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Ancient Egyptian Calligraphy





The alphabetic (monoconsonantal) signs U
The outline is most easily controlled if one begins with the head, then draws the front of the bird, continuing with the rearward leg. If this much is correctly executed, it is relatively easy to add the rest. Note the sharp angle at the back of the head, which is explained by the fact that the feathers in that region tend to stand out, particularly if fanned by a breeze. The facsimile shows this detail in an Old Kingdom example, accompanied by the same detail as seen from a living specimen (Figure b).


The upper part widens slightly at the bottom. Old Kingdom examples (and those of later date) often represent the flowering portion as a series of striations; the joints in the stem were rarely indicated in the Old Kingdom (Figure b), but appeared more frequently thereafter.


D36 ARM, ™.
The Old Kingdom form shows the full breadth of the palm. Later the palm tended to be slightly cupped, as in Gardiner’s version. Even in the New Kingdom all the fingers are clearly distinguished in the most detailed examples (e.g. en-Amun, pl. 13), but this is also true of signs such as a õ (D39). And the most detailed New Kingdom examples often show the hand as in the Old Kingdom (e.g. Ramose, pl. 42). 9







The most difficult of the bird-hieroglyphs. The shape is easier to control if the angularity of the body is emphasized. If drawn quickly, the head tends to be summarized, and this summarization actually occurs in semi-cursive writing: . The indication of the wing is optional.


D58 FOOT, b.
As Gardiner notes, this sign was often very short in Dynasty 1 ( Kingdom was often shorter than the full height of the line. ), and even in the Middle


The height is normally greater than the width. Old Kingdom examples often show the detail of matting, and from this period, down to the end of the New Kingdom, it was sometimes stylized as : Egyptian Studies I, pp. 109 ff.




The rise of the body is slight, and the tail remains flat on the ground.


G17 OWL, m.
Of all the bird-hieroglyphs, this one is the easiest to draw, and it is therefore a good choice for the beginner to practice. The procedure is the same as has been suggested for the Egyptian vulture (G1). The owl is distinguished from all the other birds in that its head is turned to one side, and is viewed full-face. Another distinctive feature is the fact that the hind toe (which is reversible) does not appear. The indication of the wing is optional; so too the summarization of the eyes and beak. Gardiner cites Keimer and Newberry for





discussions, but does not supply the references: Keimer, Annals of the Faculty of Arts, Ibrahim Pasha University, Cairo, I (1951) pp. 73–83; Newberry, JEA 37 (1951) pp. 72–74.


N35 WATER, n.
The number of angular ripples is variable, but the two ends always slant downward. These terminal strokes may be a little longer than the others.


D21 MOUTH, r.
When carefully executed, this sign often shows a pronounced narrowing at the corners, as in the Old Kingdom example illustrated here, and the top is more curved than the bottom (cf. Davies, BMMA, March 1918, Sect. II, p. 18).


In the Old Kingdom this sign is often taller than it is wide, although it may also resemble the square Gardiner version. This is one of the signs that is most apt to change its proportions, depending on the amount of space available; compare the (ibid., group (Caminos, Buhen II, pls. 18, 23, 35, etc.), pl. 47; I, pl. 70), (II, pl. 86).


V28 WICK, ¢.
The procedure shown here is ultimately easier than drawing a series of loops, one above another, and it is closer to ancient examples. The uppermost loop is often larger than the others. The use of the twisted flax is well illustrated by an Old Kingdom lamp.


SIGNS ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY ◊ Aa1 PLACENTA (?). The operation of the bolt is shown in Figure c: the protuberances at the center limit the degree to which it can slide back and forth between the two fastenings at the right. viewed from the underside. 226–261. see Graefe. p. Aegyptus 39 (1959) pp. MDAIK 27 (1971) pp. but it is doubtful that the bolt was ever secured in this fashion. referring to the god Min (Orientalia 60 [1991] 296–297). ∞. 20). The belly and tail of a mammal. Coptite Nome. @ F32 BELLY. Some Old Kingdom examples (Figure b) seem to show a string placed between the protuberances. 49. when the bolt is pushed leftward. The interpretation of the sign is disputed by Curto. although the ancient Egyptians summarized the protuberances by using a pair of rounded dots rather than two short strokes. The second form (as in the Theinhardt font) occurred only rarely before the Libyan Period: Caminos and Fischer. 148 ff. Most Egyptologists use the form shown here. as is usual in examples down to the end of the New Kingdom. beneath the third fastening. z. m O34 BOLT. p. Epigraphy and Palaeography. note 78. is typical of the Archaic Period but recurred occasionally in the Old Kingdom (Fischer. Old Kingdom names sometimes show m in place of ® (R22–23). 12 . the door is locked. The striations should be horizontal. with crosshatched detail. fl. The third form.

but a more controlled result may be obtained by drawing the longer part downward. F N37 POOL. The detailed Old Kingdom example (Gardiner’s N39) shows vertical ripples of water. ß. one must visualize it as a single crest and slope in the hieroglyph for: mountain (N26) mountain range (N25) It must be conceded. but it is known from hieratic of the Old Kingdom and later. For the interpretation of this sign cf. that Old Kingdom examples are sometimes more triangular. then adding the remainder. See also Addenda. beginning at the bottom. This may be drawn with a single line. s. k. The second form (as in the Theinhardt font) was rarely used in hieroglyphic inscriptions until the Late Period. To draw this sign properly.e. Old Kingdom examples often reduce the basketry pattern to a series of horizontal lines. but not infrequently thereafter. 13 . however. i. and occurred occasionally in semi-cursive hieroglyphs of that date. The checkered detail was added much more rarely in that period. ˚. The handle is drawn in terminating the lower contour.SIGNS ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY Ã S29 PIECE OF CLOTH. ì V31 BASKET. = N29 HILL. 14–16. MMJ 1o (1975) pp. less rounded at the top.

Å V13 TETHERING ROPE. The back thickens towards the point where the tail curves downward. t. ∂. Almost a hemisphere. p. as shown in the accompanying figure. g. This effect may also be obtained simply by raising the line of the back at the same point. ∑ X1 LOAF. Draw the loops first.SIGNS ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY ® W11 RINGSTAND. This implement was used for “seating” round-bottomed pots. †. The Old Kingdom form generally shows the bottom edge straight as well as the top one: ® (W12). The later form (very rarely evidenced in the Sixth Dynasty: Fischer. The first alternative is usually preferred by Egyptologists. and something like this was used by the ancient Egyptians in semi-cursive hieroglyphic texts. ¢ D46 HAND. d. 14 . 89 [9]) shows the bottom curved. as though viewed from above. ¢ I10 COBRA. Dendera.

even the most simplified forms. 50–52). A12 SOLDIER. Both arms must be flexed. mß™. 15 . FATIGUED MAN. pp. and the rearward arm must meet or overlap the body. ¢ms¡. wr. For the various readings see Egyptian Studies I. # ' . and A2 was therefore sometimes replaced by to make the distinction clearer (RdE 28 [1976] pp. The hands (if indicated) are fisted. smsw. wrd. 88–93. A3 A7 MAN SITTING ON HEEL. do not turn the head into a circle. 5 A19 OLD MAN. " A2 MAN WITH HAND TO MOUTH. These two signs are not always clearly distinguished in inscriptions of the Heracleopolitan Period. ™£. such as .SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY Other signs (arranged by category) ! A1 SEATED MAN. As in the following signs. Variants of the Heracleopolitan Period show the figure drawing the bow ( JNES 21 [1962] pp. Unlike A1. 153–154). the rearward arm is pendant. The rearward arm is slightly flexed.

the latter being nothing more than a variant of the same sign. 133) the sign was used for ¡ry (ZÄS 1o5 [1978] p. “Notes on Sticks and Staves. 48–49). sr. Make the back of the wig vertical. 12 and note 36). while Studies 1. pp. “Notes on Sticks and Staves. note 55. : A24 MAN STRIKING. also in a writing of the feast ÜRû. pp. 273–274). 55. 13. ¢w¡. The stick is normally straight in examples prior to the Middle Kingdom. In the Old Kingdom example shown here the herdsman carries a staff and goad (for which see Vandier. 26. mn¡w. 9 and fig. Manuel d’archéologie VI. in Simpson is ∞nmt (Junker. Gîza XII. See also Addenda (A25). 12. pl. pp. From the Heracleopolitan Period onward (Fischer. The rearward arm is straight. From Dyn.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY 7 A21 COURTIER. in Middle Kingdom examples it is usually curved (Fischer.” figs. The supposed Old Kingdom prototypes of A48 are actually to be read differently: is to be read ¢tst (Fischer. Old and Middle Kingdom examples occasionally show assimilation of the stick and goad to the feather (î) that is held by the foreigner in A49: Fischer. 4b). The beard is slightly curved at the tip. Old Kingdom writings of ¢w¡ sometimes show the stick beating the sign ê(V28: MMJ 12 [1977] p. R A47 HERDSMAN. see ZÄS 100 (1973) p. z£w. Dendera. The distinction between this and S (A48) is nonexistent. XII onward the figure sometimes held — (S34) as in the case of c (C2).” p. note 70). See also Addenda (A48). p. 120–122). 16 . K A40 SEATED GOD. 24. Beni Hasan I.

It was initially used as a name-determinative. 759 (1). The Old Kingdom form probably shows. and Fischer. in most cases. Contrary to Gardiner. IV. col. 516). Gardiner’s version shows a curved stick. p. so also Brunner. and probably Urk. pl. The front legs of the chair are covered by (or fused with) the legs of the man. MDAIK 16 (1958) pp. pls. Die südlichen Räume. then to nonroyal individuals at the end of the same dynasty (Lexikon der Ägyptologie II. but it is often similar to Gardiner’s version. applied to kings at the beginning of Dyn.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY T A49 FOREIGNER HOLDING STICK. The more traditional form of the older periods shows a feather: Clère. 614) this is actually a throwstick (2 T14). X A53 MUMMY. XII. “Notes on Sticks and Staves. 40–41. p. 162. 18–19. Sesostris III) occurs in Meir VI. IV. Not used until the Middle Kingdom. U A50 MAN ON CHAIR. Z A55 MUMMY ON BIER. it is a secondary substitution for U (A50). 17 . used thus. this is not the normal ideograph for ßps(s). but in the clearer of his two examples (Urk.” note 41. V A51 SEATED MAN WITH FLAGELLUM. a man sleeping. ßps(s). An early example of A51 for ßps (temp.

make the curve steeper at the front. r D1 HEAD. 103). The vertical element represents the dark patch that appears beneath the eye of the falcon. Although the face is that of a man. it is traditionally colored yellow: Smith. See also Addenda. 3. The style of the wig varies ( JAOS 76 [1956] p. w∂£t. with a squared-off beard. tp. u D4 EYE. { D10 EYE OF HORUS. 18 . 135–137 and fig. p. the spiral is a stylization of the pattern of feathers behind this patch. The lower edge is almost horizontal. and does not stare. Used in the Old Kingdom as determinative of b£k. etc. 375. The back of the wig should be vertical (as in the case of A40). s D2 FACE.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY A56 SEATED MAN WITH STICK. In drawing the upper edge. The one shown here (longer than in Gardiner’s example) is more common in the Old Kingdom. As a rule the pupil is partly covered by the upper lid. ¡r(t). forming a slight curve. [ B1 SEATED WOMAN.: for examples see MDAIK 16 (1958) pp. ¢r. History of Egyptian Sculpture and Painting in the Old Kingdom.

pp. In such cases the lettuce is colored green. î D33 ARMS PADDLING. show the shorter n¢bt. in which ¥ is replaced by á. as he says. ° D45 ARM HOLDING MKS -STAFF.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY Ü D20 NOSE.” §9). but the Gardiner form may. A somewhat longer pair of legs sometimes replaces ∂ (W25) in Old Kingdom inscriptions (BiOr 33 [1976] p. §§41–42. 23. note 5). and for the kilt see also the Addenda. The upper element has been explained as a fire-fan (™-flnw): Junker. note 51. The New Kingdom form was at least occasionally interpreted as a head of lettuce. fnd. less so in the New Kingdom: MMJ 12 (1977) p. the example illustrated here (Figure b) dates to the reign of Tuthmosis IV. 50 [a]). ´ D54 LEGS WALKING. fln(¡). The legs occasionally show a kilt in inscriptions of the Old Kingdom and later (JARCE 4 [1965] p. For uses of the reversed legs (D55) see Egyptian Studies II. Old Kingdom examples show a pair of arms holding the mks-staff. See also Addenda. The alternative form (Figure b). is fairly common in the Old and Middle Kingdoms. which is otherwise similar (Fischer. “Notes on Sticks and Staves. A more summary form of Ö (D19). Gîza IX. 44–47. 10. 19 . used in all periods. ∂sr.

Puyemrê II. occur in columnar inscriptions. Beni Hasan I. pls. 23. The rump of the animal projects so that the tail falls straight downward. fig. free of the hindquarters. µ E1 BULL. pl.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY ≠ D56 LEG. Figure a is the somewhat more naturalistic example cited by Gardiner (early Dynasty IV). 15. pls. For the anomalous form ≥. 4. Figure b is early Dyn. 11. 19. 8 (14). is to be seen ibid. Lacau and Chevrier. 17. . ssmt. 66 (frag. Re-Heiligtum II. A more valid example. V (Sahure). 17. pl. Une Chapelle. and a few other such cases. pl. 5. 5(5). ∫ º 20 E6 E8 HORSE. 1). but elsewhere.. pls. 16. the sign is taller: Nina Davies. 15. p. ¡b. in the same period. k£. See Addenda below. 15. 16 (12). Bersheh I. s£¢. 60. Mastabas of Qar and Idu. 15 (21). 18. pl. pl. but these inscriptions again show a good deal of variation in the height of other signs. JEA 47 (1961) pl. for tall examples see Bissing. KID. Private Tombs I. pls. 67. Mereruka. For tall examples of the Middle Kingdom see Newberry and Griffith. en-Amun. Two Sculptors. where the height of the signs is variable. (D62) see above. pl. pl. rd. The relative shortness of this sign in the Gardiner font is difficult to justify. but these. 12 (1). It may be based on examples such as Rekh-mi-Re ™. 29. ≤ D61 TOES. in a horizontal line. Simpson. It is true that the leg is often relatively short in Old Kingdom inscriptions.

Khafkhufu I and II. cf. Dendera. 60 and note 3. In beginning the lion. which means “front. Note. and more regularly after the Old Kingdom: Fischer. p. The nascent horns are usually omitted in Old Kingdom examples. start with $ (F4).” then continue to the back (6. The Old Kingdom form commonly shows a very long tail (descending below the baseline). 31. while in 6 it curls up over the back. that in Õ the tail curves around the haunch. WZKM 57 (1961) p. ¡w. however. The shrine began to appear beneath Anubis in funerary formulae of the Sixth Dynasty (Pepy I onwards). [F21] meaning “rear”) and finally the underside. Ã E21 RECUMBENT SETH-ANIMAL. z£b. 84 (14). rw. 32. ≈ E16 ANUBIS ON SHRINE. Kawab. Stfl. as in Archaic representations of the lion. but are shown in Simpson. figs.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY æ E9 NEWBORN BUBALIS. Old Kingdom examples already show the end of the tail as the feathered end of an arrow. ∆ E17 JACKAL. 21 . Õ E23 LION. ⁄npw.

£t. The horns of the adult goat were added in the Sixth Dynasty (e. this sign is sometimes replaced by the seal alone. 8.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY ’ E31 GOAT WITH CYLINDER SEAL. 6. 30 [b]). s™¢. 6. Antefo˚er. Conversely. JEA 32 [1946] pl. Fischer. Gardiner. 14 and note c). for the earlier Old Kingdom examples show nascent horns or none. The small ear and rounded nose are equally characteristic. E34 HARE. more appropriately. 4 and 8 (cf. line 5. this sign for £t replaces an earlier one resembling ) (F9). pl. See also Addenda. Dendera. Une Chapelle. as an ideographic writing of £f™ “greed” in Beni Hasan I. but the kid (as well as the goat) reappears in the shrine of Sesostris I at Karnak: Lacau and Chevrier. also a late Dyn. Beni Hasan I. As Gardiner notes (in connection with ¿ S20). p. The eye projects. pl.: Gardiner. XI ex. 459 and note 27. and in inscriptions of the same period at Saqqara: Firth and Gunn. to allow the animal to see above the water when almost totally submerged. 9 (so interpreted by Newberry. 85 (2). ¡™n. F1 F3 HEAD OF BULL. the seal was occasionally omitted from the goat: Clère. the later £t-sign was in use as early as 22 . The animal was originally a kid. pl. JEA 4 (1917) pl. ÷ ÿ ! # E32 BABOON.g. pl. 27). HEAD OF HIPPOPOTAMUS. Miscellanea Gregoriana. p. and notably in funerary texts. As Gardiner notes. 33 (center [4]). épigraphie pl. 83. pls. this identifies the problematic determinative in Prisse I. Teti Pyramid Cemeteries. wn. also Davies. The goat without a seal is also used.

down to the mid-Eighteenth Dynasty. % F5 HEAD OF BUBALIS. The long muzzle and lyriform horns are characteristic. 5 [310]). F23 FORELEG OF BULL. §43). In the earlier periods. 254–255. 9 F25 HOOF (OF BULL). Antefo˚er. ßs£(w).” while 8 (F24) is used to refer to the foreleg as an offering (Egyptian Studies II. wsr(t). The long neck should begin at a point midway between the ears. XII (Davies. Se’n-Wosret-™ankh. pl. RdE 25 (1973) pp. 8. . 23 . this form is preferred for ∞pß meaning “strength. s∂m. ' F7 RAM’S HEAD. 5 7 F21 EAR (OF BULL?). F12 NECK (OF CANINE). Further evidence for the reading is given by Roccati. ßft. The ends of the horns are turned upward. Hayes. ∞pß. See also Addenda. w¢m(t).SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY the beginning of Dyn. pl.

this may represent the hide of some other animal. 21–23. 2). 231). The second sign. 46). to fig. the short tail erect. pl.” But in the earlier example (a). Minor Cemetery at Giza [Philadelphia. . F 28 COW’S SKIN. In the Old Kingdom the arrow does not reappear beyond the hide. 1924] pl. 51 [2]). this shows “the skin of the legs forming straps and the skin of the neck hanging down.d∑ ¡wn knmt ( JNES 18 [1959] p. p. 267). XI: MDAIK 31 [1975] pls. was regularly used for s£b “dappled” (an exception in Clarence Fisher. 24 . the water-skin is evidently tied with cords. I. p. pl. the body is angular. > F30 WATER SKIN. So also the Middle Kingdom example in Hieroglyphs. as Gardiner says. fln(t). As Griffith notes (Beni Hasan III. The first was often used in Old Kingdom writings of the title g. See also Addenda. but the later form is attested as early as Dyn. = F29 BULL’S HIDE PIERCED BY ARROW. < F27. and in the same context it is once replaced by (Urk. Represents a headless goat. st¡. Meir I. ßd(w). 18.. and the tail is drawn more convincingly. One Middle Kingdom example shows a shield impaled by two arrows ( . 9 (167).SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY : F26 SKIN OF GOAT.

G F39 BACKBONE AND SPINAL CORD. that the Old Kingdom scribe regarded the lower element as the heart and not the stomach (contra Vycichl. JEA 39 [1953] pp. sometimes slightly separated and sometimes together. in any case. 112–113). 9 [164]). It is clear. The normal form (a) may be compared to a sectioned sheep’s heart (b). the “mouth of the heart”). p. Probably this detail is a secondary reinterpretation (by assimilation to D F36) of what may originally have been the esophagus (the stomach being r-¡b. ¡b.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY B F34 HEART. ¡m£∞. D F36 LUNGS AND WINDPIPE. 5 (5). In this case both the shape and the striation of the trachea are apparent from the beginning. The striation of the tracheal cartilage (as in F36) fails to appear even in the most detailed Old Kingdom examples. nfr. in contrast to F35. See also Addenda below. C F35 HEART AND WINDPIPE. For semi-reversed forms see above. [49]. 25 . zm£. The second form (c) was often (but not always) used as determinative of ¢£ty in the Old Kingdom. but was frequently indicated thereafter (Hieroglyphs. pls. Examples of the Archaic Period and Old Kingdom often show a double pair of projections at the top.

The two ends hang almost symmetrically downward. Coptite Nome. 82. d G14 VULTURE. Dendera. 94 and n. k G21 SENNAR GUINEA FOWL. §32. Normally the tail should come down to the baseline.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY H X F40 BACKBONE AND SPINAL CORD. although it was occasionally shortened: Egyptian Studies I. There is a good deal of variation. 254).¡ in a Dyn. £w(¡). XII inscription. BiOr 38 [1981]. n¢. note 820). 79 (1). In the Old Kingdom the phonetic value was sometimes biconsonantal tw: Edel. tyw. p. Lesestücke. nr(t). 141. In earlier examples (Old Kingdom) the crest is more accu. Sethe. p. Ìrw. and the tail is often shorter. G4 LONG-LEGGED BUZZARD. The only significant difference between this bird and G1 is the rounded back of the head. m(w)t. the dip in the neck. (Theinhardt font G5) was used in the Late Period. Altägyptische Grammatik. note also nY for hm. The head is round. This sign sometimes replaces [ (G7) as the divine determinative in the Old Kingdom and later (Fischer. p. p. and again in personal names of the Late Period (de Meulenaere. sometimes the wattle becomes ê. p. thus: 26 . Y G5 FALCON. and the contour of the back are distinctive. Fischer. rately single. The very hooked beak. 211. the back begins higher than in the case of G1 and G4. and the wing more completely envelopes the body. Principally distinguished from G1 and G4 by the presence of crests and a wattle. The form .

4 [4]). 1o). pl. 21]. r∞yt. The sign in Gardiner’s font does not show these details satisfactorily. r∞yt. 46 [15. gm(t). as though “finding” ( . G23 LAPWING. 23). A further development of the new form. £∞. pls. G27 FLAMINGO. by one that shows the head bent down. Picture Writing.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY l m n G22 HOOPOE. pl. Reliefs and Inscriptions at 27 . shows a fish in the bill of the ibis. in the reign of Ramesses III. s G28 BLACK IBIS. the Gardiner form is replaced. G24 LAPWING WITH WINGS TWISTED. ∂sr. II. o p r G25 CRESTED IBIS. but this development does not seem to have begun much before the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty (my example is from Calverley. Temple of King Sethos I. like the Old Kingdom form of G51 (Medinet Habu I. 37]. Earlier examples generally emphasize the large round head and curved beak. and the same is true of those dating to the Eighteenth Dynasty (Hieroglyphs. ∂b. G26 SACRED IBIS. As Keimer remarks (ASAE 30 [1930] p. 6 [79]. and the beak is too long. in the New Kingdom. 27 [15. ΢wty. equivalent to Theinhardt font G46). See Addenda below. 28 [44]. pl.

Since scale is frequently ignored. 42 [E-9]). The wing may be drawn initially. u G30 THREE JABIRUS. pl. G32 HERON ON PERCH. so as to guide all the rest. See also Addenda. along with the head. G33 EGRET(?). b£w. This replacement seems only to have been sporadic. This fishing bird has a long serpentine neck and a very long tail for swimming under water. wr. ™˚. { G36 SWALLOW. The legs may likewise be simplified by drawing them continuously: . pl. only the wide tail distinguishes this bird from the sparrow 28 . bnw.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY Karnak I. The heads may be lined up by drawing the beaks with a single stroke of the pen. sd£. 2 [3]). and did not eliminate the older form. Note also that the head slopes upward. G35 CORMORANT. b™¢¡. Old Kingdom examples of the jabiru show the wattle just beneath the head (so also in the Middle Kingdom: Beni Hasan III. v w x z G31 HERON.

†£. z£. G47 DUCKLING. pl. 36. In this period the large tail was sometimes allowed to overlap an adjacent border: MMJ 12 (1977) p. á | and ∑{A in Saqqara Mastabas I. p£. Ä Å á G40 FLYING DUCK. cf. 4 (2). Some C Old Kingdom examples are relatively large. zß. n∂s. which is only discernible in detailed examples. 19). pl. and the ancient scribe did not always indicate the difference very clearly. Kêmi 4 [1931] 29 . Scarcely distinguished from } (G38) except for the slightly different tail. Cf. 15 (18. The Old Kingdom duckling is decidedly less vertical than Gardiner’s G47. G39 PINTAIL DUCK. pl. | ~ G37 SPARROW.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY (G37). My model is Rekh-mi-Re™. nn. 8. and that is equally true of most examples down through the early New Kingdom. however. 35. from the same tomb. as is pointed out by Montet. The neck was sometimes lengthened to goose-like proportions in the New Kingdom. â G49 DUCKS IN POOL. ¡wn. ∞n(¡). To be distinguished from à (G48). t-wr. 1 (center): rn n∂s. also Picture Writing. G41 ALIGHTING DUCK.

3) and onward. it soon disappeared.g. mz¢. p. but normally reversed (cf. ã G51 HERON ON FISH. The Gardiner form is known from the late Old Kingdom (e. to judge from Old Kingdom examples. Kush 10 [1962] p. but the Old Kingdom form more usually does not show the bird standing on the fish. é G54 TRUSSED GOOSE. The New Kingdom examples (as in Gardiner’s font) represent a gecko. Picture Writing. 30 and pl. 5 (1). pl. cf. ö 30 I3 CROCODILE. ¢£m. 174–178. since the crest was in line with the bent neck.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY pp. ßw(t). The top falls slightly backward under its own weight. and. This form is usual in all periods. the bird was originally a crested heron. sn∂. but examples from the Old Kingdom show some variations. Deir el Gebrawi I. Not unlike ∆ (M17). ™ß£. 334). î H6 OSTRICH FEATHER. . ò I1 LIZARD.

as in the Mendesian nome emblem. 31 . As the Greek name indicates. the tail became horizontal in the Middle Kingdom (Montet. ¢fn(r). p.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY û I6 CROCODILE HIDE. The Old Kingdom version shows the tail curved downward. K4 OXYRHYNCHUS. 103). Lower Egypt 16. Beni Hasan III. 19]). 6 (102. pl. 1oo). But the Old Kingdom form is attested in the reign of Sesostris I: CG 20539 (I b. the long snout is distinctive. ¡n(t). I13 ERECT COBRA. 7 [13. bwt. The Old Kingdom form is more rounded. K1 BULTI-FISH.g. ™ ´ K3 MULLET. ™∂(w). The fish characteristically slopes upward. km. fl£(t). 72 and pl. † • ® © I8 TADPOLE. Kêmi 3 [1930] p. Fische und Fischkulte. The Gardiner version became usual in the Middle Kingdom: e. K2 BARBUS BYNNI. which represents Schilbe mystus (Ingrid Gamer-Wallert. 11).

but Old Kingdom examples show a great deal of variety. BEE. New Kingdom examples resemble a branch. ZÄS 51 (1913) pp. ∑ M2 RUSH. becoming a spiny balloon that is proof against the attack of carnivorous fish. See Addenda. ∞pr(r). The hind leg. was often omitted. Ø ∞ L1 L2 DUNG BEETLE. µ L7 SCORPION. is one of those modifications that derives from funerary texts in the burial chamber: Lacau.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY ≠ K7 BLOWFISH. This form is found in all periods. ¢n(¡). and the sign is usually described thus. 32 . det. ∏ M3 PIECE OF WOOD. The thorax and abdomen must be drawn separately. 57. ∞t. Puffs up when annoyed (ßpt). The stylization of this sign. b¡t. ßpt. but earlier examples depict a trunk with all branches lopped except for the one at the very end. under the abdomen. 49. omitting the tail and its venomous sting. Sr˚t.

as do some dating to the Old Kingdom (illustrated here) and even later. and in either case the signs may be joined at the base to form a plurality of thousands. STEM. ∞£. sometimes a bud. sometimes showing the open flower. w£∂. with the leaf turned forward. ¡ M12 LEAF. in one case the flower is replaced by the head of a goose (Egyptian Studies II. The Old Kingdom forms vary considerably. 129. Gardiner’s form. AND RHIZOME. See also Addenda. Clusters of two or more signs are also known from the Old Kingdom (Figure b). 33 . ¬ M13 PAPYRUS STALK. note 423). was usual from the Old Kingdom onward. although more rarely.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY ¿ M11 LOTUS ON A LONG STALK. Archaic examples again show variation: in some the leaf is upright. in others it is turned forward. OF LOTUS. but the upright leaf reappeared sporadically (Figure c) and especially in numbers. Archaic examples show projecting leaves at the base of the stalk. as though floating on the water. wdn. p. A certain amount of variation is also found in examples of the Middle Kingdom.

as in the next. 269–271. compare. 1o (M22. Ãà nn. M23) and 14 (M23). which otherwise has the value ¢£. Petrie and Quibell. In the New Kingdom the flowering end of this sign was stylized so that it resembles a fleur de lis. Naqada and Ballas. p. and that is sometimes true of examples dating to the early New Kingdom. The group Ãà is regularly replaced by ÕÕ in inscriptions of the Heracleopolitan Period (nomes U. Quite often. 1. whereas forms like those used by Gardiner appear in Tylor and Griffith. 5. In earlier examples (Old Kingdom and Middle Kingdom) the top of the plant is distinctly shorter than it is in Õ (M23). sw. for example. – M26 FLOWERING SEDGE (?). à M22 RUSH WITH SHOOTS. See also Addenda (M12). ßm™(w). later (c) the leaves are often joined symmetrically. 77. Fifth Dynasty forms (b) begin to depart from this arrangement. £∞. Dendera. In this sign. and examples such as the one in Figure b (emblematically representing Upper Egypt) are sometimes mistakenly identified as a lily or lotus. and often elsewhere. 34 . 17. the earliest Old Kingdom examples (a) show the leaves overlapped alternately. 6). The base represents the water in which the papyrus is growing. Õ M23 SEDGELIKE PLANT. pl. the form is simplified to ≈ (M16). For details see Fischer. Paheri. m¢(w). and JNES 18 (1959) pp. from the Old Kingdom onwards. pls.K. Menkheperrasonb. pl. 4. and the occasional assimilation of à to Õ is also known from later periods.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY ƒ M15 PAPYRUS THICKET.

3). In my Dendera. in fact. p. See also Addenda. JEA 28 [1942] p. fig. 58. d£¡w. pl. line 11). But hieratic occurred in the Old Kingdom. likewise read rd. 35 . 2 N18 BOLT OF CLOTH. RHIZOME ÷. 22). pl. also LD Text. VIII. Berlin Pap. The forms are variable. As a sign for cloth (listed after Gardiner’s S26). and hieroglyphic 7 in Meir V. 14–20). p. M31 STYLIZED OF LOTUS. In the Old Kingdom this sign resembles a leg. 7 N23 IRRIGATION CANAL. and 7 late in Dyn. Aa12) became E (N36) in Dyn. and not “a garment” (MMJ 10 [1975] pp. but these two signs were consistently differentiated. 9o (15). ¡z. n∂m. XI. Ò (Aa28. 17. bnr. this represents rolled up linen. the sign ≠ (D56) is. ’ M32. 8869 (Smither. rd. II. 60. M30 SWEET-TASTING ROOT(?). 1 (N20–22. I note that the Old Kingdom determinatives 4. 26 (and cf. 29).SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY ” ‘ M29 SEED POD. fi M40 BUNDLE OF REEDS. This sign must be carefully distinguished from Ô. Old Kingdom examples show a considerable amount of variation (see also ZÄS 93 [1966] p.

Medum. Dendera. as well as E (N36). and somewhat later. 9. ¡wn. as shown in Figure b. and even in much later periods. . The notched top began to appear in the Sixth Dynasty (Fischer. is apt to be curved (Petrie. In Archaic examples the sides are sloping rather than vertical. 12). ∂w. < N28 SUN RISING BEHIND HILL. In the earlier Old Kingdom inscriptions this sign. As may be seen from the detailed Old Kingdom example. O29 WOODEN COLUMN. g O28 STONE COLUMN. 84). ? N31 ROAD BORDERED BY SHRUBS.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY 9. The curved example shown here is Dyn. V. p. N26 MOUNTAINS. Thereafter it was usually straight. See also Addenda. In Old Kingdom examples the column is sometimes fluted. ∞™¡. but the curved forms appeared occasionally. w£t. the outer curve defines the rays of the sun. ∞£st. : N25. pls. and this feature persists to some extent in the Old Kingdom (b). ™£. 36 h The capital of this column was usually simplified after the Old Kingdom.

Caminos. pls. Ä P1 BOAT. 10). 4f on p. pp. Buhen I. 37 . and more frequently in those of the Heracleopolitan Period and Eleventh Dynasty: cf. 78–79. 25–26. see JARCE 2 (1963) pp. v O42. 9 and n. 68. 63. Die südlichen Räume. Old Kingdom examples usually omit the oar (Figure a). Dendera. either wholly or in part. dpt. and even in inscriptions that show the normal rightward orientation: Rekh-mi-Re™. w O44 EMBLEM OF MIN TEMPLE. and a boat with high prow and stern (Figure b) is preferred in titles of that period. fig. O43 FENCE. 92. pls.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY u. ¡£t. For variations of the second sign. 94. 75. | O49 CROSSROADS. New Kingdom examples of u are frequently reversed. 62 (12). 48. Brunner. n¡wt. Fischer. An early variant (Old–Middle Kingdom) shows the sign in an extended hand: (MMJ 12 [1978]. pl. Used in all periods. The second form is occasionally found in Old and Middle Kingdom inscriptions. ¢™w. but Old Kingdom examples show some striking variations. With seat and steering oar. p. ßzp. used in the Old Kingdom.

The Gardiner and Theinhardt fonts wrongly reverse the direction of the sail. The second Old Kingdom example (b) is a less common variant. This one shows a high prow and stern. and it carries a shrine containing the god’s image. as illustrated here. Ñ P4 FISHERMAN’S BOAT. Gardiner’s reversed form applies only to a few very special cases (Egyptian Studies II. Another example. 3 [23]). w¡£. See Addenda. †£w. Old Kingdom examples show no orientation in either direction. like the ships in Old Kingdom titles. The Old Kingdom form usually has a high prow and stern (as also in the Middle Kingdom: Beni Hasan III. The forms vary. 38 . §40). The ship should be moving forward.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY Ç P2 SHIP UNDER SAIL. shows a catfish (w¢™) in place of the net. from the Middle Kingdom (c). É P3 SACRED BARK. ∞nt¡. §39). and the example illustrated here (a) also shows the pattern of the fisherman’s net. w¢™. det. Ö P5 SAIL. which should move forward rather than backward (Egyptian Studies II. pl.

below. which reappeared occasionally in the Old Kingdom (Fakhry. ù R11 ÎD-COLUMN. p. ö R8 PENNANT. Caminos and Fischer. 9. fig. ° R15 FEATHER ON STANDARD. Epigraphy and Palaeography. The Old Kingdom examples show many variations. The pennant consists of strips of cloth. 160 and note 13). 48 and note 76). to a lesser extent. Monuments of Sneferu at Dahshur II. 1977] p. See Addenda. rarely triple (for the latter see Ancient Egypt in the Metropolitan Museum Journal [New York. N29. 39 . The top of the pennant is slanted. was usually horizontal. the bottom. T28.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY Ü P6 MAST. Normally the top is quadruple. wound around the pole. 9o. and so too. in the Old Kingdom. 3 (a– i). In the Archaic Period it took the form: . see MMJ 12 (1977) p. EMBLEMATIC OF DIVINITY. but sometimes also slanted as in Gardiner’s version. the forms of later periods. flrt-n†r. cf. ™¢™. fig. Old Kingdom examples have a shorter stem at the base. ¡£bt. n†r. ú R10 Combination of R8.

The emblem of Upper Egyptian Nome 8 shows a good deal of variation. for the amulet see Margaret Murray. 132–133. — S34 AMULETIC BOW. 11–15. The New Kingdom version misinterprets the old sign as a pair of flagella (› S45) and the ßn-sign (| V9). 40 . § R17. RED CROWN OF LOWER EGYPT. Originally represented a neckband from which an amulet was suspended.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY £. 72–77. in which the lower part represents the two ends. 50–53. Ancient Egypt (London 1917) pp. and some later writings in WZKM 57 (1961) pp. as shown in the Old Kingdom example. S23 FLAGELLA AND ÍN-SIGN. some Old Kingdom forms are displayed in JAOS 74 (1954) p. in Archaic examples these two ends are sometimes widely separated: . It does not seem possible to explain it as a sandal strap. Jéquier. Originally resembled an elaborate bow. ™n∞. n(t). 34. ¨ Æ ƒ S1 S3 WHITE CROWN OF UPPER EGYPT. ¢∂t. T£-wr. R18 THINITE NOME-EMBLEM. BIFAO 11 (1914) pp. dm∂. cf. For the difference between this sign and “ (V39) see MMJ 5 (1972) pp.

§45. reflects the way the stick is carried in early representations down through the first two reigns of Dyn. “Some Notes on Sticks and Staves. In most of the earlier cases the loop is near the top. pl. which began to replace the simpler form ¤ (M37) in Dyn. This seems originally to have been a herdsman’s staff: see Fischer. T13 SHELTER(?). pls. with knobbed end downward. 41 . The looped tie may have been suggested by that of ⁄ (M36). 1245 (c. mdw. cf. rs. Meir II. The Old Kingdom form often shows a base. The orientation. as attested in Pyr. $ T3.” §9. Frises d’objets. so that this can hardly be “a strap to pass round hand. XII: Petrie et al. Lahun II. p. 226. as in Figure b. ¤ S43 WALKING-STICK. 3. T4 PYRIFORM MACE. The New Kingdom form is similar to that of the p∂-™¢™ implement. Jéquier. 4.” 0 1 T12 BOWSTRING. 29.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY ÿ S40 W£S-SCEPTER. rw∂. but it seems doubtful that the latter originally had any connection with the sign for rs. M). The second form is known from the Archaic Period and was used fairly frequently in the Old Kingdom and later. ¢∂. See Addenda. #. IV: Egyptian Studies II..

began to be used in Dyn. My own drawing is closer to the earlier examples. wrrt. pp. This shows the earlier New Kingdom type of chariot. d is an unusual example. but there are many exceptions. Figures c and d show the net opened and closed. pl. 307–313. T27 BIRD-TRAP. 42 . w™. My model is Picture Writing. The Theinhardt form U37. 9 (6). The tie is normally in front. XVIII. Fig. pl. which evidently shows the two overlapping halves of the trap.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY 5 T17 CHARIOT. ∂b£. but often a more realistic representation was preferred (b). 9 T21 HARPOON. Manuel d’archéologie V. ? T26. >. with the wheel located beneath the center of gravity rather than (as in the Amarna Period and after) behind it. = T25 REED FLOAT. 13. s∞t. For details see Vandier. with two barbs ( ). also shown in en-Amun. also Addenda. See also Addenda. The Old Kingdom sometimes used the schematic form T27. and at least as early as the reign of Tuthmosis III.

b¡£. 25 39. 16. pls. 52) also shows . See also Addenda. mr. M U6 HOE. 172–174. The Old Kingdom hieroglyph shows the flint blades along the cutting edge. XVIII the bottom of this sign became rounded. For an actual example see Petrie. as explained by the single or double rope in Old Kingdom hieroglyphs. 68 (62). Pl. 13. m£. 11. U U13 PLOUGH. 39. pls.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY @ T28 CHOPPING BLOCK. and note 142). as in the case of the hoe (U6). In the second half of Dyn. pl. Tools and Weapons. May show either one or two crosspieces. 59. below. pl. The latter (pl. Here the blade is directed forward rather than backward. Private Tombs I. 40. sk£. evidently by assimilation to ® (W11) or to the sun-disk in ' (N7): en-Amun. Gurob and Hawara. which subsequently became quite common (MMJ 12 [1978] p. flr. H U1 SICKLE. 9 (22). 11. Some Old Kingdom variations are discussed in Orientalia 29 (1960) pp. For the same feature in ' see Ramose. Ramose. 8. hb. For an actual example see Petrie. 43 . X U16 SLEDGE WITH HEAD OF JACKAL. pl. Kahun.

] U21 ADZE.” used in the Old Kingdom as determinative of ™nt “nail. A detail from an Old Kingdom scene shows the tool in action. 21 (5–6). stp. Note how the metal blade is fastened to the handle. the ancestor of the plane.” often shows the form illustrated here. as shown in the detail from an Old Kingdom scene (Figure b). The Old Kingdom hieroglyph is taller than the New Kingdom version of Gardiner’s font. ^ U22 CHISEL. Used with a mallet. 44 . pl. Actual examples may be seen in Petrie and Brunton. Sedment I. nw.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY \ U20 ADZE (OLD KINGDOM). Gardiner’s “somewhat similar sign. mn∞.

pl. and the orientation of this detail in Figure c.K. pl. pl. with a narrow cap at the top (Figure d).g. the same sign is used for £b. and also explains the jog in the stem (Figure b). which occurs in many examples including those of the New Kingdom (e. ¢mt. fig. The drawing in Figure c shows how the drill was operated. 93 [4]. Borchardt. mr. Old Kingdom examples normally show a projection at the front of the handle.K. pl. In the Eighteenth Dynasty a slightly different form. pl. Grabdenkmal Ne-user-re™. Weighted at the top with stones.) STONEWORKER’S DRILL. The second of the Old Kingdom examples has already begun to resemble Gardiner’s New Kingdom form. as demonstrated by Figure c. a piece of flint or sandstone inserted in the fork at the bottom does the drilling (cf. 13. Picture Writing. ` U24 (M. became common from the reign of Tuthmosis III onward. 45 . 8 [1o]). An early example of this period (e) shows a wider cap. a U25 (O. The same feature is sometimes found in Middle Kingdom examples: Hieroglyphs. and this was evidently provided to keep the thumb from slipping. 8 (107).SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY _ U23 HAND CHISEL. Rekh-m¡-Re™. As Gardiner notes. 36. cf. 124). Firth and Quibell. Gardiner’s U25 and 24 wrongly show the top slanting backward instead of forward.). en-Amun. Step Pyramid II.

shows the drill penetrating the wood. t£.). ∂£. 46 . Old Kingdom examples often distinguish the brick walls of the kiln from the opening at the bottom and from vertical lines at the top. representing glowing heat. A variant often used in the late Old Kingdom.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY c U27 (O. See Addenda. 46 (19). Gardiner’s U27 is probably taken from the caption of this scene. b U26 (N. e U29 (O. as seen in the Old Kingdom example illustrated here (Figure b). Gurob.).K. The figure shows a craftsman drilling a hole in a bead. wb£. f U30 POTTER’S KILN. For an actual example see Brunton and Engelbach. Occasionally the top is a rounded heap of glowing coals. as well as at least two examples from the New Kingdom.K.) FIRE-DRILL. d U28 (N. pl. DRILL FOR SMALL OBJECTS.K.).K. illustrated here.

but perhaps a yoke for oxen(Graefe. In preparing flax thread for cloth (b) the spinner stood. probably papyrus. and let the spindle twirl freely in the air to twist the loosely gathered rove. Thus the recommended simplification is less inaccurate than it might appear. The Old Kingdom form (a) evidently does not represent a bolt at all. MDAIK 27 [1971] pp. u V2 BOLT AND STRING. and are narrower above this point. 149–150). n U36 FULLER’S CLUB. The earlier examples (Old and Middle Kingdom) are usually broader at the base. ¢m. 47 . Figure b illustrates an additional New Kingdom example showing the protuberances of the bolt. s†£. See also Addenda. being twisted to make rope.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY j U34 SPINDLE. ∞sf. The Old Kingdom scene illustrated here (a) shows coarse fiber.

SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY w V4 LASSO. Ü V18. ã V23 (O. then it most probably is a life preserver.). however. It should be noted. If this sign represents the papyrus bandoleer worn by boatmen (Figure d). ˚n¡ (Firth and Gunn. is not divided at the bottom (a.K. 48 . But the determinative of ˚n¡ is virtually reduplicated by the Middle Kingdom example of z£ shown in Figure c. and from this period onward the bottom of the z£-sign was usually divided. The knot of the lasso is rarely indicated. ä V22 (N. Pyr.) WHIP. 2044a) and that V18. that the bandoleer is evidently termed pl. w£. 52. z£. 231–232. Teti Pyramid Cemeteries. unlike the determinative of this word. as is assumed by the authorities whom Gardiner cites. m¢. as proposed by Oric Bates in Harvard African Studies I (1917) pp.K. b). Easily drawn with a single line. Ö V17 LIFE PRESERVER. An Old Kingdom example clearly shows the structure.

w∂. pl. has ù (Petrie. ç V25 (later) CORD WOUND ON STICK. sk(¡). mr¢t. 10). It is doubtless for this reason that the later form ç was devised. but it sometimes has three loops or (rarely) a single loop. it first came into use toward the end of Dyn. note 6). while another of the same reign has ú (Lacau and Chévrier. Koptos. and the name of the 49 . The three-looped form also occurred fairly frequently in the New Kingdom. One example. 246. But Old Kingdom examples often omit the seal altogether. ú W2. The cord is sometimes moved higher on the stick. Une Chapelle. Y1). however. The Old Kingdom forms show a certain amount of variation. instead of two. w£∞. 42). As in the case of ¡ and ¿ (Y2. 23–24. Figure c. and they may also show the veining that is characteristic of alabaster. W1 SEALED OIL JAR. resembling Gardiner’s V29. XII (JEA 61 [1975] p. ù.K. One of the earlier examples of V25 (Figure b) still shows the cord at the center.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY å V24 (O. for which see also GM 122 (1991) pp. in which case it may easily be confused with # (T3). the later form shows the ends of string beneath the seal.). ë V29 SWAB. pl. dating to the early Middle Kingdom. Although ù sometimes continued to appear in the name of Bastet after the Old Kingdom. this usage was by no means as regular as Gardiner indicates. soon became the most common of these. b£s.

Newberry. 40. nw. Begin with the caps of the vases. the tops of the second row rising behind the first. pl. The simplified version of this sign was occasionally used from the Old Kingdom onward (e. C24.) ÌZ-VASES IN A RACK. Tell Basta. 44). 31. Minor Cemetery at Giza. fig. Petrie. ∞nt(¡).SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY goddess usually shows ú in early New Kingdom writings (e. 50 . In Old Kingdom examples the rim is rounded. 26 and pl. pl. Theban Necropolis. above. which were exploited as decoration. but usually assumed a form like (Clarence Fisher. 7D). Spiegelberg. ¢b. µ W24 POT. below.g. so also the example cited by Gardiner: Northampton. The lozenge at the center is a simplification of the variegated layers of the stone. 34 [2]). This veining also appears in W2. Habachi. pl. MMJ 9 [1974] p. Moh. pl. and in Aa31. The form with four jars is more usual in the earlier Old Kingdom inscriptions. in the early New Kingdom simplified forms such as became quite common. û W3 ALABASTER BOWL. Gîza IX. not everted. Ø W18 (O. 149. note 1) as also in the first dynasties. p. as distinguished from Gardiner’s New Kingdom form. ibid.g. and so too in the Middle Kingdom (Hieroglyphs. 49 [3]. In a very few cases the row of four jars is reduplicated. 8 [141]). Gizeh and Rifeh. Æ W17.. the same is true of the later New Kingdom.. but examples with three jars were not uncommon in that period ( Junker. Aly et al.K. fig. Temple d’Amada IV.

51 . 386). the reigns of Sesostris I to Amenemhet II (Wolfgang Schenkel. and is differently oriented. but was replaced by the later form in the Twelfth Dynasty: Blackman. §2). 18. Ê. XIth Dynasty Temple at Deir el-Bahari I. 19 [H]). the quiver he compares. etc. Frühmittelägyptische Studien. Á Aa17. but occurred sporadically down through the Second Intermediate Period (RdE 24 [1972] p. Meir I. pl. pls. Often replaced by hieratic in early Middle Kingdom inscriptions (ZÄS 100 [1973] p. Aa18. 12 [E]. note 1). 393). The variant showing a single string is most commonly attested from early Dyn. showing the ends of the strings projecting from beneath the mud seal. 7 (384. It appears in the earlier writing of the prenomen of Nb-¢pt-R™ Mentuhotep (Naville. 11 (= II. 99–1oo.. Newberry and Griffith. The two Old Kingdom variations both occur repeatedly and both favor the interpretation as a “lid” (Iversen. belongs to the first reign of Dyn. is suspended from a sling tied at each end. pl. 17 [66]). pl. Se’n-Wosret-™ankh. 70. It is known from the beginning of Dyn. LID. ¿ Y1 PAPYRUS ROLL. XII. 17 [E]). Se’n-Wosret™ankh. 7 (391. Bersheh I. s£. Hayes. later form is generally agreed to represent the cover of a quiver. The second. 54–57) rather than a “quiver” (Goedicke. pl. 5 (306). XII onward: Hayes. m∂£t. in an unpublished relief from the Userkaf pyramid temple. JEA 42 [1956] pp.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY ¡ Y2. pls. JEA 45 [1959] pp. XII. The Old Kingdom form is slightly different. ⁄ Aa5 ÌPT-IMPLEMENT. and shows other differences). The first dated occurrence of the later form.

In general this sign is thinner than fi (M40). this may be (and sometimes has been) mistaken for C(F35). Û Aa31 JAR. flkr. An unusual Middle Kingdom variant (d) resembles a tunic. p. 52 . p. 49. - If the lower part of this sign is effaced. BRICKMAKER’S STRIKER. Ú Aa30 CHEVAL DE FRISE.SIGNS ARRANGED BY CATEGORY È Aa20 SIGN FOR ™PR. which it tends to resemble. 58. Ó Aa27 SIGN FOR ND. JNES 15 (1956) pp. as Griffith has already noted in Ptahhetep I. For the nature of the implement. 37. for further Old Kingdom examples see ZÄS 93 (1966) p. fig. but it suggests that in that period this sign was understood as a kind of sack. 177–179. See also Addenda. 3 (aa–j j). and Badawy. see Hieroglyphs. A variety of forms occur in Old Kingdom inscriptions. ˚d. Ô Aa28. The first of the Old Kingdom forms shown here is anomalous. Ò Aa29. The Old Kingdom form represents an inverted alabaster jar. and in Old Kingdom examples the protuberance is usually near the upper or lower end.