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University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center A National Science Foundation/University Cooperative Research Center















Refrigerant-Side Tradeoffs
in Microchannel Evaporators

T. Kulkarni, C. W. Bullard, and K. Cho


ACRC TR-198 June 2002














For additional information:

Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center
University of Illinois
Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Dept.
1206 West Green Street
Urbana, IL 61801 Prepared as part of ACRC Project #124
Design Tradeoffs in Microchannel Heat Exchangers
(217) 333-3115 C. W. Bullard, Principal Investigator



The Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center was
founded in 1988 with a grant from the estate of
Richard W. Kritzer, the founder of Peerless of
America Inc. A State of Illinois Technology Challenge
Grant helped build the laboratory facilities. The
ACRC receives continuing support from the Richard
W. Kritzer Endowment and the National Science
Foundation. The following organizations have also
become sponsors of the Center.

Alcan Aluminum Corporation
Amana Refrigeration, Inc.
Arçelik A. S.
Brazeway, Inc.
Carrier Corporation
Copeland Corporation
Dacor
Daikin Industries, Ltd.
Delphi Harrison Thermal Systems
General Motors Corporation
Hill PHOENIX
Honeywell, Inc.
Hydro Aluminum Adrian, Inc.
Ingersoll-Rand Company
Kelon Electrical Holdings Co., Ltd.
Lennox International, Inc.
LG Electronics, Inc.
Modine Manufacturing Co.
Parker Hannifin Corporation
Peerless of America, Inc.
Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.
Tecumseh Products Company
The Trane Company
Valeo, Inc.
Visteon Automotive Systems
Wolverine Tube, Inc.
York International, Inc.

For additional information:

Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Center
Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Dept.
University of Illinois
1206 West Green Street
Urbana, IL 61801

217 333 3115



1
Refrigerant-Side Tradeoffs in Microchannel Evaporators
Abstract
The present study examined design issues of microchannel evaporators associated with the flow
maldistribution caused due to header pressure gradient. The effects of mass flow maldistribution on microchannel
heat exchanger were quantified by using a single port simulation model.
Longitudinal headers as currently used with microchannel condensers may not be suitable for the
applications with microchannel evaporators. Mass flow maldistribution was investigated by using well-known
pressure drop and heat transfer correlations for two-phase flow, selected after comparing with the results obtained by
using different correlations. It was found that mass flow maldistribution cannot be controlled by changing either
port/header diameter or the refrigerant state at the inlet to the port, but only by minimizing pressure gradients along
header. At the same time the need to avoid phase separation in the header places a lower bound on mass flux.
The dependence of heat exchanger capacity on the diameter and the length of the longitudinal and radial
headers and was investigated in detail. Results demonstrated that the requirement for inertially dominated flow in
the inlet header severely limits the set of feasible evaporator geometries. Accordingly, alternative concepts for
header design were suggested.
Introduction
Compact cross-flow heat exchangers with flat multi-port microchannel tubes and folded louvered fins have
almost completely replaced conventional round tube flat fin condensers in automotive air-conditioning applications.
Nearly all have two vertical headers partitioned to accommodate 3-5 passes consisting of multiple parallel tubes.
Since void fractions exceed 90% in most of the headers, achieving near-uniform vapor distribution among hundreds
of parallel refrigerant parts has not presented serious problems for condensers. However in evaporators the
challenge is to distribute the liquid evenly among the microchannel ports. Because of the high liquid/vapor density
ratio of fluorocarbon refrigerants, void fractions are generally ~ 90% at the evaporator inlet and exceed 90% at
intermediate headers in higher-quality regimes.
Experimental data on microchannel evaporators are limited. Stott and Bullard [1] conducted experiments
with microchannel evaporator (with port diameters ~ 0.7 mm), fed at four locations along the horizontal inlet header.
They quantified maldistribution by measuring superheat on individual microchannel tubes, observing that some had
nearly zero approach temperature differences while other exits were saturated, despite the TXV holding the
aggregate suction superheat at 5°C. The tubes showing highest exit superheat were the ones that received most of
vapor at their inlets. The experiments repeated for different refrigerant flow rates showed the same trend. In all the
experiments, inlet header mass flux was less than 20% of the needed to maintain inertially-dominated fully-
developed flow. Little is known about the flow regimes in developing two-phase flow, but it seems likely that the
refrigerant would be highly susceptible to stratification at mass velocities significantly less than the 265 kg/m
2
-s
required for annular flow at these conditions [2].
Cho et al. [3] investigated flow maldistribution and phase separation in a microchannel evaporator with 15
tubes and aluminum header pipe with outer diameter of 22 mm at the mass flux of 60 kg/ m
2
-s. Mass flow rates were
determined in each microchannel tube, along with the ratio of the quality in each microchannel tube to inlet quality
2
at the header. Severe mass flux and quality maldistribution was observed because of the extremely low refrigerant
mass velocities in the header.
These experimental results suggest strongly that longitudinal headers such as those currently used with
microchannel condensers may be unsuitable for applications with microchannel evaporators. Additionally, it may
be necessary to ma intain a certain minimum mass velocity in these headers to reduce maldistribution.
This paper identifies and examines important design issues associated with achieving uniform distribution
in microchannel evaporators. Until this problem is solved, the technology will be limited, as it is now, to condensers
of air conditioning systems. Since heat pumps must accommodate refrigerant flow reversals, this analysis is focused
on single pass heat exchangers to eliminate the additional maldistribution risks associated with intermediate headers.
The authors identified two causes of maldistribution: Header ∆P induced maldistribution and maldistribution of
evaporator inlet quality. Interestingly, there is an upper bound on the performance degradation in evaporators due to
maldistribution of quality; a brief discussion on quantification of performance degradation and ways to offset it
could be found in Kulkarni and Bullard [4]. In this paper, the attention will be limited only to maldistribution
caused due to header pressure gradient.
The next section reviews the current state of knowledge of two-phase pressure drop, heat transfer and void
fractions in the sub-millimeter channels and headers of microchannel heat exchangers. Combining this information
with a few simplifying analytical assumptions then leads to the identification of design constraints, which in turn are
applied to three families of possible header designs. The results lead to the conclusion that longitudinal headers of
the type heretofore used in microchannel condensers are least suitable for use in evaporators. The paper concludes
with analyses of a proposed radial design, which appears to offer substantial advantages from the standpoint of
refrigerant distribution.
Background
The superior air and refrigerant-side performance of microchannel heat exchangers has been documented
extensively in the literature (Jacobi [5] and Garimella [6]). However there have been relatively few detailed
investigations of two-phase heat transfer, pressure drop, flow regimes and void fractions in sub-millimeter ports.
Therefore, the empirical database is still too sparse to support development of broadly-applicable correlations. Far
less is known about the developing two-phase flow in the headers of microchannel heat exchangers, where diameters
range from 10-30 mm. Most experience is with condensers where void fractions are high and maldistribution
concerns are less important, so only a few detailed studies have been done. Zietlow [7] conducted flow visualization
experiments and detailed measurements of refrigerant mass in microchannel condensers and concluded that a
homogeneous void fraction assumption was valid across a range of typical operating conditions.
Most of the two-phase pressure-drop correlations currently available for refrigerants are based on
experiments in tubes larger than 7, 4 and 3 mm (Souza and Pimenta [8], Friedel [9] and Zhang and Kwon [10]
respectively). When extrapolated to diameters of 0.5 mm, they yield the results shown in Figure 1a for the range of
mass fluxes considered in the current analyses. Figure 1a is based on the design operating conditions (T
evap
= 12°C,
D = 0.5 mm) and compared at x = 0.5. The choice of Zhang and Kwon [10] correlation for the purpose of this paper
3
was based on the excellent agreement observed between this correlation and experimental microchannel data of
Nino [11].
Similarly Figure 1b shows some of the two -phase heat transfer correlations plotted in nondimensionalized
form for operating conditions: T
evap
= 12°C, G = 285 kg/m
2
-s, D = 0.5 mm. Three correlations for two-phase
evaporative heat transfer were considered. The first, Lazarek and Black [12], was based on R113 data in 3 mm
tubes. Another by Liu and Winterton [13] was based on R12, R113, R11, R114 data in 2.95 mm tubes, while a
third, Wattelet, et al [14] was developed from R12, R22, R134a and R410A data in tubes of diameter 7-11 mm. At
design mass flux in this study, G = 285 kg/m
2
-s, the source data for all three correlations lay in the annular flow
regime, giving some degree of confidence that they may be applicable to other wetted-wall regimes such as the
intermittent flows observed in microchannels (Coleman [15]). At 5.8 kW/m
2
design heat flux in the present study is
in the range of the last two correlations, but less than the lower bound (14 kW/m
2
) investigated by Lazarek and
Black [12].
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
150 200 250 300 350 400
G [kg m
-2
s
-1
]

P
/

L

[
k
P
a

m
-
1
]
Zhang & Kwon
Friedel
Souza & Piementa

Figure 1 (a). Choice of 2-phase frictional pressure drop and heat transfer correlation (R410A D=0.5 mm Tevap =
12°C)
0
10
20
30
40
50
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
x[-]
h
D
/
k
l

[
-
]
Liu and Winterton
Lazarek and Black
Wattelet and Chato

Figure 1 (b). Choice of 2-phase frictional pressure drop and heat transfer correlation (R410A D=0.5 mm Tevap =
12°C)
4
The Wattelet et al. [14] correlation was selected because it is the only one of the three based on R410A
data. It also includes an explicit nucleate boiling term, whose contribution to the net heat transfer coefficient is
greatest at higher reduced pressures that exist in R410A evaporators.
For single-phase heat transfer, the Gnielinski [16] correlation has been shown by Heun and Dunn [17] to
give good agreement with data obtained in careful single-tube experiments. The single-phase pressure drop was
computed using Churchill [18] friction factor.
Achieving uniform distribution
In conventional evaporators, uniform distribution of two-phase flow is achieved using a variety of proven
methods, where the number of parallel circuits is generally less than 10. In microchannel heat exchangers, hundreds
of parallel ports are generally fed from a cylindrical header as shown schematically in Figure 2. Even for the case of
single-phase inlets (e.g. condensers, radiators), some mass flow maldistribution will occur because of inherent
asymmetries in turning and inlet/exit losses, ac/deceleration and/or differing flow lengths (Yin et al. [19]). In
condensers, the driving pressure differential along the parallel circuits is also influenced by the density and velocity
differences in the vapor inlet/liquid outlet headers. Of course for evaporators the situation is further complicated by
the fact that inlet density is very sensitive to operating condition (condenser outlet enthalpy). Finally, the absence of
correlations describing developing two-phase flow makes it necessary to make crude simplifying assumptions to
describe the pressure gradient and void fraction in evaporator inlet headers.
∆P
1
∆P
2
∆P
header

Figure 2. Effect of header pressure gradient
Fortunately as the following parametric analyses will illustrate, the differences among several families of
header geometries are not very sensitive to these simplifying assumptions. Therefore future investigations can be
redirected away from existing header designs and focused on other concepts that appear more promising. Ideally the
refrigerant flow in the inlet header, where quality ~ O(10-25%) would be misty and homogeneous, a regime not
observed below G ~2000 kg/m
2
-s (for standard operating conditions and D
header
= 9 mm, T
evap
= 12°C, x
evap
= 20%,
etc) for fully-developed refrigerant flow in this quality range (Thome et al. [2]). Such very high mass fluxes, if
present, could create large pressure gradients along the headers, exacerbating maldistribution among the parallel
circuits. Therefore the following para metric analyses focus on a range of mass fluxes lying just above a minimum
level where the effects of gravity diminish and the flow becomes inertially dominated (i.e., beyond the wavy-
stratified regime). Although these flow regime boundaries are imprecise – even for developed flows – and strictly
5
inapplicable to developing flows, they are helpful in focusing the analyses on inertially-dominated flows that are
more likely to - expose all microchannel ports to nearly the same time -averaged inlet quality.
Header ∆P-induced mass flux maldistribution
Pressure gradients in the header can result in each parallel circuit seeing a different driving pressure
differential. Figure 2 shows a schematic of microchannel heat exchanger where the refrigerant enters from the
bottom. As it flows through the header, pressure drops due to friction and rises due to deceleration as part of the
refrigerant exits the header to flow through the microchannel ports. In general the driving pressure seen by different
tubes is different, so each tube receives a slightly different refrigerant mass flow rate at its inlet.
To explore the effect of mass flow maldistribution on heat exchanger capacity, a single port simulation
model was developed. The single-port microchannel is divided into many finite elements along its length, and the
two-phase or superheated heat transfer and pressure drops are computed within each. For this analysis, the air-side
heat transfer coefficient was assumed constant at 90 W/m
2
-K and the ratio of air-side area to refrigerant-side area
(A
ratio
) was assumed to be 4. Evaporating temperature (T
evap
) was considered to be 12°C and inlet quality (x
in
) 24%,
corresponding to isenthalpic expansion of R410A from a condenser exit at 45°C saturation temperature and 5°C
subcooling. Tube length was selected such that the total in-tube pressure drop (expressed as drop in saturation
temperature ∆T
sat
) is 2°C and that a TXV controls refrigerant exit superheat at 5°C. These assumptions yield a tube-
length 1.1 m and a refrigerant flow rate of 285 kg/m
2
-s of refrigerant and approximately 9 W heat transfer per port.
The assumption of ∆T
sat
= 2°C warrants some explanation. Parallel circuiting could theoretically eliminate
refrigerant pressure drop, but that would exacerbate the effect of header pressure gradients on the driving pressure
differential seen by the tubes, as observed in a prototype system by Stott and Bullard [1]. Some “plenum effect” is
necessary, but larger pressure drops reduce compressor efficiency so it is assumed here that microchannel
evaporators will be designed for approximately the same pressure drop as conventional ones.
Figure 3 shows the effect of header pressure gradient, which reduces total heat transfer in tubes receiving
lower refrigerant mass flux (due to maldistribution). Thus, for R410A (D=0.5 mm) when the “average” tube sees a
pressure differential of ∆T
sat
= 2°C, a tube experiencing ∆T
sat
= 1°C, will have ~20% lower heat transfer, due to the
effect of lower mass flux. Another tube seeing ∆T
sat
= 3°C will have only slightly greater heat transfer, because the
increase is limited as the short superheated segment is replaced by a slightly colder two-phase region. Downstream,
the exits from the two tubes must combine to produce 5°C superheat: a very highly superheated (low flow) stream
mixing with a two-phase one having slightly increased mass flow. An expansion device adjusted to maintain 5°C
superheat would therefore react to such maldistribution by delivering a total mass flow lower than the case where
flow is evenly distributed among the tubes. It is apparent from Figure 3 that it would be desirable to limit header
pressure gradients to approximately 0.2°C

to ensure that degradation of total heat exchanger capacity is limited to
about 4-5%.
6
1
3
5
7
9
11
1 2 3 4 5
∆Tsat [
o
C]
Q
/
p
o
r
t

[
W
]
Design condition: R410A
L = 1.13 m D = 0.5 mm
xin = 0.24 Q = 9.3 W/port
0.2
o
C
5%

Figure 3. Effect of header ∆P induced mass flux maldistribution on heat exchanger capacity
It is best to minimize the header pressure gradient-induced mass flux maldistribution by selecting
geometries that make mass flux as insensitive as possible to the driving pressure differential. Thus it is essential to
minimize dG/d(∆T
sat
) which in general a function of channel diameter, refrigerant inlet quality and thermophysical
properties of the refrigerant.
Figure 4 shows how mass flux can be affected by variations in driv ing pressure differential, for the tube
length shown. These “design” tube lengths were determined for different diameters similarly (imposing ∆T
sat
= 2°C
and dT
sup
= 5°C). Since the lines of D = constant are close to one another, it is apparent that small (i.e. <5%)
manufacturing-related variations among port diameters are unlikely to cause significant mass flow maldistribution.
The nearly identical slopes dG/d(∆T
sat
) make it clear that the mass flow sensitivity can not be minimized by
changing D, so maldistribution must be addressed by minimizing pressure gradients along headers.
50
150
250
350
450
1 2 3 4 5
∆T
sat
[
o
C]
G

[
k
g
m
-
2
s
-
1
] L=1.13 m D=0.5mm
L=2.5 m D=1.0 mm
L= 3.9 m D = 1.5 mm
Design

Figure 4. Effect of D
port
on dG/d(∆T
sat
)
7
Additional simulations were conducted to explore the effect of system operating conditions that influence
the evaporator. It was found out that the slope of the G vs ∆T
sat
curve remained independent of inlet refrigerant
qualities. This implies that the effects of header ∆P induced maldistribution will be unaffected by variations of
condenser exit enthalpy resulting from changes in outdoor air temperature. The slope of G vs ∆T
sat
curve is a
function of refrigerant properties as simulations conducted with R22 and R134a revealed. It was noticed that the
low pressure refrigerants required shorter tubes (0.78 and 0.58 m for R22 and R134a respectively). The curve was
flatter for R134a, indicating less susceptibility to maldistribution.
From the above single port analyses, it is possible to infer several guidelines for microchannel evaporator
designs. First note that the refrigerant state at the evaporator inlet is fixed by condenser exit conditions and the
evaporating pressure. The port diameter is selected in the usual manner as a result of tradeoffs among the desired
pressure drop, heat transfer per circuit, number of circuits and refrigerant charge. Once the port diameter and the
refrigerant condition at the inlet to the evaporator are fixed, the single tube simulation model computes the length of
the circuit (single port) and the required refrigerant mass flux through it. Again, the example results shown in
Figure 3 are based on limiting the drop in saturation temperature at 2°C and requiring that the refrigerant exits in a
superheated state (superheat = 5°C, so that liquid refrigerant droplets do not enter the compressor).
At this point the header design is not decided. Figure 3 showed that header pressure gradients causing 10%
variations among single-port pressure differentials will cause some ports to get higher refrigerant mass flow while
others get lower, resulting in a 4-5% lower heat transfer rate for R410A microchannel (D=0.5 mm) evaporator.
Thus, mass flux maldistribution (caused by pressure gradient in the header) cannot be controlled by changing either
the port diameter or the refrigerant state at the inlet to the port. Therefore, the issue of mass flux maldistribution
must be addressed through header design.
Header design tradeoffs
Constraints on header design are now becoming clear. Header diameter must be sufficient to carry the
refrigerant flow required for the specified evaporator capacity. Header mass flux must be high enough to avoid
gravitationally-induced liquid-vapor stratification, yet low enough to maintain near-uniform driving pressure
gradients seen by the parallel ports. Header pressure gradients are affected by both friction and deceleration, as
refrigerant leaves the header and enters the tubes. Nevertheless, in the terminal portion of the header the refrigerant
velocity approaches zero, where stratification cannot be avoided without radically varying header cross-sectional
area. Therefore it is necessary to impose several design constraints, rather arbitrarily, in order to identify the
feasible design space in which more detailed analyses can be conducted. The first constraint is to limit the header-
induced saturation temperature (pressure) gradient to lower than 0.2°C, to place an upper bound on ∆P-induced
maldistribution. The second is to limit the potential for gravitational stratification to a small segment near the end of
the header by specifying that header mass flux exceed a lower limit G
min
throughout the rest of the header.
Empirically developed flow regime maps developed by Thome et al. [2] are strictly applicable only for horizontal
fully developed flow, but they suggest that stratified flow of R410A at typical inlet header qualities ~20-25% can be
avoided for G>200 kg/m
2
-s. For the same reasons it was necessary to use a frictional pressure drop correlation that
8
applies only to fully developed flow; one that was based on R410A data and tube diameters in the 7-10 mm range
[8] was selected.
Despite the approximate and somewhat arbitrary nature of these constraints, the following analyses will
show that they are sufficient to eliminate some potential header designs, and to suggest some rather novel designs
that might be necessary to minimize refrigerant maldistribution in microchannel evaporators.
Longitudinal header
A schematic of a longitudinal header is shown in Figure 5. By making a few simple geometric assumptions
applicable to most heat exchangers, of this type, it is possible to derive equations that identify a subset of designs
most likely to provide well-distributed refrigerant flows.
tube width
D
header

(a) (b)
Figure 5. Longitudinal header ((a) cross-section and (b) as used in a full heat exchanger)
The header diameter is defined by the number of ports, the protrusion of tubes almost to the header
centerline reduces the effective (hydraulic) diameter of the header as shown in Figure 5a. Recall that heat transfer
capacity per port was determined by t he port diameter, so the total number of ports will be determined by the desired
heat exchanger capacity. However, the number of ports per tube cannot be selected arbitrarily, because it is related
to header diameter by the approximate relationship
D
header
= 1.5*N
p
*D
p
(1)
where the factor 1.5 allows for web and wall thicknesses plus some clearance within the header as shown in Figure
5a. In microchannel heat exchangers used by Kirkwood and Bullard [20], tube width is typically 1.4 times the
number of port s times port diameter.
Also the header length is determined indirectly by the port diameter
L
h
= N
t
*(F
h
+ D
p
+ 2*t
wall
) (2)
where the fin height (~1 cm) and tube wall thickness (~0.2 mm) are determined for all heat exchangers by fin
efficiency and burst pressure considerations, respectively.
If it is required for the inlet header to have inertially dominated flow over a fraction f of its length then
refrigerant mass flux will decrease linearly from its maximum at the header inlet to the value G
min
at length
fraction f.
G
min
= (1-f)*N
p
*N
t
*G
p
*D
p
2
/D
h
2
(3)
9
The critical mass flux for the baseline R410A operating conditions cited earlier, G
min
~ 172 kg/m
2
-s (to get
10 kW and have 90% of longitudinal header to have inertially dominated flow) defines the lower bound on the mass
flux in the header for which the refrigerant flow in the header is inertially dominated.
Calculations of header pressure drop and the resulting mass flows proceed tube-by-tube down the header,
conservatively assuming uniform pressure in the exit header to obtain an upper bound on refrigerant mass flow
distribution. Figure 6 shows the combined effect of these constraints. To ensure that the 2-phase flow is inertially
dominated in at least 90% of the header, longitudinal headers less t han 1 m long must have diameter less than 10-12
mm, so the microchannel tubes must be of approximately of the same width. Figure 7 shows that such an evaporator
with a 1-m inlet header would have a capacity of about 45 kW! The same graphs imply that a smaller (say 10 kW)
evaporator would need an inlet header about 0.45 m long and an air flow depth (tube width) of only ~6 mm. Heat
transfer capacity achievable from the refrigerant fed through this header is shown in Figure 7. It rises rapidly
because the t otal heat transfer area increases with the number of ports/tube and number of tubes. The pressure
gradient in the header (drop due to friction and rise due to deceleration) is shown in Figure 8, increasing with header
length because of the higher inlet mass flux needed to feed the larger number of tubes. It is seen that attempts to
limit the stratified section to less than 10% of header length could cause header pressure gradient to exceed 0.2°C,
which could exacerbate maldistribution by creating larger pressure differentials among the heat exchanger tubes.
The limitations of longitudinal headers are now clear. For residential-scale applications (<10 kW) the headers could
be of reasonable length (<0.45 m) but so thin (<6 mm) that extremely large face areas would be required. The same
kind of packaging problem would exist for a 100 kW (~ 30 ton) commercial-scale rooftop unit.
0
10
20
30
0 50 100 150 200 250
Header length [cm]
D
h
e
a
d
e
r


[
m
m
]

Figure 6. Geometry of a 90% inertially dominated longitudinal header
10
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 50 100 150 200 250
Header length [cm]
Q
t
o
t
a
l

[
k
W
]

Figure 7. Capacity of a 90% inertially dominated longitudinal header
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0 50 100 150 200 250
Header length [cm]
|

T
s
a
t
,
h
e
a
d
e
r
|

[
o
C
]

Figure 8. Header ∆P (∆T
sat
) for a 90% inertially dominated longitudinal header
Radial header
Consider a new kind of radial header design, as shown in Figure 9 with multiport tubes located along its
circumference. It can be shorter than longitudinal headers because the port density is not limited by the tube width,
so it can handle a larger refrigerant mass flow rate with less frictional pressure drop. Fortunately, extruded
aluminum microchannel tubes can be easily bent for routing to the evaporator core, and symmetrically located to
ensure that all tube lengths are identical.
11

Figure 9. Radial header (cross-section and viewed from top)
The governing equations for a radial header are very similar to those for the longitudinal header; only the
geometric constraints differ:
L
h
= 1.5*N
p
*D
p
and N
t
≤ π*D
h
/(D
p
+2*t
wall
) (4)
Besides accommodating more tubes per unit length, the tube width (#ports/tube) can now be increased to make the
heat exchanger deeper and face area smaller to meet packaging constraints.
The results are shown in Figures 10-12 for the case of equality in equation for the number of tubes, and
suggest clear performance advantages of the radial header design over the longitudinal header design. The radial
header is shorter, so it is easy to avoid stratification over 90% of its length while at the same time achieving a lower
header pressure gradient. In fact the pressure gradient is quite small, because friction is almost completely offset by
deceleration. If manufacturing constraints do not allow tubes to touch along the interior circumference, capacity
would be reduced accordingly. Since the number of tubes is lower, the refrigerant mass flux in the header, capacity
per unit length and pressure gradient are lower. Thus longer radial headers would be required to achieve the same
evaporator capacity.
0
5
10
15
20
25
10 20 30 40 50 60
Header length [mm]
Q
t
o
t
a
l

[
k
W
]

Figure 10. Capacity of a 90% inertially dominated radial header
12
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
10 20 30 40 50 60
Header length [mm]
P
o
r
t
s
/
t
u
b
e
3
6
9
12
15
D
h
e
a
d
e
r

[
m
m
]
Ports/ tube
Dheader

Figure 11. Geometry of a 90% inertially dominated radial header
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
10 20 30 40 50 60
Header length [mm]
|

T
s
a
t
,
h
e
a
d
e
r
|

[
o
C
]

Figure 12. Header ∆P (∆T
sat
) in a 90% inertially dominated radial header
Effects of simplifying assumptions
”Minor” pressure drops in tubes
Having established the general outlines of feasible heat exchanger geometries for evaporators employing
longitudinal or radial headers, it is necessary to quantify the magnitudes of other effects that were neglected.
Since prototype microchannel evaporators are being designed with vertical tubes to facilitate condensate
drainage, it is necessary to consider gravitational effects in a vertical tube. If the tube of length = 1.13 m is designed
to be vertical and refrigerant flow is vertically downwards, there is pressure gain due to gravity and pressure loss
due to friction. If the flow is vertically upwards, pressure drop is the sum total of drop due to friction and gravity.
In the former case, the compressor work is slightly lower because of pressure gain due to friction and in the latter
case the compressor work is slightly higher. The pressure drop (or gain) due to gravity in a vertical tube of length
=1.13 m is 12 kPa (about 18% of the pressure drop due to friction). Usually a microchannel tube will be serpentined
several times to reduce the height of the heat exchanger. In that case the gains due to reduced pressure drop (in the
13
former case) and losses due increased pressure drop (in the latter case) will be reduced. The upper bound on the
pressure drop due to gravity is ~ ρ
fg
*g*L
tube
/N
serpentine

The pressure drop due to acceleration is about 2 kPa, about 3% of the pressure drop due to friction.
The foregoing analysis also neglected other pressure drop terms in tubes, due to the sudden contraction
experienced by refrigerant when entering from the header (D ~ 15-20 mm) space into the ports (D < 1 mm), and the
sudden expansion when exiting from the port to the outlet header. The change in static pressure at a sudden
contraction is the sum of frictional dissipation and theoretical kinetic energy change. According to Collier and
Thome [21], this change for a homogeneous flow is given by:
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|
+ − + − · x *
v
v
1 * /A A 1 1 1/C * v * G * 1/2 ? P
f
fg 2
h p
2
c f
2
p n contractio
(5)
at the design conditions for header sizes of the order of 10-15 mm, area ratio (A
p
/A
h
→ 0 effectively) where (1/C
c

1) was found to be 0.5. (Collier and Thome, 1994). Each port is assumed to receive the same refrigerant quality at its
inlet (x=0.24). The value of ∆P
contraction
under these conditions was found to be 0.3 kPa (0.0092°C) or about 0.5% of
∆P
friction
for a single isolated microchannel port. However, recent measurements by Nino, et al (2001) exceeded this
estimate by factors of 3-4, and the difference was attributed to the webs between the microchannel tubes. However,
the results were typical for the geometry used by Nino et al [11]; hence, due to lack of generalized correlations,
equation (5) was used in the present work.
The irreversible pressure drop due to sudden expansion of 5°C superheated refrigerant exiting the port into
the header was also found to be small (~1.4% of ∆P
friction
). It was estimated using the method of Idelchik [22] by (for
Reynolds number based on port diameter>3500)
) ? * /(2 G ? P
v
2
p expansion
· (6)
Note that this expression is for pressure loss at the sudden expansion and neglects the effect of velocity
change during the expansion process. Detailed experiments with single phase nitrogen in a microchannel heat
exchanger by Yin et al. [19] demonstrated that the available pressure drop correlations, such as those cited above,
could produce satisfactory estimates of these “minor pressure losses”.
Header pressure drop due to gravity
Next, consider pressure drop in a vertical header due to gravity. Consider a header with height L
h
oriented
with the horizontal at an angle θ. If the refrigerant enters from the bottom of the header, the pressure drop due to
gravity is given by:
) ? * a ? * a) ((1 * ) sin( * L * g ? P
v l h gravity
+ − · θ (7)
Where α is Zivi’s void fraction. The effect of pressure drop due to gravity is to increase the header pressure drop.
Again if the header is vertical and the refrigerant flow is from the bottom, the pressure drop due to friction and
pressure due to gravity add up and the net pressure gain due to deceleration is lowered. If the refrigerant flows from
top to the bottom in the header, pressure gain due to gravity adds up to pressure gain due to deceleration. The
pressure drop (gain) is usually about 0.1°C/m, which again points to the need of short headers.
14
Sensitivity of results to different correlations
Due to lack of data, there are no universally accepted two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop correlations
for evaporation in microchannel tubes. The results presented here, however, are relatively insensitive to the choices
made. For example, the Liu & Winterton [13] or Lazarek & Black [12] two-phase heat transfer correlations would
have increased the design tube length only 3.5% and 20%, respectively, requiring corresponding reductions in
capacity and increases in the number of tubes required. The results are less sensitive to the choice of the pressure
drop correlations as shown in Table 1. Using Souza & Piementa [8] would decrease design tube length by only 2%,
while Friedel [9] correlation would increase it about 11%.
Table 1. Sensitivity of results to different correlations (two-phase frictional ∆P)
Correlation used L [m] Q [W] G [kg m
-2
s
-1
]
Zhang & Kwon [10] 1.13 9.3 285
Souza & Piementa [8] 1.11 9.0 279
Friedel [9] 1.25 10.3 320

Further, in case of two-phase heat transfer coefficients, the need for accuracy is less, because the relatively
large refrigerant-side area reduces refrigerant-side resistance so dramatically in flat multiport tubes, yielding
air/refrigerant area ratios of about 4:1, compared to the 20:1 ratio typical of round tube flat-fin heat exchangers.
Single -tube condensation studies suggest that macrochannel correlations can be extrapolated to microchannels
without substantial loss of accuracy (Garimella [6]). However there are even fewer studies available on
microchannel evaporators, mainly because of concerns about refrigerant maldistribution. The results in Table 2
successfully demonstrate that the choice of two-phase heat transfer correlation does not affect the results
significantly.
Table 2. Sensitivity of results to different correlations (two-phase h
ref
)
Correlation used L [m] Q [W] G [kg m
-2
s
-1
]
Wattelet et al. [14] 1.13 9.3 285
Lazarek & Black [12] 1.35 8.4 260
Liu & Winterton [13] 1.17 8.9 278

None of the foregoing simplifying assumptions, therefore, would have a significant effect on the main
conclusion: namely longitudinal headers (as currently designed for condensers) pose severe risks of refrigerant
maldistribution when the cycle is reversed for heating mode. New designs such as the radial configuration
suggested here, warrant experimental investigation.
Conclusions
The effects of mass flow maldistribution on microchannel evaporator was investigated by using a single
port simulation model. Header pressure gradient was limited approximately 0.2

°C to keep the degradation of total
heat exchanger capacity below ~5%.
The mass flow maldistribution was estimated by using well -known pressure drop and heat transfer
correlations for two-phase flow after comparing with the results obtained by using different correlations. It was
found that mass flow maldistribution cannot be controlled by changing either port/header diameter or the refrigerant
15
state at the inlet to the port, but only by limiting pressure gradients along header. This limitation, combined with a
requirement that the flow be inertially-dominated in order to prevent quality-induced maldistribution, suggests that
microchannel evaporators equipped with conventional longitudinal headers must be extremely thin and therefore
have very large face areas to achieve a given design capacity. An innovative radial header design was proposed and
subjected to similar analyses, and the results suggest that distribution could be minimized in evaporators having
exterior package dimensions typical of those in use today.
The results of this analytical investigation offer hypotheses to be tested using the next generation of
microchannel heat exchanger designs.
References
[1] Stott SL, Bullard CW, Dunn WE. Experimental Analysis of a Minimum-TEWI Air Conditioner Prototype.
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 1999, ACRC CR-21.
[2] Thome JR, Kattan N, Favrat D. Flow boiling in horizontal tubes: Part1- Development of a diabatic two-phase
flow pattern map. Trans of ASME Journal of Heat Transfer 1998; 120:140-47
[3] Cho H, Cho K, Youn B, Kim Y. Flow maldistribution in microchannel evaporator. submitted to 9
th

International Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Conference at Purdue, 2002.
[4] Kulkarni T, Bullard CW. Optimizing Effectiveness of R744 Microchannel Evaporators. submitted to 5
th
IIR-
Gutsav Lorentzen Conference on Natural working fluids, 2002.
[5] Jacobi AM. High Performance Heat Exchangers for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Applications (Non-
circular tubes). ARTI 21-CR Project 20020-Phase 2, 2001.
[6] Garimella S. Microchannel Gas Coolers for Carbon Dioxide Air-conditioning Systems. ASHRAE
Transactions 2002;108(1) (in press)
[7] Zietlow DC, Pedersen CO. Flow Regime Mapping and Analysis of R-134a in a Small-Channel Cross-Flow
Condenser. ASHRAE Transactions 1998; 104(2): 540-47
[8] Souza AL, Pimenta MM. Prediction of pressure drop during horizontal two-phase flow of pure and mixed
refrigerants. ASME conf. Cavitation and Multiphase Flow 1995;21:161-71
[9] Friedel L. Improved friction pressure drop correlation for horizontal and vertical two-phase pipe flows.
Presented at European two-phase flow group meeting, Ispra, Italy, paper t2, 1979.
[10] Zhang M, Kwon SL. Two-phase frictional pressure drop for refrigerants in small diameter tubes. Proceedings
of the International Conference on compact Heat Exchangers and Enhancement Technology for the process
Industries, 1999 July; Banff, Canada, p.285-92
[11] Nino V, Payne W, Hrnjak PS, Newell TA, Infante Ferreira CA. Two-phase pressure drop in microchannels.
IIF-IIR- Commission B1-Paderborn, Germany, 2001 (submitted for publication).
[12] Lazarek G M, Black SH. Evaporative Heat Transfer, Pressure Drop and Critical Heat Flux in a Small Vertical
Tube with R-113. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 1982; 25(7):945-60.
[13] Liu Z, Winterton RHS. Wet Wall Flow Boiling Correlation with Explicit Nuclear Term. Presented at the 5
th

Miami Int. Symp. On Multiphase Transport and Particulate Phenomena, 1988.
[14] Wattelet JP, Chato JC, Souza AL, Christoffersen BR. Evaporative Characteristics of R-12, R-134a, and MP-
39 at Low Mass Fluxes. ASHRAE Transactions 1994;100(1):603-15.
[15] Coleman J, Flow Visualization and Pressure Drop for Refrigerant Phase Change and Air-water Flow in Small
Hydraulic Diameter Geometries. Ph.D. Thesis, Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2000.
[16] Gnielinski V. New equations for Heat and Mass Transfer in Turbulent pipe and channel Flow. Int. Chem.
Eng., 1976; 16:359-68.
16
[17] Heun MK, Dunn WE. Principles of Refrigerant Circuiting with Application to Microchannel Condensers: Part
I - Problem Formulation and the Effects of Port Diameter and Port Shape. ASHRAE Transactions 1996;
102(2):373-81.
[18] Churchill SW. Comprehensive Correlating equations for Heat, Mass and Momentum Transfer in Fully
Developed Flow in Smooth Tubes. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundam. 1977;16 (1):109-16.
[19] Yin JM, Bullard CW, Hrnjak PS. Single phase pressure drop measurements in a Microchannel Heat
Exchanger. Heat Transfer Engineering 2002; 23:1-10.
[20] Kirkwood AC, Bullard CW. Modeling, Design and Testing of a Microchannel Split -System Air Conditioner.
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 1999, ACRC TR-149.
[21] Collier JG, Thome JR. Convective Boiling and Condensation, 3
rd
Ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.
[22] Idelchik IE, Handbook of Hydraulic Resis tance, 3
rd
Ed. CRC Press, 1994.
Nomenclature
A = area [m
2
],
Subscripts
dG = mass flux difference [kgm
-2
s
-1
], evap = evaporating,
dT = temperature difference [°C], exp = expansion,
∆P = pressure drop [kPa], f = liquid,
∆T = drop in temperature [°C], g = gas,
D = diameter [m], h = header,
F = fin, in = inlet,
g = acceleration due to gravity [ms
-2
], l = liquid,
h = heat transfer coefficient [W m
-2
K
-1
] min = minimum,
G = mass flux [kgm
-2
s
-1
], p = port
L = length [m], ref = refrigerant
N = number, sat = saturation
P= pressure [kPa], t = tube
Q = heat transfer capacity [W], v = vapor
Re = Reynolds number, Greek letters
t = thickness [m], α · void fraction
T = temperature [°C], θ · angle of inclination
x = refrigerant quality [-] ρ · density

Alcan Aluminum Corporation Amana Refrigeration. Modine Manufacturing Co. University of Illinois 1206 West Green Street Urbana. Inc. Inc. Visteon Automotive Systems Wolverine Tube. LG Electronics. Inc. IL 61801 217 333 3115 . For additional information: Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Center Mechanical & Industrial Engineering Dept.The Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center was founded in 1988 with a grant from the estate of Richard W. Hydro Aluminum Adrian. Inc. Inc. the founder of Peerless of America Inc.. Inc. York International. Tecumseh Products Company The Trane Company Valeo. Ltd. S.. Delphi Harrison Thermal Systems General Motors Corporation Hill PHOENIX Honeywell. A State of Illinois Technology Challenge Grant helped build the laboratory facilities. Ltd. Arçelik A. Kritzer Endowment and the National Science Foundation. Samsung Electronics Co. The ACRC receives continuing support from the Richard W. Inc. Lennox International. Kritzer. Parker Hannifin Corporation Peerless of America. Ltd. Ingersoll-Rand Company Kelon Electrical Holdings Co. Inc. The following organizations have also become sponsors of the Center. Brazeway. Carrier Corporation Copeland Corporation Dacor Daikin Industries. Inc. Inc.

Introduction Compact cross-flow heat exchangers with flat multi-port microchannel tubes and folded louvered fins have almost completely replaced conventional round tube flat fin condensers in automotive air-conditioning applications. It was found that mass flow maldistribution cannot be controlled by changing either port/header diameter or the refrigerant state at the inlet to the port. Nearly all have two vertical headers partitioned to accommodate 3-5 passes consisting of multiple parallel tubes. but it seems likely that the 2 refrigerant would be highly susceptible to stratification at mass velocities significantly less than the 265 kg/m -s required for annular flow at these conditions [2]. void fractions are generally ~ 90% at the evaporator inlet and exceed 90% at intermediate headers in higher-quality regimes. Accordingly. At the same time the need to avoid phase separation in the header places a lower bound on mass flux. They quantified maldistribution by measuring superheat on individual microchannel tubes. along with the ratio of the quality in each microchannel tube to inlet quality 1 . In all the experiments.7 mm). However in evaporators the challenge is to distribute the liquid evenly among the microchannel ports. Because of the high liquid/vapor density ratio of fluorocarbon refrigerants. The tubes showing highest exit superheat were the ones that received most of vapor at their inlets. The dependence of heat exchanger capacity on the diameter and the length of the longitudinal and radial headers and was investigated in detail. fed at four locations along the horizontal inlet header. The effects of mass flow maldistribution on microchannel heat exchanger were quantified by using a single port simulation model. Stott and Bullard [1] conducted experiments with microchannel evaporator (with port diameters ~ 0. Since void fractions exceed 90% in most of the headers. Cho et al. Results demonstrated that the requirement for inertially dominated flow in the inlet header severely limits the set of feasible evaporator geometries. selected after comparing with the results obtained by using different correlations. [3] investigated flow maldistribution and phase separation in a microchannel evaporator with 15 tubes and aluminum header pipe with outer diameter of 22 mm at the mass flux of 60 kg/m2 -s. Mass flow rates were determined in each microchannel tube. but only by minimizing pressure gradients along header. Little is known about the flow regimes in developing two-phase flow. Experimental data on microchannel evaporators are limited. Longitudinal headers as currently used with microchannel condensers may not be suitable for the applications with microchannel evaporators. Mass flow maldistribution was investigated by using well-known pressure drop and heat transfer correlations for two-phase flow. achieving near-uniform vapor distribution among hundreds of parallel refrigerant parts has not presented serious problems for condensers. alternative concepts for header design were suggested. despite the TXV holding the aggregate suction superheat at 5°C.Refrigerant-Side Tradeoffs in Microchannel Evaporators Abstract The present study examined design issues of microchannel evaporators associated with the flow maldistribution caused due to header pressure gradient. observing that some had nearly zero approach temperature differences while other exits were saturated. inlet header mass flux was less than 20% of the needed to maintain inertially-dominated fullydeveloped flow. The experiments repeated for different refrigerant flow rates showed the same trend.

Interestingly. heat transfer and void fractions in the sub-millimeter channels and headers of microchannel heat exchangers. Friedel [9] and Zhang and Kwon [10] respectively). The results lead to the conclusion that longitudinal headers of the type heretofore used in microchannel condensers are least suitable for use in evaporators. Therefore. this analysis is focused on single pass heat exchangers to eliminate the additional maldistribution risks associated with intermediate headers. the attention will be limited only to maldistribution caused due to header pressure gradient. Additionally. The paper concludes with analyses of a proposed radial design. the empirical database is still too sparse to support development of broadly-applicable correlations. they yield the results shown in Figure 1a for the range of mass fluxes considered in the current analyses. The authors identified two causes of maldistribution: Header ∆P induced maldistribution and maldistribution of evaporator inlet quality. where diameters range from 10-30 mm.5. so only a few detailed studies have been done.5 mm. Since heat pumps must accommodate refrigerant flow reversals. as it is now. When extrapolated to diameters of 0. Until this problem is solved. which in turn are applied to three families of possible header designs. These experimental results suggest strongly that longitudinal headers such as those currently used with microchannel condensers may be unsuitable for applications with microchannel evaporators. which appears to offer substantial advantages from the standpoint of refrigerant distribution. Figure 1a is based on the design operating conditions (Tevap = 12°C.at the header. However there have been relatively few detailed investigations of two-phase heat transfer. Combining this information with a few simplifying analytical assumptions then leads to the identification of design constraints. This paper identifies and examines important design issues associated with achieving uniform distribution in microchannel evaporators. to condensers of air conditioning systems. Zietlow [7] conducted flow visualization experiments and detailed measurements of refrigerant mass in microchannel condensers and concluded that a homogeneous void fraction assumption was valid across a range of typical operating conditions. Most experience is with condensers where void fractions are high and maldistribution concerns are less important.5 mm) and compared at x = 0. The next section reviews the current state of knowledge of two-phase pressure drop. 4 and 3 mm (Souza and Pimenta [8]. In this paper. flow regimes and void fractions in sub-millimeter ports. Most of the two-phase pressure-drop correlations currently available for refrigerants are based on experiments in tubes larger than 7. The choice of Zhang and Kwon [10] correlation for the purpose of this paper 2 . it may be necessary to ma intain a certain minimum mass velocity in these headers to reduce maldistribution. there is an upper bound on the performance degradation in evaporators due to maldistribution of quality. pressure drop. D = 0. Background The superior air and refrigerant-side performance of microchannel heat exchangers has been documented extensively in the literature (Jacobi [5] and Garimella [6]). the technology will be limited. a brief discussion on quantification of performance degradation and ways to offset it could be found in Kulkarni and Bullard [4]. Severe mass flux and quality maldistribution was observed because of the extremely low refrigerant mass velocities in the header. Far less is known about the developing two-phase flow in the headers of microchannel heat exchangers.

5 mm Tevap = 12°C) 50 Wattelet and Chato 40 hD/k l [-] 30 20 Liu and Winterton Lazarek and Black 10 0 0 0.6 0. The first. Choice of 2-phase frictional pressure drop and heat transfer correlation (R410A D=0. Lazarek and Black [12]. giving some degree of confidence that they may be applicable to other wetted-wall regimes such as the 2 intermittent flows observed in microchannels (Coleman [15]). while a third. but less than the lower bound (14 kW/m ) investigated by Lazarek and Black [12]. D = 0. Wattelet. G = 285 kg/m2 -s.8 kW/m design heat flux in the present study is 2 in the range of the last two correlations. et al [14] was developed from R12. Similarly Figure 1b shows some of the two -phase heat transfer correlations plotted in nondimensionalized 2 form for operating conditions: Tevap = 12°C. Three correlations for two-phase evaporative heat transfer were considered. R134a and R410A data in tubes of diameter 7-11 mm.95 mm tubes. R11. Choice of 2-phase frictional pressure drop and heat transfer correlation (R410A D=0. At design mass flux in this study. G = 285 kg/m -s. R22.8 1 Figure 1 (b). the source data for all three correlations lay in the annular flow regime. 60 50 ∆P/∆L [kPa m ] -1 Souza & Piementa Zhang & Kwon Friedel 40 30 20 10 0 150 200 250 300 -2 -1 350 400 G [kg m s ] Figure 1 (a). R114 data in 2. At 5.5 mm.5 mm Tevap = 12°C) 3 . was based on R113 data in 3 mm tubes. R113. Another by Liu and Winterton [13] was based on R12.was based on the excellent agreement observed between this correlation and experimental microchannel data of Nino [11].4 x[-] 0.2 0.

Tevap = 12°C.The Wattelet et al. Although these flow regime boundaries are imprecise – even for developed flows – and strictly 4 . [14] correlation was selected because it is the only one of the three based on R410A data. The single-phase pressure drop was computed using Churchill [18] friction factor. In microchannel heat exchangers. some mass flow maldistribution will occur because of inherent asymmetries in turning and inlet/exit losses. Of course for evaporators the situation is further complicated by the fact that inlet density is very sensitive to operating condition (condenser outlet enthalpy). a regime not 2 observed below G ~2000 kg/m -s (for standard operating conditions and Dheader = 9 mm. [2]). the absence of correlations describing developing two-phase flow makes it necessary to make crude simplifying assumptions to describe the pressure gradient and void fraction in evaporator inlet headers.e.g. the driving pressure differential along the parallel circuits is also influenced by the density and velocity differences in the vapor inlet/liquid outlet headers. hundreds of parallel ports are generally fed from a cylindrical header as shown schematically in Figure 2. Even for the case of single-phase inlets (e. condensers. etc) for fully-developed refrigerant flow in this quality range (Thome et al. For single-phase heat transfer. where quality ~ O(10-25%) would be misty and homogeneous. exacerbating maldistribution among the parallel circuits. ac/deceleration and/or differing flow lengths (Yin et al. Ideally the refrigerant flow in the inlet header. where the number of parallel circuits is generally less than 10. xevap = 20%. could create large pressure gradients along the headers. In condensers. Such very high mass fluxes. the differences among several families of header geometries are not very sensitive to these simplifying assumptions. Therefore future investigations can be redirected away from existing header designs and focused on other concepts that appear more promising. [19]). It also includes an explicit nucleate boiling term. whose contribution to the net heat transfer coefficient is greatest at higher reduced pressures that exist in R410A evaporators. the Gnielinski [16] correlation has been shown by Heun and Dunn [17] to give good agreement with data obtained in careful single-tube experiments. ∆P1 ∆P header ∆P2 Figure 2. radiators). Achieving uniform distribution In conventional evaporators. beyond the wavystratified regime). if present. Finally.. Therefore the following para metric analyses focus on a range of mass fluxes lying just above a minimum level where the effects of gravity diminish and the flow becomes inertially dominated (i. Effect of header pressure gradient Fortunately as the following parametric analyses will illustrate. uniform distribution of two-phase flow is achieved using a variety of proven methods.

for R410A (D=0. a single port simulation model was developed. a tube experiencing ∆Tsat = 1°C.inapplicable to developing flows. pressure drops due to friction and rises due to deceleration as part of the refrigerant exits the header to flow through the microchannel ports. but that would exacerbate the effect of header pressure gradients on the driving pressure differential seen by the tubes. Downstream. Tube length was selected such that the total in-tube pressure drop (expressed as drop in saturation temperature ∆Tsat) is 2°C and that a TXV controls refrigerant exit superheat at 5°C.expose all microchannel ports to nearly the same time -averaged inlet quality. as observed in a prototype system by Stott and Bullard [1]. It is apparent from Figure 3 that it would be desirable to limit header pressure gradients to approximately 0. Some “plenum effect” is necessary. Figure 2 shows a schematic of microchannel heat exchanger where the refrigerant enters from the bottom. will have ~20% lower heat transfer. Figure 3 shows the effect of header pressure gradient. To explore the effect of mass flow maldistribution on heat exchanger capacity. For this analysis.2°C to ensure that degradation of total heat exchanger capacity is limited to about 4-5%.1 m and a refrigerant flow rate of 285 kg/m -s of refrigerant and approximately 9 W heat transfer per port. which reduces total heat transfer in tubes receiving lower refrigerant mass flux (due to maldistribution). Thus. As it flows through the header. but larger pressure drops reduce compressor efficiency so it is assumed here that microchannel evaporators will be designed for approximately the same pressure drop as conventional ones.5 mm) when the “average” tube sees a pressure differential of ∆Tsat = 2°C. the exits from the two tubes must combine to produce 5°C superheat: a very highly superheated (low flow) stream mixing with a two-phase one having slightly increased mass flow. Parallel circuiting could theoretically eliminate refrigerant pressure drop. These assumptions yield a tube2 length 1. because the increase is limited as the short superheated segment is replaced by a slightly colder two-phase region. corresponding to isenthalpic expansion of R410A from a condenser exit at 45°C saturation temperature and 5°C subcooling. due to the effect of lower mass flux. Another tube seeing ∆Tsat = 3°C will have only slightly greater heat transfer. the air-side heat transfer coefficient was assumed constant at 90 W/m2 -K and the ratio of air-side area to refrigerant-side area (A ratio ) was assumed to be 4. and the two-phase or superheated heat transfer and pressure drops are computed within each. The assumption of ∆Tsat = 2°C warrants some explanation. An expansion device adjusted to maintain 5°C superheat would therefore react to such maldistribution by delivering a total mass flow lower than the case where flow is evenly distributed among the tubes. In general the driving pressure seen by different tubes is different. they are helpful in focusing the analyses on inertially-dominated flows that are more likely to . Evaporating temperature (Tevap) was considered to be 12°C and inlet quality (xin ) 24%. so each tube receives a slightly different refrigerant mass flow rate at its inlet. Header ∆P-induced mass flux maldistribution Pressure gradients in the header can result in each parallel circuit seeing a different driving pressure differential. 5 . The single-port microchannel is divided into many finite elements along its length.

Effect of Dport on dG/d(∆Tsat) 6 . The nearly identical slopes dG/d(∆Tsat) make it clear that the mass flow sensitivity can not be minimized by changing D.2 C o 4 5 Figure 3.e. for the tube length shown.9 m D = 1.3 W/port 0. Thus it is essential to minimize dG/d(∆Tsat) which in general a function of channel diameter. Figure 4 shows how mass flux can be affected by variations in driv ing pressure differential. it is apparent that small (i. refrigerant inlet quality and thermophysical properties of the refrigerant.5 mm 350 G [kgm -2s-1 ] L=1.13 m D = 0.5% 11 9 Q/port [W] 7 5 3 1 1 2 3 ∆ Tsat [ C] o Design condition: R410A L = 1. Effect of header ∆P induced mass flux maldistribution on heat exchanger capacity It is best to minimize the header pressure gradient-induced mass flux maldistribution by selecting geometries that make mass flux as insensitive as possible to the driving pressure differential. <5%) manufacturing-related variations among port diameters are unlikely to cause significant mass flow maldistribution. Since the lines of D = constant are close to one another.0 mm 150 50 1 2 3 ∆ Tsat [ C] o 4 5 Figure 4.13 m D=0.5mm 250 Design L=2. so maldistribution must be addressed by minimizing pressure gradients along headers. 450 L= 3.24 Q = 9. These “design” tube lengths were determined for different diameters similarly (imposing ∆Tsat = 2°C and dTsup = 5°C).5 m D=1.5 mm xin = 0.

number of circuits and refrigerant charge. indicating less susceptibility to maldistribution. Header pressure gradients are affected by both friction and deceleration. The first constraint is to limit the headerinduced saturation temperature (pressure) gradient to lower than 0. but they suggest that stratified flow of R410A at typical inlet header qualities ~20-25% can be avoided for G>200 kg/m2 -s. This implies that the effects of header ∆P induced maldistribution will be unaffected by variations of condenser exit enthalpy resulting from changes in outdoor air temperature. Empirically developed flow regime maps developed by Thome et al. the single tube simulation model computes the length of the circuit (single port) and the required refrigerant mass flux through it.78 and 0. The second is to limit the potential for gravitational stratification to a small segment near the end of the header by specifying that header mass flux exceed a lower limit Gmin throughout the rest of the header.5 mm) evaporator. The curve was flatter for R134a. the example results shown in Figure 3 are based on limiting the drop in saturation temperature at 2°C and requiring that the refrigerant exits in a superheated state (superheat = 5°C. For the same reasons it was necessary to use a frictional pressure drop correlation that 7 . Therefore. Thus. The slope of G vs ∆Tsat curve is a function of refrigerant properties as simulations conducted with R22 and R134a revealed. It was found out that the slope of the G vs ∆Tsat curve remained independent of inlet refrigerant qualities. resulting in a 4-5% lower heat transfer rate for R410A microchannel (D=0. Header mass flux must be high enough to avoid gravitationally-induced liquid-vapor stratification. Header diameter must be sufficient to carry the refrigerant flow required for the specified evaporator capacity. to place an upper bound on ∆P-induced maldistribution. It was noticed that the low pressure refrigerants required shorter tubes (0. Header design tradeoffs Constraints on header design are now becoming clear.2°C. mass flux maldistribution (caused by pressure gradient in the header) cannot be controlled by changing either the port diameter or the refrigerant state at the inlet to the port. Once the port diameter and the refrigerant condition at the inlet to the evaporator are fixed. so that liquid refrigerant droplets do not enter the compressor).58 m for R22 and R134a respectively). heat transfer per circuit. Nevertheless. yet low enough to maintain near-uniform driving pressure gradients seen by the parallel ports. Therefore it is necessary to impose several design constraints. in the terminal portion of the header the refrigerant velocity approaches zero. [2] are strictly applicable only for horizontal fully developed flow. The port diameter is selected in the usual manner as a result of tradeoffs among the desired pressure drop. At this point the header design is not decided. as refrigerant leaves the header and enters the tubes. Again. Figure 3 showed that header pressure gradients causing 10% variations among single-port pressure differentials will cause some ports to get higher refrigerant mass flow while others get lower.Additional simulations were conducted to explore the effect of system operating conditions that influence the evaporator. where stratification cannot be avoided without radically varying header cross-sectional area. From the above single port analyses. it is possible to infer several guidelines for microchannel evaporator designs. rather arbitrarily. the issue of mass flux maldistribution must be addressed through header design. First note that the refrigerant state at the evaporator inlet is fixed by condenser exit conditions and the evaporating pressure. in order to identify the feasible design space in which more detailed analyses can be conducted.

applies only to fully developed flow. because it is related to header diameter by the approximate relationship Dheader = 1. In microchannel heat exchangers used by Kirkwood and Bullard [20]. Recall that heat transfer capacity per port was determined by the port diameter. so the total number of ports will be determined by the desired heat exchanger capacity. However. the protrusion of tubes almost to the header centerline reduces the effective (hydraulic) diameter of the header as shown in Figure 5a. Despite the approximate and somewhat arbitrary nature of these constraints. the following analyses will show that they are sufficient to eliminate some potential header designs. one that was based on R410A data and tube diameters in the 7-10 mm range [8] was selected.5*Np *Dp (1) where the factor 1.2 mm) are determined for all heat exchangers by fin 8 . the number of ports per tube cannot be selected arbitrarily. of this type. tube width is typically 1. Also the header length is determined indirectly by the port diameter Lh = Nt *(Fh + Dp + 2*twall ) efficiency and burst pressure considerations. Gmin = (1-f)*Np *Nt *Gp *Dp 2 /Dh 2 (3) (2) where the fin height (~1 cm) and tube wall thickness (~0. respectively. By making a few simple geometric assumptions applicable to most heat exchangers. and to suggest some rather novel designs that might be necessary to minimize refrigerant maldistribution in microchannel evaporators.4 times the number of ports times port diameter. Dheader tube width (a) (b) Figure 5.5 allows for web and wall thicknesses plus some clearance within the header as shown in Figure 5a. If it is required for the inlet header to have inertially dominated flow over a fraction f of its length then refrigerant mass flux will decrease linearly from its maximum at the header inlet to the value Gmin at length fraction f. Longitudinal header ((a) cross-section and (b) as used in a full heat exchanger) The header diameter is defined by the number of ports. it is possible to derive equations that identify a subset of designs most likely to provide well-distributed refrigerant flows. Longitudinal header A schematic of a longitudinal header is shown in Figure 5.

longitudinal headers less than 1 m long must have diameter less than 10-12 mm. 30 Dheader [mm] 20 10 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Header length [cm] Figure 6. The same kind of packaging problem would exist for a 100 kW (~ 30 ton) commercial-scale rooftop unit. To ensure that the 2-phase flow is inertially dominated in at least 90% of the header.45 m) but so thin (<6 mm) that extremely large face areas would be required. Figure 7 shows that such an evaporator with a 1-m inlet header would have a capacity of about 45 kW! The same graphs imply that a smaller (say 10 kW) evaporator would need an inlet header about 0. Heat transfer capacity achievable from the refrigerant fed through this header is shown in Figure 7. which could exacerbate maldistribution by creating larger pressure differentials among the heat exchanger tubes. conservatively assuming uniform pressure in the exit header to obtain an upper bound on refrigerant mass flow distribution. Figure 6 shows the combined effect of these constraints. so the microchannel tubes must be of approximately of the same width. Calculations of header pressure drop and the resulting mass flows proceed tube-by-tube down the header. The limitations of longitudinal headers are now clear.2°C.45 m long and an air flow depth (tube width) of only ~6 mm. For residential-scale applications (<10 kW) the headers could be of reasonable length (<0. It rises rapidly because the total heat transfer area increases with the number of ports/tube and number of tubes. Gmin ~ 172 kg/m2 -s (to get 10 kW and have 90% of longitudinal header to have inertially dominated flow) defines the lower bound on the mass flux in the header for which the refrigerant flow in the header is inertially dominated. The pressure gradient in the header (drop due to friction and rise due to deceleration) is shown in Figure 8.The critical mass flux for the baseline R410A operating conditions cited earlier. increasing with header length because of the higher inlet mass flux needed to feed the larger number of tubes. Geometry of a 90% inertially dominated longitudinal header 9 . It is seen that attempts to limit the stratified section to less than 10% of header length could cause header pressure gradient to exceed 0.

2 0. It can be shorter than longitudinal headers because the port density is not limited by the tube width.header| [ C] o 0.100 80 Qtotal [kW] 60 40 20 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Header length [cm] Figure 7. extruded aluminum microchannel tubes can be easily bent for routing to the evaporator core. 10 .1 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Header length [cm] Figure 8. as shown in Figure 9 with multiport tubes located along its circumference. Capacity of a 90% inertially dominated longitudinal header 0.3 |∆Tsat. Fortunately. and symmetrically located to ensure that all tube lengths are identical. so it can handle a larger refrigerant mass flow rate with less frictional pressure drop. Header ∆P (∆Tsat) for a 90% inertially dominated longitudinal header Radial header Consider a new kind of radial header design.

the refrigerant mass flux in the header. and suggest clear performance advantages of the radial header design over the longitudinal header design. Capacity of a 90% inertially dominated radial header 11 . The results are shown in Figures 10-12 for the case of equality in equation for the number of tubes. If manufacturing constraints do not allow tubes to touch along the interior circumference.5*Np *Dp and Nt ≤ π* Dh /(Dp +2*twall) (4) Besides accommodating more tubes per unit length. capacity per unit length and pressure gradient are lower. because friction is almost completely offset by deceleration. Thus longer radial headers would be required to achieve the same evaporator capacity. 25 20 Qtotal [kW] 15 10 5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Header length [mm] Figure 10. Since the number of tubes is lower. only the geometric constraints differ: Lh = 1.Figure 9. so it is easy to avoid stratification over 90% of its length while at the same time achieving a lower header pressure gradient. the tube width (#ports/tube) can now be increased to make the heat exchanger deeper and face area smaller to meet packaging constraints. The radial header is shorter. capacity would be reduced accordingly. Radial header (cross-section and viewed from top) The governing equations for a radial header are very similar to those for the longitudinal header. In fact the pressure gradient is quite small.

2 0. Since prototype microchannel evaporators are being designed with vertical tubes to facilitate condensate drainage. The pressure drop (or gain) due to gravity in a vertical tube of length =1. Header ∆P (∆Tsat) in a 90% inertially dominated radial header Effects of simplifying assumptions ”Minor” pressure drops in tubes Having established the general outlines of feasible heat exchanger geometries for evaporators employing longitudinal or radial headers. If the flow is vertically upwards. there is pressure gain due to gravity and pressure loss due to friction.15 |∆Tsat. If the tube of length = 1.80 70 60 Ports/tube 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 15 Ports/ tube 12 Dheader [mm] Dheader 9 6 3 Header length [mm] Figure 11. the compressor work is slightly lower because of pressure gain due to friction and in the latter case the compressor work is slightly higher. In the former case.1 0.05 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Header length [mm] Figure 12. Geometry of a 90% inertially dominated radial header 0.13 m is 12 kPa (about 18% of the pressure drop due to friction). it is necessary to quantify the magnitudes of other effects that were neglected. it is necessary to consider gravitational effects in a vertical tube. In that case the gains due to reduced pressure drop (in the 12 .13 m is designed to be vertical and refrigerant flow is vertically downwards.header| [oC] 0. Usually a microchannel tube will be serpentined several times to reduce the height of the heat exchanger. pressure drop is the sum total of drop due to friction and gravity.

such as those cited above. and the sudden expansion when exiting from the port to the outlet header. et al (2001) exceeded this estimate by factors of 3-4. It was estimated using the method of Idelchik [22] by (for Reynolds number based on port diameter>3500) ? Pexpansion = G 2 /(2 * ? v ) p (6) Note that this expression is for pressure loss at the sudden expansion and neglects the effect of velocity change during the expansion process. However. equation (5) was used in the present work. hence. The irreversible pressure drop due to sudden expansion of 5°C superheated refrigerant exiting the port into the header was also found to be small (~1. the pressure drop due to friction and pressure due to gravity add up and the net pressure gain due to deceleration is lowered.5% of ∆Pfriction for a single isolated microchannel port. However.4% of ∆Pfriction ). The pressure drop (gain) is usually about 0. due to the sudden contraction experienced by refrigerant when entering from the header (D ~ 15-20 mm) space into the ports (D < 1 mm). Detailed experiments with single phase nitrogen in a microchannel heat exchanger by Yin et al. which again points to the need of short headers. According to Collier and Thome [21]. due to lack of generalized correlations. 1994). The change in static pressure at a sudden contraction is the sum of frictional dissipation and theoretical kinetic energy change. about 3% of the pressure drop due to friction.1°C/m. If the refrigerant flows from top to the bottom in the header. area ratio (A p /A h → 0 effectively) where (1/Cc – 1) was found to be 0. (Collier and Thome. Again if the header is vertical and the refrigerant flow is from the bottom.3 kPa (0. and the difference was attributed to the webs between the microchannel tubes. If the refrigerant enters from the bottom of the header. 13 . the pressure drop due to gravity is given by: ? Pgravity = g * L h * sin( θ ) * ((1 − a) * ? l + a * ? v ) (7) Where α is Zivi’s void fraction. pressure gain due to gravity adds up to pressure gain due to deceleration. Header pressure drop due to gravity Next. consider pressure drop in a vertical header due to gravity. The effect of pressure drop due to gravity is to increase the header pressure drop.0092°C) or about 0. The foregoing analysis also neglected other pressure drop terms in tubes. recent measurements by Nino. Each port is assumed to receive the same refrigerant quality at its inlet (x=0. The upper bound on the pressure drop due to gravity is ~ ρ fg*g*Ltube /Nserpentine The pressure drop due to acceleration is about 2 kPa. [19] demonstrated that the available pressure drop correlations. the results were typical for the geometry used by Nino et al [11].5. this change for a homogeneous flow is given by: ? P contractio n = 1/2 * G 2 * v f * (1/C c − 1) + 1 − (A p /A h ) p 2 [ ( 2 )]* 1 +  v   v   fg f   * x    (5) at the design conditions for header sizes of the order of 10-15 mm. could produce satisfactory estimates of these “minor pressure losses”.24). Consider a header with height Lh oriented with the horizontal at an angle θ. The value of ∆Pcontraction under these conditions was found to be 0.former case) and losses due increased pressure drop (in the latter case) will be reduced.

13 1.13 1. while Friedel [9] correlation would increase it about 11%.3 G [kg m -2s -1] 285 279 320 Further. Table 2. The results are less sensitive to the choice of the pressure drop correlations as shown in Table 1. The results in Table 2 successfully demonstrate that the choice of two-phase heat transfer correlation does not affect the results significantly. Header pressure gradient was limited approximately 0. however. are relatively insensitive to the choices made. Single -tube condensation studies suggest that macrochannel correlations can be extrapolated to microchannels without substantial loss of accuracy (Garimella [6]). the need for accuracy is less.17 Q [W] 9. compared to the 20:1 ratio typical of round tube flat-fin heat exchangers. Conclusions The effects of mass flow maldistribution on microchannel evaporator was investigated by using a single port simulation model.Sensitivity of results to different correlations Due to lack of data. The results presented here. yielding air/refrigerant area ratios of about 4:1. in case of two-phase heat transfer coefficients. Using Souza & Piementa [8] would decrease design tube length by only 2%. Sensitivity of results to different correlations (two-phase frictional ∆P) Correlation used Zhang & Kwon [10] Souza & Piementa [8] Friedel [9] L [m] 1.35 1. The mass flow maldistribution was estimated by using well-known pressure drop and heat transfer correlations for two-phase flow after comparing with the results obtained by using different correlations. therefore.0 10. For example. there are no universally accepted two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop correlations for evaporation in microchannel tubes. [14] Lazarek & Black [12] Liu & Winterton [13] L [m] 1.4 8.5% and 20%. New designs such as the radial configuration suggested here.3 8. would have a significant effect on the main conclusion: namely longitudinal headers (as currently designed for condensers) pose severe risks of refrigerant maldistribution when the cycle is reversed for heating mode. Sensitivity of results to different correlations (two-phase h ref) Correlation used Wattelet et al. respectively. warrant experimental investigation. Table 1.2 °C to keep the degradation of total heat exchanger capacity below ~5%. requiring corresponding reductions in capacity and increases in the number of tubes required. It was found that mass flow maldistribution cannot be controlled by changing either port/header diameter or the refrigerant 14 . However there are even fewer studies available on microchannel evaporators.25 Q [W] 9. because the relatively large refrigerant-side area reduces refrigerant-side resistance so dramatically in flat multiport tubes.3 9. mainly because of concerns about refrigerant maldistribution.9 G [kg m -2s -1] 285 260 278 None of the foregoing simplifying assumptions.11 1. the Liu & Winterton [13] or Lazarek & Black [12] two-phase heat transfer correlations would have increased the design tube length only 3.

Evaporative Characteristics of R-12. J. Italy. Kwon SL. Two-phase pressure drop in microchannels. 1976. Thesis. Winterton RHS. Kim Y.108(1) (in press) Zietlow DC. 1988. ASHRAE Transactions 1994. ASHRAE Transactions 2002. Banff. [16] Gnielinski V. submitted to 9th International Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Conference at Purdue. Chato JC. On Multiphase Transport and Particulate Phenomena. Hrnjak PS. Kattan N. References [1] Stott SL. p. Garimella S. Payne W. 2001 (submitted for publication). Optimizing Effectiveness of R744 Microchannel Evaporators. Symp. 2002. and MP39 at Low Mass Fluxes. Two-phase frictional pressure drop for refrigerants in small diameter tubes.Development of a diabatic two-phase flow pattern map. IIF-IIR. 15 . Pressure Drop and Critical Heat Flux in a Small Vertical Tube with R-113. 25(7):945-60. Microchannel Gas Coolers for Carbon Dioxide Air-conditioning Systems. ARTI 21-CR Project 20020-Phase 2. Experimental Analysis of a Minimum -TEWI Air Conditioner Prototype. 2002. ASME conf. Trans of ASME Journal of Heat Transfer 1998. Iowa State University. Black SH. Heat Mass Transfer 1982. Prediction of pressure drop during horizontal two-phase flow of pure and mixed refrigerants. The results of this analytical investigation offer hypotheses to be tested using the next generation of microchannel heat exchanger designs. Improved friction pressure drop correlation for horizontal and vertical two-phase pipe flows. Proceedings of the International Conference on compact Heat Exchangers and Enhancement Technology for the process Industries.285-92 [11] Nino V. Newell TA. Bullard CW. Evaporative Heat Transfer. [13] Liu Z.21:161-71 Friedel L. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 1999. [15] Coleman J. and the results suggest that distribution could be minimized in evaporators having exterior package dimensions typical of those in use today. Canada. New equations for Heat and Mass Transfer in Turbulent pipe and channel Flow. Ispra. Flow Regime Mapping and Analysis of R-134a in a Small-Channel Cross-Flow Condenser. 2001. 16:359-68. Bullard CW. Pimenta MM. Int. Souza AL. Chem.Commission B1-Paderborn. Ph. Dunn WE. combined with a requirement that the flow be inertially-dominated in order to prevent quality-induced maldistribution. Infante Ferreira CA. 104(2): 540-47 Souza AL.100(1):603-15. Youn B.. submitted to 5th IIRGutsav Lorentzen Conference on Natural working fluids.state at the inlet to the port. Presented at the 5th Miami Int. Cavitation and Multiphase Flow 1995. ASHRAE Transactions 1998. High Performance Heat Exchangers for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Applications (Noncircular tubes). Eng. [14] Wattelet JP. An innovative radial header design was proposed and subjected to similar analyses. [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Thome JR. 120:140-47 Cho H. 1999 July. paper t2. This limitation. Christoffersen BR. Presented at European two-phase flow group meeting. Jacobi AM. Cho K. ACRC CR-21. Int. suggests that microchannel evaporators equipped with conventional longitudinal headers must be extremely thin and therefore have very large face areas to achieve a given design capacity. Flow maldistribution in microchannel evaporator. 1979. Flow boiling in horizontal tubes: Part1. Mechanical Engineering. 2000. Flow Visualization and Pressure Drop for Refrigerant Phase Change and Air-water Flow in Small Hydraulic Diameter Geometries. Favrat D. but only by limiting pressure gradients along header. Pedersen CO. Wet Wall Flow Boiling Correlation with Explicit Nuclear Term. [10] Zhang M. R-134a. [12] Lazarek G M. Kulkarni T.D. Germany.

Mass and Momentum Transfer in Fully Developed Flow in Smooth Tubes. exp = expansion. CRC Press. Chem. ACRC TR-149. D = diameter [m]. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 1999. [22] Idelchik IE. Convective Boiling and Condensation. g = gas. N = number. l = liquid. 3rd Ed. Fundam. h = heat transfer coefficient [W m K ] G = mass flux [kgm s ]. dT = temperature difference [°C]. Modeling. [18] Churchill SW. Re = Reynolds number. 1977. x = refrigerant quality [-] -2 -1 -2 -1 -2 -2 -1 Subscripts evap = evaporating. f = liquid. Eng. Design and Testing of a Microchannel Split -System Air Conditioner. L = length [m]. Hrnjak PS. Principles of Refrigerant Circuiting with Application to Microchannel Condensers: Part I . Bullard CW.[17] Heun MK. [19] Yin JM. Ind. t = thickness [m]. [21] Collier JG. ∆T = drop in temperature [°C]. Nomenclature A = area [m2 ]. 3rd Ed. [20] Kirkwood AC. 1994. Comprehensive Correlating equations for Heat. F = fin. in = inlet. g = acceleration due to gravity [ms ]. p = port ref = refrigerant sat = saturation t = tube v = vapor Greek letters α = void fraction θ = angle of inclination ρ = density 16 . 23:1-10. Handbook of Hydraulic Resis tance. ASHRAE Transactions 1996. Single phase pressure drop measurements in a Microchannel Heat Exchanger. 102(2):373-81. T = temperature [°C]. Q = heat transfer capacity [W]. dG = mass flux difference [kgm s ]. Oxford: Oxford University Press. P= pressure [kPa]. ∆P = pressure drop [kPa]. min = minimum. Heat Transfer Engineering 2002. Bullard CW.Problem Formulation and the Effects of Port Diameter and Port Shape. Thome JR. 1994.16 (1):109-16. h = header. Dunn WE.