A fragma air preheater (fAPH) is a general term to describe any device designed to heat air before another process

(for example, combustion in a boiler) with the primary objective of increasing the thermal efficiency of the process. They may be used alone or to replace a recuperative heat system or to replace a steam coil. In particular, this article describes the combustion air preheaters used in large boilers found in thermal power stations producing electric power from e.g. fossil fuels, biomasses or waste. The purpose of the air pre heater is to recover the heat from the boiler flue gas which increases the thermal efficiency of the boiler by reducing the useful heat lost in the flue gas. As a consequence, the flue gases are also sent to the flue gas stack (or chimney) at a lower temperature, allowing simplified design of the ducting and the flue gas stack. It also allows control over the temperature of gases leaving the stack (to meet emissions regulations, for example). There are two types of air pre heaters for use in steam generators in thermal power stations: One is a tubular type built into the boiler flue gas ducting, and the other is a regenerative air preheater. These may be arranged so the gas flows horizontally or vertically across the axis of rotation.

An electrostatic precipitator (ESP), or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of an inducedelectrostatic charge. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices that minimally impede the flow of gases through the device, and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke from the air stream.[1]. In contrast to wet scrubbers which apply energy directly to the flowing fluid medium, an ESP applies energy only to the particulate matter being collected and therefore is very efficient in its consumption of energy (in the form of electricity). Collection efficiency (R) Precipitator performance is very sensitive due to two particulate properties: 1) Resistivity; and 2) Particle size distribution. These properties can be determined economically and accurately in the laboratory. A widely taught

If there is a concern about the effect of combustibles. Data are acquired using an average ash layer electric field of 4 kV/cm. the residual effect of a conditioning agent other than sulfuric acid vapor. With particles of high resistivity (cement dust for example) Sulfur trioxide is sometimes injected into a flue gas stream to lower the resistivity of the particles in order to improve the collection efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator . Controlling draft Most boilers now depend on mechanical draft equipment rather than natural draft. the combination of the ascending and descending test mode is recommended. Since relatively low applied voltage is used and no sulfuric acid vapor is present in the environment. This test is conducted in an air environment containing a specified moisture concentration. the values obtained indicate the maximum ash resistivity. as well as the chimney . the ash is thermally equilibrated in dry air at 454 °C (850°F) for about 14 hours.concept to calculate the collection efficiency is the Deutsch model. It is believed that this procedure anneals the ash and restores the surface to pre-collection condition. This is because natural draft is subject to outside air conditions and temperature of flue gases leaving the furnace. This results in ascending and descending temperature resistivity curves that show a hysteresis related to the presence and removal of some effect such as a significant level of combustibles. The thermal treatment that occurs between the two test modes is capable of eliminating the foregoing effects. or the effect of some other agent that inhibits the reaction of the ash with water vapor. Usually the descending temperature test is suggested when no unusual circumstances are involved. Before the test. Resistivity can be determined as a function of temperature in accordance with IEEE Standard 548. which assumes infinite remixing of the particles perpendicular to the gas stream. The test is run as a function of ascending or descending temperature or both.

The steam jet oriented in the direction of flue gas flow induces flue gasses into the stack and allows for a greater flue gas velocity increasing the overall draft in the furnace. The denser column of ambient air forces combustion air into and through the boiler. The third method is by simply using an induced draft fan (ID fan) which removes flue gases from the furnace and forces the exhaust gas up the stack. the first being the "stack effect" of a heated chimney. This is more common with larger boilers where the flue gases have to travel a long distance through many boiler passes. The second method is through use of a steam jet.  Balanced draft: Balanced draft is obtained through use of both induced and forced draft. Dampers are used to control the quantity of air admitted to the furnace. There are three types of mechanical draft:  Induced draft: This is obtained one of three ways. Almost all induced draft furnaces operate with a slightly negative pressure. Air is often passed through an air heater. . in which the flue gas is less dense than the ambient air surrounding the boiler. as the name suggests. which. heats the air going into the furnace in order to increase the overall efficiency of the boiler. The induced draft fan works in conjunction with the forced draft fan allowing the furnace pressure to be maintained slightly below atmospheric.  Forced draft: Draft is obtained by forcing air into the furnace by means of a fan (FD fan) and ductwork. This method was common on steam driven locomotives which could not have tall chimneys.height. Forced draft furnaces usually have a positive pressure. All these factors make proper draft hard to attain and therefore make mechanical draft equipment much more economical.