
This Parashah [passage of Scripture] the commentators agree in explaining of
the Captivity of Israel, although the singular number is used in it
throughout…As there is no cause constraining us to do so, why should we here
interpret the word collectively, and thereby distort the passage from its natural
sense?…As then it seemed to me that the doors of the literal interpretation of
the Parashah were shut in their face, and that “they wearied themselves to find
the entrance,” having forsaken the knowledge of our Teachers, and inclined
after the “stubbornness of their own hearts,” and of their own opinion, I am
pleased to interpret it, in accordance with the teaching of our Rabbis, [as
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pertaining to] and will be careful, so far as I am able, to the King Messiah,
adhere to the literal sense.
Reference: Driver and Neubauer, pp. 99-100.
Quotation 26:
Another comment from R. Mosheh Kohen ibn Crispin
If his soul makes itself into a trespass-offering, implying that his soul will treat
itself as guilty, and so receive punishment for our trespasses and
transgressions.
Reference: Driver and Neubauer, p. 112.
Quotation 27:
Rabbi Sh'lomoh Astruc (14 century):
th
My servant shall prosper, or be truly intelligent, because by intelligence man is
really man—it is intelligence which makes a man what he is. And the prophet
calls the King Messiah my servant, speaking as one who sent him. Or he may
call the whole people my servant, as he says above my people (lii. 6): when he
speaks of the people, the King Messiah is included in it; and when he speaks of
the King Messiah, the people is comprehended with him. What he says then is,
that my servant the King Messiah will prosper.
Reference: Driver and Neubauer, p. 129.
Quotation 28:
In his commentary on Yeshayahu 53:5, Rabbi Elijah de Vidas (16 century), wrote:
th
But he was wounded, etc.…meaning that since the Messiah bears our
iniquities which produce the effect of His being bruised, it follows that
whosoever will not admit that the Messiah thus suffers for our iniquities,
must endure and suffer for them himself.
Reference: Driver and Neubauer, p. 331.
Quotation 29:
Rabbi Mosheh Alshekh (El-Sheikh) of Sefad (16 century):
th
I may remark, then, that our Rabbis with one voice accept and affirm the
opinion that the prophet [Yeshayahu] is speaking of the King Messiah, and
we ourselves also adhere to the same view.
Reference: Driver and Neubauer, p. 258.
Quotation 30:
Concerning the suffering servant of Yeshayahu 42, 49, 50, 52, 53, Raphael Patai writes,
The Aggada, the Talmudic legend, unhesitatingly identifies him with the
Messiah, and understands especially the descriptions of his sufferings as
referring to Messiah ben Joseph.
Patai considers Daniel 9:24-27 messianic, including the death of the Messiah:
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It is quite probable that the concept of the suffering Messiah, fully developed in
the Talmud, theMidrash, and the Zohar, has its origin in the biblical prophecies
about the suffering servant.
Patai also lists Yeshayahu 9:6-7, 11:1-12, Daniel 7:13-14, and Zech 9:9-10 as messianic
passages.
Quotation 31:
Rabbi Mosheh Alschech, in pp. 321 ff., comments: Hulsii Theologia Judaica,
Upon the testimony of tradition, our old rabbis have unanimously admitted that
king Messiah is here the subject of discourse. We, in harmony with them,
conclude that king David, i.e., the Messiah, must be considered as the subject
of this prophecy —a view which is indeed quite obvious.
Comparatively few Jews (i.e., those who didn't take the "servant-as-Israel" view)
believed that the passage referred to a person other than the Messiah. The kabbalistic
Jews still largely held to the messianic interpretation of the passage.
Quotation 32:
Herz Homberg (18th – 19th century):
The fact is, that it refers to the who will come in the latter days, King Messiah,
when it will be Adonai's good pleasure to redeem Israel from among the
different nations of the earth…Whatever he underwent was in consequence
of their own transgression, Adonai having chosen him to be a trespass-
offering, like the scapegoat which bore all the iniquities of the house of Israel.
Reference: Driver and Neubauer, p. 400-401.
Quotation 33:
Rabbi Naphtali Ben Asher (ca. 1650 YM) said,
I will not proceed to explain these verses of our own Messiah, who Elohim
willing will come speedily in our days. I am surprised that Rashi (a famous
Jewish commentator on Scripture) and Rabbi David Kimchi (Radak) have not,
with the Targums (Talmudic commentaries), applied Yeshayahu 53 to the
Messiah likewise.
Quotation 34:
The (additional) service for the Day of Atonement, Musaf Philips Machzor:
We are shrunk up in our misery even until now;
Our Rock has not come nigh to us;
Messiah our righteousnessis departed from us:
horror hath seized us,
and we have none to justify us.
He hath borne the yoke of our iniquities,
and our transgression,
and is wounded because of our transgression.
He beareth our sins on his shoulder,
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that he may find pardon for our iniquities.
We shall be healed by his wound,
at the time that HaShem will create him [the Messiah] as a new creature.
O bring him up from the circle of the earth [i.e. heaven]!
Raise him up from Seir,
to assemble us the second time on Mount Lebanon,
by the hand of Yinnon!
Reference: A. T. Philips, Machzor Leyom Kippur / Prayer Book for the Day of
Atonement, with English Translation; Revised and Enlarged Edition (New York:
Hebrew Publishing Company, 1931), p. 239. The passage can also be found in, e.g., the
1937 edition of this Machzor as well as in Driver and Neubauer, p. 399.
The author, according to Zunz, was Eleazer ben Kalir, who lived in the ninth century.
Yinnon, as will be seen, was one of the names given by the Rabbis to the Messiah, and
is derived from Psalm 72:17, which the Talmud renders, “Before the sun was, his name.
. .” a rendering and expression which implies a belief in the pre-existence of at least the
name of the Messiah, and perhaps of the Messiah himself.
The other passage is also from the Machsor (Liturgy for the Festival Services), and will
be found among the prayers on the Feast of Passover. It is as follows:
Flee, my beloved, until the end of the vision shall speak; hasten, and the
shadows shall take their flight hence; high and exalted and lofty shall be the
despised one; he shall be prudent in judgement, and shall sprinkle many! Lay
bare thine arm! Cry out and say, ‘The voice of my beloved; behold he cometh!’”
(David Levy, the English translator of the Machsor, says in a note that this verse
referred to “the true Messiah”.)
Ben-Elohim: Son of the Most High
Son of Elohim, i.e. ben-Elohim, is a term in Royal Messianism. Every King of Israel
was an ben-Elohim. Coronation entailed as of the Most adopted divine adoption son
High. There was a unique filial relationship between the King of Yisra'el and YHWH.
YHWH imparted his Ruach —his breath, his anointing power —to the King, to endow
him with wisdom, understanding, power. In the ideal of kingship in ancient Israel, the
empowerment with the Ruach of YHWH enabled the king to rule in the Fear of YHWH,
with Mishpat —justice, perfect government, and in the triumph of victory.
The term ben-Elohim for King Messiah is found in many ancient Jewish texts. It
expresses the theology of Royal Messianism. (In its original setting, this term has
nothing to do with virgin birth doctrines, etc.)
Jewish Apocrypha
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2 Esdras 7:26-30
For indeed the time will come…Everyone who has been delivered from the evils
that I have foretold shall see my wonders. For my son the Messiah shall be
revealed with those who are with him…
2 Esdras 12:31-34
…this is the whom the , Messiah Most High has kept until the end of days
who will arise from the seed of , David
and will come and speak with them.
He will denounce them for their iniquity and for their wickedness,
and will display before them their contemptuous dealings.
For first he will bring them alive before his judgement seat,
and when he has reproved them, then he will destroy them.
But in mercy he will set free the remnant of my people,
those who have been saved…
2 Esdras 13:3-32
“As I kept looking, the wind made something like the figure of a man come up
…And I saw that this …” man flew with the clouds of heaven
“This is the interpretation of the vision: As for your seeing a come up…this man
is who will he whom the Most High has been keeping for many ages,
himself …” deliver his creation
“…When these things take place and the signs occur that I showed you before,
then , whom you saw as a man coming up…” my Son will be revealed
2 Esdras 13:36-37
“But he shall stand on the top of Mount Tziyon. And Tziyon shall come and be
made manifest to all people, prepared and built, as you saw the mountain
carved out without hands. Then he, , will reprove the assembled my Son
nations for their crookedness…”
2 Esdras 13:52
He said to me, “Just as no one can explore or know what is in the depths of the
sea, so no one on earth can see or those who are with him, except in my Son
the time of his day.”
2 Esdras 14:9
For you shall be taken up from among humankind, and henceforth you shall live
with and with those who are like you, until the times are ended. my Son
The messianic figure in this book is described as of Davidic origin, pre-existent, the Son
of Man, the Elect One, the son of the Almighty, and a second Mosheh.
Dead Sea Scrolls
The Dead Sea Scrolls also testify that the was anciently called the Messiah Son of the
Most High:
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4QAramaic Apocalypse (4Q246), column II
He will be called the , and they will call him the Son of Elohim son of the Most
High…His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom…The earth will be in truth
and all will make peace. The sword will cease in the earth, and all the cities will
pay him homage. He is a great mighty one among the mighty ones…His king-
dom will be an everlasting kingdom…
The Pierced One: Jewish Messianic Interpretations of
Z'kharyah 12:10
In Z'kharyah 12:9-14 we read that the Israelites will look up to Him whom they have
pierced and will bitterly grieve for Him, like one mourns at the death of a firstborn son:
Z'kharyah 12:9-14:
9
In thát day [ ] I will set out to destroy all the nations that attack ba'Yom ha-hu
Yerushalayim.
10
“And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of
Yerushalayim a spirit of grace and supplication. They will look on Me, whom
they have pierced, and they will mourn for him as one mourns for an only
child, and grieve bitterly for him as one grieves for a firstborn son.
11
In thát day [ ] the weeping in Yerushalayim will be great, like the ba'Yom ha-hu
weeping of Hadad Rimmon in the plain of Megiddo. The land will mourn,
12
each clan by itself, with their wives by themselves: the clan of the house of
David and their wives, the clan of the house of Nathan and their wives, the
13
clan of the house of Levi and their wives, the clan of Shimei and their wives,
14
and all the rest of the clans and their wives.
Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah 52a
And the land shall mourn, every family apart; the family of the house of David
apart, and their wives apart [Z'kharyah 12:12]…What is the cause of the
mourning?
The rabbis differed on this point. One explained:
b. Sukkah 52
The cause is the slaying of — the son of Mashiach ben-Yosef Messiah
Yoseph—it is well with him who explains that the cause is the slaying of
Messiah the son of Yoseph, since that well agrees with the Scriptural verse,
“And they shall look upon me because they have thrust him through, and they
shall mourn for him as one mourns for his only son”…
Rashi, a well-known 11 century rabbi, commented as follows on Tractate Sukkah 52a
th
of the Talmud (cited in A. M'Caul, Rabbi David Kimchi's Commentary Upon the
Prophecies of Z'kharyah, (London: James Duncan, 1837), p. 161.):
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The words, “The land shall mourn,” are found in the prophecy of Z'kharyah, and
he prophesies of the future, that they shall mourn on account of , the Messiah
son of Yosef, who shall be slain…
Mosheh Alshekh (16th century) interpreted Z'kharyah 12:10 as follows (cited in M'Caul
(1837: 163):
I will do yet a third thing, and that is, that “they shall look unto me,” for they
shall lift up their eyes unto me in perfect repentance, when they see him whom
they pierced, that is , the son of Yosef; for our rabbis, of blessed Messiah
memory, have said that he will take upon himself and all the guilt of Israel,
shall then be slain…to make an atonement, in such a manner, that it shall be
accounted as if Israel had pierced him, for on account of their sin he has died;
and therefore, in order that it may be reckoned to them as a perfect atonement,
they will repent, and look to the blessed One, saying that there is none beside
Him to forgive those that mourn on account of him who died for their sin: this is
the meaning of “They shall look upon me.”
Messiah in the Apocrypha
In the foregoing presentation, we have quoted many writings of ancient Jewish sages.
These quotations prove that the ancient sages understood clearly that the would Messiah
be a pre-existent heavenly being, sent forth by YHWH as a man —the transcendent Son
of YHWH, the who bore the guilt of our transgressions in his substitutionary death Go'el
to pay the price for our redemption.
In this section, we shall present more proofs of the knowledge about the Coming One
that once existed widely within Judaism.
The present a detailed portrait of the coming Davidic . He Psalms of Solomon Messiah
is called “their king, the Son of David,” “their king…the “King Messiah” (i.e. “Anointed
Sovereign”) who would be “made powerful by Elohim in the ”, would Ruach HaQodesh
be the “king of Israel,” “the of Elohim who will reign.” Messiah
2 Baruch (Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch) 30:1
And it will happen after these things when the time of the appearance of the
Mashiach (Anointed One) has been fulfilled and he returns with esteem, that
then all who sleep in hope of him will rise.
2 Baruch(Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch) 39:7
And it will happen when the time of its fulfillment is approaching in which it will
fall, that at that time which is like the fountain the dominion of my Mashiach
and the vine, will be revealed…
2 Baruch (Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch) 40:1f
And they will carry him [the last wicked king] onto Mount Tzion, and my
Messiah will convict him of all his wicked deeds and will assemble and show
him all the works of his armies. And after these things he [my ] will kill Messiah
him [the last wicked king] and protect the rest of my people who will be found in
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the place that I have chosen. And his dominion will last forever until the world
of corruption has ended and until the times which have been mentioned before
have been fulfilled.
2 Baruch (Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch) 72:2
After the signs have come of which I have spoken to you before, when the
nations are moved and the time of my comes, he will call all nations, Messiah
and some of them he will spare, and others he will kill…
Testament of Levi 18:2ff
And then YHWH will raise up a new priest to whom all the words of YHWH will
be revealed. He shall effect the judgement of truth over the earth for many
days. And his star shall rise in heaven like a king…This one will shine forth like
the sun in the earth…The heavens shall rejoice in his days and the earth shall
be glad; the clouds will be filled with joy and the knowledge of YHWH will be
poured out on the earth like the water of the seas…And the (radiance; kavod
esteem) of the Most High shall burst forth upon him. And the spirit of
understanding and setting-apart shall rest upon him…In his priesthood, sin will
cease and…men shall find rest in him…And he shall open the gates of
paradise…he will grant to the to eat of the tree of life… tzadeqim
The tradition of —Mashiach Ben David the king, and the priestly two Messiahs
Messiah —show up in many places in the and in the documents. Testaments Qumran
Testament of Yahudah 24
“And after this there shall arise for you a Star from Ya'aqov in peace: And a
man shall arise from my posterity like the Sun of Righteousness, walking with
the sons of men in gentleness and righteousness, and in him will be found no
sin. And the heavens will be opened upon him to pour out the spirit as a
blessing of the Set-Apart Father. And he will pour the spirit of grace on you.
And you shall be sons in truth, and you will walk in his first and final decrees.
This is the (Shoot) of Elohim Most High; this is fountain for the life of Choter
10
all humanity. Then he will illumine the sceptre of my kingdom, and from your
root shall arise the Shoot, and through it will arise the rod of righteousness for
the nations, to judge and to save all that call on YHWH.
This is a wonderful mosaic of eschatological expectations involving:
v Numbers 24:17
v Malakhi 4:2
v Psalm 45:4 (LXX)
v Yeshayahu 53:9
v Yeshayahu 11:2
v Yeshayahu 61:11
v Joel 3:1
and all the “branch” or “shoot” passages —Yeshayahu 11; Yirmeyahu 23:5; 33:15 and
Z'kharyah 3:8; 6:12.
10
Yeshayahu 11:1.
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Messiah in the Targumim (periphrastic translations)
Genesis 35:21 (Targum Pseudo-Yonathan)
And Ya'aqov moved on, and pitched his tent onward to Migdal Eder —the tower
of Eder, the place whence the is destined to reveal himself at King Messiah
the end of days.
Genesis 49:1 (Targum Pseudo-Yonathan)
As soon as the Time of the End when the would arrive was King Messiah
revealed to him…
Genesis 49:1 (fragment)
For he was revealing to them all that was going to occur at the very end, the
time of the . Messiah
Genesis 49:10-12 (Targum Onkelos)
The transmission of dominion shall not cease from the house of Yahudah, nor
the scribe from his children's children, forever, until the comes, to Messiah
whom the Kingdom belongs, and whom nations will obey.
Genesis 49:10-12 (Targum Pseudo-Yonathan)
Kings and rulers shall not cease from the house of Yahudah, nor scribes who
teach the from his seed, until the time when the shall Torah King Messiah
come, the youngest of his sons, and because of him nations shall melt
away…How beautiful is the who is destined to arise from the King Messiah
house of Yahudah…How beautiful are the eyes of , as pure wine! King Messiah
Numbers 11:26 (fragment)
At the end, the very end of days, Gog and Magog and their armies shall go up
against Yerushalayim, but they shall fall by the hand of the King Messiah.
Numbers 24:17-24 (Targum Onkelos)
I see him, but not now; I behold him, but he is not near;
when a king shall arise out of Ya'aqov
and be anointed the out of Israel. Messiah
Numbers 24:17-24 (Targum Pseudo-Yonathan)
…but when a mighty king of the house of Ya'aqov shall reign, and shall be
anointed , wielding the mighty sceptre of Israel…[the Gentile nations Messiah
shall rise] to wage war against Israel, in the days of the …but King Messiah
those nations shall fall by the hand of the … King Messiah
1 Samuel 2:7-10
He shall give strength to His king,
and shall make great the kingdom of His Messiah.
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1 Samuel 2:35
I will raise up before Me a trustworthy priest, who shall minister according to My
word and My will, and I will establish for him an enduring reign and he shall
serve my all the days. Messiah
2 Samuel 23:1-5
…Said David, the son of Yishai, said the man who was anointed to the
Messianic Kingship by the Memra (Word) of the Elohim of Ya'aqov…Elohim
spoke to me…and He decided to appoint for me a king, he is the , who Messiah
is destined to arise and rule in the fear of YHWH…
Yeshayahu 4:1-6
At that time the of YHWH shall be a joy and an honour… Messiah
Yeshayahu 9:5-6
The Prophet announced to the house of David:
'A boychild has been born unto us,
a son has been given unto us,
who has taken the upon himself to guard it; Torah
and his name has been called by the One
who gives wonderful counsel,
the Mighty Elohim,
He who lives forever;
' ', in whose day peace shall abound for us. Messiah
Yeshayahu 10:24-27
…and the nations shall be shattered before the . Messiah
Yeshayahu 11:1-16
And a king shall come forth from the sons of Yishai,
and the shall be anointed Messiah
from among his children's children.
And upon him shall rest the spirit of divine prophecy,
the spirit of wisdom and sagacity,
the spirit of counsel and might,
the spirit of knowledge and fear of YHWH.
…In the days of Israel's , peace shall abound in the land; Messiah
the wolf shall dwell with the lamb…
Yeshayahu 14:29-30
…for the shall come forth from the descendants of Yishai… Messiah
Yeshayahu 16:1-5
They shall send tribute to the mighty of Israel…Then the of Messiah Messiah
Israel shall establish his throne in goodness, and shall occupy it in truth, in the
city of David, judging, demanding justice and doing righteousness.
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Yeshayahu 28:5-6
At that time the of YHWH of Hosts shall be a crown of joy… Messiah
Yeshayahu 42:1-9
Behold, My servant, the , whom I bring near, Messiah
My chosen one, in whom my Memra (Word) takes delight;
I will place My upon him, Ruach HaQodesh
and he shall reveal My to the nations… Torah
Yeshayahu 43:10
'You are My witnesses before Me', says YHWH,
'and My servant is the , whom I have chosen… Messiah
Yeshayahu 52:13-53:12
Behold, My servant the shall prosper; Messiah
he shall be exalted and great and very powerful…
It is the will of YHWH to purify and to acquit as innocent the remnant of his
people,
to cleanse their beings of sin,
so that they may see the kingdom of their … Messiah
Yirmeyahu 23:1-8
'Behold, days are coming,' says YHWH,
'when I will raise up for David a righteous , Messiah
and he shall reign as king…
Yirmeyahu 30:8-11
But they shall worship YHWH their Elohim
and obey the , Messiah
the son of David, their king,
whom I will raise up for them…
Yirmeyahu 30:21
Their king shall be anointed from them,
and their shall be revealed from among themselves… Messiah
Yirmeyahu 33:12-26
…the people shall yet rehearse the words of the … Messiah
In those days and at that time,
I will raise up for David a righteous … Messiah
Yechezq'el 17:22-24
Thus says YHWH Elohim,
'I Myself will bring near a child from the dynasty of the house of David, which is
likened to the tall cedar, and I will raise him up from this children's children; I
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will anoint him and establish him by My Memra like a high and exalted
mountain.
Yechezq'el 34:20-31
I will set up over them one leader who shall provide for them, My servant
David…
Yechezq'el 37:21-28
And my servant David shall be king over them; and they shall all have one
leader; and they shall walk in My laws and shall keep my statutes and observe
them…and David my servant shall be their king forever…
Hoshea 3:3-5
After that the children of Israel shall repent and seek the worship of YHWH
their Elohim, and they shall obey the , the son of David, their king, and Messiah
he shall direct them to the worship of YHWH…
Hoshea 14:5-8
They shall be gathered in from their Dispersion, shall live in the shade of the
Messiah…
Michah 4:8
And you, O of Israel, who have been hidden away from the sins of the Messiah
congregation of Tziyon, the kingdom is destined to come to you…
Michah 5:1-3
And you, O Bethlehem Efratah, you who were too small to be numbered among
the thousands of the house of Yahudah, from you shall come forth before Me
the , to exercise dominion over Israel, he whose name was mentioned Messiah
from before, from the days of creation.
Chavaqquq 3:17-18
…which Thou shalt perform for Thy and for the remnant of Thy Messiah
people…
Z'kharyah 3:8
Behold, I bring My servant, the , who is to be revealed. Messiah
Zekharyahu 4:7
For He shall reveal His , whose name was called from the beginning, Messiah
and he shall have dominion over all the kingdoms.
Zekharyahu 6:12-13
Behold the man whose name is He is destined to be revealed 'The Messiah.'
and to be anointed, and he shall build the Temple of YHWH…
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Zekharyahu 10:4
Out of him comes his king, out of him comes His … Messiah
Tehillim 18:28-32
…Thou shalt perform for Thy … Messiah
Psalm 21:1-8
O YHWH, the shall be happy in Thy strength…for the King Messiah King
Messiah trusts in YHWH…
Psalm 45:7-18
Your beauty, O , surpasses that of ordinary men… King Messiah
Psalm 61:7-9 [ET 6-8]
Days in addition to the days of the World-to-Come are the days of the King
Messiah King Messiah …and on the day that the is anointed king.
Psalm 72:1-20
O Elohim, give the the laws of Thy justice, and Thy King Messiah
righteousness to the son of King David…
Psalm 80:15-18 [ET 14-17]
And the stock which Thy right hand planted and upon the who King Messiah
Thou hast made strong for Thyself…
Psalm 89:51-52
…they have scoffed at the delay of the footsteps of Thy , O YHWH Messiah
Psalm 132:10-18
…there I will make sprout an esteemed king for the house of David; I have
prepared a lamp for My … Messiah
Song of Songs 1:8
…until I send the … King Messiah
Song of Songs 1:17
…in the days of the … King Messiah
Song of Songs 7:12-14
…And when it shall be the will of YHWH to deliver His people from the
Dispersion, He shall say to the :… King Messiah
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Song of Songs 8:1-4
And at that time the will be revealed to the congregation of King Messiah
Israel…I will conduct you, O …The will say: … King Messiah King Messiah
Ruth 1:1
…from the day on which the world was created until the coming of the King
Messiah, by which to chastise those who dwell on the earth…
Ruth 3:15
…David, Dani'el and his companions, and the … King Messiah
Lamentations 2:22
May You proclaim liberty to Your people on the house of Israel by the hand of
the … King Messiah
Lamentations 4:22
…you shall be delivered by the hands of the … King Messiah
Qohelet 1:11
…that are to follow among the generations that shall be during the days of the
King Messiah.
Qohelet 7:24
“…and of the day of death and of the day when the will come King Messiah
who can find it out by his wisdom?
Let us summarise the portrait of the in the Targumim: Messiah
The will be the active deliverer of Israel. He will be of Davidic lineage. Messiah
Eliyahu haNavi (the prophet Eliyah) will herald his coming. A world conflict will
rage at the time of the coming of the Messiah. This will result in the
annihilation of the enemies of Israel at the time of the Messianic advent; the
enemies of Israel will be shattered by Messianic intervention. The will Messiah
bring an end to the wandering of Israel, and the people of Israel will be
gathered in from their Galut/Dispersion to their own land; the Northern Kingdom
will be re-united with Yahudah. The drama of the Exodus from Egypt will be re-
enacted. The dead will be resurrected. The will live for ever. He will Messiah
restore the and rebuild Yerushalayim, which will enjoy divine Beit HaMiqdash
protection for itself and its inhabitants. He will have sovereignty over all the
world and make the the universal law of mankind, with the ideal of Torah
education being realised to the full. The will have the gift of prophecy, Messiah
as well as intercessory power to seek forgiveness of sin, but he will punish the
unrepenting wicked of his people, as well as of the nations, and have the power
to cast them into Gey Hinnom. There will be a moral regeneration of Israel and
of mankind. The will be a righteous judge, dispensing justice and Messiah
equity, the champion of the poor and the oppressed, the personification of
social justice. He will reward the righteous, who will surround him and forever
enjoy the fulness of the Kingdom. The essence of the will be faith in Messiah
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Elohim; and he will vindicate that faith, and the faithfulness of Israel, in the eyes
of all the world.
The False messiah of the end of days —Armilus
It has been taught that Rabbi Nechemyah said, “In the
generation of Messiah's coming,…the Roman Empire will
be converted to heresy”…This supports Rabbi Yitzchak,
who said, “The Son of David will not come until the whole
world is converted to the beliefs of the heretics.”
[Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin 97a.]
Ancient rabbis and sages wrote extensively about the of the last False messiah
days —they identified sections in the that portray his latter-day rise in the West. Tanakh
In the Anti-Messiah of the is called in Targum Yonathan, acharit-yamim Armilus
Yeshayahu 11:4. Armilus is a Hebraic term for Romulus, the legendary founder of the
city of . The implication is that this self-exalting individual will arise from within Rome
the revived Roman Empire of the last days. Whereas the Hebrew text of Yeshayahu
11:4 reads,
Yeshayahu 11:4
…but with righteousness he [Messiah the son of David] will judge the needy,
with justice he will give decisions for the poor of the earth. He will strike the
earth with the rod of his mouth; with the breath of his lips he will slay the
wicked.
the ancient Aramaic paraphrase in (Patai, 1979: 156), Targum Yonathan,
…and with the speech of his lips he [Messiah] will slay the wicked Armilus.
shows that the ancient understanding was that the evil dictator of the last days that will
be slain by Messiah the son of David, would (initially) rule the revived Roman Empire.
When Sha'ul states in 2 Thessalonians 2 that the true Messiah will slay the man of
lawlessness (i.e. the Antichrist) by the “breath of his mouth,” he is not quoting from the
Hebrew but from the Targum: Tanakh,
2 Thessalonians 2:1-10:
1
Concerning the coming of Adonu Yahushua HaMashiach and our being
11
gathered to him, we ask you, brothers, not to become easily unsettled or
12 2
alarmed by some prophecy, report or letter supposed to have come from us,
saying that the Day of YHWH has already come.
3
Don't let anyone deceive you in any way, for thát day will not come until the
[great departure] occurs [first in the sequence of events] and proton the man of
lawlessness is revealed, the man doomed to destruction.
11
That is, our Master.
12
Hebrew: osef.
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4
He will oppose and will exalt himself over everything that is called Elohim or is
worshipped, so that he sets himself up in Elohim's temple, proclaiming himself
to be Elohim.
5
Don't you remember that when I was with you I used to tell you these things?
6
And now you know what is holding him back, so that he may be revealed at
the proper time.
7
For the secret power of lawlessness is already at work; but the one who now
holds it back will continue to do so till he is taken out of the way.
8
And then the lawless one will be revealed, whom the Master Yahushua will
overthrow with the breath of his mouth and destroy by the splendour of his
coming.
9
The coming of will be in accordance with the work of Satan the lawless one
displayed in all kinds of counterfeit miracles, signs and wonders, and in every
10
sort of evil that deceives those who are perishing. They perish because they
refused to love the truth and so be saved.
In the article , the (Vol. I: 627) states that the name used Antichrist Jewish Encyclopedia
for the Antichrist in this passage is of rabbinic origin:
The (2Thessalonians 2:8) is none other than —whom Paul lawless one Belial
mentions in another place as the opponent of the Messiah (2Corinthians
6:15) —a name interpreted by the rabbis as compounded of beth-lamed-yod
(without) ayin-wav-lamed (yoke): “without yoke,” and so that Belial is the one
who will not accept the yoke of the Torah…
In the post-Talmudic Midrash ( 8th century YM), the False ± Pirqei-ha-Mashiach,
messiah is termed,
Satan Armilus, whom the Gentiles call Antichrist …
In (circa 466 YM), the connection that the sages saw Midrash Azeret haSh'vatim
between the Rome and Armilus, is stated explicitly (Patai, 1979: 157):
And after all this, Satan will descend and go to Rome…[there he will have
sexual relations with a famous stone statue of a magnificently beautiful woman.
She will become pregnant and] give birth to Armilus… And he [Armilus] will
issue evil decrees against Yisra'el, and men of good deeds will cease while
men of plunder will multiply. If Yisra'el is worthy, Messiah ben David will sprout
up in Upper Galilee and will go to Yerushalayim…
The Midrash goes on to say that the stone statue of the woman then becomes the chief of
all idolatry in the world.
Satan's sexual relations with a statue of a beautiful woman should be interpreted in a
midrashic sense, and certainly not literally. It is a metaphor for the eschatological
eruption of a idolatrous religious system based in Rome —a religious system which
exalts a female idol of breathtaking beauty. Satan will manage to infiltrate this system,
impregnate it spiritually and use it for his own purposes to set up his anointed evil ruler
over the earth at the end of days.
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How can this come about? Conservative Roman Catholic theologians and scholars are
concerned about the infiltration of the Roman Catholic Church by agents of satan.
Ernesto Cienfuegos, in reported in Los Angeles, Alta, California – 10 La Voz de Aztlan,
May 2002 – ACN:
The contemporary state of apostasy in the Catholic Church was accurately
predicted by the renown Jesuit Priest, Father Malachi Martin, in his 1996 book,
“Windswept House: A Vatican Novel.” On page 492 of his book, Fr. Martin
writes,
Suddenly it became unarguable that now during this papacy, the Roman
Catholic organization carried a permanent presence of clerics who
worshipped Satan and liked it; of bishops and priests who sodomized
boys and each other; of nuns who performed the “Black Rites” of Wicca,
and who lived in lesbian relationships… every day, including Sundays
and Holy Days, acts of heresy and blasphemy and outrage and
indifference were committed and permitted at holy Altars by men who
had been called to be priests. Sacrilegious actions and rites were not
only performed on Christ’s Altars, but had the connivance or at least the
tacit permission of certain Cardinals, archbishops, and bishops…
Fr. Malachi Martin wrote this several years ago, and today we are barely
hearing in the news about Catholic priests being arrested for raping altar boys
inside the confessionals and about Cardinals, such as Boston's Law and Los
Angeles' Mahoney, covering up the crimes.
An eminent theologian and expert in the Catholic Church, Fr. Malachi Martin,
writes that the apostasy of the Roman Catholic Church is a precondition for the
End of Days as we presently know it, and for the second coming of Jesus
Christ. Fr. Malachi Martin, a Vatican insider, studied Theology at Louvain
where he received doctorates in Semitic Languages, Archeology and Oriental
History. He also studied at Oxford and at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem
and served as Professor at the Vatican's Pontifical Biblical Institute. Fr.
Malachi Martin was, in addition, a world-recognized “Exorcist” and an expert in
combating Satan and the practitioners of Demonology. He was also an expert
in the Dead Sea Scrolls. He served in the Vatican from 1958 to 1964 where he
was a close associate of the renowned Jesuit Cardinal Augustin Bea and Pope
John XXIII. Fr. Malachi Martin passed away on July 27, 1999.
Fr. Malachi Martin had for a long time maintained that Satanists had infiltrated
the Vatican. Just before his death, Fr. Martin said that soon after the
installation of Pope Paul VI in 1963, Vatican Satanists clandestinely installed
“Lucifer” in a secret ceremony called “The Enthronement of the Fallen
Archangel Lucifer.” The ceremony was conducted at the St. Paul’s Chapel
located within the Vatican. Pope Paul VI later wrote that “the smoke of Satan
has entered the Sanctuary.” Fr. Malachi Martin said that the incidence of
Satanic pedophilia and its rites and practices was already documented among
certain bishops and priests as widely dispersed as Turin, in Italy, and South
Carolina, in the United States. He emphasised, “The systematic organizational
links of the network, that had been established between certain clerical homo-
sexual groups and Satanist covens, had inordinate power and influence.”
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When we read the news headlines today concerning the evil acts of numerous
Catholic priests and even bishops against children, we can not help think about
what Fr. Malachi Martin prophesied six years ago. Fr. Martin also said that the
“Third Secret of Fatima” concerned the apostasy of the Roman Catholic
Church. He said that the essential message seems to be about Satanists
lurking in the shadows, from the heart of the Vatican down to the local parishes,
manipulating events and putting great effort to subvert the Roman Catholic
Church. He said that these Satanists are in league with Zionists and what he
called the “Universal Assembly”, a Masonic group of Western plutocrats and
the Illuminati.
Fr. Malachi Martin also spoke about a shadowy evil character he described as
the “Cardinal of Century-City” who bears a strange similarity to Cardinal Roger
Mahoney of Los(t) Angeles. Presently, there is a growing tide of people calling
for his resignation due to the Archdiocese's cover-up of Satanic homosexual
pedophile crimes against children.
And where does Pope John Paul II stand in all of this? Pope John Paul II has
stated that we are definitely in the end times. He said that “the signs are clear.”
The Pope has expressed concerns that his successor will be “the final pope”
and the “anti-pope.” The anti-pope is a person who will betray true Catholicism
and Christianity as part of a pact with satan and a future world government.
In two 12 century aggadic rabbinic works, BhM
th
T'fillat Rabbi Shimon ben Yohai ,
13
4:124-126 ( ), and the apocalyptic midrash Patai, 1979: 157-159 Otot haMashiach
14
( ) Armilus' strategy, his blasphemous claims and his persecution of all Patai, 1979: 314
who remains faithful to the Set-Apart One of Yisra'el, are vividly portrayed. The parts
of these rabbinic works that we will quote are very similar. To avoid duplication, we
have removed the mythical elements and have edited these two descriptions into a single
account:
…His name is Armilus the Satan [i.e. the misleader, adversary & accuser]. This
is the one the gentiles of the world call the Antichrist. And Armilus will go to
Rome and say to them: “I am your Christ, I am your god!” And he will mislead
them and they will immediately believe in him, and make him their king. And all
the subjects of the Roman Empire will gather and come to him and join
themselves to him. And he will go and conquer and announce to all the
countries and cities, saying, “Bring me my holy book which I gave you!” And
the nations of the world will come and bring the book… and Armilus will say to
them: “This is the book which I gave you.” And he tells the nations of the world:
“Believe in me. I am your god, I am your christ and your god.” And instantly
they believe in him…
[Armilus will call for a delegation of Yisra'el to meet with him. He will say to
them:] “Bring me your and testify to me that I am god.” Yisra'el will read Torah
to Armilus from the “Anochi HaShem your Elohim and you shall have no Torah:
other gods before Me” —Exodus 20:2-3. And Armilus will say: “This of Torah
yours is emptiness and nothingness; come and testify to me that I am god.”
[Yisra'el refuses. Armilus responds by proclaiming:] “I shall not let go of you
13
That is, the prayer of Rabbi Shimon ben Yohai.
14
That is, Signs of the Messiah.
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[i.e. will not stop forcing and persecuting you] until you believe that I am god in
the same manner in which the gentile nations of the world believe in (goyim)
me.”
…And the wrath of Armilus is kindled, and he gathers all the armies of the
nations of the world, and makes war against the children of Yisra'el, and he
slays of Yisra'el a thousand thousands… And those who are left of Yisra'el will
flee to the desert of the nations… In that hour all the nations of the world will
expel Yisra'el from their countries… And it will be a suffering for Yisra'el the like
of which has not been ever since the world exists and to that time…
…And Michael the great Prince will arise… [Yisra'el will say to the nations:]
“This is the Redemption for which we have been waiting, for the Messiah has
been slain.”
Michael will arise and blow the shofar three times… Messiah the son of David
will be revealed… the full Redemption has come…
…And Armilus will hear that a king arose for Yisra'el, and he will gather all the
armies of all the nations of the world, and they will come to King Messiah and to
Yisra'el. And the Set-apart One, blessed be He, will fight for Yisra'el and say to
the Messiah: “Sit at my right hand.” And the Messiah will say to Yisra'el:
“Gather together and stand and see the salvation of HaShem.”… And the Set-
apart One, blessed be He, fights Armilus and his armies, as it is written, “Then
shall HaShem go forth, and fight against those nations, as when He fights in the
day of battle” (Zekharyahu 14:3)… Instantly the wicked Armilus will die, and all
the armies of the wicked Roman Empire which destroyed the House of our
Elohim and exiled us from our land…
May that time and that period be near!
Armilus' rise in the West is portrayed in a 10th century YM midrash Ma'ase Dani'el,
(quoted in Patai (1979: 162-164)):
And another king, will arise in the —the West —more wicked Armilus, Machrev
and evil than anyone who preceded him… He will capture the West. And many
wicked men…will gather around him from the whole earth, and will tell him that
he is the Messiah, and this rumour will spread all over the world. And the
whole earth will submit to him, and he will slay those who do not submit…And
the people will have to bear and suffer much trouble, and the Children of
Yisra'el more than all the others…Armilus will say, “I am the Messiah, your king
and your prince.”
…Then all Yisra'el…will…go to the desert…and clothe themselves with
sackcloth, and sit down on the earth and call upon Elohim…And Armilus will
become angry and will command that they be killed…And the Children of
Yisra'el will flee with their wives and children, together they will go to the
desert, and will raise their voices in weeping and mourning, and will sit on the
earth, and will cry to Elohim…And HaShem, His Name be blessed, will appear
from heaven…the banner of Messiah ben David will fly high…
The fact that the False messiah will rule the revived Roman Empire, before invading
Yisra'el and setting up his headquarters there, after the plagues described in the book of
Revelation have turned Europe into a wasteland, makes Rome the most likely capital
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city of the False Prophet —the powerful, miracle-working religious leader who will be a
false Eliyahu, will proclaim that is the “Christ and God,” and will enforce his Armilus
worship with cruel measures (Revelation 13).
The Vol. IV (1912: 423-424) summarises the rabbinic and early Jewish Encyclopedia,
Christian expectations of the eschatological role that an evil man from the tribe of Dan
would play in the time of the coming of the Messiah:
Dan plays a major role in rabbinic tradition. Owing to the fact that his name, as
the name of a tribe, is connected with the blasphemer (Wayyiqra 24:11) and
with the idolatry of northern Yisra'el (Judges 18:30; 1Kings 12:29; Amos 8:4),
while Shimshon, the Judge of the tribe of Dan, proved faithless to his nazirate
(Judges 13:2), Dan came to be regarded as the black sheep of the house of
Jacob. His hatred of Joseph, because he brought to his father ill reports
against the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah, induced him to plot against Joseph's life,
and he advised the brothers to deceive their father by telling that they had
found the coat of Joseph dipped in blood. (Testament of the Patriarchs,
Zevulun 4; Dan 1; Gad 1)…
[The rabbis found the account of] Jacob's blessing of Dan, in which he is
compared to a serpent (Genesis 49: 16-18) [very telling], and the serpent is
said to have been made the emblem of the tribe on its standard.
But Dan became the very type of evil-doing. He was placed to the north
(Numbers 2:25), this being the region of darkness and evil (Yirmeyahu 1:14),
because of his idolatry, which wrapped the world in darkness. Still further goes
a tradition which identifies the serpent (Genesis 49:17) and the lion
(Deuteronomy 33:22) with Belial …Early Church Fathers (Irenæus, Hippolytus
15
and others) have a tradition, which can only be of Jewish origin, that the Anti-
christ comes from the tribe of Dan, and based it upon Yirmeyahu 8:16: “The
snorting of his [the enemy's] horses was heard from Dan” —a verse referred
also in Genesis Rabbah xliii in reference to Dan's idolatry…(…“Antichrist”…)…
(“De Christo et Antichristo”). Irenæus remarks that Dan is, in view of this…not
in the Apocalypse (Revelation 7:5-7) among the 144000 saved ones of the
twelve tribes. Nor is the omission of Dan in 1Chronicles 4 un- et. seq.
intentional. Boussel, who has a special chapter devoted to the [expectation of
the] Dan Antichrist…believes that the connection of Dan with Belial in the
Testament of the Patriarchs, Dan 5, points to the same [ancient Jewish]
tradition.
The same article in the Jewish Encyclopedia also relates an Arab tradition about a “liar-
messiah” who will mislead many until he is slain by Mashiach ben-David.
Midrash fragment (quoted in Patai (1979: 162)) states that Armilus Marmorstein, REJ 52
will go to the town of in the country where his fathers were born and set up his Emmaus
throne there.
An ancient Jewish source quoted in Patai (1979: 102) makes mention of a false prophet
that would arise in the (end-of-days): acharit-yamim
15
The rabbis interpreted the name Belial as denoting one who has cast off the yoke of , i.e. as a Torah
lawlessness one —see page 0.
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Thirdly, up will rise another man who will announce that he was sent by
Elohim… And with his preachings he will cause many nations to go astray, and
will seduce even more. But that which he will prophesy to the nations will come
upon his own head…
Leviathan. A seven-headed, gigantic, twisted serpent that dwells in the sea. Liv'yatan
was a well-known character in ancient Middle-eastern literature. In Ugaritic literature
this monster is called Lotan. YHWH uses this well-known symbol to give graphic
prophecies about Satan, the False messiah (Antichrist) and his evil empire.
The word is derived from a root meaning “to coil” and “to twist.” liv'yatan
The 1912, Vol. VIII, p. 37-39 states: Jewish Encyclopedia,
The leviathan is prominent in haggadic literature in connection with the advent
of the Messiah. Referring to Job 41:6, “and the pious ones shall make a
banquet of it,” Rabbi Yohanan says that in the time of the resurrection a
banquet will be given by Elohim to the righteous, at which the flesh of the
leviathan will be served…Elohim will divide the monster with his sword…
These haggadot concerning the leviathan are interpreted as allegories by
[practically all Jewish] commentators…
In the…literature the “piercing leviathan” and the “crooked leviathan” are
interpreted as referring to Satan Sama'el [the celestial prince over Rome]…,
while…others consider the expressions to be allusions to the destruction of the
powers which are hostile to the Jews…The haggadic sayings obtained a hold
on the imaginations of the poets, who introduced allusions to the banquet of
leviathan into the liturgy.
The Vol. 11, p. 90 states: Encyclopaedia Judaica,
In the Scriptures, [leviathan] is used interchangeably with several other sea-
monsters — (“dragon”), and (“sea”) —all of whom are tanin rahav, yam
represented as supernatural enemies of Elohim.
Messiah comes when the Roman Empire is converted
to heresy
The laws of the tzara'ath skin affliction is given in Leviticus 13 – 14. A rather unusual
pronouncement is found in
Leviticus 13:12-13
12
And if breaks out all over the skin, and the covers all the tzara'ath tzara'ath
skin of the one who has the sore, from his head to his foot, wherever the priest
looks, then the priest shall consider; and indeed if the has covered
13
tzara'ath
all his body, he shall pronounce him clean who has the sore. It has all turned
white. He is clean.
Why is a person whose entire body is covered with the signs of the tzara'ath skin
affliction, pronounced i.e. clean? Two talmudic Rabbis saw this unexpected tahor,
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ruling as an intimation that Mashiach will come at a time when Yisra'el is severely
oppressed because the Roman Empire will, at the end of days, be converted to heresy.
Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Sanhedrin 97a
It has been taught that Rabbi Nechemyah said, “In the generation of Messiah's
coming,…the kingdom [i.e. the Roman Empire] will be converted to heresy”…
This supports Rabbi Yitzchak, who said, “The Son of David will not come until
the whole world is converted to the beliefs of the heretics.”
Revelation 13 indeed instructs us that, indeed says that, at the time of Messiah's coming
the whole world will be in the grip of a terrible heresy and false worship, that will entail
the cruel persecution of the faithful remnant:
Revelation 13
3
…And all the world marveled and followed the beast.
4
So they worshiped the dragon who gave authority to the beast; and they
worshiped the beast, saying,“Who is like the beast? Who is able to make war
with him?"
5
And he was given a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies, and he
was given authority to continue for forty-two months.
6
Then he opened his mouth in blasphemy against Elohim, to blaspheme His
name, His tabernacle, and those who dwell in heaven.
7
It was granted to him to make war with the and to overcome them. qadoshim
And authority was given him over every tribe, tongue, and nation.
8
All who dwell on the earth will worship him, whose names have not been
written in the Book of Life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.
The world becomes whole only at the time of King
Messiah
Sages saw hints at the brokenness and the deficiency of the world in texts such as
Bereshith 1:2
The earth was (formless, desolate) and (void, empty) and darkness tohu bohu
covered the face of the deep. And the (breath, Spirit, wind) of Elohim Ruach
(the Mighty One) was moving on the face of the waters.
In midrashic interpretations, the brokenness and deficiency of the world finds expression
in human history, in the development of 4 great empires, each of which presents a world
view irreconcilable with the iconoclastic exclusiveness and Oneness of Almighty
YHWH. Consider the midrash on Bereshith 1:2 by Rabbi Shimon ben Lakhish.
Bereshith Rabba 2:5
‘The world was formless’ is a reference to Babylonia…‘Void’ refers to
Media…‘Darkness’ refers to Greece, who darkened the vision of the Yahudim
with their decrees…‘The deep waters’ refers to Rome, whose eventual downfall
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is as inscrutable as the deep…‘Elohim's hovering Spirit’ refers to the Spirit of
the Messiah.
Thus the world becomes whole only at the time of —King Melekh haMashiach
Messiah.
Conclusions
For at least 2500 years, the messianic expectation has been integral to Judaism. Prior to
reactionary developments against Christianity, the Messiah was understood to have pre-
existed with YHWH and to have a transcendent nature. He would voluntarily have
himself humiliated as a suffering servent who would accomplish redemptive atonement
for sins by suffering in the place of sinners.
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The Birthpains of the Messianic Age —The Chevlei
Shel Mashiach
Many ancient sages saw in the Scriptures that the coming of the Messianic King, to
establish his kingdom, would be preceded by a time of immense suffering. During this
time, would travail as though in birthpains, when a faithful remnant of Yisra'el is Tziyon
born into the Messianic age. They used two terms to describe the sufferings that would
accompany the coming of King Messiah. The term was used to Chevlo Shel Mashiach
describe the travail of the Messiah, while the term was used to Chevlei Shel Mashiach
refer to the travail of Yisra'el being born into the Messianic Kingdom.
The main prophecies that describe the days of the coming of the Messiah with the
picture of the pangs of childbirth, are summarised in Table 0.3. (The list is not
exhaustive.)
Table 3: Prophecies about the Chevlei Shel Mashiach —the Birthpains that will come
upon the earth at the threshold of the Messianic Age.
Book Verses
Genesis 3:16; 35:16-20; 38:27-28; 48:3
2 Kings 19:3
Psalms 48:3-6
Yeshayahu 13:8; 21:3; 23:4; 26:17; 37:3; 42: 14; 54:1; 66:7-9
Yirmeyahu 4:31; 6:24; 13:21; 22:23; 30:6; 31:8; 48:41; 49:22-24; 50:43
Hoshea 9:11-12; 13:13
Mikha 4:9-10; 5:3
Mattithyahu 24:8
Mark 13:8
Yochanan 16:21-24
1 Thessalonians 5:3
Revelation 12:2
In Scripture, the intense suffering, agony and distress during this time is likened to a
woman that goes into labour, suffers excruciating pain, but is overjoyed at the very end,
because she had given birth, had brought forth wondrous new life —Messiah has come
to earth, to rule as the Arm of YHWH! Once labour begins, a woman can not turn back
the clock; she has to go through the entire process and experience intense suffering
before she can experience the joy of having a baby. Accordingly, the Hebrew term for
this time of tribulation when Yisra'el would travail when it is born into the Messiah and
His kingdom, is the —the Chevlei Shel Mashiach Birthpains of the Messiah.
Let us review one example of the rabbinic teachings on the , Chevlei Shel Mashiach.
5757 (7 & 8 February 1997). In the commentary on Yeshayahu 66:1-24, Ohr Somayach
the reading for on for the week Haftorah Parashat Mishpatim, Shabbat-Rosh Chodesh,
ending 1 Adar I, the sage(s) teach on Scripture's use of the metaphor of childbirth in
relation to the coming of the Messiah:
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…The prophets speak in many places about the coming of Mashiach in terms
of childbirth. Someone who is ignorant of the process of childbirth and sees for
the first time a woman in labour would be convinced that she is about to die.
And the closer the actual moment of the birth, the stronger that impression
would become. And then, within a couple of minutes, seeming tragedy has
turned into the greatest joy. A new life has entered the world. This is the way
Mashiach will come. The worse things become, the more painful the birth
pangs, the nearer is his coming. Until, like a mother who has delivered, all the
tears and pain will be forgotten in the great joy of a new life.
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Dani'el 9:24–27: A prophecy about the coming of the
Messiah
Dani'el 9:24–27
24
Seventy are decreed upon your people sevens (shavu'im shivim) (al amkha)
and your set-apart city to finish the transgression (ir qadshekha), (ha-pesha), 1
2 8 to make an end of sins to make reconciliation for iniquity (chata'at), (awon),
4 ò to bring in everlasting righteousness to seal up vision and (tzedeq olamim),
prophecy and to anoint the Most Set-apart (chazon w-navi), (qodesh 6
qadashim).
25
Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the davar (word)
to restore and build Yerushalayim until Messiah the Prince ( ), mashiach nagid
there shall be seven and sixty-two [i.e. a total of sevens sevens 7 ÷ 62 = 60
sevens]; the streets shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublesome
times.
26
And after the sixty-two sevens, Messiah shall be cut off (yikaret mashiach),
but not for Himself the prince who is to come (w-ein lo); and the people of
(am nagid ha-ba) ha-qodesh shall destroy the city and the (set-apart place).
The end of it shall be with a flood , and till the end of the war desolations are
16
determined.
27
W'higbir b rit la-rabim
17 e
—Then shall forge a strong covenant with many; he
with the great ones for one but in the middle of the seven (shavuah echad);
seven he shall bring an end to sacrifice and offering (zevach u-minchah).
W-al k naf shiqutzim m shomem
e e
—And the will be upon a mute abominations
wing until extermination as decreed will pour down upon the mute abomination
(al-shomem).
A Talmudic rabbi stated that “the time for the coming of the Messiah has passed, but
Messiah did not come.” When is this time? Who is the Messiah? We shall show that
the above Messianic prophecy in Dani'el 9 pinpoints the day on which the Messiah
would come to Yisra'el as a Prince, a royal ruler. This prophecy leaves no doubt as to
the person of the Messiah.
We have proof from ancient Jewish sources that, 2000 years ago, Dani'el 9:25-26 was
understood to be a revelation about the coming of the Messiah. An important Qumran
text from Cave 11 says about the —11Q13Mech — Mashiach:
The (anointed one) of the Spirit concerning whom Dani'el said, 'until mashiach
an anointed one, a prince…'
(Reference: Vermes, ) The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English, page 501.
How would the Messiah come? The tells of two comings: Messiah would come Tanakh
as a suffering servant in humbleness and then in splendour to judge and rule. The
prophet Zekharyahu described the entry of the Messianic king into Yerushalayim in
16
“Flood” is a Hebraism (Hebrew idiom) for an overwhelmingly strong army at war.
17
The root —gimmel-beth-resh —denotes might and strength. gbr
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Zekharyahu 9:9
Rejoice greatly, O Daughter of Tziyon!
Shout, Daughter of Yerushalayim!
Look! Your King comes to you,
righteous and having salvation [Hebrew: ], yeshu'ah
riding humbly on a donkey,
on a colt, the offspring of a beast of burden.
Midrash Genesis Rabba 98:9 identifies this as a prophecy about King Messiah. In other
words, the ancient sages of Yisra'el saw Zekharyah 9:9 as a messianic prophecy.
The Hebrew word translated as in Dani'el 9:24-27 is , and here signifies seven shavuah
septets year weeks or , i.e. periods of 7 years each. Whereas we in our culture group
years in decades, the Yisra'elites grouped years and days in , seven being the sevens
number of YHWH. According to this prophecy,
(7 ÷ 62) 7 = 488 years
would elapse between two specific dates:
v First date: The day Yahudim who were in captivity in Bavel were officially
permitted to return to Yerushalayim to rebuild the city. The countdown would
begin on this date.
v Final date: The day the Messiah would be revealed as a Prince, a ruler. Jewish
Davidic kings entered the city of Yerushalayim riding on the back of a colt. The
countdown should stop on this date.
Just after the 69 sevens had elapsed, Dani'el 9:26 states, — mashiach yikaret w'ein lo
“Messiah shall be cut off but not to him.” The Hebrew word translated as in cut off
Dani'el 9:26 has the root form karat, and is used of “cutting a covenant,” a ritual which
involved the death of the sacrificial victim—cf. Genesis 15:10, 18; was also karat
frequently used of death in general. The prophecy states that the Anointed One would
be revealed to Yisra'el as a , a , but that he would be and nagid ruler prince executed, —a
that his death would not be for himself, but, by implication, for others.
The prophecy implies that the would occur death of Messiah the Prince before the
destruction of the second temple.
Note that Dani'el 9:26 states that will be cut off. mashiach nagid Messiah the Prince —
The Messiah that will see death, will be the same Messiah that will rule as the Prince,
the This shows that the historical rabbinic exegesis of messianic prophecies, Nagíd.
namely that there would be two messiahs — (the suffering servant) Mashiach ben-Yosef
and (the conquering king) —is in error: There is only Messiah, Mashiach ben-David one
and He will fulfil the prophecies about the suffering servant the prophecies about and
the conquering King.
The countdown begins…
Dani'el 9:25 shows that the countdown of the 69 “sevens” that would culminate in the
sacrificial death of the Messiah, would start on the day when permission is given to
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reconstruct the city of Yerushalayim When was the command to rebuild Yerushalayim .
issued? Persian rulers issued 4 decrees in reference to the Yahudim in their empire.
_1 King Cyrus (Hebrew: ) issued a decree in 538 BM (Ezra 1:1–4). This Koresh
18
decree was a permission to rebuild the in Yerushalayim. Beit haMiqdash
_2 King Daryawesh (Darius) made a second decree in 520 BM (Ezra 6:1–12); this
decree was a confirmation of King Koresh's decree.
_8 The third decree was issued by King Artaxerxes Longimanus in 458 or 457
BM—Ezra 7:11–26. This decree dealt animal sacrifices and with finances for
the Beit haMiqdash.
The first and second decrees deal with the rebuilding of the in Yerushalayim. Temple
The third decree deal with for animal sacrifices and the Temple. Dani'el 9:25 finances
says that the countdown should begin when a (spoken word) to restore and rebuild davar
Yerushalayim is given. Not one of the above decrees mentions a word about the
rebuilding of the city itself. Accordingly, none of these decrees signifies the beginning
of the countdown of the 69 sevens. Also note that, anciently, a city was not considered
rebuilt unless its encompassing wall was reconstructed. We should search Scripture to
find the place where explicit permission is given to reconstruct the and its . city walls
(Some denominations, particularly those who have chained themselves to the visions and
interpretations of supposed latter-day prophets, tenaciously cling to the year 457 BC as
the starting date of the countdown. They often seem more interested in upholding the
supposed exegetical and prophetic infallibility of this latter-day prophet than in rigorous
exegesis. This problem is widespread —pastors and theologians get caught in structures
where they look at other for approving nods, promotion and annual salary people
increases. An independent and rigorous exegesis would land them in disrepute and
could even cost them their position. Therefore they “toe the party line,” thereby earning
approving nods and pats on the back.)
_
4
The command to rebuild and to restore Ir Yerushalayim was issued in the month
Nisán (In the Babylonian captivity, the month was renamed to of the 20th Aviv Nisan)
year of the reign of King Artaxerxes Longimanus. This event is recorded in…
Nechemyah 2:1 – 8
1
B'chodesh Nisan (with the new moon in the month of Nisan) in the twentieth
year of King Artaxerxes, when wine was brought for him, I took the wine and
gave it to the king. I had not been downcast in his presence before; so the
2
king asked me, “Why does your face look so downcast when you are not ill?
This can be nothing but sadness of heart.”
I was very much afraid, but I said to the king, “May the king live for ever! Why
3
should my face not look downcast when the city where my fathers are buried
lies in ruins, and its gates have been destroyed by fire?”
4
The king said to me, “What is it you want?” Then I prayed to the Elohim of
heaven, and I answered the king, “If it pleases the king and if your servant has
5
found favour in his sight, let him send me to the where my city in Yahudah
18
Read as “ efore essiah.” The equivalent of BC and BCE. B M
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fathers are buried so that I can it.” Then the king, with the queen rebuild
6
sitting beside him, asked me, “How long will your journey take, and when will
you get back?” It pleased the king to send me; so I set a time. I also said to
7
him, “If it pleases the king, may I have letters to the governors of Trans-
euphrates, so that they will provide me safe-conduct until I arrive in Yahudah?
8
And may I have a letter to Asaph, keeper of the king's forest, so he will give
me timber to make beams for the gates of the citadel by the Temple and for the
city wall and for the residence I will occupy?”
And because the gracious hand of my Elohim was upon me, the king granted
my requests.
The king's consent seems somewhat informal. We should remember, however, that any
command given by a king of the Medes and Persians was considered to be a legally
binding, irrevocable decree. Remember, too, that the Hebrew word translated as
“command” in Dani'el 9:25 is which means “a spoken word.” davar,
In the Hebrew, Nechemyah states that this decree was issued —“in the b'chodesh Nisan
month Nisan.” Because the root (chet-dalet-shin) means or we chadash renewed new,
may read more into Nechemyah 2:1 than is transparent in most translations, and may
translate it as “With the new moon in the month of Nisan.”
The first step in our calculation should therefore be to determine the date of the new
moon in the month Nisan, in the 20th year of the rule of king Artaxerxes Longimanus.
Nisan overlaps with our month March and April. The “new moon in Nisan” would thus
be translated as “the first appearance of the new moon in March.” According to The
Westminster Dictionary of the Bible (Gehman, H.S., 1944), Artaxerxes Longimanus
became king of Persia in 465 BM, so that his 20th year of rule (employing Jewish
inclusive reckoning) would have been 445 BM. The New Unger's Bible Dictionary
(Unger, 1988) concurs by stating,
Artaxerxes I Longimanus reigned over Persia for 40 years, 464–424 BC In the
7th year of his reign he commissioned Ezra to return to Yerushalayim, granting
large privileges to him and those accompanying him (Ezra 7:11-26), 457 BC
About 13 years later (445 BC) he granted permission to Nechemyah to assume
control of the civil affairs at Yerushalayim (Nechemyah 2:1-8).
To know the date on which the word was given to rebuild the city of e Yerushalayim, w
have to calculate the date of the first new moon in March 445 BM. Detailed
calculations by Dr. Gawie Nothnagel and Dr. Willie McLoud show that in March 445
BM, the new moon fell on Thursday 10 March (McLoud, 1995).
The question we have to answer is: On what date did king Artaxerxes Longimanus give
Nechemyah permission to rebuild Yerushalayim? According to the Mishnah, Jewish
months began on the date of the new moon or on the date when the disk of the moon
first become visible, i.e. one or two days later. It follows that in 445 BM, Nisan 1, the
first day of the first month of the religious calender, could have fallen on any date from
Thursday 10 March to Saturday 12 March. From Numbers 10:10, 28:14; 1 Shmu'el
20:5, 18, 24; 2 Kings 4:23; 1 Chronicles 23:31; Ezra 3:5; Nechemyah 10:33; Psalms
81:3; Yeshayahu 1:14; 66:23; Yechezq'el (Yechezq'el) 46:1, 46:6; Hoshea 5:7 and Amos
8:5 we know that (the New Moon festival) is a day of rest. Because the Rosh Chodesh
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appearance of the new moon and the subsequent was only one or two days Shabbat
apart in Nisan, 445 BM, they would have been celebrated on the same day, i.e. on the
Shabbat Shabbat that fell on 11/12 Nisan. It is very likely that on this , that was also the
first day of the new year on the religious calender, Nechemyah prayed earnestly to
YHWH for the restoration of Yerushalayim. The day after the , i.e. Sunday 13 Shabbat
March 445 BM, would have been the first day after the combined Rosh
Chodesh Shabbat ´ that Nechemyah would have appeared before king Artaxerxes
Longimanus. This explains why Nechemyah was so sad and in the king's downcast
presence.
We conclude that the prophetic countdown to the revelation of mashiach nagid —
Messiah the Prince began on Sunday 13 March 445 BM. —
The day would come Messiah the Prince
According to
Dani'el 9:25–26
25
Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the davar (word)
to restore and build Yerushalayim until Messiah the Prince ( ), mashiach nagid
there shall be seven and sixty-two [i.e. a total of sevens sevens 7 ÷ 62 = 60
sevens]; the streets shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublesome
times.
26
And after the sixty-two sevens, Messiah shall be cut off but not (yikaret),
for Himself the prince who is to come (w'ein lo); and the people of (am nagid
ha-ba) ha-qodesh shall destroy the city and the (set-apart place). The end of it
shall be with a flood, and till the end of the war desolations are determined.
a total of
(7 7) ÷ (62 7) = 488 years
would elapse from the date on which King Artaxerxes Longimanus gave permission to
Nechemyah to rebuild Yerushalayim, until the coming of Messiah as the Prince. This
would be followed by the subsequent “death-but-not-for-himself” of the Messiah.
In the books of Dani'el and Revelation, 3.5 years (“a time, times and half a time”), 42
months and 1260 days are synonyms. Mathematically, this gives rise to 3 simultaneous
equations in 3 unknowns. The solution is that
1 prophetic year 360 days, =
and that
1 prophetic month 30 days. =
It follows that days would elapse between the issue of the decree 60 860 = 178880
and the coming of Messiah the Prince, followed by his being “cut off but not for
himself.” Because is an exact multiple of 7, it also follows that the first and last 178880
dates of the period of days would fall on the same calender day, i.e. a Sunday. 178880
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If we take into account that there is only 1 year between 1 BM and 1 YM, it follows that
MESSIAH THE PRINCE ENTERED YERUSHALAYIM ON 10 NISAN in the
year 32 YM.
Messiah the Prince
Before we continue our discussion, we have to point out that two calenders are in use in
Scripture. From Genesis 1 to Exodus 11, the is in use. On this calender, civil calender
Aviv is the seventh month and Tishrei the first. According to Hebrew chronology, the
breath of life (Hebrew: ) was imparted to Adam on Tishrei 6, about 6000 neshamah
years ago. In Exodus 12, the is introduced. From this point forward, religious calender
Aviv is the first month, and Tishrei the seventh. After the Babylonian captivity, Aviv is
called Nisan.
According to the Apostolic writings (i.e. the New Testament), Yahushua was executed
on 14 Nisan (Mattithyahu 27: 62; Mark 15: 42; Luke 23: 54 & Yochanan 19: 31), and
died at 15:00, the exact time when the lambs were slaughtered in Yerushalayim. Pesach
At least two independent accounts by secular historians support this (see the well-known
book, by Josh McDowel). He was buried just before Evidence that Demands a Verdict
15 Aviv/Nisan, (the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread). He Chag ha Matzah,
spent 3 days and 3 nights in the tomb, and was resurrected on 17 Aviv/Nisan, on the
Feast of the Firstfruits of the barley harvest. (In the Jewish calender, days do not start at
midnight but at sunset; 15 Aviv was a Shabbaton, i.e. a special high-Sabbath that fell on
a fixed date, i.e. on any weekday that happened to coincide with that calender day. Also
note that Hebrew reckoning is inclusive, i.e. a fraction of a day or night constitutes a
whole day or night.)
Many -pictures point to 17 Aviv as a special day of the beginning of new life. The Torah
Yisra'elites came up from the Sea of Reeds between 04:00 and 06:00 on 17 Aviv, after
having left the old life of slavery in Mitsrayim behind. Noach's ark touched down on the
mountains of Ararat on 17 Aviv after having passed through the Flood, leaving the
utterly devastated old world of sinfulness behind (Genesis 8:4). Together with the
Festivals, these events were acted Messianic prophecies, signposts and rehearsals along
the way that were given to the people so that they would not miss the real event, when it
came.
We have seen that Yahushua was executed on 14 Aviv. In what year was he executed?
According to Luke 3: 1–23, Yahushua started his teaching in the 15th year of the reign
of Emperor Tiberius. If we correlate this with information presented by the historian
Flavius Josephus, we find that he started his ministry in 28 YM. Yahushua taught for
close to 3 years. This brings the year of his death to 32 YM.
1
2
Dani'el 9:24-27 shows that the Anointed One would be revealed as a (Ruler; Nagid
Prince) on 10 Nisan, 32 YM. In Exodus 12:3 we read that the lambs had to be Pesach
separated on 10 Aviv (Nisan). The lambs had to be without defect; they had to be
inspected for 4 days before being sacrificed on the 14th day of Aviv/Nisan. Does the
Almighty do anything without a purpose, without a plan? No. Mattithyahu 21, Luke 19
and Yochanan 12 show that the itinerant, aggadic proto-rabbi, Yahushua, entered
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Yerushalayim in a triumphant procession on Sunday Nisan 10, exactly 4 days before his
execution on Thursday, Nisan 14.
Yochanan 12:1-15:
Six days before the Passover [i.e. 6 days before the start of Chag haMatzah
on Nisan 15, i.e. on Nisan 9], Yahushua arrived at Bethany, where Eliezer
(Lazarus) lived, whom Yahushua had raised from the dead…
… [i.e. Sunday Nisan 10, 32 YM] the great crowd that had come The next day
for the Feast heard that Yahushua was on his way to [Chag haMatzah]
Yerushalayim. They took palm branches [Hebrew: ] and went out to lulavim
meet him, shouting,
“Hosanna!”
“Barukh haba b'shem Adonai!”
[“Blessed is he who comes in the name of YHWH!”]
“Blessed is the King of Yisra'el!”
Yahushua found a young and sat upon it, as it is written, donkey
“Do not be afraid, O Daughter of Tziyon;
see, your king is coming, seated on a donkey's colt.”
Mattithyahu 21:1-10
As they approached Yerushalayim and came to Beit-Pagey on the Mount of
Olives, Yahushua sent two , saying to them, “Go to the village ahead of talmidim
you, and at once you will find a donkey tied there, with her colt by her. Untie
them and bring them to me. If anyone says anything to you, tell him that the
Master needs them, and he will send them right away.”
This took place to fulfil what was spoken through the prophet [Zekharyahu 9:9]:
“Say to the Daughter of Tziyon,
'Look! Your King comes to you,
riding humbly on a donkey,
on a colt, the foal of a donkey.'”
The went and did as Yahushua had instructed them. They brought the talmidim
donkey and the colt, placed their cloaks on them, and Yahushua sat on them.
A very large crowd spread their cloaks on the road, while others cut branches
from the trees and spread them on the road. The crowds that went ahead of
him and those that followed shouted,
“Hosanna to the Son of David!”
“Blessed is he who comes in the name of YHWH!”
“Hosanna in the Highest!”
Luke 19:29-44
As he approached Beit-Pagey and Beit-Anyah at the hill called the Mount of
Olives, Yahushua sent two of his , saying to them, “Go to the village talmidim
ahead of you, and as you enter it, you will find a colt tied there, which no-one
has ever ridden. Untie it and bring it here. If anyone asks you, 'Why are you
untying it?' tell him, 'The Master needs it.' ” Those who were sent ahead went
and found it just as he had told them. As they were untying the colt, its owners
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asked them, “Why are you untying the colt?” They replied, “The Master needs
it.” They brought it to Yahushua, threw their cloaks on the colt and put
Yahushua on it.
As he went along, people spread their cloaks on the road. When he came near
the place where the road goes down the Mount of Olives, the whole crowd of
talmidim began joyfully to praise YHWH in loud voices for all the miracles they
had seen:
“ is the king who comes Barukh b'shem Adonai!”
“Shalom in heaven!”
and
“Esteem in the Highest!”
Some of the in the crowd said to Yahushua, “Rabbi, rebuke your P'rushim
talmidim!” “I tell you,” he replied, “if they keep quiet, the stones will cry
out.”
As he approached Yerushalayim and saw the city, he wept over it and
said, “If you, even you, had only known on this day what would bring you
peace—but now it is hidden from your eyes. The days will come upon
you when your enemies will build an embankment against you and
encircle you and hem you in on every side. They will dash you to the
ground, you and the children within your walls. They will not leave one
stone on another, because you did not recognise the time of your
visitation.”
Yahushua's words in Luke 19:40 – 44 contain definite overtones of Dani'el 9:25-26,
which foretold the very date when would come to Yerushalayim, an Messiah the Prince
event immediately to be followed by his substitutionary death, and later by the
destruction of Yerushalayim. The very date on which he would have entered the city in
triumph was indeed pinpointed in prophecy —this is why the stones would have cried it
out…! Yahushua's words also show that he foreknew his subsequent rejection by the
Sadducean religious leaders of the nation and the consequent destruction of the city of
Yerushalayim, which is also clearly foretold in Dani'el's prophecy.
Signs of Destruction
Dani'el 9:26 states that —the anointed ruler —would be executed, cut Mashiach Nagid
off, before the destruction of the Second Temple and the city of Yerushalayim. This
would, according to the Book of Dani'el, happen close to the year 30 YM.
Jewish sources record that very specific signs were given to Yisra'el in the last 40 years
of the existence of the Second Temple, i.e. roughly from the year 30 YM to the year 70
YM, when the and were destroyed. Beit haMiqdash Ir Yerushalayim
To understand one important sign, we have to look at an important fgacet of the Yom
Kippur avodah (service).
On , lots were drawn for two goats. The one lot read which Yom Kippur L'YHWH,
means while the other lot read, which means “to YHWH,” L'Azazel, “to Azazel”—
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Wayyiqra 16:8. The goat was led from the (Temple) by a chosen l'Azazel Miqdash
priest who is called an (a “timeless man,” i.e. a man without any sense of time or ish iti
season, rain, snow or inconvenience) and taken to (Mount Azal) where it was Har Azal
pushed off backwards from a high, steep, jagged cliff to be torn to shreds.
In the Me'am Lo'es Torah Anthology: Yom Kippur Service (Kaplan, 1982: 17), the
teachings of the sages about the meaning of the word is summarised: Azazel
The etymology of the word is as follows: it is derived from the word Azazel az or
azuz, strong. which denotes The word Azazel refers to a powerful, strong rock
or cliff. The word means strong… el
Some say the word refers to the cliff over which the goat was pushed. Azazel
The word Azazel could also be broken up into “ which means az azel,” “the goat
who goes.”
Kaplan (1982: 17-18; 54) describes the manner in which goat was killed: l'Azazel
The High Priest would then come to the goat upon which there was the lot “to
Azazel.” He would place both his hands on it and make confession for all
Yisra'el. He would say, “O YHWH, Your people have erred, sinned and
rebelled before you…”
He would then call the priest who had been designated from the day before
Yom Kippur, and would give him the goat to bring to the desert. On the day
before Yom Kippur, people would go to huts that had been put up previously to
accompany the person leading the goat. Those in the last hut would stand at
the edge of the area where one can go…to see from a distance what the
person in charge of the goat does.
The priest to whom the goat is given over, brings it to the cliff that we have
mentioned and leads it to the top of the cliff. Half of the hank of scarlet cloth he
would tie to the rock, and half he would tie between the goat's horns. Then with
his hands he pushes the goat down so that it tumbles down the cliff. It would
not reach halfway down before it was broken into pieces, totally dismembered.
The cliff over which the goat was thrown consisted of sharp, jagged rocks that
would tear the goat into shreds. He would then say, “This is the way the sins of
the House of Yisra'el should be destroyed.”
The sages taught that the command to slay the goat in this particular manner is a l'Azazel
chuqah —a decree, which cannot be fully comprehended with the intellect. The reasons
are known to YHWH, and Yisra'el should obey it although they do not understand it
fully.
The sages grappled with the meaning of the concerning goat chukah l'Azazel. The Torah
Anthology: Yom Kippur Service (Kaplan, 1982: 20-21) relates one explanation:
When comes, HaShem sends Satan Sama'el his portion in the form Yom Kippur
of the goat sent to Azazel. This is sent by the Yisra'elites to the desert, which
is a place of demons This is where Satan Sama'el has (shedim).
power…When Sama'el sees the goat sent to the desert, he also goes to the
desert…and he no longer speaks evil against Yisra'el.
Therefore a hank of scarlet wool was tied between the horns of the scape-
goat…When the goat was pushed off the cliff, that skein of scarlet wool would
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become white. This teaches that this act atoned for the sins of the Yisra'elites
and whitened them: “If your sins are like scarlet they shall become white as
snow” (Yeshayahu 1:18).
Through this repentance and confession, all the unclean spirits and denouncing
forces that were created out of the sins are placed on the goat's head. They
are destroyed with him in the desert, since this is the abode of these
denouncing forces.
The most probable meaning of the term is a desert demon. The high priest Azazel
(Kohen Gadol) L'YHWH took the two golden lots, one marked and the other marked
L'Azazel, and placed one upon the head of each animal, sealing their fate. It was
considered a good omen if the lot marked was drawn by the priest in the right L'YHWH
hand. Goat was sacrificed to sprinkle its blood on the seat of atonement of the L'YHWH
Ark of the Covenant in the (Holy of Holies), to atone for sins. Qodesh Ha Qodeshim
The goat marked “to Azazel” was led off to wander through the wilderness and taken to
the mountain where it would be killed. Before goat was led off to the L'Azazel
wilderness, the high priest lay both his hands upon its head and confesses over it all the
iniquities and transgressions of the Yisra'elites, whatever their misdeeds. Thus, the
Torah adds,
Wayyiqra 16:20-22
The goat shall carry on it all their iniquities to an inaccessible region…
A tongue-shaped scarlet (Hebrew: cloth was tied around the horn of goat shaniy)
L'Azazel. Then it was led out of the city by a group of men, who led it through the
Judean wilderness to , also known as From the moment that Mount Tzok Mount Azazel.
goat was led from the Temple, the entire temple service stopped, while the L'Azazel
people waited in tense expectancy for the news that was to come. On the way to Mount
Azazel, were constructed 10 (booths) where other men awaited the men who sukkot
were leading goat and offered them food and water. They had to refuse the L'Azazel,
food, because is a day of fasting. The highest and steepest cliff near Yom Kippur
Yerushalayim was on Mount Tzok. On Mount Azazel, goat was pushed off L'Azazel
backwards over the cliff, evidently to signify the physical removal of sin from the
community. Just before goat was pushed off to its death, the scarlet cloth was L'Azazel
divided in two pieces. The one piece was left tied to the goat's horn, while the other
piece was tied around a rock, the In Tractate of the Rock Chúdow. Yoma 39b
Babylonian Talmud, the Rabbis tell how a miracle regularly happened on Yom
Kippur —the scarlet cloth would turn white. By this miracle, the Almighty
communicated to the people that He had forgiven the sins of Yisra'el. The joyous
message that the scarlet cloth had turned white was relayed from sukkah to sukkah to the
crowd of people waiting at the Temple, by the jubilant waving of scarves and flags.
When this message that the goat marked for Azazel had been killed and that the shaniy
cloth had turned white, reached the people waiting at the temple, they celebrated by
dancing, singing and rejoicing.
The Talmud teaches that, during the of the Temple service, this miracle last 40 years
never happened. Not once. The Temple was destroyed in 70 YM about 40 years —
after the time of the date prophesied in Dani'el 9:26 for the coming of mashiach nagid.
In of the Babylonian Talmud, we read: Seder Mo'ed, Tractate Yoma 39b
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Our Rabbis taught: During the last forty years before the destruction of the
Temple the lot [ i.e. “For YHWH”] did not come up in the right hand; “L'YHWH,”
nor did the crimson-coloured strap become white; nor did the western- [shaniy]
most light [of the seven-branced menorah] shine; and the doors of the Hekhal
would open by themselves, until Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai rebuked them,
saying: why wilt thou be the alarmer thyself [i.e. why do you “Hekhal, Hekhal,
predict your own destruction]? I know about thee that thou wilt be destroyed,
for Zekharyah ben Yiddo has already prophesied concerning thee: 'Open thy
doors, O Lebanon, that the fire may devour thy cedars.'”
In other words, during the last 40 years of the Temple, the (light of Elohim), ner Elohim
i.e. the flame in the branch of the closest to the , did not Menorah Qodesh haQodeshim
stay lit, and the heavy Nikanor gates, which required 20 men to open and close, opened
by themselves during the night. Josephus, who was a kohen (priest) before he became a
general, also described this spontaneous opening of the inner gates in circa 63 YM
(Josephus, 1957):
Moreover the East Gate of the inner Temple which was of brass and vastly
heavy, had been with difficulty shut by 20 men,… was seen to be opened of its
own accord about the 6th hour of the night… this also appeared to the vulgar to
be a happy prodigy but men of learning understood it, that the serenity of their
set-apart House was dissolved of its own accord, and that the gate was opened
for the advantage of their enemies. So these publicly declared that the signal
foreshadowed the desolation that was coming upon them.
The spontaneous opening of the gates was seen as a sign that the desolation of the
Temple was near.
To understand how sages like Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai drew this conclusion from
Scripture, we must understand the connection between the Temple, the Nikanor gates,
and a prophecy in the book of Zekharyah:
Zekharyah 11:1-3
1
Open your doors, O Lebanon, so that fire may devour your cedars!
2
Wail, O pine tree, for the cedar has fallen; the stately trees are ruined! Wail,
oaks of Bashan; the dense forest has been cut down!
3
Listen to the wail of the shepherds: their rich pastures are destroyed! Listen to
the roar of the lions; the lush thicket of the Jordan is ruined!
The Hebrew word translated as “doors” in also means gates. King Zekharyah 11:1
Sh lomo used cedars from Lebanon in the construction of the Temple. The Nikanor
e
gates were made of cedar wood from Levanon, which was overlaid with brass. In
Hebrew, the name is related to the word which means the Temple Levanon lavan, white;
was white. Accordingly, the spontaneous opening of the Nikanor gates of the (white)
Temple was interpreted as a sign from YHWH that the destruction of the cedars of
Lebanon, i.e. the desolation of the Temple, predicted in Dani'el 9:26, was about to take
place.
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Yeshayahu 9
The ancient sages of Yisra'el understood the following prophecy as announcing the
Mashiach.
Yeshayahu 9:6-7
6
For to us a Child is born, to us a Son is given, and the government will be on
his shoulders. And He will be called Pele Yo'etz, El Gibbor, Avi Ad, Sar Shalom
(Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty El, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace).
7
Of the increase of his government and peace there will be no end. He will
reign on David's throne and over his kingdom, establishing and upholding it
with justice and righteousness from that time on and for ever. The zeal of
YHWH Tzva'ot will accomplish this.
Modern Judaism has often attempted to translate this prophecy in Yeshayahu 9 so that it
is hardly recognisable as a messianic prophecy. Sadly, this is a forced, apologetic
reaction against Christianity, and conflicts with the understandings of the sages. For
example, the ancient Aramaic paraphrase renders this passage: Targum Yonathan
From ancient times his name was given as Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty El,
He who lived forever, the Messiah in whose days peace shall increase.
From (quoted in Patai, 1979: 21), we also see that the ancient Jewish Pereq Shalom
sages identified the Son of Yeshayahu 9:6 as the Messiah:
Rabbi Yose the Galilean said: “The name of the Messiah is for it is Shalom,
said, [Peace] (Yeshayahu 9:6)…” Rabbi Everlasting Father, Prince of Shalom
Yose the Galilean said: “Great is peace, for in the hour in which King Messiah
is revealed to Yisra'el, he begins with peace, for it is said, How beautiful upon
the mountains are the feet of the messenger of good tidings who announces
peace (Yeshayahu 52:7).”
Rabbi Yahushua and the Torah
Rabbi Ya'aqov Emden (18 century) wrote (Falk, 1985: 21-22):
th
Not one of our sages spoke out more emphatically concerning the immutability
of the [than Yahushua]… Torah
…If certain Christians who consider themselves scholars, who believe that they
are commanded to abolish the of Mosheh from the seed of Yisra'el, Torah
would understand this deep truth [that the is for the Jews, while the Torah
Noachide commandments is for Gentiles]…they would not engage in such
foolishness…[The termination of -observance by Jews] was never Torah
intended by the writers of the Gospels. Quite the opposite, they have written
clearly that they intended the contrary…
Because of these errant [Christian] scholars [who teach that the was Torah
abolished], hatred has increased towards the Jews…
It is a grave error to state that Judaism ever saw the as a vehicle for attaining Torah
salvation. Professor E.P. Sanders have investigated the view of the relationship between
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salvation and the that was held in Yisra'el at the time of Yahushua's ministry. He Torah
calls the view of the sages The sages viewed election and salvation covenantal nomism.
as sovereign acts of unmerited grace, whereby the nation is brought into the covenant.
Once inside the covenant, man is given on how to live his life. This instruction
instruction, i.e. is his Torah, covenant obligation.
The Redemption in Aviv (Nisan) or Tishri
After the service [on people wish each other, “Shanah ha-ba'ah [Ge'ulah] Yom Kippur],
ba Yerushalayim” —“Next year in Yerushalayim.” Only twice a year is this wish
expressed: Once at the termination of the Haggadah on Pesach night and once on Yom
Kippur. This is in accordance with the difference of opinion between Rabbi Eiliezer
and Rabbi Yehoshua as to whether the Messiah will come to redeem Yisra'el in
Aviv/Nisan or in Tishrei.
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The 7000 year plan of YHWH
The and the Alef Tav
The first sentence in the first chapter in the first book of the contains a very Torah
important prophecy about the coming of the Messiah. (Genesis) 1:1 reads: Bereshith
1 2 3 5 7
In the beginning of created Elohim the heavens the earth
4 6
Bereshith bara Elohim [et] haShamayim [v'et] haEretz
 
The Hebrew spelling of the fourth word in Genesis 1:1 is and the Z} (et), alef-tav,
spelling of the sixth word, is In the Hebrew language, the Z} Y Z} (v'et), wav-alef-tav.
(et) is a purely grammatical word. Its only function is to point to the subject/object of a
sentence. Therefore the word is not translated. The prefixed to the (or Z} (et) wav et
other words) is the Hebrew way of saying “and.”
What is the deeper significance of the word and its usage in Genesis 1:1? The Z} }
(alef) (tav) is the first letter in the Hebrew alphabet, and the the last. (Refer to the Z
acrostic Tehillim 119 to verify this). The is the 6 letter. The ancient sages Y(wav)
th
identified the as the letter of man, because man was created on the 6 day when the wav
th
neshamah (breath of life) was imparted to Adam, making him a being in the image
(tselem) and likeness of the Almighty.
In Zekharyah 12:9-14 we read that the Yisra'elites will look up to Him whom they have
pierced and will bitterly grieve for Him, like one mourns at the death of a firstborn son:
Zekharyah 12:9-14:
9
In thát day [ ] I will set out to destroy all the nations that attack ba'Yom ha-hu
Yerushalayim.
10
“And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of
Yerushalayim a spirit of grace and supplication. They will look on Me, whom
they have pierced, and they will mourn for him as one mourns for an only
child, and grieve bitterly for him as one grieves for a firstborn son.
11
In thát day [ ] the weeping in Yerushalayim will be great, like the ba'Yom ha-hu
weeping of Hadad Rimmon in the plain of Megiddo. The land will mourn,
12
each clan by itself, with their wives by themselves: the clan of the house of
David and their wives, the clan of the house of Nathan and their wives, the
13
clan of the house of Levi and their wives, the clan of Shimei and their wives,
14
and all the rest of the clans and their wives.
It is very significant that, in the Hebrew text, the grammatical word, the is used alef-tav,
in direct relation to the subject (“Me”) of the sentence in verse 10 that reads,
They will look on me whom they have pierced Z} and they will mourn for him…
Is there any significance in this use of the in Zekharyah 12:10? In Mattithyahu Z}
24:30, Yahushua makes it clear that Yisra'el will mourn for at his second coming: Him
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At that time the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and all the tribes
of the Land [i.e. the land Yisra'el] will mourn [a reference to Zekharyah 12:9–
14]. They will see the Son of Man coming with the clouds of heaven, with
power and great [a reference to the of Dani'el 7:13 ]. kivod bar-Enosh
19 20
In Revelation 1:7-8 we find a paraphrased quote of Zekharyah 12:10, which renders the
alef-tav of the latter passage explicitly into the Greek language as the Alpha and the
Omega:
Revelation 1:7-8
Look, he is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see him, even those who
pierced him; and all the tribes of the land will because of him. So shall mourn
it be! Amen. “I am the ,” says the Master Elohim, “who Alpha and the Omega
is, and who was, and who is to come, the Almighty.”
In Revelation 1:11, 21:6 and 22:13, the Messiah calls himself the Alpha and the
Omega:
Revelation 1:11
Saying, “I am , the first and the last. What you see, write in Alpha and Omega
a book, and send it to the seven assemblies which are in Asia, to Ephesus, and
to Smyrna, and to Pergamos, and unto Thyatira, and to Sardis, and unto
Philadelphia, and to Laodicea.
Revelation 21:6
He said to me: It is done. I am the , the Beginning and Alpha and the Omega
the End. To him who is thirsty I will give to drink without cost from the spring of
the water of life.
Revelation 22:13
I am the , the First and the Last, the Beginning and the Alpha and the Omega
End.
We see that, in the Greek of the (New Testament) writings, both the B'rit Chadashah
Father and the Son are termed the and the , which are the first and last Alpha Omega
letters in the Greek alphabet, and therefore the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew and alef
the . We conclude that the is a term for the Messiah, who is the visible tav alef-tav
19
Dani'el 7 falls within the Aramaic part of the book of Dani'el. (or is the Aramaic Bar-Enosh Anash)
term for the Hebrew i.e. Son of Man. It is important to note that the term Son of Man was ben-Adam,
understood 2000 years ago in Yisra'el as a Messianic title, as the title of a transcendent heavenly being
who is a man and to whom all the authority to rule and judge the world, was given by the Almighty.
Because they had very little insight in the Hebrew background of the Scriptures, the Church Fathers
wrongly understood Yahushua's use of the term “Son of Man” as a statement about the humanity of the
Messiah (Young, 1995). It is a statement about his authority, pre-existence and transcendence, and His
eschatological coming as the Second Adam, the new Representative and King of the redeemed faithful
remnant of mankind, to rule the earth.
20
This prophecy is understood messianically in Numbers Rabbati 13:14; Talmud Bavli Sanhedrin
96b – 97a; 98a; Targum to 1 Chronicles 3:24; Pirqei Mashiach, Beit HaMidrash 3:70; 4 Ezra 13:1-9;
Matthew 24:27-30; 26:64; Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26; 12:40; 17:24; 18:8; 21:27-28; 22:69-70; Acts 7:56 and
Revelation 1:13.
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image and exact representation, of the invisible Father. The fact that Revelation 1:7-8 is
a paraphrased quote of Zekharyah 12:10, which renders the of the latter passage alef-tav
explicitly into the Greek language as the Alpha and the Omega, also shows that the
Hebrew word in Zekharyah 12:10 is very significant: it is a title of the One who was et
pierced.
We now come back to Genesis 1:1. The is the word while the alef-tav wav-alef- fourth
tav sod is the word in this sentence. The (deeper meaning) of the use of these sixth
grammatical words in their specific positions in the opening sentence of the is Torah,
that King Messiah, the beginning and the goal, the Alpha and the Omega, the and Alef
the the visible image of the invisible Father, will come to earth two times —4000 Tav,
and 6000 years after the creation of Adam, respectively. We know that He indeed came
to earth 4000 years after creation. After having come to earth near the year 4000 to pay
the price for His Bride, he went to heaven the fifth word in Bereshith 1:1. (shamayim) —
In the year 6000, He, the Man ( ) who is the and the will come back to wav Alef Tav,
earth —the seventh word in Genesis 1:1. We will show that an impressive (eretz)
number of prophetic patterns in Scripture teach that the Messiah will come again at the
end of 6000 years.
The opening sentence of the contains a magnificent and rich Messianic prophecy. Torah
It is salvation history in a nutshell. There are at least 4 Messianic prophecies in the first
chapter of Bereshith.
The is also an allusion to the The Messiah is the personification of the Z} Torah.
Torah; Torah the righteousness that is through Him is the goal at which the aims; under
His rule, the will go forth from Yerushalayim and the (Word) of YHWH Torah Devar
from Tziyon.
Because it is a purely grammatical word, some Hebrews advocate the removal of the Z}
from modern Hebrew. At this suggestion, most Rabbis cringe in horror. Their
resistance against doing away with this little word is to be valued, seeing that it is a term
for the Messiah.
Eschatological significance of the Sabbath
The Almighty created the heavens and the earth in 6 days. On the 7th day He was in
menuchah Shabbat —in rest. Therefore He set the 7th day apart as a —a day of rest.
The is called the Day of YHWH The is the first thing that is made Shabbat . Shabbat
qadosh (set-apart) in Scripture. Does the Almighty do anything without a purpose,
without a plan? No. He could have created the universe in a moment. But He to chose
do it in six days and rest on the seventh day. Why? To communicate with us, to teach
us. The account of creation is designed to teach us about our redemption by the
Messiah, about the coming of the —the Kingdom of Heaven. We Malkut Shamayim
will show that the six days of creation followed by the of rest —the Day of Shabbat
YHWH—is instruction, communication, about salvation history.
The (deeper meaning) of (earth) being the seventh word in Bereshith 1:1 is that sod eretz
the and , which is prophetically enacted in the weekly Shabbat, will shalom menuchah
come to the earth after 6000 years. In the Messianic kingdom, the faithful remnant of
man will be in —in rest. menuchah
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In Tractate Sanhedrin 97a–97b of the Babylonian Talmud, we find the following very
profound statement about the teachings of an ancient sage, Rabbi Eliyahu :
21
It was taught in the school of [the sage, Rabbi] Eliyahu, that the is ‘Olam ha-zeh
to endure for 6000 years. In the first 2000 years there was (desolation), tohu
for 2000 years the flourished, and the next 2000 years is the Torah Yemot
HaMashiach. But through our many iniquities, all these years have been lost.
Paraphrased, this statement reads:
It was taught in the school of the sage, Rabbi Eliyahu, that the present age is to
endure for 6000 years. This 6000 year period will unfold in three distinct
phases, each lasting 2000 years:
_1 The first 2000 years was the age of desolation.
_2 The next 2000 years was the age of Torah, i.e. teaching, instruction.
_8 The next 2000 years is the Days of the Messiah.
But the Days of the Messiah did not begin when and as we [national Yisra'el]
expected it to begin. Why not? [Rabbi Eliyahu taught that] it was the many
iniquities of the house of Yisra'el that caused this, so that all these years of the
Days of the Messiah have been lost to Yisra'el.
This view that the present age would last 6000 years and would unfold in 3 stages, each
lasting 2000 years, is rooted in Scripture, as well as in the prophetic (pattern) of tavnit
the seven days of the week: The 6 days of hard work comes to an end and is followed by
a of (rest). The ancient perspective of the Jewish sages was that Shabbat menuchah
every day of the week represents 1000 years. They based this on the statement in
Tehillim 90:4 that a 1000 years are to the Almighty as a day.
Tehillim 90:4
For a thousand years in your sight are like a day that has just gone by, or like a
watch in the night.
Just as there is seven days in a week, the sages taught, there will be 7000 years to time.
The events of the 6 days of creation followed by a day of (rest) is a menuchah tavnit
(pattern) that will recur in salvation-history. The first six days of creation foreshadows
the 6 days of work, the 6000 years of the This will be followed by a ‘Olam ha-zeh.
1000 year period of (rest), which is prophetically foreshadowed in the menuchah
Shabbat Yom YHWH, This is the 1000 years of the Messianic Kingdom, which is a
major theme of prophecy. We will develop this theme extensively in this chapter.
The ages of salvation history
21
Eliyahu is the correct form of the Hebrew name commonly transliterated as Elijah.
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If we combine the best of the teachings of the ancient rabbinic sages, with the revelation
given in the writings, we can construct the following eschatological B'rit Chadashah
timeline:
~~~~~~~ ~~~~~¬ ~ ¬ Olam ha-zeh Athid Lavo ‘Olam ha-bah
0 —2000 2000 —4000 4000 —6000 6000 —7000 World to come
Age of Age of Tohu Torah Yemot
HaMashiach HaMashiach
Yemot
(Firstfruits) (Messianic
Kingdom)
Adam sins Messiah Messiah Messiah reigns YHWH reig
comes 1 comes 2
as Zeroah YHWH
- ¬ ¬ ns
directly
Figure 0.1: The ages of salvation history. The ‘Olam ha-zeh (“this world”) is ordained
to last 6000 years, calculated from the impartation of the neshamah to Adam. The first
2000 years was the Age of Desolation, i.e. there was almost no Torah, no showing of the
way, no instruction, no teaching. This age ended in failure. During the next 2000
years, that is from the calling of Avraham to the first coming of the Messiah, the Torah
flourished. It was the Age of Instruction. At the year 4000 the Go'el came and
redeemed us by dying in our place, bearing the punishment that was due to us, making
atonement to the Father. At the first Shavuot after the kinsman-redemption was
accomplished, the eschatological congregation was empowered. The Yemot
HaMashiach (the Days of the Messiah) began. The Yemot HaMashiach has 2 distinct
phases. From the redemption to the year 6000, it has a spiritual, first-fruits nature.
Those who do teshuvah, i.e. turn from their sins to the Almighty, by faith in the
substitutionary qorban chata'aat (sin-offering) of Yahushua the Messiah, are spiritually
translated into the Yemot HaMashiach. They receive the gift of imputed righteousness
and the firstfruits of the adoption as children of Elohim. They receive the foretaste of
the powers of the ‘Olam ha-ba, the world to come. The year 6000 marks the beginning
of the reign of King Messiah. The resurrection of the dead tzadeqim, the coronation
and wedding of the Messiah will take place on Yom Teruah. The tzadeqim will be bodily
transformed and the Ruach haQodesh, the Sh'khinah and the Kivod will come upon them
in fullness. The Athid Lavo, the Future Age, will arrive; this is phase 2 of the Yemot
HaMashiach. After the Millennial reign of the Messiah, the ‘Olam ha-ba, the world to
come, will arrive for all the faithful. At that time, Messiah will hand the Kingdom over
to the Father (1 Corinthians 15:28).
Note: The ‘Olam ha-ba is not a simple concept. It is related to resurrection and to
being a tzadiq, i.e. having received the tzadeqah of Messiah Yahushua as a gift. When a
tzadiq is resurrected, or transformed at the coming of King Messiah, he or she enters
the ‘Olam ha-ba. Yahushua is already in the ‘Olam ha-ba. After 7000 years, all the
tzadeqim will be in the ‘Olam ha-ba.
During the first 2000 years of the (the present age), YHWH gave very ‘Olam ha-zeh
little (instruction) to mankind —that is why the Rabbinic sages called it the Torah Age
of Tohu (desolation). Less than 10 chapters in the entire Scriptures deal with this age,
which ended in the total failure of mankind, with the exception of one family. The
Artscroll Rosh HaShanah Machzor describes this initial failure (Sherman, 1985: xix):
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The Talmud teaches that in Noach's time, all humanity except Noach and his
family had become morally and ethically corrupt. It began with covert denial of
Elohim in the form of covert idolatry, and later became public. It spread to
thievery and violence of all sorts, reaching a level of decadence…sexual
debauchery and perversion became the norm.
This initial failure of mankind was repeated after the Flood with the rebellion at Bavel,
apparently led by Kush and Nimrod, according to extra-Scriptural sources.
After the 2000 years of the repeated failure of mankind, YHWH chose Avraham avinu
( ), made a (covenant) with him and started giving him our father Avraham b'rit
Torah —teaching, instruction. He took him by the hand and showed him the way to
walk, how to hit the mark in life. The Artscroll Rosh HaShanah Machzor, (1985: xvi)
states this as follows:
Avraham was the new beginning for mankind after its failure…
The Vol. 1A (p. 359), explains the qualitative leap in the Artscroll Tanakh Series,
progression of salvation history that occurred with the calling of Avraham:
With Avraham, there began a new birth of the history of mankind. Avraham, in
a real sense, was as much the “first man” as were Adam and Noach. The Era
of Desolation ended with the year 2000. It was indeed a bleak era in history.
The fall of Adam, the murder of Hevel, the introduction of idolatry, the failure of
the first ten generations, the deluge, the failure of ten generations after Noach,
the Dispersion. But in the year 1948 (from Creation), Avraham was born.
When he was 52 years old—the year 2000 [since Creation] —he began
gathering people together in Charan and teaching them how to serve HaShem.
With that, an era began. Desolation was over and a new light began to shine
upon humanity, the light of Avraham who embodied the light of . Torah
Avraham was a new phenomenon; there had never been anyone like him and
he was completely apart from his birthplace and family, even from his parents…
When the (the children of Yisra'el) were led from Mitsrayim, YHWH gave b'nei-Yisrael
the written to Mosheh on (Mount Sinai) on the first Torah Har Sinai Shavuot
(Pentecost). During and He brought them into freedom, and Pesach Chag Ha Matzah,
during He gave them His Before they received the they were a Shavuot Torah. Torah,
collection of newly freed slaves. At YHWH made them into a nation. The Shavuot,
Torah Torah was and is their national constitution. The constitutes the covenant
obligations of the nation of Yisra'el, a guide and framework they had to keep for their
own good. It is instruction about how to live separated and dedicated unto YHWH,
about our sinful, fallen state, our need of redemption by the shed sacrificial blood of the
innocent Messiah and our restoration to the by objective deeds in Malkut Shamayim
salvation-history —deeds performed by the (loyal, covenantal love) of the Father chesed
and through the faithfulness of the Son. At Sinai, YHWH betrothed Himself to Yisra'el,
the firstfruits of the harvest of the nations (Yirmeyahu 2:1-3). The Judaism of the time
of Yahushua's ministry in Yisra'el is characterised by a unitary “pattern of religion”
namely covenantal nomism. The pattern or structure of covenantal nomism is this: (1)
YHWH has chosen Yisra'el and (2) given the The implies both (3) Torah. Torah
YHWH's promise to maintain the election and (4) the requirement to obey. (5) YHWH
rewards obedience and punishes transgression. (6) The provides for means of Torah
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atonement, and atonement results in (7) maintenance or re-establishment of the
covenantal relationship. (8) All those who are maintained in the covenant by obedience,
atonement and YHWH's mercy, belong to the group which will be saved. An important
interpretation of the first and last points is that election and ultimately salvation are
considered to be by YHWH's mercy rather than human achievement. Passage after
passage from Tannaitic literature, the Qumran documents, and inter-testamental
literature may be cited to prove conclusively that the perception of late Second Temple
Period Judaism (or some branch thereof) as a religion of legalistic works-righteousness,
wherein YHWH's approbation must be earned by good works in a system of strict
justice, is wrong.
Let us now turn to a beautiful -picture of the coming of the Torah Go'el. In the account
of creation, the lights in the heavens appeared on day four:
Bereshith 1:14-19
14
And Elohim said, “Let there be in the expanse of the sky to lights separate
the day from the night, signs and let them serve as to mark seasons and
days and years, and let them be lights in the expanse of the sky to
15
give light
on the earth.” And it was so.
16
Elohim made two great lights —the and the greater light to govern the day
lesser light to govern the night. He also made the stars.
17 18
Elohim set them in the expanse of the sky to givelight on the earth, to
govern the day and the night, and And to separatelight from darkness.
Elohim saw that it was good.
19
And there was evening, and there was morning—thefourth day.
After 2000 years of total darkness in the Age of Desolation, and 2000 years of a a
gradual dawn during the Age of Instruction, i.e. after a total of 4000 years, the Light of
the World came into the world to redeem the world.
Yochanan 8:12
When Yahushua spoke again to the people, he said, “I am the light of the
world. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness, but will have the light
of life.”
After 4000 years of darkness, the Anointed One came to earth to make kapparah
(atonement) for our sins and to accomplish the redemption so that we can be adopted as
children of the Almighty and be restored back into the fulness of the . Malkut Shamayim
There are many such exquisite pictures in Scriptural history, because Scriptural Torah-
history teaches past and future salvation history.
The teaching that 6000 years would elapse from Adam to the physical Messianic
Kingdom, is certainly not peculiar to Rabbi Eliyahu, who lived before the time of
Yahushua. It was a major teaching of the Jewish sages and the early Christians. Let us
review some examples.
In the following quotation from Scripture, Shimon haSh'liach (Peter the apostle) echoes
Psalm 90 by restating the principle that there is a specific mapping between days and
years:
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1 = 1000 day years.
Note that the context of this passage is the judgement that will come at the end of the
‘Olam ha-zeh. (In Scripture, a consuming fire symbolises judgement.)
2 Peter 3:8-9
But do not forget this one thing, dear friends: With YHWH a day is like a
thousand years, and a thousand years are like a day. YHWH is not slow in
keeping his promise, as some understand slowness. He is patient with you, not
wanting anyone to perish, but everyone to do [come to repentance]. teshuvah
The Jewish sages conceived of history as a long (“seven”), i.e. week, with shavuah
every day representing 1000 years. Just as the creation of the earth took six days,
followed by a of rest, so there would be 6000 years followed by the great Shabbat
Shabbat of the 1000 years of the Messianic Kingdom, as described in Hebrews 4:4-9
and Revelation 20. Because history is viewed as a week, with every day representing
1000 years, the first 4000 years since Adam is called the “former days,” while the last
2000 years before the coming of the of rest, the Messianic kingdom, represents Shabbat
the i.e. the latter days. The term is, in Jewish thought, a acharit-yamim, acharit-yamim
synonym for eschatology. It is, of course, a special term for the last of the last
days —the time when the world would go through convulsions, excruciating pain and
the shedding of blood like a woman in labour while the Messiah and His Bride enjoy the
shavuah chuppah ‘Iqqvot Ha in heaven. The other Jewish term for eschatology is
Mashiach —“footsteps of the Messiah.” This term comes from Tehillim 89:51
Tehillim 89:51
Wherewith your enemies have reproached, O YHWH;
wherewith they have reproached the . footsteps of your Messiah
The ancient Jewish understanding of eschatology is that it includes everything dealing
with the coming of the Messiah. In this view, the entire period between the two
comings of the Messiah is eschatological; believers are in the and should acharit-yamim
walk —footsteps of the Messiah. ‘Iqqvot Ha Mashiach
Science states that the universe is approximately 16.4 billion years old. Scripture
teaches, indirectly, that Adam and Eve were created 6000 years ago. How can we
reconcile these vastly different figures?
It is very important to note that scriptural chronology does not date events from the first
day of creation, but from the day that the neshamah was imparted to Adam, i.e. from the
end of the sixth day. Modern archaeology testifies to the accuracy and integrity of
scriptural chronology.
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The rabbinic sage Nachmanides stated that the first 6 days of creation are 6 days of 24
22
hours each, but that they stand apart from ordinary scriptural chronology, and contain all
the secrets and ages of the universe. Nachmanides also stated that the universe started
as an infinitesimally small sphere which expanded rapidly. This sounds like the “Big
Bang” theory! Could it be that the creation account of Genesis and the Big Bang theory
are just different ways of stating the same thing?
The General Theory of Relativity tells us that the difference in the rate at which time
passes in different frames of reference, depends on the ratio of the strengths of the
gravitational fields in the two systems. Let us suppose that the first 6 days of creation
are described from a different frame of reference than the subsequent history, which is
described in the earth's own frame of reference. What would the frame of reference for
the first 6 days be? The most obvious choice would be to take the point of reference at
the very moment when time itself became well-defined, i.e. at the moment of quark
condensation.
According to Stephen Weinberg, author of (1977), the force of The First Three Minutes
gravitation was times stronger at the moment of quark condensation, compared to 10
12
its strength in our present frame of reference here on earth. Suppose that the duration of
the first 6 days of creation are expressed in this cosmic frame of reference, while the
remainder of scriptural history is expressed in our own earthly frame of reference. Then
the 16.4 billion years of the age of the universe transforms into:
16.4 10
10
= 6
0
12
years
days.
We see that if we place the frame of reference for the description of the first 6 days of
creation at the moment of quark condensation, when time became well-defined, 16.4
billion years on earth becomes equivalent to exactly 6 days of 24 hours each in the
cosmological frame of reference.
Readers who are interested in reading more on this topic, are referred to the book, The
Science of God, by Dr. Gerald L. Schroeder —see the Bibliography. South African
readers who have difficulty in obtaining Dr. Schroeder's audiotapes and books, may
22
Nachmanides (Ramban; Rabbi Moshe ben Nachman) (1194-1270 C.E.)
Nachmanides was the foremost of his age. Like Maimonides before him, Nachmanides was a halakhist
Spaniard who was both a physician and a great Torah scholar. However, unlike the rationalist
Maimonides, Nachmanides had a strong mystical bent. His biblical commentaries are the first ones to
incorporate the mystical teachings of qabalah.
He was well-known for his refutations of Christianity, most notably, his debate with Pablo Christiani, a
converted Jew, before King Jaime I of Spain in 1263.
Nachmanides could be described as one of history's first Zionists, because he declared that it is a mitzvah
to take possession of Israel and to live in it (relying on Bemidbar 33:53). He said, “So long as Israel
occupies [the Holy Land], the earth is regarded as subject to Him.” Nachmanides fulfilled this
commandment, moving to the Holy Land during the Crusades after he was expelled from Spain for his
polemics. He found devastation in the Holy Land, “but even in this destruction,” he said, “it is a blessed
land.” He died there in 1270 C.E.
Nachmanides should not be confused with Rabbi Nachman of Breslov.
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order them from Acme Publications, PO Box 357, Highlands North, 2037, South Africa,
Fax (011) 885-3097, Tel (011) 887-5262.
The throne of King Sh'lomo
The reign of king Sh'lomo (Solomon) is a of the reign of King Messiah. King tavnit
Sh'lomo was empowered by the Spirit with (wisdom). He reigned in shalom chokhmah
and splendour. The of the throne of Sh'lomo (Solomon) is highly significant. In form
2 Chronicles 9:17-19 and 1 Kings 10:19 we read that led to his throne. Like- six steps
wise, there will be 6000 years leading up to the throne, the kingdom, of King Messiah.
The Wedding on the Seventh Day
In the first 2 chapters of Yochanan, we have another picture of the 7000 year plan of
YHWH. The key is to count the number of days before Yahushua went to the wedding
in Cana in the Galil. It is on the seventh day that Yahushua attended the wedding, a
parallel to the wedding in the Messianic Kingdom. The first 4 days are found in verses
19, 29, 35 and 43 of Chapter 1. On the fourth day, Yahushua makes a trip, and is not
seen until the seventh day (Chapter 2). The journey Yahushua makes on the fourth day
relates to scriptural chronology. Starting from [Adam], and counting the days from
Adam to the Flood, from the Flood to Avraham, it is apparent that the Messiah came
into the world at the end of 4000 years (the fourth day) and that he will return at the end
of the year 6000 for the wedding at the beginning of the seventh day, Yom YHWH.
The days of Noach
Noach was 600 years old when the flood came. The flood foreshadows the judgement
of the that the Almighty will bring over the earth after 6000 Chevlei Shel Mashiach
years.
The Marriage of Yitzchak and the birth of Ya'aqov
Yitzchak was not seen after the (binding of the sacrifice) on Mount Moriyah aqeida
(Bereshith 22). We only see him again when he takes a bride at age 40. His son
Ya'aqov, who became Yisra'el, is born when Yitzchak is 60 years old. Likewise,
Messiah Yahushua went away (to heaven) after He was sacrificed on Mount Moriyah.
He came in the year 4000 to take a Bride. Yisra'el will be born again after the 6000
years of the Olam ha-zeh.
The Mountain of Transfiguration
The transfiguration of the Messiah teaches important messages on the coming of the
Messianic kingdom. It is described in Mattithyahu 17:1-9
1
After six days, Yahushua took with him Peter, Ya'aqov and Yochanan the
brother of Ya'aqov, and led them up a high mountain by themselves.
2
There he was transfigured before them. His face shone like the sun, and
his clothes became as white as the light.
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3
Just then there appeared before them Mosheh and Eliyahu, talking with
Yahushua. Peter said to Yahushua, “Master, it is good for us to be here. If you
4
wish, I will put up three shelters —one for you, one for Mosheh and one for
Eliyahu.”
5
While he was still speaking, a bright cloud enveloped them, and a voice from
the cloud said, “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased. Listen
to him!”
6 7
When the heard this, they fell face down to the ground, terrified. But talmidim
Yahushua came and touched them. “Get up,” he said. “Don't be afraid.” When
8
they looked up, they saw no-one except Yahushua.
9
As they were coming down the mountain, Yahushua instructed them, “Don't tell
anyone what you have seen, until the Son of Man has been raised from the
dead.”
The transfiguration takes place after 6 days —a picture of the 6000 years of the ‘Olam
ha-zeh. In the preceding passage (Mattithyahu 16:27-28), Yahushua promises His
talmidim kivod that some of them will not see death till they see Him in His (esteem;
radiance). This promise was literally fulfilled in the vision of the transfiguration. In
Yahushua's transfiguration into His glorified body, the Almighty promises those who put
their trust in Yahushua that they would receive a similar body when the Messiah
returns —
1 Yochanan 3:2
Dear friends, now we are children of Elohim, and what we will be has not yet
been made known. But we know that when he [Yahushua the Messiah]
appears, we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is.
The transfiguration teaches us that, when the comes in its fullness Malkut Shamayim
with the return of the Messiah, our transformed bodies will have the —the kivod
glorious radiance of the Yahushua takes the three and brings them up a high Sh'khinah.
mountain, apart. At the end of 6000 years, the Messiah will gather those who are His
talmidim Natzal [faithful student-followers] together in the (rapture):
Yeshayahu 13:2-3
Lift up a banner on a high mountain, raise your voice unto them, beckon to
them, that they may enter through the gates of the nobles. I have commanded
my set-apart ones, I have called my mighty ones to my nose—them who
rejoice in my exaltation.
Yeshayahu 18:3
All you people of the world, you who live on the earth, when a banner is (nes)
raised on the mountains, you will see it, and when a trumpet sounds, you will
hear it.
1 Thessalonians 4:16-17
16
For the Master himself will come down from heaven, with a (loud teruah
command), with the voice of the archangel and with the shofar call of Elohim,
and the dead in Messiah will rise first.
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17
After that, we who are still alive and are left will be caught up together with
them in the clouds to meet the Master in the air. And so we will be with the
Master for ever.
1 Corinthians 15:51-52
51
Listen, I tell you a mystery: We will not all sleep, but we will all be
changed— in a flash, in the twinkling of an eye, at the For the
52
last shofar.
shofar will sound, the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed.
Leah's children
The account of Leah's children provides a prophetic object lesson about Yisra'el's
history. Her husband, Ya'aqov (Jacob), did not love her. So she tried to win his heart
by having many children. She called her child which means: fourth Yahudah, to praise.
The Messiah was born approximately after creation, from the tribe of 4000 years
Yahudah After the birth of her fourth child, Leah suffered a period of barrenness. Her
slave gave birth to Ya'aqov's children. This may be taken as a picture of the long period
when Yisra'el gave birth to wind and did not bring (salvation) to the (cf. yeshu'ah Goyim
Yeshayahu 26:17-18). But after her barrenness, Leah had a 6th
boy! — —which means, This corresponds to the Z'vulun “to dwell exaltedly.”
Millennium, the , which will start 6000 years Day of YHWH probably approximately
after creation. Then the of Yisra'el will with Messiah. faithful remnant dwell exaltedly
Leah had a seventh child, a daughter — which means “judgement.” The great Dinah,
white throne (Revelation 20:11-15) takes place at the end of the millennium, judgement
probably 7000 years after creation. We see that the history and names of the 7 children
of Leah may be interpreted as an object lesson on the “the 7000-year plan of YHWH.”
The Coronation of King Yoash
In 2 Kings 11:1-16 we find another picture of the coronation and revelation of the
Messiah, the Son of YHWH after 6000 years: ,
2 Kings 11:1-16
1
When Athaliyah the mother of Achaziyah saw that her son was dead, she
proceeded to destroy the whole royal family.
2
But Yehosheva, the daughter of King Yehoram and sister of Achaziyah, took
Yoash son of Achaziyah and stole him away from among the royal princes, who
were about to be murdered. She put him and his nurse in a bedroom to hide
him from Athaliyah; so he was not killed.
3
He remained hidden with his nurse at the of YHWH for six years Miqdash
while Athaliyah ruled the land.
4
In the Yehoiada sent for the commanders of units of a hundred, seventh year,
the Carites and the guards and had them brought to him at the of Miqdash
YHWH. He made a covenant with them and put them under oath at the
Miqdash of YHWH. Then he showed them the king's son…
… Yehoiada brought out the king's son and ; he
12
1 put the crown on him
2 8 [testimony] They gave him the and proclaimed him king. eidut
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4 ò , and the , “Long anointed him people clapped their hands and shouted
live the king!”
13
When Athaliyah heard the noise made by the guards and the people, she
went to the people at the of YHWH. Miqdash
14
She looked and there was the king, standing by the pillar, as the custom was.
The officers and the trumpeters were beside the king, and all the people of the
land were rejoicing and blowing Then Athaliyah tore her robes and shofarot.
called out, “Treason! Treason!”
15
Yehoiada the priest ordered the commanders of units of a hundred, who were
in charge of the troops: “Bring her out between the ranks and put to the sword
anyone who follows her.” For the priest had said, “She must not be put to death
in the of YHWH.” Miqdash
16
So they seized her as she reached the place where the horses enter the
palace grounds, and there she was put to death.
Note that the king's son is hidden for 6 years, and revealed in the seventh year. In The
Messiah Texts by Raphael Patai (1979), midrashim are quoted that interpret this passage
as a of the revelation and coronation of King Messiah after He had been kept tavnit
hidden in heaven for 6000 years. The rabbis taught that Yoash was hidden in the
Temple in the room directly above the . The midrashim sees this as Qodesh haQodeshim
a picture of Messiah being hidden in heaven, and revealed at the end of 6000 years.
When the King's son was revealed, the usurper who reigned murderously and illegally,
was eliminated.
The Coronation of King Messiah
From the above, from the account of Shlomo's coronation in 1 Kings 1, as well as from
archaeological and historical sources, we can reconstruct the five steps in a Jewish
coronation ceremony:
Step 1: : the (crown), the and Investiture with the emblems of kingship netzer eidut
hoq —a sealed scroll containing prophecies of the greatness of the coming
reign of the king.
Step 2: : anointing oil is poured over the head of the king. Anointing
Step 3: : “Long live the king!” Example: Tehillim 47. Acclamation
Step 4: . Enthronement
Step 5: Homage.
The is thought to be a bracelet that contained the seal of the king, as these were the eidut
emblems brought to David at Sha'ul's death. Along with the bracelet, a scroll was
presented to the king. This scroll was known as the decree or This decree a hoq. [hoq],
part of the testimony contained all the royal titles (coronation-names) of the [eidut],
king, as well as prophecies of what he would accomplish during his reign. It would
speak of his triumphs over his enemies as well as the esteem of his kingdom. The fourth
and fifth chapters of the book of Revelation are set in the context of the Jewish
coronation ceremony. It is specifically Yahushua's coronation. The seven-sealed scroll
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that is presented to Yahushua in Chapter 5 of Revelation may be seen as an the eidut,
testimony. Throughout Scripture, every prophecy, every royal title, and every
description of the kingdom is also a part of Yahushua's eidut.
Let us look at the elements of a classical Jewish coronation ceremony that we find in
Revelation 4-5. In Revelation 5, Yahushua receives a —a sealed scroll that hoq
contains prophetic proclamations or decrees of the events that would unfold during his
reign. We also see the acclamation and homage that is given to the Father and the Son:
Revelation 5:5-14
5
Then one of the (elders) said to me, “Do not weep! See, the Lion of zekanim
the tribe of Yahudah, the Root of David, has triumphed. He is worthy to open
the scroll and its seven seals.” [eidut; hoq]
6
Then I saw a Lamb, looking as if it had been slain, standing in the centre of
the throne, encircled by the four (living creatures) and the . chaiyot zekanim
23
He had seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of Elohim sent
out into all the earth.
7
He came and took the scroll from the right hand of him who sat on the throne.
8
And when he had taken it, the four (living creatures) and the twenty- chaiyot
four fell down before the Lamb. Each one had a harp and they were zekanim
holding golden bowls full of incense, which are the prayers of the tzadeqim
9
And they sang a new song: “You are worthy to take the scroll and to [hoq]
open its seals, because you were slain, and with your blood you purchased
men for Elohim from every tribe and language and people and nation.
10
You have made them to be a kingdom and priests to serve our Elohim, and
they will reign on the earth.”
11
Then I looked and heard the voice of many messengers, numbering
thousands upon thousands, and ten thousand times ten thousand. They
encircled the throne and the and the . chaiyot zekanim
12
In a loud voice they sang:
“Worthy is the Lamb, who was slain,
to receive power
and riches
and wisdom
and strength
and honour
and esteem
and praise!”
13
Then I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and
on the sea, and all that is in them, singing:
“To Him who sits on the throne
and to the Lamb
23
Rabbi Ibn Ezra (1873: 34) explains chaiyot as “Living beings, signifying a certain class of angels,
frequently mentioned by Yechezq'el.”
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be praise and honour and esteem and power,
l'olam va'ed [for ever and ever]!”
14
The four said, “Amen”, and the fell down and worshipped . chaiyot zekanim
24
The that is given to Yahushua during his coronation, is the prophetic part of the hoq
Book of Revelation, along with all Scripture's prophecies of the greatness of the reign of
Kings. When we put Revelation back into its historical Jewish context, we realise that
the prophecies of this book forms part of the coronation- of the Messiah —a sealed hoq
scroll of prophecies of the greatness of his reign that is given to him as the first step in
the coronation ceremony that will take place in heaven.
This shows that the natural exegesis of Revelation 4-5 would be that they describe the
coronation of the Messiah in heaven on —the coronation festival, which Yom Teruah
has Kingship and Coronation as its major theme —at the end of the 6000 years of the
‘Olam ha-zeh.
Let us put Revelation 4-5 besides Dani'el 7:13-14. The context shows that the Son of
Man (Aramaic: Bar-Enosh; Hebrew: Ben-Adam) is crowned in heaven just when the
reign of the False messiah, the blasphemous ruler of the Revived Roman Empire of the
acharit-yamim, unfolds on earth:
13
“In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a Son of
Man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days
and was led into his presence.
14
He was given authority, esteem and sovereign power; all peoples, nations
and men of every language worshipped him. His dominion is an everlasting
25
dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be
destroyed.
Yom Teruah Rosh Ha Shanah) mo'ed, ( is the coronation festival. It is the the appointed
time, the annual prophetic rehearsal, for the coronation of King Messiah, the Set-Apart
Arm of YHWH, who will rule for him:
Yeshayahu 40:10
See, Adonai YHWH comes with power, and his Arm rules for him.
Yom Teruah is the very next festival that must go into fulfilment. The three pillars of
the worship structure on this day are (Kingships), (remembrances) Malkhiyot Zikhronot
and (shofar blasts). Why is this important? Because the (services) Shofarot avodot
were given to King David by the of YHWH (1 Chronicles 28), and the Ruach haQodesh
24
Strongs' definition of the word translated as worship: proskuneo
4352 {pros-koo-neh'-o} proskuneo
1) To kiss the hand towards one, in token of reverence; hence among the Orientals, especially the
Persians, to fall upon the knees and touch the ground with the forehead as an expression of profound
reverence; in the NT by kneeling or prostration to do homage (to one) or make obeisance, whether in order
to express respect or to make supplication.
1a) used of homage shown to men of superior rank: the Jewish high priests;
1b) of homage rendered to YHWH and the ascended Messiah, to heavenly beings, and to demons.
25
Aramaic: It means to serve, to stand in the service, and pay reverence to. pelakh.
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Almighty does everything with a purpose: to communicate, to teach, to instruct, to
guide, to lead us. The signifies the end of the betrothal between mo'ed Rosh HaShanah
Messiah and his bride, and the coming of the full wedding, the beginning of the
Kingdom, the beginning of the Day of YHWH, i.e. the sabbatical millennium. This
festival also speaks prophetically about the resurrection of the righteous dead. It also
teaches about the concealment of the before the the Day of tzadeqim yom tzarah:
Trouble —this is the only festival that falls on a New Moon, a The Rosh Chodesh.
hidden moon is a picture of the the believers, who will be hidden on tzadeqim, Yom
Teruah Chevlei Shel Mashiach. in the year 6000, to escape the The coronation Psalms
of Yisra'el are sung on Tehillim 47, a coronation Psalm that offers Yom Teruah;
acclamation Yom Teruah to the King at his coronation, is chanted 7 times in the liturgy:
Tehillim 47
1
For the director of music. Of the Sons of Qorach. A mizmor.
Clap your hands, all you nations; shout to Elohim with shouts of joy.
2
How awesome is YHWH Most High, the great King over all the earth!
3
He subdued nations under us, peoples under our feet.
4
He chose our inheritance for us, the pride of Ya'aqov, whom he loved. Selah.
5
Elohim has ascended amid shouts of joy, YHWH amid the sounding of
shofarot.
6
Sing praises to Elohim, sing praises; sing praises to our King, sing praises.
7
For Elohim is the King of all the earth; sing to him a psalm of praise.
8
Elohim reigns over the nations; Elohim is seated on his set-apart throne.
9
The nobles of the nations assemble as the people of the Elohim of Abraham,
for the kings of the earth belong to Elohim; he is greatly exalted.
We can expect that this Psalm of praise will be sung at the coronation of King Messiah,
the Messenger of the very face of YHWH Elohim, the exact representation of His
Person.
In the liturgy, the phrase, “Arise, o Arise” is spoken many times. This Yom Teruah
liturgical element speaks prophetically of the resurrection of the dead In his tzadeqim
letter to the believers in Ephesus, Sha'ul quotes a prayer from the ancient liturgy of Yom
Teruah —
Ephesians 5:14
“Wake up, O sleeper, arise from the dead, and Messiah will shine on you.”
We have now laid the foundation to answer a specific counter-argument against the view
that the will be caught away before the Birthpangs (i.e. a pre-tribulation tzadeqim
rapture). Many premillennialists believe that Scripture teaches that the will go tzadeqim
through the Birthpains. They claim to find strong support for this view in Revelation
20. This chapter teaches that there will be a when King Messiah first resurrection
returns after the Birthpains. All the who have died during the Birthpains, will tzadeqim
be resurrected. They will come to life and will reign with King Messiah. The second
resurrection, that of the unrighteous, will take place at the end of the millennium.
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Because Revelation 20 places the first resurrection —that of the righteous —at the end
of the Birthpangs, these premillennialists deduce that the will not be caught tzadeqim
away before the Day of Trouble, but will have to go through it. If prophecy is
interpreted literally, this view leads to a rather fearful expectation of the future, because
no dramatic act of physical deliverance will happen between today and the horrors of the
et tzarah —the time of trouble.
This argument seems quite bullet-proof, until one understands that the prophetic part of
the book of Revelation is a coronation- It describes the great events that will hoq.
happen the reign of King Messiah. The two resurrections mentioned in during
Revelation 20 will happen his reign. The resurrection of the righteous mentioned during
in Revelation 20 is the first resurrection that will happen his reign. However, the during
resurrection of the and their catching away with the living believers on tzadeqim Yom
Teruah before before the Birthpangs, takes place the reign of King Messiah begins. It is
a resurrection and (catching away deliverance) the coronation, and is natzal for ´
therefore not found in Chapter 20, which describes Messiah's reign on earth after his
glorious second coming. The major prophetic teachings of are the dawn Yom Teruah _1
of the judgement of humanity into three classes intermediates Yom YHWH, (tzadeqim, _2
and the resurrection of the righteous dead and the glorification of the living resha'im), _8
righteous, which will be announced by the blowing of the and the last shofar, _
4

coronation of the Messiah; the is just the bus that we take to the event: natzal
Tehillim 84:9
Behold, O Elohim our shield,
and look upon the face of your Messiah.
Yeshayahu 21:5b
…Arise, you princes, anoint the shield!
Understood in this light, Revelation 20 does not contradict a pre-tribulation natzal.
Jewish Eschatology: A Sabbatical Millennium
The Article in Volume 5 of the (1925) contains a Eschatology Jewish Encyclopaedia
wealth of information of the ancient understanding of the 7000 year plan of Elohim.
Under the subheading, it states (page 211), A World-Week,
[Jewish eschatology was based upon] a world-week of seven millenniums [i.e. 7
periods of 1000 years each], corresponding with the week of creation, the
verse, Psalm 90:4
For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past, and
as a watch in the night.
having suggested that the Present World (the is to be followed ‘Olam ha-zeh)
by a sabbatical millennium, the World to Come (the ‘Olam ha-ba).
The further explains that the rabbinic sages believed that the 6 Jewish Encyclopaedia
millennia of the are divided into 3 periods of 2000 years each —the ‘Olam ha-zeh Age
of Tohu Age of Torah Yemot HaMashiach (desolation), the (instruction), followed by the
(the Days of the Messiah). (It will be recalled that Rabbi Eliyahu saw that the Yemot
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HaMashiach ‘Olam ha- would be lost to the nation of Yisra'el.) The 6000 years of the
zeh correspond to the 6 weekdays of hard labour, while the Millennial Kingdom of the
Messiah corresponds to the of rest. The lists the Shabbat Jewish Encyclopaedia
following rabbinic and early Christian sources which formulate the ancient under-
standing of the 7000 year plan of YHWH explicitly:
v Mishnah Ta'anit 74.
v 31a. Rosh Ha Shanah
v Sanhedrin 97a.
v Enoch 23:1.
v 2 Esdras 7:30, 43.
v The Testament of Abraham A19 & B7.
v Revelation 20:1.
v 2 Peter 3:8.
v The Epistle of Barnabbas.
v by Irenaeus. Against Heresies
Early Christian Eschatology: A Sabbatical Millennium
Let us now investigate early Christian sources. An early Christian writer, Lactantius,
wrote as follows in his (quoted in Jeffrey (1990: 173, 179)): Divine Institutes
But we, whom the Set-apart Scriptures instruct to the knowledge of the truth,
know the beginning and the end of the age…Therefore let the
philosophers…know that the is not yet completed, and sixth thousandth year
that when this number is completed, the … consummation must take place
…Because all the works of Elohim were finished in six days, it is necessary that
the world should remain in this state six ages, that is 6000 years. Because
having finished the works He rested on the seventh day and blessed it, it is
necessary that at the end of the sixth thousandth year all wickedness should be
abolished out of the earth and justice should reign for a thousand years.
A document known as the was written to the early Christian Epistle of Barnabbas
assemblies. Though not canonical, it presents valuable information concerning the
teachings of the first century Church. It says the following about the account of creation
given in Genesis:
And Elohim made in six days the work of His hands; and He finished them on
the seventh day and set it apart. Consider, my children, what that
signifies —that He finished them in six days. The meaning of it is this: that in
6000 years YHWH Elohim will bring all things to an end. For with Him, one day
is a thousand years…Therefore children, in six days, that is, in 6000 years,
shall all things be accomplished.
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Early Christian commentators, including Methodius of Tzor , pointed out that there
26
was a specific reason why Adam died at the age of 930 years, and did not reach an age
higher than 1000 years. In Bereshith 2:17, the Creator told him that,
Bereshith 2:17
But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in
the that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely . day die
Since a day represented a 1000 years to the Almighty, Adam had to die before he could
reach the age of 1000 years. Likewise, no natural descendant of Adam could live longer
than 1000 years.
In (circa 150 YM), Irenaeus states that 6 days of creation followed by Against Heresies
a day of rest, has a deep prophetic significance. Views by respected scholars of this
early epoch are very significant, as they date from an era before Christianity became
completely de-Judaised, and original understandings were tragically lost in the rising
tide of Christianised paganism. Irenaeus wrote (quoted in Jeffrey, (1990:176)),
This is an account of the things formerly created, as also it is a prophecy of
what is to come. For a day to YHWH is as a thousand years; and in six days
created things were completed; it is evident therefore that they will come to an
end at the sixth thousand years.
This view expressed by a respected leader of the early church, was directly derived from
rabbinic understanding of Scripture. It echoes the teaching of Rabbi Eliyahu, who lived
a few centuries before Irenaeus. Statements by other rabbinic sages are in agreement.
In the Gemara, for example, Rabbi Ketina stated,
The world endures six thousand years…As out of seven years every seventh
year is a year of remission, so out of the seven thousand years of the world, the
seventh millennium shall be the 1000 years of remission, that Elohim alone may
be exalted in thát day [ ]. ba'Yom ha-hu
In 1552, Bishop Latimer wrote as follows about his understanding of the 1000 year
period that will start around [date omitted —TJVR] (quoted in Jeffrey (1990:178)):
The world was ordained to endure, as all learned men affirm, 6000 years ago.
Now of that number, there have passed 5552 years [i.e. in 1552], so that there
is no more left but 448 years.
Jeffrey (1990:179) writes as follows about the views and calculations of Archbishop
Usher:
…Usher, who had access to many ancient church manuscripts which were
tragically lost in the burning of the early Irish churches during the savage Irish
wars, also calculated that the millennium would begin in [date given by Jeffrey
omitted]. [Was it not for a mistake of 3 years in his calculation,] his calculation
would have placed the start of the Millennium in the year [date given by Jeffrey
omitted].
Jeffrey (1990:179) states that the above documented evidence are not exhaustive, and
that more authorities may be quoted in support:
26
Tzor is the Hebrew word for Tyre.
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Writings could be produced in great numbers from other early Church leaders
including Victorinus, Bishop of Petau, Hippotylus, Justin Martyr and Methodius
to illustrate this belief that the Millennium would commence upon the
completion of 6000 years from Adam. This widespread evidence, together with
2Peter 3:8, is a strong argument that this belief was, in fact, the genuine
teaching of the apostles and the early Church.
“After two days He will revive us: on the third day He will raise us up, that
we may live in His sight…”
Hoshea 5:15-6:3 states that YHWH has left Yisra'el and returned to His place. He has
judged them severely. In their affliction, Yisra'el will seek Him. After their punishment
is complete, they will repent and seek Him earnestly. Then, after 2 days, He will heal
and bind her up. On the third day, He will raise Yisra'el up to live in His sight:
Hoshea 5:15-6:3
“…Then I [Jewish midrashim states that it is the Messiah who speaks here] will
go back to my place until they admit their guilt. And they will seek my face; in
their misery they will earnestly seek me.”
“Come, and let us return to YHWH; for He has torn, but He will heal us; He has
stricken, but He will bind us up. After two days He will revive us: in the third
day He will raise us up, that we may live in His sight. Let us know, let us
pursue the knowledge of YHWH. His going forth is established as the morning.
He will come to us like the rain, like the latter and former rain to the earth.”
The 2 days of the forsaking of the nation of Yisra'el correspond to the 2000 years of the
Yemot HaMashiach. sod, At the level of the there is yet another allusion to this deep
truth in Yochanan 4:40
So when the came to [Yahushua], they urged him to stay with Samaritans
them, and . he stayed two days
The two days that Yahushua stayed with the people of Shomron, correspond to the 2000
years that the would be “given up” (Mikhah 5:3), and that the majority nation of Yisra'el
of people who receive His salvation, would be Gentile. This time period will be
followed by the national salvation of the Messianic remnant of Yisra'el in the Day of
YHWH, the 1000 year Messianic Kingdom. The 2000 year period of spiritual
barrenness —
Yeshayahu 26:16-18
16
YHWH, they came to you in their they distress; when you disciplined them,
could barely whisper a prayer.
17
As a woman with child and about to give birth writhes and cries out in her
pain, so were we in your presence, O YHWH.
18
We were with child, we writhed in pain, but We have we gave birth to wind.
not brought salvation [Hebrew: to the earth; yeshu'ah] we have not given birth
to people of the world.
corresponds to the time when Leah could not conceive and gave her slave to Ya'aqov to
bear him children. Leah's time of barrenness was bracketed by birth of , her Yahudah
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fourth child, and Z'vulun, her sixth child. Yahushua, the lion from the tribe of , Yahudah
was born 4000 years after the creation of Adam. Z'vulun means “to dwell exaltedly”; all
indications are that the Messianic Kingdom, wherein the faithful remnant of Yisra'el will
dwell exaltedly with the Messiah, will commence after 6000 years.
In Jewish author Professor Raphael Patai echoes the understanding The Messiah Texts,
that national Yisra'el would be abandoned for 2000 years (1979: xix):
And when the flames engulfed the Temple, three young priests went up to its
roof and threw the keys of the House of Elohim to heaven. A hand reached
down and took the key.
And the priests said, “How long, O Adonai, how long?”
And a heavenly voice issued and said: “Not longer than two days, My children.”
Then they knew that the exile of the and the dispersion of Yisra'el Sh'khinah
would last two millennia, for it is written, “A thousand years in Thy sight are but
as yesterday” (Psalm 90:4).
And they said before Him: “Master of the Universe! How can Yisra'el endure
two thousand years of suffering?”…
How did Rabbi Eliyahu see in Scripture that the 2000 years of the Days of the Messiah
would be lost to the nation of Yisra'el? Nearly 700 prophetic passages in Scripture teach
that the faithful remnant of Yisra'el will be Elohim's people when Messiah reigns from
Yerushalayim in the Day of YHWH. The the seventh day, is a picture of the Shabbat,
Day of YHWH, the time of and From Hoshea 5:15-6:3 and the shalom menuchah.
principle that a day represents 1000 years, we know that the time of the great healing of
Yisra'el will be preceded by 2 days, i.e. 2000 years, of abandonment and punishment.
This is the time when Yisra'el would be by the Messiah, the Ruler who was given up
born in Beit-Lechem, until the beginning of the birthpains, i.e. the Chevlei Shel
Mashiach (Mikhah 5:3):
2
“But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, though you are small among the clans of
Yahudah, out of you will come for me one who will be ruler over Yisra'el, whose
origins are from of old, from days of immeasurable time.”
3
Therefore Yisra'el will be abandoned until the time when she who is in labour
gives birth and the rest of his brothers return to join the Yisra'elites .
27 28
From Dani'el 9:24-27 we can calculate the time of Messiah's first coming and atoning
death . This happened close to 4000 years since Adam. Rabbi Eliyahu's conclusion
29
follows logically from the above. Other ancient rabbis agreed with him about the
duration of the —in Midrash §7, the rabbis Yemot HaMashiach Tanchuma Ekeb
generally concur that the would last for 2000 years (Cohen, 1949: Yemot HaMashiach
356).
27
That is, until the beginning of the the first 7 years of the Day of YHWH, the Chevlei Shel Mashiach,
70 year-week of salvation history decreed over Yisra'el.
th
28
That is, the return of the 144 000 from the eschatological country code-named Babylon (cf. Yirmeyahu
50-51).
29
Dani'el 9:25-26 is understood Messianically in 4 Ezra 7:27-30; Talmud Yerushalami, Sukkah, 55b;
Talmud Bavli, Sukkah 52a and Sanhedrin, Megillah 3a; Chai Gaon, “Responsum”, (10th century CE).
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The 7000 year plan of YHWH is hinted at in the following cryptic words given to the
prophet Yeshayahu:
Yeshayahu 30:26
Moreover the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun, and the light of
the sun shall be sevenfold, as the light of seven days, in the day that YHWH
binds up the breach of his people, and heals the stroke of their wound.
Promised restoration after punishment
Advocates of replacement theology are fond of quoting the covenant curses set out in
Deuteronomy 28. To this they add their mistaken interpretation, or failure to take note
of, Dani'el's prophecy of the seventy sevens. They conclude that Yisra'el has failed their
final test and that they will never be YHWH's nation in future. Replacement theology
then identifies the general “Church” as the New Yisra'el. The cults go further and
identify their specific group as the unique “remnant of Yisra'el” that has a specific
mission and/or exclusive salvation. The essence of this mission is usually, alas, to get
others to interpret Scripture in the same way they read it! It is a characteristic trait of
cults that they give themselves the central, heroic role in the great drama of the end-
times. That role belongs, of course to YHWH and His Messiah.
Replacement theology completely neglects…
Deuteronomy 30:1-10:
1
When all these blessings and curses I have set before you come upon you
and you take them to heart wherever YHWH your Elohim disperses you among
the nations, and when you and your children
2
return to YHWH your Elohim
and obey him with all your heart and with all your being according to
everything I command you today, then YHWH your Elohim will
3
restore your
fortunes and have compassion on you and gather you again from all the
nations where he scattered you. Even if you have been banished to the
4
most distant land under the heavens, from there YHWH your Elohim will gather
you and bring you back. He will
5
bring you to the land that belonged to your
fathers, and you will take possession of it. He will make you more
prosperous and numerous than your fathers. YHWH your Elohim will
6
circumcise your hearts and the hearts of your descendants, so that you may
love him with all your heart and with all your being, and live.
7
YHWH your
Elohim will put all these curses on your enemies who hate and persecute
you. You will again obey YHWH and follow all his commands I am giving you
8
today. Then YHWH your Elohim will make you most prosperous in all the work
9
of your hands and in the fruit of your womb, the young of your livestock and the
crops of your land. YHWH will again delight in you and make you prosperous,
just as he delighted in your fathers, if you obey YHWH your Elohim and keep
10
his commands and decrees that are written in this Book of the and turn to Torah
YHWH your Elohim with all your heart and with all your being.
Scripture fully supports the finding that replacement theology is wholly erroneous and
that YHWH will take up his special dealings with the nation of Yisra'el once again, to
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bring a faithful remnant to national salvation in An impressive number of Yom YHWH.
foreshadowing prophetic patterns support the expectation that the cataclysmic events of
the will take place within the next few decades. Chevlei Shel Mashiach
Let
Deuteronomy 30:7
YHWH your Elohim will put all these curses on your enemies who hate and
persecute you.
be a warning to all who oppose YHWH's restoration of Yisra'el by preaching that
Elohim has irreversibly rejected the nation of Yisra'el.
Note: Missing years in the Jewish Calender
According to the Jewish calender, we are now (February 2000) living in the year 5760
since Adam. Most Jews think that this is indeed the case, and that we are still more than
240 years from the end of the year 6000, when we expect the to come to ‘Olam ha-zeh
its end, and to begin. This is not correct. According to Professor George Yom YHWH
Foot-Moore, former head of Jewish Studies at Harvard University, roughly 200 years
were not counted (Moore, 1927: 6). This confusion entered during the time when the
Persian empire ruled over . Professor Moore observes (1927: 6) that, Yahudah
As for the dates, they had not the canon of Ptolemy to operate with, but only
four names of Persian kings in the confusing disorder in which they occur in the
Books of Ezra, Nechemyah, and Dani'el, and they were consequently always
far out of the way in their chronology of the Persian period…compression of the
history…
Our present-day Jewish calender misses these years. All indications are that we are at
present certainly less than 40 years away from the correct year 6000. According to the
chronological calculations of scholarly Christian inquirers, we may well be less than a
decade away from the year 6000.
No man knows the day or the hour of the coming of the Messiah. There are several
reasons for this. Although we expect the Messiah at the end of the year 6000, accurate
chronological records were not kept. The Jewish calender misses more than 200 years.
Although we expect the coming of the Messiah to fetch his bride —the of all tzadeqim
ages —on a that is one long day of 48 hours, and falls on Tishrei 1 Yom Teruah, mo'ed
& 2. Furthermore, the method that is used nowadays to set the Jewish calender, differs
slightly from the methods that was used anciently. This introduces an additional
uncertainty of a few days in the date.
I believe that it is rather fruitless to engage in calculations of the time of the coming of
the Messiah. It is not necessary, either. Scripture gives a wealth of information about
the endtimes. Unfortunately, only a handful of people in the world know what to look
for. It is as though both Christianity and Judaism have gone into a state of slumber in
their understanding of prophecy. scriptural
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Summary
There is an impressive number of prophetic pictures in Scripture that show that we can
expect the return of King Messiah, the (Teacher of Righteousness) on Moreh Tzadeqah
Yom Teruah at the end of the year 6000. However, no person can know the exact day
and hour of his coming.
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The Zohar on the coming of Mashiach
Zohar Va'era 32a
…Come and see—for four hundred years the supervising angel of Yishmael
beseeched YHWH. He said “whoever is circumcized has a portion with you?”
YHWH replied, “Yes.”
The celectial prince over Yishmael said, “Well, Yishmael is circumcized; how
come he doesn't have a portion with you like Yitzchak?"
YHWH replied, “This one (Yitzchak) is circumcized properly, and this other one
(Yishmael) is not. Also, this one does it properly on the eigth day."
He asked him “And despite all this, even though he is circumcized he gets no
reward?"
YHWH responded by distancing the children of Yishmael from Himself in the
upper worlds, and and He gave them a portion below in the Holy Land,
because they are circumcized.
In the future, the children of Yishmael will rule over the Holy Land for a long
time while the land is empty, just as their circumcision is empty and without
completion. And they will hinder the children of Israel from returning to their
place, until their merit in the Holy Land runs out.
In the future the children of Yishmael will stir great wars in the world. And the
children of Edom [the West] will gather against them, and make war with them,
one on the sea, and one on the land, and one by Yerushalayim; and each one
will prevail over the other but the Holy Land will not fall to the hands of Edom.
At the same time, a nation from the end of the world will be awakened against
wicked Rome. And it will make war against her for three months, and many
nations will gather there, and they will fall by her hand, until all the children of
Edom will gather against her from all corners of the earth. And then YHWH will
awaken Himself against them, as it says, a “a sacrificial slaughter for YHWH in
Botzrah", and it says, “to shake the corners of the Land".
And after this, the children of Yishmael will be finished from the world. And all
the supernal powers of the nations will be broken, and no power will remain
above except for the power of Israel alone.
The Chevlei shel Mashiach —the birthpangs of Mashiach —are bearable only in
anticipation of the bliss that follows them…
Sanhedrin 98a
When you see a generation ever dwindling, hope for him .. when you see a
generation overwhelmed by many troubles as by a river, await Mashiach.
Bereishit Rabba 42:4
When you see many great nations fighting each other, look toward the
footsteps of Mashiach.
The actual date of the Messianic redemption is a guarded mystery unknown to man. It
will happen “in its time” (Yeshayahu 60:22), predetermined from the beginning of
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creation. This ultimate (time of the end) is unconditional: it does not depend on qetz
Yisra'el's merit, as it is said, “For My own sake, for My own sake, I will do it…”
(Yeshayahu 48:11); “I wrought for My Name's sake that it should not be profaned in the
eyes of the nations” (Yechezq'el 20:9).
“The vision is yet for an appointed time, but at the end it shall speak and not lie. Though
he tarry —wait for him, for it will surely come… it will not be late…” (Chawaqquq
2:3).
“Therefore wait for Me, says YHWH, for the day that I rise to the prey; for My
judgment is to gather nations, that I assemble kingdoms, to pour out upon them My
indignation, all My fierce anger. For all the earth shall be consumed by the fire of My
jealousy” —Tzephanyahu 3:8.
“Happy are all those that wait for him” (Yeshayahu 30:18).
Waiting for Mashiach, anticipating his coming, is not simply a virtue but a religious
obligation. Rambam thus rules that whoever does not believe in —and whoever does
not yearn for the coming of Mashiach, in effect denies the whole and all the Torah,
prophets beginning with Mosheh. In the popular formulation of his thirteen Principles
of the Faith (the hymn of this is put as follows: Ani Ma'amin)
I believe with complete faith in the coming of Mashiach. Though he tarry, none-
theless I await him every day, that he will come.
As stated above, some authorities view this principle as an integral part of the first of the
Ten Commandments which states “Anochi —I am YHWH, your Elohim, who has taken
you out of the land of Mitzrayim, out of the house of bondage” (Shemoth 20:2). The
connection may be seen in the fact that the initial word —Anochi —is linked with
redemption:
Anochi signifies the first redemption from Egypt and the last redemption
through Mashiach. Anochi is an explicit expression of compassion, consolation
and comfort. Indeed, Anochi is an acronym with every one of its four letters
signifying Scriptural prophecies of the Messianic consolations and comfort.
In view of this legal obligation to await Mashiach, therefore, one of the first questions
an individual will be asked on the Day of Judgment, will be:
“Tzipita li'yeshu'ah—did you earnestly expect yeshu'ah?”
Final word
A strong case can be made that the (Hebrew Scriptures) shows that the itinerant, Tanakh
aggadic proto-rabbi Yahushua is the Messiah and that he will come times. The first two
time as a (teacher), healer, instructor and suffering (servant). The second moreh eved
time as conquering king—the eschatological Ben-Adam (Son of Man) —Mashiach ben-
David.
Look at the Hebrew text of Bereshith 1:1. Look at the word “et" which is spelt alef-taw.
Word 4 and word 6 in Bereshith 1:1 is alef-taw. I believe that HaShem inspired every
word and letter of the Hebrew Scriptures. Now look at Zekharyah 12:10 in Hebrew.
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Note that the pierced One whom they will look up to, is the alef-taw. Therefore Genesis
1:1 seems to contain, at the interpretative level of the sod (secret, mystery, golden apple
in a plate of silver) the intimation that the pierced One will come 2 times —the first time
about 4000 years after the impartation of the (breath of life) to Adam, nishmat chayim
because the first alef-taw is the 4th word in Bereshith 1:1. The man (waw) who is the
alef and the taw will come again near the year 6000, because the second alef-taw is the
6th word in Bereshith 1:1. Notice that the 5th word in this verse is —the shamayim
heavens. The man who is the alef-taw will be in heaven inbetween his first and second
comings. He is coming back to : the 7th word of Bereshith 1:1. The 7 words of haEretz
Bereshith 1:1 is also structured as a menorah. The central lamp of a menorah is the
shamash —the servant lamp from which the other lamps are lit. The 4th word in
Genesis 1:1 is the or (servant) of the sentence and speaks of the shamash eved
redemptive work of the of Yisra'el as the servant who brought light to the world. Go'el
Note that Revelation 1:7-8 contains a paraphrased quote from Zekharyahu 12:10 where
the alef-taw is explicitly rendered into Greek as “alpha and omega.”
Now turn to the last verse of Hoshea 5. There and in the first verses of Chapter 6, the
Speaker says that He will return to his (place) until Yisra'el repents and seeks maqom
Him. The time of their punishment will be “2 days.” From Tehillim 90 we know that a
thousand years is to HaShem as a day. The Talmudic sages understood from this verse
that the time of the exile of the and the punishment of Yisra'el will endure Shekhinah
2000 years. This is the 2000 years when the alef-taw will be in ha-shamayim
(heaven) —his He has returned to. maqom
Now turn to Mikhah. Mikhah 4:8 talks about —the tower a hundred odd Migdal Eder
metres south of Beit-Lechem (Bethlehem). This is where the Levitical shepherds tended
the flocks destined for sacrifice in the (Temple). It is these Levitical Beit haMiqdash
shepherds that came to see Yehoshua at his birth —to behold the “seh ha Elohim
chanoseh chata'aat ha-olam” —the Lamb of Elohim who took away the sins of the
world. Mikhah 5 teaches that the Ruler of Yisra'el would be born in Beit-Lechem, being
the greater Son of Dawid. Then He would give them (Yisra'el) up until the time of the
chevlei-leidah shel Mashiach —the time of the Birthpangs of the Messiah (the
tribulation) that will come upon the world after the 6000 years of the —the Olam ha-zeh
present age. This time of Yisra'el's (dispersion) is the time when He has returned galut
to his (heaven). maqom
Now turn to Dani'el 9:24-27. Seventy Shavuot (sevens) are decreed over Am Yisra'el
and Ir Yerushalayim. After sevens, i.e. yearweeks, i.e. seven year periods, 7 ÷ 62 = 60
mashiach nagid —Messiah the Ruler —shall be “karet” —cut off, executed. The
reckoning of this time starts with the decree to rebuild Ir Yerushalayim after the exile to
Bavel. This decree was given in 445 BCE—see Nechemyah 2. A calculation brings us
to the realisation that 69 yearweeks after the year 445 BCE brings us to the day of Rabbi
Yehoshua's triumphant entry into Yerushalayim on the back of the colt, when his
followers crowds quoted Tehillim 118 and sang “Ana Adonai hoshia-na” and “Barukh
ha-ba b'shem Adonai.” This was Aviv 10, the same day the Pesach lambs were
separated (see Shemot). On about 13 Aviv, Rabbi Yehoshua performed a Bediqat
chametz —a cleansing of the leaven —on HaShem's House by driving out the
unrighteous merchants. On 14 Aviv he was “cut off but not for himself” —Dani'el 9:26.
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He was laid in the grave on Aviv 15 and rose on Aviv 17 —the day of the Bikkurim
(Firstfruits) of the Barley Harvest. On Chag Shavuot, 7 weeks later, the Ruach Ha-
Qodesh qahal/eidah Yemot HaMashiach. mo'edim empowered the of the The of
HaShem are the —the Footsteps of the Messiah. Every is a Iqvot ha-Mashiach mo'ed
miqra qodesh —a gathering that is a rehearsal. When there is a rehearsal, it means that
there is a real event coming.

The term Messiah
The term messiah is an Anglicisation of the Latin word messias, which is a transliteration of the Greek messias, a translation of the Aramaic meshiha, which is in turn a translation of the Hebrew term mashiach, which is usually found in the expression HaMelekh HaMashiach — literally: “the King Messiah” and idiomatically “the Anointed King.”

Scripture and the Messiah
There was an ancient understanding that, at a deeper level of understanding, all of Scripture is focused towards Messianic redemption. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin 99a
All the prophets prophesied only about the Yemot haMashiach — the days of the Messiah.

Sovereignty and Song
In the Artscroll Tehillim series, Volume I (Psalms 1 – 30), the rabbis write that Adam had Sovereignty and Song before his fall:
Of all the mighty wonders which Elohim had created, the greatest wonder is man. For man is nothing less than a microcosm, a miniature world, composed of all the elements found in the entirety of creation. An echo of the fearless lion roars forth from every human heart, together with the gentle bleating of the timid lamb. A strong, tough vein of iron runs through the fabric of man, interwoven with a strand of soft, pliable reed. Animal, vegetable, mineral — all the kingdoms are represented within man. But there is more — side by side with the material elements of the earth, there resides within man a lofty intellect and a holy spirit, the stuff of heaven. Surely this allencompassing man is no less than a tiny universe. And what is the purpose of the universe? The Psalmist proclaims:

Tehillim 19:2
HaShamayim mesap'rim kevod El u'ma'aseh yadayv maggid — The heavens declare the glory of El and the expanse of the sky tells of his handiwork. All the world is a choir resounding with joyous song. In pereq shirah, “The Chapter of Song,” the sages describe the songs which every creature sings to the Creator. Every creature, from the mighty sun to the lowly ant, from the little songbird to the croaking frog, sings one or more verses of Scripture as its song of praise to Elohim. The earth declares that it and its fullness belong to Him. The stars proclaim that Elohim alone made the heavenly host. The horse declares that just as it looks to its master, so must all look to YHWH. What is the underlying message of these songs? Simply this: YHWH's praise is sung when each and every part of creation performs its assigned task without Page 1 of 0

deviation. Every creature acting out its ordained role is a fine, precision instrument. Together they form a cosmic orchestra. However, an assemblage of the finest virtuosos does not yet make a symphonic orchestra. They need a skilled conductor to harmonise the multitude of tones into a thing of exquisite beauty. If each musician improvises without regard to the fused outcome, the result would not be music, but noise. Elohim placed Adam on the podium and appointed him conductor and choirmaster of the universe. The diverse elements of creation are bidden to obey his baton. Adam, who was composed of all these diverse elements, was provided with a score to follow and instructions on how to use each element of creation in its proper time and place. So said the Psalmist of the mission of man: “You gave him dominion over the works of Your hands, You placed everything under his feet” (Psalm 8:7). Man's dominion is not merely privilege — it is an obligation. It required balancing, adjusting, guiding, and coaxing all of the world's divergent forces into a sublime symphony of service to the Almighty. The Midrash describes the talents with which Adam was endowed for the sake of accomplishing his mission as […] sovereignty and song. Adam was created on the sixth day, on the eve of the first Sabbath… It is not adequate merely to say that Adam dwelled in Paradise; we would be more accurate to say that Paradise dwelled inside of him. He was blessed with the inner joy of security and self-assurance…The inclination for evil did not exist inside him…only one inclination urged him on — a good and positive one. No trace of friction or struggle existed inside Adam because he was a perfect and harmonious blend… Rambam ([commentary on] Genesis 2:9) comments: “Before the sin Adam truly resembled the heavens and their hosts who are described as […] 'Creatures of truth, whose achievement is truth and undeviating from their appointed mission' (Sanhedrin 42a).”

The fall of Adam
In the Artscroll Tehillim series, Volume I (Psalms 1 – 30), the rabbis describe the fall of Adam:
Not only did [Adam] fall; he dragged the entire universe down with him… However, Adam's life was not free of trial and challenge. Although no evil impulse was found within him — there most assuredly existed a threat from without. The external inclination towards evil was personified by the nachash — serpent. Certainly Adam was inclined only towards good…Elohim said one thing; the serpent, another! Adam heard the word of Elohim with his ears:

Genesis 2:17
For on the day that you eat of it you shall surely die.

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6:19. When YHWH Elohim made the earth and the heavens… Note that the above text precedes the fall of man. because Adam was created (at the very end of) the sixth day. by eating of the forbidden fruit. is found in: Genesis 5:1. Adam took the enemy into himself and thereby made evil an integral part of his makeup. history) is spelled with two letters wav: This is the tYldYt of the heavens and the earth when they were created. 'Seeing is believing' — a vision is more convincing than a voice. represents man. truth and falsehood. In Genesis 2:4. which is described in Genesis 3. The Hebrew letter Y (wav). toldot is spelled with one wav only (as tYldot or toldYt). 6:9.e. No longer was he 'A creature of truth whose achievement is truth. No longer was man reliable and consistent like the never-ending forces of nature. The universal shirah — 'song' he had conducted was interrupted — all but silenced. 25:12-13. Adam's] intellectual scope was [immense] and unhampered by distortion. Proverbs 14:12 There is a way that appears straight before a man. the Hebrew word toldot (genealogy. However. an endless struggle between good and evil. In the rest of the Tanakh. Adam changed profoundly after he erred. But sin clouded his vision and brought him to the gates of death. 37:2 Exodus 6:16. [Before he fell]. 27. the adroit master of persuasion. the sixth letter in the Hebrew alphabet. His inner harmony was disrupted. his entire being was shattered into two rival camps. 11:10. account. 10:1. No longer could he trust himself. presented an appealing argument. or with no wavvim at all (i. not the slightest trace of evil resided within him. he forfeited his malkhut — 'sovereignty' over the world. 28:10 Page 3 of 0 . 9. …The eyes of Adam were led astray by external 'appearances' which seemed to be 'good and enticing'… [Before he fell. This modified spelling. He stumbled. Genesis 3:6 And the woman saw that the tree was good for food and an enticement for the eyes. as toldot). not deviating from the path set for his appointed mission.But the serpent. 36:1. Now Adam's life became a bitter conflict. The Man the Son of Peretz The ancient rabbis found clear proof in Scripture that Adam was diminished when he sinned. He fluctuated between going up and coming down. He reinforced his words with powerful evidence clearly visible to the eyes. 32. yet its end is the ways of death. success and failure. 19. He hesitated. with a diminished number of wavvim.' To the extent that Adam's self-mastery vanished.

So why did He change the spelling of the word toldot after man sinned? To find such a pattern in Scripture is said to be the greatest fear and greatest joy of a rabbi. because YHWH is the primary Author of Scripture. 4. 36. and this is alluded to by the fact that the word itself is diminished. It must have meaning. if only man had acted properly. YHWH does not misspell. 28. It was only after Adam sinned that the Angel [Messenger] of Death was given authority in the world. Every word. They taught that the Messiah would be the Agent in restoring the tzadeqim (righteous) to the undiminished. he would have been immortal. The sages stated that the deeper significance (sod) of the diminishing of the number of wavvim in the word toldot. 40. The rabbis found this very significant. Vol. 9.Numbers 1:20. every letter in the Torah is significant. 26. The presence of Torah codes is but one indication of the irrefutable radical inspiration of Scripture. who in turn stems from Peretz. However. There is only one exception to the above rule: In Rut 4:18 This. and for this reason the genealogy of Peretz is the second place where this word is spelled out in full. and He does not misspell. 26:31. 24. we read: Our sages explained that if Adam had not sinned. 1979: 277). the answer of the rabbinic sages to this changed spelling. 3:1 1 Chronicles 1:29. is given. 42. the sages realised that it did allude to something very significant. The modified spelling does not affect the meaning or pronunciation of the word. or both]. there would have been no need for death. is the t Yld Yt of Peretz: Peretz was the father of Chetzron… the word toldot is spelled with two wavvim. 22. 8:28. who is a descendant of David. in exactly the same way that it was spelled before man sinned. immortal state that Adam had before he sinned. i. 1 (Kaplan. “These are the offspring (toldot) of Peretz…” (Ruth 4:18). is that man was radically diminished when Adam sinned. Elohim would have found a way to safeguard him even from accidents and dangers. the letter Wav doubled. 30. But with the coming of the Messiah. In Me'am Lo'es — The Torah Anthology (Kaplan. 32. 34. with the word (tol'dot) spelled out completely.e. and that the Mashiach would be a descendant of Peretz. 9:9. 34. just as in Bereshith 2:4. The only places where it is spelled out in full are here (Genesis 2:4) and in the verse. 1979: 277). In The Torah Anthology. “Death will be swallowed up forever” (Yeshayahu 25:8). But when he sinned. then. one of these letters Wav is lacking [either the first or the second. This teaches that when Elohim created the world. this caused him to become mortal… [After man sinned] Death is actually a benefit [because one stops sinning at death and is not indefinitely locked into a sinful state]… …For this reason the Torah says earlier. Page 4 of 0 . the offspring (toldot) of man are diminished. “These are the offspring (toldot) of heaven and earth” (Genesis 2:4). In all other places. 38. The offspring (toldot) of man will then be complete again. 5:7. If he had acted properly. 7:2. As a result. then.

all rise. He embodies within himself their goals and aspirations. Page 5 of 0 . “[he who made] the breach. When the people of Israel heard David's voice studying Torah. …The king wields the sceptre with which he controls the conduct of great masses of people.” It was this sense of obligation to the people which especially motivated David to seek Mesillat Yesharim — the Path of the Upright. but only the king of Israel possesses the unique ability to influence the innermost feelings of his people. Lechah Dodi (“Come. 'If David the king of Israel is studying Torah. The king's slightest action sends shock-waves rippling through the ranks. Therefore the Torah exhorted the king more than all others to concentrate his heart on Torah study. Hilchos Melachim 3:6 The Torah was concerned lest the king's heart be distracted as it says. must do so. He possessed an unprecedented opportunity. If the king strays. At midnight. When David heard the music he would arise and engage in Torah study. a north wind would blow through it.' Immediately. my Beloved”) that is sung during Kabbalat Shabbat — i. for he is nothing less than their collective heart. For the heart of the king is the collective heart of the entire congregation (eidah) of Israel. If the king ascends. xxxvi-xxxviii): The Heart of the Nation The king is the heart of his subjects. causing it to play. If he could make his heart upright. The name Peretz means. on the day of the week that is a picture of the Messianic kingdom to come.e. he could make upright the hearts of the masses.” Corporate Personality in Ancient Israel In the Artscroll Tehillim series. He sets their values and standards. David could not tolerate the slightest flaw in his own character because he realised the effect it would have on the people. they engaged themselves in Torah. certainly we. “all the days of his life. all are lost! Eicha Rabbasi 2:7 A harp was suspended over King David's bed. Temporal monarchs can dictate only the external behaviour of their subjects. David strove to model himself after the righteous patriarchs. they said. Rambam. “So that his heart shall not be turned away” (Deuteronomy 17:17).The above analysis explains why one of the rabbinic terms for the Mashiach is ha-ish ben-Peretz — “the Man the Son of Peretz. Volume I. In his efforts at purification and perfection. the rabbis give us a glimpse of the king of Israel being a corporate personality (p. too.” This name for the Messiah is used in the song.

like showers watering the earth. The Almighty was before their eyes as they grazed their sheep and as they tilled their soil. be understood as a corporate personality — his subjects are “in” him. Yitzchaq and Ya'aqov [the Book of Genesis] who are called yesharim “upright. the representative one. and he. accordingly. “The Book of the Upright”? This is the book of Avraham. Rambam. your afflicted ones with justice. 5 He will endure as long as the sun. It was in this vein that he said. 6 He will be like rain falling on a mown field. O Elohim. He is like my right hand which I do not forget even for a moment…Therefore I shall not be moved. represents the represented many. the royal son with your righteousness. I shall not fall. he will crush the oppressor. Yitzchaq and Ya'aqov. too.Avodah Zarah 25a What is the sefer ha-yashar. particularly strongly. through all generations. Psalm 16:8 I have set YHWH before me always. The king of Yisra'el as Saviour Every king of Israel was seen as a deliverer. If the king strays. He sets their values and standards. Page 6 of 0 . sought to achieve this level of uninterrupted concentration in the Almighty's service.” Rambam states that the Patriarchs constantly concentrated on Elohim without distraction or interruption. 2 4 He will judge your people in righteousness. I do not turn my thoughts away from Elohim. as long as the moon. The king of Israel was seen as the collective heart of his subjects. because He is at my right hand. A Guide for the Perplexed 3:15 The purpose of all their efforts was to promulgate the Name of Elohim in the world and to make upright the hearts of men so that they should come to love Him…their closeness to the Almighty was such that His Name became known to the world in connection with theirs — “the Elohim of Avraham. If the king ascends. I shall not falter. a saviour. all rise. He will defend the afflicted among the people and save the children of the needy. all are lost! Melekh ha-Mashiach — the Anointed King — should. Psalm 72 1 Psalm 72 expresses this Endow the king with your justice. He embodies within himself their goals and aspirations.” David.

and I will establish his kingdom. kings such as She lomo are in focus in this Telilah. and sonship of YHWH to the Kings of Yisra'el. as I took it away from Saul. Let its fruit flourish like Lebanon. your throne shall be established for ever. YHWH promised everlasting kingship to the House of David. 16 Let corn abound throughout the land. for precious is their blood in his sight. its greater fulfilment is in the Messiah. May people ever pray for him and bless him all day long. let it thrive like the grass of the field. be understood as a saviour of his subjects. Melekh ha-Mashiach — the Anointed King — should. accordingly. “son of Elohim” is a synonym for “king of Israel. 15 Long may he live! May gold from Sheba be given to him. saying: 12 When your days [of king David] are over and you rest with your fathers. This is repeated three times in the book of Chronicles: Page 7 of 0 . In its historical fulfillment. every king of Israel was seen as an adopted son of Elohim. Since the time of Shlomo. When he does wrong.” In the following prophecy given through Natan the prophet. may it continue as long as the sun. 13 14 He will take pity on the weak and the needy and save the needy from death. 15 But my love will never be taken away from him. the afflicted who have no-one to help. with floggings inflicted by men.7 In his days the righteous will flourish. The King of Israel as adopted son of Elohim The term “ben-Elohim” i. 12 For he will deliver the needy who cry out. who is in the primary prophetic focus here. and he shall be my son. I will punish him with the rod of men. 16 Your house and your kingdom shall endure for ever before me. He will rescue them from oppression and violence. 14 I will be his father. I will raise up your offspring to succeed you. 13 He is the one who will build a house for my Name. 17 May his name endure for ever. on the tops of the hills may it sway. prosperity will abound till the moon is no more. and they will call him blessed. All nations will be blessed through him. whom I removed from before you. and I will establish the throne of his kingdom for ever. who will come from your own body.e. 2 Samuel 7:4-16 4 That night the word of YHWH came to Nathan.

and.” 7 I will proclaim the choq (coronation-decree) of YHWH: He said to me. is seen in the following royal coronation psalm. I will never take my love away from him. and he will be my son. 3 4 “Let us break their chains. “and throw off their fetters. 6 “I have installed my King on Tziyon. for I have chosen him to be my son. and I will be his father. and I will be his father. 5 Then he rebukes them in his anger and terrifies them in his wrath. Adonai scoffs at them. Go'el and Go'el ha-dam: Kinsman-Redeemer and Avenging Kinsman-Redeemer The article GO'EL from the 1903 edition of the Jewish Encyclopedia states: Next of kin. This adoption of the king of Israel into a filial relationship with YHWH. From the leading case of Yirmeyahu's purchase of Page 8 of 0 . redeemer. and I will make the nations your inheritance. could be and should be resumed by the next of kin. my set-apart hill. the king of Israel is shown to all the world as ben-Elohim. And I will establish the throne of his kingdom over Israel for ever.” On the day of the coronation of the king. today I have become your Father. any duty which a man could not perform by himself had to be taken up by his next of kin. One of the themes of the coronation of the kings of Israel and Yahudah was Divine adoption: the king became an adopted son of Elohim.” they say. as I took it away from your predecessor.” 8 Ask of me. This applied especially to parcels of land which any Israelite found it necessary to sell. or kinsman. 9 You will rule them with an iron sceptre. “You are my son. saying. then. Any rights possessed by a man which lapsed through his inability to perform the duties attached to such rights. Owing to the solidarity of the family and the clan in ancient Israel.” The One enthroned in heaven laughs. hence. He will be my son.1 Chronicles 17:13 I will be his [Shlomo's] father. Tehillim 2 1 2 Why do the nations conspire and the peoples plot in vain? The kings of the earth take their stand and the rulers gather together against YHWH and against his Mashiach.' 1 Chronicles 28:6 He said to me. `Shlomo your son is the one who will build my house and my courts. This his go'el. the Father  Son relationship is established. the ends of the earth your possession. of Melekh ha-Mashiach — the Anointed King — is “benElohim” — “son of the Most High” — a synonym for “king of Yisra'el. had to redeem (Leviticus 25:25). you will dash them to pieces like pottery…” One of the titles. 1 Chronicles 22:10 He [Shlomo] is the one who will build a house for my Name.

the murderer was handed over to the blood-avenger (“go'el ha-dam”) to take vengeance on him. and as having redeemed him from the bondage of Egypt (Exodus 6:6. by distinguishing between homicide and murder (Exodus 21: 13-14). the chief of the go'el duties toward his kinsman was that of avenging him if he should happen to be slain by someone outside the clan or tribe. Here again to the family of the murderer. if he found him trespassing beyond the bounds (Numbers 35:26-27). in the Book of Ruth the next of kin was called up to purchase a parcel of land formerly belonging to Elimelech (Ruth 4:3). It would appear from the same example that another duty of the go'el was to raise offspring for his kinsman if he happened to die without any (Ruth 4:5).his cousin Hananeel's property in Anathoth (Yirmeyahu 32:8-12) it would appear that in later Israel at any rate this injunction was taken to mean that a kinsman had the right of pre-emption. As the go'el had his duties. after whom comes the uncle or uncle's son (Leviticus 25:49). 15:13). In both cases much depended upon the nearness or remoteness of the year of Yovel (Jubilee). It would appear that this custom was usual in early Israel. but at a very early stage the Jewish code made an advance upon most Semitic codes. for the crimes of a man were visited upon his family (Yehoshua 7:24. Even if it was decided that it was a case of unintentional homicide. The whole conception of the go'el was based on the solidarity of the interests of the tribe and the nation with those of Elohim. just as if he had been her brother-in-law. In the legislations [of other nations] the principle of commuting the penalty by paying an amount of money as a fine. grew…[the amount of money that had to be paid] varied according to the rank of the person. and accordingly the notion of the go'el became spiritualised as applied to the relations between Elohim and Israel. Similarly. The brother appears to be the nearest of all. his go'el would have the right to them (Leviticus 6:1-7). and the death of one member of a family would generally result in a vendetta. II Kings 9:26). This would seem to be an extension of the principle of levirate marriage. Another duty of the go'el was to redeem his kinsman from slavery if sold to a stranger or sojourner (Leviticus 25:47-55). which would automatically release either the land or the person of the kinsman from subjection to another. This conception is especially emphasised in Yeshayahu 40-66. If an injured man had claim to damages and died before they were paid to him. In a case where the elders of the city of refuge were satisfied that the homicide was intentional. so he had his privileges and compensation. Such a method [of paying Page 9 of 0 . Elohim was regarded as the go'el of Israel. However. the man who committed the deed had to keep within the bounds of the city of refuge till the death of the high priest. it is the only expedient method by which any check could be put upon the tendency to do injury to strangers. It was in order to determine whether a case of manslaughter was accidental or deliberate that the cities of refuge were instituted (Deuteronomy 19. including that of Hammurabi. as the go'el could kill the one who committed the homicide with impunity. Numbers 35). The relative nearness of kin is not very definitely determined in the Old Testament. hence the procedure of halizah was gone through in the case of Naomi's go'el. Indeed.

their blood spattered my garments. with his garments stained crimson? Who is this. like those of one treading the winepress? “I have trodden the winepress alone. and not a single 24-hour day. so my own arm worked salvation for me. O nations. robed in splendour. striding forward in the greatness of his strength? “It is I. but there was no-one to help. with His people. 5 I looked. 21 See. It would appear that the custom of the blood-avenger still existed in the time of David. 1 Some Page 10 of 0 . and my own wrath sustained me. to restore us into covenant and blessing. I was appalled that no-one gave support. and the year of my redemption has come. YHWH will punish with his sword. great and powerful sword. He will take vengeance on His enemies and make atonement for His land and people.” Devarim 32:43 Rejoice. coming to save the faithful remnant and take vengeance on his enemies: Yeshayahu 26:20-27:1 (NIV) 20 Go. Liv'yatan the gliding serpent. make known among the nations that you avenge the outpoured blood of your servants. hide yourselves for a little while until his wrath has passed by. In that day1. his fierce. enter your rooms and shut the doors behind you. she will conceal her slain no longer. I trampled them in my anger and trod them down in my wrath. as the woman of Tekoah refers to it in her appeal to the king (II Samuel 14:11)… The Messiah is not only the redeemer who pays the price that we can not pay. He is also the Go'el ha-dam. from the nations no-one was with me. 27:1 Yeshayahu 63:1-6 (NIV) 1 Who is this coming from Edom. 6 I trampled the nations in my anger. modern translations render this as “on that day. 4 For the day of vengeance was in my heart.” Yom YHWH is a 1000 year day. The earth will disclose the blood shed upon her. my people.a fine] was distinctly prohibited in the Israelite code (Numbers 35:31).” 2 3 Why are your garments red. speaking in righteousness. Liv'yatan the coiling serpent. the blood-avenger. and I stained all my clothing. for he will avenge the blood of His servants. mighty to save. in my wrath I made them drunk and poured their blood on the ground. from Bozrah. Tehillim 79:10 Why should the nations say. He will slay the tannin of the sea. “Where is their Elohim?” Before our eyes. YHWH is coming out of his dwelling to punish the people of the earth for their sins.

The ancient rabbis clearly understood that this battle was between the Messiah. and on the work of redemption that would be accomplished through his life. and more than every beast of the field. he was to provide the remedy for man's sin. and between your seed and her Seed. Page 11 of 0 . in the very end of days. And I will put enmity between you and the woman. He would reconcile man back to his Creator. That is.Revelation 6:10 They called out in a loud voice.e. nachash. you are cursed more than all cattle. As we look further at the mission and work of the Messiah it will become apparent that his major mission. between the seed of the woman and Satan's seed. In this Targum we see that the prophecy in Genesis 3:15 was believed to be a reference to the Messiah and his people who diligently follow the Torah. 1974). his major accomplishment was to be the reconciliation of mankind back to his Creator. culminating in the ultimate conflict between the Messiah and Satan. and the usurper. Satan. After the sin of Adam and Chawwah we read that YHWH placed a curse on nachash and promised that the “seed of the woman” would ultimately bruise the head of nachash (i. “The Redeemer of Israel. In the ancient commentary on Genesis 3:15. in the days of the King Messiah. “How long. However. YHWH's plan of restoration involves the redemptive work of the Messiah. qadosh and true. the Targum Yerushalayim states (The Messiah: An Aramaic Interpretation. Samson H. but when the sons of the woman forsake the commandments of the Torah and do not obey it's injunctions. The Messianic Exegesis of the Targum. In this passage we see the beginning of the battle between good and evil on planet earth. they will direct themselves to smite you (nachash. the Messiah is referred to as “The Holy One of Israel. 2. and you shall eat dust all the days of your life. Levy (Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College Jewish Institute of Religion. and you shall bruise His heel. He shall bruise your head. In the Talmud and other ancient rabbinical literature. on your belly you shall go. but for you. In these references of the Messiah there is the emphasis on his character (being pure from sin). Adonai YHWH. According to this passage it would be the Messiah who would provide the “remedy” for mankind. you will direct yourself to bite them on the heel and afflict them. Satan) on the head and slay you. there will be no remedy. p. They shall make peace with one another in the end.): And it shall be that when the sons of the woman study the Torah diligently and obey it's injunctions. Satan). until you judge the inhabitants of the earth and avenge our blood?” The Seed of the Woman In Genesis 3:15 we find the promise of a Redeemer for mankind given to Adam and Chawwah after their temptation and fall into sin. Genesis 3:14-15 So YHWH Elohim said to the nachash: 'Because you have done this. there will be a remedy for the sons of the woman. the seed of the woman.” “The Righteous One” and by many other exalted titles.

the woman who killed Sisera after Baraq had defeated his armed forces. Exodus 38:20 All the tent pegs [yoted] of the tabernacle and of the surrounding courtyard were bronze.The Yoted The Messianic prophecy in Genesis 3:15 states that the Messiah would crush the head of nachash. Devorah also means congregation. The central post was called the yoted. whatever their function. Baraq came by in pursuit of Sisera. Sisera is a picture of the False messiah and Satan. she crushed his head. including all the tent pegs [yoted] for it and those for the courtyard. This is repeated in Shovetim 5:26 Her hand reached for the tent peg [yoted]. she shattered and pierced his temple. used a yoted — a tent peg — to crush his head: Shovetim (Judges) 4:21-22 (NIV) But Ya'el.” she said. Ya'el. are to be of bronze. her right hand [yad] for the workman's hammer. the crushing of satan's seed — the resha'im and. Baraq means lightning. It was used in the construction of the Mishkan (tabernacle): Exodus 27:19 All the other articles used in the service of the tabernacle. specifically. and Ya'el went out to meet him. (yotedim) were also driven into this central post of the HaQodesh of the Mishkan. She drove the peg [yoted] through his temple into the ground. When we investigate the use of the word yoted in Scripture.” So he went in with her. Pegs. picked up a tent peg [yoted] and a hammer and went quietly to Sisera while he lay fast asleep. “Come. five vertical wooden posts were used. Heber's wife. exhausted. and the specific kellim Page 12 of 0 . In the HaQodesh (Set-apart Place) of the Mishkan (tabernacle). There are several foreshadowing prophetic pictures of this in Scripture.” In other words. The woman Devorah was married to Lappidoth — “the Torch. “I will show you the man you're looking for. In Shofetim (Judges) 4 and 5 we read the account of how Devorah and Baraq defeated Sisera and his armed forces. The name Devorah means bee (a bringer of sweetness) and is closely related to the term devar — word. and he died. She struck Sisera. The Messiah's work involves the defeated of the satan. it becomes clear that it is a very significant term. From Chavaqquq 3:3-4 and Mattatiyahu 24:27 we know that the Kavod of YHWH will radiate throughout the heavens like lightning that flashes from the east to the west when King Messiah comes in the kavod of HaShem. and there lay Sisera with the tent peg [yoted] through his temple — dead. the Congregation who is married to the Man who is the Torch — the Light of the World — will overcome the enemy. instructive Torah-pictures of the Messiah and his people. the False messiah. It follows that both Devorah and Baraq are foreshadowing.

It is clear that Shevna is a picture of evil leaders such as the False messiah and the False Prophet. like a weed. hewing your grave on the height and chiselling your resting place in the rock?' 17 “Beware. He will be a father to those who live in Yerushalayim and to the house of Yahudah. There you will die and there your splendid chariots will remain — you disgrace to your master's house! 19 20 21 I will depose you from your office. from the bowls to all the jars. In Yeshayahu 22:15-24. who is metaphorically called the central post of the Tabernacle. YHWH is about to take firm hold of you and hurl you away. who is evidently a tafnit of the Messiah: Yeshayahu 22:15-24 (NIV) 15 This is what Adonai YHWH Tzva'ot. Note the use of the telltale expression “In that day” in verse 20. is a prophetic picture of the Messiah — see Revelation #. This expression makes it clear that this prophecy will have an eschatological fulfilment in the Day of YHWH. 23 I will drive him like a peg [yoted] into a firm place. The yoted also figures prominently in Yeshayahu 33:20 20 Look upon Tziyon. a peaceful abode. a tent that will not be moved. judgement is pronounced over an evil man who is a picture of Satan and the False messiah. says: “Go. nor any of its ropes broken. its stakes [yotedim] will never be pulled up. and the keys to the house of David. 24 All the esteem of his family will hang on him: its offspring and offshoots — all its lesser vessels [kellim]. 18 He will roll you up tightly like a ball and throw you into a large country.(vessels and jars used in the avodot (services of YHWH)) were hung on the smaller yotedim which were in turn driven into the large yoted. say to this steward. and you will be ousted from your position. Page 13 of 0 . Eliakim son of Hilkiyah. while the righteous man to whom the authority and esteem and the keys to the house of David will be given. “In that day I will summon my servant. your eyes will see Yerushalayim. The prophecy is directed at Shevna — a name which means: to grow vigorously. to Shevna who is in charge of the palace: 16 'What are you doing here and who gave you permission to cut out a grave for yourself here. the city of our festivals. he will be a seat of honour for the house of his father. will be given to a righteous man. what he opens no-one can shut. I will clothe him with your robe and fasten your sash around him and hand your authority over to him. 2 This is a key to understanding Mattatiyahu 16:19 and Revelation 3:7 in the Ketuvim of the Netzarim. O you mighty man. A promise is given that authority and esteem. 22 I will place on his shoulder the key to the house of David. and what he shuts no-one can open2.

See. stretch your tent curtains wide. that I will raise unto David a righteous Tzemach (Branch). and at that time. O high priest Yehoshua and your associates seated before you. who will crush the head of nachash (Satan) and the seed of nachash — specifically Armilus. will I cause the Tzemach Branch of righteousness to grow up unto David. It is clear that the yoted. and shall execute mishpat and tzadeqah (judgment and justice) in the earth. `and I will remove the sin of this land in a single day. Z'kharyah 3:8-10 Listen. the days come. and go into the house of Josiyah the son of Zephaniyah.' declares YHWH Tzva'ot. lengthen your cords. from him the central post (yoted). of Tobiyah. who crushed the head of the enemy. strengthen your stakes [yoted]. who are men symbolic of things to come: I am going to bring forth my servant. which are come from Bavel. [even] of Heldai. Page 14 of 0 . The Tzemach Yeshayahu 4:2 In thát day the Tzemach (Branch) of YHWH will be beautiful and glorious. 10 Take of [them of] the captivity. the stone I have set in front of Yehoshua! There are seven eyes on that one stone.and in Yeshayahu 54:2 2 “Enlarge the place of your tent. from him every ruler. the False messiah of the acharit-yamim. do not hold back. the Tzemach (Branch). and a King shall reign and prosper. from him the battle-bow. and the fruit of the land will be the pride and esteem of the survivors in Israel. judgment) and tzadeqah (righteousness) in the land. and of Jedaiyah. and he shall execute mishpat (rightruling. Yirmeyahu 23:5 Behold. and come thou the same day.' says YHWH Tzva'ot. Yirmeyahu 33:15 In those days. saying.'' Zekharyahu 6:9-13 9 And the word of YHWH came unto me. and I will engrave an inscription on it. saith YHWH. as well as in Z'kharyah 10:4 4 From Yahudah will come the cornerstone. 10 9 8 In thát day each of you will invite his neighbour to sit under his vine and figtree. is a prophetic picture of the Messiah.

Behold the man whose name is Tzemach (the Branch). The Qumran texts also document that the term Tzemach was anciently understood to be a Messianic title. I will be a father to him and he will be a son to me'…This refers to the tzemach (branch) of David who will arise with the Interpreter of the Torah who will rise up in Tziyon in the last days. Until the Messiah of justice comes. there will not lack someone who sits on the throne of David. column 5) [on Genesis 49:10] A sovereign shall not be removed from the tribe of Yahudah. saying. and set [them] upon the head of Yehoshua the son of Yehosedech. anointing. The Messiah's actions will be in keeping with His nature and anointing. and he shall build the temple of THWH. While Israel has the dominion. power) of YHWH will rest on him — Page 15 of 0 . and he shall bear the esteem. I will raise up your seed after you and establish the throne of this kingdom for ever. column I. 4Q174) fragments 1-3. the thousands of Israel are the feet. 4QFlor (Florilegium. 13 12 He shall build the temple of YHWH. as it is written [Amos 9:11] 'I will raise up the sukkah (hut) of David which has fallen'…This refers to the 'hut of David which has fallen' who will arise to save Israel…” 4Q252 fragment 1. For the staff is the covenant of royalty. For to him and to his descendants has been given the covenant of royalty over his people for all everlasting generations… The sevenfold gifting of King Messiah Yeshayahu 11:1-4 is understood messianically in Zohar 2:172b as well as in Talmud Bavli and Tractate Shabbat 93b. Thus says YHWH Tzva'ot. and the counsel of peace shall be between them both. and shall sit and rule upon his throne. The Artscroll Rosh HaShanah Machzor (1985: 32) states. the tzemach (branch) of David. the high priest. which is beautifully described in Yeshayahu 11 — the great passage about the sevenfold anointing of the Mashiach: Yeshayahu 11:1-5 1 A choter (shoot) will come up from the stump of Yishai. breath.11 Then take silver and gold. the sprouting or flourishing of a plant…the ultimate salvation of Israel is possible only through the Davidic Messiah. and he shall be a priest upon his throne. Zekharyah 6:12 teaches that the Messiah's name will be Tzemach — literally. and make crowns. 2 The Ruach (Spirit. v10ff: [2 Samuel 7:12-14 cited] 'YHWH declares to you that he will build you a house. saying. and he shall grow up out of his place. from his roots a netzer (branch) will bear fruit. And speak unto him.

” In rabbinic tradition then. 8. Some rabbis also identified Metatron as the Malakh haPanim or “Messenger of the Presence. the rabbis stated (Babylonian Talmud. “Exchange Me not for him. Even though he bears the ineffable Name.” A specific ancient prayer said on Yom Kippur by ancient Messianic Jewish believers is directed to the Almighty. 4 but with tzedekah (righteousness) he will judge the needy. Targum Yonathan as well as 2 Thessalonians 2 testifies that this was the ancient understanding of the sages of Yisra'el.(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) the ruach of chokhmah (wisdom) and of binah (understanding). the “Anointed Metatron. where the Malakh YHWH is called the Malakh ha-Panim — the Messenger of the Face  Presence — say that the title “malakh ha-panim” means “Prince of the Countenance” (Sar ha-Panim). He will not judge by what he sees with his eyes.e. with the breath of his lips he will slay ha-rasha (the wicked one. Page 16 of 0 . 1912. Vol. “YHWH” (Jewish Encyclopedia.” In some rabbinic works. the ruach of da'at (knowledge) and of the yirat (fear of) YHWH. The Zohar (a mystical cabalistic work) states that Metatron is the “Son of Man” who is only slightly lower than YHWH (after Psalm 8:6). “ad-iad Yeshu Metatron” — through Yeshua Metatron. a teacher of the Torah and a power in heaven. He will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth. is a singular noun. Metatron is called the “most excellent of the heavenly host” and “the guide to all the treasures of my Elohim. Metatron Jewish tradition teaches that Metatron is the name of the malakh (messenger. or decide by what he hears with his ears. and guided the Children of Yisra'el through the wilderness to the promised land.” so that Metatron bears the Tetragrammaton. the ruler of the revived Roman Empire of the end-of-days. Metatron is the unique malakh (messenger) of the Presence. Hebrew commentaries on Yeshayahu 63:9. the ruach of etzah (counsel) and of giburah (power. 3 and he will delight in the yirat YHWH. YHWH. The term “metatron” means “guide. where YHWH states: “My name is in him. 519). Tractate Sanhedrin 38b) that Metatron may not be worshiped — they taught that YHWH commanded. p. the last word in the above citation.” The sages taught that Metatron is the prince of the world.” It was anciently understood to be a term for the eschatological False messiah. with mishpat (right-ruling.” spoken of in Yeshayahu 63:9. “angel”) spoken of in Exodus 23:21. In the pseudepigraphic book of Enoch. might). wicked. and should be translated “wicked one. who will reject the yoke of the Torah.) In Hebrew. he is called “Metatron Messiah” i. justice) he will give decisions for the poor of the earth. Armilus. who bears the Tetragrammaton.

” declares YHWH.   No longer will a man teach his neighbour.   I will be their Elohim. so that Torah was to him an external checklist. because they broke my covenant. This prayer is said on Yom Teruah when the shofar is sounded: May it be thy will that the blast from this shofar should carry to the tabernacle of Elohim…through Yeshua the Prince of the Countenance and the Prince Metatron. meaning “face of El.  'Know YHWH. and He is Adonai-be rit (My Master of the Covenant). Ya'aqov wrestled with a certain “man” from whom he asked a blessing.” The Midrash Rabbah comments on this. with his fallen nature.” declares YHWH:  “I will put my Torah in their minds and write it on their hearts. who should observe Torah faithfully. man was was just an empty shell of the image of Elohim. from the least of them to the greatest. was given (cf. and may your favour be our part. live Page 17 of 0 . or a man his brother. It will not be like the covenant I made with their forefathers when I took them by the hand to lead them out of Mitzrayim. “This is the covenant I will make with the house of Israel after that time. Devarim 28). speculative nature.” declares YHWH. Master of favour.” It is important to keep in mind that aggadic rabbinic teachings about Metatron are often of a characteristic playful. and they will be my people (ammi). Be thou blessed. Ya'aqov named the place Peni'el. The terms of the Covenant given to them through Mosheh. though I was a husband to them. is that Israel is the am qadosh (set-apart people) of YHWH. watch his step. Melekh ha-Mashiach suddenly comes to His Miqdash Radak (Rabbi Dawid Kimchi) says of Malakhi 3:1.The Jewish prayer book (Siddur haShalem) contains a remarkable prayer which speaks of the Prince of the Countenance.' because they will all know me. “He who will suddenly come to His Miqdash” is the King Messiah. “when I will make a B'rit Chadashah (renewed covenant) with the house of Israel and with the house of Yahudah. At that time. The Renewed Covenant YHWH promised a renewed covenant with the House of Israel and Yahudah by mouth of the prophet Yirmeyahu: Yirmeyahu 31:31-34 “Behold.” The Torah (instruction. saying. Man. and curses for disobeying it. teaching) of YHWH is perfect and will endure. had to study Torah. the days are coming. In Bereshith 32:29-30. saying that Ya'aqov “saw the face of El in the Shekhinah. however. Blessings for obeying the Torah.  “For I will forgive their wickedness and will remember their sins no  more.” declares YHWH.

26 25 24 For what mortal man has ever heard the voice of the living Elohim speaking out of fire. and we have heard his voice from the fire. and knowledge and observance of Torah becomes regenerated. Not with Gentile nations. anointing) of YHWH and consequent ignorance and evil inclination. our emptiness. But now. We will have da'at (knowledge). while man's fallen nature is done away with.” This new relation between Israel and Torah which the New Covenant brings. transformed man's new nature. Spirit. In Devarim 5:24-28 we read (NIV): And you said. they were terrified of the display of the awesome power and majesty of YHWH. and implored Mosheh to be their mediator. largely emptied of the Ruach (Breath. and to speak the Devar of YHWH to them. and we will die if we hear the voice of YHWH our Elohim any longer. as we have. to represent them before Elohim. and his own righteousness (tzadeqah) sustained Him (Yeshayahu 59). He was appalled by the depth of our fallenness. We will know as we are known. and endure punishment as a nation and individual whenever Torah was transgressed without repentance. the relationship. When the fullness of the redemption to the Malkut Shamayim (Kingdom of Elohim) is imparted to the tzadeqim with the coming of the Messiah. Satan will be bound and we will be sealed against the possibility of sin. but with Israel. not by altering Torah. was at fault. The New Covenant changes the relation “Torah as learned checklist” to “Torah as BIOS. the Torah stands firm. Under the New Covenant. our natures will be radically changed. YHWH saw that there was no man who could keep Torah. that they themselves may be cut off too. In other words. Today we have seen that a man can live even if Elohim speaks with him. So his own Arm (Zeroah) worked salvation (yeshu'ah) for Him. Power. why should we die? This great fire will consume us. A computer's BIOS is its Basic Input-Output System. The Renewed Covenant changes this relation between Torah and man. The mediating prophet like Mosheh When Mosheh brought the people of Israel up to Mount Sinai like a bride to the bridegroom (Exodus 19). “Torah as learned external checklist” will be replaced with a new relationship: “Torah-observance as the human nature of the redeemed. is best explained by using the term BIOS. So how can a Gentile have any part in the B'rit Chadashah? Only by being grafted into Israel. his emptiness and evil inclination. and not with the Torah. Fallen man. Note that the B'rit Chadashah is made with Beit Yisra'el and Beit Yahudah (the House of Israel and the House of Judah). and survived? Page 18 of 0 . to be their advocate and intercessor. and controls its most fundamental level of operation. chochmah (wisdom) and binah (understanding). “YHWH our Elohim has shown us his kavod and his majesty. but by changing man. Note that Romans 11 warns those Gentiles who boast against the branches that were cut off. as the metaphor of the olive tree teaches us (Romans 11).up to its standards.” A crucial truth is that the fault lay with man's fallen nature.

and he will tell them everything I command him. and was a foreshadowing type of Him. the Messiah. so it is said of the last go'el (redeemer). and that a Jewish man would one day come to Israel as the Prophet of whom Mosheh was a foreshadowing tafnit (picture or type). But do not have Elohim speak to us or we will die. Then tell us whatever YHWH our Elohim tells you. or we will die.e. Here the Torah clearly establishes that man needs a mediator who is his advocate with YHWH. every prophet of Israel prophesied about thé Mashiach. i. “I have heard what this people said to you. Every prophet of Israel was called a mashiach because he was empowered by the Ruach to speak forth the Devar of YHWH. “Speak to us yourself and we will listen. However. For this is what you asked of YHWH your Elohim at Horev on the day of the assembly [Yom Kahal. on Sivan 6] when you said. in the Late Second Temple Period (Yerushalayim Perspective. the Redeemer. the First redeemer. attributed to Rabbi Yitzchaq. Just as it is said of the first redeemer. YHWH promises the people that another prophet like Mosheh will come forth from their nation — he would be one of their brothers. the first Shavuot. Scholars date the origin of this interpretation. “Gentle and riding on a donkey” (Z'kharyah 9:9). I will put my words in his mouth. it ultimately pointed to thé Mashiach. Whoever hears the devarim (words) of this Prophet shall live.” 17 18 16 15 YHWH said to me: “What they say is good.Go near and listen to all that YHWH our Elohim says. is a picture of The Prophet. Qohelet Rabbah 1:9 links the Messiah to Mosheh and the king of Z'kharyah 9:9: Qohelet Rabbah 1:9 Like the first go'el (redeemer).e. shall die.” YHWH heard you when you spoke to me and YHWH said to me. Mosheh. so is the last go'el (redeemer). 28 27 This account is also given in Shemot 20:19 (NIV): …and [the people of Israel] said to Mosheh. i. a Jewish man: Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:15-19 (NIV) YHWH your Elohim will raise up for you a prophet like me from among your own brothers. “And Mosheh took his wife and sons and put them on a donkey” (Exodus 4:20). We will listen and obey. Everything they said was good. but whoever rejects his words.” In Devarim (Deuteronomy) 18:15-19. I myself will call him to account…” 19 This promise had prefigurative historical fulfillments in the person of Yehoshua (Mosheh's successor) and the later prophets. If anyone does not listen to my words that the prophet speaks in my name. Deuteronomy Page 19 of 0 . November 1987). I will raise up for them a prophet like you from among their brothers. “Let us not hear the voice of YHWH our Elohim nor see this great fire any more. You must listen to him.

understandings and expectations about the Messiah held in Yisra'el. 166-167). blessed be He). the ancient understanding that the messiah will have all the attributes of the Almighty. having in him all my power.e.”… Viewed superficially. The Apocalypse of Avraham. is clear from the following quotation from the Talmud: Babylonian Talmud. 1989. Page 20 of 0 . and he shall summon my despised people from the nations. Let us study some references to the Son of Man from 1 Chanoch (Enoch).” This statement by the sages is based on (inter alia) Yirmeyahu 23:5-6 and 33:15-16. And I will give those who have covered them with mockery to the scorn of the Athid Lavo (the coming Age.e. baruch hu (the Set-Apart One. That this was neither the aim nor the understanding of the sages. an apocalyptic work dating from before the Common Era. In a 1st century C. attributes). i. Name and Attributes of the Messiah In Lamentations Rabba. Lamentations Rabba 1:51 What is the name of King Messiah? Rabbi Abba bar Kahana said: YHWH is his name. and one midah (measure) of all my middot (measures. the title Son of Man was a well recognised title for the Messiah. and I will burn with fire those who have insulted them and who have ruled over them in the Olam HaZeh (the present Age). I will raise for David a tzemach of righteousness …In his days Y'hudah shall be saved…And this is the name whereby he shall be called: YHWH Tzidkenu (YHWH our Righteousness) (Yirmeyahu 23:5-6). Rabbinic work. is stated (quoted in Patai. for it is written. It presents us with a valuable window on the concepts. Rabbi Abba bar Kahana said that the name of the Messiah is YHWH. and I have prepared them to be food for the fire of Gey Hinnom… The Son of Man In late Second Temple period Judaism.18:15 is also understood messianically in Midrash Tanhuma (published by KTAV. this looks like a statement that the Messiah is YHWH. Order Nashim. and will send my Elect One [i. (1979: 96)): Then I will sound the shofar from the sky. literally: “the future to come”). the Messiah]. pp. Tractate Baba Bathra 75b: Rabbi Sh'muel bar Nahmani said in the name of Rabbi Yohanan: “Three are called by the name of HaQadosh. 2000 years ago. and they are: the righteous. the Messiah and Yerushalayim.E.

he was concealed in the presence of the Master of the Spirits prior to the creation of the world. and why did he go with the Head of Days? And he answered and said to me: This is the Son of Man who has righteousness. And his head was white like wool. he was given a name in the presence of the Master of the Spirits. And he has revealed the wisdom of the Master of the Spirits to the righteous and set-apart ones. to stand and not to fall4. 6 Yeshayahu 45:23. And who reveals all the treasures of the crowns. they shall esteem. 5 Yeshayahu 49:6. the Before-time. in the presence of the Master of the Spirits. for he has preserved the portion of the righteous because they have hated and despised this world of oppression 3 Called “Ancient 4 Yeshayahu of Days” in Dani'el 7. With whom righteousness dwells. and for eternity. His countenance was full of grace like that of one among the set-apart messengers [angels]. even before the creation of the sun and the moon. and there was with him another one. Page 21 of 0 . whose face was like that of a human being. that Son of Man was given a name. I saw the One to whom belongs the time before time3. bless. before the creation of the stars. He is the light of the gentiles5 and he will become the hope of those who are the troubled of heart. And I asked the messenger [angel] who went with me and showed me all the hidden things about that Son of Man: Who is he and whence is he. 42:3a. All those who dwell upon the earth shall bow and bend the knee before him in reverence6.1 Enoch 46:1ff At that place. For the Master of the Spirits has chosen him… …this Son of Man whom you have seen is the One who would remove the kings and the mighty ones from their comfortable seats and the strong ones from their thrones… 1 Enoch 48:2-6 At that hour. He [the Son of Man] will become a staff for the righteous ones whereon to lean. For this purpose he became the Chosen One. and sing the Name of the Master of the Spirits.

1 Enoch 105:2 Until I [the Ancient of Days of verse 1] and my Son are united with them forever in the upright paths in their lifetime… If we read these passages alongside Dani'el 7:13-14. they shall eat and rest and rise with that Son of Man forever and ever… 1 Enoch 69:29 Thenceforth nothing that is corruptible shall be found.' 1 Enoch 62:5-9 …and birthpains shall seize them when they see that Son of Man sitting on the throne of his kavod (esteem)… From the beginning the Son of Man was hidden. And all the elect shall stand before him in thát day [baYom ha-hu]. for that Son of Man has appeared and has seated himself upon the throne of his kavod. 'All these things which you have seen happen by the authority of His Messiah so that he may give orders and be praised upon the earth. 1 Enoch 62:14 The Master of the Spirits will abide over them.[together with] all its ways of life and its habits and it is his good pleasure that they have life. Then He revealed him to the set-apart and elect ones. and acclaim and pay homage to and set their hope upon the Son of Man. and he shall be strong before the Master of the Spirits. 1 Enoch 51:3 …the Elect One will sit on the throne… 1 Enoch 52:4 And he said to me. …For they (the wicked kings and potentates) have denied the Master of the Spirits and His Messiah. he shall go and tell to that Son of Man. these quotations from 1 Enoch show that the ancient understanding of the term Son of Man included the following important elements: Page 22 of 0 . And the congregation of the elect and the set-apart shall be sown. And the Most High has preserved him in the presence of his power. and all evil shall disappear from before his face. and petition him and ask for mercy at his hands. And all the kings and the mighty and the exalted and the rulers of the earth Shall fall down before him on their faces.

the Messiah is called the ben-Adam (Son of Man). Numbers Rabbah 13:14 [on Numbers 7:13] …He offered the dish and the basin as symbols of the kings of the House of David who would in time to come spring from him and who would reign supreme on sea and on land. In 1 Enoch. and differs radically from the Messianic expectations in Judaism 2000 years ago. Righteousness dwells with the Son of Man. has been given all dominion. Vol. Midrash Numbers Rabbah also mentions identifies the Messiah with the ben-Adam of Dani'el 7. The Son of Man is the chosen Covenant Partner of the Almighty who will rule for Him. has a divine nature. the wicked will be in birthpainlike agony. 1. The Son of Man pre-existed with the Almighty from before creation. page 626 we read the answer: The official teachings of the Pharisees. on which to lean.          Why has modern Judaism lost much of the ancient understanding of the transcendence of the Messiah? In the Jewish Encyclopedia. to bring righteousness to the earth. signifying Divine adoption. the teachings on the non-transcendent messiah found in modern Rabbinic Judaism is a embittered reaction against Christianity. He has the bodily appearance of a human being and the kavod (radiance. The Son of Man is King Messiah who will judge and rule the world with righteousness. The Son of Man is the appointed judge of the world. tried…to negate all that was superhuman in the popular conception of the Messiah. The Son of Man shall be a staff for the righteous. with authority to pardon and condemn. In other words. to stand and not to fall. to destroy evil. The Son of Man was hidden in heaven and then revealed to mankind in Yom YHWH (the Day of YHWH). and from the River unto the ends of the earth'. The Son of Man is the Son of Elohim — a coronation-title of the kings of Yisra'el. The task of the Son of Man is to sow the congregation of the elect and set-apart ones. He shall be a light for all the nations. kings like Solomon and King Messiah…How do we know the same of the King Messiah? Because it is written 'He shall have dominion also from sea to sea. At his revelation. and sits on his throne of esteem passing judgement upon all human and spiritual beings. How do we know that he will hold sway on land? Page 23 of 0 . and hope for the troubled of heart. He is depicted as a pre-existent heavenly being who is resplendent and majestic. while the set-apart and elect will rejoice. after the rise of Christianity. esteem) like that of the set-apart messengers (“holy angels”).

” All peoples. and over all the creatures that move along the ground. Talmud Bavli. This second allusion to Genesis 1:26 indicates an enlarges status for humanity. he [Messiah] will come with the clouds of heaven. Baldwin (1978: 143) comments on Dani'el 7:13: To this man — bar enash. 'All kings shall prostate themselves before him. greater than what it received at first. Ketubot 12:3 …the dead will first come to life in the time of the Messiah The Second Adam In one of the most beautiful chapters in all of Scripture. there came with the clouds of heaven one like unto a Son of Man…and there was given unto him dominion…that all the peoples…should serve him'.) In Tractate Sanhedrin 98a of the Talmud Bavli. the Son of Adam. we read about the coronation of the Son of Adam: Dani'el 7:13 In my vision at night I looked. etc. coming with the clouds of heaven. Soncino: 1983. Bar enash is the Aramaic equivalent of the Hebrew ben Adam — Son of man. Volume 2. over the livestock. 'Behold.” Page 24 of 0 . to Genesis 1:26. Sanhedrin 98a Rabbi Alexandrai said: Rabbi Jehoshua ben Levi contrasted Dani'el 7:13…and Z'kharyah 9:9…If the Israelites are deserving. Genesis 1:26) and esteem and a kingdom. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence. the Son of Man — was given dominion (cf.…since the nations brought gifts to Solomon and will in time to come bring similarly to the King Messiah… (Midrash Rabbah — Numbers. poor and riding on a donkey… In the Talmud Yerushalmi. Slotki (Freedman and Simon. if they are not deserving. all nations shall serve him' and it also says. Genesis 1:26 Then Elohim said. the manner in which the Messiah will come. in our likeness. general editors). it is said that the dead will be resurrected when the Messiah comes: Talmud Yerushalmi. pages 526-529. in the person of the representative “man. “Let us make man in our image. and there before me was one like a bar enash. translated by Judah J. over all the earth. nations and languages…will serve this man…the new ruler of the earth… Joyce Baldwin correctly links the transfer of dominion and esteem to the Ben-Adam. ben Adam.Because it is written. is said to depewnd on the condition of Yisra'el. and let them rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air.

Baldwin (1978: 150) states: …the day is coming when the reigns of government will for ever be in the hands of a man worthy of the name: man as Elohim. the…priests [of Israel]. mortality. cf. representative personality] was familiar [in ancient Israel].There is an intimate relationship between Genesis 1:26 and Dani'el 7:13. He is the Redeemer and also represents the redeemed remnant of mankind. In Adam. In [Dani'el 7] verse 13 he appears as an individual figure. After his creation in the fulness of the tselem (image) and damuth (likeness) of Elohim. the redeemed are transferred from the darkness of the genealogical “pyramid of death. so the idea of [corporate. He was to rule in a covenant of faithful obedience and stewardship to the Almighty. not by our merit. Joyce Baldwin (1978: 150) reacts as follows: Despite assertions to the contrary. but the grace of the Father and the faithfulness of the Messianic Redeemer. Adam's failure.” so that the transfer of power to the ben-Adam is nothing more than a statement of a vague expectation that the humbled people of Israel will eventually triumph and receive the power.) The qadishei Elyonin (the setapart ones of the Supreme One) receive the kingdom and become the subjects of the new representative Man. at creation. Page 25 of 0 . In Dani'el 7 we see how the rulership is given to the Second Adam. the representative One with whom the redeemed enter into legal and mystical union. and his being diminished. they are in Him. He is a corporate personality. sickness and — finally — death. the Anointed King. and Jews of a later period thought of the Son of Man in Dani'el 7:13 as an individual figure. argue that the purpose of the book of Dani'el was to bolster the national hope of Israel during and after the time of Antiochus IV “Epiphanes. In view of the solidarity of the human race. Theologians of a historical-critical persuasion. failed. In Him. The first Adam. He is the corporate representative of unredeemed humanity. Although mankind retained the responsibility of stewardship and the privilege of rulership of the earth. this [the transfer of dominion and esteem to the bar-Enash] is not a reference to the expected transfer of power to the hitherto humbled people of Israel… She continues by giving the responsible exegesis of the nature of the Son of Man (1978: 151): …the one like a son of man [is] representative of the set-apart ones of the Most High. (Note: Dani'el 7 falls inside the Aramaic portion of the book of Dani'el. Unredeemed mankind is just a pithy zekher (remembrance) of Adam's original standing and state. a mandate to rule was given to Adam. our lives are not only marked by success and joy. In the face of such assertions.” The ben-Adam of Dani'el 7:13 is He who is all and more that the first Adam was supposed to be. guilt. intended him to be.” to light and life. agony. however. radically affects all of us. we are all trapped inside a genealogical “pyramid of death. He transgressed and his nature became a sin-nature. the new mankind. now the representative head of the renewed mankind — who are collectively called the qadishei Elyonin (the set-apart ones of the Supreme One) — the set-apart ones of the Most High. and was diminished to the shell of the image of Elohim. but also by failure. and used the term qaddishei Elyonin for the set-apart ones of Elohim. Exodus 28:1). the Second Adam.…had a representative role [among other roles] (Exodus 19:6. falling short.

Every king. is a prayer for the vine Israel. He is the Right Hand of YHWH who has done valiantly. though the One who bestows it is ultimately the king par excellence. 16. representing the people before YHWH in services that taught that without the shedding of blood.” The Messiah is sent forth by YHWH as the Anointed One who would accomplish the redemption of His covenant people. 20 Titles of the Messiah The term messiah means “anointed. The high priest served YHWH in the services of the Beit HaMiqdash (Temple). He is the Gate through which the tzadeqim (i. one who represents many in himself] but closer to the context of Dani'el 7. prophet and high priest of Israel was called a messiah. the place of honour and rulership — see Psalm 110:1. empowered one.Equally representative [as a corporate personality. is the figure of the king.e. “Son of Man” implies majesty. implicit in that he is given a kingdom. now ravaged by enemies. Baldwin concludes her analysis of the term bar enash in the words (1978: 154) …thus in the Gospels.e. addressed to the Shepherd of Israel who is enthroned between the keruvim. He is the Zeroah (Arm of) YHWH who will rule for Him: Yeshayahu 40:10 Adonai YHWH comes in power and His Zeroah (Arm) will rule for Him. 20 15 Shouts of joy and victory resound in the tents of the righteous: “YHWH's right hand has done mighty things! 16 YHWH's right hand is lifted high. there is no remission 7 That is. the righteous) will enter into the Kingdom: Tehillim 118:15. i. served as his instrument to work nissim (miracles) and interceded on behalf of the people. the corporate representative of the redeemed. The anointed prophets spoke the Devar (Word) of YHWH to his people. upon the son of man You made strong for Yourself. Hope is set upon… 14b 15 17 …the vineyard your right hand has planted And the tzemach [branch. Psalm 80. regenerated humanity — the Yisra'el of Elohim and the Gentile tzadeqim grafted into the covenant nation of Yisra'el. Page 26 of 0 . son] You made strong for Yourself… Let your hand be upon the man of your right hand7. In other words. Son of Adam is a term for the eschatological Anointed King. To Him will be given dominion and a kingdom and esteem. as in Dani'el 7. YHWH's right hand has done mighty things!” This is the gate of YHWH through which the righteous may enter.

the emphasis will be on His role as King. At present. as good shepherds who applied the principles of YHWH's kingship on earth. Yet He will always stand in all three these offices. Some prophetic terms for the Messiah are summarised in Table 1. We leave it to the reader to extend the list and fill in additional references. The king was anointed as the one chosen by YHWH to represent His rulership in Israel and to bear witness to His esteem before the nations. the emphasis in the work of the Messiah is on the role of the interceding High Priest. The king of Yisra'el had to rule with justice. Page 27 of 0 . These three offices were pictures of the Messiah. In His coming as reigning sovereign. In Messiah's early ministry. who is the Prophet. the High Priest and the King.of sins. the emphasis is on the prophet who speaks the Devar and the high priest who actively interposed his own shed blood between YHWH and the sinner as a kapparah (atoning covering) for sins.

Z'kharyah 11 & 13 Yo'el 2:23 Genesis 1:14-18. Malachi 4:2 Genesis 1:14-18.Table 1: Some prophetic titles of the Messiah Prophetic Title The Coming One The Elect One Adon Son of Man The Son Immanu'el The Branch (Tzemach) The Banner (Nes) The Capstone The Green Tree Seed of the Woman The Alef and the Tav The Man the Son of Peretz Son of the Clouds The Messenger of YHWH The Messenger of the Presence The Arm of YHWH The Yoted The Shield (Magen) The Lion of the tribe of Yahudah The Go'el (Redeemer) The Eved (Servant) of YHWH The Rock The Prophet The Good Shepherd The Teacher of Righteousness8 The Sun of Righteousness9 The Light of the World Shiloh Shiloach Wonderful Counsellor Mighty El Father of Time Prince of Peace Reference Malachi 3:1 & Z'kharyah 9:9 Yeshayahu 42:1 Tehillim 110:1 Dani'el 7:13 Tehillim 2 Yeshayahu 7-8 Yirmeyahu 23:5b Yeshayahu 11:10. 18:3 Tehillim 118:22 Rabbinic title (Yechezq'el 20:47) Genesis 3:15 Z'kharyah 12:10. Exodus 3. Page 28 of 0 . Genesis 1:1 Rabbinic title (Ruth 4:18) Rabbinic title (Dani'el 7:13) Genesis 22. … Yeshayahu 63:9 Yeshayahu 40-66 Psalm 84:9. Tzadekah. Revelation 4-5 (many) Yeshayahu 42-53 (many) Devarim 18 Genesis 49. Yeshayahu 21:5b Genesis 49. Yeshayahu 9:2 Genesis 49:10b Yeshayahu 8:6 Yeshayahu 9:6 8 Moreh 9 Shemesh Tzadekah.

Table 2: Some names ascribed to King Messiah in ancient rabbinic sources. Note that the parallelism links the Magen with the Mashiach. A term for the Messiah. and look upon the face of your Mashiach. (Lamentations Rabba. Psalm 84:9 says. If we do remez with Page 29 of 0 . Yechezq'el 34:23 & 37:24) Him to whom the right belongs Favour Light Son of the Clouds He of the clouds Yechezq'el 20:45-49. Luke 23:31 Son of Man Son of David Son of Joseph Son of Elohim The Prophet The Teacher We now look at a number of Messianic titles and important terms. Name of Messiah YHWH Yinnon Tzemach Pele Yo'etz Mashiach El Gibor Avi'Ad Shalom Tzidqenu Menachem [My servant] David Shiloh Hanina Nehira bar-Nifle Anani The Green Tree ben-Adam ben-David ben-Yosef ben-Elohim haNavi haMoreh Meaning of the name Personal Name of the Almighty To continue forever Shoot. O Elohim. in different words. “Behold. advisor The Anointed One Mighty One before whom we tremble Mighty Hero Everlasting Father of Peace Our Justice/Righteousness Comforter (cf.” This verse is in the style of Hebrew parallelism — saying the same thing twice. our Magen (Shield). Targum to 1 Chronicles. Buber's note to Midrash Mishle. Quoted in Patai (1979: 21-23.In Table 2 we have listed some of the names that ancient Jewish sages ascribed to the Messiah. Midrash Mishle. 81-83)). Branch Miracle Counsellor. S. Magen Shield.

prefigurative fulfillments in history. catapulting the False messiah into office at an emergency summit meeting held in Europe (Revelation 17). anoint the magen… at the interpretative level of the sod (deeper meaning). who have all been made royalty by the covenantal love of the Father and the faithfulness of the Son) will be resurrected (“arise”) to witness the coronation of King Messiah (“anoint the magen”) shortly before the annihilation of eschatological Babylon in Yom YHWH. of the individual and the covenant people. Qetz yamim The end of days. the Comforter of Yisra'el. as interceding advocate. which made all the earth drunk. Events said to happen ba'ha-acharit ha-yamim (in the end of days) often had one or even more partial. Greek: Parakletos. This annihilation will precipitate the Chevlei Shel Mashiach Yirmeyahu 51:7 Babylon has been a golden cup in the hand of YHWH. Menachem Comforter. we may read the text as an intimation that the princes (i. Scriptural history is a carefully woven prophetic tavnit (pattern) that teaches — to those who have ears to hear — the Footsteps of the Messiah. The reshith hayamim is that part that has already passed.Yeshayahu 21:5b Arise you princes. ad-et qetz  “until the time of the end. The other Hebrew term for eschatology is ‘Iqqvot haMashiach — Footsteps of the Messiah. The Ruach HaQodesh manifesting as comforter. The days are pictured as an army marching past. Also a title for the Messiah. The nations have drunk of her wine. while the acharit ha-yamim is the portion of days that is still approaching. reading it in its context.” Page 30 of 0 . of which we now have the firstfruits in our hearts.e. therefore the nations are insane. The rest that the tzadeqim will enter into when King Messiah comes. which serves as a tavnit or pattern that foreshadows events that will happen in Yom YHWH. where 10 extraordinary plenipotentiaries will hand over the reigns of government to Armilus. believers. Acharit yamim The end of days. Menuchah Rest.

” A Hebrew term for the time of the coming of Mashiach. what will happen in the dry? Not in Hebrew and Aramaic the “b-” preposition can mean “in” but idiomatically it can also mean “with” meaning “to” In this case the passage is best rendered: That if with a green tree they do these things. how I bear in my heart the taunts of all the nations. who will be burned up when judgement falls. what will happen with the dry? In the Semitic the passage is a clear allusion to Yechezq'el 20:45-21:17. what will be done in the dry? The Aramaic literally reads: That if in a green tree they do these things. the taunts with which your enemies have mocked. and the density of His references to the Word. The term ‘Iqqvot haMashiach is derived from Tehillim 89:50-51 Remember. Adonai. Yahushua the Messiah is the Word become flesh. What will happen to the wicked? or: If they do this with me. Page 31 of 0 . ‘Iqqvot haMashiach “Footsteps of the Messiah. where the green tree is a metaphor for the righteous while the dry tree symbolises the wicked. What will happen to them? Luke 23:26-31 and Yechezq'el 20:45-21:17 are parallel passages. Yahushua uses a kol v'khomer statement to say: If they do this with a righteous one. The eschatological messianic redemption. but the words of His Father in Heaven. Green Tree One of the more difficult sayings of Yahushua is: Luke 23:31 For if they do these things in the green wood. in the acharit-yamim. O YHWH. the Hebrew Scriptures. i.e. In summary: Alluding to Yechezq'el 20:45-21:17.Ge'ulah shelemah The complete redemption. He did not speak His own words. how your servant has been mocked. with which they have mocked the footsteps of your Mashiach. to be established by Almighty YHWH by the hand of His Messiah. is astounding. Almost every sentence that He spoke contains references to the Tanakh — the referential density of the dialogue is exceptionally high.

until Rashi (Rabbi Solomon Yizchaki. often heard in modern Judaism. has been interpreted in Messianic terms by a wide variety of Jewish commentators over a long period of time. which started in Germany in the 17th century. was rejected as unsatisfactory by many others. and afterwards Toledo. Mosheh Kohen Ibn Crispin. when the hideous massacres of Jews in Spire. but he very probably wrote his Commentary on the Tanakh (in which the new interpretation is first introduced) after the second Crusade. after the first Crusaders were gone. that “the doors of literal interpretation of this chapter were shut in their face. Kimchi. Quotation 1: Page 32 of 0 . although recieved by Ibn Ezra. Cologne by the wild profligate swarm which gathered. The present-day. the anointing. might well have occasioned it. to judge by the resemblance or nonresemblance to it whether he were the Messiah or not. The fourth and climatic Servant Song. non-messianic interpretation of Yeshayahu 52-53 is a relatively recent and forced. and not with the servant nation Israel. whereby.The suffering Servant: The Ancient Jewish Interpretation of Yeshayahu 52-53 In Yeshayahu 42-53 there are four magnificent prophetic songs about the Servant (Eved) of YHWH. when any should claim to be the Messiah. Rashi's view. fourteenth century. and others. The fourth prophetic song about the Eved (Servant) of YHWH forms the climax to the four Servant songs. of Cordova.” Rashi. Here follows important rabbinic commentaries on the Servant prophecy of Yeshayahu 52-53. and the sufferings of the Messiah as well. and inclined after the stubborness of their own hearts and of their own opinions. who says rightly.” The modern non-messianic interpretation of the Eved prophecy in Yeshayahu 52-53 also gained in popularity within the Reform Movement in Judaism. which applied Yeshayahu 53 to the Messiah. Worms. Though other interpretations have also been offered. This refutes the claim. 1040-1105) applied it to the Jewish nation. apologetic invention dating from the 14th century. one of whom (R. as the following references will show. the messianic interpretation has a long history in Rabbinic interpretation of Scripture. Yeshayahu 52:13 to 53:12. and not with the calling. having forsaken the knowledge of our teachers. that these passages only deal with the nation of Israel. when Jews suffered very cruelly at the hands of paganised European Christianity — “the religion of Edom. The view that Yeshayahu 52-53 deals with the messiah. Mainz.” According to Ibn Crispin. was almost universal. and that in truth “it was given of Elohim as a description of the Messiah. the interpretation adopted by Rashi “distorts the passage from its natural meaning”. at an earlier period of his life — when he wrote his Commentary on the Talmud — actually followed the older interpretation. and that they wearied themselves to find the entrance. of those who for controversial reasons applied this prophecy to Israel.

And the Messiah answered Him. p. and brought forth the being of the Messiah.. Rabbi Moses Haddarshan states: Immediately the Messiah. various editions (such as Samson H. Zohar. 2:212a). Thesis. higher than the ministering angels. The Fifty Third Chapter of Yeshayahu According to the Jewish Commentators. Targum Jonathan. elevated above Mosheh. the Messianic Exegesis of the Targum. as it is written in Yeshayahu 53. In the Midrash Tehillim. 1967). p. Quotation 5: Rav Asher Soloff states that the life of Yosef. 1974.' Then Elohim said to him: 'Will you then also bear the punishment in order to blot out their sins. Quotation 6: Page 33 of 0 . p. Levey. was understood as alluding to the Messiah in the early cycle of synagogue readings: We know that messianic homilies based on Yoseph's career (his saving role preceded by suffering). Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College. 'I will. renders Yeshayahu 52:13 as: Behold. Yeshayahu 53:5 is quoted. 'I will joyfully bear them' (cf. My Servant the Messiah shall prosper. e. and very exalted.. a commentary.D. took upon himself all those plagues and sufferings. Drew University. Ps 60 and Dani'el 7:13. where this passage occurs. as it is written. Quotation 2: The Midrash Tanchuma states: “This is the King Messiah who is high and lifted up. and using Yeshayahu 53 as the prophetic portion. 309: When Elohim created the world. 146.' " Quotation 4: In the Rabboth. Reference: Targum Jonathan to Yeshayahu 52:13.g. in the Ketuvim.” Quotation 3: There is a remarkable passage in the very old book Pesikta. in the passage Yeshayahu 52:13 and 42:1. e. out of love. and reprinted in Hulsii Theologia Judaica. The Messiah: An Aramaic Interpretation. to the Sixteenth Century (Ph. as well as Yeshayahu 53.The ancient Aramaic paraphrase of the Prophets. He stretched out His hand under the throne of His kavod. “But he bore our diseases” (Yeshayahu 53:4). and referred to the sufferings of the Messiah. it is said at Psalms 2:7: The things of King Messiah are announced in the prophets. an allegorical commentary on the Psalms. printed at Venice in 1546. 63). more exalted than Avraham. The above shows that this entire prophecy was understood messianically at the time the Targum was written. cited in the treatise Abkath Rokhel.g. 'He was abused and oppressed. He said to him: 'Will you heal and redeem My sons after 6000 years?' He answered him. were preached in certain old synagogues which used the triennial cycle… Reference: Rav Asher Soloff.

107-09. 64). pp. The earlier part of [the Haftarah] (Yeshayahu 52. and as opening with a description of his condition in exile. and secondly. He thus gives us to understand two things: In the first instance. Quotation 8: Ruth Rabbah 5:6 reads: The fifth interpretation [of Ruth 2:14] makes it refer to the Messiah. Cf. And eat of the bread refers to the bread of royalty. New York: Ktav). pp. states: As to myself. Neubauer (editors). and carried our sorrows: yet we did esteem him a leper. from the time of his birth to his accession to the throne: for the prophet begins by speaking of his being seated in a position of great honour. Reference: Soncino Talmud edition. Reference: Jacob Mann. but that he Page 34 of 0 . as it is said. Driver & A. 298. and in this connection the tribulations of the Messiah were briefly alluded to by the recital of the above two verses. Soloff. 1969. Tractate Sanhedrin 98b. so that. states: The Rabbis said: His name [i. © 1940). if he finds himself under the yoke of misfortunes whilst remaining pure in his actions.) dealt with the redemption of Israel. with Benjamin of Nehawend. The original texts are in volume 1.4-5 [to the cycle of synagogue readings] was evidently of a Messianic purport by reason of the theory of a suffering Messiah. Yefeth ben Ali (10th century).” [Yeshayahu 53:4]. I am inclined. The English translations used here are taken from volume 2. The Bible as Read and Preached in the Old Synagogue (New York: Ktav.7ff. p. Quotation 7: The Babylonian Talmud. Reference: Soncino Midrash Rabbah (vol. Quotation 9: The Karaite. p. the name of the Messiah] is “the leper scholar. to regard it as alluding to the Messiah. Quotation 10: Another statement from Yefeth ben Ali: By the words “surely he hath carried our sicknesses. 1971. and dip thy morsel in the vinegar refers to his sufferings. that these trials will be sent upon him as a kind of sign. and afflicted.Jacob Mann concurs: The addition of Yeshayahu 53. The Fifty-third Chapter of Isaiah According to the Jewish Interpreters (2 volumes. 8. R. he may know that he is the desired one… Reference: S.” as it is written.” they mean that the pains and sickness which he fell into were merited by them. and then goes back to relate all that will happen to him during the captivity. 19-20. Come hither: approach to royal state. “But he was wounded because of our transgressions” (Yeshayahu 53:5). “Surely he hath borne our griefs.e. smitten of Elohim. that the Messiah will only reach his highest degree of honour after long and severe trials.

and by doing so lighten their punishment in order that Israel might not be completely exterminated. but punishment for iniquity.. Quotation 11: Yet another statement from Yefeth ben Ali: “And Adonai laid on him the iniquity of us all. Igeret Teman (New York: American Academy for Jewish Research. 127128.” in the days of the Messiah. and lofty exceedingly. and where will be the place of his appearance?… And Yeshayahu speaks similarly of the time when he will appear…He came up as a sprout before him. “Behold my servant shall prosper. Also: Abraham S. pp. Reference: Driver and Neubauer. Reference: Driver and Neubauer. ed. when describing the manner in which the kings will hearken to him. that all the kings of the earth will be thrown into terror at the fame of him — their kingdoms will be in consternation. Soloff p.” Reference: Driver and Neubauer. 36. he will be high and exalted. as in the passage. “At him kings will shut their mouth.. p. of whom it is said. Letter to Yemen (12th century): What is to be the manner of Messiah's advent. 322. but not being strong enough to bear it…Elohim appoints his servant to carry their sins. confessing. their inability to contend with him or ignore his presence. in fact. But the unique phenomenon attending his manifestation is. in order to explain why Elohim caused these sicknesses to attach themselves to the Messiah for the sake of Israel…The nation deserved from Elohim greater punishment than that which actually came upon them. 23 ff. p. See Soloff pp. 26.bore them instead…And here I think it necessary to pause for a few moments. etc. Halkin. or to adopt some different course. Quotation 13: Maimonides. in the words of Yeshayahu. 108-109. Soloff pp. and so confounded at the wonders which they will see him work.” Reference: Driver and Neubauer vol. that they will lay their hands upon their mouth. “Be sure your sin will find you out” (Numbers 32:23). Quotation 12: Lekach Tov (an 11th century midrash): “And let his [Israel's] kingdom be exalted. 1952). 1: p. for that which had not been told them have they seen. 109. and as a root out of the dry earth. Quotation 14: Zohar 2:212a (a medieval Jewish mystical work): Page 35 of 0 .” The prophet does not…mean iniquity. and they themselves will be devising whether to oppose him with arms. and that which they had not heard they have perceived.

13th century): And by his stripes we were healed — because the stripes by which he is vexed and distressed will heal us. Page 36 of 0 .e.There is in the Garden of Eden a palace named the Palace of the Sons of Sickness. “My servant shall be high. Townsend (Hoboken. Note that this section is (deliberately) omitted. The same passage is found in Midrash Tanhuma to Genesis (perhaps 9th century). 78. as it is written.…loftier than the ministering angels. edited by John T. Quotation 17: Yalkut ii. New Jersey: Ktav. 1991). 9. (Cincinnati: Messianic Literature Outreach. censored from the Soncino edition of the Talmud. Rachmiel. n. “He was wounded for our transgressions. p. 10. i. p. and He summons every pain and every chastisement of Israel. Shim'on ben Jaqish explained: 'And the spirit of Elohim hovered over the face of the water' (Gen1:2) — this is the spirit of King Messiah. p. and lifted up. one for our own generation.” Reference: Cited in Driver and Neubauer. in regard to Psalm 2:6: …I have drawn him out of the chastisements…The chastisements are divided into three parts: one for David and the fathers. and we shall be healed both from our own transgressions and from the iniquities of our fathers. to hide it from readers not fluent in Hebrew. and this is that which is written. Quotation 16: Yalkut ii: 571 (13th century): The King Messiah…is greater than the patriarchs. and one for the King Messiah. Reference: Driver and Neubauer.620 (13th century). as it is written. Reference: Driver and Neubauer. “Surely our sicknesses he has carried.” etc. Elohim will pardon us for his righteousness. p.' (Yeshayahu 11:2). and lofty exceedingly” — he will be higher than Abraham. 27. 14-15 from section “va-yiqqahel”. 'And the spirit of the YHWH will rest upon him. Reference: Driver and Neubauer. 56. This palace the Messiah enters. there had been no man able to bear Israel's chastisements for the transgressions of the Torah. as it is said. What the Rabbis Know About the Messiah. All of these come and rest upon Him. Quotation 18: Bereisheet Rabbah 2:4 R. Translation from Frydland. Quotation 15: Nachmanides (Rabbi Mosheh ben Nachman. 166. pp. 1989). And had He not thus lightened them upon Himself.…lifted up above Mosheh. p.

walking with the sons of man in meekness. And he shall pour upon you the spirit of grace. to judge and save all that call upon YHWH. and do to them whatever your soul wishes… all of them will die from the breath of your lips. and he says: 'How much can my strength suffer? How much my spirit and soul? And how much my limbs? Am I not but flesh and blood?' Quotation 20: Pes.Pes. ‘And his delight will be in the fear of YHWH’ (Yeshayahu 11:3). and no sin shall be found in him.152b You find that at the beginning of the creation of the world King Messiah was born. The development of the two-Messiah doctrine also had to do with a messianic parallel to Moses. 36 "You have suffered because of the sins of our children. ch. BhM. And Elohim says to him. 'Be you the judge over these peoples. 162a When the Son of David comes they will bring iron beams and put them upon his neck until his body bends and he cries and weeps. this was felt to be irreconcilable with the belief in the Messiah as the Redeemer who would usher in the blissful millennium of the Messianic age. Rab. like unto the sun of righteousness.' And thus it is written: 'He was wounded because of our transgressions. Rab. 24 A man shall arise from my seed. and cruel punishments have come upon you… you were put to ridicule and held in contempt by the nations of the world because of Israel… All this because of the sins of our children… great sufferings have come upon you on their account. ed. Rab. p. Testament of Judah. Konen. 2:29 "Eliyahu… says to the Messiah: 'Endure the sufferings and the sentence of your Master who makes you suffer because of the sin of Israel. The dilemma was solved by splitting the person of the Messiah in two.' " Quotation 21: Mid." Professor Raphael Patai.' (Yeshayahu 53:5) — until the time of the end comes. and you shall walk in his commandments… a rod of righteousness to the nations. Quotation 19: Pes. who died before entering the Promised Land. Friedmann. Quotation 22: Maimonides on Yeshayahu 53 Maimonides (writes to Jacob Alfajumi): It is said about Him (the Messiah). He grew up before him as a tender plant and as Page 37 of 0 . The Messiah Texts: When the death of the Messiah became an established tenet in Talmudic times.

Friedmann) states: And the Holy One made an agreement with [the Messiah] and said to him. and inclined after the “stubbornness of their own hearts. How is this known? It is written. there is no beauty that we should desire him. And likewise said Yeshayahu that He (the Messiah) would appear without acknowledging a father or mother: ‘He grew up before him as a tender plant and as a root out of a dry ground etc. and they will make you like this calf whose eyes are dim. with the gladness of my soul and the joy of my heart I take it upon me. and they will choke your spirit under the yoke. blessed be He.e. This portion of the Midrash. i. and on this condition I will take it upon myself. was compiled in the 9th century and is based on writings from Talmudic times. and for His sake all are healed.” Reference: Pesikta Rabbati (editor: M. and thereby distort the passage from its natural sense?…As then it seemed to me that the doors of the literal interpretation of the Parashah were shut in their face. they had their sufferings and afflictions removed from them by their prayers and sacrifices. but also those who are hid in the dust. [as Page 38 of 0 . but all the dead from the dead from the first man until now. in accordance with the teaching of our Rabbis. 200 BCE – 400 CE. Amsterdam edition): When Israel was in the Holy Land. He was bruised for our iniquities… and by his stripes we are healed’ (Yeshayahu 53:5). and on account of their sins your tongue shall cleave to your mouth. fol.a root out of a dry ground: he has no form nor comeliness: and when we see him. Quotation 25: Rabbi Mosheh Kohen ibn Crispin (14th century): This Parashah [passage of Scripture] the commentators agree in explaining of the Captivity of Israel. fol. ‘He was wounded for our transgressions. 212a and Part III. on condition that not one of Israel shall perish and not only in my days. why should we here interpret the word collectively. and we esteemed him not. and not only should the dead of my own time be saved. although the singular number is used in it throughout…As there is no cause constraining us to do so. “The sins of those which are forgiven for your sake will cause you to be put under an iron yoke. also the unborn and those whom thou hast intended to create. Friedmann). Thus I agree. Midrash Pesikta Rabbati 36 (editor: M.’ He was despised and rejected of men.” having forsaken the knowledge of our Teachers. but now the Messiah removes them from the children of the world. When the Holy One. and that “they wearied themselves to find the entrance. 218a. Quotation 23: Zohar (Part II. a man of sorrow and acquainted with grief. wishes the recovery of the children of the world. and as one from whom men hide their faces he was despised.” and of their own opinion. He afflicts one righteous person from their midst. Are you willing to do this?”… But [the Messiah] said to Him: “Sovereign of the world. called the Haggadah. Quotation 24: About Yeshayahu 53:4-6. I am pleased to interpret it.

Quotation 26: Another comment from R. Mosheh Kohen ibn Crispin If his soul makes itself into a trespass-offering. Reference: Driver and Neubauer. p. to adhere to the literal sense. Reference: Driver and Neubauer. must endure and suffer for them himself. and when he speaks of the King Messiah. pp. that our Rabbis with one voice accept and affirm the opinion that the prophet [Yeshayahu] is speaking of the King Messiah. Or he may call the whole people my servant. And the prophet calls the King Messiah my servant. then. Raphael Patai writes. Reference: Driver and Neubauer.…meaning that since the Messiah bears our iniquities which produce the effect of His being bruised. 6): when he speaks of the people. 53. Quotation 27: Rabbi Sh'lomoh Astruc (14th century): My servant shall prosper. the King Messiah is included in it. What he says then is.pertaining to] the King Messiah. wrote: But he was wounded. 49. p. unhesitatingly identifies him with the Messiah. Patai considers Daniel 9:24-27 messianic. the Talmudic legend. 129. and understands especially the descriptions of his sufferings as referring to Messiah ben Joseph. it follows that whosoever will not admit that the Messiah thus suffers for our iniquities. 112. and will be careful. 258. Quotation 28: In his commentary on Yeshayahu 53:5. speaking as one who sent him. including the death of the Messiah: Page 39 of 0 . implying that his soul will treat itself as guilty. The Aggada. Quotation 30: Concerning the suffering servant of Yeshayahu 42. p. p. 50. Rabbi Elijah de Vidas (16th century). so far as I am able. and so receive punishment for our trespasses and transgressions. and we ourselves also adhere to the same view. that my servant the King Messiah will prosper. 331. or be truly intelligent. 99-100. as he says above my people (lii. etc. Reference: Driver and Neubauer. Reference: Driver and Neubauer. Quotation 29: Rabbi Mosheh Alshekh (El-Sheikh) of Sefad (16th century): I may remark. the people is comprehended with him. because by intelligence man is really man — it is intelligence which makes a man what he is. 52.

Quotation 33: Rabbi Naphtali Ben Asher (ca. Messiah our righteousnessis departed from us: horror hath seized us. fully developed in the Talmud. with the Targums (Talmudic commentaries). 400-401. Quotation 32: Herz Homberg (18th – 19th century): The fact is. theMidrash. and the Zohar. the Messiah.. conclude that king David. pp. applied Yeshayahu 53 to the Messiah likewise. Philips Machzor: We are shrunk up in our misery even until now. comments: Upon the testimony of tradition. We. Patai also lists Yeshayahu 9:6-7. who Elohim willing will come speedily in our days. Reference: Driver and Neubauer. The kabbalistic Jews still largely held to the messianic interpretation of the passage. Page 40 of 0 . our old rabbis have unanimously admitted that king Messiah is here the subject of discourse. Our Rock has not come nigh to us. and we have none to justify us. who will come in the latter days. and our transgression. I will not proceed to explain these verses of our own Messiah. has its origin in the biblical prophecies about the suffering servant. Quotation 31: Rabbi Mosheh Alschech. in harmony with them. Comparatively few Jews (i. must be considered as the subject of this prophecy — a view which is indeed quite obvious. Adonai having chosen him to be a trespassoffering.. He beareth our sins on his shoulder.. that it refers to the King Messiah. p. 11:1-12. and Zech 9:9-10 as messianic passages.e. 1650 YM) said.e. Quotation 34: The Musaf (additional) service for the Day of Atonement. I am surprised that Rashi (a famous Jewish commentator on Scripture) and Rabbi David Kimchi (Radak) have not. He hath borne the yoke of our iniquities. 321 ff. like the scapegoat which bore all the iniquities of the house of Israel.It is quite probable that the concept of the suffering Messiah. i. in Hulsii Theologia Judaica. those who didn't take the "servant-as-Israel" view) believed that the passage referred to a person other than the Messiah. and is wounded because of our transgression. when it will be Adonai's good pleasure to redeem Israel from among the different nations of the earth…Whatever he underwent was in consequence of their own transgression. Daniel 7:13-14.

p. The other passage is also from the Machsor (Liturgy for the Festival Services). heaven]! Raise him up from Seir. p. was one of the names given by the Rabbis to the Messiah. etc. with Mishpat — justice. at the time that HaShem will create him [the Messiah] as a new creature. the 1937 edition of this Machzor as well as in Driver and Neubauer.e. and is derived from Psalm 72:17. 399.that he may find pardon for our iniquities. T. the English translator of the Machsor. and perhaps of the Messiah himself. The term ben-Elohim for King Messiah is found in many ancient Jewish texts. “Before the sun was. and will be found among the prayers on the Feast of Passover. Machzor Leyom Kippur / Prayer Book for the Day of Atonement. Yinnon. (In its original setting. The passage can also be found in. . his anointing power — to the King. and in the triumph of victory. In the ideal of kingship in ancient Israel.. he shall be prudent in judgement. ‘The voice of my beloved. this term has nothing to do with virgin birth doctrines. e. 239. It expresses the theology of Royal Messianism. and shall sprinkle many! Lay bare thine arm! Cry out and say. There was a unique filial relationship between the King of Yisra'el and YHWH. Every King of Israel was an adopted ben-Elohim. as will be seen. his name. high and exalted and lofty shall be the despised one. It is as follows: Flee. The author. ben-Elohim. and the shadows shall take their flight hence. my beloved. was Eleazer ben Kalir. to assemble us the second time on Mount Lebanon. Philips. by the hand of Yinnon! Reference: A.g. 1931). hasten.) Jewish Apocrypha Page 41 of 0 . which the Talmud renders.) Ben-Elohim: Son of the Most High Son of Elohim.” a rendering and expression which implies a belief in the pre-existence of at least the name of the Messiah. understanding. power. according to Zunz. YHWH imparted his Ruach — his breath. behold he cometh!’” (David Levy. to endow him with wisdom. . We shall be healed by his wound. perfect government. is a term in Royal Messianism. who lived in the ninth century. says in a note that this verse referred to “the true Messiah”. the empowerment with the Ruach of YHWH enabled the king to rule in the Fear of YHWH. Revised and Enlarged Edition (New York: Hebrew Publishing Company.e. O bring him up from the circle of the earth [i. until the end of the vision shall speak. with English Translation. i. Coronation entailed divine adoption as son of the Most High.

and henceforth you shall live with my Son and with those who are like you. as you saw the mountain carved out without hands. who will himself deliver his creation…” “…When these things take place and the signs occur that I showed you before. and when he has reproved them. For first he will bring them alive before his judgement seat.” 2 Esdras 14:9 For you shall be taken up from among humankind. pre-existent. whom you saw as a man coming up…” 2 Esdras 13:36-37 “But he shall stand on the top of Mount Tziyon. the wind made something like the figure of a man come up …And I saw that this man flew with the clouds of heaven…” “This is the interpretation of the vision: As for your seeing a man come up…this is he whom the Most High has been keeping for many ages. The messianic figure in this book is described as of Davidic origin. and a second Mosheh. those who have been saved… 2 Esdras 13:3-32 “As I kept looking. “Just as no one can explore or know what is in the depths of the sea. will reprove the assembled nations for their crookedness…” 2 Esdras 13:52 He said to me.2 Esdras 7:26-30 For indeed the time will come…Everyone who has been delivered from the evils that I have foretold shall see my wonders. the son of the Almighty. my Son. who will arise from the seed of David. For my son the Messiah shall be revealed with those who are with him… 2 Esdras 12:31-34 …this is the Messiah whom the Most High has kept until the end of days. And Tziyon shall come and be made manifest to all people. the Elect One. Then he. prepared and built. except in the time of his day. and will display before them their contemptuous dealings. Dead Sea Scrolls The Dead Sea Scrolls also testify that the Messiah was anciently called the Son of the Most High: Page 42 of 0 . then he will destroy them. and will come and speak with them. But in mercy he will set free the remnant of my people. the Son of Man. so no one on earth can see my Son or those who are with him. He will denounce them for their iniquity and for their wickedness. then my Son will be revealed. until the times are ended.

and they will mourn for him as one mourns for an only child. and their wives apart [Z'kharyah 12:12]…What is the cause of the mourning? The rabbis differed on this point. 14 and all the rest of the clans and their wives.4Q Aramaic Apocalypse (4Q246). whom they have pierced. commented as follows on Tractate Sukkah 52a of the Talmud (cited in A. The sword will cease in the earth. with their wives by themselves: the clan of the house of David and their wives. “And they shall look upon me because they have thrust him through. Sukkah 52 The cause is the slaying of Mashiach ben-Yosef — Messiah the son of Yoseph — it is well with him who explains that the cause is the slaying of Messiah the son of Yoseph. a well-known 11th century rabbi. He is a great mighty one among the mighty ones…His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom… The Pierced One: Jewish Messianic Interpretations of Z'kharyah 12:10 In Z'kharyah 12:9-14 we read that the Israelites will look up to Him whom they have pierced and will bitterly grieve for Him. 13 the clan of the house of Levi and their wives. and all the cities will pay him homage. each clan by itself. One explained: b. and they will call him the son of the Most High…His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom…The earth will be in truth and all will make peace. Sukkah 52a And the land shall mourn. and they shall mourn for him as one mourns for his only son”… Rashi.): Page 43 of 0 . 161. column II He will be called the Son of Elohim. Rabbi David Kimchi's Commentary Upon the Prophecies of Z'kharyah. the clan of the house of Nathan and their wives. They will look on Me. M'Caul. and grieve bitterly for him as one grieves for a firstborn son. since that well agrees with the Scriptural verse. 1837). 11 In thát day [ba'Yom ha-hu] the weeping in Yerushalayim will be great. 10 9 “And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Yerushalayim a spirit of grace and supplication. like one mourns at the death of a firstborn son: Z'kharyah 12:9-14: In thát day [ba'Yom ha-hu] I will set out to destroy all the nations that attack Yerushalayim. 12 The land will mourn. every family apart. p. the clan of Shimei and their wives. like the weeping of Hadad Rimmon in the plain of Megiddo. Babylonian Talmud. the family of the house of David apart. (London: James Duncan.

that is Messiah.” “their king…the “King Messiah” (i. These quotations prove that the ancient sages understood clearly that the Messiah would be a pre-existent heavenly being. we have quoted many writings of ancient Jewish sages. and that is.” 2 Baruch (Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch) 30:1 And it will happen after these things when the time of the appearance of the Mashiach (Anointed One) has been fulfilled and he returns with esteem. that at that time the dominion of my Mashiach which is like the fountain and the vine. have said that he will take upon himself all the guilt of Israel. saying that there is none beside Him to forgive those that mourn on account of him who died for their sin: this is the meaning of “They shall look upon me.” are found in the prophecy of Z'kharyah. the Son of David. and therefore.The words. we shall present more proofs of the knowledge about the Coming One that once existed widely within Judaism. that they shall mourn on account of Messiah. will be revealed… 2 Baruch (Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch) 40:1f And they will carry him [the last wicked king] onto Mount Tzion. in such a manner. And after these things he [my Messiah] will kill him [the last wicked king] and protect the rest of my people who will be found in Page 44 of 0 . and shall then be slain…to make an atonement. The Psalms of Solomon present a detailed portrait of the coming Davidic Messiah. He is called “their king. they will repent. In this section. for on account of their sin he has died. and my Messiah will convict him of all his wicked deeds and will assemble and show him all the works of his armies.” for they shall lift up their eyes unto me in perfect repentance. of blessed memory. would be the “king of Israel. the son of Yosef. “Anointed Sovereign”) who would be “made powerful by Elohim in the Ruach HaQodesh”. and look to the blessed One. and he prophesies of the future.e.” Messiah in the Apocrypha In the foregoing presentation. the son of Yosef. that “they shall look unto me. in order that it may be reckoned to them as a perfect atonement. for our rabbis. the Go'el who bore the guilt of our transgressions in his substitutionary death to pay the price for our redemption. that it shall be accounted as if Israel had pierced him. when they see him whom they pierced. that then all who sleep in hope of him will rise. 2 Baruch(Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch) 39:7 And it will happen when the time of its fulfillment is approaching in which it will fall.” “the Messiah of Elohim who will reign. who shall be slain… Mosheh Alshekh (16th century) interpreted Z'kharyah 12:10 as follows (cited in M'Caul (1837: 163): I will do yet a third thing. “The land shall mourn. sent forth by YHWH as a man — the transcendent Son of YHWH.

sin will cease and…men shall find rest in him…And he shall open the gates of paradise…he will grant to the tzadeqim to eat of the tree of life… The tradition of two Messiahs — Mashiach Ben David the king. This is the Choter (Shoot)10 of Elohim Most High. he will call all nations. when the nations are moved and the time of my Messiah comes. He shall effect the judgement of truth over the earth for many days. and in him will be found no sin. and some of them he will spare. esteem) of the Most High shall burst forth upon him. And his dominion will last forever until the world of corruption has ended and until the times which have been mentioned before have been fulfilled. walking with the sons of men in gentleness and righteousness. And you shall be sons in truth. 10 Yeshayahu 11:1. Yirmeyahu 23:5. And his star shall rise in heaven like a king…This one will shine forth like the sun in the earth…The heavens shall rejoice in his days and the earth shall be glad. and through it will arise the rod of righteousness for the nations. to judge and to save all that call on YHWH. Page 45 of 0 . 33:15 and Z'kharyah 3:8. Then he will illumine the sceptre of my kingdom. And the spirit of understanding and setting-apart shall rest upon him…In his priesthood. And the heavens will be opened upon him to pour out the spirit as a blessing of the Set-Apart Father. the clouds will be filled with joy and the knowledge of YHWH will be poured out on the earth like the water of the seas…And the kavod (radiance. This is a wonderful mosaic of eschatological expectations involving:  Numbers 24:17  Malakhi 4:2  Psalm 45:4 (LXX)  Yeshayahu 53:9  Yeshayahu 11:2  Yeshayahu 61:11  Joel 3:1 and all the “branch” or “shoot” passages — Yeshayahu 11. and from your root shall arise the Shoot. 6:12. And he will pour the spirit of grace on you. this is fountain for the life of all humanity. and others he will kill… Testament of Levi 18:2ff And then YHWH will raise up a new priest to whom all the words of YHWH will be revealed. 2 Baruch (Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch) 72:2 After the signs have come of which I have spoken to you before. Testament of Yahudah 24 “And after this there shall arise for you a Star from Ya'aqov in peace: And a man shall arise from my posterity like the Sun of Righteousness. and you will walk in his first and final decrees.the place that I have chosen. and the priestly Messiah — show up in many places in the Testaments and in the Qumran documents.

and whom nations will obey. Numbers 24:17-24 (Targum Onkelos) I see him. forever. the time of the Messiah. the very end of days. wielding the mighty sceptre of Israel…[the Gentile nations shall rise] to wage war against Israel. until the Messiah comes. the youngest of his sons. Genesis 49:10-12 (Targum Onkelos) The transmission of dominion shall not cease from the house of Yahudah. to whom the Kingdom belongs. nor scribes who teach the Torah from his seed. and because of him nations shall melt away…How beautiful is the King Messiah who is destined to arise from the house of Yahudah…How beautiful are the eyes of King Messiah. when a king shall arise out of Ya'aqov and be anointed the Messiah out of Israel. as pure wine! Numbers 11:26 (fragment) At the end. and shall make great the kingdom of His Messiah. but not now. Gog and Magog and their armies shall go up against Yerushalayim. and pitched his tent onward to Migdal Eder — the tower of Eder. but he is not near. in the days of the King Messiah…but those nations shall fall by the hand of the King Messiah… 1 Samuel 2:7-10 He shall give strength to His king. until the time when the King Messiah shall come. Genesis 49:10-12 (Targum Pseudo-Yonathan) Kings and rulers shall not cease from the house of Yahudah.Messiah in the Targumim (periphrastic translations) Genesis 35:21 (Targum Pseudo-Yonathan) And Ya'aqov moved on. the place whence the King Messiah is destined to reveal himself at the end of days. but they shall fall by the hand of the King Messiah. Genesis 49:1 (Targum Pseudo-Yonathan) As soon as the Time of the End when the King Messiah would arrive was revealed to him… Genesis 49:1 (fragment) For he was revealing to them all that was going to occur at the very end. and shall be anointed Messiah. nor the scribe from his children's children. I behold him. Page 46 of 0 . Numbers 24:17-24 (Targum Pseudo-Yonathan) …but when a mighty king of the house of Ya'aqov shall reign.

judging. who has taken the Torah upon himself to guard it. And upon him shall rest the spirit of divine prophecy. Yeshayahu 10:24-27 …and the nations shall be shattered before the Messiah. the Mighty Elohim. the spirit of counsel and might. he is the Messiah. demanding justice and doing righteousness. in the city of David. who shall minister according to My word and My will. the son of Yishai. and the Messiah shall be anointed from among his children's children. who is destined to arise and rule in the fear of YHWH… Yeshayahu 4:1-6 At that time the Messiah of YHWH shall be a joy and an honour… Yeshayahu 9:5-6 The Prophet announced to the house of David: 'A boychild has been born unto us. the spirit of wisdom and sagacity. and shall occupy it in truth.1 Samuel 2:35 I will raise up before Me a trustworthy priest. a son has been given unto us. …In the days of Israel's Messiah. 2 Samuel 23:1-5 …Said David. and his name has been called by the One who gives wonderful counsel. Yeshayahu 11:1-16 And a king shall come forth from the sons of Yishai. the spirit of knowledge and fear of YHWH. in whose day peace shall abound for us. the wolf shall dwell with the lamb… Yeshayahu 14:29-30 …for the Messiah shall come forth from the descendants of Yishai… Yeshayahu 16:1-5 They shall send tribute to the mighty Messiah of Israel…Then the Messiah of Israel shall establish his throne in goodness. said the man who was anointed to the Messianic Kingship by the Memra (Word) of the Elohim of Ya'aqov…Elohim spoke to me…and He decided to appoint for me a king. Page 47 of 0 . peace shall abound in the land. and I will establish for him an enduring reign and he shall serve my Messiah all the days. He who lives forever. 'Messiah'.

and he shall reveal My Torah to the nations… Yeshayahu 43:10 'You are My witnesses before Me'. so that they may see the kingdom of their Messiah… Yirmeyahu 23:1-8 'Behold. the Messiah. 'and My servant is the Messiah. I will raise up for David a righteous Messiah… Yechezq'el 17:22-24 Thus says YHWH Elohim. in whom my Memra (Word) takes delight. he shall be exalted and great and very powerful… It is the will of YHWH to purify and to acquit as innocent the remnant of his people. their king. to cleanse their beings of sin. 'when I will raise up for David a righteous Messiah. whom I bring near. I Page 48 of 0 . I will place My Ruach HaQodesh upon him. the son of David. My servant the Messiah shall prosper. whom I have chosen… Yeshayahu 52:13-53:12 Behold. says YHWH. and their Messiah shall be revealed from among themselves… Yirmeyahu 33:12-26 …the people shall yet rehearse the words of the Messiah… In those days and at that time. My servant. whom I will raise up for them… Yirmeyahu 30:21 Their king shall be anointed from them.Yeshayahu 28:5-6 At that time the Messiah of YHWH of Hosts shall be a crown of joy… Yeshayahu 42:1-9 Behold.' says YHWH. which is likened to the tall cedar. and he shall reign as king… Yirmeyahu 30:8-11 But they shall worship YHWH their Elohim and obey the Messiah. My chosen one. days are coming. and I will raise him up from this children's children. 'I Myself will bring near a child from the dynasty of the house of David.

the son of David. and he shall direct them to the worship of YHWH… Hoshea 14:5-8 They shall be gathered in from their Dispersion. O Bethlehem Efratah. who is to be revealed. from the days of creation. their king. to exercise dominion over Israel. the Messiah.will anoint him and establish him by My Memra like a high and exalted mountain. whose name was called from the beginning. O Messiah of Israel. he whose name was mentioned from before. who have been hidden away from the sins of the congregation of Tziyon. and they shall walk in My laws and shall keep my statutes and observe them…and David my servant shall be their king forever… Hoshea 3:3-5 After that the children of Israel shall repent and seek the worship of YHWH their Elohim. and they shall obey the Messiah.' He is destined to be revealed and to be anointed. Zekharyahu 4:7 For He shall reveal His Messiah. shall live in the shade of the Messiah… Michah 4:8 And you. My servant David… Yechezq'el 37:21-28 And my servant David shall be king over them. from you shall come forth before Me the Messiah. Zekharyahu 6:12-13 Behold the man whose name is 'The Messiah. I bring My servant. Yechezq'el 34:20-31 I will set up over them one leader who shall provide for them. Chavaqquq 3:17-18 …which Thou shalt perform for Thy Messiah and for the remnant of Thy people… Z'kharyah 3:8 Behold. and they shall all have one leader. and he shall build the Temple of YHWH… Page 49 of 0 . the kingdom is destined to come to you… Michah 5:1-3 And you. and he shall have dominion over all the kingdoms. you who were too small to be numbered among the thousands of the house of Yahudah.

and Thy righteousness to the son of King David… Psalm 80:15-18 [ET 14-17] And the stock which Thy right hand planted and upon the King Messiah who Thou hast made strong for Thyself… Psalm 89:51-52 …they have scoffed at the delay of the footsteps of Thy Messiah. the King Messiah shall be happy in Thy strength…for the King Messiah trusts in YHWH… Psalm 45:7-18 Your beauty. Psalm 72:1-20 O Elohim. He shall say to the King Messiah:… Page 50 of 0 .Zekharyahu 10:4 Out of him comes his king. out of him comes His Messiah… Tehillim 18:28-32 …Thou shalt perform for Thy Messiah… Psalm 21:1-8 O YHWH. surpasses that of ordinary men… Psalm 61:7-9 [ET 6-8] Days in addition to the days of the World-to-Come are the days of the King Messiah…and on the day that the King Messiah is anointed king. O YHWH Psalm 132:10-18 …there I will make sprout an esteemed king for the house of David. give the King Messiah the laws of Thy justice. I have prepared a lamp for My Messiah… Song of Songs 1:8 …until I send the King Messiah… Song of Songs 1:17 …in the days of the King Messiah… Song of Songs 7:12-14 …And when it shall be the will of YHWH to deliver His people from the Dispersion. O King Messiah.

He will restore the Beit HaMiqdash and rebuild Yerushalayim. Qohelet 7:24 “…and of the day of death and of the day when the King Messiah will come who can find it out by his wisdom? Let us summarise the portrait of the Messiah in the Targumim: The Messiah will be the active deliverer of Israel. This will result in the annihilation of the enemies of Israel at the time of the Messianic advent. and have the power to cast them into Gey Hinnom. He will have sovereignty over all the world and make the Torah the universal law of mankind. the champion of the poor and the oppressed. The Messiah will be a righteous judge. Dani'el and his companions. the Northern Kingdom will be re-united with Yahudah. which will enjoy divine protection for itself and its inhabitants. as well as of the nations.Song of Songs 8:1-4 And at that time the King Messiah will be revealed to the congregation of Israel…I will conduct you. the enemies of Israel will be shattered by Messianic intervention. O King Messiah…The King Messiah will say: … Ruth 1:1 …from the day on which the world was created until the coming of the King Messiah. the personification of social justice. There will be a moral regeneration of Israel and of mankind. dispensing justice and equity. He will be of Davidic lineage. The essence of the Messiah will be faith in Page 51 of 0 . Eliyahu haNavi (the prophet Eliyah) will herald his coming. but he will punish the unrepenting wicked of his people. and the people of Israel will be gathered in from their Galut/Dispersion to their own land. The Messiah will have the gift of prophecy. The drama of the Exodus from Egypt will be reenacted. who will surround him and forever enjoy the fulness of the Kingdom. He will reward the righteous. The Messiah will live for ever. The dead will be resurrected. as well as intercessory power to seek forgiveness of sin. and the King Messiah… Lamentations 2:22 May You proclaim liberty to Your people on the house of Israel by the hand of the King Messiah… Lamentations 4:22 …you shall be delivered by the hands of the King Messiah… Qohelet 1:11 …that are to follow among the generations that shall be during the days of the King Messiah. The Messiah will bring an end to the wandering of Israel. A world conflict will rage at the time of the coming of the Messiah. with the ideal of education being realised to the full. by which to chastise those who dwell on the earth… Ruth 3:15 …David.

osef. Yeshayahu 11:4 …but with righteousness he [Messiah the son of David] will judge the needy. we ask you. the man doomed to destruction. the legendary founder of the city of Rome. “The Son of David will not come until the whole world is converted to the beliefs of the heretics. The implication is that this self-exalting individual will arise from within the revived Roman Empire of the last days. In Targum Yonathan. 2 not to become easily unsettled or alarmed by some prophecy. When Sha'ul states in 2 Thessalonians 2 that the true Messiah will slay the man of lawlessness (i. 1979: 156). and he will vindicate that faith. our Master.e. Page 52 of 0 . 1 3 Don't let anyone deceive you in any way. (Patai. with justice he will give decisions for the poor of the earth.” [Babylonian Talmud. the ancient Aramaic paraphrase in Targum Yonathan. the Anti-Messiah of the acharit-yamim is called Armilus in Yeshayahu 11:4. would (initially) rule the revived Roman Empire. in the eyes of all the world. The False messiah of the end of days — Armilus It has been taught that Rabbi Nechemyah said. with the breath of his lips he will slay the wicked. “In the generation of Messiah's coming. saying that the Day of YHWH has already come.Elohim. and the faithfulness of Israel. for thát day will not come until the [great departure] occurs proton [first in the sequence of events] and the man of lawlessness is revealed. Whereas the Hebrew text of Yeshayahu 11:4 reads. He will strike the earth with the rod of his mouth. …and with the speech of his lips he [Messiah] will slay the wicked Armilus. Tractate Sanhedrin 97a. 11 That 12 Hebrew: is. the Antichrist) by the “breath of his mouth.” he is not quoting from the Hebrew Tanakh. but from the Targum: 2 Thessalonians 2:1-10: Concerning the coming of Adonu11 Yahushua HaMashiach and our being gathered12 to him.…the Roman Empire will be converted to heresy”… This supports Rabbi Yitzchak. shows that the ancient understanding was that the evil dictator of the last days that will be slain by Messiah the son of David. brothers.] Ancient rabbis and sages wrote extensively about the False messiah of the last days — they identified sections in the Tanakh that portray his latter-day rise in the West. who said. report or letter supposed to have come from us. Armilus is a Hebraic term for Romulus.

and certainly not literally. Page 53 of 0 . the Jewish Encyclopedia (Vol. whom the Master Yahushua will overthrow with the breath of his mouth and destroy by the splendour of his coming. In the article Antichrist. 7 For the secret power of lawlessness is already at work. Pirqei-ha-Mashiach. but the one who now holds it back will continue to do so till he is taken out of the way. 10 and in every sort of evil that deceives those who are perishing. She will become pregnant and] give birth to Armilus… And he [Armilus] will issue evil decrees against Yisra'el. Satan will descend and go to Rome…[there he will have sexual relations with a famous stone statue of a magnificently beautiful woman. signs and wonders. is stated explicitly (Patai. 9 The coming of the lawless one will be in accordance with the work of Satan displayed in all kinds of counterfeit miracles. proclaiming himself to be Elohim. If Yisra'el is worthy. the connection that the sages saw between the Rome and Armilus.4 He will oppose and will exalt himself over everything that is called Elohim or is worshipped. impregnate it spiritually and use it for his own purposes to set up his anointed evil ruler over the earth at the end of days. so that he sets himself up in Elohim's temple. whom the Gentiles call Antichrist … In Midrash Azeret haSh'vatim (circa 466 YM). Messiah ben David will sprout up in Upper Galilee and will go to Yerushalayim… The Midrash goes on to say that the stone statue of the woman then becomes the chief of all idolatry in the world. the False messiah is termed.” so that Belial is the one who will not accept the yoke of the Torah… In the post-Talmudic Midrash (  8th century YM). Satan's sexual relations with a statue of a beautiful woman should be interpreted in a midrashic sense. They perish because they refused to love the truth and so be saved. and men of good deeds will cease while men of plunder will multiply. so that he may be revealed at the proper time. It is a metaphor for the eschatological eruption of a idolatrous religious system based in Rome — a religious system which exalts a female idol of breathtaking beauty. I: 627) states that the name used for the Antichrist in this passage is of rabbinic origin: The lawless one (2 Thessalonians 2:8) is none other than Belial — whom Paul mentions in another place as the opponent of the Messiah (2 Corinthians 6:15) — a name interpreted by the rabbis as compounded of beth-lamed-yod (without) and ayin-wav-lamed (yoke): “without yoke. 8 And then the lawless one will be revealed. Satan Armilus. 1979: 157): And after all this. Satan will manage to infiltrate this system. 5 6 Don't you remember that when I was with you I used to tell you these things? And now you know what is holding him back.

He emphasised. Fr. Malachi Martin passed away on July 27. Malachi Martin. Malachi Martin. and bishops… Fr. Alta. An eminent theologian and expert in the Catholic Church. Malachi Martin said that the incidence of Satanic pedophilia and its rites and practices was already documented among certain bishops and priests as widely dispersed as Turin. archbishops. Fr. that had been established between certain clerical homosexual groups and Satanist covens. covering up the crimes. in addition. Father Malachi Martin. a Vatican insider. in his 1996 book. Vatican Satanists clandestinely installed “Lucifer” in a secret ceremony called “The Enthronement of the Fallen Archangel Lucifer.” The ceremony was conducted at the St. reported in Los Angeles. He also studied at Oxford and at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem and served as Professor at the Vatican's Pontifical Biblical Institute. of bishops and priests who sodomized boys and each other. “The systematic organizational links of the network. Paul’s Chapel located within the Vatican. but had the connivance or at least the tacit permission of certain Cardinals. had inordinate power and influence.How can this come about? Conservative Roman Catholic theologians and scholars are concerned about the infiltration of the Roman Catholic Church by agents of satan. acts of heresy and blasphemy and outrage and indifference were committed and permitted at holy Altars by men who had been called to be priests. Martin writes. Sacrilegious actions and rites were not only performed on Christ’s Altars. Martin said that soon after the installation of Pope Paul VI in 1963. and today we are barely hearing in the news about Catholic priests being arrested for raping altar boys inside the confessionals and about Cardinals. Malachi Martin was. He was also an expert in the Dead Sea Scrolls. studied Theology at Louvain where he received doctorates in Semitic Languages. of nuns who performed the “Black Rites” of Wicca. Just before his death. “Windswept House: A Vatican Novel. Ernesto Cienfuegos. Fr. and South Carolina. writes that the apostasy of the Roman Catholic Church is a precondition for the End of Days as we presently know it. Suddenly it became unarguable that now during this papacy.” Page 54 of 0 . Fr. and who lived in lesbian relationships… every day. 1999. such as Boston's Law and Los Angeles' Mahoney. and for the second coming of Jesus Christ. in Italy. Pope Paul VI later wrote that “the smoke of Satan has entered the Sanctuary. California – 10 May 2002 – ACN: The contemporary state of apostasy in the Catholic Church was accurately predicted by the renown Jesuit Priest. Malachi Martin wrote this several years ago.” Fr. the Roman Catholic organization carried a permanent presence of clerics who worshipped Satan and liked it. Malachi Martin had for a long time maintained that Satanists had infiltrated the Vatican. Fr. including Sundays and Holy Days. a world-recognized “Exorcist” and an expert in combating Satan and the practitioners of Demonology. Fr.” On page 492 of his book. Archeology and Oriental History. Fr. in the United States. He served in the Vatican from 1958 to 1964 where he was a close associate of the renowned Jesuit Cardinal Augustin Bea and Pope John XXIII. in La Voz de Aztlan.

the misleader. He will say to them:] “Bring me your Torah and testify to me that I am god.e. are vividly portrayed. Fr. And he will go and conquer and announce to all the countries and cities. Armilus responds by proclaiming:] “I shall not let go of you 13 That 14 is.When we read the news headlines today concerning the evil acts of numerous Catholic priests and even bishops against children.” The Pope has expressed concerns that his successor will be “the final pope” and the “anti-pope. his blasphemous claims and his persecution of all who remains faithful to the Set-Apart One of Yisra'el.” And he tells the nations of the world: “Believe in me. BhM 4:124-126 (Patai. And where does Pope John Paul II stand in all of this? Pope John Paul II has stated that we are definitely in the end times. come and testify to me that I am god. I am your god. we can not help think about what Fr. 1979: 157-159).” Yisra'el will read to Armilus from the Torah: “Anochi HaShem your Elohim and you shall have no other gods before Me” — Exodus 20:2-3. from the heart of the Vatican down to the local parishes. manipulating events and putting great effort to subvert the Roman Catholic Church. Presently. saying. I am your god!” And he will mislead them and they will immediately believe in him. adversary & accuser]. the prayer of Rabbi Shimon ben Yohai. and make him their king. Martin also said that the “Third Secret of Fatima” concerned the apostasy of the Roman Catholic Church. and the apocalyptic midrash Otot haMashiach14 (Patai. we have removed the mythical elements and have edited these two descriptions into a single account: …His name is Armilus the Satan [i. And Armilus will go to Rome and say to them: “I am your Christ. a Masonic group of Western plutocrats and the Illuminati. He said that these Satanists are in league with Zionists and what he called the “Universal Assembly”. Fr. Malachi Martin prophesied six years ago. That is. Page 55 of 0 . To avoid duplication.” And instantly they believe in him… [Armilus will call for a delegation of Yisra'el to meet with him.” The anti-pope is a person who will betray true Catholicism and Christianity as part of a pact with satan and a future world government. T'fillat Rabbi Shimon ben Yohai13. This is the one the gentiles of the world call the Antichrist. He said that “the signs are clear. And all the subjects of the Roman Empire will gather and come to him and join themselves to him. there is a growing tide of people calling for his resignation due to the Archdiocese's cover-up of Satanic homosexual pedophile crimes against children. In two 12th century aggadic rabbinic works.” [Yisra'el refuses. He said that the essential message seems to be about Satanists lurking in the shadows. The parts of these rabbinic works that we will quote are very similar. 1979: 314) Armilus' strategy. “Bring me my holy book which I gave you!” And the nations of the world will come and bring the book… and Armilus will say to them: “This is the book which I gave you. I am your christ and your god. Malachi Martin also spoke about a shadowy evil character he described as the “Cardinal of Century-City” who bears a strange similarity to Cardinal Roger Mahoney of Los(t) Angeles. Signs of the Messiah. And Armilus will say: “This Torah of yours is emptiness and nothingness.

and he slays of Yisra'el a thousand thousands… And those who are left of Yisra'el will flee to the desert of the nations… In that hour all the nations of the world will expel Yisra'el from their countries… And it will be a suffering for Yisra'el the like of which has not been ever since the world exists and to that time… …And Michael the great Prince will arise… [Yisra'el will say to the nations:] “This is the Redemption for which we have been waiting.” …Then all Yisra'el…will…go to the desert…and clothe themselves with sackcloth. and fight against those nations.” Michael will arise and blow the shofar three times… Messiah the son of David will be revealed… the full Redemption has come… …And Armilus will hear that a king arose for Yisra'el. blessed be He. and will tell him that he is the Messiah. “Then shall HaShem go forth. “I am the Messiah. after the plagues described in the book of Revelation have turned Europe into a wasteland. makes Rome the most likely capital Page 56 of 0 . for the Messiah has been slain.”… And the Setapart One. will not stop forcing and persecuting you] until you believe that I am god in the same manner in which the gentile nations (goyim) of the world believe in me. as it is written.” …And the wrath of Armilus is kindled. before invading Yisra'el and setting up his headquarters there. will arise in the Machrev — the West — more wicked and evil than anyone who preceded him… He will capture the West. and they will come to King Messiah and to Yisra'el. and makes war against the children of Yisra'el. as when He fights in the day of battle” (Zekharyahu 14:3)… Instantly the wicked Armilus will die. fights Armilus and his armies. together they will go to the desert. His Name be blessed. and he will gather all the armies of all the nations of the world. will fight for Yisra'el and say to the Messiah: “Sit at my right hand. will appear from heaven…the banner of Messiah ben David will fly high… The fact that the False messiah will rule the revived Roman Empire. And the Set-apart One. and this rumour will spread all over the world. a 10th century YM midrash (quoted in Patai (1979: 162-164)): And another king. and sit down on the earth and call upon Elohim…And Armilus will become angry and will command that they be killed…And the Children of Yisra'el will flee with their wives and children. Armilus. your king and your prince. and will cry to Elohim…And HaShem. and he will slay those who do not submit…And the people will have to bear and suffer much trouble. and will sit on the earth.e. and all the armies of the wicked Roman Empire which destroyed the House of our Elohim and exiled us from our land… May that time and that period be near! Armilus' rise in the West is portrayed in Ma'ase Dani'el. and will raise their voices in weeping and mourning. And many wicked men…will gather around him from the whole earth.[i.” And the Messiah will say to Yisra'el: “Gather together and stand and see the salvation of HaShem. blessed be He. and the Children of Yisra'el more than all the others…Armilus will say. and he gathers all the armies of the nations of the world. And the whole earth will submit to him.

Irenæus remarks that Dan is. An ancient Jewish source quoted in Patai (1979: 102) makes mention of a false prophet that would arise in the acharit-yamim (end-of-days): 15 The rabbis interpreted the name Belial as denoting one who has cast off the yoke of Torah. the Judge of the tribe of Dan. Midrash fragment Marmorstein. miracle-working religious leader who will be a false Eliyahu.” and will enforce his worship with cruel measures (Revelation 13). He was placed to the north (Numbers 2:25). this being the region of darkness and evil (Yirmeyahu 1:14).e. Still further goes a tradition which identifies the serpent (Genesis 49:17) and the lion (Deuteronomy 33:22) with Belial15…Early Church Fathers (Irenæus. Zevulun 4. Dan came to be regarded as the black sheep of the house of Jacob.city of the False Prophet — the powerful. as the name of a tribe. Dan 5. in view of this…not in the Apocalypse (Revelation 7:5-7) among the 144 000 saved ones of the twelve tribes. The same article in the Jewish Encyclopedia also relates an Arab tradition about a “liarmessiah” who will mislead many until he is slain by Mashiach ben-David. as a lawlessness one — see page 0. and based it upon Yirmeyahu 8:16: “The snorting of his [the enemy's] horses was heard from Dan” — a verse referred also in Genesis Rabbah xliii in reference to Dan's idolatry…(…“Antichrist”…)… (“De Christo et Antichristo”). induced him to plot against Joseph's life. proved faithless to his nazirate (Judges 13:2). who has a special chapter devoted to the [expectation of the] Dan Antichrist…believes that the connection of Dan with Belial in the Testament of the Patriarchs. The Jewish Encyclopedia. Boussel. while Shimshon. 1 Kings 12:29. because he brought to his father ill reports against the sons of Bilhah and Zilpah. Owing to the fact that his name. and he advised the brothers to deceive their father by telling that they had found the coat of Joseph dipped in blood. Amos 8:4). Nor is the omission of Dan in 1 Chronicles 4 et. and the serpent is said to have been made the emblem of the tribe on its standard. which wrapped the world in darkness. Vol. unintentional. is connected with the blasphemer (Wayyiqra 24:11) and with the idolatry of northern Yisra'el (Judges 18:30. (Testament of the Patriarchs. i. in which he is compared to a serpent (Genesis 49: 16-18) [very telling]. Dan 1. REJ 52 (quoted in Patai (1979: 162)) states that Armilus will go to the town of Emmaus in the country where his fathers were born and set up his throne there. But Dan became the very type of evil-doing. IV (1912: 423-424) summarises the rabbinic and early Christian expectations of the eschatological role that an evil man from the tribe of Dan would play in the time of the coming of the Messiah: Dan plays a major role in rabbinic tradition. points to the same [ancient Jewish] tradition. because of his idolatry. His hatred of Joseph. will proclaim that Armilus is the “Christ and God. Hippolytus and others) have a tradition. seq. Gad 1)… [The rabbis found the account of] Jacob's blessing of Dan. that the Antichrist comes from the tribe of Dan. which can only be of Jewish origin. Page 57 of 0 .

YHWH uses this well-known symbol to give graphic prophecies about Satan. 11. [leviathan] is used interchangeably with several other seamonsters — tanin (“dragon”). and the tzara'ath covers all the skin of the one who has the sore. “and the pious ones shall make a banquet of it. Referring to Job 41:6. He is clean. Liv'yatan was a well-known character in ancient Middle-eastern literature.e. It has all turned white. 90 states: In the Scriptures. 37-39 states: The leviathan is prominent in haggadic literature in connection with the advent of the Messiah. and yam (“sea”) — all of whom are represented as supernatural enemies of Elohim. Messiah comes when the Roman Empire is converted to heresy The laws of the tzara'ath skin affliction is given in Leviticus 13 – 14. p.” The Jewish Encyclopedia. up will rise another man who will announce that he was sent by Elohim… And with his preachings he will cause many nations to go astray. at which the flesh of the leviathan will be served…Elohim will divide the monster with his sword… These haggadot concerning the leviathan are interpreted as allegories by [practically all Jewish] commentators… In the…literature the “piercing leviathan” and the “crooked leviathan” are interpreted as referring to Satan Sama'el [the celestial prince over Rome]…. 1912. In Ugaritic literature this monster is called Lotan. p. But that which he will prophesy to the nations will come upon his own head… Leviathan. The Encyclopaedia Judaica. from his head to his foot. rahav. twisted serpent that dwells in the sea. A seven-headed. who introduced allusions to the banquet of leviathan into the liturgy. the False messiah (Antichrist) and his evil empire. Vol. Vol. and will seduce even more. i. pronounced tahor. he shall pronounce him clean who has the sore. gigantic. and indeed if the tzara'ath has covered all his body. while…others consider the expressions to be allusions to the destruction of the powers which are hostile to the Jews…The haggadic sayings obtained a hold on the imaginations of the poets. A rather unusual pronouncement is found in Leviticus 13:12-13 12 And if tzara'ath breaks out all over the skin.” Rabbi Yohanan says that in the time of the resurrection a banquet will be given by Elohim to the righteous. wherever the priest looks. clean? Two talmudic Rabbis saw this unexpected Page 58 of 0 . Why is a person whose entire body is covered with the signs of the tzara'ath skin affliction. VIII. 13 then the priest shall consider.Thirdly. The word liv'yatan is derived from a root meaning “to coil” and “to twist.

and those who dwell in heaven. Bereshith Rabba 2:5 ‘The world was formless’ is a reference to Babylonia…‘Void’ refers to Media…‘Darkness’ refers to Greece. the Roman Empire] will be converted to heresy”… This supports Rabbi Yitzchak.“Who is like the beast? Who is able to make war with him?" 5 And he was given a mouth speaking great things and blasphemies. And the Ruach (breath. at the time of Messiah's coming the whole world will be in the grip of a terrible heresy and false worship. wind) of Elohim (the Mighty One) was moving on the face of the waters. whose names have not been written in the Book of Life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. 8 7 All who dwell on the earth will worship him. who darkened the vision of the Yahudim with their decrees…‘The deep waters’ refers to Rome. who said. be converted to heresy. The world becomes whole only at the time of King Messiah Sages saw hints at the brokenness and the deficiency of the world in texts such as Bereshith 1:2 The earth was tohu (formless. “The Son of David will not come until the whole world is converted to the beliefs of the heretics. Tractate Sanhedrin 97a It has been taught that Rabbi Nechemyah said. in the development of 4 great empires. Spirit. and he was given authority to continue for forty-two months. whose eventual downfall Page 59 of 0 . It was granted to him to make war with the qadoshim and to overcome them.” Revelation 13 indeed instructs us that. And authority was given him over every tribe. empty) and darkness covered the face of the deep. indeed says that. So they worshiped the dragon who gave authority to the beast. Babylonian Talmud. In midrashic interpretations.…the kingdom [i. saying. Consider the midrash on Bereshith 1:2 by Rabbi Shimon ben Lakhish. each of which presents a world view irreconcilable with the iconoclastic exclusiveness and Oneness of Almighty YHWH. desolate) and bohu (void. 6 Then he opened his mouth in blasphemy against Elohim. and nation.ruling as an intimation that Mashiach will come at a time when Yisra'el is severely oppressed because the Roman Empire will. and they worshiped the beast. at the end of days.e. “In the generation of Messiah's coming. His tabernacle. that will entail the cruel persecution of the faithful remnant: Revelation 13 3 4 …And all the world marveled and followed the beast. to blaspheme His name. tongue. the brokenness and deficiency of the world finds expression in human history.

Conclusions For at least 2500 years. the Messiah was understood to have preexisted with YHWH and to have a transcendent nature. Page 60 of 0 . Thus the world becomes whole only at the time of Melekh haMashiach — King Messiah. He would voluntarily have himself humiliated as a suffering servent who would accomplish redemptive atonement for sins by suffering in the place of sinners.is as inscrutable as the deep…‘Elohim's hovering Spirit’ refers to the Spirit of the Messiah. the messianic expectation has been integral to Judaism. Prior to reactionary developments against Christianity.

They used two terms to describe the sufferings that would accompany the coming of King Messiah. 37:3. 5757 (7 & 8 February 1997).The Birthpains of the Messianic Age — The Chevlei Shel Mashiach Many ancient sages saw in the Scriptures that the coming of the Messianic King. The term Chevlo Shel Mashiach was used to describe the travail of the Messiah. on Shabbat-Rosh Chodesh. Let us review one example of the rabbinic teachings on the Chevlei Shel Mashiach. would be preceded by a time of immense suffering. The main prophecies that describe the days of the coming of the Messiah with the picture of the pangs of childbirth. 13:21.3. 48:3 19:3 48:3-6 13:8. 6:24. 5:3 24:8 13:8 16:21-24 5:3 12:2 In Scripture. Accordingly. Book Genesis 2 Kings Psalms Yeshayahu Yirmeyahu Hoshea Mikha Mattithyahu Mark Yochanan 1 Thessalonians Revelation Verses 3:16. 13:13 4:9-10. (The list is not exhaustive. to rule as the Arm of YHWH! Once labour begins. 66:7-9 4:31. when a faithful remnant of Yisra'el is born into the Messianic age. but is overjoyed at the very end. the Haftorah reading for Parashat Mishpatim. 35:16-20. the Hebrew term for this time of tribulation when Yisra'el would travail when it is born into the Messiah and His kingdom. 31:8. 42: 14. 30:6. agony and distress during this time is likened to a woman that goes into labour. to establish his kingdom. 23:4. 22:23. for the week ending 1 Adar I. 54:1. Tziyon would travail as though in birthpains. a woman can not turn back the clock. During this time. is the Chevlei Shel Mashiach — the Birthpains of the Messiah. had brought forth wondrous new life — Messiah has come to earth. while the term Chevlei Shel Mashiach was used to refer to the travail of Yisra'el being born into the Messianic Kingdom. In the Ohr Somayach commentary on Yeshayahu 66:1-24. she has to go through the entire process and experience intense suffering before she can experience the joy of having a baby. because she had given birth. 50:43 9:11-12. 49:22-24. are summarised in Table 0. 38:27-28. 21:3.) Table 3: Prophecies about the Chevlei Shel Mashiach — the Birthpains that will come upon the earth at the threshold of the Messianic Age. suffers excruciating pain. the sage(s) teach on Scripture's use of the metaphor of childbirth in relation to the coming of the Messiah: Page 61 of 0 . the intense suffering. 26:17. 48:41. .

The worse things become. This is the way Mashiach will come. like a mother who has delivered. the more painful the birth pangs. within a couple of minutes. the nearer is his coming. all the tears and pain will be forgotten in the great joy of a new life. And the closer the actual moment of the birth.…The prophets speak in many places about the coming of Mashiach in terms of childbirth. Page 62 of 0 . Someone who is ignorant of the process of childbirth and sees for the first time a woman in labour would be convinced that she is about to die. seeming tragedy has turned into the greatest joy. And then. A new life has entered the world. the stronger that impression would become. Until.

a total of      sevens]. and the wall. Messiah shall be cut off (yikaret mashiach). with the great ones for one seven (shavuah echad).) How would the Messiah come? The Tanakh tells of two comings: Messiah would come as a suffering servant in humbleness and then in splendour to judge and rule. there shall be seven sevens and sixty-two sevens [i. 2000 years ago.  to make reconciliation for iniquity (awon). and the people of the prince who is to come (am nagid ha-ba) shall destroy the city and the ha-qodesh (set-apart place).  to bring in everlasting righteousness (tzedeq olamim). a prince…' (Reference: Vermes. and till the end of the war desolations are determined. The prophet Zekharyahu described the entry of the Messianic king into Yerushalayim in 16 “Flood” 17 The root is a Hebraism (Hebrew idiom) for an overwhelmingly strong army at war.  to finish the transgression (ha-pesha). And after the sixty-two sevens. but Messiah did not come.  to seal up vision and prophecy (chazon w-navi). 'until an anointed one. We have proof from ancient Jewish sources that. W-al k e naf shiqutzim me shomem — And the mute abominations will be upon a wing until extermination as decreed will pour down upon the mute abomination (al-shomem).Dani'el 9:24–27: A prophecy about the coming of the Messiah Dani'el 9:24–27 Seventy sevens (shavu'im shivim) are decreed upon your people (al amkha) and your set-apart city (ir qadshekha). the streets shall be built again. An important Qumran text from Cave 11 — 11Q13Mech — says about the Mashiach: The mashiach (anointed one) of the Spirit concerning whom Dani'el said.e. Dani'el 9:25-26 was understood to be a revelation about the coming of the Messiah. The end of it shall be with a flood16. page 501. This prophecy leaves no doubt as to the person of the Messiah. that from the going forth of the davar (word) to restore and build Yerushalayim until Messiah the Prince (mashiach nagid). gbr — gimmel-beth-resh — denotes might and strength. Page 63 of 0 . 27 26 25 24 A Talmudic rabbi stated that “the time for the coming of the Messiah has passed.  to make an end of sins (chata'at). Know therefore and understand. W'higbir17 be rit la-rabim — Then he shall forge a strong covenant with many. The Complete Dead Sea Scrolls in English. but not for Himself (w-ein lo). even in troublesome times.” When is this time? Who is the Messiah? We shall show that the above Messianic prophecy in Dani'el 9 pinpoints the day on which the Messiah would come to Yisra'el as a Prince. but in the middle of the seven he shall bring an end to sacrifice and offering (zevach u-minchah). a royal ruler.  and to anoint the Most Set-apart (qodesh qadashim).

Whereas we in our culture group years in decades. and He will fulfil the prophecies about the suffering servant and the prophecies about the conquering King. periods of 7 years each.        years would elapse between two specific dates:  First date: The day Yahudim who were in captivity in Bavel were officially permitted to return to Yerushalayim to rebuild the city. In other words. The prophecy implies that the death of Messiah the Prince would occur before the destruction of the second temple. and that his death would not be for himself. Dani'el 9:26 states. Daughter of Yerushalayim! Look! Your King comes to you. The Messiah that will see death. Midrash Genesis Rabba 98:9 identifies this as a prophecy about King Messiah. The countdown should stop on this date. The countdown begins… Dani'el 9:25 shows that the countdown of the 69 “sevens” that would culminate in the sacrificial death of the Messiah. Jewish Davidic kings entered the city of Yerushalayim riding on the back of a colt. for others. karat was also frequently used of death in general. namely that there would be two messiahs — Mashiach ben-Yosef (the suffering servant) and Mashiach ben-David (the conquering king) — is in error: There is only one Messiah. the offspring of a beast of burden. i.” The Hebrew word translated as cut off in Dani'el 9:26 has the root form karat. on a colt.Zekharyahu 9:9 Rejoice greatly. seven being the number of YHWH. a ruler. and is used of “cutting a covenant. and here signifies septets or year weeks. 18. will be the same Messiah that will rule as the Prince.” a ritual which involved the death of the sacrificial victim — cf. This shows that the historical rabbinic exegesis of messianic prophecies. by implication. O Daughter of Tziyon! Shout. Genesis 15:10. The countdown would begin on this date. Final date: The day the Messiah would be revealed as a Prince. According to this prophecy. Note that Dani'el 9:26 states that mashiach nagid — Messiah the Prince will be cut off. the ancient sages of Yisra'el saw Zekharyah 9:9 as a messianic prophecy. mashiach yikaret w'ein lo — “Messiah shall be cut off but not to him. but. but that he would be executed.e. The prophecy states that the Anointed One would be revealed to Yisra'el as a nagid — a ruler.  Just after the 69 sevens had elapsed. a prince. The Hebrew word translated as seven in Dani'el 9:24-27 is shavuah. the Nagíd. riding humbly on a donkey. the Yisra'elites grouped years and days in sevens. would start on the day when permission is given to Page 64 of 0 . righteous and having salvation [Hebrew: yeshu'ah].

When was the command to rebuild Yerushalayim issued? Persian rulers issued 4 decrees in reference to the Yahudim in their empire. none of these decrees signifies the beginning of the countdown of the 69 sevens. 5 and I answered the king. “May the king live for ever! Why should my face not look downcast when the city where my fathers are buried lies in ruins.” The equivalent of BC and BCE. Page 65 of 0 . “Why does your face look so downcast when you are not ill? This can be nothing but sadness of heart.” I was very much afraid. 2 so the king asked me. King Daryawesh (Darius) made a second decree in 520 BM (Ezra 6:1–12). particularly those who have chained themselves to the visions and interpretations of supposed latter-day prophets. promotion and annual salary increases. Dani'el 9:25 says that the countdown should begin when a davar (spoken word) to restore and rebuild Yerushalayim is given. We should search Scripture to find the place where explicit permission is given to reconstruct the city and its walls. This decree dealt with finances for animal sacrifices and the Beit haMiqdash. Not one of the above decrees mentions a word about the rebuilding of the city itself. the month Aviv was renamed to Nisan) of the 20th year of the reign of King Artaxerxes Longimanus. This problem is widespread — pastors and theologians get caught in structures where they look at other people for approving nods. tenaciously cling to the year 457 BC as the starting date of the countdown. “If it pleases the king and if your servant has found favour in his sight.reconstruct the city of Yerushalayim. Accordingly. when wine was brought for him. This decree was a permission to rebuild the Beit haMiqdash in Yerushalayim. I took the wine and gave it to the king. The first and second decrees deal with the rebuilding of the Temple in Yerushalayim. Also note that. The third decree deal with finances for animal sacrifices and the Temple. “What is it you want?” Then I prayed to the Elohim of heaven.” thereby earning approving nods and pats on the back.       King Cyrus (Hebrew: Koresh) issued a decree in 538 BM18 (Ezra 1:1–4). This event is recorded in… Nechemyah 2:1 – 8 1 B'chodesh Nisan (with the new moon in the month of Nisan) in the twentieth year of King Artaxerxes. They often seem more interested in upholding the supposed exegetical and prophetic infallibility of this latter-day prophet than in rigorous exegesis.)  The command to rebuild and to restore Ir Yerushalayim was issued in the month  Nisán (In the Babylonian captivity. I had not been downcast in his presence before. 3 but I said to the king. (Some denominations. and its gates have been destroyed by fire?” 4 The king said to me. let him send me to the city in Yahudah where my 18 Read as “Before Messiah. this decree was a confirmation of King Koresh's decree. The third decree was issued by King Artaxerxes Longimanus in 458 or 457 BM — Ezra 7:11–26. a city was not considered rebuilt unless its encompassing wall was reconstructed. An independent and rigorous exegesis would land them in disrepute and could even cost them their position. anciently. Therefore they “toe the party line.

The “new moon in Nisan” would thus be translated as “the first appearance of the new moon in March. 18. Hoshea 5:7 and Amos 8:5 we know that Rosh Chodesh (the New Moon festival) is a day of rest. may I have letters to the governors of Transeuphrates. Nisan overlaps with our month March and April. we have to calculate the date of the first new moon in March 445 BM. 1 Chronicles 23:31.. Nechemyah states that this decree was issued b'chodesh Nisan — “in the month Nisan. 7 I also said to him. Ezra 3:5.” In the Hebrew. Artaxerxes I Longimanus reigned over Persia for 40 years. in the 20th year of the rule of king Artaxerxes Longimanus. Psalms 81:3. Gawie Nothnagel and Dr. We should remember. the king granted my requests.” The first step in our calculation should therefore be to determine the date of the new moon in the month Nisan. Yeshayahu 1:14. Remember. “If it pleases the king. so that his 20th year of rule (employing Jewish inclusive reckoning) would have been 445 BM. Because the Page 66 of 0 . one or two days later. Artaxerxes Longimanus became king of Persia in 465 BM. with the queen sitting beside him. 457 BC About 13 years later (445 BC) he granted permission to Nechemyah to assume control of the civil affairs at Yerushalayim (Nechemyah 2:1-8). The New Unger's Bible Dictionary (Unger. we may read more into Nechemyah 2:1 than is transparent in most translations. From Numbers 10:10. the first day of the first month of the religious calender. however. Willie McLoud show that in March 445 BM. which means “a spoken word.e. 66:23. 1944). Nisan 1. and when will you get back?” It pleased the king to send me. 2 Kings 4:23. the new moon fell on Thursday 10 March (McLoud. “How long will your journey take. 464 – 424 BC In the 7th year of his reign he commissioned Ezra to return to Yerushalayim. keeper of the king's forest. Detailed calculations by Dr. 28:14. i. The king's consent seems somewhat informal. Nechemyah 10:33. and may translate it as “With the new moon in the month of Nisan. granting large privileges to him and those accompanying him (Ezra 7:11-26). 1995). 1988) concurs by stating. irrevocable decree. so that they will provide me safe-conduct until I arrive in Yahudah? 8 And may I have a letter to Asaph.” Because the root chadash (chet-dalet-shin) means renewed or new.” According to The Westminster Dictionary of the Bible (Gehman. To know the date on which the word was given to rebuild the city of Yerushalayim. that any command given by a king of the Medes and Persians was considered to be a legally binding. that the Hebrew word translated as “command” in Dani'el 9:25 is davar. It follows that in 445 BM.S. could have fallen on any date from Thursday 10 March to Saturday 12 March. 46:6. H. so he will give me timber to make beams for the gates of the citadel by the Temple and for the city wall and for the residence I will occupy?” And because the gracious hand of my Elohim was upon me. asked me. The question we have to answer is: On what date did king Artaxerxes Longimanus give Nechemyah permission to rebuild Yerushalayim? According to the Mishnah.fathers are buried so that I can rebuild it. so I set a time.” 6 Then the king. too. Jewish months began on the date of the new moon or on the date when the disk of the moon first become visible. Yechezq'el (Yechezq'el) 46:1. 24. 1 Shmu'el 20:5.

i. Nechemyah prayed earnestly to YHWH for the restoration of Yerushalayim. The end of it shall be with a flood. on the Shabbat that fell on 11/12 Nisan. this gives rise to 3 simultaneous equations in 3 unknowns.e.e. The day Messiah the Prince would come According to Dani'el 9:25–26 Know therefore and understand. would have been the first day after the combined Rosh ChodeshShabbat that Nechemyah would have appeared before king Artaxerxes Longimanus. and till the end of the war desolations are determined. i. We conclude that the prophetic countdown to the revelation of mashiach nagid — Messiah the Prince — began on Sunday 13 March 445 BM. until the coming of Messiah as the Prince. 3. 26 25 a total of          years would elapse from the date on which King Artaxerxes Longimanus gave permission to Nechemyah to rebuild Yerushalayim. This would be followed by the subsequent “death-but-not-for-himself” of the Messiah.e. 445 BM. Sunday 13 March 445 BM. and the wall. that from the going forth of the davar (word) to restore and build Yerushalayim until Messiah the Prince (mashiach nagid). Messiah shall be cut off (yikaret).e. This explains why Nechemyah was so sad and downcast in the king's presence. And after the sixty-two sevens. the streets shall be built again. i. The solution is that 1 prophetic year  360 days. In the books of Dani'el and Revelation. followed by his being “cut off but not for himself.5 years (“a time. It follows that      days would elapse between the issue of the decree and the coming of Messiah the Prince.” Because  is an exact multiple of 7. Mathematically. Page 67 of 0 . it also follows that the first and last dates of the period of  days would fall on the same calender day. a total of      sevens]. It is very likely that on this Shabbat.appearance of the new moon and the subsequent Shabbat was only one or two days apart in Nisan. The day after the Shabbat. they would have been celebrated on the same day. that was also the first day of the new year on the religious calender. times and half a time”). a Sunday. 42 months and 1260 days are synonyms. and the people of the prince who is to come (am nagid ha-ba) shall destroy the city and the ha-qodesh (set-apart place). even in troublesome times. there shall be seven sevens and sixty-two sevens [i. and that 1 prophetic month  30 days. but not for Himself (w'ein lo).

If we take into account that there is only 1 year between 1 BM and 1 YM, it follows that MESSIAH THE PRINCE ENTERED YERUSHALAYIM ON 10 NISAN in the year 32 YM.

Messiah the Prince
Before we continue our discussion, we have to point out that two calenders are in use in Scripture. From Genesis 1 to Exodus 11, the civil calender is in use. On this calender, Aviv is the seventh month and Tishrei the first. According to Hebrew chronology, the breath of life (Hebrew: neshamah) was imparted to Adam on Tishrei 6, about 6000 years ago. In Exodus 12, the religious calender is introduced. From this point forward, Aviv is the first month, and Tishrei the seventh. After the Babylonian captivity, Aviv is called Nisan. According to the Apostolic writings (i.e. the New Testament), Yahushua was executed on 14 Nisan (Mattithyahu 27: 62; Mark 15: 42; Luke 23: 54 & Yochanan 19: 31), and died at 15:00, the exact time when the Pesach lambs were slaughtered in Yerushalayim. At least two independent accounts by secular historians support this (see the well-known book, Evidence that Demands a Verdict by Josh McDowel). He was buried just before 15 Aviv/Nisan, (the first day of Chag ha Matzah, the Feast of Unleavened Bread). He spent 3 days and 3 nights in the tomb, and was resurrected on 17 Aviv/Nisan, on the Feast of the Firstfruits of the barley harvest. (In the Jewish calender, days do not start at midnight but at sunset; 15 Aviv was a Shabbaton, i.e. a special high-Sabbath that fell on a fixed date, i.e. on any weekday that happened to coincide with that calender day. Also note that Hebrew reckoning is inclusive, i.e. a fraction of a day or night constitutes a whole day or night.) Many Torah-pictures point to 17 Aviv as a special day of the beginning of new life. The Yisra'elites came up from the Sea of Reeds between 04:00 and 06:00 on 17 Aviv, after having left the old life of slavery in Mitsrayim behind. Noach's ark touched down on the mountains of Ararat on 17 Aviv after having passed through the Flood, leaving the utterly devastated old world of sinfulness behind (Genesis 8:4). Together with the Festivals, these events were acted Messianic prophecies, signposts and rehearsals along the way that were given to the people so that they would not miss the real event, when it came. We have seen that Yahushua was executed on 14 Aviv. In what year was he executed? According to Luke 3: 1–23, Yahushua started his teaching in the 15th year of the reign of Emperor Tiberius. If we correlate this with information presented by the historian Flavius Josephus, we find that he started his ministry in 28 YM. Yahushua taught for close to 3  years. This brings the year of his death to 32 YM.  Dani'el 9:24-27 shows that the Anointed One would be revealed as a Nagid (Ruler; Prince) on 10 Nisan, 32 YM. In Exodus 12:3 we read that the Pesach lambs had to be separated on 10 Aviv (Nisan). The lambs had to be without defect; they had to be inspected for 4 days before being sacrificed on the 14th day of Aviv/Nisan. Does the Almighty do anything without a purpose, without a plan? No. Mattithyahu 21, Luke 19 and Yochanan 12 show that the itinerant, aggadic proto-rabbi, Yahushua, entered
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Yerushalayim in a triumphant procession on Sunday Nisan 10, exactly 4 days before his execution on Thursday, Nisan 14. Yochanan 12:1-15:
Six days before the Passover [i.e. 6 days before the start of Chag ha Matzah on Nisan 15, i.e. on Nisan 9], Yahushua arrived at Bethany, where Eliezer (Lazarus) lived, whom Yahushua had raised from the dead… …The next day [i.e. Sunday Nisan 10, 32 YM] the great crowd that had come for the Feast [Chag ha Matzah] heard that Yahushua was on his way to Yerushalayim. They took palm branches [Hebrew: lulavim ] and went out to meet him, shouting, “Hosanna!” “Barukh haba b'shem Adonai!” [“Blessed is he who comes in the name of YHWH!”] “Blessed is the King of Yisra'el!” Yahushua found a young donkey and sat upon it, as it is written, “Do not be afraid, O Daughter of Tziyon; see, your king is coming, seated on a donkey's colt.”

Mattithyahu 21:1-10
As they approached Yerushalayim and came to Beit-Pagey on the Mount of Olives, Yahushua sent two talmidim, saying to them, “Go to the village ahead of you, and at once you will find a donkey tied there, with her colt by her. Untie them and bring them to me. If anyone says anything to you, tell him that the Master needs them, and he will send them right away.” This took place to fulfil what was spoken through the prophet [Zekharyahu 9:9]: “Say to the Daughter of Tziyon, 'Look! Your King comes to you, riding humbly on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey.'” The talmidim went and did as Yahushua had instructed them. They brought the donkey and the colt, placed their cloaks on them, and Yahushua sat on them. A very large crowd spread their cloaks on the road, while others cut branches from the trees and spread them on the road. The crowds that went ahead of him and those that followed shouted, “Hosanna to the Son of David!” “Blessed is he who comes in the name of YHWH!” “Hosanna in the Highest!”

Luke 19:29-44
As he approached Beit-Pagey and Beit-Anyah at the hill called the Mount of Olives, Yahushua sent two of his talmidim, saying to them, “Go to the village ahead of you, and as you enter it, you will find a colt tied there, which no-one has ever ridden. Untie it and bring it here. If anyone asks you, 'Why are you untying it?' tell him, 'The Master needs it.' ” Those who were sent ahead went and found it just as he had told them. As they were untying the colt, its owners Page 69 of 0

asked them, “Why are you untying the colt?” They replied, “The Master needs it.” They brought it to Yahushua, threw their cloaks on the colt and put Yahushua on it. As he went along, people spread their cloaks on the road. When he came near the place where the road goes down the Mount of Olives, the whole crowd of talmidim began joyfully to praise YHWH in loud voices for all the miracles they had seen: “Barukh is the king who comes b'shem Adonai!” “Shalom in heaven!” and “Esteem in the Highest!” Some of the P'rushim in the crowd said to Yahushua, “Rabbi, rebuke your talmidim!” “I tell you,” he replied, “if they keep quiet, the stones will cry out.” As he approached Yerushalayim and saw the city, he wept over it and said, “If you, even you, had only known on this day what would bring you peace — but now it is hidden from your eyes. The days will come upon you when your enemies will build an embankment against you and encircle you and hem you in on every side. They will dash you to the ground, you and the children within your walls. They will not leave one stone on another, because you did not recognise the time of your visitation.”

Yahushua's words in Luke 19:40 – 44 contain definite overtones of Dani'el 9:25-26, which foretold the very date when Messiah the Prince would come to Yerushalayim, an event immediately to be followed by his substitutionary death, and later by the destruction of Yerushalayim. The very date on which he would have entered the city in triumph was indeed pinpointed in prophecy — this is why the stones would have cried it out…! Yahushua's words also show that he foreknew his subsequent rejection by the Sadducean religious leaders of the nation and the consequent destruction of the city of Yerushalayim, which is also clearly foretold in Dani'el's prophecy.

Signs of Destruction
Dani'el 9:26 states that Mashiach Nagid — the anointed ruler — would be executed, cut off, before the destruction of the Second Temple and the city of Yerushalayim. This would, according to the Book of Dani'el, happen close to the year 30 YM. Jewish sources record that very specific signs were given to Yisra'el in the last 40 years of the existence of the Second Temple, i.e. roughly from the year 30 YM to the year 70 YM, when the Beit haMiqdash and Ir Yerushalayim were destroyed. To understand one important sign, we have to look at an important fgacet of the Yom Kippur avodah (service). On Yom Kippur, lots were drawn for two goats. The one lot read L'YHWH, which means “to YHWH,” while the other lot read, L'Azazel, which means“to Azazel” —
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which is a place of demons (shedim). He would say. 54) describes the manner in which goat l'Azazel was killed: The High Priest would then come to the goat upon which there was the lot “to Azazel. people would go to huts that had been put up previously to accompany the person leading the goat. The word Azazel could also be broken up into “az azel. and would give him the goat to bring to the desert. 1982: 20-21) relates one explanation: When Yom Kippur comes. The sages grappled with the meaning of the chukah concerning goat l'Azazel. he also goes to the desert…and he no longer speaks evil against Yisra'el. Therefore a hank of scarlet wool was tied between the horns of the scapegoat…When the goat was pushed off the cliff. Your people have erred. It would not reach halfway down before it was broken into pieces. On the day before Yom Kippur. The word Azazel refers to a powerful. The reasons are known to YHWH. Those in the last hut would stand at the edge of the area where one can go…to see from a distance what the person in charge of the goat does. that skein of scarlet wool would Page 71 of 0 . snow or inconvenience) and taken to Har Azal (Mount Azal) where it was pushed off backwards from a high. strong rock or cliff. The cliff over which the goat was thrown consisted of sharp. steep. which denotes strong. sinned and rebelled before you…” He would then call the priest who had been designated from the day before Yom Kippur. and Yisra'el should obey it although they do not understand it fully.Wayyiqra 16:8. The word el means strong… Some say the word Azazel refers to the cliff over which the goat was pushed. Half of the hank of scarlet cloth he would tie to the rock. and half he would tie between the goat's horns. This is sent by the Yisra'elites to the desert. totally dismembered. The goat l'Azazel was led from the Miqdash (Temple) by a chosen priest who is called an ish iti (a “timeless man. a man without any sense of time or season. which cannot be fully comprehended with the intellect.” He would place both his hands on it and make confession for all Yisra'el.e. In the Me'am Lo'es Torah Anthology: Yom Kippur Service (Kaplan.” The sages taught that the command to slay the goat l'Azazel in this particular manner is a chuqah — a decree. Then with his hands he pushes the goat down so that it tumbles down the cliff.” Kaplan (1982: 17-18. jagged rocks that would tear the goat into shreds. “This is the way the sins of the House of Yisra'el should be destroyed.” i. the teachings of the sages about the meaning of the word Azazel is summarised: The etymology of the word Azazel is as follows: it is derived from the word az or azuz. “O YHWH. The Torah Anthology: Yom Kippur Service (Kaplan. He would then say. HaShem sends Satan Sama'el his portion in the form of the goat sent to Azazel.” which means “the goat who goes. This is where Satan Sama'el has power…When Sama'el sees the goat sent to the desert. jagged cliff to be torn to shreds. 1982: 17). rain. brings it to the cliff that we have mentioned and leads it to the top of the cliff. The priest to whom the goat is given over.

become white. This teaches that this act atoned for the sins of the Yisra'elites and whitened them: “If your sins are like scarlet they shall become white as snow” (Yeshayahu 1:18). Through this repentance and confession, all the unclean spirits and denouncing forces that were created out of the sins are placed on the goat's head. They are destroyed with him in the desert, since this is the abode of these denouncing forces.

The most probable meaning of the term Azazel is a desert demon. The high priest (Kohen Gadol) took the two golden lots, one marked L'YHWH and the other marked L'Azazel, and placed one upon the head of each animal, sealing their fate. It was considered a good omen if the lot marked L'YHWH was drawn by the priest in the right hand. Goat L'YHWH was sacrificed to sprinkle its blood on the seat of atonement of the Ark of the Covenant in the Qodesh Ha Qodeshim (Holy of Holies), to atone for sins. The goat marked “to Azazel” was led off to wander through the wilderness and taken to the mountain where it would be killed. Before goat L'Azazel was led off to the wilderness, the high priest lay both his hands upon its head and confesses over it all the iniquities and transgressions of the Yisra'elites, whatever their misdeeds. Thus, the Torah adds, Wayyiqra 16:20-22
The goat shall carry on it all their iniquities to an inaccessible region…

A tongue-shaped scarlet (Hebrew: shaniy) cloth was tied around the horn of goat L'Azazel. Then it was led out of the city by a group of men, who led it through the Judean wilderness to Mount Tzok, also known as Mount Azazel. From the moment that goat L'Azazel was led from the Temple, the entire temple service stopped, while the people waited in tense expectancy for the news that was to come. On the way to Mount Azazel, were constructed 10 sukkot (booths) where other men awaited the men who were leading goat L'Azazel, and offered them food and water. They had to refuse the food, because Yom Kippur is a day of fasting. The highest and steepest cliff near Yerushalayim was on Mount Tzok. On Mount Azazel, goat L'Azazel was pushed off backwards over the cliff, evidently to signify the physical removal of sin from the community. Just before goat L'Azazel was pushed off to its death, the scarlet cloth was divided in two pieces. The one piece was left tied to the goat's horn, while the other piece was tied around a rock, the Rock Chúdow. In Tractate Yoma 39b of the Babylonian Talmud, the Rabbis tell how a miracle regularly happened on Yom Kippur — the scarlet cloth would turn white. By this miracle, the Almighty communicated to the people that He had forgiven the sins of Yisra'el. The joyous message that the scarlet cloth had turned white was relayed from sukkah to sukkah to the crowd of people waiting at the Temple, by the jubilant waving of scarves and flags. When this message that the goat marked for Azazel had been killed and that the shaniy cloth had turned white, reached the people waiting at the temple, they celebrated by dancing, singing and rejoicing. The Talmud teaches that, during the last 40 years of the Temple service, this miracle never happened. Not once. The Temple was destroyed in 70 YM — about 40 years after the time of the date prophesied in Dani'el 9:26 for the coming of mashiach nagid. In Seder Mo'ed, Tractate Yoma 39b of the Babylonian Talmud, we read:
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Our Rabbis taught: During the last forty years before the destruction of the Temple the lot [“L'YHWH,” i.e. “For YHWH”] did not come up in the right hand; nor did the crimson-coloured [shaniy] strap become white; nor did the westernmost light [of the seven-branced menorah] shine; and the doors of the Hekhal would open by themselves, until Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai rebuked them, saying: “Hekhal, Hekhal, why wilt thou be the alarmer thyself [i.e. why do you predict your own destruction]? I know about thee that thou wilt be destroyed, for Zekharyah ben Yiddo has already prophesied concerning thee: 'Open thy doors, O Lebanon, that the fire may devour thy cedars.'”

In other words, during the last 40 years of the Temple, the ner Elohim (light of Elohim), i.e. the flame in the branch of the Menorah closest to the Qodesh haQodeshim, did not stay lit, and the heavy Nikanor gates, which required 20 men to open and close, opened by themselves during the night. Josephus, who was a kohen (priest) before he became a general, also described this spontaneous opening of the inner gates in circa 63 YM (Josephus, 1957):
Moreover the East Gate of the inner Temple which was of brass and vastly heavy, had been with difficulty shut by 20 men,… was seen to be opened of its own accord about the 6th hour of the night… this also appeared to the vulgar to be a happy prodigy but men of learning understood it, that the serenity of their set-apart House was dissolved of its own accord, and that the gate was opened for the advantage of their enemies. So these publicly declared that the signal foreshadowed the desolation that was coming upon them.

The spontaneous opening of the gates was seen as a sign that the desolation of the Temple was near. To understand how sages like Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai drew this conclusion from Scripture, we must understand the connection between the Temple, the Nikanor gates, and a prophecy in the book of Zekharyah: Zekharyah 11:1-3
1 2

Open your doors, O Lebanon, so that fire may devour your cedars!

Wail, O pine tree, for the cedar has fallen; the stately trees are ruined! Wail, oaks of Bashan; the dense forest has been cut down!
3

Listen to the wail of the shepherds: their rich pastures are destroyed! Listen to the roar of the lions; the lush thicket of the Jordan is ruined!

The Hebrew word translated as “doors” in Zekharyah 11:1 also means gates. King She lomo used cedars from Lebanon in the construction of the Temple. The Nikanor gates were made of cedar wood from Levanon, which was overlaid with brass. In Hebrew, the name Levanon is related to the word lavan, which means white; the Temple was white. Accordingly, the spontaneous opening of the Nikanor gates of the (white) Temple was interpreted as a sign from YHWH that the destruction of the cedars of Lebanon, i.e. the desolation of the Temple, predicted in Dani'el 9:26, was about to take place.

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Yeshayahu 9
The ancient sages of Yisra'el understood the following prophecy as announcing the Mashiach. Yeshayahu 9:6-7
For to us a Child is born, to us a Son is given, and the government will be on his shoulders. And He will be called Pele Yo'etz, El Gibbor, Avi Ad, Sar Shalom (Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty El, Father of Eternity, Prince of Peace).
7 6

Of the increase of his government and peace there will be no end. He will reign on David's throne and over his kingdom, establishing and upholding it with justice and righteousness from that time on and for ever. The zeal of YHWH Tzva'ot will accomplish this.

Modern Judaism has often attempted to translate this prophecy in Yeshayahu 9 so that it is hardly recognisable as a messianic prophecy. Sadly, this is a forced, apologetic reaction against Christianity, and conflicts with the understandings of the sages. For example, the ancient Aramaic paraphrase Targum Yonathan renders this passage:
From ancient times his name was given as Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty El, He who lived forever, the Messiah in whose days peace shall increase.

From Pereq Shalom (quoted in Patai, 1979: 21), we also see that the ancient Jewish sages identified the Son of Yeshayahu 9:6 as the Messiah:
Rabbi Yose the Galilean said: “The name of the Messiah is Shalom, for it is said, Everlasting Father, Prince of Shalom [Peace] (Yeshayahu 9:6)…” Rabbi Yose the Galilean said: “Great is peace, for in the hour in which King Messiah is revealed to Yisra'el, he begins with peace, for it is said, How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of the messenger of good tidings who announces peace (Yeshayahu 52:7).”

Rabbi Yahushua and the Torah
Rabbi Ya'aqov Emden (18th century) wrote (Falk, 1985: 21-22):
Not one of our sages spoke out more emphatically concerning the immutability of the Torah [than Yahushua]… …If certain Christians who consider themselves scholars, who believe that they are commanded to abolish the Torah of Mosheh from the seed of Yisra'el, would understand this deep truth [that the Torah is for the Jews, while the Noachide commandments is for Gentiles]…they would not engage in such foolishness…[The termination of Torah-observance by Jews] was never intended by the writers of the Gospels. Quite the opposite, they have written clearly that they intended the contrary… Because of these errant [Christian] scholars [who teach that the Torah was abolished], hatred has increased towards the Jews…

It is a grave error to state that Judaism ever saw the Torah as a vehicle for attaining salvation. Professor E.P. Sanders have investigated the view of the relationship between
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whereby the nation is brought into the covenant. This instruction. is his covenant obligation. Once inside the covenant. The Redemption in Aviv (Nisan) or Tishri After the [Ge'ulah] service [on Yom Kippur]. This is in accordance with the difference of opinion between Rabbi Eiliezer and Rabbi Yehoshua as to whether the Messiah will come to redeem Yisra'el in Aviv/Nisan or in Tishrei. Torah.” Only twice a year is this wish expressed: Once at the termination of the Haggadah on Pesach night and once on Yom Kippur. The sages viewed election and salvation as sovereign acts of unmerited grace. i. Page 75 of 0 . people wish each other. man is given instruction on how to live his life.salvation and the Torah that was held in Yisra'el at the time of Yahushua's ministry.e. He calls the view of the sages covenantal nomism. “Shanah ha-ba'ah ba Yerushalayim” — “Next year in Yerushalayim.

making him a being in the image (tselem) and likeness of the Almighty. the Z} (et) is a purely grammatical word. Its only function is to point to the subject/object of a sentence. the grammatical word. and they will mourn for him as one mourns for an only child. and the spelling of the sixth word. 11 In thát day [ba'Yom ha-hu] the weeping in Yerushalayim will be great. It is very significant that. whom they have pierced.” What is the deeper significance of the word Z} and its usage in Genesis 1:1? The } (alef) is the first letter in the Hebrew alphabet. the fourth word in Genesis 1:1 is alef-tav. 14 and all the rest of the clans and their wives. in the Hebrew text. (Refer to the acrostic Tehillim 119 to verify this). 13 the clan of the house of Levi and their wives. like the weeping of Hadad Rimmon in the plain of Megiddo. with their wives by themselves: the clan of the house of David and their wives.The 7000 year plan of YHWH The Alef and the Tav The first sentence in the first chapter in the first book of the Torah contains a very important prophecy about the coming of the Messiah. the clan of the house of Nathan and their wives. and grieve bitterly for him as one grieves for a firstborn son. The wav prefixed to the et (or other words) is the Hebrew way of saying “and. 10 9 “And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Yerushalayim a spirit of grace and supplication. In Zekharyah 12:9-14 we read that the Yisra'elites will look up to Him whom they have pierced and will bitterly grieve for Him. the alef-tav. The ancient sages identified the wav as the letter of man. They will look on me Z} whom they have pierced and they will mourn for him… Is there any significance in this use of the Z} in Zekharyah 12:10? In Mattithyahu 24:30. Z}Y (v'et). because man was created on the 6th day when the neshamah (breath of life) was imparted to Adam. In the Hebrew language. is used in direct relation to the subject (“Me”) of the sentence in verse 10 that reads. The Y (wav) is the 6th letter. and the Z (tav) the last. like one mourns at the death of a firstborn son: Zekharyah 12:9-14: In thát day [ba'Yom ha-hu] I will set out to destroy all the nations that attack Yerushalayim. the clan of Shimei and their wives. Therefore the word Z} (et) is not translated. each clan by itself. 12 The land will mourn. Bereshith (Genesis) 1:1 reads: 1 Bereshith In the beginning of 2 bara created 3 Elohim Elohim 4 [et]  5 haShamayim the heavens 6 [v'et]  7 haEretz the earth The Hebrew spelling of Z} (et). They will look on Me. Yahushua makes it clear that Yisra'el will mourn for Him at his second coming: Page 76 of 0 . is wav-alef-tav.

as the title of a transcendent heavenly being who is a man and to whom all the authority to rule and judge the world. Revelation 21:6 He said to me: It is done. even those who pierced him. the Beginning and the End.e.” says the Master Elohim. and to Smyrna. in the Greek of the B'rit Chadashah (New Testament) writings. both the Father and the Son are termed the Alpha and the Omega. the Beginning and the End. the first and the last. and all the tribes of the Land [i.e. which renders the alef-tav of the latter passage explicitly into the Greek language as the Alpha and the Omega: Revelation 1:7-8 Look. To him who is thirsty I will give to drink without cost from the spring of the water of life. 17:24. Revelation 22:13 I am the Alpha and the Omega. the First and the Last. and unto Philadelphia. Beit HaMidrash 3:70. In Revelation 1:7-8 we find a paraphrased quote of Zekharyah 12:10. Because they had very little insight in the Hebrew background of the Scriptures. and His eschatological coming as the Second Adam. 12:40. Talmud Bavli Sanhedrin 96b – 97a.” In Revelation 1:11. 22:69-70. who is the visible 19 Dani'el 7 falls within the Aramaic part of the book of Dani'el. and to Laodicea. the new Representative and King of the redeemed faithful remnant of mankind. Pirqei Mashiach. with power and great kivod [a reference to the bar-Enosh19 of Dani'el 7:1320]. to Ephesus. and therefore the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew alef and the tav. and who is to come. and send it to the seven assemblies which are in Asia. So shall it be! Amen. We conclude that the alef-tav is a term for the Messiah. to rule the earth. and all the tribes of the land will mourn because of him. write in a book. Matthew 24:27-30. 20 This prophecy is understood messianically in Numbers Rabbati 13:14. Luke 9:26. the land Yisra'el] will mourn [a reference to Zekharyah 12:9– 14]. 18:8. the Church Fathers wrongly understood Yahushua's use of the term “Son of Man” as a statement about the humanity of the Messiah (Young. “I am the Alpha and the Omega. the Messiah calls himself the Alpha and the Omega: Revelation 1:11 Saying. Page 77 of 0 . pre-existence and transcendence. It is a statement about his authority. and to Pergamos. and unto Thyatira. We see that. They will see the Son of Man coming with the clouds of heaven. Son of Man. 1995). Targum to 1 Chronicles 3:24. i. Acts 7:56 and Revelation 1:13. the Almighty. 21:27-28. It is important to note that the term Son of Man was understood 2000 years ago in Yisra'el as a Messianic title. What you see. “who is. 21:6 and 22:13. 98a. Mark 8:38. and who was. which are the first and last letters in the Greek alphabet.At that time the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky. 4 Ezra 13:1-9. 26:64. was given by the Almighty. and to Sardis. I am the Alpha and the Omega. “I am Alpha and Omega. Bar-Enosh (or Anash) is the Aramaic term for the Hebrew ben-Adam. and every eye will see him. he is coming with the clouds.

He. At this suggestion. the Torah will go forth from Yerushalayim and the Devar (Word) of YHWH from Tziyon. will come to the earth after 6000 years. about salvation history. the Alef and the Tav. respectively. of the invisible Father. In the Messianic kingdom. is that King Messiah. Because it is a purely grammatical word. the righteousness that is through Him is the goal at which the Torah aims. The opening sentence of the Torah contains a magnificent and rich Messianic prophecy. We will show that an impressive number of prophetic patterns in Scripture teach that the Messiah will come again at the end of 6000 years. which is prophetically enacted in the weekly Shabbat. He could have created the universe in a moment. will come to earth two times — 4000 and 6000 years after the creation of Adam. the faithful remnant of man will be in menuchah — in rest. It is salvation history in a nutshell. The fact that Revelation 1:7-8 is a paraphrased quote of Zekharyah 12:10. seeing that it is a term for the Messiah. also shows that the Hebrew word et in Zekharyah 12:10 is very significant: it is a title of the One who was pierced. some Hebrews advocate the removal of the Z} from modern Hebrew. After having come to earth near the year 4000 to pay the price for His Bride. the beginning and the goal. The Z} is also an allusion to the Torah. Page 78 of 0 . In the year 6000. about the coming of the Malkut Shamayim — the Kingdom of Heaven. the visible image of the invisible Father. the Alpha and the Omega. There are at least 4 Messianic prophecies in the first chapter of Bereshith. Does the Almighty do anything without a purpose. The Shabbat is called the Day of YHWH. Why? To communicate with us.image and exact representation. under His rule. We will show that the six days of creation followed by the Shabbat of rest — the Day of YHWH — is instruction. he went to heaven (shamayim) — the fifth word in Bereshith 1:1. Therefore He set the 7th day apart as a Shabbat — a day of rest. Eschatological significance of the Sabbath The Almighty created the heavens and the earth in 6 days. most Rabbis cringe in horror. We know that He indeed came to earth 4000 years after creation. The alef-tav is the fourth word while the wav-aleftav is the sixth word in this sentence. The sod (deeper meaning) of eretz (earth) being the seventh word in Bereshith 1:1 is that the shalom and menuchah. The Shabbat is the first thing that is made qadosh (set-apart) in Scripture. which renders the alef-tav of the latter passage explicitly into the Greek language as the Alpha and the Omega. We now come back to Genesis 1:1. But He chose to do it in six days and rest on the seventh day. will come back to earth (eretz) — the seventh word in Genesis 1:1. The sod (deeper meaning) of the use of these grammatical words in their specific positions in the opening sentence of the Torah. the Man (wav) who is the Alef and the Tav. to teach us. communication. without a plan? No. The Messiah is the personification of the Torah. Their resistance against doing away with this little word is to be valued. On the 7th day He was in menuchah — in rest. The account of creation is designed to teach us about our redemption by the Messiah.

as well as in the prophetic tavnit (pattern) of the seven days of the week: The 6 days of hard work comes to an end and is followed by a Shabbat of menuchah (rest).e. which is a major theme of prophecy. This view that the present age would last 6000 years and would unfold in 3 stages. instruction. Rabbi Eliyahu. this statement reads: It was taught in the school of the sage. the 6000 years of the ‘Olam ha-zeh. Yom YHWH. or like a watch in the night. each lasting 2000 years:  The first 2000 years was the age of desolation.   The next 2000 years is the Days of the Messiah. we find the following very profound statement about the teachings of an ancient sage. i. But through our many iniquities. The events of the 6 days of creation followed by a day of menuchah (rest) is a tavnit (pattern) that will recur in salvation-history. They based this on the statement in Tehillim 90:4 that a 1000 years are to the Almighty as a day. Why not? [Rabbi Eliyahu taught that] it was the many iniquities of the house of Yisra'el that caused this. This will be followed by a 1000 year period of menuchah (rest). We will develop this theme extensively in this chapter. Rabbi] Eliyahu. that the ‘Olam ha-zeh is to endure for 6000 years. In the first 2000 years there was tohu (desolation). the sages taught. The first six days of creation foreshadows the 6 days of work. Paraphrased. which is prophetically foreshadowed in the Shabbat This is the 1000 years of the Messianic Kingdom. for 2000 years the Torah flourished. teaching. The ages of salvation history 21 Eliyahu is the correct form of the Hebrew name commonly transliterated as Elijah.  But the Days of the Messiah did not begin when and as we [national Yisra'el] expected it to begin. This 6000 year period will unfold in three distinct phases.In Tractate Sanhedrin 97a–97b of the Babylonian Talmud. Page 79 of 0 . Just as there is seven days in a week. all these years have been lost. The ancient perspective of the Jewish sages was that every day of the week represents 1000 years. so that all these years of the Days of the Messiah have been lost to Yisra'el. Rabbi Eliyahu21: It was taught in the school of [the sage.   The next 2000 years was the age of Torah. is rooted in Scripture. that the present age is to endure for 6000 years. and the next 2000 years is the Yemot HaMashiach. Tehillim 90:4 For a thousand years in your sight are like a day that has just gone by. there will be 7000 years to time. each lasting 2000 years.

The tzadeqim will be bodily transformed and the Ruach haQodesh. The Artscroll Rosh HaShanah Machzor describes this initial failure (Sherman. Note: The ‘Olam ha-ba is not a simple concept. After 7000 years.1: The ages of salvation history. making atonement to the Father. The Athid Lavo. It was the Age of Instruction. with the revelation given in the B'rit Chadashah writings. When a tzadiq is resurrected. are spiritually translated into the Yemot HaMashiach. first-fruits nature. During the first 2000 years of the ‘Olam ha-zeh (the present age). no instruction. calculated from the impartation of the neshamah to Adam. which ended in the total failure of mankind. At the first Shavuot after the kinsman-redemption was accomplished. The year 6000 marks the beginning of the reign of King Messiah. From the redemption to the year 6000. At the year 4000 the Go'el came and redeemed us by dying in our place. i. The ‘Olam ha-zeh (“this world”) is ordained to last 6000 years. At that time. i. the Future Age. there was almost no Torah. having received the tzadeqah of Messiah Yahushua as a gift. this is phase 2 of the Yemot HaMashiach. the world to come. bearing the punishment that was due to us. This age ended in failure. i.e. The resurrection of the dead tzadeqim. During the next 2000 years. turn from their sins to the Almighty. all the tzadeqim will be in the ‘Olam ha-ba. it has a spiritual. will arrive. or transformed at the coming of King Messiah. with the exception of one family.If we combine the best of the teachings of the ancient rabbinic sages. Less than 10 chapters in the entire Scriptures deal with this age. will arrive for all the faithful. 1985: xix): Page 80 of 0 . no teaching. the world to come. They receive the foretaste of the powers of the ‘Olam ha-ba. Yahushua is already in the ‘Olam ha-ba. the eschatological congregation was empowered. Those who do teshuvah. the ‘Olam ha-ba. that is from the calling of Avraham to the first coming of the Messiah. we can construct the following eschatological timeline:  Olam ha-zeh  0 — 2000 2000 — 4000 4000 — 6000 Age of Tohu Age of Torah Yemot HaMashiach (Firstfruits)  Adam sins Messiah  comes 1 Messiah  comes 2  Athid Lavo  6000 — 7000 Yemot HaMashiach (Messianic Kingdom) Messiah reigns as Zeroah YHWH ‘Olam ha-bah World to come YHWH reigns directly Figure 0. the Torah flourished.e. YHWH gave very little Torah (instruction) to mankind — that is why the Rabbinic sages called it the Age of Tohu (desolation). The first 2000 years was the Age of Desolation. he or she enters the ‘Olam ha-ba. the coronation and wedding of the Messiah will take place on Yom Teruah. They receive the gift of imputed righteousness and the firstfruits of the adoption as children of Elohim. Messiah will hand the Kingdom over to the Father (1 Corinthians 15:28).e. The Yemot HaMashiach has 2 distinct phases. no showing of the way. The Yemot HaMashiach (the Days of the Messiah) began. by faith in the substitutionary qorban chata'aat (sin-offering) of Yahushua the Messiah. the Sh'khinah and the Kivod will come upon them in fullness. After the Millennial reign of the Messiah. It is related to resurrection and to being a tzadiq.

there had never been anyone like him and he was completely apart from his birthplace and family. The Era of Desolation ended with the year 2000. When he was 52 years old — the year 2000 [since Creation] — he began gathering people together in Charan and teaching them how to serve HaShem. It began with covert denial of Elohim in the form of covert idolatry. 359). 1A (p. Avraham. reaching a level of decadence…sexual debauchery and perversion became the norm. about our sinful. With that. the murder of Hevel. The Judaism of the time of Yahushua's ministry in Yisra'el is characterised by a unitary “pattern of religion” namely covenantal nomism. made a b'rit (covenant) with him and started giving him Torah — teaching. At Shavuot. the failure of ten generations after Noach. Before they received the Torah. Avraham was a new phenomenon. in a real sense. This initial failure of mankind was repeated after the Flood with the rebellion at Bavel. the light of Avraham who embodied the light of Torah. The Artscroll Rosh HaShanah Machzor. our need of redemption by the shed sacrificial blood of the innocent Messiah and our restoration to the Malkut Shamayim by objective deeds in salvation-history — deeds performed by the chesed (loyal. how to hit the mark in life. the failure of the first ten generations. instruction. It is instruction about how to live separated and dedicated unto YHWH. (1985: xvi) states this as follows: Avraham was the new beginning for mankind after its failure… The Artscroll Tanakh Series. even from his parents… When the b'nei-Yisrael (the children of Yisra'el) were led from Mitsrayim. The Torah was and is their national constitution. Desolation was over and a new light began to shine upon humanity. The Torah implies both (3) YHWH's promise to maintain the election and (4) the requirement to obey. At Sinai. During Pesach and Chag Ha Matzah. Avraham was born. explains the qualitative leap in the progression of salvation history that occurred with the calling of Avraham: With Avraham. (5) YHWH rewards obedience and punishes transgression. It spread to thievery and violence of all sorts. apparently led by Kush and Nimrod. the deluge. After the 2000 years of the repeated failure of mankind. a guide and framework they had to keep for their own good. But in the year 1948 (from Creation). YHWH made them into a nation. an era began. The Torah constitutes the covenant obligations of the nation of Yisra'el. It was indeed a bleak era in history. was as much the “first man” as were Adam and Noach. the Dispersion. the introduction of idolatry. and later became public.The Talmud teaches that in Noach's time. He brought them into freedom. they were a collection of newly freed slaves. and during Shavuot He gave them His Torah. He took him by the hand and showed him the way to walk. covenantal love) of the Father and through the faithfulness of the Son. The fall of Adam. Vol. The pattern or structure of covenantal nomism is this: (1) YHWH has chosen Yisra'el and (2) given the Torah. according to extra-Scriptural sources. YHWH gave the written Torah to Mosheh on Har Sinai (Mount Sinai) on the first Shavuot (Pentecost). all humanity except Noach and his family had become morally and ethically corrupt. the firstfruits of the harvest of the nations (Yirmeyahu 2:1-3). there began a new birth of the history of mankind. (6) The Torah provides for means of Page 81 of 0 . fallen state. YHWH chose Avraham avinu (our father Avraham). YHWH betrothed Himself to Yisra'el.

e. and atonement results in (7) maintenance or re-establishment of the covenantal relationship. after a total of 4000 years. belong to the group which will be saved. 16 14 Elohim made two great lights — the greater light to govern the day and the lesser light to govern the night. “I am the light of the world. and let them serve as signs to mark seasons and days and years. In the following quotation from Scripture. 15 and let them be lights in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth.” After 4000 years of darkness. And Elohim saw that it was good. because Scriptural history teaches past and future salvation history. and inter-testamental literature may be cited to prove conclusively that the perception of late Second Temple Period Judaism (or some branch thereof) as a religion of legalistic works-righteousness.atonement. atonement and YHWH's mercy. The teaching that 6000 years would elapse from Adam to the physical Messianic Kingdom. (8) All those who are maintained in the covenant by obedience. 18 to govern the day and the night. In the account of creation. Let us now turn to a beautiful Torah-picture of the coming of the Go'el. the lights in the heavens appeared on day four: Bereshith 1:14-19 And Elohim said. Passage after passage from Tannaitic literature. “Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night. is wrong. he said. and to separate light from darkness. Let us review some examples. the Light of the World came into the world to redeem the world. wherein YHWH's approbation must be earned by good works in a system of strict justice. Whoever follows me will never walk in darkness.” And it was so. He also made the stars. i. and there was morning — the fourth day. 19 And there was evening. 17 Elohim set them in the expanse of the sky to give light on the earth. An important interpretation of the first and last points is that election and ultimately salvation are considered to be by YHWH's mercy rather than human achievement. It was a major teaching of the Jewish sages and the early Christians. and 2000 years of a a gradual dawn during the Age of Instruction. There are many such exquisite Torah-pictures in Scriptural history. After 2000 years of total darkness in the Age of Desolation. but will have the light of life. who lived before the time of Yahushua. the Anointed One came to earth to make kapparah (atonement) for our sins and to accomplish the redemption so that we can be adopted as children of the Almighty and be restored back into the fulness of the Malkut Shamayim. is certainly not peculiar to Rabbi Eliyahu. the Qumran documents. Shimon haSh'liach (Peter the apostle) echoes Psalm 90 by restating the principle that there is a specific mapping between days and years: Page 82 of 0 . Yochanan 8:12 When Yahushua spoke again to the people.

In this view. followed by a Shabbat of rest. week. The other Jewish term for eschatology is ‘Iqqvot Ha Mashiach — “footsteps of the Messiah. with every day representing 1000 years. a special term for the last of the last days — the time when the world would go through convulsions.e. wherewith they have reproached the footsteps of your Messiah. YHWH is not slow in keeping his promise. but everyone to do teshuvah [come to repentance]. Just as the creation of the earth took six days. (In Scripture. How can we reconcile these vastly different figures? It is very important to note that scriptural chronology does not date events from the first day of creation. He is patient with you. the first 4000 years since Adam is called the “former days. but from the day that the neshamah was imparted to Adam. It is. as some understand slowness. The Jewish sages conceived of history as a long shavuah (“seven”). day   years. and a thousand years are like a day. a consuming fire symbolises judgement.4 billion years old. The ancient Jewish understanding of eschatology is that it includes everything dealing with the coming of the Messiah. a synonym for eschatology. believers are in the acharit-yamim and should walk ‘Iqqvot Ha Mashiach — footsteps of the Messiah. that Adam and Eve were created 6000 years ago. with every day representing 1000 years. The term acharit-yamim is. i.) 2 Peter 3:8-9 But do not forget this one thing.” while the last 2000 years before the coming of the Shabbat of rest. dear friends: With YHWH a day is like a thousand years. Modern archaeology testifies to the accuracy and integrity of scriptural chronology. represents the acharit-yamim.e. excruciating pain and the shedding of blood like a woman in labour while the Messiah and His Bride enjoy the shavuah chuppah in heaven. the entire period between the two comings of the Messiah is eschatological. the latter days. the Messianic kingdom. Note that the context of this passage is the judgement that will come at the end of the ‘Olam ha-zeh. indirectly.e. in Jewish thought. i. not wanting anyone to perish. Page 83 of 0 . i. O YHWH.” This term comes from Tehillim 89:51 Tehillim 89:51 Wherewith your enemies have reproached. from the end of the sixth day. Because history is viewed as a week. Scripture teaches. as described in Hebrews 4:4-9 and Revelation 20. Science states that the universe is approximately 16. of course. so there would be 6000 years followed by the great Shabbat of the 1000 years of the Messianic Kingdom.

Nachmanides also stated that the universe started as an infinitesimally small sphere which expanded rapidly.The rabbinic sage Nachmanides22 stated that the first 6 days of creation are 6 days of 24 hours each.  We see that if we place the frame of reference for the description of the first 6 days of creation at the moment of quark condensation. However. because he declared that it is a mitzvah to take possession of Israel and to live in it (relying on Bemidbar 33:53). Then the 16.) Nachmanides was the foremost halakhist of his age. This sounds like the “Big Bang” theory! Could it be that the creation account of Genesis and the Big Bang theory are just different ways of stating the same thing? The General Theory of Relativity tells us that the difference in the rate at which time passes in different frames of reference. Gerald L.” Nachmanides fulfilled this commandment. before King Jaime I of Spain in 1263. South African readers who have difficulty in obtaining Dr. Nachmanides was a Spaniard who was both a physician and a great Torah scholar.E. compared to its strength in our present frame of reference here on earth. and contain all the secrets and ages of the universe.” he said. The Science of God. He was well-known for his refutations of Christianity.” He died there in 1270 C. What would the frame of reference for the first 6 days be? The most obvious choice would be to take the point of reference at the very moment when time itself became well-defined. the force of gravitation was  times stronger at the moment of quark condensation.4 billion years of the age of the universe transforms into:    years   days. when time became well-defined. are referred to the book. author of The First Three Minutes (1977). Suppose that the duration of the first 6 days of creation are expressed in this cosmic frame of reference. He said. Like Maimonides before him. while the remainder of scriptural history is expressed in our own earthly frame of reference. “but even in this destruction. He found devastation in the Holy Land. 16. depends on the ratio of the strengths of the gravitational fields in the two systems. Readers who are interested in reading more on this topic. moving to the Holy Land during the Crusades after he was expelled from Spain for his polemics. “So long as Israel occupies [the Holy Land]. Schroeder's audiotapes and books.e. a converted Jew. His biblical commentaries are the first ones to incorporate the mystical teachings of qabalah. Let us suppose that the first 6 days of creation are described from a different frame of reference than the subsequent history. at the moment of quark condensation. may 22 Nachmanides (Ramban. which is described in the earth's own frame of reference. Rabbi Moshe ben Nachman) (1194-1270 C. Page 84 of 0 . but that they stand apart from ordinary scriptural chronology. Nachmanides could be described as one of history's first Zionists. by Dr.E. Nachmanides had a strong mystical bent.4 billion years on earth becomes equivalent to exactly 6 days of 24 hours each in the cosmological frame of reference. the earth is regarded as subject to Him. most notably. his debate with Pablo Christiani. Nachmanides should not be confused with Rabbi Nachman of Breslov. i. According to Stephen Weinberg. Schroeder — see the Bibliography. unlike the rationalist Maimonides. “it is a blessed land.

Messiah Yahushua went away (to heaven) after He was sacrificed on Mount Moriyah. it is apparent that the Messiah came into the world at the end of 4000 years (the fourth day) and that he will return at the end of the year 6000 for the wedding at the beginning of the seventh day. PO Box 357. and is not seen until the seventh day (Chapter 2). and counting the days from Adam to the Flood. In 2 Chronicles 9:17-19 and 1 Kings 10:19 we read that six steps led to his throne. The key is to count the number of days before Yahushua went to the wedding in Cana in the Galil. King Sh'lomo was empowered by the Spirit with chokhmah (wisdom). Yahushua makes a trip. The Mountain of Transfiguration The transfiguration of the Messiah teaches important messages on the coming of the Messianic kingdom. He reigned in shalom and splendour. The Wedding on the Seventh Day In the first 2 chapters of Yochanan. and led them up a high mountain by themselves. 29. It is described in Mattithyahu 17:1-9 After six days. Likewise. Likewise. who became Yisra'el. and his clothes became as white as the light. a parallel to the wedding in the Messianic Kingdom. The throne of King Sh'lomo The reign of king Sh'lomo (Solomon) is a tavnit of the reign of King Messiah. 2037. Fax (011) 885-3097. His son Ya'aqov. The flood foreshadows the judgement of the Chevlei Shel Mashiach that the Almighty will bring over the earth after 6000 years. Page 85 of 0 . Tel (011) 887-5262. The days of Noach Noach was 600 years old when the flood came. from the Flood to Avraham. The first 4 days are found in verses 19. of King Messiah. the kingdom. Yom YHWH. there will be 6000 years leading up to the throne. On the fourth day. The Marriage of Yitzchak and the birth of Ya'aqov Yitzchak was not seen after the aqeida (binding of the sacrifice) on Mount Moriyah (Bereshith 22). Ya'aqov and Yochanan the brother of Ya'aqov. He came in the year 4000 to take a Bride. South Africa. Highlands North. We only see him again when he takes a bride at age 40.order them from Acme Publications. The journey Yahushua makes on the fourth day relates to scriptural chronology. It is on the seventh day that Yahushua attended the wedding. The form of the throne of Sh'lomo (Solomon) is highly significant. is born when Yitzchak is 60 years old. His face shone like the sun. Starting from [Adam]. Yisra'el will be born again after the 6000 years of the Olam ha-zeh. 35 and 43 of Chapter 1. 2 1 There he was transfigured before them. we have another picture of the 7000 year plan of YHWH. Yahushua took with him Peter.

9 As they were coming down the mountain. Yahushua promises His talmidim that some of them will not see death till they see Him in His kivod (esteem. Yahushua takes the three and brings them up a high mountain. “Don't be afraid. Yeshayahu 18:3 All you people of the world. 16 Page 86 of 0 . apart. “Don't tell anyone what you have seen. Listen to him!” 6 When the talmidim heard this. Yahushua instructed them. with a teruah (loud command). radiance). In the preceding passage (Mattithyahu 16:27-28). the Almighty promises those who put their trust in Yahushua that they would receive a similar body when the Messiah returns — 1 Yochanan 3:2 Dear friends. 1 Thessalonians 4:16-17 For the Master himself will come down from heaven. If you wish. it is good for us to be here.3 Just then there appeared before them Mosheh and Eliyahu. for we shall see him as he is. and what we will be has not yet been made known. I have commanded my set-apart ones. and when a trumpet sounds. The transfiguration teaches us that. I will put up three shelters — one for you. 4 Peter said to Yahushua.” 8 When they looked up. whom I love. “Get up. I have called my mighty ones to my nose — them who rejoice in my exaltation. But we know that when he [Yahushua the Messiah] appears. This promise was literally fulfilled in the vision of the transfiguration. a bright cloud enveloped them.” 5 While he was still speaking. now we are children of Elohim. one for Mosheh and one for Eliyahu. with him I am well pleased. beckon to them. they fell face down to the ground. 7 But Yahushua came and touched them. the Messiah will gather those who are His talmidim [faithful student-followers] together in the Natzal (rapture): Yeshayahu 13:2-3 Lift up a banner on a high mountain. when a banner (nes) is raised on the mountains. with the voice of the archangel and with the shofar call of Elohim. and the dead in Messiah will rise first.” The transfiguration takes place after 6 days — a picture of the 6000 years of the ‘Olam ha-zeh.” he said. “Master. “This is my Son. In Yahushua's transfiguration into His glorified body. and a voice from the cloud said. raise your voice unto them. they saw no-one except Yahushua. you will see it. At the end of 6000 years. you will hear it. until the Son of Man has been raised from the dead. terrified. our transformed bodies will have the kivod — the glorious radiance of the Sh'khinah. you who live on the earth. when the Malkut Shamayim comes in its fullness with the return of the Messiah. we shall be like him. talking with Yahushua. that they may enter through the gates of the nobles.

Then he showed them the king's son… …12 Yehoiada brought out the king's son and  put the crown on him.” The Coronation of King Yoash In 2 Kings 11:1-16 we find another picture of the coronation and revelation of the Messiah. 4 In the seventh year. For the shofar will sound. 2 But Yehosheva. Leah had a seventh child. But after her barrenness. “to dwell exaltedly. We see that the history and names of the 7 children of Leah may be interpreted as an object lesson on the “the 7000-year plan of YHWH. which means: to praise. Her slave gave birth to Ya'aqov's children. Leah had a 6th boy! — Z'vulun — which means. So she tried to win his heart by having many children. Then the faithful remnant of Yisra'el will dwell exaltedly with Messiah. at the last shofar. we who are still alive and are left will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Master in the air.” The great white throne judgement (Revelation 20:11-15) takes place at the end of the millennium. the Son of YHWH. he  gave him the eidut [testimony] and  proclaimed him king. I tell you a mystery: We will not all sleep. she proceeded to destroy the whole royal family. She called her fourth child Yahudah.” This corresponds to the Millennium. the dead will be raised imperishable. Leah suffered a period of barrenness. which means “judgement. in the twinkling of an eye. Yeshayahu 26:17-18). so he was not killed.17 After that. but we will all be changed — 52 in a flash. Leah's children The account of Leah's children provides a prophetic object lesson about Yisra'el's history. The Messiah was born approximately 4000 years after creation. the Carites and the guards and had them brought to him at the Miqdash of YHWH. And so we will be with the Master for ever. She put him and his nurse in a bedroom to hide him from Athaliyah. 3 He remained hidden with his nurse at the Miqdash of YHWH for six years while Athaliyah ruled the land. probably 7000 years after creation. the daughter of King Yehoram and sister of Achaziyah. after 6000 years: 2 Kings 11:1-16 1 When Athaliyah the mother of Achaziyah saw that her son was dead. did not love her. Her husband. the Day of YHWH. Yehoiada sent for the commanders of units of a hundred. who were about to be murdered. 1 Corinthians 15:51-52 51 Listen. which will probably start approximately 6000 years after creation. from the tribe of Yahudah After the birth of her fourth child. This may be taken as a picture of the long period when Yisra'el gave birth to wind and did not bring yeshu'ah (salvation) to the Goyim (cf. took Yoash son of Achaziyah and stole him away from among the royal princes. and we will be changed. He made a covenant with them and put them under oath at the Miqdash of YHWH. Ya'aqov (Jacob). They Page 87 of 0 . a daughter — Dinah.

The fourth and fifth chapters of the book of Revelation are set in the context of the Jewish coronation ceremony. she went to the people at the Miqdash of YHWH. as the custom was. a scroll was presented to the king. “She must not be put to death in the Miqdash of YHWH. “Long live the king!” 13 When Athaliyah heard the noise made by the guards and the people. and revealed in the seventh year. Then Athaliyah tore her robes and called out. In The Messiah Texts by Raphael Patai (1979). and there she was put to death. we can reconstruct the five steps in a Jewish coronation ceremony: Step 1: Investiture with the emblems of kingship: the netzer (crown). and  the people clapped their hands and shouted. She looked and there was the king. the usurper who reigned murderously and illegally. as well as prophecies of what he would accomplish during his reign. Enthronement. who were in charge of the troops: “Bring her out between the ranks and put to the sword anyone who follows her. anointed him. The seven-sealed scroll Page 88 of 0 . The officers and the trumpeters were beside the king. The rabbis taught that Yoash was hidden in the Temple in the room directly above the Qodesh haQodeshim. midrashim are quoted that interpret this passage as a tavnit of the revelation and coronation of King Messiah after He had been kept hidden in heaven for 6000 years. a part of the testimony [eidut]. Anointing: anointing oil is poured over the head of the king. The midrashim sees this as a picture of Messiah being hidden in heaven. It is specifically Yahushua's coronation. Homage. as well as from archaeological and historical sources. When the King's son was revealed. contained all the royal titles (coronation-names) of the king. from the account of Shlomo's coronation in 1 Kings 1. Note that the king's son is hidden for 6 years. the eidut and hoq — a sealed scroll containing prophecies of the greatness of the coming reign of the king. The Coronation of King Messiah From the above.” 16 So they seized her as she reached the place where the horses enter the palace grounds. was eliminated. and revealed at the end of 6000 years. Acclamation: “Long live the king!” Example: Tehillim 47. This scroll was known as the decree or hoq. Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: The eidut is thought to be a bracelet that contained the seal of the king. “Treason! Treason!” 15 14 Yehoiada the priest ordered the commanders of units of a hundred. standing by the pillar.” For the priest had said. It would speak of his triumphs over his enemies as well as the esteem of his kingdom. and all the people of the land were rejoicing and blowing shofarot. This decree [hoq]. as these were the emblems brought to David at Sha'ul's death. Along with the bracelet.

numbering thousands upon thousands. “Do not weep! See.that is presented to Yahushua in Chapter 5 of Revelation may be seen as an eidut. 7 8 6 He came and took the scroll from the right hand of him who sat on the throne. the four chaiyot (living creatures) and the twentyfour zekanim fell down before the Lamb. standing in the centre of the throne.” Page 89 of 0 . the Root of David. Each one had a harp and they were holding golden bowls full of incense.” 11 Then I looked and heard the voice of many messengers. who was slain. and ten thousand times ten thousand. singing: “To Him who sits on the throne and to the Lamb 23 Rabbi Ibn Ezra (1873: 34) explains chaiyot as “Living beings. the testimony. encircled by the four chaiyot23 (living creatures) and the zekanim.” Then I saw a Lamb. frequently mentioned by Yechezq'el. has triumphed. every prophecy. 10 You have made them to be a kingdom and priests to serve our Elohim. 12 In a loud voice they sang: “Worthy is the Lamb. hoq] and its seven seals. Let us look at the elements of a classical Jewish coronation ceremony that we find in Revelation 4-5. And when he had taken it. Throughout Scripture. and every description of the kingdom is also a part of Yahushua's eidut. Yahushua receives a hoq — a sealed scroll that contains prophetic proclamations or decrees of the events that would unfold during his reign. which are the prayers of the tzadeqim 9 And they sang a new song: “You are worthy to take the scroll [hoq] and to open its seals. which are the seven spirits of Elohim sent out into all the earth. every royal title. They encircled the throne and the chaiyot and the zekanim. He had seven horns and seven eyes. In Revelation 5. We also see the acclamation and homage that is given to the Father and the Son: Revelation 5:5-14 5 Then one of the zekanim (elders) said to me. He is worthy to open the scroll [eidut. and all that is in them. to receive power and riches and wisdom and strength and honour and esteem and praise!” 13 Then I heard every creature in heaven and on earth and under the earth and on the sea. signifying a certain class of angels. looking as if it had been slain. the Lion of the tribe of Yahudah. and they will reign on the earth. because you were slain. and with your blood you purchased men for Elohim from every tribe and language and people and nation.

25 Aramaic: pelakh. Hebrew: Ben-Adam) is crowned in heaven just when the reign of the False messiah. 14 He was given authority. and there before me was one like a Son of Man. and pay reverence to. and his Arm rules for him. Page 90 of 0 . Yom Teruah (Rosh Ha Shanah) is the coronation festival. unfolds on earth: 13 “In my vision at night I looked. the Set-Apart Arm of YHWH. to stand in the service. This shows that the natural exegesis of Revelation 4-5 would be that they describe the coronation of the Messiah in heaven on Yom Teruah — the coronation festival. It means to serve. and the zekanim fell down and worshipped24. 1b) of homage rendered to YHWH and the ascended Messiah. to fall upon the knees and touch the ground with the forehead as an expression of profound reverence. coming with the clouds of heaven. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away. Adonai YHWH comes with power. and to demons. the blasphemous ruler of the Revived Roman Empire of the acharit-yamim. esteem and sovereign power. The context shows that the Son of Man (Aramaic: Bar-Enosh. hence among the Orientals. It is the mo'ed. for the coronation of King Messiah. who will rule for him: Yeshayahu 40:10 See. Zikhronot (remembrances) and Shofarot (shofar blasts). nations and men of every language worshipped25 him. “Amen”. and the 24 Strongs' definition of the word proskuneo translated as worship: 4352 proskuneo {pros-koo-neh'-o} 1) To kiss the hand towards one. which has Kingship and Coronation as its major theme — at the end of the 6000 years of the ‘Olam ha-zeh.be praise and honour and esteem and power. especially the Persians. along with all Scripture's prophecies of the greatness of the reign of Kings. and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence. in the NT by kneeling or prostration to do homage (to one) or make obeisance. Yom Teruah is the very next festival that must go into fulfilment. whether in order to express respect or to make supplication. in token of reverence. The three pillars of the worship structure on this day are Malkhiyot (Kingships). the appointed time. to heavenly beings. When we put Revelation back into its historical Jewish context. all peoples. l'olam va'ed [for ever and ever]!” 14 The four chaiyot said. The hoq that is given to Yahushua during his coronation. is the prophetic part of the Book of Revelation. Why is this important? Because the avodot (services) were given to King David by the Ruach haQodesh of YHWH (1 Chronicles 28). 1a) used of homage shown to men of superior rank: the Jewish high priests. we realise that the prophecies of this book forms part of the coronation-hoq of the Messiah — a sealed scroll of prophecies of the greatness of his reign that is given to him as the first step in the coronation ceremony that will take place in heaven. the annual prophetic rehearsal. Let us put Revelation 4-5 besides Dani'el 7:13-14.

We can expect that this Psalm of praise will be sung at the coronation of King Messiah. arise from the dead.e. that of the unrighteous.Almighty does everything with a purpose: to communicate. the phrase. a pre-tribulation rapture). 2 3 4 5 Elohim has ascended amid shouts of joy. sing praises to our King. sing to him a psalm of praise. The nobles of the nations assemble as the people of the Elohim of Abraham. the believers. All the tzadeqim who have died during the Birthpains. the sabbatical millennium. For Elohim is the King of all the earth. a coronation Psalm that offers acclamation to the King at his coronation. They will come to life and will reign with King Messiah. A mizmor. This liturgical element speaks prophetically of the resurrection of the dead tzadeqim In his letter to the believers in Ephesus. and Messiah will shine on you. a Rosh Chodesh. YHWH amid the sounding of shofarot. sing praises. to guide. Tehillim 47. This chapter teaches that there will be a first resurrection when King Messiah returns after the Birthpains. Elohim is seated on his set-apart throne. They claim to find strong support for this view in Revelation 20. to escape the Chevlei Shel Mashiach.” We have now laid the foundation to answer a specific counter-argument against the view that the tzadeqim will be caught away before the Birthpangs (i. to lead us. the exact representation of His Person. He chose our inheritance for us. Elohim reigns over the nations. i. peoples under our feet. Clap your hands. to instruct. “Arise. Of the Sons of Qorach. all you nations. It also teaches about the concealment of the tzadeqim before the yom tzarah: the Day of Trouble — this is the only festival that falls on a New Moon. The coronation Psalms of Yisra'el are sung on Yom Teruah. sing praises. Selah. for the kings of the earth belong to Elohim. The hidden moon is a picture of the tzadeqim. 6 7 8 9 Sing praises to Elohim. Many premillennialists believe that Scripture teaches that the tzadeqim will go through the Birthpains. the great King over all the earth! He subdued nations under us. The second resurrection. o Arise” is spoken many times.e. In the Yom Teruah liturgy. Page 91 of 0 . the Messenger of the very face of YHWH Elohim. who will be hidden on Yom Teruah in the year 6000. he is greatly exalted. How awesome is YHWH Most High. whom he loved. and the coming of the full wedding. The mo'ed Rosh HaShanah signifies the end of the betrothal between Messiah and his bride. the beginning of the Day of YHWH. is chanted 7 times in the Yom Teruah liturgy: Tehillim 47 1 For the director of music. O sleeper. the pride of Ya'aqov. will take place at the end of the millennium. to teach. the beginning of the Kingdom. will be resurrected. shout to Elohim with shouts of joy. This festival also speaks prophetically about the resurrection of the righteous dead. Sha'ul quotes a prayer from the ancient liturgy of Yom Teruah — Ephesians 5:14 “Wake up.

corresponding with the week of creation. which describes Messiah's reign on earth after his glorious second coming. This argument seems quite bullet-proof.Because Revelation 20 places the first resurrection — that of the righteous — at the end of the Birthpangs. 7 periods of 1000 years each]. having suggested that the Present World (the ‘Olam ha-zeh) is to be followed by a sabbatical millennium.e. A World-Week. (It will be recalled that Rabbi Eliyahu saw that the Yemot Page 92 of 0 . the resurrection of the tzadeqim and their catching away with the living believers on Yom Teruah before the Birthpangs. and as a watch in the night. Yeshayahu 21:5b …Arise. It describes the great events that will happen during the reign of King Messiah. intermediates  and resha'im).  the judgement of humanity into three classes (tzadeqim. takes place before the reign of King Messiah begins. Under the subheading. the verse. but will have to go through it. you princes. anoint the shield! Understood in this light. Psalm 90:4 For a thousand years in thy sight are but as yesterday when it is past. O Elohim our shield. the Age of Torah (instruction). The Jewish Encyclopaedia further explains that the rabbinic sages believed that the 6 millennia of the ‘Olam ha-zeh are divided into 3 periods of 2000 years each — the Age of Tohu (desolation). The two resurrections mentioned in Revelation 20 will happen during his reign. it states (page 211). and is therefore not found in Chapter 20. The resurrection of the righteous mentioned in Revelation 20 is the first resurrection that will happen during his reign. which will be announced by the blowing of the last shofar. the natzal is just the bus that we take to the event: Tehillim 84:9 Behold. the World to Come (the ‘Olam ha-ba). It is a resurrection and natzal (catching awaydeliverance) for the coronation. If prophecy is interpreted literally. The major prophetic teachings of Yom Teruah are  the dawn  of Yom YHWH. this view leads to a rather fearful expectation of the future. Jewish Eschatology: A Sabbatical Millennium The Article Eschatology in Volume 5 of the Jewish Encyclopaedia (1925) contains a wealth of information of the ancient understanding of the 7000 year plan of Elohim.  the resurrection of the righteous dead and the glorification of the living  righteous. Revelation 20 does not contradict a pre-tribulation natzal. because no dramatic act of physical deliverance will happen between today and the horrors of the et tzarah — the time of trouble. and look upon the face of your Messiah. these premillennialists deduce that the tzadeqim will not be caught away before the Day of Trouble.  and the  coronation of the Messiah. [Jewish eschatology was based upon] a world-week of seven millenniums [i. However. until one understands that the prophetic part of the book of Revelation is a coronation-hoq. followed by the Yemot HaMashiach (the Days of the Messiah).

Though not canonical. know the beginning and the end of the age…Therefore let the philosophers…know that the sixth thousandth year is not yet completed. in six days. Early Christian Eschatology: A Sabbatical Millennium Let us now investigate early Christian sources. wrote as follows in his Divine Institutes (quoted in Jeffrey (1990: 173.HaMashiach would be lost to the nation of Yisra'el.) The 6000 years of the ‘Olam hazeh correspond to the 6 weekdays of hard labour. 2 Esdras 7:30. my children. that is 6000 years. 43. Revelation 20:1. the consummation must take place… …Because all the works of Elohim were finished in six days. The Testament of Abraham A19 & B7. while the Millennial Kingdom of the Messiah corresponds to the Shabbat of rest. Consider. it is necessary that at the end of the sixth thousandth year all wickedness should be abolished out of the earth and justice should reign for a thousand years. Page 93 of 0 . The Epistle of Barnabbas. 179)): But we. shall all things be accomplished. and He finished them on the seventh day and set it apart. Against Heresies by Irenaeus. it is necessary that the world should remain in this state six ages. Sanhedrin 97a. what that signifies — that He finished them in six days. whom the Set-apart Scriptures instruct to the knowledge of the truth. Because having finished the works He rested on the seventh day and blessed it. An early Christian writer. A document known as the Epistle of Barnabbas was written to the early Christian assemblies. Rosh Ha Shanah 31a. The Jewish Encyclopaedia lists the following rabbinic and early Christian sources which formulate the ancient understanding of the 7000 year plan of YHWH explicitly:           Mishnah Ta'anit 74. and that when this number is completed. one day is a thousand years…Therefore children. The meaning of it is this: that in 6000 years YHWH Elohim will bring all things to an end. It says the following about the account of creation given in Genesis: And Elohim made in six days the work of His hands. it presents valuable information concerning the teachings of the first century Church. For with Him. Lactantius. that is. 2 Peter 3:8. Enoch 23:1. in 6000 years.

and in six days created things were completed. that Elohim alone may be exalted in thát day [ba'Yom ha-hu]. Now of that number. for example. so that there is no more left but 448 years. Jeffrey (1990:179) writes as follows about the views and calculations of Archbishop Usher: …Usher. For a day to YHWH is as a thousand years. Views by respected scholars of this early epoch are very significant.] his calculation would have placed the start of the Millennium in the year [date given by Jeffrey omitted]. the Creator told him that. Irenaeus wrote (quoted in Jeffrey. who had access to many ancient church manuscripts which were tragically lost in the burning of the early Irish churches during the savage Irish wars. as also it is a prophecy of what is to come. and did not reach an age higher than 1000 years. Rabbi Ketina stated. In Against Heresies (circa 150 YM). including Methodius of Tzor26. also calculated that the millennium would begin in [date given by Jeffrey omitted]. This view expressed by a respected leader of the early church. 6000 years ago. in 1552]. The world endures six thousand years…As out of seven years every seventh year is a year of remission. Bishop Latimer wrote as follows about his understanding of the 1000 year period that will start around [date omitted — TJVR] (quoted in Jeffrey (1990:178)): The world was ordained to endure. (1990:176)). In Bereshith 2:17.Early Christian commentators. there have passed 5552 years [i. thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. Adam had to die before he could reach the age of 1000 years. In 1552. Likewise. so out of the seven thousand years of the world. as they date from an era before Christianity became completely de-Judaised. Page 94 of 0 . who lived a few centuries before Irenaeus. has a deep prophetic significance. it is evident therefore that they will come to an end at the sixth thousand years. and that more authorities may be quoted in support: 26 Tzor is the Hebrew word for Tyre. In the Gemara. as all learned men affirm. pointed out that there was a specific reason why Adam died at the age of 930 years. Statements by other rabbinic sages are in agreement. This is an account of the things formerly created. no natural descendant of Adam could live longer than 1000 years. Irenaeus states that 6 days of creation followed by a day of rest. Since a day represented a 1000 years to the Almighty. It echoes the teaching of Rabbi Eliyahu.e. Bereshith 2:17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. [Was it not for a mistake of 3 years in his calculation. the seventh millennium shall be the 1000 years of remission. and original understandings were tragically lost in the rising tide of Christianised paganism. Jeffrey (1990:179) states that the above documented evidence are not exhaustive. was directly derived from rabbinic understanding of Scripture.

is a strong argument that this belief was. that we may live in His sight…” Hoshea 5:15-6:3 states that YHWH has left Yisra'el and returned to His place. corresponds to the time when Leah could not conceive and gave her slave to Ya'aqov to bear him children. The two days that Yahushua stayed with the people of Shomron. On the third day. when you disciplined them. This time period will be followed by the national salvation of the Messianic remnant of Yisra'el in the Day of YHWH. After two days He will revive us: in the third day He will raise us up. And they will seek my face. Bishop of Petau. This widespread evidence. Then.” The 2 days of the forsaking of the nation of Yisra'el correspond to the 2000 years of the Yemot HaMashiach. but He will bind us up. He will heal and bind her up. Hippotylus. her Page 95 of 0 . would be Gentile. there is yet another allusion to this deep truth in Yochanan 4:40 So when the Samaritans came to [Yahushua]. the genuine teaching of the apostles and the early Church. After their punishment is complete. and he stayed two days. He has stricken. but we gave birth to wind. that we may live in His sight. for He has torn. after 2 days. He will raise Yisra'el up to live in His sight: Hoshea 5:15-6:3 “…Then I [Jewish midrashim states that it is the Messiah who speaks here] will go back to my place until they admit their guilt. they urged him to stay with them. they will repent and seek Him earnestly. but He will heal us. He will come to us like the rain. “After two days He will revive us: on the third day He will raise us up. 17 As a woman with child and about to give birth writhes and cries out in her pain. Let us know. we have not given birth to people of the world. in their misery they will earnestly seek me. We have not brought salvation [Hebrew: yeshu'ah] to the earth. He has judged them severely. Leah's time of barrenness was bracketed by birth of Yahudah. In their affliction. Yisra'el will seek Him. let us pursue the knowledge of YHWH. 18 We were with child. we writhed in pain. and let us return to YHWH. like the latter and former rain to the earth.” “Come. The 2000 year period of spiritual barrenness — Yeshayahu 26:16-18 16 YHWH. and that the majority of people who receive His salvation.Writings could be produced in great numbers from other early Church leaders including Victorinus. O YHWH. so were we in your presence. they could barely whisper a prayer. the 1000 year Messianic Kingdom. At the level of the sod. correspond to the 2000 years that the nation of Yisra'el would be “given up” (Mikhah 5:3). in fact. Justin Martyr and Methodius to illustrate this belief that the Millennium would commence upon the completion of 6000 years from Adam. His going forth is established as the morning. they came to you in their distress. together with 2 Peter 3:8.

Talmud Bavli. whose origins are from of old. i. “Responsum”. all indications are that the Messianic Kingdom. three young priests went up to its roof and threw the keys of the House of Elohim to heaven. the 70th year-week of salvation history decreed over Yisra'el. her sixth child. from days of immeasurable time. i. Page 96 of 0 . A hand reached down and took the key. Other ancient rabbis agreed with him about the duration of the Yemot HaMashiach — in Midrash Tanchuma Ekeb §7. was born 4000 years after the creation of Adam. Bethlehem Ephrathah. the Ruler who was born in Beit-Lechem. the return of the 144 000 from the eschatological country code-named Babylon (cf. Yahushua. From Dani'el 9:24-27 we can calculate the time of Messiah's first coming and atoning death29. Z'vulun means “to dwell exaltedly”. Chai Gaon.fourth child.” 3 Therefore Yisra'el will be abandoned until the time when she who is in labour gives birth27 and the rest of his brothers return to join the Yisra'elites28. And the priests said. 28 That is. And they said before Him: “Master of the Universe! How can Yisra'el endure two thousand years of suffering?”… How did Rabbi Eliyahu see in Scripture that the 2000 years of the Days of the Messiah would be lost to the nation of Yisra'el? Nearly 700 prophetic passages in Scripture teach that the faithful remnant of Yisra'el will be Elohim's people when Messiah reigns from Yerushalayim in the Day of YHWH. wherein the faithful remnant of Yisra'el will dwell exaltedly with the Messiah. From Hoshea 5:15-6:3 and the principle that a day represents 1000 years.e. Sukkah 52a and Sanhedrin. the rabbis generally concur that the Yemot HaMashiach would last for 2000 years (Cohen.” Then they knew that the exile of the Sh'khinah and the dispersion of Yisra'el would last two millennia. of abandonment and punishment. the time of shalom and menuchah. “A thousand years in Thy sight are but as yesterday” (Psalm 90:4). Talmud Yerushalami. (10th century CE). 55b. the seventh day. 2000 years. until the beginning of the Chevlei Shel Mashiach. The Shabbat. My children. 27 That is. though you are small among the clans of Yahudah. the first 7 years of the Day of YHWH. out of you will come for me one who will be ruler over Yisra'el. O Adonai. Yirmeyahu 50-51). Sukkah. the Chevlei Shel Mashiach (Mikhah 5:3): 2 “But you. 29 Dani'el 9:25-26 is understood Messianically in 4 Ezra 7:27-30. Rabbi Eliyahu's conclusion follows logically from the above. how long?” And a heavenly voice issued and said: “Not longer than two days. Megillah 3a. Jewish author Professor Raphael Patai echoes the understanding that national Yisra'el would be abandoned for 2000 years (1979: xix): And when the flames engulfed the Temple. we know that the time of the great healing of Yisra'el will be preceded by 2 days. is a picture of the Day of YHWH. and Z'vulun.e. This happened close to 4000 years since Adam. until the beginning of the birthpains. In The Messiah Texts. will commence after 6000 years. This is the time when Yisra'el would be given up by the Messiah. 1949: 356). for it is written. the lion from the tribe of Yahudah. “How long.

Promised restoration after punishment Advocates of replacement theology are fond of quoting the covenant curses set out in Deuteronomy 28. 7YHWH your Elohim will put all these curses on your enemies who hate and persecute you. and live. They conclude that Yisra'el has failed their final test and that they will never be YHWH's nation in future. YHWH will again delight in you and make you prosperous. of course to YHWH and His Messiah. He will make you more prosperous and numerous than your fathers. 9Then YHWH your Elohim will make you most prosperous in all the work of your hands and in the fruit of your womb.The 7000 year plan of YHWH is hinted at in the following cryptic words given to the prophet Yeshayahu: Yeshayahu 30:26 Moreover the light of the moon shall be as the light of the sun. 4Even if you have been banished to the most distant land under the heavens. 3then YHWH your Elohim will restore your fortunes and have compassion on you and gather you again from all the nations where he scattered you. and the light of the sun shall be sevenfold. in the day that YHWH binds up the breach of his people. The essence of this mission is usually. just as he delighted in your fathers. 5 He will bring you to the land that belonged to your fathers. 8You will again obey YHWH and follow all his commands I am giving you today. and heals the stroke of their wound. alas. to get others to interpret Scripture in the same way they read it! It is a characteristic trait of cults that they give themselves the central. The cults go further and identify their specific group as the unique “remnant of Yisra'el” that has a specific mission and/or exclusive salvation. Replacement theology completely neglects… Deuteronomy 30:1-10: When all these blessings and curses I have set before you come upon you and you take them to heart wherever YHWH your Elohim disperses you among the nations. from there YHWH your Elohim will gather you and bring you back. Replacement theology then identifies the general “Church” as the New Yisra'el. To this they add their mistaken interpretation. 6 YHWH your Elohim will circumcise your hearts and the hearts of your descendants. or failure to take note of. and you will take possession of it. 10if you obey YHWH your Elohim and keep his commands and decrees that are written in this Book of the Torah and turn to YHWH your Elohim with all your heart and with all your being. That role belongs. as the light of seven days. 1 Scripture fully supports the finding that replacement theology is wholly erroneous and that YHWH will take up his special dealings with the nation of Yisra'el once again. Dani'el's prophecy of the seventy sevens. 2and when you and your children return to YHWH your Elohim and obey him with all your heart and with all your being according to everything I command you today. heroic role in the great drama of the endtimes. the young of your livestock and the crops of your land. to Page 97 of 0 . so that you may love him with all your heart and with all your being.

we may well be less than a decade away from the year 6000. This is not correct. Professor Moore observes (1927: 6) that. Furthermore. and Yom YHWH to begin. Although we expect the Messiah at the end of the year 6000. An impressive number of foreshadowing prophetic patterns support the expectation that the cataclysmic events of the Chevlei Shel Mashiach will take place within the next few decades. that mo'ed is one long day of 48 hours. 1927: 6). and Dani'el. According to the chronological calculations of scholarly Christian inquirers. All indications are that we are at present certainly less than 40 years away from the correct year 6000. and falls on Tishrei 1 & 2. Nechemyah. roughly 200 years were not counted (Moore. As for the dates. It is as though both Christianity and Judaism have gone into a state of slumber in their understanding of scriptural prophecy. It is not necessary. they had not the canon of Ptolemy to operate with. Page 98 of 0 . The Jewish calender misses more than 200 years. Although we expect the coming of the Messiah to fetch his bride — the tzadeqim of all ages — on a Yom Teruah. This confusion entered during the time when the Persian empire ruled over Yahudah. accurate chronological records were not kept.bring a faithful remnant to national salvation in Yom YHWH. either. and that we are still more than 240 years from the end of the year 6000. No man knows the day or the hour of the coming of the Messiah. only a handful of people in the world know what to look for. This introduces an additional uncertainty of a few days in the date. but only four names of Persian kings in the confusing disorder in which they occur in the Books of Ezra. Scripture gives a wealth of information about the endtimes. There are several reasons for this. Most Jews think that this is indeed the case. I believe that it is rather fruitless to engage in calculations of the time of the coming of the Messiah. we are now (February 2000) living in the year 5760 since Adam. differs slightly from the methods that was used anciently. former head of Jewish Studies at Harvard University. the method that is used nowadays to set the Jewish calender. Note: Missing years in the Jewish Calender According to the Jewish calender. be a warning to all who oppose YHWH's restoration of Yisra'el by preaching that Elohim has irreversibly rejected the nation of Yisra'el. and they were consequently always far out of the way in their chronology of the Persian period…compression of the history… Our present-day Jewish calender misses these years. when we expect the ‘Olam ha-zeh to come to its end. Unfortunately. According to Professor George Foot-Moore. Let Deuteronomy 30:7 YHWH your Elohim will put all these curses on your enemies who hate and persecute you.

Summary There is an impressive number of prophetic pictures in Scripture that show that we can expect the return of King Messiah. Page 99 of 0 . no person can know the exact day and hour of his coming. However. the Moreh Tzadeqah (Teacher of Righteousness) on Yom Teruah at the end of the year 6000.

He said “whoever is circumcized has a portion with you?” YHWH replied. await Mashiach. In the future the children of Yishmael will stir great wars in the world. and and He gave them a portion below in the Holy Land. just as their circumcision is empty and without completion. “Yes." He asked him “And despite all this. Bereishit Rabba 42:4 When you see many great nations fighting each other. The Chevlei shel Mashiach — the birthpangs of Mashiach — are bearable only in anticipation of the bliss that follows them… Sanhedrin 98a When you see a generation ever dwindling. this one does it properly on the eigth day. a nation from the end of the world will be awakened against wicked Rome. And the children of Edom [the West] will gather against them.. even though he is circumcized he gets no reward?" YHWH responded by distancing the children of Yishmael from Himself in the upper worlds.” The celectial prince over Yishmael said. look toward the footsteps of Mashiach. “Well. hope for him . In the future. and make war with them. the children of Yishmael will rule over the Holy Land for a long time while the land is empty. And they will hinder the children of Israel from returning to their place. Also. as it says. and this other one (Yishmael) is not. and no power will remain above except for the power of Israel alone. because they are circumcized. and it says. It will happen “in its time” (Yeshayahu 60:22).The Zohar on the coming of Mashiach Zohar Va'era 32a …Come and see — for four hundred years the supervising angel of Yishmael beseeched YHWH. until all the children of Edom will gather against her from all corners of the earth. And it will make war against her for three months. how come he doesn't have a portion with you like Yitzchak?" YHWH replied. and they will fall by her hand. and one by Yerushalayim. “to shake the corners of the Land". And after this. And then YHWH will awaken Himself against them. and each one will prevail over the other but the Holy Land will not fall to the hands of Edom. and one on the land. when you see a generation overwhelmed by many troubles as by a river. And all the supernal powers of the nations will be broken. one on the sea. The actual date of the Messianic redemption is a guarded mystery unknown to man. the children of Yishmael will be finished from the world. “This one (Yitzchak) is circumcized properly. until their merit in the Holy Land runs out. Yishmael is circumcized. and many nations will gather there. predetermined from the beginning of Page 100 of 0 . a “a sacrificial slaughter for YHWH in Botzrah". At the same time.

nonetheless I await him every day. “For My own sake. that he will come. In the popular formulation of his thirteen Principles of the Faith (the hymn of Ani Ma'amin) this is put as follows: I believe with complete faith in the coming of Mashiach. The connection may be seen in the fact that the initial word — Anochi — is linked with redemption: Anochi signifies the first redemption from Egypt and the last redemption through Mashiach. I believe that HaShem inspired every word and letter of the Hebrew Scriptures.creation. is not simply a virtue but a religious obligation. “Happy are all those that wait for him” (Yeshayahu 30:18). Look at the word “et" which is spelt alef-taw. consolation and comfort. out of the house of bondage” (Shemoth 20:2). Though he tarry. The second time as conquering king — the eschatological Ben-Adam (Son of Man) — Mashiach benDavid. “Therefore wait for Me. and all the prophets beginning with Mosheh. but at the end it shall speak and not lie. for My own sake. in effect denies the whole Torah. Though he tarry — wait for him. aggadic proto-rabbi Yahushua is the Messiah and that he will come two times. anticipating his coming. Indeed. some authorities view this principle as an integral part of the first of the Ten Commandments which states “Anochi — I am YHWH. to pour out upon them My indignation. Word 4 and word 6 in Bereshith 1:1 is alef-taw. that I assemble kingdoms. “I wrought for My Name's sake that it should not be profaned in the eyes of the nations” (Yechezq'el 20:9). will be: “Tzipita li'yeshu'ah — did you earnestly expect yeshu'ah?” Final word A strong case can be made that the Tanakh (Hebrew Scriptures) shows that the itinerant. In view of this legal obligation to await Mashiach. Rambam thus rules that whoever does not believe in — and whoever does not yearn for the coming of Mashiach. for it will surely come… it will not be late…” (Chawaqquq 2:3). for My judgment is to gather nations. The first time as a moreh (teacher). Anochi is an explicit expression of compassion. Waiting for Mashiach. Look at the Hebrew text of Bereshith 1:1. instructor and suffering eved (servant). This ultimate qetz (time of the end) is unconditional: it does not depend on Yisra'el's merit. therefore. Anochi is an acronym with every one of its four letters signifying Scriptural prophecies of the Messianic consolations and comfort. For all the earth shall be consumed by the fire of My jealousy” — Tzephanyahu 3:8. As stated above. healer. all My fierce anger. says YHWH. for the day that I rise to the prey. Now look at Zekharyah 12:10 in Hebrew. your Elohim. who has taken you out of the land of Mitzrayim. I will do it…” (Yeshayahu 48:11). Page 101 of 0 . as it is said. “The vision is yet for an appointed time. one of the first questions an individual will be asked on the Day of Judgment.

golden apple in a plate of silver) the intimation that the pierced One will come 2 times — the first time about 4000 years after the impartation of the nishmat chayim (breath of life) to Adam. Note that Revelation 1:7-8 contains a paraphrased quote from Zekharyahu 12:10 where the alef-taw is explicitly rendered into Greek as “alpha and omega. at the interpretative level of the sod (secret. This is the 2000 years when the alef-taw will be in ha-shamayim (heaven) — his maqom He has returned to.e. mashiach nagid — Messiah the Ruler — shall be “karet” — cut off. Rabbi Yehoshua performed a Bediqat chametz — a cleansing of the leaven — on HaShem's House by driving out the unrighteous merchants. He is coming back to haEretz: the 7th word of Bereshith 1:1. the same day the Pesach lambs were separated (see Shemot). being the greater Son of Dawid. Mikhah 5 teaches that the Ruler of Yisra'el would be born in Beit-Lechem. Now turn to Dani'el 9:24-27. Notice that the 5th word in this verse is shamayim — the heavens. the Speaker says that He will return to his maqom (place) until Yisra'el repents and seeks Him. After      sevens. This decree was given in 445 BCE — see Nechemyah 2. Then He would give them (Yisra'el) up until the time of the chevlei-leidah shel Mashiach — the time of the Birthpangs of the Messiah (the tribulation) that will come upon the world after the 6000 years of the Olam ha-zeh — the present age. mystery. when his followers crowds quoted Tehillim 118 and sang “Ana Adonai hoshia-na” and “Barukh ha-ba b'shem Adonai. A calculation brings us to the realisation that 69 yearweeks after the year 445 BCE brings us to the day of Rabbi Yehoshua's triumphant entry into Yerushalayim on the back of the colt. There and in the first verses of Chapter 6. The reckoning of this time starts with the decree to rebuild Ir Yerushalayim after the exile to Bavel.” From Tehillim 90 we know that a thousand years is to HaShem as a day. This time of Yisra'el's galut (dispersion) is the time when He has returned to his maqom (heaven). because the second alef-taw is the 6th word in Bereshith 1:1.e. i. The Talmudic sages understood from this verse that the time of the exile of the Shekhinah and the punishment of Yisra'el will endure 2000 years. seven year periods. Page 102 of 0 . The man (waw) who is the alef and the taw will come again near the year 6000. Mikhah 4:8 talks about Migdal Eder — the tower a hundred odd metres south of Beit-Lechem (Bethlehem). Therefore Genesis 1:1 seems to contain. executed. This is where the Levitical shepherds tended the flocks destined for sacrifice in the Beit haMiqdash (Temple). On about 13 Aviv. The man who is the alef-taw will be in heaven inbetween his first and second comings. Seventy Shavuot (sevens) are decreed over Am Yisra'el and Ir Yerushalayim. is the alef-taw.” This was Aviv 10. The central lamp of a menorah is the shamash — the servant lamp from which the other lamps are lit. The 4th word in Genesis 1:1 is the shamash or eved (servant) of the sentence and speaks of the redemptive work of the Go'el of Yisra'el as the servant who brought light to the world. i. The time of their punishment will be “2 days.” Now turn to the last verse of Hoshea 5. yearweeks. The 7 words of Bereshith 1:1 is also structured as a menorah. because the first alef-taw is the 4th word in Bereshith 1:1. On 14 Aviv he was “cut off but not for himself” — Dani'el 9:26. It is these Levitical shepherds that came to see Yehoshua at his birth — to behold the “seh ha Elohim chanoseh chata'aat ha-olam” — the Lamb of Elohim who took away the sins of the world. Now turn to Mikhah.Note that the pierced One whom they will look up to.

He was laid in the grave on Aviv 15 and rose on Aviv 17 — the day of the Bikkurim (Firstfruits) of the Barley Harvest. it means that there is a real event coming. Page 103 of 0 . On Chag Shavuot. the Ruach HaQodesh empowered the qahal/eidah of the Yemot HaMashiach. Every mo'ed is a miqra qodesh — a gathering that is a rehearsal. 7 weeks later. When there is a rehearsal. The mo'edim of HaShem are the Iqvot ha-Mashiach — the Footsteps of the Messiah.