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SESSION 8 Submitted by: Anil Vishnu G K Allen Job Asish Oommen Abraham Ajmal V K 5th November .ANALOG COMMUNICATION LAB REPORT .

Contents Introduction Principle 2 3 1 .

2 . That is we tune the circuit to operate at a particular frequency. They usually employ an tuned ampliﬁer to amplify the Intermediate frequency range (455 KHz). One practical example would be the radio systems that have been in existence for some time now. Implementation of such a selectivity is oftentimes referred to as tuning. One would need an ampliﬁer to take the input obtained to the necessary signal levels and a tuning circuit (like an RLC circuit ) to zero in on the required frequency. Even if we take any general circuit design situation we would always require to give importance and emphasis to certain frequencies. that is the ouptput of certain stages of the circuit has to be frequency selective. The type of receiver that is employed in such systems is referred to as the superheterodyne receiver. An intuitive exploration would immediately bring one to the conclusion that there are only two blocks required to design a simple yet working single stage tuned ampliﬁer. Hence the necessity for designing such blocks. Such a block (Tuning) ﬁnds its application in almost all kinds of communication systems.Introduction One aspect of design that is integral and imperative in the design of any communication system is the frequency selectivity of the system proposed to be designed. It is with this basic idea that the design of the circuit be approached. Oftentimes than not the speciﬁcations demand the emphasis on certain frequency components at the output as compared to others.

R-L-C Analysis Consider a parallel R-L-C circuit combination as given below. The section that follows gives an analysis of the common parallel R-L-C tuning circuit. i. short.An analysis based on impulse response is what is particularly important as it is the only input that can excite all the poles and zeroes of a given circuit. while in steady-state they remain invariant. There is the need to see both the transient as well as the stable state responses.We may distinguish the transient behavior of an electrical circuit from its steady-state. operation) or periodical (in a.Principles When we go about designing such a tuned ampliﬁer circuit the ﬁrst logical step to which we reach is selection of circuit blocks that will be required. power and energy. operation) having constant amplitudes and phase angles. Before we go into those complexities what is required ﬁrst is a detailed analysis of the tuning block itself. The cause of transients is any kind of changing in circuit parameters and/or in circuit conﬁguration. constant (in d.c. such as currents.tion). There is the necessity for an ampliﬁer circuit to enhance the signal frequencies received and then of course the tuning block for tunig the output to the desired frequency plus or minus some allowed side frequencies. The coupling of the ampliﬁer block and the tuning block is another point to be taken care of-in what part of the ampliﬁer circuit should the tuning block be kept. which usually occur as a result of switching (commuta.e. and/or open circuiting. change in the operation 3 . voltages. in that during the transients all the quantities. are changed in time.c. We have to see both the zero state response and the zero input response of the circuit to a standard input signal say an impulse.

Thus. it may be said that an electrical circuit.When any sudden change occurs in a circuit. even though they are extremely fast with a duration of milliseconds or even microseconds. which arises after the changes.i). which is required by the new conditions. and a change in the energy status of the sources. in the electric ﬁeld of 2 2 the circuit. whereas in an a. voltages etc. which are also called transient responses (or just responses).i (since ψ = L. as a physical system. there is usually a redistribution of energy between L − s and C − s.v = C. circuit. however. In this respect. we may say that the transient describes the circuit behavior between two steady-states: an old one. p = dw ). These very fast changes.of sources etc. during the transients are not instantaneous and take some time. which is in dt contrast to physical reality. There are basically two methods of transient analysis the classical diﬀerential equation based and the transform based. The changes of currents. are constant.c. in the magnetic ﬁeld 2 2 2 and electric energy wc = q. after their disappearance. which was prior to changes. 4 . and a new one. and supplied by the sources in a d.v (since q = C. cannot be instantaneous (or abrupt) since the transient processes are attained by the interchange of energy. Under steady-state conditions the energy stored in the various inductances and capacitances. circuit the energy is being changed (transferred between the magnetic and electric ﬁelds and supplied by sources) periodically.v ). All transient changes. The parameters L and C are characterized by their ability to store en2 ergy:magnetic energy wl = ψ.c.The basic RLC analyis here will be done using the classical method whereas in later sessions the analysis of the entire tuning circuit including the ampliﬁer stage will be done using the transform method so as to introduce both. is characterized by certain energy conditions in its steady-state behavior.i = L. which is usually stored in the magnetic ﬁeld of inductances or/and the electrical ﬁeld of capacitances. The voltage and current sources are the elements through which the energy is supplied to the circuit. vanish and. Any change in energy cannot be abrupt otherwise it will result in inﬁnite power (as the power is a derivative of energy. a new steady-state operation is established.Comparing the classical method and the transformation method it should be noted that the latter requires more knowledge of mathematics and is less related to the physical matter of transient behavior of electric circuits than the former.

following the above changes. To change magnetic energy requires a change of current through inductances. From another point of view. In other words. the transient-state. which is given by v = C . Therefore. short-circuiting as well as any rapid changes in the structure of an electric circuit. i. theoretically takes inﬁnite time. dt . the rate of voltage change is dv 1 i = C . power is a derivative of energy and any abrupt change in energy will result in an inﬁnite power. currents in inductive circuits. by any switching. which is also unrealizable in practice. In addition. Our next conclusion is about the current and voltage. which is associated with inductors/capacitors.. the energy cannot change abruptly. steady-state performance of the circuit to another one. but only within some period of time in which transients occur. The redistribution of energy. However. which brings about a change in energy distribution. which brings about the transient-state.These energy redistributions cannot take place instantaneously. neither the voltage across a capacitor nor its charge can be abruptly changed. or inductive branches of the circuit. in reality the transient behavior of an electrical circuit continues a relatively very short 5 . As previously mentioned. dt where ψ is a magnetic ﬂux. the change of current in di an inductor brings about the induced voltage of magnitude L. where q is the charge. which is also unrealizable in practice. and the instantaneous change of voltage brings about inﬁnite dt dt current. Therefore. the transient phenomena will occur. dq = C . Generally speaking. Therefore. interrupting. we may summarize that any change in an electrical circuit. from a physical point of view it may be said that the transient-state exists in physical systems while the energy conditions of one steady-state are being changed to those of another. cannot change abruptly. we may conclude that to change the electric energy requires q a change in voltage across a capacitor.e. Similarly. An instantaneous change of current would therefore require an inﬁnite voltage. The main reason for this statement is that an instantaneous change of energy would require inﬁnite power. every change of state leads to a temporary deviation from one regular. will result in a transient-state. Thus. Since the induced voltage is also given as dψ . Since inﬁnite power is not realizable in physical systems. but during some period of time. the magnetic ﬂux of a circuit cannot suddenly change.

and neither inductances nor capacitances.Let the currents through the inductor. the transient-state will not occur at all and the change from one steady-state to another will take place instantaneously. . from KCL ic + ir + il = 0 vr = R. So the analysis that results can be called a zero input response. the amount of supplied energy is equal to the amount of stored energy plus the energy dissipation. but these transients are very short and not signiﬁcant. However. The higher the energy dissipation. ic and ir and the respective voltages across them be vl . In circuits. so that they are usually neglected.period of time. the shorter is the transient-state. On observing we see that vl = vc = vr and. with this basic knowledge of transient responses in mind we go about doing the analyis of the above given R-L-C circuit. vc and vr .dt (5) 6 . il (0) = I0 dt Therefore.dt t (4) dvc 1 ic = C. . which consist of only resistances. The rate of energy dissipation aﬀects the time interval of the transients.vr di vl = L. vc (0) = V0 + dt C 0 ic (t). L 0 vl (t). capacitor and resistor be il . The change in the energy distribution during the transient behavior of electrical circuits is governed by the principle of energy conservation.e.. The circuit given above has no driving input given to it.ir or ir = G. Energy dissipation occurs in circuit resistances and its storage takes place in inductances and capacitances. after which the voltages and currents almost achieve their new steady-state values. since even resistive circuits contain some inductances and capacitances the transients will practically appear also in such circuits. i. t (1) (2) (3) 1 il (t) = I0 + . Now.

es1 t + k2 es2 t (12) where ih is the homogenous solution for the current. since vl = vc = vr . k2 are constants and s1 and s2 are given by √ s1 . C. we get C.From the above given equations we take one convenient variable and write the most convenient equation in terms of that variable and solve for the other variables using this. s2 = −α ± α2 − ω 2 (13) 7 . If we choose the inductor current il as the variable the following two equations are obtained from which we get the third second order diﬀerential equation. The RHS value should then intuitively correspond to any excitation to the system ( that is some arbitrary source). k1 . If we adopt a generalised representation of the above given homogenous diﬀrential equation as below with arbitrary parameters α and ω0 then the equation becomes dil d2 il 2 + 2α + ω0 il = 0 2 dt dt (9) Then α is called the damping factor and ω0 as the resonating frequency given by G α= (10) 2C and 1 ω0 = √ (11) LC The solution of the given diﬀerential equation will be of the form ih = k1 . dvl + Gvl + il = 0 dt (7) dvc + Gvr + il = 0 dt (6) and hence we get following second order diﬀerential equation LC d2 i l dil + GL + il = 0 2 dt dt (8) The above given second order equation may be considered as the homogenous part of a general second order equation with some ﬁnite RHS value.

with the RHS’s 0 replaced by the excitation applied. To understand this better lets take the impulse response of the circuit.Based on the values of above two variables the circuit will demonstrate overdamped.dt = 1 (17) The inductor current cannot jump at time zero or that the inductor current is a continuous function therefore the integeral above is zero and il (0+ ) = il (0− ) (18) If it were not continuous the derivative of the current would contain an impulse and the second derivative would contain a doublet and the second 8 . underdamped or critically oscillating conditions. dil − (0 ) = 0 dt (15) for t > 0+ The impulse input is charecterised by the conditions for t > 0+ δ(t) = 0 (16) An impulse at t = 0 creates an initial condition at t = 0+ The impulse response for t > 0 is simply the zero input response due to the initial conditions created by that impulse response Integerate from t = 0− to t = 0+ to get the initial conditions we get 0+ LC dil dil − LC + GLil (0+ ) − GLil (0− ) + +) −) dt(0 dt(0 0− il . impulse response As described earlier with an input applied tothe previous R-L-C circuit the diﬀerential equation gets modiﬁed only in its RHS. So for an impulsive current δ(t) applied to the RL-C circuit the diﬀerential equation gets modiﬁed as LC dil d2 i l + GL + il = δ(t) 2 dt dt (14) and the inintial conditions would be il (0− ) = 0.

e .sinω − dt ωd (19) here ω0 and α have same values as described earlier and 2 2 ωd = ω0 − α2 (20) As is evident the mathematics of the analysis has been cut short for a qualitative description of the situation. Thus it is linear in t. (0+ ) = dt dt LC (25) 9 . il ∝ vc (24) Thus il will be parabolic in t Now as ∆ → 0 the input becomes an impulsive current 1 vc jumps from 0 to C ic becomes an impulse 1 ir undergoes sudden change to RC il (0+ ) = il (0− ).equation above wont be satisﬁed. dil 1 dil − (0 ) = 0. Now applying all the initial conditions we get the solution for the current as il (t) = 2 ω0 −αt . As ∆ tends to zero the pulse approaches an impulse Thus at t = 0+ all current from source goes to capacitor. And. Suppose we approximate the impulse response as a pulse that extends for a very short duration ∆. ir is proportional to vc . That is at time ∆ voltage reaches C Then at that point current in the resistor. Therefore ic (0+ ) = is (0+ ) = 1 ∆ (21) (22) ir (0+ ) = il (0− ) = 0 Current in the capacitor forces a gradual rise of voltage across it at an initial rate given by ic 1 dvc (0+) = (0+) = (23) dt C C∆ With the assumption that in a small interval slope of the voltage curve re1 mains constant.

To analyse this circuit we make use of the Laplace transform method. Let us put the tuning block at the collector of a BJT based ampliﬁer. The analysis ensues Tuned Ampliﬁer Analysis sfsfskkjksfsdkjfdkdjsk 10 . Once this is done we need to locate where the poles aqnd zeroes of the entire circuit are and how the introduction of a tuning block modiﬁes the already existing poles of the ampliﬁer.This is the general behaviour of the parallel R-L-C Circuit to an impulse response leaving aside the mathematical intricacies and considering it intuitively Now the next step is to couple this tuning circuit to a basic ampliﬁer.

Since the ampliﬁer was to tune to the Intermediate Frequency (455 Khz) an IFT was planned to be kept as the tuning block described earlier.Experimentation As per the design described above the circuit was planned to be assembled. this was close to the tuning frequency of the IFT ( 420 KHz ). Next the ampliﬁer circuit using BF195 was assembled with the designed values of resistors and capacitors. With this we got an idea about the location of the poles and zeroes. One pole located on the real axis and two on the left half of the s plane. After this the supply voltage was given and the DC conditions of the transistor was checked. Between the collector of the transistor and the supply voltage the secondary of the Intermediate Frequency Transformer was connected. A Very small yet signiﬁcant peak was observed at 205 KHz. The tuning frequency of the IFT was found out to be 420 KHz. What was required was to observe the damping eﬀect in the output or the ringing. At the lab the circuit was assembled in stages. First the IFT obtained was tested seperately to ensure that it was tuning and not giving just some response to an input that increased with frequency. Once the basic working of the IF ampliﬁer was veriﬁed and observed it was time for proper testing. So theoritically adjusting the gain of the circuit would move this pole along the real axis 11 . But this was found out to be due to the side lobes of the frequency response function. The input frequency was gradually increased from a few Hertz. Now from the expressions of each poles it is clear that the real axis pole has a dependancy on the miller capacitance which inturn depends on the transconductance gm of the transistor and hence it’s gain. Now a very small input of 100 mV peak to peak was given at the base of the transistor. The output voltage was very small (almost negligible ) for almost all the frequencies. A very high gain (160) was obtained at 408 KHz. As discussed earlier there are three poles in the circuit.

Measurements with the increased time constant and reduced gain were also taken tabulated. This is graphically shown below. The eﬀect of this capacitance is usually ignored in all analysis. The distance of the two conjugate poles from the imaginary axis is a measure of the damping introduced in the circuit. The time constant of the decay was observed. This was observed in the lab by giving a pulse input at comparitively lower frequencies (10-20 KHz) to observe the ringing caused due to damped oscillations. As a result the other two poles move in the oppositte direction that is away from the imaginary axis. Thus an exhaustive experimental study of the assembled circuit was done and the correlation with derived theoritical points were veriﬁed. the decay rate increases and hence the time constant of damped oscillations decreases. The opposite phenomenon was also observed. That is the gain was decreased and as a result the decay rate decreased and the time constant increased owing to the movement of the conjugate poles towards the imaginary axis. As these poles determine the tuning frequency of the circuit as well their location from the imaginary axis determine the decay rate of damped oscillations when they occur. owing to the inverse dependance of the real axis pole on gain. Now when the gain of the ampliﬁer circuit is increased. This was due to the crossing over of the conjugate poles to the right half plane. So the horizontal motion of these two poles dominates the vertical motion. 12 .which would inturn move the other two poles. The other two poles have a weak and opposite dependancy on the gain of the transistor arising from the other miller capacitance put across the collector and emitter.As a critical condition when the gain was continuously decreased the system became unstable and sustained oscillation was observed at one point. as the poles move away from the imaginary axis on increasing the gain the damping factor increases. Continuing. the pole moves towards the origin or we can say its magnitude decreases.

The tabulated results are given below. Only one very small side lobe was observed at 205 KHz Pulse input at a lower frequency of 45 KHz was given to observe the damping and ringing eﬀects. The normal tuning frequency of the IFT was 420 KHz. The outputs observed were like those given below The gain of the ampliﬁer was varied to study the pole movements. To this a small input signal of 100 mV peak to peak amplitude was given from a very low frequency. Proper sinusoidal output of gain 160 was observed at 408 KHz. The frequency was then gradually increased and output observed. 13 . The movements were veriﬁed by measuring the decay rate and time constants of the damped oscillations observed on the CRO.Observations and Inferences The designed circuit was assembled in the lab and the dc conditions were veeriﬁed.

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