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!ree Space )onstruction in 0etals

2dditive manufacturing has the capability to build three;dimensional ob<ects directly from a computer design by selectively depositing material. >t enables the construction of parts with comple@ internal or e@ternal geometries. The aim of this thesis was to design the foundations of a new additive manufacturing technology benchmarked against the capabilities of selective laser melting CSD0E. The ob<ectives of the thesis were to demonstrate deposition of metal tracks with

width F 100 !mI surfaces with roughness Ra F 10 !m and to build overhanging features without the use of fi@ed support structures.

The contribution of this thesis is the fundamental process development of using a heated tool for material deposition onto substrates and in free space. The e@perimental approach e@plored the thesis ob<ectives in three stagesK track deposition on a substrateI track deposition in free space and layering of free space tracks to build overhanging features starting from a substrate. The novel concept of a moving support structure during solidification was devised to meet the ob<ective of building overhanging features. This is the first time that the use of a heated tool as a temporary moving support structure to deposit tracks in free space has been reported.

To meet the resolution ob<ectiveI a T>L welder was used to power a resistance heated tungsten electrode to deposit stainless steel and titanium tracks onto a stainless steel substrate in the region of 50 !m to 1N0 !m in width. 2 greater than 50O rate of track deposition failure and contamination of deposited tracks by tungsten from the electrode required a shift to the use of a soldering iron and lead;free solder to investigate the process mechanisms for free space track deposition.

Qotable results in free space track deposition were that the initial track diameter and volume affected the repeatability and quality of tracks. The standard deviation of mean track width of tracks from the constrained initial diameter group were half that of the unconstrained group. The amount of material fed to the soldering iron before commencing deposition affected the taper of tracks. 2t an initial volume of 7 mm3 and an initial track diameter of 0.T mmI none of the ten tracks deposited broke or showed taper U V 1. The ma@imum deposition velocity for free space track deposition using lead; free solder was limited to 1.5 mms;1. !inite element modelling showed that the initial volume within the melt boundaryI initial track radius and distance between the soldering iron and the solidification front could be used to inform future e@perimental design. Selection of initial operating settings may be used to produce tracks profiles with standard deviations F 30O of initial track width.


Free Space Construction in Metals

Overhanging walls were constructed by layering using a modified raster scan strategy with values of scan spacing from 1 mm to 0.05 mm. A scan spacing of 0.05 mm produced a wall with an average surface roughness Ra of 10 !m. The walls produced had poor edge definition so alternative strategies were devised. The maximum deposition velocity using lead-free solder was 15 mms-1 during layered building of an overhanging wall. The maximum deposition velocity for stainless steel and titanium on a substrate were in excess of 10 mms-1.

Although the resolution objective was met with stainless steel and titanium, it was only possible to investigate free space construction with lead-free solder due to the > 50 % failure rate of track deposition using the resistance heated electrode. Further research is required to demonstrate free space construction using stainless steel and titanium, refine scan strategies for wall building and to build solid objects such as cubes.