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iMouse 2009

(Integrated mobile surveillance and wireless sensor system)

TO Zeitgeist’2K9 University college of Engineering JNTU, Kakinada

Presented by A.Venkatesh ¾ CSE

B.Satya Swaroop ¾ CSE 9985197354


Gitam University Visakhapatnam-530045


In our current prototype. context –rich services. WSN can enrich human life in applications such as healthcare. For example. To Conserve static sensors energy. sound. and temperature. Sensors can combine inputs to define a new event. to take snapshots 2|Page Incorporating the environment sensing capability of wireless sensor networks into video based surveillance systems can provide advanced services at a lower cost than traditional surveillance systems . exchange messages with other sensors. which users can establish through manual setting. Or. The remarkable advances of micro sensing. GPS. A Lego car to support mobility .The integrated mobile surveillance and wireless sensor system (iMouse)use static and mobile wireless sensors to detect and then analyze unusual events in the environment. which require huge computation or manpower to analyze. the sensing board can collect three types of data: light. take snapshots of event scenes and transmit images to the server. or any localization schemes. and home security. An event occurs when the sensory input is higher or lower than a predefined threshold. Each static sensor comprises a sensing board and a mote for communication. it can conduct in depth analyses to identify the possible source. event reporting is reactive. in a security application. a sensor can use a combination of temperature and sound readings. each able to collect environmental information and together able to support multihop ad hoc routing. Traditional surveillance systems typically collect a large volume of videos from wallboard cameras. a sensor can interpret a combination of light and temperature readings as a potential fire emergency. We assume that the sensors are in known locations. Mobile sensors can move to event locations. Integration WSN’s sensing capability into these systems can reduce such overhead while providing more advance. when the system detects an intruder. building monitoring.iMouse 2009 ABSTRACT: Problem Definition: IMOUSE ARCHITECTURE The static sensors form a WSN to monitor the environment and notify the server of unusual events. For example. micro electromechanical system (MEMS) and wireless communication technologies have promoted the development of wireless sensor networks . To detect an explosion. A mote. .A WSN consists of many sensor nodes densely deployed in a field. A webcam. to communicate with the static sensors . WSN provide an inexpensive and convenient way to monitor Physical environments with their environment sensing capability. . for home security. it can use an unusual sound or light reading.

On detecting a potential emergency. The dispatch algorithm also runs on the server. sensing data. which the server suspects to indicate a fire emergency in the sensors neighborhoods. the server dispatches mobile sensors to visit emergency sites to obtain high-resolution images of the scene. To distinguish new from old messages. The goal is to form a spanning tree in the WSN. The Stargate controls the movement of the Lego car and the webcam. SYSTEM OPERATIONS & CONTROL FLOWS: On receiving the server’s command. On visiting A and C. For example. the mobile sensors take snapshots and perform in-depth analyses. the reported images might indicate the fire’s source or identify inflammable material in the vicinity and locate people left in the building. such as transmitting images. To support high-speed. It also records each static sensor’s location and state. which is initially set to normal. Suppose static sensors A and C report unusually high temperatures. indicating an event. treemaintenance messages are associated with unique sequence numbers. The server periodically floods a treemaintenance message to maintain the WSN. long-distance communications. When a sensor receives an input above a threshold. the sensor reports that event to the server. To avoid 3|Page . the static sensors from a tree like network to collect The server notifies the users and dispatches mobile sensors to visit the sites.iMouse 2009 . It also maintains the network and interprets the meanings of events from sensors. Tree maintenance messages help the static sensors track their parent nodes. The external server provides an interface through which users can obtain the system status and issue commands.

each mobile sensor’s cost will include moving to the closest site in each group and then traversing the rest of the sites one by one. Given a set of locations to be visited. we consider a set L of m emergency sites to be visited by a set S of n mobile sensors. 4|Page . we assign them to emergency sites to conserve their energy as much as possible. To solve this problem. it asks the local sensor to clear its event flag. by the classical Kmeans method) and assign each group to one mobile sensor. we can use a heuristic to the traveling salesman problem to determine the traversal order.iMouse 2009 sending duplicate messages. some mobile sensors must visit multiple sites. S * L). When a sensor detects an event and the event flag is false. when m<=n. goal is to maximize the mobile sensors’ total remaining energy after sites are visited. The server collects multiple events and assigns them to mobile sensors in batches.When m > n. we can convert the problem to one of finding a maximum matching in a weighted bi-partite graph G=(S U L. where each site must be visited by one mobile sensor. the sensor reports that event and sets the flag to true. we divide emergency sites into n clusters (for example. where the vertex set is S U L and the edge set is the product . Our dispatch solution depends on the relationship of m and n. We allow an arbitrary relationship between m and n. each sensor keeps a variable event flag to indicate whether it has already reported that event. The In this case. When a mobile sensor visits an event site. MOBILE SENSOR DISPATCH AND TRAVERSAL PROBLEMS Because mobile sensors are battery powered. Specifically.

adjusting the WSN’s topology. such as issuing a tree-maintenance message.iMouse 2009 At the external server. • The system-command area provides an interface to let users control the overall system. users monitor the system’s status and control mobile sensors through a user interface. 5|Page . ports. and connecting and disconnecting a specified mobile sensor. The user interface includes six major components: • The configure area lets users input system configuration information. as above fig shows. such as mobile sensors’ IP addresses. and sensors’ positions.

the static WSN is topology can be irregular. • The log area displays some of the system’s status messages. We constructed the system by placing two mobile sensors and 17 static sensors on the sensing field. a USB port. a light reading below 800 watts simulates an event. we implemented an experimental grid-like sensing held. a PCMCIA slot. IMPLEMENTATION EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND It also has a daughter board with an RS-232 serial port. a fire icon appears in the corresponding site. so we cover a static sensor with a box to model a potential emergency.4 compliant module allowing low power operations and offering a 250-Kbps data rate with a direct sequence spreadspectrum (DSSS) radio. • The action-control area lets users control the mobile sensors’ actions. In general. The Stargate processing platform consists of a 32-bit. When a sensor detects an event. The Stargate controls the Lego car via a USB port connected to a Lego Navigating a mobile sensor or robot is difficult without some auxiliary devices. In our prototyping. • The monitor area shows the WSN’s network topology and the mobile sensors’ patrolling paths. IEEE 802.iMouse 2009 • The sensor-status area shows the current status of a static sensor being queried. and golden tape represents intersections. For static sensors. Black tape represents roads.4-GHz. and a 51-pin extension connector.15. 6|Page . which can be attached to a mote. including movement and taking snapshots. We use a gridlike sensing field and a grid like static sensor deployment only for ease of implementation. 400-MHz Intel PXA-255 XScale reduced instruction set computer (RISC) with a 64Mbyte main memory and 32-Mbyte extended flash memory. as Figure shows.11 WLAN card through its PCMCIA slot. A MICAz is a 2. It drives the webcam through a USB port and the IEEE 802.

Figure shows experimental results with fig shows experimental results with one mobile sensor initially placed at (0. We generate some random events and evaluate the dispatch time (from when server is noticed of these events to when all event sites are visited) and the average time of each site. 2. In our current prototype.2. To help us understand the sensor dispatch problem in general irregular WSNs. We generate some random events and evaluate the dispatch time (from when the server is notified of these events to when all event sites are visited) and the average time of ach site (from when an event is detected to when a mobile sensor visits the site).5. The time that a mobile sensor takes to make snapshots and report the results. 0) and two mobile sensors placed at (0. we developed a simulator. In our current prototype. using two mobile sensors significantly reduces dispatch and waiting times. the times are 2. respectively . The time that a mobile sensor takes to make a 90 degree turns 3. 0) and (5. 2. 5). We evaluated the average waiting time for an event location being visited and mobile sensors total 7|Page . The time that a mobile sensor takes to cross one grid unit (about 26 centimeters). 0) and two mobile sensors placed at (0. 2.iMouse 2009 Three factors affect the mobile sensors dispatch time: 1. one mobile sensor initially placed at (0.5. 5). the times are 2.0 seconds. and 4. and 4. 0) and (5. respectively above SIMULATION RESULTS Our experiments considered only grid networks.2. Clearly.0 seconds.

it’s event-driven. transceivers. we assigned the mobile sensor with the smallest distance to the nearest location. On the other hand. After each round. With its 8|Page . We compared a greedy algorithm against the K-means algorithm. the greedy algorithm contains a sequence of iterations. The benefits of iMouse include the following: 1. and the mobile sensors can later provide detailed images of these events. it’s both modular and scalable. In the sense that only when an event occurs is a mobile sensor dispatched to capture images of that event . Our comparison results under different numbers of event sites and mobile sensors showed that the greedy algorithm performs better than the K-means algorithm because of its time-critical nature. 3. BENEFITS OF IMOUSE Our integrated mobile surveillance and wireless sensor systems iMouse consists of numerous static wireless sensors and several more powerful mobile sensors. If there were unvisited locations. It provides online real time monitoring. We assumed that moving one meter takes one Joule and 10 seconds. The more expensive mobile sensors are dispatched to the event locations.iMouse 2009 energy consumption. This continued until all locations were visited. causing some event sites to wait longer even when some mobile sensors are idle. Recent advances in wireless communications and MEMS technologies have made WSN possible. and in each round a certain number of events were generated at random locations. 5. so only a small number of them are required. low-power devices equipped with sensors. We repeated this process until all mobile sensors were assigned to locations. mobile sensors stayed at their final destinations and waited for the next schedules. We marked each simulation result with a 90 percent interval. when the system is capturing events. 2. A WSN consists of many tiny. It provides an inexpensive and convenient way to monitor physical environments. They don’t need to cover the whole sensing field. and actuators. Each experiment had 100 rounds. Given a set S of mobile sensors and a set L of emergency sites. Adding more sophisticated devices to the mobile sensors can strengthen their sensing capability without substituting existing static sensors. the static sensors can immediately inform users where the events are occurring. For example. the first mobile sensor reaching its destination picked its next location in the same greedy manner. which exploits event locality. iMouse can avoid recording unnecessary images when nothing happens. In each iteration. The K-means algorithm gives mobile sensors unbalanced job assignments. 4. A mobile sensor moves in a straight line from one location to another. In our simulation. the K-means algorithm is more energy-efficient because of its clustering approach. the sensing field was 15 * 15 meters.Thus.

The system complements data from WSNs with videos to capture the possible scenes with intruders. Researchers in robotics have also discussed the surveillance issue. Edoardo Ardizzone and his colleagues propose a video-based surveillance system for capturing intrusions by merging WSNs and video-processing techniques. Besides. which requires significant computation or manpower. agriculture. Integrating the context-aware capability of WSN into surveillance systems is an attractive direction. However. and health monitoring surveillance systems is an attractive direction that deserves investigation. Other work addresses the pursuer-evader game. cameras in this system lack mobility. Robots or cameras installed on walls identify obstacles or humans in the environment. Applications of WSN include surveillance. and habitat. The former is to monitor the environment. Wu-chi Feng and his colleagues proposed a video-based Surveillance network in which an 802. Wireless sensor networks (WSN) provide an inexpensive and convenient way to monitor physical environments. results reported from a WSN are typically brief and lack in-depth information. For example. However. we analyze its event detection delay under an any-sensor-detection model. Such systems normally must extract meaningful information from massive visual data. These systems assume that objects can emit signals that sensors can track. We demonstrate our current prototyping for home security applications. Researchers have also proposed mobilizers to move sensors to enhance coverage of the sensing field and to strengthen the network connectivity. 9|Page . so they can only monitor some locations. Such systems typically need to automatically interpret the scenes and understand or predict actions of observed objects from the acquired videos. biological detection. context aware surveillance system. WSN may enrich human life in many ways.iMouse 2009 context awareness. Some researchers use static WSNs for object tracking. which consists of a large number of inexpensive static sensors and a small number of more expensive mobile sensors. in which a pursuer must intercept an evader in the field with the assistance of WSNs.11 WLAN card transmits the information that each video camera captures. EXISTING SYSTEM Traditional visual surveillance systems continuously videotape scenes to capture transient or suspicious objects. The iMouse system is a mobile. We thus propose an integrated mobile surveillance and wireless sensor (iMouse) system. while the latter can move to certain locations and takes more advanced actions. These systems guide robots around these obstacles.

to support intelligent mobile surveillance services. Monitoring and Log areas. 4. The weakness of traditional “dumb” surveillance system is greatly improved because the real critical images/video sections can be retrieved and sent to users. 5. The Lego car produced by Mind Storms supports mobility. 2. The Webcam is to take photos of the emergency scenes.11 WLAN card is used to talk to the home gateway. It includes six major components: Config. context-rich services. On one hand. as shown in. Intelligence of WSN can help reduce such overheads and even provide more advanced.iMouse 2009 PROPOSED SYSTEM To our knowledge. 3. Command. which motivates us to propose the iMouse system. it can move to the event locations. The Config area is to input configuration information. A mobile sensor can collect sensory data and report to an external server. the mobile sensors can help improve the weakness of traditional WSN that they only provide vague environmental information by including some mobile cameras to conduct in-depth analysis of the sensing field. The Command area is to load the configuration file. etc. the mobile sensors are able to move to the event locations. and send pictures to the server through its 802. in-depth analyses may be conducted to find out the possible sources. the WSN provides context awareness and intelligence to the surveillance system. For example. such as mobile sensors’ IP addresses. take snapshots of the scenes. The proposed iMouse system combines two areas. Status. the 802. The iMouse system consists of a large number of inexpensive static wireless Sensors. 6. ADVANTAGES OF PROPOSED SYSTEM OVER EXISTING SYSTEM 1. no one has adequately addressed the integration of WSNs with surveillance systems. WSN and surveillance technology. 10 | P a g e . the weakness of traditional “dumb” surveillance system is greatly improved because the real critical images/video sections can be retrieved and sent to users. To eliminate the wiring problem. When necessary. Therefore. and report the analysis results to the remote sink. in security applications. ports. Control. On the other hand. when something abnormal are detected. When special events are detected.11 interface. sensors’ positions. the WSN’s status and to control mobile sensors at the remote sink. Conduct more advanced analyses of the event scenes.

Therefore. we need to further investigate how we can use mobile sensors to improve the network topology. 11 | P a g e . On the other hand. especially when they are on the road. WSN and surveillance technology. On one hand. the weakness of traditional “dumb” surveillance system is greatly improved because the real critical images/video sections can be retrieved and sent to users. to support intelligent mobile surveillance services. the WSN provides context awareness and intelligence to the surveillance system. Finally. We can exploit coordination among mobile sensors.iMouse 2009 CONCLUSION & FUTURE SCOPE: The proposed iMouse system combines two areas. the mobile sensors can help improve the weakness of traditional WSN that they only provide vague environmental information by including some mobile cameras to conduct in-depth analysis of the sensing field.