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ISBN 960 - 7575 - 10 - 5 960 - 7575 - 11 - 3

POYNTOA~ POKEP E8NIKIl:MOl: KAI nOAITIl:MOl:

Msrdopcon A' TOIlOU Iiovvnc KapllIaa~ Mopic Koorovopc

Emll£ft£IO M£'[ciq>poon~ A' TOIlOU KOI EIOOYWYIKO l:nll£lwllo Iidvvnc Kapu'[0a~

H Ei\i\nvIKrl p£To<ppaan IOU "E8vIKlap6~ KQl noi\map6~" EVIV£ p£ Bdon rnv Aueprxdvucn EKooan IOU MICHAEL E.

COUGHLIN (enavesikxm ro 1978 ttv; npCJJrn~ ueuupoaotu; rov 1937 rov Ray E.

Chase, nov eixe yfVSI J1S rn oiuupcovn yVCJJJ1n rov POKSp) KQI tnv hai\IKrl EKooan Hi)V £Ko6o£(i)v "Anarchismo" (enavenboot: ro 1977 inc npCJJrn~ Irai\JKn~ uettuppaatu; rov Virgilio Gozzoli, nov eixe fSKlvnasl rn ueuuppaon zCJJvro~ aKOJ1n rov POKSP KQJ

J1s rn aUJ1rpwvn yVCJJJ1n rov).

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EK06o£l~ APOQV ApI0IOtei\ou~ 14, 104 32 - A8HNA T ni\: 8836035

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H ANEnAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY YAILMOY oefl 25

KEcponOio 2

8PHLKEIA KAI nOf\ITIKH. oefl 71

KEcponOio 3

H EKKAHLIA KAI TO KPATOr

KATA TO MErAIONA oefl 119

KEcponalo 4

H E=:OYLIA ENANTION TOY nOf\ITIrMOY ..... oefl157

Exnmcoon EKLlOTIKH - EKTynnTIKH LlI0VUOOU 6, 104 42 - A8HNA

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H ANOLlOr TOY E8NIKOY KPATOYL oefl 183

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H AnOf\YTAPXIA or ENA EMnOLlIO THr

OIKONOMIKHr ANAnTY=:HL oen 243

ISBN 960 - 7575 - 10 - 5 960 - 7575 - 11 - 3

EIEArQrIKO l:HMEIQMA

o NnEYKO Al1no.VT VT£ LaVnYlo.V, 0 Ionnvoc avapxoOUVOIKar\lOH1e;; Oyc.oVIOU1~ KQ1 oUyypQ(PEO~, sixe ypo.lP£) n~ "sdv vio TOV Ikcire EX£I Emc.o8El on n£pIOOOTEPO KQ1 ana rEp110VO~ {nov EVOe;; noi\lTn~ tnc Eopcormc, vic TOV PoUVTOi\c.p POKEP l1nOPOUl1E va nOUl1E on ElVQ1 EVOC;; noi\fmc;; TOU K00110U". KQ1 npdvucn, n aVE~o.VTi\mn EV£pvnnxotntd TOU EKwi\fx8nKE KOI am Isppcvfc KQ1 om Msvdon Bpetcvvio KQ1 one Hveuevsc noi\ITEIEc;; me AllEpIKn~. Axdpotoc uoxnrric, OPXIKo. lleoo 010 ni\oIOIo TOU IOXUPOU EBpoi'KOU OVOPXIKOU EpyaTiKOU KIVnllOTOC;; me MEy6.i\nc;; BpE1OVfoe;; KQ1 opvorspc lleoo 010 ni\oIOIa TOU Isppovrxou ovoPXOouvoIKai\IOTIKOU xivriuoroc, urropsos oovxpovox va llac;; ac.pnoEl llia llEyo.i\n ouvvpcqnKr1 epvcofc, 11£ xopopcfo TOU EPYO TO "E8vIKIOllOC;; KQ1 noi\mo110c;;". lllaBo.zOV1OC;; Kav£lC;; TO "E8vIKIOllOC;; KQl noi\moll0C;;", llEVEI EKni\nKTOC;; pnpoord ornv cnspcvrooovn TCt)V yvcboEc.ov TOU POK£P yupc.o ana rnv nOYKo- 01110 nopsio rcov av8pcbmvc.ov noi\mol1cbv.

o pouvTOi\c.p POKEP vevvriflnxe om Movsvrfo rnc Isp- 110VIO~ one 25 Moprfou TOU 1873. 0 Ei\£u8EpIOKOe;; KQ1 Snpoxpcuxoc XOPQ1{1r1PO~ me oKE\j.mc;; TOU Oc.p£fi\EI noi\i\o. OTO nvnnpooonco, c.pEVTEPOi\lOTIKO nvscpo me YE-

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EeNIKI~MO~ KAI nOi\ITI~MO~

EI~ArQnKO ~HMEIQMA

VEI£IPO~ IOU. "Ta 6npOKpaIlKO QI08npGIa nutric me nepioxnc tnc Isppoviuc ritov £VO(i)pGI(i)pEVa pEoa am E81pa IOU 1\aou ... (i)~ anoIE1\£O}la I(i)V no1\1\wv £nIPPOWV m~ p£YMn~ raMIKn~ Enovdotconc", 8a vprnps: 0 i610~ OIOV 10 IOPO I(i)V Avcpvrioeov IOU ("H veornrc £vo~ encvomom" -La juventud de un rebelde-, Mnooevoc I\IP£~, 1947). 'Eva p£yo1\o PEPO~ IOU 1\aou me Movevrioc KPOmOE suvoixri moon, 8a pa~ 8upio£1 nMI 0 POK£P, ensvavn O£ Evav ana IOU~ onpavIlKOI£POU~ aVlina1\ou~ IOU Biopcpx KQI me Ilpoooixric KpanKn~ n£18apxia~, IOV Nono-Isppcvo <p£vI£pa1\loIn Constantin Frantz.

Xdvovroc KQI IOU~ 6uo voveic IOU O£ no1\u uncpri n1\IKia, P£YM(i)O£ O£ opqxrvorpoqxio. Flepvovtuc ana 610q>opa EnaYYE1\pGIa, K£IE1\n~E va vfvei BIB1\106Em~, y£yovo~ nou IOU enstpetpe va E1\8EI O£ srtoori KQI va "KGIaBpox8io£I" pia rspdono noootnro BIB1\i(i)v. L.uyXpOV(i)~, PEO(i) IOU Bsfoo IOU Rudolf Naumann, n1\8£ O£ enceri p£ nc OOOlMIOIlKE~ 16E£~ me snoxnc, 'Evivs PE- 1\~ I(i)V "Jungen" ("NEOl"), pla~ op06a~ nou 1\£IIOUPvooos pEoa am n1\aiOla IOU r sppovncoii L.00la1\6npoxponxou KopPGIo~ (IOU SPD). 01 "Jungen" xopoxtnpizovrcv cno pia cvnoovpcnxri Kdl £1\w8£plaKn otdon, nou IOU~ Eq>£PVE oe aVli8£On pE IO OUYKeVIp(i)IlKOKPGIIOIlKO nvcopc IOU Map~ KQI IOU l\aooo1\, nou ernxpotouos pEoa am Ispunvixri LOOla1\6npoKpGIla. Msoc am n1\aiOla I(i)V "Jungen", 0 POKEP 0PXIO£ va 6IQPopq>WV£1 tnv dnoipn OIl 0 percoxnuonopoc tnc KOIV(i)Vla~ Sev £lVQI Eva an1\o OlKOVOPIKO zrimuo, Eva zrirnuo "veprime KOl1\IO~", aMo Eva znmuo no1\1I10}l0u, nou 8a npertei va Boofzeroi KUPI(i)~ OIO osfoopo me npoocorn-

xotntoc KQI otnv £1\£u8£pn np(i)IOBou1\ia I(i)V av8pwnov. rvwplo£ IOV Iooorcoo Aovtdoosp, Evav uno IOU~ onpcvnxorspooc Fspuovotx aVIl£~ouOlaoIE~ KQI 610BaO£ VIQ nporm oopd tnv ovopxixri eq>np£pi6a "Freiheit" ("E1\£u8£pia"), nou £~E616e 0 Isppovoc ovcpxnco; Iioxav Moor.

L.IO L.OOlMlOIlKO L.uVE6pIO I(i)V Bpu~£1\1\~v, IOV Au-. yOUOIO IOU 1891, n1\8£ nIO KOVIO OIOV ovcpxiouo KQI KGIaVOnO£ m Ba8umm 6laq>opo pEm~u IOU xpcnonKOU OOOlMIOPOU KQI IOU £1\£u8£plaKou ovopxiopou r vwpies no1\1\ou~ vsupouc Ispucvooc ovopxixooc, OUV6E- 8nK£ q>11\IKO KQI ennpscioflmcs cnuovnxd orto IOV onouSoio OMav6o ovnpxuco NIOpE1\a NIBEVXOU~. APEO(i)~ ava1\apBov£1 Spdon. Ernorpecovtoc am Fepucvio, eiooYOY£I ana IO Bi1\ylO, rtnpdvopc, evrono snovoctcnxo U1\IKO, YlGII am Ispuovfc cnovopsoorov VOPIK6. K08e:

OOOlMlOIlKn KQI nvcpxixri Spuompiotntu. Avdpeoc OIO U1\IKO nou eionvovs, rirov IO "ee:o~ xrn Kp6.IO~" IOU Mnoxouviv KQI n "Avopxncri H8IKn" IOU Kpononov . .6paotnpionoteitoi pEoa am n1\alOla me "Evoonc I(i)V Av£~OpmI(i)V L.OOlMlOIWV", nou 6nploupyn8nK£ IO 1891 uno aVIlKOlvoBou1\cuIlKo KQI aVIlouYK£VlP(i)IlKO OIOlxeio nou onoxopnocv ono IO L.00la1\6npoKpaIlKo KOPuo, 0 POK£P e:~e:J\fx8nK£ O£ €vav ana IOU~ uccvorepooc £1\eU8£plaKou~ pritopsc KQI aKIlBloIE~, y£yovo~ nou IOV ovdvxcoe, vic va ortorpuvet tn 61(i)~n, va £YKGIa1\el\p£1 tn Fsppovic KQI va KGIaq>uY£1 (i)~ no1\1I1KO~ npoooovc; am r a1\1\la.

MEO(i) Bievvnc, <p80V£1 OIO Ilopfoi OIl~ 30 Ll£K£PBplou IOU 1893. Epvdzsroi (i)~ BIB1\106Em~ KQI ouvdntsi

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E0NIKILMOL KAI nOI\ITILMOL

EILAronKO LHMEIOMA

aTEVn q>lflla ue IOV EKOOm me ovopxixric EqmllEploa~ "E~£YEpon" Zav rKpaB. 'EPXETOI OE enorpri us n~ raflfllK£~ aVapXIK£~ 01.l(10E~ KQI KUPlw~ us n~ OllelOE~ IWV avapXIKWV Ebpoicov me r aflflla~. Flcipvei ll£PO~ am 010- pdxn, nco dXE ~EOnelOEI IDlE OIOU~ XwpOU~ IWV r elflflWV avapXIKWV, llEIO~U IWV nnootnpnctrcv me "nportnvdvoa~ 010 IOU YEYOVOIO~" KQI IWV unOOmpIK[WV IOU snovaOIOIIKOU ouvoIKafllollOU KQI EIVQI IOIE noo vic npcotn rpopd aOnelZEIQI n~ BaOlK£~ apx£~ IOU avapXOOUVOIKaflIOllOU. H nopouovri IOU, OllW~, am raflflla, enpOKEIIO va ElVQI ouvropn. To 1894, llEIO m oOflo<povla IOU Kapvw KQI tn 6lKn IWV Tprdvto, n raflfllKn cotovopic E~an£fluoE £va avSpwnoKuvnymo svcvtfov IWV ovcpxixov KQI 0 POKEP, npoKEIll£VOU va onoeovei tn ounnmpn, one 31 LlEKEllBplou IOU 1894 EYKOI£flWPE IO Ilopioi KQI KOI£q>UYE 010 Aovolvo.

H MEyofln Bpsruvvio. ue m llEYelfln tnc Snuoxpnnxri nopoooon, nnorenouoe mv enoxri sxsfvn £va ao<pafl£~ xorccovio vio OflOU~ IOU~ enovootdtec non KOIaolwKoVIOV uno I1~ aUIOpxIK£~ KuBEpvnoEI~ IWV xwpwv IOU~. Msxp: mv £Kpn~n IOU npWIOU Flovxoouiou nOflEllOU, IO 1914, Sa nopnpsfvet am MEYelfln Bpstovvfn. £KIO~ cno £va OUVIOllOTOIO Olelomlla nopcuovric IOU one HVWll£V£~ nOfllId£~, IO 1898. ~m M£Yelfln Bpsrovvio So vvopioei IOV Flstpo Koononov, mv Aooizc MIO£fl, IOV EPPIKO MaflOI£oIO, x.o. ea Spnotnpronotncei KUPIW~ pscc OIO nflalOla IOU cvnpxixou KlvnllOIo~ IOU AOVOIVOU, EKIO~ cno ouo unqxi Smotriuoro Spcotnpionoinoric IOU ow Anvtc KQI ow AIBEpnoufl: ow Anvtc nopepeive ono TO psoo KUPIW~ IOU 1901 ll£XPI IO ~E-

m£llBplo IOU 1902, EVW ow AfBEpnoufl aV£flaB£ tn ouvtofn tnc E<pnllEploa~ IWV ovnpxucrov EBpalwv tnc nspioxric, EKOIOOVIO~ 8 tsuxn uno n~ 29 Ioufllou ll£XPI n~ 17 ~Em£llBpn IOU 1898.

To 1896, aq>ou £llaSE rn OIOflEKIO IWV EBpalwv "YIvnc" ("yiddish": uencrri Olelfl£KIO~ IWV Ebpoiov tnc ApspIKn~ KQI me Eupwnn~, onotshoupsvn uno flE~£I~ EBpaiK£~, rEPllavIK£~ KQI ~flaBovIK£~), OPXIOE va YPelq>£1 omv Eq>nllEploa IWV EBpalwv ovcpxucesv IOU Aovofvou "0 <Pfflo~ IWV Epvotosv" KQ1 £va ana IO nponc IOU xefusvc cvcqxporov orn Flcproivri Kouuoovo IOU 1871. Ano IO 1898 ll£xPI IO 1914 avaflallBelvEI m ouvIO~n IOU "<PIflOU IWV Epvozousvov" KQI KOIel tn OlelpK£la me llEYOfln~ spvonxric cnepvioc IOU 1912 Sa KOIaq>£pEI va EKOIO£IQI KaSnllEplvo. To 1900 So YPelqJEI otnv eqmuepf- 00 25 K£lll£va ll£oa ana IO onofc olOIunwvEI pfn ouvxpornpsvn xpmxri OIOV 10IOPIKO UfllOllO IWV llap~laTWV KQI onoxpooei KelSE EYKfl£IOllO me oK£qJn~ ll£oa OE BOYllOIa, nou oonvoov, oopqxovc llE IOV POK£P, omv topovvio. Ano IO 1900 psxp: IO 1908 E~£BIBE KQI IO unvroio nsproonco "Zeppivdo", nou ue IOV unomflo IOU aUIOnpoooloPIZOIOV W~ "opvcvo me ovopxixric IB£a~ vic IOV KOOllO".

To aloSnlla me OIKQlOOUVn~, nou rirov BaSElel xapaypsvo ll£oa IOU, Se» unopouos va IOV aq>noEI ocovxivnIO pnpootd aTO Beloava IWV EBpalwv spvozopsvrov m~ AVOIoflIKn~ nflEUpO~ IOU Aovoivou KQI £YIV£ svc llazu IOU~. Ynripxov IOI£ -So YPelqJ£1 opvorepc otnv aUIOBlovpueio IOU- XlfllelO£~ avSpwnwv nou BEV eixov OUIE KPEBelIl va KOlllnSouv KQI nou KOUflOUPlelZOVIOV n~ vu-

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E8NIKILMOL KAI nOAITILMOL

ElrArnnKO LHMElnMA

XtE~ OE KOnOIE~ BPWPIKE~ ycuvle~ onou n corovouic 5EV unopooos va TOU~ EVOXflnOEI. L tnv AVatOfllKn nflEUpO 80 KOVEI KOi rnv nprotn TOU oplflla OTO Aovoivo PE 8e}.1a "H onuoofo TOU Kapfl Ma~ KQl TOU Aaooofl Yla to epvcnxo xivnpn". H O}.1lflla eYIVE one 18 NOE}.1Bpfou roo 1895, aflflo mavafln<penKE, flOYCU tnc pEycifln~ m~ Emtoxioc, 5uo <POPE~: one 29 Nospbpfoo 1895 KOi one 3 Iavouaplou 1896. To 1902, 01 EBpaiKE~ ovopxixsc 01l0- 5E~ TOU Aov5fvou ave8Eoav OTOV POKEP mv npoetoiucoic EVO~ ovopxrxou ooveoofou, nou 5lf:~nx8n ernroxox one 25 KQl 26 &KEllBplou tOU 1902 KOi Km£fln~E ornv i5puon me Ouoonovcio; tCUV EBpa'iKwv AvapxIKwv 0110- Secv m~ MEyofln~ Bpsrovvioc KQl tOU Flcptoioo.

EKtO~ ana rnv EVEPYO OUl111ETOxn oro EBpalKo avapXIKO xfvnuo, aycuvloSnKE ue tOfl}.1n svcvriov tCUV avnEBpalKwv novxpouc. Ern pEyofln 51a5nflcuoo nou eYlve to 1903 svovtiov EVO~ avn-EBpa'iKou nOYKpoll KQl KatO tnv onoio 25.000 dtouc eixcv oUYKevtpcu8el OTO Hyde Park TOU Aov5IVOU, 0 POKEP rirov £va~ ana TOU~ BamKOU~ Ol-llflm£~. H ll£Ylom, OllCU~, npoooopd tOU POKEP nrav n oUllBofln rou ornv KaroPynon rou flEyO}.1EVOU sweating system, iva epvomoxo ooomuo oKflnpn~ EKllEroflflEuon~ tcov EBpaicuv epvcrrov ana tOU~ AYYflOU~ KanltafllOri~. Auto to ouornpo spvcoioc -cno mv ayYfllKn fl£~n sweat=15pwra~- xnpoxmpizorov ana BapElo, oKflnpn KQl nOflucupn spvoofc £vavn napa nOflu }.1IKpn~ allOlBn~' ornv EflflnvIKn Yflwooa Bo unopooos va ano- 508el nspnppoonxd oav "50UflEIO nou coo ByafvEI TO fl051 vic nEvtOp05eKOpE~". MEXPI tn }.1EyOfln cnepvic tOU 1912, rnov VOlllllO KOi onnpxcv }.10flIOTO spvoord-

010 nou fl£ltOupyouoav anoKflElonKo }.1E uuro TO ooornuc KQJ YI' core ovoudzovrov sweat-shops. To 1912, n llEycifln onspvic tCUV AYYflCUV KOi tcov EBpaicuv epvctcov tnc ooovroopvioc oonvnoe otnv xouipvnon nutoii tou coctripcroc epvuoicc. nOflflO xpovio psrd, l1E a<poPlln to Bdvaro TOU POKEP TO 1958, TO "EBpalKo XPOVIKO" 80 vpdipouv Yla tOV POK£P: "unrip~e 0 civ8p6Jno<; nou evenveooe, opvtioeae Kal oOriynoe rn pEyalm anepvia rov EBpaf(J)v epyar6)V ttu; ixpavtocpvku; ro 1912, nov ieeoe iva oplonKo riflo<; oro sweating system".

ME rnv EKpn~n tOU nprotOu nOYK0Ol110U noflElloU. ouvEfln<pen KOi KflelOenK£ OE orporonsoo OlXl1ai\wru)V am MEyofln Bpernvvio, 0 o1E8vlOPO~ TOU KOi n ouvoKOflou8n cvmniuropionxri, ovnEeVIKlonKn ordon tou nfl8av uvnperonc us tn OUflflOYIKn ovnveppovncn oorepia rcov llOZWV me M£yofln~ Bpsrovvfcc KOi Etm OUVEfln<p8n on~ 2 Ll£K£}.1BploU IOU 1914. Apyot£pO, to 1925 oro Beponfvo, SO YP0I.V£I tl~ "Avouvriosrc ana Eva AyYfllKO L rporoneoo AIXllai\WtCUV". Flspc cno m orepnon m~ EflEUeEpia~ tOU, EKelVO nou ritov nsptooorspo 05uvnpo vic TOV POKEP nrcv n nopaimon trov oooioiuonKWV KOll110tCUV aMo KOi TCUV flalKwv pozcov cno rl~ OVn}.1lflltOpIOnKi~, ovn£8VIKIOTlKi~ opxi~ KOI n orpdtEUOn roue OTO nfl£upo TCUV KuB£pvno£wv TOU~. Ano oorri tn onvuri, 0 POKEP, BflEnOVTO~ IOU~ flaou~ va oqxizovrm 0 Ka8iva~ vic IO 51KO TOU EeVO~, OPXIO£ va covetSntonoiei BaeEla tn BflantlKn £nf5paon tOU £8VIKI0l10U (me 5nllloupYla~ KOi m~ £~Efll~n~ tOU E8vou~-KpOTOU~) CU~ nopdvovro aou}.1B18aoTOu 11£ rnv ov8pwmvn ai\flnfl£yyun, tnv EflWe£pfa KOi tOV av8pwmvo noinnopo.

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EIEArnrIKO EHMElnMA

I\IYO npiv IO Tei\o~ IOU noi'ltllou, IO Mdpno IOU 1918 an£i\oSnK£ om Ispunvic. ~mv opxri Ssv EYIV£ O£KTO~ uno nc r£PllavlK£~ apxe~ KOl nrivs Eva Sidomuc ornv OMavofa, aMo T£i\lKO £YKOIaaIOSnK£ OIO Bsponfvo, IO Noeubpro IOU 1918.

<PSOVOVIO~ om Ispucvfo, dpxioe allEoCi)~ va Spoornpionoieirm lleoa ow ni\afata IOU Ei\£uS£pou Evonompsvou ~UVOIKOIOU TCi)V Ispuovorv Epvozousvov (Freie Vereinigung Deutscher Gewerkschaften), nou e1X£ onIll0upynS£f IO 1897 cno enovoorcnxd oooiomonxd otoixeic nou nl\Sav O£ oovxpoeon 11£ tn OUYK£VTPCi)Ilxri-xpcnonxri i\oYIKn TCi)V OOatMOnlloKpOIIKrov OUVOlKOTCi)V. 0 POK£P aYCi)VIOSnK£ KOl nEIUx£ IO OUVOIKOIO aUTO va anoo£xSd -OIO 220 ~UVEOPIO IOU nou ol£~nxSn ono TIe,; 27 llEXPI TIe,; 30 L1£K£IlBplou IOU 1919- TIe,; BoorKE~ apxe~ IOU £naVaOWTlKOU ouvOIKMIOlloU, oni\aon "mv dpvnon IOU KpOIOUe,; KOl IOU KOIvoBoui\£UTlOllou", 'E Tat, uetorpdnnxe O£ Eva avapxoouvOIKMIOTlKO OUVOlKOIO KQI psrovoudcsnxe O£ "EI\£uS£pn 'Evoon TCi)V r£pllavoov Epvozopsvev" (FAUD: Freie Arbeiter Union Deutschlands). 0 apISlloe,; TCi)V ll£i\oov IOU Eq>Sao£ TI~ 120.000 KOl n £BoollaolOla £q>nll£pfoa IOU "0 ~uvoIKai\laIne,;" noui\ouo£ 100.000 q>ui\a. METo tnv ritrc m~ L1nlloKpOIla~ TCi)V ~ullBoul\{Ci)v me Bnuopfnc (<P£BpouaPIOe,; IOU 1919),0 POK£P Sa oui\i\nq>Sd ono W opvuvn IOU ~Oatai\onlloKpam NOOK£ KOl Sa q>ui\aKloS£1 vic E~l EBOOllOO£e,; 11£ tnv xornvopio on ntov "evae,; emxivoovoc ovopxixoc aYKIIOIOpae,;". M£ mv anoq>ui\oKlon IOU, 0PXIO£ va OUYK£VTPOOV£I IO Ui\IKO vio IO Il£Y6.i\o IOU EPYO "ESvIKlollOe,; KOl Ilohmouoc", S£Ci)POOVIOe,; IOV £SVI-

KtallO Ci)e,; IOV Il£YMUT£PO £xSpo me,; Snpoxpcticc KQI IOU oootojuouoo.

M£ IO £upu q>1i\£i\£US£po nvsopo IOU, ritcv uno IOUe,; npooIOue,; cvnpxixouc nou ouvei\aB£ IOV KOIanI£OnKO xcpoxtripc IOU llnol\o£BIKIKou KaS£aIOOIOc,; nou sixs £YKaSlopuSd om Pcooofc Kat OOKno£ tn op1ll£fa xprnxn IOU -npiv oxoun vivoov YVCi)aIEe,; E~Ci) ono m Peoooic 01 OIl£O£c,; poptopisc mc,; r Koi\vTllav, IOU Mnspxuov, IOU Apoivof KOl IOU ~anfpo- O£ Eva opSpo IOU 11£ IOV TIIi\o "To ~uomlla TCi)V ~OBIET Kat n L1IKTOIopfa", nou Snpoat£USnK£ OTIc,; 15 Ma I ou IOU 1920 otnv £q>nll£ploa "Ei\£uS£pn Epvcnxn <PCi)vn" TCi)V Ebpokov ovcpxixov me NEae,; YOpKnc,;. ~' aUTO IOU IO opSpo, 0 POK£P ouvEi\aB£ rnv avaKoi\ouSfa nco Uq>faIOIOl Il£IO~U mc,; IOEac,; me ~oBI£nxric (OUllBoul\laKnc,;) opvdvoonc me KOIVCi)Vlac,;, uno rn urc. KQI tnc IOEae,; me,; L1IKTOIopla~, cno rnv ol\i\n. To ouvSnlla TCi)V ovnpxucov -evpcee- npenst va eivm: "Oi\n n £~ouoia OIO ~OBIET· Kapfo £~ouola ndve an' oord". To opSpo £YIV£ eopiirspc YVCi)OTO, aq>ou Il£IOq>pooSnK£ KOl onllOat£USnK£ KOl OIOUe,; raMIKOUc,; "Le Tempes Nouveaux" (AUYOuoIO~-umEllBploc,; IOU 1920). To 1921, £Kolo£IOI OIO Mnouevoc Alp£c,; IO BIBi\IO IOU "~oBleT n L1IKTOIopla" KOl OIO Beponfvo "H xpscoxonfc IOU PcoooiKOU KpaTlKOU KOllllOUVIOllOU". Enionc, tnv 1010 XPOVIO £Kofo£TOl nMI OIO Bspohivo IO EPYO TOU "Avopxiouo; KQI Opvdveoon".

To 1922, Ci)c,; ovnbcpo ornv eruxsipotiuevn llEOCi) me Koppouvrcnxric L1I£Svouc,; unotovri IOU OI£SVOUc,; epvnnKOU xrvnpnto; OIO K£i\£uollOIa IOU llnol\o£BIKIKOU KPOIOUc,;, npcoroordrnos ornv fopuon m~ AIT (mc,; L11£Svoue,;

14

15

E8NIKIEMOE KAI nOi\ITIEMOE

EIEAfQrIKO EHMEIQMA

'Evoonc TCUV Epvozousvrov). HAlT on11louPvoSnKE OIO Luveoplo IOU Bsposfvou, noo OIE~oxSn uno Tl~ 25 6.EKE11Bpfou IOU 1922 11expl Tl~ 2 Iavouapfou IOU 1923, KQ1 0 POKEP EKi\exSnKE, 11azu 11E IOV LOUXU KQ1 IOV Lanfpo, 11ei\o~ me 6.IESvou~ Ipoupotsfoc. To 1922, EKOfOETQ1 OIO Mnoosvoc f\IPE~ IO BIBi\fo TOU "KMi\lTexvE~ KQ1 Enovcordrsc: i\OVOTExVIKO KQ1 KOIVCUVIKO vpontd". To 1924, EKOfoETQ1 OIO Bspohivo eva BIBi\fo IOU cqnepcu11evo OIO Isppovo cvnpxnco Iioxcv MOOT, 11E siocvcoVO IOU Mnspxpov KQ1 11E TlIi\O "Iioxcv MOOT: n Zcori EVO~ Encvootdm". To 1928, EKOfoETQ1 am BapKEi\oovn IO BIBi\fo IOU "Io£Oi\ovfa KQ1 TOKTIKO IOU ouvxpovou npohsroprdroo" KQ1 IO 1930 OIO Mnoosvoc f\lPE~ TO "Enixcnpc npoBi\ol1OIa IOU nvnpxiopou", EVOO IO 1934, no.i\i OIO Mnoosvoc f\IPE~, EK6f6ETQl IO BIBi\fo IOU "6.n- 1110UPY1KO~ LOOlai\lopo~". MtXPl tnv ov060 IOU XlIi\EP otnv KpaTlKO £~ouofa IO 1933, 80 eXEI oi\oKi\npoooEl KQ1 m oovvpceri IOU 11EV6.i\ou TOU spvou "ESVIK10110~ xoi noi\lTlopo~".

METo IOV epnpnopo TOU POIXOTOYK cno IOU~ vozi nrips ~avo IO 6pOlIO me E~opfa~ KQl e<pSaOE am raMfa, onoo <Pli\o~EvoSnKE VIQ 11EpIKi~ EB601106E~ OIO onin me 'Euucc rKoi\vT11av OIO LOlVT- Tponez. ME olIli\fE~ KQ1 npooeomxec ooznrriceic, npoonriflnos va KaVEI xctcvonTO tn poviun anEli\o nou unotehooos Via IO EPVaIlKO xivnpn xcn Tl~ Snpoxponxsc KOIaKTOOEI~ m~ EUpOOnn~ n ov060~ TOU XlIi\EP otnv E~ouofa, ai\i\a 6EV BPOKE tn 6eouoa uvtonoxpron. 01 nEplOOOTEPOl nopepeivov ooi\aKlopevOi uson OE 1110 npo06WIlKO KQ1 Q10l000~IOTlKO aVTfi\mvn tnc rcropioc, aVTfi\mvn nou BPOKE tnv rno ni\iSla

KQ1 oovpovox KOIaOTpmIlKO EK<ppaoo rnc omv dnoipn TCUV Ispucvev K011110UVIOTOOV on "l1ETa IO OUVIOlIO 010.i\EIlI11a IOU XlIi\EP EIVQl n OElPO 11a~".

<l>EUVovTO~ ono tn raMla, nOVE omv Avyi\la onou e11E1VE 11EP1KOU~ 110VE~ KQ1 OIl~ 27 AUVOUOTOU IOU 1933 e<pSaoE OIl~ Hvouevsc noi\lT£fE~. To 1937 So EVKOIaoTOS£l OIO nPOaOTEIO Kpopnovt me NEa~ YopKn~ OE eva onin nou IOU rtcpcxropnoov 01 Ebpofo: ovopxixoi . me Nea~ YopKn~, onoo So ZOOEI lIexpl IO SavOIo IOU. METO~u TCUV nporrov IOU vpcrrreov one HvculIevE~ noi\lTEIE~ OTOV OUO K£llIEVO IOU onou 11E Stp11n onepconioSnKE mv Ioncvixri EnaVaOTOOn KQ1 IOU~ nvupxixoix:

"H Ai\08ElQ vic tnv Ionavfa" (1936) KQ1 "H Tpavcuofa me Ioncvfoc" (1937), Snuooieopsvc KQ1 TO ouo ornv E<pn11EpI6a TCUV EBpafcuv ovopxixcov me NEa~ YopKn~ "Ei\EuSEpn Epvnnxri ¢>cuvo". To 1938, 6nlIOOIEUETQ1 OIO I\OVOIVO IO B1Bi\lo IOU "AvapxoouvolKai\lolIo~: 8Ecupla KQ1 npcxnxri", ortou npobofvei OE 1110 oovroun rtspivpc<pO m~ xcrnvovric, TCUV IOc.OOV KQl TCUV onJ.J10UPVIKOOV Spoomptotritcov IOU avapxoouv01KMlopOU.

Kord rn OlaPKEla IOU B' Ilcvxooinoo noi\e11ou, 0 POKEP urtootnpife IOU~ LU11110XOU~ OIOV avoova IOU~ svovrfov IOU XlIi\EP KQl IOU Noziouoii KQl OEV UloStmoE tn VEV1- KEulIEvn ovnnozspixri dnoipn nou £lXE xpctnosi KQTa IOV A' naVKoo11IO noi\E110. 'ETOI, Oi\SE OE OUVKpouon lIE noi\i\ou~ cvopxncouc nou IOV xcmvopnoov CU~ eva "qni\onoi\E11o ornv onnpsoic TCUV llInEPlQi\lOTlKOOV KuBEPVOOECUV". 0 POKEP mElIEvE ornv rinoipri IOU KQ1 11ai\loTO urtootnpifs OIl aUTO BPIOKETQ1 usee OTO ni\alOia IOU Ei\wSEplaKou ovopxiopoe, av aUTO~ VOElIOl CU~ eva ovoi-

16

17

E8NIKILMOL KAI nOi\ITILMOL

EILArnrIKO LHMElnMA

KIO coornuo OKE\lm~ KQ1 OX1 U)~ EVa Sovpo, 'EBflEnE on ue IO f510 OSEVO~ us IO onofo aVnj.lEIWmOE uno IO 1920 IOV KOj.lj.lOUV10nKo ofloKflnpU)nOj.lo IOOV j.lnOfloEBfKOOV EnpEnE va ovnuerconfosi KQ1 IOV XlIflEP1KO voziouo oo~ ufo aMn olpn IOU ouvxpovou oflOKflnpoonOj.lou. 8EOOPOUOE IOV oflOKflnpOOT1oj.lO, IOV vozupooiouo KQ1 mv E~anOfluon IOU nOflEj.lou uno IOV XfrflEP svovrfov m~ Eupwnn~ oo~ 10IOP1KOU~ nopdvovrsc nou ESEWV uno cneiAft n~ CPlflEflEUSEPE<'; KQ1 Snpoxponxsc KmaKInoEl~ IOOV flawv KQ1 IOV 1510 IOV avSpwmvo nohmouo.

METa IO IEflO~ IOU nOflEj.lOU Sev IOU snsrpdnn n £100- 50<'; om Isppcvic KOI eIm ncpeuervs OIO Kpopnovr m<,; NEa~ Yopxnc, vpdoovrac KQ1 Sivovrcc 5IQflE~£1~. To 1944, SEflOVIO~ va unEvSUj.llOEl orouc VEOU~ IOU ouj.lnmplwIE~ me Aj.lEplKn<,; In onuovnxotnrc me 5lKn<,; IOU~ CPlflEflEuSEpn~ napa500n<,;, Snpooieoos IO EPYO IOU "01 npOOTOnOpOl rnc Apspncdvncnc EflEuSEpla<,;". To 1945, 5nj.l00lEUEIQl OIO ME~lKO "H eniopoon IOOV ortohutcpxrKWV l5EWV naVOO OIO oootoiuouo", EVW IO 1946, om NEa YopKn, "0 Mlxanfl Mnoxooviv KOI n enoxn IOU". ME tnv snipovn nporporm IOU ovopxixoo KQ1 10TOPlKOU Ma~ NEHflw, sixe opxfosi va VpaCPEl nc cvnpvrioetc IOU, nou EK50SnKav OE IPEl~ IOj.lOU~ j.lEW~U IOOV etcov 1947-1952 OIO Mnoosvoc AUPE~ (1 oc IOj.lO~: 1947 us IhflO "H Nsotnrc EVO~ Encvcotdm", 2~. 1949 ue IhflO "Meoo ornv KmQ1vf5a. XPOVIQ tnc E~opfci~" KQ1 3~.1952 ps IlIflo "Enovdotcon KOI OmoS05p0j.lnon). 0 2~ roj.lo<,; cotcov IOOV AVaj.lVnoEWV IOU KUKflocpopnoE KQ1 OIO I\ov- 5fvo, IO 1956, uno IOV IhflO "Ta XPOVIQ IOU l\ov5fvou" ("The London Years"). MEIa IO Bdvcto IOU Ma~ NEHflU),

Snpoofsoce, IO 1950, oro ME~IKO IO BlBMo IOU "Ma~ N£HflW: 0 Hpo50IO~ me Avopxfcc". To 1958, one 10 LEnIEj.lBpfou, nESalvEl ana ej.lcppaYj.la OIO Kpopnovt,

* • • • • • •

Ano rnv snoxri IOU A' naVKOOj.llOU nOflej.lOU, 0 POKEP dpxioe va oUflMVEl IO UfllKO VIQ tn oovvpcori IOU EPyou IOU "ESVlKlOJ.lO~ KQ1 nOfllIlOj.lO~". To 1933 £1xE vpdlpEl KQ1 IO IEflEUWfo KEcpaflQlO KQ1 Myo npiv tnv av050 IOU XIIfl£P ornv xpcnxn E~ouola rircv eIOIj.lO ofloKflnpo IO EPVO VIa £KIUnOOOn. <l>EUVOVIO~ E~avaVKaonKa KQl BIQOnKa ana tn Isppovio, VIa va YflUIWOEI mv EnIKElj.lEvn ouMnlpn IOU, 5EV KmaCPEP£ va nepiooxrer -oncoc EvpalpE 0 15l0~ IO 1936 OIOV npoflovo IOU VIQ tnv AYVfllKn EK500n IOU "ESVlKlOJ.lO~ KQ1 nOflIt1OJ.lO~" - napa j.lOVOV W xsipovpnqxr curoii IOU EPYOU. 'Etoi, IO EPYO Kmefln~£ va unv nporoxoxhopoprioer, onoo~ rirov OIOU<,; OXE5IQoj.lou~ IOU POKEP, om Ispuovic.

To spvo KUKflocpopno£ IO 1937 one HVOOj.lEVE<,; nOfl1- I£iE~ OE psrdopcon IOU Ray E. Chase uno ernrporm nou ouom8nKE Yla rnv eKooon IOU epvou IOU POKEP ("Rocker Publications Committee") KQ1 tnaVEK50SnKE IO 1978 uno IOV Michael E. Coughlin. LUVnSoo~, au In n EK500n IOU 1937 avacpEpEIOI oo~ n npeotn EK500n IOU EPVOU IOU POKEp. 'OJ.lOO~, TO EPVO j.lEIOcppaOSnKE KQ1 Snpooieo- 8nK£ vrc nporrn qiopd ow Iorrcvucd, xoopf~ va cpep£1 IOV IfIflO "ESVIKIOJ.lO~ KQ1 nOflIt10j.lO~", ana IOV EK50nKo ofxo "In KQ1 EflEuS£pfa" IOU 10XUPOU IOIE cvopxoouvoiKM10nKou xivrurcroc me BapK£flwvn~. LUVK£Kp1j.lEVa

18

19

E6NIKILMOL KAI nONTILMOL

EILAronKO LHMEIOMA

eK068nKE, oe pErOcppaan IOU NIIEVKO Apndvr VrE LaVIlVIOV, oe tpsic ropou~ llE rpEI~ OIQ<pOpeIlKo\)~ rfrAou~: 1 ~ ropoc. "01 Pfzsc me Esouafa<_;" (1935), 2~ rOll0<_;: "nOAIIIKn 8£OAovfa" (1936) xm 3~ rOllo~: "Oucovouic x6.)pf<_; KamraAI0ll6 KQ1 Kotvroviu xcopfc KpOIO~" (1937). MOAlara, IO 1942, unnps£ cnavEKo05n r6.)V rplrov autrov toucov aIO Mnoosvoc Aup£<_;. To 1939, £K068nK£ ornv OAAavoia oe pErocppaan IOU Jeanne de Jong. To 1949, £K068nK£ oro Mnoosvoc Aup£<; n petdopoon IOU EPVOU otnv EBpaiKn 5IM£KIO "VfVIl<_;" KQ1 IO fOlo ero<; £K508nK£ tEAIKO arn Ispuovio (AllBouPVo) -arn xropa VIa rnv onoic cpxixd rtpoopizotov- ps IOV rirAO "H Kpion m<; 6uan<;", tftAO<; nou xpnoiportomdnxe an6 rov Isppovo EK56m £v ayvofa IOU P6K£p. Tnv 15m XPOVIO, £K068nKe KQI am Lounofa (LIOKxoAlln) oe pEtocppaan too Carl-Elof Svenning. rIO 510arnlla 1960-1968 £K- 568nK£ KQI arnv lraAia (Ndrtozn-Kordvio) os 5uo touooc ce ll£rocppaan IOU Virgilio Gozzoli KQI encvexoo- 8nK£ IO 1977 cno II<_; £K56o£l<; "Anarchismo". LUVOAIKO, on6.)<; eXEI YPOlp£1 0 ltaA6<_; CPIAo<_; KQ1 oovrpotpoc IOU P6K£P BMeplo "loxo, ro "E8vIKI0ll6<; KQI nOAIII0ll6<;" exel £K508eI OE 16 VAroaaE<; PE 010 nOAuolaBaOllevn rn p£ro<ppaan IOU ora lonovixd nou eX£1 cp86.a£1 am 120 eK50an, nouArovra<; 120.000 avrfruna.

H cnrixnon KQ1 ro £vom<pEpov yIQ IO "E8vIKIOllO<_; KQ1 nOAItIOll0<;" un£peBnaav ra opio IOU ovopxiouoo KQ1 aVKMIQOaV eva P£VMO KQ1 onpovnxo tpnlla r6.)V oxsntouevcov av8pron6.)v me snoxric roo. 0 ll£YOAO<_; <pUOIKO<_; AAllnEpr Aivordiv ro xopcxrripros 6.)<_; eva epvo "eSQlP£I1KO 515aKIIKO". 0 CPIAEAEu8epo<; KGI av8p6.)marn<;

AYYAO<; <pIAoaocpo<; Mnsptpcvt PoaaeA to 8eropna£ 6.)<; "pia Aapnpn xpmxn m<; KparoAatpela<;. me xopiopxnc KQ1 010 BAaBepn<; npOKatOflnlpn<; r6.)V KQlProV poe". 0 T olla<; Mav IO xopcxrripros 6.)<; "eva BIBMo Ba8urara nveopcnxo",

• * • • • • •

Lrnv EAflnvIKn YAroaaa eX£1 5npoOlw8d eva £AaxIorotoro runuc IOU nflouOlou epyou too POKEp. MexPI onvpric, an' O,II YV6.)PIZOUll£, exouv KUKflocpopna£1 ra £~n<_; xeipevc too POK£P:

- ''Avapxlup6~ sa! AvapxoavvoIKa;lIup6~~ Oe uetdippaon NfKOV B. Me~fov otu; eK&50el~ "ElIev8epo~ Tvno;" (In iKooon 1975, z- iKooon 1990).

- "0 Mapf sa: 0 Avapxlupo~~ ae perarppaon K. T O[J~ eKOOOel~ ".QPA NIXIA" (1994).

- "Ka: fO Kpciro~ LlnplOvpynUe rc 'E8vo~~ oe perorppaon flown Kapinoa (onoottaoua ano ro "E8vIKlapO~ xcu nonmapo~~ perarppaapivo atto ro J[anlKo neplOOIKO "VoJonta~ oro 100 revxo~ rov nepJOOIKOV ''Enw8£plaKr1 Kfvnon" roo 1995).

- "H TpaYlI)oia rn~ lonaviac", oe uettuppaon "opooa~ uetopoaotev", nov n£plnopBov£rQl pazv ue OMa K£1peVa oro BIBNo nov eKOOO£WV ''En£rJ8epo~ Timo;" ue rfrno "0 Ionavnco; «Eprpvnlo~» nonepo~. - Avaropfa tru; IOnaVIXr1~ enavaotaonc". (1996).

-;;EXfO!; Nouov" (AvapxIKo nepIOOIKO eeOoanovfKn~, r£vXO~ 150, CPeBpovoplO~ 1992), ottov tteptsxetcu ro xrpanalO 5 rov "E8vIKlapO~ xcu nonmapo~~ ue rov titho ''n avooo~ roo E8vIKOrJ Kpatoix;".

• • • • • • •

20

21

E8NIKILMOL KAI nOi\ITILMOL

no IOv'EMnvo ovoyvc{)om nou unopsf KOI 8EflEI vo npoO<PUYEI ornv AYYfllKn KQI tnv hafllKn BIBflloypoCPlo nope- 8EIOUllE 0PIOllEVO KEillEVO nou Bon8ouv omv KOflUTEpn KQTOVOnOn H.oV ouv8nKc{)V llEOO one onoiec EznOE, EOPOOE KQI svpmps IO"E8vIKIOllOC; KOI Iloamouo;" 0 POKEP K08C{)C; KQI otnv KOfluu,pn KQTOVOnOn IOU OflOU EPYOU IOU:

-PovvrolJ(p POK£P: "Preface to the English Edition" (''I1ponoyo~ otnv AyynlKrJ 'EKooon"), vpauusvo; ana rov POKEP to LmrillBplO rov 1936 Yla mv iKOoan rov ''EevIKI0J10~ tccu nonmOJ1o~" rov 1937 KQJ onlloOJEvlliv~ «en otnv iKooan rov 1978 rov Michael E Coughlin.

- "/ntroduzione di Alfredo Bonanno" ("Eloay(uyrJ rov Anq>pivro Mnovavvo"), onlloOJEvllivn am &vrEpn lranlKrJ iKSoon rov epvo» ''EevIKI0J10~ KQJ Ilohntouo;" otto tu; EK86aEI~ "Anerchismo", ro 1977.

-Ilntep Mopoall '~ History of Anarchish" ("Mfa Iotopia rov AvapXI0J10v~ EKOOOEI~ ''Fontana Press", 1993), ottoo OrI~ o£N&~ 417-421 vnopxEI llfa YEVIKrJ avcupopd am Spoon Kal tu; 18iE~ rov POKEp.

-cIJOVPIO Mmatziv: "i! «rebbino» anarchico" ("0 avapxtKO~ «paBBfvop>"): xeiuevo Snpooieouevo oro 1870 rE:vxo~ (i'J£KillBpIO~ 1991-lavovopIO~ 1992) rov lralllKOV n£plOolKOU "rivista enetchiste".

-BalIiplO 'loxa ''Ricordo di Rudolf Rocher": avallVnOrIKO KdllE:VO rov ltaho» avapxIKov xcn q>1'JJOV rov POKE:P BalIiplO 'loxa, OnllOOIE:vllivo oro 4° i'JE:nrfo rov ''Apxdov nJVinnl~

-MlpiMa I\onnl "Stato e Potere nell' Anarchismo" ("Kporoc KQJ Efovofa arov AVapXI0J10~ nov n£plnallBovE:rQJ am O£IPO ''H ovyxpovn nonmKrJ oKiqm" r(Uv lranlKwv £KOOOE:(uV "Franco Anqeli", 1986). To 9° &q>onQJo avrov rov BIBNoo aVanVE:I teat roVfZE:I m onuavttnotma rov ''EevIKI0J10~ KQJ nonmOJ1o~" ylQ tn ovvxpovn nonmKrJ oxeum.

Fidvvnc Kaputoa~

KE<I>AAAIO 1

H ANEIIAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY YAIl:MOY

22

KE<I»AAAIO 1:

H ANEllAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY YAII:MOY

H BOYAHLH rIA E30YLIA QL ENAL ILTOPIKOL IIAPArONTAL. EIIILTHMH KAI ILTOPIKEL Ii1EEL. H ANEIIAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY YAILMOY. 01 NOMOI THL <l>YLIKHL ZQHL KAI "H <l>YLIKH THL KOINQNIAL". H LIIOYi1AIOTHTA TQN OPQN THL IIAPAfQfHL. 01 EKLTPATEIEL TOY AAE3ANi1POY. 01 LTAYPO<l>OPIEL. IIAIIILMOL KAI AIPELEIL. H E30YLIA QL ENA EMII0i110 THL OIKONOMIKHL E3EAI3HL. 0 <l>ATAAILMOL THL "ILTOPIKHL ANAfKAIOTHTAL" KAI THL "ILTOPIKHL AIIOLTOAHL". H OIKONOMIKH 8ELH KAI H KOINQNIKH i1PALTHPIOTHTA THL MIIOYPZOYAZIAL. LOLIAAILMOL KAI LOLIAAILTEL. 01 \J1YXIKEL IIPO~II08ELEIL OAQN TQN ILTOPIKQN METABOAQN. IIOAEMOL KAI OIKONOMIA. MONOIIQAIO KAI AIIOAYTH MONAPXIA. KPATIKOL KAIIITAAILMOL.

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n va ll£Ipn80uv. Monovon £IVQl 0i\n8£lQ on n 8£ll£i\100- an lllO~ xoouocvtfsmpnc, onoo~ VlQ nopdosrvpo 0 00- 0I0i\10l.10~, £IVQl Suvorov va WIKOi\£IIOI IO onOI£A£Ol.1aIO me ernompovixnc £pcuvo~, £v IOUIOI~ Sev c1VOI SoVOIO va VIV£I n 16lQ smotnun. 610n n npovpdrrocn rov OIOXooV me Ssv £~OPIOIOI cno npoK080PI0l.1£V£~, VI£tsppivronxsc 6106IKooI£-;;, onoo~ OUllBoIV£1 ue IO qJUOIKO qJOIVOll£VO. &v ondpxsi VOllO~ otnv 10IOPIO nou va lla-;; Ssixvsi rnv nopeio K08£ av8pc{)mvn-;; xoivovixric Spootnpiomroc. OnOI£6nnOI£, ll£XPI onvpnc, £VIV£ npoond- . 8£lQ va an06£lx8d n unop~n svoc I£IOIOU VOllOU, Ka81- OIOIO Oll£Ooo~ £llqJovn~ n novI£i\n-;; nQl6apl0061a aUln~ me ononeipcc.

o ov8poono~ c1VOI dveu opov onorovuevoc llOVO OIO~ VOllOU~ IOU qJUOIKOU IOU elVOI. /1£v unopsf va ll£IOBoi\£1 tnv xctcoxeori IOU. 6£v unopei va 610Ko\j.l£1 tn i\£IIOUPVIa tcov 8£ll£i\1006C{)v npoun08£000v tnc qJuOIKn~ IOU unop~n~ OUI£ va n~ ll£IOIP£\j.l£1 oupqxovc us mv £m8ullio IOU. &v unopsi va epnodicei OUI£ IOV £PXOllO IOU nove am vn OUI£IO 80VOIO IOU. /1£v unopei va ai\i\o~£1 mv IPOXIO IOU OOTpOU ndvo OIO onoio oi\oKi\npc{)v£IOI 0 KUKi\O~ m~ zoon-;; IOU KOI rtpensi va on06£x8Ef oi\£~ m; ooveneisc me xfvncnc me vnc ll£oO OIO oopnov, XooPI~ va ciVOI IKavo~ va n~ ustntpeipei, £OIoo KQl KOI' £i\OXIOTOV. Ai\i\o, n 610ll0pq>000n me KOIvOOVIKn~ zconc Ssv UnOK£IIOI a' cutnv mv OVOVKoonKn nopsic, VlQ IOV ani\o i\ovo on ciVOI onOI£i\£Ol.1a me ov8pc{)mvn<; Boui\none KOI npo~n~. 0 ov8poono~ unopei va on06£x8ci n~ KOIVooVIK£<; ouv8nK£~ uson nc onoiec Z£I 00<; npoK080PlOll£V£~ ana m 8£IKn Boui\non n va n~ Bscopnoe: oo~

onOI£i\£olla avoi\i\olooIoov voucov, un unoxeiuevcov am Boui\non IOU. tmv T£i\CUIOIO nspfrrtcoon, n niotn £~a- 08£viz£1 tn Boui\non IOU KOI IOV 08nvcf omv npooappovn one 6£60ll£V£~ ouv8nK£~. 'Olloo-;;, pnopef £~ioou KOi\O, va nefoei IOV £OUTO IOU on oi\£~ 01 llOPqJ£-;; KOIVoovlKn~ opvdvcoonc onopxoov llOVOV uno opoo; KOI on unopouv va oi\i\o~ouv ana IO av8pc{)mvo X£PI KQl cno IO ov8pc{)mvo lluai\O. t' OUInv rnv nepirnroon, 80 npoon08no£1 va aVTlKOIOOTnO£1 n~ KOIVooVIKt~ ouv8nK£~ me zoon~ IOU us oi\i\£~ KOI ueoco me Spdonc IOU 8a npoetoiudoei IO Spopo Via rnv ovopopqxoon rn<; KOIVoovIKn-;; zoon-;;.

'000 B08uI£pa KOI ov qJ800£1 0 ov8poono<; am vvoscn tcov KOOl.1IKc{)V vourov, Ssv 80 unopeosi, ooOTOOO, va IOU<; 0i\i\0~£1, 610n Sev efvoi OIKO IOU Snuioopvnpo. 'Ouroc, K08£ uopqiri m<; xoivovixri; IOU unap~n<;, K08£ KOIVooVIK6~ 8£0l.10<;, nou IOU napoo08nK£ ana IO nap£i\80v 00<; Ki\npooomlla tov llaKpuvc{)v IOU npovovev, sfvcn cv- 8pc{)mvo Sruuoopvnuo KOI pnopsi va 0i\i\0~£1 ueoco me ov8pc{)mvn~ Boui\non<; KOI npo~n<; ri va KOIaOTc1 £~unnpsuxo KOIVOUPVlooV oxonov, Movo pic T£IOIO oVTfi\n\j.ln ciVOI ai\n8lvo ermvcorcnxri KOI epnvsuouevn uno IO nvsuuo IOU ll£i\i\OVIO<;. 0 onorooorinots mOT£uEI otnv cvcvxoonxri ai\i\ni\00lQ60xn oi\oov rrov 10IOPIKc{)V V£VOVOTooV 8UOlOZ£1 IO ll£i\i\ov OIO napEi\80v. Epunvsuar IO qxnvopsvn m<; KOlvoovlKn<; zUln<;, ai\i\o O£V IO aMaZEI. An' cotriv tnv dnoipn, 0i\0I 01 qJOIoi\IOl.1oi toutizoVIOl, OVE~opmIO av £XOUV Bpnoxeunxo, noi\IIIKO n 01- KOVOlllKO xcpnxmpo. OnOlOOOnnOI£ n£qJI£1 omv nnvi- 00 IOU qJOIai\10l.10U onoVUllVc{)V£IOI cno IO nohonuots-

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E8NIKIrMor KAI nOI\ITlrMOr

H ANEnAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY Y I\IrMOY

po xopoxtnpionxo me zron~ too: tnv oopqxovc pe n~ blKe~ too ovaYKe~ ouSoPllnm svspvrmxomtc. KQI eivoi 10101TepO emxivoovn n nepfntecn KOHl tnv onofo 0 ooTOrllapO~ epqxivfzstm uno tnv wSnIO tnc srnorripnc, nou one llEpe~ 1l0~ OVIlKOSlota, tOOO ouxvri, to pdoo roo Seoi\oyou. 01 olIfe~, o~ TO enavai\a80ulle, nou unoxeivtm reov OlaOIKaOlOOv m~ KOIVCl)VIKn~ zron~ Sev EXOUV rfnore to KOIVO 11£ roue VOllOU~ tcov CPUOlKOOV KQI unxcVIKOOV Y£YOVOtCl)V, blon cnotehow ooori anOt£i\EapOIa me ovSpoonlvn~ otoxoueofcc, nou Ssv dVQI £~nynOllln 8ao£1 «ov eruotnuovixov lleSooCl)v. H cvvonon nutoii toU vevovoroc onorenef ufc Bcvdoipn OUTOnam ana tnv onofa llOVO uic ouvxsxouevn 10Ea me npcvpcnxornroc unopef va npoKutpel.

Aute~ 01 anotpel~ lla~ 10XUOUV vic oi\e~ n~ Seropfe~ me 10TOpfa~ nou 800fzoVTOI ndveo ornv loea m~ ovovxcromroc me nopsfcc tcov KOIVCI)VIKOU yfyveoeQl. IOIQIn:po Ss 10XUOUV vrc TOV 10TOPIKO Ui\lapO, nou ovovcivsi Kaee 10toPIKO yeyovo~ otouc KUPIopXOU~ opouc rnc nopcvcovric KOI npoonoeei 800el outoov va e~nynoel to Kaee tl. OUOel~ oxsrtrouevoc avSpcono~ reov nllepoov Ila~ Ssv pnopsf va !.1nV nopeoexeef to yeyovo~ on sivcn aouvom Kaee open O~IOi\oynon }.lla~ 10toplKn~ nspiooou, orro Tn onvpri nou Ssv i\0l-l8avou}.le un' O\VIV }.lo~ TOU~ OIKOVO}.lIKOU~ opooc, Ai\i\o, noi\u nsproootspo. ouoef~ unopsi va unv nopooexeel tn 1l0V0l-lEP£IO m~ dnoipnc nou onootnPIZ£I on oi\n n 10toPIO sfvoi oni\oo~ to cnotehsopo rcov OIKOVOIlIKOOV opcov, uno tnv enfopaon teov onokov OIO}.l0p<pOOVOVIQI oi\o to oi\i\o qxnvousvc me zeoric.

Yndpxoov xli\lab£~ vsvovotc llEoa otnv 10TOpfa nou Ssv unopoov va e~nynSouv }.l£ KOeapo OIKOVO}.lIKi~ 01- tle~ n anoKi\£loIlKoo~ KQI llOVO IlEoro aUloov. EfvQI npdvIlOTl OUVOIO va onovdvoops TO ndvtc Ileoo am ni\oiOlo £vo~ KaSOplo}.lEVOU oxnporoc, ai\i\a to anotei\£apa ouvn8(1)~ Ssv o~iz£1 TOV xono. EnovIro~ epqxivfzercn iva 10toPIKO ytyovo~, am Sinpopqxoon IOU onoiou va unv EXOUV oU}.l8cii\i\el olKovolllKe~ oltfe~, ai\i\a 01 OIKOVO}.lIKE~ ouvall£l~ Ssv elVQI 01 1l0vaolKE~ Klvmnpl£~ Sovd- 1l£1!; nou exouv eeo£1 os xivnon IO ndvro. 'Oi\a IO KOIVCl)VIKa qxnvopsvc elVQI TO onoIEi\£olla Illa~ O£IPO!; norKfi\CI)V cmov, nou OIl~ nspiocotepec n£pmtooo£l~ £IVOI tOOO dppnxtc oUVO£O£llEV£~ OOot£ va £1VQI £Vt£i\oo~ oouvoro va Sicxpivoous 11£ oconvsrc tn pfc cnic ana tnv cii\i\n. 'Exoops naVIOI£ va xdvooue us tnv aMni\enfopoon noixfacov umov, nou, KOI ov oxopn nc ovovvopicoops 11£ ooqmvsm, Sev pnopoope va n~ onohovfooous xord IOV tpono tov emctnuovucov 1l£8oorov.

Yndpxouv ioropnci vevovoto lleylOm~ orrooocnornIO~ vic sxoropuoprc av8pffinrov nou Ssv pnopoov va £~nynSouv sni tn 8ao£1 }.lla~ KaSapffi~ OIKovO}.lIKn~ orrnKn~. nOlo~ eo onoompizs, sni rmpnoeivpnn, OIl 01 £Korpcnsisc TOU Ai\£~avopou unnp~ov to anOIEi\£apa ICI)V napaYCl)YIKOOV ouvSnKffiv m~ snoxric IOU; To fOlo to vevovoc on n tspdonc aUTOKpOIoPIO, nou Exno£ 0 Mi~avopo~ 11£ TO cipo £KOIOVtaOCl)v xli\laOCl)V ovSpoonrov, dpxios va KOIOPPE£I allioCl)~ pstri to SavOIO IOU cnoO£IKVU£I nCl)~ IO OIpOIlCl)nKQ KQI nohmxd KOIopSffi}.lOIa IOU MaK£OOvo xoouoxorcxtntri Ssv rirov ioropucd xuBopiopsvc ono n~ oucovopucec ovcvxoromtsc. H eni-

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E8NIKILMOL KAI nOi\ITILMOL

H ANEnAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY Y i\ILMOY

Spoon TCIW EVEPYEIWV IOU ME~av6pou ndvo otnv npoooo Tu)V nopovcovixrov ouvSnKwv rnc snoxnc IOU unnp~E El\aXIOm. 'Orcv 0 ME~avopo~ ouvEI\a8E TO nol\£llIKo IOU OXEOIO, 0 noSo~ vic E~ouola, xcn OXI n oncovojnxn nvnvxruornto, OlaOpallanOE Eva onllaVIIKoTOIO pol\o. H EmSulIla vio tnv KOIaKmOn ol\oKl\npou IOU xoouou dXE npovuonxd npoOl\a8EI naSol\oYIKE~ 1I0PCPE~ usoc omv npoocoruxormc IOU CPII\OOO~ou Seonorn. H naparpopn E~ouOlaonKn IOU povopovic KaSoonyouoE 01\0- Kl\npn mv nonmxri IOU KOI rircv n ouvalln nou xornoSUve: n~ rtoheuoxopeic sruxetprioeic IOU, nou YElIloav Eva lIEYMO runpo IOU TOTe: YVu)OIOU KOOlIou lle: cpovou~ KOI l\e:nl\aolE~. 'HTOV ODIn n e:~ouOlaOIlKn povoucvic nou EKave: IOV Al\E~avopo va SaUlIaZEI onspperpc IOV Kcrocponcmopo IOU ovcrohim own om KOI va moreoei on eivcu nlIlS£Q~.

H 80uI\non vio E~ouola, nou naVTOIe: npOEpXETOl ana xdnoic dropc ri ana OPIOlIEVE~ llIKPE~ lIe:IO'lmcplE~ lIEoa otnv xoivovio, anoTe:l\ef, ornv rtpcvpcnxomro, tn onpovnxotspn OlallOpq>(l)nKn ouvalln me 10IOpla~. H EKTOon me e:nlopaon~ m~ EXe:1 lIEXPI oripspo npooexdei e:l\axImoTOTO, 1I01\0von ouxvd unnp~E 0 KaSoplonKo~ napavovrcc me popponoinonc IOU ouvol\ou me orxovounoic KOI xoivovtxric zU)n~.

H IOIOpia nov L TOUPOCPOPIWV EXel avallcpI801\U)~ snnpe:aoSd ana roxopd OIKOVOlIlKa xivnrpn. To OVe:lPO Tu)V . nl\ouOlu)v YOlWV me AVOIol\n~ pnopsi va unnp~e: vic nol\l\ou~ cxtnpovec Le:p KOI J\op5ou~ Eva 10XUPOTe:pO ii' xivntpo ana n~ SpnoKEunKE~ ncnOlSnoEI~. Ml\a TO 01- KOVOlIlKa xivnrpn Ss So snopxouonv nOTE ana 1I0va

IOU~ vic va xrvnronomooov exoroppopic avSpwnU)v an' OAE~ n~ XWPE~, EaV aUIOl Sev ritcv Siononouevot ana n~ ElIlIOVE~ 10EE~ tnc niotnc, ETm WOTE va OPllOUV oipri-

'liE' S'~ o 'I"

q>IOTO OlO dxououc me icxnc IVOI snnuo - £QU. ,

1l0Aovon OEV eixcv tnv ncpojnxpri 10Ea vic n~ TEpaonce ouoKOAlE~ nou ouvoocuav cotnv mv napa~EVn nEpmETEIO. H ioxupri srnppori me Opnoxsunxric nfomc novo oIOU~ I\aou~ m~ snoxnc EKe1Vn~ anooEIKvUETOl cno m I\EyolIEvn nOlOIKn Lwupocpopla IOU EIOU~ 1212. AUTn n L tcopocopio onoqxioicdnxs OTOV n onoroxic Tu)V nponvoouevccv LTOUPOCPOPIKWV OTPOICUlIaTu)V rircv nAEov ElICPavEoTOm KOI orcv 01 qxivcnxoi SpnoKoAnntoi avnYYEIl\av IO VEO on 0 Flovdvioc Tdeoc Sa unoPOUOE va anEAe:uSEpU)Sd 1I0VOV ana n~ TpUCPEPE~ nl\lKle:~, lIEOu) Tu)V onofrov 0 eE6~ So qxivepcove oIOV KOouo IO Saulla IOU. Aocpal\w~, Sev nTOV olKOVOlIlKa TO xivnrpc nou EnEIoav xIl\laoe:~ YOVEu)V va OTelAOUV TO nAEOV cvormpevo IOU~ npooeonc OE olYOUPO SaVOIO.

Ml\a oxoun KOI IO Floruxo KpaIO~, nou us OloIGKnxomto cnoqxiotoe ornv npxri va KaAEoe:1 IO Xpionovixo KOOlIO omv Flpeotn LIGUpocpopla, xivntortotnbnxe nePIOOOTEPO uno E~oumaoIlKou~-nol\lIlKou~ oxonooc napa uno oIKOVOlIIKOU~. LIOV aywva IOU~ vio mv nveuovio me EKKl\nola~, rirov nOAu E~unnpEnKo yIO IOU~ EKKl\notocnxooc nYETe:~ va KPOIOUV nol\l\ou~ ana roue xoourKOU~ nYETE~, nou unopooccv va e1VOl svoxarmxoi lle: tnv napouoia IOU~ om ~uon, anaoxoAnlIEvou~ vic lIeYOAO oioomlla ornv AVOIol\n, an' onoo OEV unopoooov va EVOXAOUV mv EKKl\nola omv Em61U)~n Tu)V oXEolU)v me, Eivrn al\nSe:1G on unnp~av KOI MI\Ol, onU)~, vic

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39

E8NIKIrMor KAI nOI\ITlrMOr

H ANEnAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY Y I\IrMOY

nopddeivpo, 01 SEVEIOI, nou vpnvopo aVIEflnq>8naav IO pEVMa oixovouixd nfl£OvEKlnpma ICI)V L IOUPOq>0PI(J)V KOI Il~ xpnoiuonoinocv VIQ rnv ensxtcon me KUPIQPxla~ IOU~ ndvco am 6aflpaIlKn uxm, IO Iovio vnoid KOI rnv Kprirn, 'OpCl)~, TO va oounepdvoops an' coro on 01 LIOUpOq>OPIE~ ritcv ovonooeoxto Ka80plOpevE~ ana n~ p£8060u~ tnc nopovcovric 8a ritov Ka8apn avonafa.

'OIOV n EKKflnala cnoqxioios va Knpu~£1 IOV nOfl£po VIa tnv E~Ofl08p£uan ICI)V AflpmVKezCI)v, nou oroixioe tn zcori nOflfl(J)v Xlflla6(1)v av8p(J)nCl)v, EpnpCl)aE TO rno EflEUOspo KOI nvsopcnxd ruo npoCl)8npevo ruripc me Eupeonne, KOIEalpEI.jJ£ rnv nOflu cvcnrovuevn KouflIOupa KOI Biounxovio IOU KOI dqmoe nioco IOU evav cncoexcnouevo KOI ooevnpd onovopvopevo nfln8uOl.lo, Sev oonvri- 8nK£ a' uurov IOV aV(J)va svcvriov aUln~ me oipeonc ana xoufo oixovoprxri oxsipn. AUIO nou 61aKuB£uoIOV nrcv n svomrc me niornc. nou onotszoooe IO 8£pefllo ICI)V npoana8£I(J)v m~ EKKflnala~ VIa rnv noiunxri m~ ernxpdrnon. Kord IOV f610 rpono, KOI n rMfllKn Movapxio, nou cpvorepc unoorripjfs tnv EKKflnala a' cutov ' IOV nOfl£po, £pnv£ua8nK£ KUPICl)~ ana nOfllIlKE~ aKE- 1.jJ£1~. Meoeo uutou IOU oipornpoo ovrovc svcvtiov ICI)V AflpmVKezCl)v, n raflfllKn Movapxfa EVIV£ Kflnpovopo~ me Kounreicc IOU Aovvxvtox, us tnv onoic ofloKflnpo IO vono rurum me x(J)pa~ n£plnfl8£ aIO xspio me, £VIoxoovroc, qnxnxri, xntd nOflu nc npoana8£le~ tnc VIa

II i ouvxsvrponoinon me £~ouafa~. Luv£n(J)~, nrcv £~anla~ KUPICl)~ ICI)V nOfllIlK(J)v xivritpcov m~ EKKflnala~ KOI IOU Kpdrooc nou n oucovouncri avamu~n plQ~ ana Il~ naflOlOI£P£~ nepioxec me Eopormc ovexonn BIQICI)~ xor

nou n naflla eorio plQ~ onepoxnc KouflIOupa~ psrcrpdrmxs a' eva oropo epsmkov.

01 p£vafl£~ xorcxmoerc ICI)V ApaBCI)v, KOI l6lQlt£pa n £laBofln IOU~ ornv Ionnvic, nou anolefl£aav mv Evap~n IOU nOflepou ICI)V Enrd EKOIovlm:I1(J)v, Ssv unopouv va £~nvn80uv p£ onoioorinots p£flEm, 000 nflnpn~ KOl av eivor. ICI)V napaYCI)VIK(J)V auv8nK(J)v £KelVn~ me snoxnc. Oo rircv udroio va rtpoortoflrios: Kav£f~ va an06£f~£1 on n nvdrmxn ICI)V OlKOVOPIK(J)V OPCl)V rituv n Ka80plaIlKn 6uvapn pfa~ snoxric vspdtnc p£ EVTOva V£VOVOIO. MMIaIO, a' cumv £161Ka rnv nspfrrrcoon, eivm £pq>avEaIOIo IO aKpIB(J)C; aVlf8£IO. Msrd rnv xcrdkrnon me rpava6a~, IOU I£fl£UIOfou oxopoii ICI)V Mooprrcvov, 6nplouPvn8nKE ornv lonovio pia vsc nohmxo-Opnoxeunxri £~ouala, nou KaICI) ono tnv OflE8pla £nf6paan tnc cvexonn Via sxcrovla6£~ XPOVlO ofloKflnpn n oixovopixri avamu~n m~ xcopoc. Tooo p£yafln ntnv n xorootpopri nou £nEq>£p£ aUlo~ 0 £q>laflmc;, (J)aI£ 01 auven£IE~ me va sivrn Ola8nIE~, PEXPI oriuepo, ncivco oe ofloKflnpn tnv IBnpIKn Xspcovnoo. Axopn KOl 0 naKICI)flO~ IOU xpoooii nou psrd tnv avaKafluqm m~ Ap£pIKn~ Eppwa£ otnv Ioncvio ana IO M£~IKO KOl rnv naflla Aotoxporopio ICI)V 'Ivxcc, Sev unopscs va ovoxcrricer tnv oixovopixri ncpoxpri KOl, otnv npovponxotnto, anfl(J)~ mv erntdxove.

o vapo~ IOU <t>£p6Ivav60u me ApaV(J)va~ ue mv IonBEflfla me Kaalffln~ E8£a£ IO 8£PEfllO me Xpicncvueic uovopxfoc ornv Ioncvfo, nou 6£~f tnc xsp: rircv 0 Meya~ l£po£~£IOOIn~. 0 cxcrcncooroc nOflEpo~ evovriov me £~ouola~ ICI)V Mnupnovov, nou 61£~nx8n uno IO flaBapo me EKKflnafac; aflfla~£ 8£P£flICl)6(J)~ tnv I.jJUXIKrl

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EeNIKI~MO~ KAI nOJ\ITI~MO~

H ANEnAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY Y J\I~MOY

KQI rtvsopnnxri moon IOU Xptonovixou nfmSuollou KQI Sruuoopvnos £vav cndvdpcono SpnoKEUIIKo qxrvcnopo, nou xpdmos mv Ionovic IUf\lYllevn OIO OKOlabl vic £KOlOVlab£~ XpOVIO. Movov uno aUle~ I1~ npoi.inoSeO£I~, unopeos va uvonroxflef sxefvoc 0 onoforoc KfmpIKO-nOfIJIIKO~ Ssononopoc, nou, ac.pou envI~£ usoo OIO 01110 I1~ I£i\wTOI£~ £i\EUS£PI£~ I(0V Ioncvucov noi\£(0v, oni\e{)SnK£ lleoa om xcepc ocv £vo~ c.pPIKIO~ £c.plai\m~ vic rpicxooio xpovio, Yno rnv xorcrneonxri enIbpaon nutric tnc 1l0vablKn~ OIO efbO~ tnc £~ouaJoonKn~ opvdvoonc, evtcqndoflnxcv oxoun KQI TO I£i\WTOIO unoi\efll- 1l0TO me KOUi\IOUPO~ I(0V Mcopnovov, oc.pou nponc £Kble{)xSnKav cno tn xe{)pa 01 EBpoIOJ KQI OJ ApoB£~. Oi\oKi\np£~ sncpxiec. nou nMIOI£pO elloIOzov 11£ OVSIOll£VOU~ xrinooc, pstctpcrtnxcv o£ oVIInapoy(0YIKE~ £pnll£~ £Klao£I~, oc.pou TO OpOWIIKa ouotripnto KQI 01 bPOllOJ I(0V Mcopncvov Ssv ntcv rnri napa evo~ O(0p~ spemkov. BIOI£xvl£~, nou ntcv ll£TO~U I(0V npotcov ornv Eopomn, £~ac.povIoSnKov oxsoov £VI£i\e{)~ one tn xopc KQI 0 i\oo~ ensorpeips oe annpXQl(011£V£~ ll£SObOU~ nopay(0yn~.

LUllc.p(0va 11£ TO oroixefc IOU Fernando Garrido, om L£BfMn HuV npxov IOU 16 Qle{)vo onripxcv 1.600 apyoi\£lol ll£TO~(0Ie{)V uqxiourircov, nou oncoxohooccv 130.000 spvozopevouc, £ve{) KOla IO I£i\O~ IOU 170u Qle{)vo i\£IIOUPYouoov uovov IPIOKOaJOJ.

"L)cv eivai vvcooro ttoooi apvaheto! vnnpxav aro Toilioo satci rev 16° auova, ailila vvcopfzOVj.1t: au ixpaivovrav 435.000 ilfBp£~ j.1crafn~ etnoko; Kalan anaaxoilovvrav 38.484 tuoua. MixP1 ro riilo~ rov 1701) QJWVO~

oiln avrn n Btotexvuoi Spoottunotrna eixe t:facpav1a8d Etn LcVKOBlO, vnnpxav «end ro riilo~ rov 16°0 QJWVO~ 6.000 ap vail eioi j.lciNuvcov ixpoouauov, nov 8£copovvrav rnv enoxti exeivn co~ 01 Kailvrt:po1 tru; Evpwnn~. MixP1 tu; apxe; rov 1801) QJWVO~, avro~ 0 B1Orcxv1Ko~ roj.1ia~ eixe tooo ttapatquioet wart: t:1arJx8naav fiv01 epvazouevot VIa va olocifovv arov~ Lt:VKOB1OVOV~ rnv ixpovon Ka1 rn Bacpn rcov ixpooudtiov. 01 auie; avrn~ ttu; tiapaxj.1n~ titav n t:Kokufn [(uv Maopttavow, n ovoKailvljm ttu; Aj.1t:p1Kn~ K01 n j.1t:Vciiln uetavdoteixm nov aKoilov8nat:

Ka8w~ Ka1 0 8pnaKt:v[JKo~ ipavanouo; nov a&1Oat: ra eovaotnp«: K01 avfnat: rov op18j.10 rov tepecov KQJ [(UV j.1ovaxwv. Tn ottvuti nov eixav anoueivei j.10VOV rp1aKoa101 apvailt:1Of arn LcBfMn, 0 ap18j.10~ rov uovootnpuov eixe avfn8ci at: 62 Ka1 0 Kilnpo~ ncp1t:ilcij.1Bavt: arov~ Koilnov~ rov 14.000 atoud'?

Enfonc, KQl 0 Zancada ypac.p£1 aX£I1Ka 11' curnv mv nspiooo.

"To eto; 1655, 17 ovvtexviec t:facpavfa8nKav ana tnv Iottovia. Man) rov~ t:facpavfa8nKav Ka1 01 t:Pvazouevoi ara epvaottipia otonpo», xciilvBo~, XailKOV, j.1oilvBoo v, 8c1OCP1OV, ailovj.1fva~, K.1l.n."2

1. Fernando Garrido: ''H ovvxpovn lottavia", touo; A:

BapKt:Ac.5vn 1865. Auro TO ipyo rou tteptexe! iva nAovOIo VAlKO, onU)~ ona TO vpamd TOV Garrido KQJ IOJQ[rt:pa TO epvo rov "Iaropfa rU)v t:pyaTIKc.5v raft:U)v':

2. Praxedes Zancada: "0 epvdtnc otnv Ionavia. Xnpclc.5- oeu; ttdvto arnv noA1T1Kn scu tnv KOlvU)vlKn totopia", BapKcnAc.5vn 1902.

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E8NIKIrMor KAI noxrrnvor

H ANEflAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY Y i\IrMOY

AKO}.m KQI n KOTaKmOn me AllePIKn~ uno tOU~ lonavooc, nou onovopvroce mv IBnpIKn Xspoovnoo uno tOV ni\nSuollo me KOl alxllai\oonoE poxpid oro v£o KOOllO EKOTOllllUPlO av8poonoov, OeV pnopsi va E~nvnSEi anoKi\£lOtlKO uno "rn oltpa V10 xpooo", 000 £vtOvn KOl av nrcv n onhnotio LOU OTollOU. 'OTOV 51OBoZOUllE tnv IOtOpic me ~aKouoTn~ "Kordxtnonc", KOTai\aBalvOUlle, llazu lle tOV Prescott, on uordzei i\IVOTepO us uic ai\nSlvn nspivporpri TOOV npovpcnxoiv VeVOVOTOOV KOl nEpIOOOTepo ll£ xdnoio ono TO avapiSllma popovnxd lluSlotOpnpore me nepmhdvnonc TOOV mrtotrov, nco, 1010lrEpa omv Ionovio. £xOlpav lleV6i\n~ ovdnnc Kal sxrfunonc.

6£v ritov onoxosionxd OIKOVOlllKOI 01 i\OVOI nou KOT' £nav6i\nqJlv E!i\Kuoav OllOOEe; tOi\llnpOOv TUx051OOKTOOV OTO llu81KO EI Dorado, rrspo cno TO lleV6i\O OOKEavo. M£Vai\£~ AUtOKpOTOpf£~, onooe; EKefVe~ tOU ME~IKOU KaJ TOOV 'Ivxnc, nou nEpIEi\ollBavav exctopuepic avSpoonoov, nspc cno to VEVOVO~ on xoreixcv evav aPKETa uqJni\o BaSllo nohmouou, KOTaKTnSnKav ana ufc xoixptn anEi\rnouevov IUXOOIOOKr6lV, nou OEV Sforczov va xpnouionoiriooov ortoioorinore llEOO KQ1 nou Ssv oroporoooov npo OUOeVoe; KIV5uvou, ana 10 onvpri nou KOl n 1010 n zcori tOU<; OEV EIXE nl\£ov VI' oorooc llEVai\n a~Ia. AUTO to VEVOVO~ E~nVEIrOl llOVOV otcv E~eTaOOUllE eVOEi\ExeOTEpa aUTO to uovooixo av8pwmvo Ui\IKO, to oKi\npaVOOVnllEVO uno IOV KIVOUVO, nou EIX£ Ba811lGla Snpioopvn8ei llEoa ana evav noi\Ello errroxookov xpovrov. Move pfc snoxri otnv onoia n 15£a tnc sipnvnc ovdueoc moue; avSpoonoue; rtpenei va spoioze us Eva OllOPq>O napalluSI EVO~ noi\u llaKplvou napEi\8ovTOe; KQ1 onou 01 noi\Ellol

510pKElae; QIoovoov, nou OIE~OVOVTOV ue Ko8E OOllomTO, qxiivovmv cue; n xovovixn ouvSnKn me zoone; pnopouos va eXEI Snpioopvriosr curov tOV axai\IvootO SpnOKEUtlKO ocvcnopo, nou xcpcxmpize tOU<; lcncvooc me; enoxne; EKEIvne;. 'Eroi llOVOV unopsi va VlvEI xcmvontri coni n 10iaiTepn opuri npoc pfc olapKn cvozrirnon me nspirtsTEIG~. Iio Ilia £oq>ai\llEvn avtli\ntpn me; Illln~, nou ouxvd OTEPOUVTOV Ka8E npovpcnxoo unoBaSpou, 01 ovSpoonol nrcv etOlllol OE KOSe onvpri va olaKlvOUVeUOOUV 10 zeori tOU~. &v e1VQ1 ooumrounnxo nou 0 xapaKtnpae; IOU !1ov KIxoom avanTUX8nKe ornv Ioncvfo. 'Ioooe; aUIOe; o tpono; nou Bi\enoull£ TO npovporo va llac; oonvef noi\u unxpid, otnv aVtlKOIOOraOn me; KOlvoovloi\ovIae; ana tie; avaKai\uqJEle; me qJuxoi\oVIae;, ai\i\a sfvoi ovcpcplOBnTmo on n qJUxoi\oVIKn xordorcon too avSpoonou eXEI ufo ioxopri eniopaon ndvco om Sinpopqxoon tOU avSpromvou KOIVOOVIKOU nEpIBoi\i\ovToc;.

On pnopouoous va napa8Eooull£ £KOIOVT05£C; 6i\i\oov napaoEIVlloIOOv ana TO onoic va KaSIoIOTQI oaq>E<; on n oixovopio Ssv anor£i\ei to KevTpo Bapou~ me KOIVOOVIKnc; avonTu~n<; EV vevEI, nap' oi\ov nou eX£1 O1OOpallmfOEI, aOlall<PloBnIma, eva orrooocfo poi\o am olalloP<Pooon tOOV IOtOPIKOOV 5la5lKa01oov, nou Ssv npsnei OUt£ va tOV napaBi\EnoullE OUIE va tOV unspexnpdps. Yndpxouv enoxsc onou n onooooromto TOOV OlKOVOlllKOOV ouvSnKWV Via mv nopsic TOOV IOtOPIKOOV VEVOVOTOOV sivoi, OE EKni\nKtlKO BaSllO, ~EKo8apn, ai\i\o ondpxoov KOl oi\i\£C; onou SpnoKEUTIKO n noi\mKo xivnrpo OUVKPOUOVtQI oi\Oq>OVepa, KOTa tponov auSaIp£TO, us tnv xovovixri nopeio me oixovouicc KQI V10 llEVai\o XPOVIKO oloom-

44

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EeNIKI~MO~ KAI nOI\ITI~MO~ .

H ANEnAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY Y I\I~MOY

uc avaxarrlzouv 10 q>uOIKn rnc avo.mu~n ri 10 OlOX£.I£UOUV npoc o.i\i\a KaVo.i\IQ. Ioropixd vsvovoto, oncu~ n M£wPpu811lon, 0 Tproxovrcerric noi\£llo~, OJ ll£Vo.i\£~ Enovcctdosic otnv Euporm xcn noi\i\o. o.i\i\a, Ssv unopoov Ka80i\ou va xcrovonaoov cu~ Ka8apo. OJKOVOlll'Ko. vevovoto. Mnopoops, OllCU~, ll£ EUKoi\la va napao£x80uue on OE oi\a curd W vEVOVOW 01 oixovoprxoi rtcpdvoVI£~ OIQOpallo.noav Eva poi\o KQJ ouvEBai\av om on- 1l10uPVla IOU~.

H ncpepprivsoon VIV£IQJ nxopn oofoporspn, orov npoona80ull£ va npoooropiooups W olo.q>opa KOIVCUVIKo. orpcopcro llla~ oUVK£KplllEvn~ snoxric CU~ ani\E~ IUnIKE~ £Kq>po.O£I~ xdnoieov £VI£i\CJ)~ Ka80pIOllEVCUV OIKOVOllIKCJ)v OUllq>EpOVlCUV. MIa IEIOla dnoipn OXI 1l0VO oteveuei IO VEVIKO 8£cupnnKo nsofo IOU ll£i\£Imn, Mi\o., sni ni\iov, oIQarp£Bi\CJ)v£1 £v oi\cu rnv IOIOpla KQl Sev unopsf napa va lla~ ofinvsf O£ £Oq>ai\llEva oupnspdopnro. 0 o.v8pcunoc Sev c1VQl ani\CJ)~ Evae; q>opEae; Kanolcuv lOIQIU:PCUV OIKOVOlllKOOV OUllq>EpOVlCUV. fia napo.oEIVlla, n pnoopzouczio, OE oi\£e; I1~ xoop£~ nou cnexrnos onuovnxri xoivovucri ouvalln, EX£l cuxvd onoornpffsi xrvriporc nou Sev Ka80plzovrav KOIa xcvevcv rponov cno tc OIKOVOlllKa me; oUllq>Epovra, ai\i\a ouxvd BpfoKOVWV O£ aVOIKIn avnnapa8£on u' curd. 0 avoovae; me evovriov me; EKKi\nofae;, 01 npoona8EIEe; m~ Via tnv £VKa8fopuon lllae; 1l0vIlln~ sipnvnc ll£w~u lCUV E8vCJ)v, 01 q>1i\£i\£u8EpEe; KQl onlloKpanKEe; me ano\pEI~ cxem«i ll£ IOV xapaxtripc me; KuBEpvnone;, nou Eq>Epav IOUe; ovnnpoooinouc me; O£ o~uram oovxoocon ll£ n~ napaooo£le; me; "£i\ECU 0£ou" 8aOli\cfae;, KOI noi\i\Ee; ai\i\E~ un08EO£Ie;.

VIQ ne; onoisc, xctd KOlpOUe;, EO£I~£ ll£vai\o EvSouOlaouo n urtoopzouozin, anooEIKvUOUV tnv op80Ima me; dnoipnc llae;.

t1EV anoI£i\cf anoo£l~n nspi IOU avn8EIOu IO V£vovoe; on n pnoupzounzio, xdrco ono tn OUVEXCJ)e; au~avouevn sniopoon lCUV OIKOVOlllKOOV me; OUllq>EPOVlCUV, vprivopo i\nollovnoE TO loavlKa me; vrornc me; n on TO rtpofxoos, KOIo. tpono xooofo, 'OTOV ouvxpfvoops tn 8UEi\i\CJ)on KOI oppnnxri nspiooo lCUV opxcov IOU oooioiuonKOU xtvnputoc otnv Eoporm ll£ ne; EllnpaKIEe; noi\mKEe; lCUV oovxpovcov spvonxov xoupdtcov, vpnvopc 8a neio80ull£ on 01 on8£v sxnpooronoi IOU npoi\ETOpIo.IOU OEV c1VQJ Ka8oi\ou O£ 8Eon va smxpfvoov mv unoopzouozic Via ne; £OCUIEpIKEe; tnc ll£raBoi\£e;. Kcvsvc an' cord to xoupctc OEV EX£I KavEI mv nopopixpri npoondbeto va ennpedoei n~ OIKOVOlllKEe; ouvSnK£e; npoc mv KOI£U- 8uvon IOU oooioxiouoo. KOIa tn olapKEla me; XElPOI£pnc Kpfone; nou EXEI nOTE nspdoet 0 KanIrai\lonKoe; KO- 01l0~. nOTE ai\i\OI£ 01 OIKOVOj.llKEe; ouv8nK£e; Sev rircv CUPlllOI£PE~ VIQ svcv ni\npn uercoxnpcnouo me; xornrci\lonKne; xorvrovioc, Oi\oKi\npo IO KannMlOnKo OIKOVOlllKO ouornuo EX£I ~Eq>UV£1 cno Ka8£ Ei\EVXO. H xpion, nou o.i\i\OTE nrcv ani\CJ)e; Eva n£ploolKO q>QJVOj.lEVO IOU xcnrromonxo» xoouou, EX£I EOCU KQJ xpovic xcrucrsi n xcvovixri ouv8nKn me; xoivcovncric zcune;. Kpion om Biopnxcvio, xpion om veopvio. xpion OIO epnopro, xpion ow Snuoorooucovojnxdl Ta ndvto EXOUV ouvEvcu8cf VIQ va anoocf~ouv tnv ovucovcrnrc IOU Kannai\lonKou ouotnpcroc. LX£OOV 30.000.000 o.v8pcunol £1VQl KOIaOIxcopsvoi srp' opou zcune; ce uic a8i\la nevin llEoa 0'

46

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E8NIKIrMor KAI nOI\lTlrMOr

H ANEnAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY Y I\IrMOY

evov KOO)lO nou KOIoOTpe<pETOl ana IO nOpOVOOVIKO IOU nflE?VOO)lO. AAfla, fleinEI IO nVEU)lO, IO OOOlofllonKo nveopo, nou OVOOVIZETOl Via )lIO 8EllEflloo5n ov051ap8pooon me KOIVOOVIKn<; Zoon<; KOI nou 5EV llevEI soxopiomusvo ps nc YIKpe<; KOI OVOO5UVE<; nOPEllBaoEI<;, nou onfloo~ nopOIElvOUV rnv xpion, XOOPI<; nors va pnopouv va oneflEhpouv II<; onIE<;. Flore QN\OTE Ssv on05dx8nKE TOOO ~EKa80po OIl 01 OIKOVOllIKi<; OUV8nKE<; ana 1l0V£<; IOU~ 5~v unopoov va Mfla~OUV rnv KOIVOOVIKn Souri, ov 5EV EIVOI nopooosc )lioo OIOU<; av8poonou<; EKelVE<; 01 rrveullaIlKi<; KOI 5IOVOnTIKi<; npoUn08ioEI<; nou 8a 50000uv <PTEP? on<; E~18ulll£<; IOU<; KOI 80 svonomooov OE )lIQ xoivn npoonddetc n<; Sieonoppevec 5uVall£l<; IOU<;.

AAfla, rn ooorojuonxd xoppotc, K08oo<; KOI 01 ouv51- Ka?'IOIlKi<; opvovcicsic nou EiVOl 5IOnOTlO)livE<; ps II~ 15EE<; IOU<;; Ssv ex?uv onoroxei 1l0VO OIO zritnpo tnc oixovopixnc ov05lOp8pooon<; me KOIVOOVIO<;' ixouv, EnIone, an05Elx8d OVIKOVO va npooTOIEuOOUV rnv nosmKn KflnPOVO)lla me conxric 5nllOKPOIIo<;. KOI IOUIO 51 on ixouv on05Ex8d, ounxntf, m ouppixvoon TOOV xsxrnueve», psoo uno 1l0KPOXPOVlOu<; OVOOVE<;, EflEU8EPlOOV KOI 51KOlOOllaTOOV KOl, oovenoc, ixouv OUllBaMEI ornv avo- 50 IOU <POOlollOU otnv Eoporm. oxopn KOI napa tn 8iflnon IOU<;.

Lmv hOfllo, ivo<; uno IOU<; rno Em<povEl<; sxrrpooosnoix IOU LOOlOfllOIlKOU KOllllOIO<; unnp~E 0 Spdornc IOU <P~OIOTIKOU npO~IKOnn)lOIO<; KOI 1110 OflOKflnpn opd- 50 ono IOU<; rno VVOOOIOU<; nVETE<; TOOV EPVOIOOV, ue EmK£<pofln<; IOV D' Aragona, Ba510E npoc IO oTpOIonE50 IOU Mouoooofvi llE ovcrterrropsvec II<; onpcisc.

Lmv Ionovic. IO LOOlaflloIlKo KO)l)lo nrov IO povo noo nfl8E OE oUll<POOVIO ue IOV 61KTaIOPO Ilpipo VIE PIBEpO. KOI onpspo snionc, KOIa rnv Ev50~n snoxri m<; LID)lOKPOIIO<;, nou to XEPIO me EXOUV Bo<pel KOKKIVO ana IO 01110 TOOV 50flo<povnpEVOOV £PVOIOOV, IO LOOlMIOTIKO Kopuo on05EIKvUETOl 0 KOflUTEP0<; <pUflOKO<; IOU xomroiuouxoii ooornpotoc KOI npootpepei us np08ulli0 TI<; onnpsoiec IOU OIOV nepioprouo TOOV nOfll1lKOOV 51- KOIOO)laTOOV.

Lmv AVVflIo, sipcore udpropsc IOU nOpa~EVOU 8EallOIO<; me 0l<pVI510<; psroorpoqiric OIO £8vIKlonKo OTpOTonE50 TOOV VVOOOTOTEPOOV KOI IKOVOTEPOOV nvstrov IOU EPVOIlKOU KO)lllOIO<;, nou us rn Sprion IOU<; KOTE<pEPOV 1110 ouvrpirmxri rirro aID KOllJ,lO, IOU onofou unnp~ov UnEpJ,lOXOl VIO 5EKoETIE<;. "Eroi, 0 Philip Snowden xnrnvopnos IOU<; nMlou<; IOU OUVTPO<POU<; on "elXOV tono- 8ETnoEI to m~IKa IOU<; OU)l<pEPOVTO naVOO ono IO KOflO IOU KpaIOU<;". Mia popori nou 5uoruxoo<; 5EV 51KOloo8nKE, aMa nou eivm nOflu xopoxrnpionxn VIO mv "Efoxorntd Too", onoo<; TOOPO OUTO<; OnOKMElrOl.

Lm rEp)lOVIO, TOOO n L.00l0fl5n)lOKpOTIO 000 KOI TO EPVOnKa OUV51Kam exouv unoompifer pe OflE<; IOU<; II<; 5UVaPEI<; tnv nspiBonm nPOOna8EI0 TOOV llEVOfloBloJ,lnXaVOOV KonnofllOToov Via IOV "E~op80flOVIO)lO" me BIOpnxovioc, nou TOOO J,lEVaflE<; KOTOOTpEnTIKe<; ouvenEIE<; ElXE VIO IOU<; EPVOZO)lEVOU<; K01 nco npoocepe rnv EUKOIPIO OE uio n81Ka TEfl)lOTOO)lEVn prtoopzoouzic va ovopPOOOEI ana IOU<; KflOVIO)lOU<; nou me ElXE npofsvriosi 0 XOllEVO<; nOflEJ,lo<;. Axoun KOI IO KOllPOUVIOTlKO Kop)lO me Fsppcvioc, nou us inopon mrronpoofiropizotuv oo~

49

48

E8NIKILMOL KAI nONTILMOL

H ANEnAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY Y i\ILMOY

enovcoronxo xoppc me £pyOIIKn<; Io~n<;, UloS£mo£ TO £SvIKlonKo ouvSnllOIa me aVIlopaon<;, Sion nl\nIZ£ on, 11£ ournv rnv rtspnppovnnxri cnoppnpn IU>V oooiojuonKffiv npxrov, Sa pnopouos va ovoxonioei tnv OVOOO IOU an£ll\nIlKOU qxioiouou

ea pnopoooous va avaq>£pOUll£, oxoun, nl\nSo<; nopaO£IYllOIU>V vio va O£1~OUll£ on 01 exnpooconoi me ll£YMn<; nl\£I01.pn<pla<; IU>V opvovcepevov OIQ oooioiuonxd xopuoro spvntcov O£V £xouv IO OIKalU>lla va 11£11- <pOVIQI rnv unoupzouozia vic nohmxri ava~IOnIorfa ri vic npooooic IU>V nal\lffiv me 10avIKffiv. 01 sxnpocconoi IOU <p11\£I\£uS£PIOllOU KQI me conxric Snuoxpotioc £Konl\u>oav one I£I\WIQI£<; £KI\OY£<; llia rtpoondlleic va OIQoffioouv, IOuI\OXIOIOv, IQ npooxriuoro, £vffi 01 onS£v onepcomorsc IU>V npol\£IQPlaKffiv OUll<P£poVIU>V £YKaI£I\£I1.paV n<; nal\l£<; IOU<; 10E£<;, 11£ aOlovIponn aUIQP£oxeio. npoxsiusvou va KOVOUV 0, n aKpl6ffi<; EKavav KQI 01 nvtfnonof IOU<;.

nol\l\ol olanpen£1<; oixovopohovoi, nou O£V OlaKOI£XOVTOI nno oOOlal\lonKE<; 10££<;, £xouv £K<PPOO£I tnv nsnoffmori IOU<; on IO xorntumonxo ouotnun £X£I <pSOO£1 OIO I£I\O<; IOU KQI 6n npsnei om SEon llla<; "oucovouicc IOU av£~£I\£YKIOU K£POOU<;" va onllloupynS£1 uio ol\l\n "oucovopic ncpcvevric a~lffiv xprionc", Booiopsvn o£ V£E<; apx£<;, edv S£l\oull£ va unv xorootpcqisf n Eopconn. nap' ol\a mUIQ, 01\0 xm rtsprooorepo yfV£IQI £ll<Pav£<; on 0 000101\10110<; u><; xfvnuo Ssv £X£I, xord xcvsvcv tpono, cvcntoxdei, OUIU><; ffion: va unopsf va ovnperronfosi curri tnv xotdorcon. 01 nEpI000I£POl orto TOU<; exnpocomouc IOU coorcinonxoo K1vnllOIO<; Sev sxoov nOI£ npoxopri-

OEI nspo uno Ko.nOl£<; coripovrsc ll£mppUS}.IIO£I<; KQI onorczouv nc OUVo.llEI<; IOU<; oe doxonsc KQI wIKIvouVE<; qxrrpioonxec Sroudxsc, nou 11£ tn 61\aKffion 1l10a1\1\0- oO~Ia IOU<; lla<; unEvSulllZOUV tn oupnspupopd IU>V nvsollanKo anoI\ISU>llivu>v £KKl\nOlaonKffiv opvnvososcov. 'El\o.xlom £VOIQ<piPOVIQI vro IO y£yovo<; on £KOIOVIo.OE<; XII\IOO£<; OOOlMIOIffiv ll£oa omv anEl\nIOla TOU<; a<piBnxov va mcofloov ornv naYIoa IOU Tpiroo Po.IX.

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E8NIKIEMOE KAI nOI\ITIEMOE

01 OIKOVOlllKOI OPOI pnopoov, uno OUVKeKpllleVe~ nspiOTOOel~, va 0~uv80uv TOOO, e00Te n lleTOBoAn IOU undpXOVIO~ KOIVU)VIKOU oooniuoroc va anOIeAei zconxri avaVKQJOmTO. To zrirnpo, 0' cotriv rnv rtspfntoxm, elVQJ npoc nord Kan:u8uvon 8a Klvn8ef n xotvovic: 8a aKoAou8noei eva Spopo npoc mv eAw8epia ri 8a KaTOAn~el anAc0~ oe pfo BeAnU)llevn uoppn oouA£fa~, onoo 01 ov8pU)nOl, 110- Aovon unopsi va exouv e~ao<pMIOllevo eva <pTu)XO enine- 00 oloBIU)on~, 8a elVQJ onovopvopevoi ana K08e ave~aptnoic om Spoon IOU~; AUTO, KQJ 1l0VOV aUTO, elVQJ IO oooioonxo zrirnpo, H xorvcovixri Sopri tnc Aoroxporopfoc Tu)V 'IvKa~ e~ao<poAIZe O£ OAOU~ IOU~ ormxoooc m~ TO ovovxcfc npoc IO znv, MAO ol\n n xc0pa rirov onorovuevn 0' svov onepropioto Ssononopo. nou nuopouos opeiAIKTO K08e evcvtiroon one olmave~ TOU KQJ unoBIBazE TO OIOllO 0' eva oBoul\o opvcvo m~ KpanKn~ £~ouola~.

o KpanKo~ Kamml\lOllo~ 8a 1l0pOUOe va elVQJ pfc ole~ooo~ cno rnv ncooooo xpion. aMo c.fVQI BeBQlOTmO on Ss 8a unopouos va ortoreheoei IO Spouo npoc tnv KOIVU)VIKn el\w8ePlo. Avn8eTu)~, 8a Bu81Ze IOU~ av8pronouc OIO TeAlla llla~ ooul\ela~, nou 8a rtspuppovouoe K08£ av8promvn a~IOnp£neJQ. Le K08£ <puAoKn, O£ K08e orpcrcovc ortdpxei pio e~ao<pMIOllevn roomtn KOIVu)VIKc0V ouv8nKc0v: OAOI exouv IO 1010 eovnro, to 10JQ poexa, npootpspouv nc 101£~ ormpsoisc ri eKTeAOUV TO 10JQ Ka8nKOVTO. AMo, nOlo~ 8a unootnpizs uneu8uva on pro rstoic xordorcon 8a pnopouos va anoT£l\eOel IO oxono Via IOV onoio 8a O~IZe va aVU)VIOIOUlle;

YnopXel rspdonc OJQ<popa cvdpeoo oe 1110 xordoroon onou to llel\n llla~ KOIVu)VIKn~ opvdvcoonc Ka80piZOUV

H ANEnAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY YI\IEMOY

n~ TUXe~ IOU~, eMVxouv nc un08EOel~ IOU~ KQJ exouv IO avonol\l\oTplu)IO OIKoIU)110 me oopustoxric om Sioixnon Tu)V KOIVOOV un08Eo£u)V KQJ O£ pic oMn xordoroon onoo TO llEl\n me xotvrovioc Ssv elVQI napa opvovo 1110~ £~U)T£pIKn~ Boul\non~, nove otnv onoio Ssv coxoev xouio smppori. Ka8e otpcncomc eXel olKalU)lla oupparoxric om KOIVO ooooino. 01\1\0 Ssv snnpenetm va EX£I olKn IOU xpion, Ynoxpsourm va onoxooei IU<pI\O one oJQIQve~ Tu)V nvorsprov IOU, onoouoncovtuc, ev ovdvxn, tn qxovri m~ ouv£lonOec0~ IOU, Sion OeV c.fVQJ napa Eva runpo llla~ pnxnvnc nou MI\OI 8EIOUV O£ xivnon.

Kcuio ropovvic Ssv elVQI nepiocorepo aBomaKm uno sxefvn llJQ~ novtofiovopnc vpa<peIOKpOIla~, nou eneuBOIV£l 0' Ol\£t;; nt;; Spootnpiomrsc Tu)V av8pc0nU)v xcn a<pnv£l ndveo IOUt;; IO OIKO me onllOO1. '000 mo cnspioprom c.fVQI n £~OUOIO IOU Kpdtouc novo om zeori IOU OIOllOU, TOOO rtspioootepo oxpcotnpidzei n~ SnuioopvrKe~ IOU rxovotntec KQJ e~008EVIZ£1 tn ouvOlln tnc npooU)mKn~ IOU Boul\non~. 0 xpcnxoc KonnMIOllo~, 0 mo enlKlvouVO~ oVTlnMo~ IOU vvrioiou OOOlMIOllOU, cncitsi mv unotovri OIO KpoIO~ ol\U)v Tu)V KOIVU)VIKOOV Spoornpromteov. EIVQJ 0 8pIOllBot;; me unxovnc ndvco OIO nveopc, n £~op801\0VIKonolnon Ka8£ oKilvn~, opao,n~ KQJ OUVQJ08nllOIOt;;, OUll<PClJVO ue n~ oll£TaBl\met;; vopll£t;; me e~OUOIOt;;, KQJ, ouvenc0~, £IVQJ IO TeI\Ot;; K08e oAn8lvou nvwllOIIKOU noiunouou, To V£Vovo~ on n EKTOon nutric me onell\nnKnt;; ovomu~nt;; OeV EXel VIVel nl\npU)<; xctovonrri llexpi onuspo, IO VeVOVO<; on EXel VIV£I onoosutri n loea nU)~ coni n ovdrmxn ortoppssi U)<; aVOVKQlOmTO uno n<; TPEXOUO£<; OIKOVOllIKEt;; ouv8n-

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H ANEnAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY Y I\IrMOY

KE~ unopsf KoMlata va SEc.opnSd c.o~ Eva ana to rno Suoofrovc onusfc trov KOIpcDV uoc,

H EnIK)VOUVn uovfc nou 8i\EnEI KOSE KOIVc.oVIKO CPOIVOJlEVO JlOVOV c.o~ cvonopsoxro anOTEi\EOJla rev xornwi\lonKcDv JlESOOc.oV nopovcovnc £XEI EJlCPun:UO£1 OIOU~ avSpcDnou~ rnv nertofflnon on oi\a TO KOIVc.oVIKO V£Vovow onoppsouv ana pic KaSOplOJlEvn avaVKOIomTO KOI on Ssv unopoov va Jl£w8i\nSouv. AUTr1 n cpOlai\lonKn 10Ea pnopsi va oonvsf JlOVO ornv nopdnoon m~ ouvaJln~ tcov avSpcDnc.ov VIO aVTIoTOon KOI, KOla ouvenerc, IOU~ KOl£USUVEI npoc Eva oUJl818aOJlo Jl£ n~ OEOOJlEVE~ ouvSnK£~, av£~apTnTc.o~ IOU noaa CPPIKT£~ KOI anovSpc.onE~ pnopsi va dVOI.

'0i\0I vvopizooue on 01 OIKOVOJlIKE~ ouvSnKE~ aOKOUV xdnoio Enfopaon one JlET080i\E~ rrov KOIVc.oVIKcDV OXEOEc.oV. 'OJlc.o~, 0 rponoc JlE IOV ortoiov 01 ovSpc.onOl Sa nvnopdoouv us n~ OKEtp£l~ xcn Jl£ n~ npo~EI~ IOU~ a' cutriv rnv Enfopaan EXEI Jl£v6.i\n onpoofo VIO IOV KaSoPIOJlO rov BnJlOTc.ov nou npensr va unoqxioiooov, npoK£IJlEVOU va EnltUXOUv pic npocpavcD~ cvcvxofo JlEw80- i\n rov ouvSnKcDv me zc.on~ IOU~. Ai\i\o, dVOI aKpl8cD~ 01 OKEtpEI~ KOI 01 npo~EI~ reev avSpcDnc.ov nou OEV unopoov va rteptopiotlouv OIO OIKOVOJlIKO errinsoo. Floioc So unoornpizs, VIO ncpdosivpn. on 0 Ilooprroviopoc, nou £X£I onoqxioionxd EnnpEOO£1 mv nvsopcuxri cvdnrofn reov Avvi\ooa~cDvc.ov Jl£XPI onpspo, rirov IO uvnvxoonxo anOTEi\£OJla me OIKovOJlIKn~ Kanltai\lonKn~ To~n~ npcvJlOTc.oV, nou TOT£ BPIOKOWV oxopn ornv nOIOIKn me ni\lKIa, ri noioc Sa npooncfiouos va anood~EI on 0 Flovxo- 0Jl10~ noi\£JlO~ rircv EVT£i\cD~ KaSOpIOJlEVO~ ana nc avo-

VKE~ IOU KanlTai\lonKou oootnpctoc KOI on, xord OUVEnsio, rirov avanocpEUKTo~;

To OIKOVOJlIKO aUJlCP£pOVIQ OIOOpaJlOnoav, ovopqnBoi\c.o~, Eva onpovnxo poi\o 0' nutov IOV noi\£JlO, onc.o~ KOI 0' oi\ou~ IOU~ 6.i\i\ou~, ai\i\o OEV So unopoocov ono povc IOU~ va npo~£vnoouv nutri tn Savmncpopa soreotpoqm. H olaKnpu~n ani\cD~ KOI JlOVOV xdnoiov OUVKeKPIJl£Vc.oV OIKOVOJlIKcDV OTOX·c.oV OEV So pnopoooe n~Te va xivnronomosr n~ JlEV6.i\E~ JlOZE~. 'Htov, OUVEnc.o~, nnopuimto va U1oSETnoouv 01 JlOZ£~ tnv 10£0 on 0 i\ovo; Via IOV onofov EnPOKEItO va OKOTcDOOUV IOU~ oi\i\ou~ KOI va OKOTc.o80uv KOI 01 f51£~ ritcv "0 Kai\o~ KOI OIKOIO~ oxonoc". Enopevox. n ufc ni\£upo noi\£JlnOE "£vavtiov IOU Pc.oOOlKOU Seononouoo". VIO mv "anEi\£uSeproon me noi\c.ovIa~" KOI, CPUOlKO, VIO TO "ouJlCP£povw me nntpiocc" , nou 01 L.UJlJlaxOI sixcv "oovrououioei" va xorcorpsipoov. KOI n 6.i\i\n ni\Eupo noi\£Jlno£ "VIO IO 8pfaJlBo me zmpoxporicc", "Via tnv xorcotoocri IOU

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H ANEnAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY Y i\ILMOY

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an 0, n TO vopvc oixovopu«i OUl1<PEPOVTO tov KUPJQP-

xrov tO~ECt)V. Auto KOta6EIKvuETOI ana to VEVOVOr, on npotoii 01 ovSp(J)nol 06nvnSouv OE nOnE110 nperrsi va KOtOnn<pSouv uno EVa noSor, KaSwr, KQJ ana to VEVOvor, on auto to noSor, unopsi va 61EVEPScf povov uno nVEU110tlKO KQJ nSIKo xfvnrpc.

&V rircv 01 16101 oKplBwr, ovSp(J)nol nou KOSE xpovo 61EKnpUtTaV one EPVOZOl1EVEr, 110ZEr, on KOSE nonEl1or, KOtO mv snoxri tOU Konnonlol1oU npoepxerm cno KoSapd OIKOVOl1lKO xivnrpo xm nou l1E tnv EKpn~n tOU FloVKoOl110U nOnEl1ou EVKOtEnEl\jJav mv roropixo-qnsooo<pIKn rooc SECt)pla KQJ cvoqxooov nr, unoSeoElr, too ESvOur. ndvo cno mv unofieon mr, to~nr,; KQJ OUtOl 01 avSpCt)nol nrcv EKElVOI nou l1E Sapper, onoomprzcv rn Mop~lonKn dnoipn, m 61OtUnCt)l1evn oro KOPPOVVIOrIKO MavJ(pioro, on "H 10tOPlO onCt)v teov KOIVOOVlOOV l1EXPI onpspo ElVQJ n roropio me nonnr, rrov tO~EOOV".

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EIVQI, nomov, ono<povEpO o<pMl1a n E~nvnon tOU tenwwlou nonel1ou onoxaetonxd KQJ povov Ct)~ OVOVKOIO onoreheopo teov ovnnSel1EVOOV OIKOVOl1lKOOV OUl1<PEPOvtov, eo ntov Sovorn 111a E~enl~n tOU KonnonlOl1ou, onoo 01 onoKMOUl1EVOI "xorterdvroi m~ nOVKoOl1I0~ Blopnxovioc" So oUl1<PCt)vouoov 11' evov tpono <plnlKo OXEnKa l1E to znmuo me xctoxnc tcov nnvev ICt)V npotcov unoov KQI IOOV o<PQlPOOV tOU El1nOPIOU KQI me EKl1EIOnnwon~, oneoc oKplBoot; 01 1610KInIEt; ICt)V 6Ia<popCt)v OIKOVOl1lKOOV OUl1<PEPOVICt)V l1eoo OE KOSE xoopo oouqxovoov, XCt)Plt; va unoxpEOOVOVIQI va Emnuouv nc 610<pope~ roue l1E tn otpcneonxn IOXU. Yndpxsi n6n evot; OPKEIO l1EVO-

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EeNIKI~MO~ KAI nOI\ITI~MO~

H ANEflAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY Y I\l~MOY

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Luvenro~, av oKE<p80UllE IO zrrmuc ana 1110 EVTEAffi~ oixovopixn orrnxri vovio, 0 nOfiEllO~ OEV rirov, xord xovsvov rpono, ovonopeoxtoc. 0 KannMlollo~ 80 unoPOUOE va EmBloooEI KOI xu>pf~ curov. Ilpovpcnxd, unopel xdnoioc va un08EoEI, usrd BEBOlomIO~, on edv 01 "KanETo.VIOl" m~ KannMl0nKn~ oncovopioc unopoooov va npoBflE\jJOUV TO onotsheopnto IOU nOfiEllou, aUTo~ OE 80 OUVEBQ1VE nOTE.

&.v rircv onoxheionxd TO 01KOVOlliKo. aUll<PEpoVTO nou OIOOpallo.noav Eva onpovnxo POfiO aTOV TEfieuTOIO noflEllO, MAo. KOI xivntpc nOfllTlKn~ 10XUO~, TO onofc TEAIKo. EKavav IO nov vic va E~anOAU8el aVEAEVKm n xurectporpri. METa rnv nopoxpri me lonovicc KOI me nOpTOyaAAla~, xopfcpxsc OUVo.llEI~ ornv Eoponn ritov n Oflflavola, n r afiAla KOI n AVVAla, nou BPIOKOVWV llETO~U IOU~ OE ovrovovrouo. H OflAavoia sxoos vprivopo tnv nvsnxri me 8Eon KOI petri tnv Eipnvn IOU Breda n

srnppori me ornv nopsfo TU>V Eupu>nalKoov nOflmKrov onofleoscov ouvExffi~ llEIU>VOTOV. AAfio. KOI n r aMla srtione, ustd IOV Errrcsrri nOfiEllO, EIXE Xo.OEI Eva llEVo.AO llEpo~ me naAlo.~ me KuplOpxla~ KOI OEV unopeos nOTE va IO ovcxtrioei, 1010itEpa uno m onvun nou 01 OIKOVOIlIKE~ me OUOKOfliE~ YIVOVTOV OUVEXOO~ o~urEPe~ KOI oorivnocv a' EKelVnV tnv dveo nponvoopsvoo xorcniean TOU flaou uno tnv onofc nponA8E n Enovdorcon. 0 NanOA£u>V opvotspc EKavE rspricnec npOOn0.8EIE~ vm va uvuxtrioei n r MMa otnv Eoponn tn xouevn m~ 8Ean, aMo. EIlElvav XU>PI~ anOTEflEolla. H AyyMa nopeueive 0 aOI6.MaKTO~ ex8po~ IOU NanOflEOVTO, nou ouvropo Kmo.AaBe on TO OXE01Q IOU vro ncvxooino KUpiopxic OEV 80 unopooocv nOTE va xcpnorpopriooov, Eo.V OeV KmaKIOuaE TO "E8vo~ TU>V spnopev", onu>~ nepnppovnnxd cnoxoooooe mv Avvflia. 0 NanoflEU>v Exaoe TO nOlxvlol, OWV n AvyMa OPVo.VU>OE EvaVTIOV IOU ofln tnv Eoposrm, 'EKTOTE, n AvvMa Exel Stcrnpricsi tnv nYEnxri me 8Eon otnv Eoposnn KQ1, omv npcvpcnxotnro, a' ofloKflnpo IOV KOOllO.

Aflflo., n BpeWWIKn Aotoxporopic OeV E1VOl 1110 ouvexric eoa<pIKn nspioxri, onu>~ rircv 01 o.Me~ aUIOKpotOPIE~ npiv an' nutnv. 01 KTnoEl~ tnc efvoi SmoxopmousVe~ KOI one nEVU: nneipouc KQ1 n ao<pMElo. IOU~ e~aptdtm cno rnv xctdotcon au~nllEvn~ lOXUO~ nou xorexsi n Bperovvic otnv Eopomn. K0.8e anelAn oorric me xordorconc oovrord KOI anElfin me OUVeXIZoIlEvn~ xoroxric TU>V cnonocov me, rIO 000 XPOVIKO Olo.omlla, otnv Hnsi- . pU>I1Kn Eopoirm, n Smuopqxoon rcov ouvxpovov usvdAu>V Kporcov Ile TOU~ vivcvnoioo; orpctooc xcu oroflou~

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E8NIKILMOL KAI nOAITILMOL

H ANEnAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY YAILMOY

mu~n tnc otpcnomxnc Ouvalln~ tnc Ispuuvfoc, n EYKQlvicon me cnonocxric tnc nOAIIIKn~ KOI, Kupiev~, n onjnoopvio TOU aToAou me KQl n am8Epn avomu~n tcov EnEKmnKOOv me oxEoievv (Ka8oo~ "n npoc AvmoAo~ oppri me" vivotov OAO KQI nepioootepo Qla8mn KQI Suodpsam vic tnv AYYAia) anOt£AEaav £vav Kivouvo vic tnv BpEmWIKn Aotoxporopfo, nou OEV rirov Sovoro va TOV napa8A£nEl.

To YEYOVO~ on n Bpsrovvixri omAevllmia xpnoiponofnos aofomKm K08E psco. npoxsipevou va cvnusrcorrfosi TOV Kivouvo, OEV OnOr£A£! anoOEI~n ym TO on 01 opxnexrovsc currie m~ mKnKn~ ritcv EK <puaEev~ nspiooorepo unouAOI n aoiamKrOl an' o.n 01 omAevlloTE~ nov oMevv xevpoov. H ernnoocnc EKq>paan oxenxd ue mv "drnorn AA8loova" sfvci tooo nvontn ooo KQI n <pJ\uapia oxsrn«i us Evav "noxrnouevo nOAEllo". Edv n BpEmVVlxri omJ\evllmia anEodx8n ovorrspn uno exeivn «ov Ispllavoov, EQV rirov e~unvoTEpn one pnxovoppoefec me, coto auvE8n 1l0VOV mElOn 01 exnpooconoi me sfxov noJ\u llEYaAUT£pn spnsipfo KQI £n£lon, euruxoo<; YI' ouTOU<;, n nAEloqJnq>ia rov unEu8uvevv Ispuovosv noarnKOOV ana tnv snoxri TOU Biouupx OEV ntnv napa 080uAOI AaK£OEe;; me ouroxporopncric E~ouaia~. Kav£va~ an' auTOu~ OEV £IxE TO 80ppoe;; va Evavnev8Ei one EmKivouVE~ Spcornpiornrec EVO~ aveu8uvou \j)Uxona80u~ KQl me cpvopovntnc KallapiJ\a~ TOU.

'Ollev~, n nnvri TOU KaKOU npsnei va avaznm8d OXI am usuovouevc rtpoocono, OAJ\O omv iom mv E~ouOlaonxri nOAIIIKn, aVE~aptntev~ TOU nOlo<; TnV aaKE! KQI TOU noioi efvoi 01 011£001 otoxoi nou EmOIOOKEl. H E~ouOla-

TOU~, rn vpcqisroxpnrfo TOU~, I1~ KammAlonKE~ rooc EnIXElpnaEI~, n~ utpnAo avamuYllEvE~ Biopnxcvlsc roue, n<; aUll<Pevvlee;; tooc vic TO E~evTEPIKO sunopio, I1~ E~ayevYE~ TOU~ KQl In auvExoo<; uvcnruooopsvn cvdvxn to~ YIO enextcon pnopooocv oxoun va napa8A£novIQI, n 8Ean rnc Bp£Iavvla~ eve;; novxoouroc Ouvalln~ rtcpspsiVE EvrEAoo~ cvsnopn. AAAO, ooo ioxocorspo vivovrnv to KanlIMlOnKO xpdtn tnc nnetpomxric Eoponnc, tooo nepiooorepo rirov unoxpecouevoi 01 Bpetcvvoi va ooBouvrc: vic rn OIKn TOU<; nvspovfc. K08£ npoon08£la ortoicoonnore Eupcvna'iKn<; ouvalln~ va E~aoq>MioEI vEe<; cvopec ri Eoaq>IKEe;; nepioxsc vic tnv npolln8Ela npoirccv UAOOV, va EnEKldvEI n<; E~ayevYE~ tnc llEaev eunopixcov oopqxovroiv llE n~ ~£VE<; XOOPE<; KQI va oooaEI am EnExtcnxd me aXEom n<; llEYaAUlepE<; Ouvm£<; WKQlPIE<; ofmvouoov ovcnopeoxtc oe xdnoio onuefo TOU xoouou oe ufc OUYKpouan, opvd n vpnvopo, llE rn oqxiipo lOOV BPETaVVIKOOV oopoepovrcov KQI ntcv ovopsvopsvn n aUYKaAullllEvn svcvrkoon rn~ Bpstovvioc,

Iio to J\oyo aUTO, TO rtpcoreoov ll£J\nlla me AYYAIKn~ E~evrepIKn<; nOAIIIKn<; £YIVE, xor' cvdvxnv, n ncpeunooian K08E oJ\J\ne;; ouvalln<; ono tnv onoxmon KuplapxlKn<; ernpporic ndvco ornv Hneipconxri Eopeonn ri, otcv coro rirnv ovcnorpsnro, n xpnciuonofncn oJ\evv reov IKaVOtnrcov me vio va orpeipei milia ouvalln evcvtiov m~ oMn<;. Qe;; EK IOUIOU, n rirrc TOU Nonoosovro TOU I" ana TOV Flpcoouco orporo KQl In omAevllmia IOU Bfounpx 1l0VOV wnpoaoEKrn, KQl 1l0Alom oe lleYOAO 8a8110, 80 unopooos va ViVEI ana rn Bpsrnvvfo, Sion n ouvalln rn<; rMAia~ e~ap8poo8nKE Via oEKaEliE<;. AAAo, n avo-

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60

E8NIKILMOL KAI nO/\ITILMOL

H ANEnAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY Y /\ILMOY

onxri noiunxri unopsf va von8d povov ornv sivoi eIOIpn va xpnmj.lOnOlnoel Ko8£ j.leoo, 000 KI av eivm KOIaolKa01eo ana tnv GTOj.lIKn ouvdonon, £<p' OOOV ouro IO j.leoo onooxerm va oonvriost O£ Bsnxd anoIeI\£Oj.lOIa, oupqxovsf j.l£ m floYIKn IOU KPOIOU~ KOI E~UnnpEIel IOU~ oxonooc IOU.

o MaKlaBefll, nou sfxs IO 8oppo~ va OUYKEVIPeDOEI OUOmj.lOIIKO n~ llE80oou~ ps n~ onoiec OUllnEpI<pepEIQI n Kpcnxri E~ouola KOI va nc OIKOIeDOEI OIO ovopo m~ 1\0YIKn~ IOU KpOIOU~, IO £X£I non olaruneDOEI us oooriVEIO OIOU~ "Aoyou~" IOU:

"Eav exooue va KOVOUpc ue rnv esmuepia ttu; Flatpioa~, OcV npene: va ennpenooue orov~ eavrov~ uo; va ennpedzoviai ana ro BfKalO ri ro OOIKO ri ro ;l(i8o~, ana rn ovunovota ri rn oKfmpornra, ana rov encuvo ri rov IpOvo. &v ttpene: va VKPIVlozovpe Sixo»; .10VO, a.1.1o ttpette: ttdvtoie va aBpoxvovpe K08e ueoo nov 8a odoe: rn ZUJri tru; xoopa~ KQJ 8a oJQrnpnael rnv e.1cv8epfa tnc".

Iic rnv I£flEIO xpcnxri E~ouofa Ko8E £YKl\nlla nou Sionpdrrercn otnv onnpeofo IOU KpOIOU~ sivcn pic a~lenmvn npo~n, EOV sivor srnroxric. To KpOIO~ Bpioxercn nspov IOU Kal\ou KOI IOU KaKOU' efvoi n EnfYEIO 8da Ilpovoic nou 01 cnoqxioeic me efvoi, EV teo Bo8EI IOUC;, IOOO aVE~lxvla01EC; vic IOV KOIVO ormxoo 000 efVOI KOI vic IOV rnoro tn ooc wnOOOOVIGI uoipofo uno mv E~O~oio IOU 8EOU. 'Onoo~ aKpIBeD~, oopqxovc ue to Sovpctn tcov 8wl\oyoov KOI reov ooqxov, 0 8EOC;, ps rnv aVE~Ixvfocrn oooic IOU, xpnouionorei ouxvd to rno oKl\npo KOI IPOllEPO j.leoa vic va EKnl\npeDOEI tc OX£OIO IOU, eIm KGI IO KpOIOC;, oupqxovc ue rc Sovuorc tnc nohm-

Kn~ 8Eofloyiac;, OEV nepiopfzstcn ana IOUC; KaVOVEC; mc; xoivric av8peDmvn~ n8IKoIma~, Ko8E rpopd nou cnoqxiOiZEI va npaYllOIeDOEI xdnorooc OUYK£KplllevOU~ 010- XOU~, ncizovtcc, EmKlvouva KGI ljJuxPGIlla, us n~ zooec; KOI n~ IUXEC; exoroupopiov.

'Otcv eva~ Omfloo1l0m~ ne<pIEI ornv novfoo nou IOU £XEI O1noEI evac; oMo~ Omflooj.lOm~, elVGI OUOKOflO va rtnportovsfisf vic to IEXVOOj.lOIa KQJ mv £fll\ElljJn covsiSnonc IOU ovnndsoo IOU, Sion KQJ aUIo~ 0 foJO~ EmOleDKEI, <pumKo npoc O<PEflO~ IOU, IOV fOIO OIOXO KQJ ixpiororei mv rirrc 1l0VOV WElon 0 aVIfnal\oc; IOU unopei va naf~EI KafluIEpa IO POflO m~ 8efa~ Ilpovomc. Kdnoioc nou m01EuEI on Ssv pnopsi va unop~EI xcopic mv opyavoollevn ouvalln nou npoocononoieirci OIO KpOIO~, npsnEI va dVOI, snfonc, £rollloc; va anooEx8d OI\EC; nc ouv£nEIEC; corric me oElmOafllovoc; niorscoc KQI va BuoidOEI OIOV Mol\eDX IOU KpOIOU~ o.n IO nohonpotepo £XEI, rnv 1010 IOU rnv npoocornxotnto.

'Hrcv Kupfoo~ n OUYKpouon rrov e~oUmaOnKeDV noamKeDV, anOI£I\EOj.la me ovcnoopcomc E~£fll~nc; rcov llEYOI\oov KanJIafllOnKeDV KPOIeDV, nou ouv£Bal\E onpovnxd OIO ~£onaOj.la IOU naYKOOj.lIOU nOfl£1l0U. Ano tn onvpri nou 01 I\aof, KOI 10lalrEpa 01 EPyaZOllEVOI, trov ola<popoov XooPeDV OEV aVIEl\n<p8noav m oobopomto me KGTOOraon~ KOI OUIE prtopsoov va Bpouv IO n81Ko 08£vo~, eDOIe va UljJeDOOUV uio onooooionxri ovriorcon one unoYEIEC; paoloupyfE~ trov Omflooj.lOIeDV, rov 1l11\napIOIeDV KOI tcov KEpoooKonoov, OEV unripxs xoufc ouvalln nove am vri nou va llnOPOUOE va otoporricsi tnv xoroorpopri, Iio oEKaEIfE~ ol\oKflnpE~, Ko8e llEYOflO KpOIOC; spqxivrzorcv

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E6NIKIrMor KAI nOi\ITIrMOr

ouv iva vivovnoio orpcronsco, avnn8ip£vo om oMa Kpdtn KOI oniuousvo pixpl~ ObOVTCJ)V, iCJ)~ OTOU, OTO Tii\o~, pia oni8a ovcrivcfs tn vopxn, l1£v ritcv £n£lbn oi\a ouviBnoav onCJ)~ inpw£ va oupBouv nou 0 KOapO~ oonyn8nK£ u' ovoixtd TO pdno ornv oBuooo, Mi\o w£lbn 01 p£yoi\£~ poz£~ oe K08£ xcopo Ssv eixov tnv nopopixpri Ibia TOU TI notono rtcixvio: snpoxsrro va nOIx8£i nfoCJ) uno ,mv ni\om TOU~. 'HTOv E~ania~ me nnioreutnc ablO<popla~ TOU~ KOI' nove an' oi\a, me TU<pi\n~ TOU~ niomc otnv ai\ov8aom ovcorspotnm TCJ)V E~ouOlaoTcDv TOU~ KOI T~V anOK,M?UPEVCJ)V nveouonxov nYETcDv TOU~ nou vro novo ana TEOOEpa XpOVIO unopsonv va OiPVOVTOI OTO oecvefo oav oBoui\a xondoio.

Ai\i\o, oxoun KOI 01 PIKPE~ opOb£~ TCJ)V u\jmi\cDv Sicxeipiorcov m~ OI~ovop~a~ KOI m~ pEYMne; BlopnxavIa~, nou TOOO oovepo ouveBMav OTO ~Eonaapa TOU novxo°PIOU OIpaTOKui\fopmoe;, Sev spnveovrov one; EVEPY£IE~ TOU~ anoKi\eIOTlKO cno tnv npoorrnxri TOU Ui\IKOU KEPSooc, H dnoipn nou BMnel os K08E KannMlmn uovo 1-110 pnxcvn Kepbou~ pnopsf va aVTOnoKplv£TOI £~afOla 0;1e; cnortriosic T~~ nponayovbae;, ai\i\o poi\le; KOI PETO BIOe; unopei va YIVEI nIOTWTI1 KOI va aVTOnoKpl8ef otnv noovuonscmrc, AKopn KOI OTO covxpovo vivovnofo Kannai\lopo to e~ouolaonKo noi\mKo OUPCPEpovm Sicbpapa:lzouv ouxvd Eva peyai\uT£po poi\o an' o.n 01 Ka8apa OIKOVOPIKOf unoi\oYlapOI, poi\ovon EIVOI bUOKoi\O va blaxCJ)ploEI~ TO usv uno TOU~ be. 01 PEYMOI xorntci\loTEe; EXOUV pa8£1 va sxnpoov tn vontsouxri al08non me; £~ouola~ KOI rn i\mpeuouv ps TO IblO n080~ nou tn i\oTpwav OTO napei\80v 01 peyoi\OI KmaKmTE~, £fTE Bpf-

H ANEnAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY Y i\IrMOY

OKOVTOI OTO orporoneoo TCJ)V avnnai\CJ)v TCJ)V KuB£pvn- 0EcDv TOUe;, onox 0 Hugo Stinnes xm 01 onofoi TOU xotd mv snoxri me; r£ppavIKne; oixovojnxric xpionc, EIr£ avaPEIYVUOVTOI ortoqxioionxd otnv E~CJ)TEpIKn noiunxri TCJ)V xCJ)PcDv TOUe;.

o voonpoc n080~ va KmaOTnoEI KanOIO~ EKmoppupia av8pcDnCJ)v onotoxnxooc OE pio OUYKEKplpEvn Boui\non KOI va oonvnoet oi\oKi\npe~ octoxpctopiec npoc pia KmEu8uvon £~unnpEnKn TCi>V oxoreivov oxonoiv KanOICJ)V PIKPcDv pEIOlpncplcDv spqxivfzetcn coxvorspc OTOve; TUnIKOU~ sxnpooomooc TOU ouvxpovou KannMIopou an' o.n 01 Ka8apa oncovopixoi onoaoviopof n n npOOnTIKn £vo~ pEyai\uTEpou Ui\IKOU KEPbOUe;. 0 n080~ vic ouoocopeuon oi\o KOI pEyai\uTEpCi>V KEpbcDv Ssv IKavonoisf nMov oriuspc ne; oncrtrioeic TCJ)V peYMCJ)v xornTMlonKcDv oi\lyapxlcDv. Ka8Eva ana TO pEi\n curcov TCJ)V oi\lyapxlcDv YVCJ)Plz£1 Kai\a LO noaa tspdono £iVOI n buvapn nou npoonopizsrrn LO 1610 -KOI n KOIvCJ)vIKn Ta~n otnv onofc ovrixei- am) mv xctoxri LOU P£YMOU ni\ouLOU. Au tri n YVcDon LOU nopsxei Eva Ei\KuonKo xivntpo KOI TOU Snpioopve! exeivn mv TUnIKn ouveionon me xoptcpxfcc, 01 ouvEnElee; m~ onofoc efvoi ouxvd nepiocorspo kcrcorpermxec an' o.n 01 EVEpY£I£e; TCJ)V fblCJ)v TCJ)V povoncoafcov. EfvOI nurri n nvsopnnxri moon LOU oiivxpovou M£yai\ou Aoevnxoo me; Biopnxcvioc KOI me; ovcnrovusvnc oixovopicc nou KaTOblKaZEI Ka8E aVTI8£On KOI Ssv 80 aVEx8EI xopic ioomtc uvdpsoo 0' curov KOI LOUe; oi\i\ou~.

L.LOUe; peyoi\oue; aYcDvee; PETO~U TOU KEq>ai\alou KOI me; spvcoinc aUTO LO KmvcDb£~ nvsopo me; xupicpxicc

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E8NIKIEMOE KAI nOi\ITIEMOr

H ANEnAPKEIA TOY OIKONOMIKOY Y i\IrMOY

OUXVO olaopa11OTlzEI £vav nspioootepo onopooionxo pono an' o.n TO dpsoc OIKOV011IKO OU11<P£POVTO. 01 11IKpoEPYoOTOOIOPXE~ rov nMGlOTEpooV EnOX~V Srornpoooov oxo- 11n, £OO~ Eva 8aS1l0, xdnoisc OT£VE~ OXEOEI~ 11£ TOV spvcZOIl£vO nnnSuollo KGI ritov, oovsnox, IKaVOI va exouv ilia IlEyanuTEpn ri uixpotspn xorcvonon tnc KOTaoTOon~ TOU~. H ouvxpovn uptotoxpntin TOU xpripnroc, Olloo~, £X£I cxoun nlyou:pE~ OXEO£I~ 11£ T1~ IlEyanE~ llaZE~ TOU naou an' 0,T1 eixcv 01 Bop~vOI <p£Ouoapx£~ IlE TOU~ oounonoPOIKOU~ TOU~, KOTa TOV 18° Q1~va. rVoopIZEI T1~ llazE~ povov oo~ ounnoYIKo cvnxefusvo £KIlETannEuonc;; xcpiv rov OIKovolllKOOV KGI nOnlTlKOOV m~ OUIl<PEPOVToov. L£ YEvIKe~ ypalllle~, OEV ondpxsi xcpfc xorovonon tov oKnnp~v ouvSnK~v me zoon~ TOU~. E~ OU, KGI n cooveifinrn xmveoic, n £~OUOIaOTlKn ncpoppnon, n nspnppovnnxri KaSE avSp~mvou OIKGI~IlOTO~, KQI n avaloSmn aOIQ<popio vic rn OUOTUXIO tov annoov.

Q~ nnoppoio me 101a~ TOU me xoivrovixnc SEon~, OEV TIS£TOI xcvsvo OPIO OTOV E~OUOlaOTlKO noSo TOU ouvxpovou KanlTMIOTn. Mnopsi va avo11EIYVUETOI 11E avaloSmo £yoo'iollo am zom reov ouvavSpoonoov TOU KGI va nofzsi TO pono me eEfa~ Ilpovoicc vro TOU~ 6Mou~. Movov orcv naBoull£ un' Oq>IV 1l0~ rnv naSIQOIlevn ncpoppnon vic nOnlTlKn E~ouola TOOO ndvco OTO OIKO TOU naG 000 KQI ndve OTO ~eva eSvn, £lllaoT£ nccvoi va xorcvoriooope. npovpnnxd, TO xcpcxtripo trov TUmK~v sxnpooonrov TOU oovxpovoo KanITOnlOilou. EIVOI aKpl800~ aUTO TO SicxpmKO yv~plOlla nou TOU~ KaSloTo TOOO £nIKIVOUVOU~ vio rn IlEnnOVTlKn olapSpooon me KOIVooVIO~.

o ouvxpovoc 110vonoonlaKo~ KanlTonlOllO~ Ssv unootnpizst OVEU noyou tnv ESVIKo-LOOlanIOTlKn KOI m qxiotonxri aVTlopaon. AUTn n aVTfopaon oU118MnEI am ouvtpibri K08£ OVTloTOon~ tcov spvcnxov uozcov, npoK£lllevou va EYKa810puS£f eva 8aOInEI0 Biopnxovixric oounonapOlKla~, onou 0 ncpcvcovoc So S£ooPElTQI annoo~ oo~ eva OIKOVOIlIKO outopcro, XooPI~ xoufn sruppori nuvo otnv nopeic KQI TOV xopoxtripo tov OIKOVOIlIK~V KOI KOIVooVIKOOV ouvSnK~V. AUTn n Kotonpncri rtopoopocwn O£ YVooPIZ£1 KaVEVOV rtepioptopo. Xoopk OIOTOY110, nooonOTO sxsfvo TO EnIT£uYllaTO TOU nap£nSOVTO~, nou £XOUV nonu ouxvd KOTaKmS£1 11£ TO ofpo TOU naou. EIVOI ndVTO eTOIlln va KOTonVI~EI 11E tnv Kmvooon 81a TO T£n£uroic OIKOlOOllOTa Kal T1~ T£nEUTOl£~ EnEUS£pI£~, nou Sa unopoooov va nopepnooiooov TO oxeola me vic unayooyn onoov teov KOIVooVIKOOV Spcotnptotritcov usoo O£ oxopnrsc <POPIlE~, KoSopIOllev£~ uno m 80unnon me, AUTO~ sfvm 0 ll£YMO~ Kivouvo~ nou Ila~ an£Ii\£! oripspa xcn nou o<PEInOUIl£ a11eooo<; va cvnperconfoooue. H erntoxic ri n cnoroxio teov E~OUOlaOTlK~V OX£OlooV TOU povoncoiuoxou KanImnlOilOU 8a Ka80plo£1 tn oOlln me KOlvoovlKn~ zoon~ OTO £yyu~ llinnov.

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KE4>AAAIO 2 ePH~KEIA KAI nOAITIKH

KE~AAAIO 2: 0PHl:KEIA KAI IIOAITIKH

8PHLKEIA KAI I10AITIKH. 01 PIZEL THL I~EAL THL KYPIAPXIAL. H ITPOEAEYLH TQN 0PHLKEYTIKQN I~EQN. ANIMILMOL KAI <l>ETIXILMOL. H 0YLIA. TO AIL8HMA THL E3APTHLHL. H EI1I~PALH TH~ ErKOLMIAL E30YLIAL LTO LXHMATILMO THL 0PHLKEYTIKHL LYNElilHLHL. 0PHLKEIA KAI ilOYAEIA. TA 0PHLKEYTIKA 0EMEAIA KA8E KYPIAPXIAL. H I1APA~OLH. 0 MQ~LH~. 0 XAMMOYPAMI1I. 01 <l>APAQ. 01 NOMOI TOY MANOY. TO ITEPLIKO 0EOKPATIKO BALIAEIO. 0 AAMAYLMOL. 0 AAE- 3AN~POL KAI 0 KAILAPOITAITILMOL. 0 KAILAPILMOL LTH PQMH. 01 INKAL. 0 TZENrKIL XAN. E30YLIA KAI IEPATEIO. EKKAHLIA KAI KPATOL.O POYLLQ. 0 POBELITIEPOL. 0 NAITOAEQN. 0 MOYLLOAINI KAI TO BATIKANO. <l>ALILMOL KAI 0PHLKEIA.

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OEI<;, bEi~EI on oxoun KOI to ovoporo tU)V blCl<pOPu)V 8EOU1tu)V rirov npcotopxixd EK<PPOOEI<; svvoicov one onOlE<; ritcv evoouotcopevn n Ib£O me KUPIQPXla<;. !:lEv efvoi toXOIO on 0i\01 01 onepccrnorec me opxric me KUplOpXIO<; ovcvdvoev rnv npo£i\EUoo m<; OIO 8EO. AUIO OUJ.lBofvei EnElbO 0 8EO<; EJ.lq:>avIZEIQI a' auIOU<; U)<; 0 sxnpooronoc Ko8E E~OUOla<; KOI Ko8E bUVOl1n<;. L1:OU<; rno upxsvovooc l1u80u<;, 01 OPu)E<;, 01 KatOKmt£<;, 01 v0l108iIE<;, 01 npovovoi tnc <Pui\o<; Ell<POVlzOvtOJ U)<; 8EOI 0 U)<; nll18EOI. KOJ OUIO OU1l80lvEI EnElbO IO llEyoi\Efo IOU<; xm n OVU)tEPOlntO IOU<; bEV unopooos napa va iXEI 1l0VO 8Ei'KO npoii\Euon. Kat' uotov IOV tpono, <PlaVOUllE ora 8ql£i\1O Ko8E ooorriucroc KUPIOPXIO<; KOI Srcruorovool1E on Ko8E noi\mKn, OE TEi\wmlo oVMuon, EIVOJ BpnOKEIO, nou npoonoflei va nepiopioei IO nvsopc IOU QV- 8pc0nou ueoc am 5WllO me E~opmon<;.

To EOV IO 8pnoKEuIIKO ouvol08nllo ElvOJ nbn uno n<; onopxsc IOU lIla otpnpnpevn oVTOvoKi\oon Iu)V EnlYEIU)v E~ouOIoonKc0v 8Wllc0V, onU)<; 0 Nordau KOJ Oi\i\OI unoOTOPI~OV, EIVOJ iva zrimpc OVOIKTO OIO bloi\oyO. EKElVOl nou rnctsiioov on n npcotnpxixri xordotoon tnc ov- 8pU)nOInto<; nIOV "£vo<; noi\ElIo<; oi\U)v EVOVtlOV oi\U)v", onU)<; 0 XOlIn<; KOI 01 noi\uopl81101 onaoof IOU, lIE EUKOi\la 80 penoov npoc IO va EKi\aJ.l8ovouv IO 1I0x8npo xm 81mo XOPOKTOPO Tu)V nporrcov 8EOTOTu)V U)<; iva rnoro QVTlYPO<PO Tu)V Ssonomcov q:>ui\opxU)v xci Tu)V noxspoxcpov opxnvov, nou xporoooov usoc OIO <p080 xcn IOV tpouo tooo to llii\n me q:>ui\o<; IOU<; 000 Km IOU<; ~iVOU<;. &V nepcos llEyoi\o XPOVIKO Sidompc ana TOTE nou, lIE IOV iblO tpono, 8EU)POUOOlIE 1:OU<; onuspivouc

"oYPIOU<;" OOV nnvoupvooc xcn oKi\npou<; ov8pc0nou<;, nou OIOV bIQPKc0<; iTOIllOl YIO <pOVOU<; KQ1 i\Eni\OOIE<;, llEXPI<; OIOU IO noi\uopI811a oounsodoucto m<; oiivxpovnc E8voi\OYIO<;, OE oi\o TO uspn IOU KOapOU, onibEI~ov IO OUOIc0bE<; o<pai\J.lo outn<; rnc oVIfi\mvrk J.la<;.

To YEYOVO<; on 0 npoirovovoc ov8pU)no<; npooiblbE, xord xnvovo, ora nveixroro KQI 010U<; 8£013<; IOU IQ xopoxrnpionxri IOU IPOJ.lOU KOI tnc 81010mIO<; bEV XPEIOZEIOI, Kat' OVOYKnv, va ovox8El OE EnIYEIO noorono, Ko8E II OYVu)OIO (cxctovonto 010V oni\o vou) EnEVEPVEl OIO ov8pc0mvo nVEulIO U)<; xdn IO Oi\i\OKOIO KOI IO q:>08EpO. Movov iva 80110 XU)piZEI IO ai\i\OKoIO uno IO rpptxtuonxo, to q:>PIKTO, IO <p08EpO. AUto IOXUEI nspioootEPO YIO EKdvE<; T1<; X0J.l£VE<; 010 808n Iu)V OIc0Vu)V EnOX£<;, OIOV n ernvonnxri bUV0J.ln IOU ov8pc0nou rirov OVEnnpsnorn ana n<; xli\IEtlE<; rnc oooocopeupevnc sunsipice, nou 80 urtopouos va IOV rtposroipdoet yIQ tnv £YEpon i\oYIKc0v ovrsrnxeipnpdtov. A'Ai\o, oxoun KOI EOV bEV ElllOO1E ortoxpecouevoi va ovcvdvooue Ko8E 8pnoxsunxri 1b£0 otnv doxnon me eniYElo<; E~ouolo<;, eivci npdvpcn 0i\n8E<; to yeyovo<; on, xord nc lIEIOYEVE01EpE<; snoxsc me ov8pc0mvn<; E~£i\I~n<;, 01 E~U)tEPIK£<; 1l0Pq:>£<; me 8pnoKdo<; K080PIZOVIOV ouxvd cno n<; £~ouolaonKi<; ovcvxsc oprousvov oropev n xrinoiov 1I1- KPc0v OJ.lObU)v rnc xoivevfcc.

Flpiv uno Ko8E nspirrrcoon xopiopxic; xdnoxov 151a1- tEPu)V ov8pc0n1vU)v OlIObU)V ndvco OE KonOJ£<; Oi\i\E<;, sppovrzornv n Em8ulli0 oq:>Et£PIOlIOU tU)V npoiovrov m<; spvooioc IOU<;, tU)V EPyai\£iU)v IOU<;, Tu)V oni\U)v roue 0 n Em8ulli0 £Kblu)~O<; IOU<; ana pic covxexpipevn nspro-

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E8NIKILMOL KAI nOI\ITILMOL

8PHLKEIA KAI nOI\ITIKH

xri, nou S£U)pouvmv nl\covEKnKOI£pn VlG tnv cnoxmcn Iu)V ovovxoiov npoc IO znv. EIVQ1 noM rnflovov on, Via Eva ll£VMO XPOVIKO Sidomuo, 01 vIKmE~ ritcv ixcvonOInllEVOI ue oorriv tnv anAn 1l0pQ1l1 O<P£I£PIOllOU KQI, otcv ouvnvrouoov ovtiotoon, anAc.O~ Eo<pazav IOU~ ovnnol\ou~ IOU~. Al\1\0, BaSlllala Kmol\aBav on rircv ernK£POEOI£PO va onmroov ana IOU~ nrrnpsvoix oopo unoIEI\£ia~ n va IOU~ KaSunOIoooouV oe pfo via Io~n npovpdtcov, £~OUOlOZOVIO~ IOU~. Eoc.O aKpIBc.O~ BPIOKOVIOl TO SEll£l\lG m~ ooul\£ia~. H KaSunom~n Iu)V ol\l\U)v rircv n EUKoAoIEpn Auon, KaSc.O~ n aMnA£vvun cqx» pooos 1l0VOV tn ll£l\n me IOlG~ <pul\n~ KQI Ssv nnVQlVE KaSoAou nopcrtspaOzo to ooornpcto Kuplapxla~ rircv, npcotopxucd, xopiopxfo ~£vU)v £loBol\£U)v, onoo 01 VIKnIE~ oxnpdnzcv uic IOlGh£pn npovouiouxo Io~n KQI unercooov IOU~ nrmuevooc am Boul\nan IOU~. Kmo xcvovo. 01 vIKm£~ rirnv vOllaolK£~ xovnvnnxsc <pul\E~, nou enEBal\l\av mv xopiopxio IOU~ ndvro oe povipcoc £VKateomuevooc cvponxooc nl\nSuollOu~. H cncoxohnon ll£ IO xuvrivi. nou EK <puo£U)~ onorrsi OUV£XC.O~ ll£voAn Spcotnptotntn KOI cvtoxn, KOVEI IOV ovSpU)no rno noxeuoxopri KQI rno apnaKIIKO. AvnSElu)~, 0 ovpornc, nou eivcn O£llEVO~ llE tn vn IOU KOI nou n zeon IOU ouvnSU)~ KUAO nIO sipnvrxd KQI I\lvon::po EnIKIVOUVa, OIl~ n£plooOI£p£~ neptrrrcoosic Ssv xopoxmpfzsrcn ana tn 1\0VIKn tnc BIQln~ OI£KOIKnon~. L.uv£nc.O~, 0 cvponxoc nl\nSuollo~ onovieoc pnopsi va ovtmnpcteflef otnv £loBol\n Iu)V noA£lllKc.OV <pul\c.Ov KOI onorocostcn oxsnxd £uKol\a, sdv 0 ~EVO~ xopiopxoc Ssv eivcu nol\u KGIam£OIIKo~.

Ana~ KQI 0 vIKmn~ vsurnxe tn vMKa m~ £~ouofae;

KOI EllaS£ va IPE<P£! ll£vol\n zxtipnon VlG to OIKOVOlllKO nl\covEKlnllma nou IOU rtopsixs, 0PXIO£ va £VSOUOlOZEIOI £uKoAa uno rnv doxnon me £~ouola~. KoS£ EnIIUXla IOV rtopoxivoiioe OE VE£e; nspmererec, Sion £K <puo£U)~ KOSE £~ouola xopoxrnpfzetm ana m OlGpKn npoortddsro IU)V KGIOXU)V me vrc ol£upuvon tnc srnpporic IOUe; KQI Via £mBoAn IOU ZUVou IOUe; nriveo OIOU~ aouvalloue; avSpc.Onoue;. Toroutotponox, avamuxSnKE BaSlllala ufo ~£xu)plOln Io~n, me; onoioc n svooxohnon rircv 0 nol\£llo~ xcn n Kuplapxfa neve moue; Ml\oue;. AllAo, Kallla £~ouofa Ssv unopef poxportpotlsopc va Bcofzetcu 1l0VO ornv U)lln Bfa. H eopri Bfa pnopsf va anOIEI\£i IOV OllEOO tpono vic rnv KaSunom~n Iu)V avSpffinU)v, al\l\o ana uovn me; eivcn cviknvn va Srornpnosi tnv xopiopxfo xdnorcov oroucov ri xonoicov IOlGhEPu)V xcotccv ndvro OIO ouvol\o IOU nAnSuollou. Ii' outri tn Siornpnon cncin:fTOI KOIl nsprooorspo- cncirsircr n nforn Iu)V avSpc.Onov OIO ovcnopeeato aUlne; me £~ouofae;, n niorn otnv £K Iu)V S£c.Ov ortoppsoooo cnoorohri tnc. Aorri n niorn sfvrn BaS£lo pizcouevn am Opnoxeotncd OloSnllma IOU avSpc.Onou KOI oovexox ioxoponoieitm llEoa ana rnv rtopdooon, ndvco ana tnv onoic cncopeftci n AOll4'O Iu)V SpnoKEUIIKc.OV IO£c.OV KOI IOU puonxou XpEOU~.

AUIOe; dVOI 0 I\ovo~ VlG IOV onoiov 01 vIKmEe; EnEBaI\av ouxvd IOU~ Scoue; IOU~ neve OIOU~ nttnusvooc, Sion KGIal\oBQlvav nol\u KaAo on n evonoinon Iu)V BpnOKEUIIKc.OV I£A£IOUPVlc.OV Sa £~unnp£IOuo£ tn olKn IOU~ £~ouofa. L.uvnSU)~, £Aoxlom EVOIE<p£P£ IOU~ vIKmEe; sdv Sa ouvexrzorov n I\mpda Iu)V S£c.Ov Iu)V nrrnuevov, ana tn onvpri nou xdn IEIOIO Ssv rircv emxivoovo Via

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EGNIKILMOL KAI nOI\ITILMOL

GPHLKEIA KAI nOI\ITIKH

rnv xopiopxio IOU~ KOI ana rn OIIVJ.lll nou OIOU~ nanIOU~ 8£Ou~ an06160mv Eva~ onooseotepoc pono<; OE OXEon j1E IO pono tcov KOlVOUPVIUlV 8EOOV. AAna, aUIO j1nOpOUOE va oUj1Bd j10VOV sdv 01 IEp£l~ trov mmj1EVUlV onootripizov mv xopicpxfo teov vixntov ri npoUl80uoav tn 61Kn 1OU<; xopropxfo, OUj1j1EIEXOV1O~, onu><; ouvEBOIVE ooxvo, ornv doxnon me nonHlKn<; E~ouola~. LUVWOO<;, KOIanaBafvoUj1E noM Ka8apa IOV nohmxri sruppon nou 6Ex8nKav 01 8pnOKe1e:<; rcov BaBunUlvIUlv, tcov Xafi6alUlv, teov Aivurrtfcov, teov Ilepoosv. tcov Iv600v KOI annUlv. Enione, unopooue jlE jlEVGnn EUKonia vo ovovdvoopa 10 qmj1IOj1Evo j10V08E"i0j10 tcov Iooockov 010V ovccvc Via mv nohrnxri svonoinon me oVOIEnnouoa<; povopxioc,

'Ona 10 ouomucto xopicpxfoc KOI one:<; 01 6uva01£1e:~ m<; opxmotntnc aVlnouoav mv xotovrovri IOU<; orro xdrrorc Osomrc KOl 01 xdroxor me £~ouofa<; KaranaBav cpxsro OUVIOj1a OTI n niorn reov onnxoev IOU~ om 8£i"Kn IOU<; xcrovcovri ritcv 10 j10V06IKO oKnovmo 8£j1EnIO nooev tcov £~OUOlOOV. 0 q>oBo<; IOU 8EOU unnp~£ ndvrore n nveouonxri npoetoiuoofc VIO tnv EKoUOla onorovri, Anon:nd KaII 10 onopofrnro: anOT£nd 10 avonnolrow 8£jl£nlO Ka8E ropovvioc uno onoioonnors j1opq>n KOI av ourri epqxivizetm. H exoooic onotovri 6EV unopsi va sfvm npoiov £~ovaVKaojlOu' pnopsf vo 6nj110UPVE1I0l j10VOV cno tnv niorn am 8E"iKn q>uon IOU xopiopxou LUVWOO<;, npomoto jlEnnj1a Ka8E nOnInKn<; anOT£nd, j1EXPI OIIVjlrl~, n aq>unvlon aUTn<; me nfom~ pioa 010U<; ov- 8pronou<; KOI n orofieponofncri m~ OE pOVlPO nVEUj10nKO xupoxmpionxo. H Opnoxsio on01En£l tnv xopiopxn npxn pEoa ornv totopfo 6£Oj1EUEI TO nVEUj1a roo av-

8pronou KOI KanounrovEI rn oxsipn IOU pioa oe Ko80PIOj1EVE<; popq>i<; OUTUl<; osote 0 av8pUlno~ Ka8' E~IV va unootnpizei tn 610lrovIOn IOU nopofooioxoo KOI va cvnuetconizei j1E onoipio Ka8E II 10 V£rol£PIKO. Ilpoxerrm VIa tov EOrolEPIKO q>oBo me mooon<; j1EOa oe uicv anu8pEvn aBuooo, 0 onofoc onuo06EvEI TOV GV8pUlnO one nafilE<; OVaMOfUll£<; j1opq>i<; zron<;. 0 Louis de Bonald, nou unn~£ otoflepd ortsppoxoc tnc cpxric me ononuIn<; £~ouofo<;, xcrsvonoe nonu KOnG In ouv6£on pEm~u 8pnOKe1a<; KOI nOnITIKn<;, Vpclq>ovm<; on: "0 Beo~ dVQJ n oneptatn efovoia eni oi)ov too KOapOV' 0 ee6v8p(J)no~ dVQ/ n efovoia eni ttu; av8p(J)nornra~' 0 apxnyo~ rov Kp6rov~ eivcn n eiovoia eni rov vnnKo(J)v roo: 0 apxnvo; ttv; OIKoyiveio; eivat n efovofa eni rov 8IKOr) rov OiKOV. AMd, K68e efovofa eivcu anolwrn etc rov yeyovoro~ 0[1 ttpoepxetoi ano TO Beo Ka86J~ KaJ ex rov yevovoro~ on dVQJ nllaOJ.livn nat' elKova Tov".

Kn8E £~ouofa EXEI nc pfZE<; tnc am 8£0, Kn8E KUpiopxfo sfvcn omv £v601Epn oooic me 8£·iKrl. 0 Mcoi» oric nnps am XEPIO TOU, xnt' Eu8£1ov ana TO 8EO, n<; nnaKE<; IOU Nouoo, nou EnlKUP(i)OOV rn oupqxovio IOU Kopioo us to noo IOU Kal nou opxfzouv j1£ TO noylO:

"Evco sipm 0 Kuplo<; oou xcn 8£0<; oou· 6EV npsnei va BazEI<; ndveo ana j1EVO onnou<; 8£Ou<;". 0 nepiqinpoc nf80<; ndveo OTOV ortoio xopox8nKov Ol Nouoi IOU Xouuoopounf, noo OIEO(i)OOV oro nEp00j10 teov xlnlEnoov TO OVOjlO IOU BaOinlo rnc BaBunoovo~, pa<; nopoooidzsr 10 Xoppoopopni va nponvsitrn IOU Chamasch, IOU 8£Ou IOU 'Hnlou. H eioovcovri, nou nponveiroi tnc OlOtUn(i)one tcov voucov, opxizei ro<; E~n<;:

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E8NIKILMOL KAI nOI\ITILMOL

0PHLKEIA KAI nOI\ITIKH

"Otav 0 Avov (Anu), 0 ~YIJ)Jaro~, 0 BaaIlIEv~ TCt>V AVOVWOKI (Anunneki), KQI 0 Mnill (Bel), 0 KVPIO~ TOV Ovpavov xat ttu; Tn~, nov xpatti ota xipla rov rn uoipa rov K00j10V, uoipaoav tu; udze; rov av8pwnCt>v aro MapBovK (Metduk), nateomoav avonepo avoueoa arov~ IYKiYKI (Iqiqi) rov ttpcototoxo rov 'Ea (Ee), rov BEii<o KVPIO rov Nouoo. Etn BaBvllwva, ro ovoJia rov EfvJivdtat oe oj)ov~ rov~ tonoix; nov npoopiomxav va avtiKOVV aro BaafllEIo rov KQI dVQI QIWVlO, ottco; 0 OvpaVO~ ncu n Fn. Apvotepa, 0 Avou KQI 0 MnElI npooipepav JiEyalln xopa orouc av8pwnov~, KalJwvra~ eueva, rov iv80fo KvBEpvnrn KQI 8EOcpoBovJiEVO XaJiJiovpaJinf, va EYKa8IopvaCt> rn OJKalOaVVn eni tnc Tn~, va oovtphpo rov~ 8IEcp8aPJiivov~ KQI rov~ avouaipuovec, va narafCt> rov~ taxupois; KQI va avv8paJiCt> rov~ a8vvarov~, va Kvp]QpxnaCt> oav ro BEo ~HlIlO tuivco arn uoipa rov uaupOJiaMnoCt>v av8pWnCt>v xcu va tpcotioto olin rn xtopa".

Emv Afvonro, orrou n 8pnoKEuIIKn 1\arpEia uno mv srnppori m~ novioxopnc iepunxric KOOW~ exopczctcv psoc am 1\EIToupyfa o1\u>v IU>V KOIVU>VIK~V 8£0J.l~v, n Beonoincn IOU Bam1\lo npooE1\aBE EVI£1\~~ af\1\OKOI£~ j.lOp<pE~. 0 <t>apa~, ri 0 I£pEa~-Bam1\£u~, Ssv rirov povov 0 cvnrtpooconoc IOU Oeoii rrdvco am r n· ritcv 0 1010~ Eva~ 8£o~ KOI ano1\oj.lBavE 8e"iKE~ I1j.lE~. 'Hon xord tnv snoxri IU>V np6)IWV E~I L1uvaOI£I~v, 01 Bam1\el<;; 8£u>pouvtnv u><;; vioi IOU Osoii 'H1\IOU, IOU Po. 0 XEU>tp, snf tnc Bam1\ela<;; IOU onofou xtioflmccv 01 j.lEya.1\£<;; nupopiOE<;;, onoxozoiioe IOV £QUIO IOU "svodpxcoon IOU 'QPI- 00<;;". Meoc oe ufc 801\wln ormiud OIO Iprtpfu, 0 Bam- 1\10~ Aj.l£vo<pl<;; 0 I" cnencovicemcs U>~ Eva<;; 8£0<;; j.l£oa

a' evav KUK1\O nou n£pIE1\oj.lBav£ KOI o1\1\ou<;; 0EOU<;;. 0 1010<;; Bam1\lo<;; £XIIOE, enionc, evav vno OIO Eo1\£j.ln, onoo npoopeporcv 8pnaKEuIIKe<;; Ilj.le<;; aID npoocono IOU. Apvotspo. OWV 0 OIOOOXO<;; IOU, 0 Aj.levo<pl<;; 0 L1', anavopsooe tn 1\arpela K08e 67\1\n<;; 8£omTO<;; otnv Aivorrto KOI ovoqxoos oe xpcnxri Bpnoxefc tn 1\mpda IOU anaotpdntovroc 8Eau 'H1\lOU, IOU AIOVO<;;, noo svonpxcovoIOV aIO npoocorro IOU Bam1\lo, {nov avaj.l<pfBo1\a no1\mKO TO xivntpd IOU. H svomro me niornc nrov anapafmtn vio tnv svotntc me enfYEIO<;; E~ouala<;;, nou BplaKoIOV am xsprc IWV <t>apa~.

LIO naf\lo Ivooolonxo BIB1\fo IOU Nopoo IOU Movoo efvcn vpaj.lj.l£vo on:

"0 eEO~ ettupopttoe ro Baa/llia JiE ro Ka8nKov va npoatatevet rn 8nJilOvpyfa. Iia ro orono avro, ttnpe rJinuata ana [0 'lvtpa, ana rov~ aviJiov~, ana ro Tziiua, ana tov nlllo, ana rn cpCt>na, ana rov oopovo, ana TO tpevvdp: xcu ana rov opxovta rn~ 8nJiJOvpyfa~. LVVEnw~, ana rn aflYJin nov 0 BaOlllla~ iXEI 8nJilOvpyn8ei ana alia aind ra fJinJiara, n oofa rov aKflvoBolld tuivt» a' alia ra ovta rn~ 8nJiJOvpyfa~ KQI aav rov rilllO rvcplleJVEl ra pana sa: tnv Kap8la xcu 8EV pnopei xavek; va KOlrafEI ro npoocono rov. EfvQI CPCt>[](l nat aepac, nlllO~ xcu cpEyyapI. EfvQI 0 eEO~ rov op80v, 0 Saiucov roV nllovrov, 0 KvBepvnrn~ rov nllnJillVpWv KQI 0 8101Knrn~

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rov arEpECt>Jiaro~ .

LE xopfn o1\1\n xopo, n1\nv m<;; Aivurrrou KOI IOU 81- Bel, OEV xorefxs ID opvnvcopsvo ispcteio loan £~ouafa con otnv Ivoic. To y£yovo<;; cuto £8£OE tn o<ppayfoa IOU a' o1\n tn Sioxpovucn nopsic tnc rspdonuc aUII1<;;

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xcOpa<;; KOl, ll£oa ana tnv novoopvo Sicipeon IOU nfln- 8UOllOU OE KOOIE<;;, KOt£nVIVE K08E zeovtcvri xfvnon usoo OE dxopntsc q>OPllE<;;, nou anOOElX8nKaV tpopspd av8EKnK£<;;, Sion ElVOl PIZC1)ll£VE<;; on<;; napaoooEI<;; me niomc, Apxetri VC1)PI<;;, 01 Bpoxpovoi oUllq>cOvnoav ue mv xdorc tC1)V nOflElllOIcOV va 1l0lpa080uv mv xopmpxin nOVC1) OIO flao me Ivola<;;' B£BOla, n isponxri xoorc opovnze ndvrc va Siompeiroi n rtpnvucnxri E~ouoia am X£PIO me KOI va nopopsvei 0 BamfllO~ iva anflO opvovo tC1)V Em8ullicOV me, 01 IEpEl<;; KOI 01 nOflEllIOI£<;; sixov 8E'iKn xorovrovri 01 Bpoxpdvoi ~EnEtox8nKav ana to KEq>Ofll IOU Bpdxpc KOI Ol nOflEllIOt£<;; ono IO otnSo<;; IOU. Allq>OtEPOl emOIC1)KaV IOV 1010 OtOXO KOI 0 NOllO<;; npoorcZE: "01 ovo xaotec ttpette: va OpoVV ev nllnpel oVPCP(J)via, OIOU n pia OeV unopei va ottdpxet xtopk; rnv 6lI11n". 'Etoi, onlllouPvn8nKE IO ouompo IOU Koiocpo-Iloru- 0llOU, OIO onoio n evotnrc IOU 8pnOKEDnKOU KOI IOU noiunxou no80u Via e~ouofa BpnKE tnv nflnp£OtEpn £Kq>paon me,

Lmv apxafa Flepofn, snfonc, 0 Bamfllo<;; rircv n ZC1)vtovri EVOOpKC1)On me Beotntuc. 'Orcv nrivcive ce pic nOfln IOV onoosxovrov 01 Mdvoi evoeoull£vOl am flEDKO KOI lpaMovm<;; Opnoxeunxd doucto, 0 OPOllO<;; an' onou nspvouoe ritnv OtpC1)ll£VO<;; llE KflOOOU<;; popndc KOI tplavtoq>uMa KOI to fllBoVI xmvotcv OUVEXcO<;; ndvo oe EIOIKO ronofiempsvouc oonpsvrooc BC1)llOU<;;. 'OnC1)<;; EIVOI vpouuevo ornv Zevo-AB£om, IO ispo BIBfllO tC1)V npxoicov nEpOcOV, n e~ouola IOU rirnv ortepiopiorn, n Bouflnon IOU UlpIOIO<;; VOllO<;;, n Siorovri tOU aV£KKflntn. Movo oe ondvisc nspmrcoceic epqxivizorcv pnpootd OIO i\ao

KOI av auto Ouv£BOlve, tote 01 OV8pC1)nOl rircv UnOXpEC1)ll£VOI va nsrptoov OIO £oaq>o<;; npnvnoov KOI va KPUBouv IO npoorono IOU<;;.

KOI otnv Ilspoic urmpxov xdorsc Ka8cO<;; KOI pfc opvovrouevn isponxri to~n, n onoic. lloflovon Ssv eixs mv novtofiovopn e~ouola me lepmlKn<;; xdornc tC1)V IvolcOv. onoresoooe, EV IOUtOl<;;, tnv nponn xoorc me xcOpa<;;. me onoioc 01 sxnpooconoi, C1)<;; rnotoi LUllBouflOl IOU Bamfllo, sixcv ndvrors rnv eUKOlpfa va KOVOUV OloSmn tnv smppori tOU<;; KOI va KaSopfzouv onoqxiotonxd n<;; tuxe<;; tOU Bcoiasfou LXEnKo ue IO POflO tC1)V lep£C1)v ll£oa otnv KOIVC1)Vla. Exoulle nflnpoq>opfe<;; ana Eva eooq>10 m<;; Zevo-Abeotc, nou vpdosi:

"AKopn KQJ av 01 Kalli~ oov npafel~ rirov tteptoaotepe; otto ra cpvlllla rov oivop(J)v, ano tu; orayove~ tnc Bpoxn~, ano ra aotepta rov ocoavov n ano rnv appo tnt; eallaoon~, Sev ea oe (J)cpellovoav eav OeV evxaptotovoav rov lepea. Ita va Kepofoe1~ rnv eVVOIa rov lepia-Oonyov oov ttpoc ro opopo ttu; o(J)rnpfa~, npene: va rov napaof&l~ oraecpa m oeKam, nov aipopo olla ooa xatexeu; ra ayaea oov, rn yn oov KQJ ra xpnpara oov. Eav exeu; inavonotnoei rov lepea, n lpvxn oov ea yllvrroOe1 ra paprvp1a ttv; Kollaon~ nat ea Bpe1~ rnv eipnvn 0' avrov rov KOapO KQJ rnv eotvxia otov 6lI110' OIOrI 01 lepeii; dVQJ 01 010aoKalIo1 ttv; epnoKda~, dVQJ avrof nov vveoizoco ra tuivta Ka1 avrof nov xopnvovv tupeon auaptuov oe ollov~ rov~ avepronov~'.

o <POU-XI, nou 01 KiV£ZOl IOV 8eC1)pouv oav tOV npoIO xupiopxo tnc Oopovmc Aoroxporopfoc KOI noo, OUllqxovc pe to XPOVIKO IOU~, £xel znoei 28 OlcOve~ nspirtou

88

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npiv m OIKn llo~ snoxn, Amp£U£IOl otnv KIvezlKn llu80- AOYIO ocv eva onepqxxnxo OV KOI ouvn8(J)~ £IKOVIZ£IOl OOV evo~ av8p(J)no~ 11£ oopd \VOPIOU, poidzovtcc Kan(J)~ OIOV Tpircovo, H Kivezixn nnpdooon IOV OVOKnpUOO£1 O£ npcoto otponviom IOU Kivszncoc AOOU, 0 onOIO~, npiv mv eAwon IOU, ZOUO£ psoc OIOU~ dvprooc tonooc O£ ~£x(J)plare~ ollao£~, on(J)~ 01 oyeA£~ I(J)V zffi(J)v, KOI 110- vov uno IOV <POU-XI ell08£ IO Spouo npoc mv KOIV(J)VIxri Ia~n, nou 8£1l£Alffi8nK£ otnv orxoveveic KOI IO o£Bo- 0110 I(J)V npoyov(J)V.'OA£~ 01 .6uvoar£1£~, nou uno £K£1- vn tnv snoxri, olOo£xomv n 1110 tnv GMn OIO Msco BOOIA£IO, 8£(J)pouoov OIl xutdvovtuv cno IOU~ e£Ou~. o AUIOKpaIOpo~ cotocnoxohoovrov "YIO~ IOU Oopcvoo": KOI uno tn onvpri nou ornv KIVa Sev unnp~£ note opvnvopevn tsponxri Ia~n, n doxnon tnc Amp£fo~, OIO pstpo nou ooopouoe rnv KpOIlKn 8pnoK£10, ncpeusvs om xepic IOU cvoircroe coroxporopixou o~l(J)llmouxou, o ortoioc, 01l(J)~, OOKOUO£ srnppori 1l0VO om ovcnotc orpoporc IOU Krvszixou KOIV(J)VIKOU K08£arffiIO~.

Lmv Iorxovfo, 0 MIKaoo, n "Y\VnAn nUAn", 8£(J)P£lrOl ocv evo~ cnovovoc me Aputepcoou. rnc 8£a~ IOU 'HAIOU, n onoic Amp£u£IOl (J)~ ovoncrn 8£a 0' cotriv tn xffipo. AUIn K081ara vvoorri m BouAnon m~ ola IOU npooomou IOU AUIOKpaIOpo KOI oro ovoud IOU KuB£pva IO AOO. 0 MIKaOo onOI£A£1 rn zcovrcvri evodpxeoon me 8£omIO~, KOI YI' OUIO IO nOAaIl IOU ovoprizsrrn "Miya", onAoon I£po~ Tonoc tnc \Vuxn~. Axoun KOI otnv snoxri I(J)V LOYKOUV, otcv 01 nyeI£~ me OIpoIl(J)IlKn~ KaoIO~ YIO exctovroosc XPOVIO rirov 01 npovporucoi KUPIOPXOl tnc xffipo~ KOI 0 MIKaoo enolz£ 1l0VO Sroxoounnxo POAO,

n iepotntc IOU npooosnoo IOU nupepeive onopobfoorn om pdnc IOU AOOU.

Kord IOV 1010 tporto, n fopuon me ioxupric AUIOKPOIOPIO~ I(J)V 'Ivxoc, nou n OKOI£lvn me 10IOPIO eX£1 napa nOAU npoBAnllmfo£1 tn ouvxpovn epwvo, onoofO£IOl cno tnv nopciooon OIO spvo I(J)V 8£ffiv. H LaYKO £~IOIOpsf nox 0 Mdvxo Kondx 11£ tn YUVOIKO IOU, mv 'OKAO Xoixixo, £1l<Povl08nK£ 1110 uspc OIOU~ 180y£v£1~ IOU u\VnAou oponsofoo IOU TOOUZKO, IOU~ nupoooidobnxe onv Ivnnxoopi, onAoon ocv YIO~ IOU nAIOU, KOI IOU~ en£lo£ va IOV OVOYV(J)PIOOUV ocv Booiaio IOU~. Touc 0100~£ m Y£(J)PYIO KOI IOU~ £q>00100£ 11£ nAn80~ xpriotpeov yvffio£(J)v, nou IOU~ xorsotnocv IKOVOU~ va onuioopvriooov 1110 ll£yaAn KOUAIOUpO.

LIO 81BeI spqxivioflnxe, KaI(J) cno tnv ioxopri ernppori me £~oumoAayvo~ isponxnc KaoIO~, eva np(J)IOYV(J)PO eKKAnmOOIlKO KpaIO~, IOU onofou n £O(J)I£pIKn opvdvoon 1l0lGz£1 nOAU 11£ IOV P(J)llOIKO Flornouo. 'Oneoc o I£AwIOIO~, eIm KOI IO 8IB£IlOVO £KKAnmOOIlKO KpdIO~ eX£1 npooopucec E~olloAoynoEI~, KOllnOOKOIVIO, 8ujnorri, AOIPEIO I(J)V OYIU>V AEI\Vavu>v KOI nnoxnpon IU>V rspscov. Lmv Kopu<pn IOU Kpdrooc BploKOVIOI 0 !10- Aal-I\allo KOI 0 Mnovxvro-Adpo ri Flsv-roev-piv-noTO£. 0 npenoc 8EU>P£1IOl n evoripxroon IOU Ikcooropn, IOU IEPOU lopurn me BOuoIOIlKn~ 8pnoKEfo~' 0 O£UIEpoe 8EU>P£1IOl n ZU>VIOvn npooeononoinon IOU ToovYKKano, IOU llEyaAou OVOllOP<PU>In IOU 1\01l0101l0U. L' OUIOV, oncoc KOI OIOV .6oAal-l\allo, npoorpspovrcn 8EIKe~ Illle~, nou <p8avouv llexpi KOI Il~ rno onoxpixpsc OU>llOIIKe~ AEIIOUPYIE~ IOU~.

90

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o 10XUpO~ Movvoflo~ Tz£vVKI~ Xav, rrou efxs KOnOr£ xorctpouoxpornoei IOV pioo KOOjlO ue IOU~ jl£VMOU<; nOflEjlOU<; KOI KarOKrnO£I<; IOU, xpnorportoinos m Spncxsic, £vrEfI(J)~ onpoxdoorrro, CUe; IO KUPIO opvovo m<; E~oumaOIlKn<; IOU nOflII1Kn~, jlOflOVOIl 0 fOloe; ovnxs otnv xornvopio rrov "n£cpWIlOjl£VCUV Seonoreiv". H OIKn IOU cpufln IOV SECUPOUOE onovovo IOU nfllOU, aflflO, KaS(J)<; OIO tspdono BaomElo IOU, nou exrsivorov ana I1e; OXSE<; IOU zwefnepoo jl£XPI tn Sa?!oomo nspioxri me Kfvae;, zoooov flaof nOflu OIOCPOP£I1K(J)V SpnOKCUIlK(J)V nWOISnOECUV, IO 10XUPO EVOIlKro IOU KarMoBE OIl n xopicpxio IOU ndvco ora Un01:Efln ESvn, KaS(J)e; KOI ndvro OIO OIKO IOU flao nou anOI£flOUO£ mv KapOIO IOU Boomsioo, unoPOUOE va at£pecuSd jlOVO 010 jleoou me; £~ouofae; IOU ieporefou, &v enopxooos nMov 0 Hiuo-Floruouoc IOU. Xproncvoi Nsotoptnvoi, Mcuajl£Sovol, BOUOlate<;, KoupcpOUKlaVlate~ xcn 10uooiOl KarOlKOUOOV xcrd £KOIOjljlUpic ora £oocpn IOU. 'Enperts va sivcu 0 ApXI£p£ue; OflCUV IWV SpnOKeUIlKc.)v flarpelc.)v. Mozo j.1e IOU~ Bopsro-AoidI£~ LOjlOVOU<; KaMIEPvno£ tn pcvsio KOI zntouos va jlOS£1 to jlEfIfIOVra ana to onudorc nou epqxivfzovrov ora povfoporo me; wjlonflome; IOU ipnpsvoo npviou TI<; KuplaKee; nrivcnvs am Osfc Asrroopvfc, onou ouzntouO£ jle XPI0IIOVOUe; l£pelC; xm vioprozs mv smxorvovio IOU~ nivovtoc xpnoi. To LoBBara nrivoive am LUVOVCUvri, onou nopocoiozorcv cue; Chahan, W<; Cohen. TIe; napaoK£U£e; nnvmvs OIO Tzoufvs KOI enOlz£ tooo KOflO IO POflO IOU Xanfcpn 000 KOI 0 psrsneno Toopxoc ornv Kevorovnvoonoon. AflflO, KOIO rtporiunorv rircv BOUOlotric- opvdvrove SpnoKEUnKee; oozntnosrc pe IOU~ I\ojla

KOI cxopn Kaflouo£ xovrd IOU IOV M£VMo I\ojla m~ Lana' Sion, cno tn onvuri nou oxonsos va jl£racpep£1 IO KevIpo IOU Booisefoo IOU am; BouolonKee; neptoxsc me Bopsmc Aoioc, OuvEfloBe IO jl£vaflennBoflo OXEOIO m<; usrotponric IOU Bocciouoo oe xponxri Bpnoxeio,"

KOI Ssv rircv 0 AfI£~avopo<; me Moxeoovicc, IOV onoiov n 10IOpia OVOjlOZ£1 "Msvo", nou eopao£ pe IOV fOlov aKpIB(J)<; urtooovtonxo tpono, napOKIVnj.1eVO~ npocpav(J)~ ono IO iolO xfvnrpc us IOV nOflu usroveveorspo rou TzeVYKl<; Xov; Acpou sixe KOIaKIno£1 IOV KOOjlO Kat IOV eixs evooel jl£oa uno nOIOj.10Ue; 0Ij.10rCUV, npen£1 va KarOflaBe on eva IeI010 epvo Ssv unopoooe va 0lapKeO£I otnpizouevo jlOVO ornv Kmv(J)on Bia. Fi' aUIO, npoonddnoe va ompifsi tnv xopiopxio IOU one; BpnoxsonKEe; nWOISnoel<; ICUV KOIaKmj.1eVCUV fla(J)v. 'EIm, aUIo<; "0 'Eflflnva~", Boofcos OIOUe; Aivurmooc S£Oue; OIO vco me MEj.1CPI00<; KOI oorivnos IO otpcto IOU jleoa ana n<; KOUIe~ £pnj.1ou~ m<; I\IBun~ VIO va OUjlBOUflCUId IO pcVIeiO IOU Aj.1jlcuvo~-fll0<; ornv ocon me LfBae;. 01 Sooflonpw£f<; I£pd~ IOV xmpenoov oav VIO IOU "M£voflou 8£ou" KOI IOU npocepepov Se'iKee; I1jlEe;.'E tor, 0 Aflt~avopoe; EVIV£ S£o~ KOI £jlcpavioSnK£ pnpoord OIOUe; IlspO£~, xctd tn o£uI£pn exorporefc IOU xord IOU flapefou, oav £va~ cnovovoc IOU 10XUPOU AjlJlcuvo~-fllo~. Movov EIm pnopouus va £~nvnoouj.1£ tnv nflnpn KaSunoIO~n tnc tspdonoc outoxpctopicc ana IOUe; MaK£Oov£~, xdn nou oxoun xcu 01 nepo£~ Bamflei~ OEV eixcv pnopeosi

3. Alexander Vlar: "Ilepi nollmKlk': oeNoa 44, C/JpaVKrpOVPrn 1906.

92

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va npaYJ,lQTOnOII100UV OIOV 1610 Ba8J,l0.

o AAe~av6po~ dXE XpnOlJ,lOnOII10EI curd rc J,leoa J,lOVO vro rnv E~unnpemon TCi>V nOAlIlKc0v IOU OXE61Ci>V, aAM. Ba8J,llQla ~EIpEMo8nKE IOOO noM J,lE mv 16ea me 8£0- nofnoric IOU e00IE cnorrouos 8E'iKe~ nJ,le~ OXI J,lOVOV ana to onotovpevo e8vn, aMo xcn ana IOU~ 1610U~ IOU~ oUJ,lnQTPlc0IE~ IOU, OIOU~ onoiouc uio IeIOIa AQTpda qxnvorcv napo~Evn, ana tn cnvpri nou IOV vvcoprzov oav YIO IOU <PIAlnnnou. KQI n nopojnxpri EVaVIlCi>On ensvovri IOU IOV E~Ci>80UOE ornv ncpoopooovn KQI OUXVo IOV oonvoooe OE nnotponcnc EYKAnJ,lQTa. 0 aKop£OIO~ no80~ vic oovsxri snexrccn me E~ouofa~ IOU, nou Sovcprovorov ana n~ otpcncmxec enrroxiec IOU, nopouePIZE Ko8E opovuo otnv unEpBoAIKn EKIIJ,lnOn nou sixe vic IOV scoto IOU KQI IOV TUc.pACi>VE pnpootri OE Ko8£ npcvuonxotnro. Eionvove ornv AUAn IOU tnv E81J,lOWnfo ICi>V Flepoov BaOiAeCi>V, nou OUJ,lBOAIZE tnv nAnpn onorcvri IOU av8pCi>nlvou yevou~ otnv rtnvioxopn Bou .. Anon IOU &onom. Ilpdvuon, 0' cotov "IOV 'EAAnva" n J,lEYaAOJ,laVla IOU BapBaplKou topdvvoo onexmoe tnv mo au8EvnKn eKc.ppaon tnc.

o AAe~av6po~ rircv 0 nponoc nou J,lEmc.puTEUoE otnv Eoponn IOV Kcnonpropo KQI rnv loea me 8£'iKn~ c.puon~ IOU BaOiAlo, 610n J,l£XPI IOIE ourri n 16ea EUOOKIJ,lOUO£ J,lOVO OIO Aoicnxo xoipo, onou IO KpOIO~ elXE avamux8d XCi>PI~ 161Q1rEpa EJ,lnOOIQ KQI onou n ouv6Eon usro~U me Bpnoxsioc KQI tnc nOAlIlKn~ dXE npooAoBEI cno nOAu VCi>PI~ uio c0pIJ,ln popori. QOIOOO, 6EV npensi an' cure va OUJ,lnEpOvOUJ,lE on cutri n ouvOEon Oc.pdAEIQI otnv 16IQIIEpn KAlan J,lla~ c.puAn~. H srnxpdtnon eKIOI£

IOU Koioopiopoii otnv Eopomn cnorsosi tpovn anoOEI~n IOU YEYOVOIO~ on eXOUJ,lE va KOVOUJ,l£ J,lE evav 101Q1rEPO turto IOU EVOTIKIOU m~ Bpncxsonxric EUAoBEla~, IO onoio unopsi va EJ,lc.pavl08d, KOICi> ana napOJ,lOIE~ ouv8nKE~, J,lEm~U ICi>V av8pc0nCi>v OACi>V ICi>V c.puAc0v KQI ICi>V E8vc0v. BeBQla, OEV J,lnOpOUJ,lE va apvn80uJ,lE on 01 E~Ci>TEpIKe~ IOU J,lopc.pe~ ouVOeOVIQI J,lE nc OUYKEKpIJ,leVE~ ouv8nKE~ IOU KOlVCi>VIKOU nEpIBoAAOVIO~.

'Htcv ana tnv AVQTOAn, enionc, nou 01 PCi>J,laIOi napeAaBav IOV Koioopiopo KQI IOV avemu~av KQTO evav tpono nou OEV onripxe note npiv OE onorcorinots OAAn xc0pa. "Orov 0 IOUAlo~ Kaloapa~ avaKnpux8nKE OIKIOIOpa~ tnc Pcounc, npoonddnoe va ompffsr tnv E~OUOla IOU one 8pnOKEunK£~ aVT1An\VEI~ IOU AaoU. AneoCi>O£ rnv xcrcvccvri me oixovevsidc IOU OIOU~ 8£Ou~ KQI npoBaAE Ci>~ rtpovovo me mv Aepooirn. Ko8E IOU npoono8EIQ anOOKonOUOE OIO va KQTaOIel 0 101O~ anOAUIO~ xopfcpxoc me PCi>J,la'iKn~ AUIOKPQTOpla~ KQI eva~ npcvucnxoc 8EO~, nou IlnOIE 6EV IOV OUV£OEE J,lE IOU~ KOlVOU~ Bvntooc. To oyaAJ,lO IOU OIn8nKE ovopsoc OIa ayoAJ,lQTa ICi>V sntd BaOlAlo6Ci>v me Pc0J,ln~ KQI 01 one- 001 IOU 0le6Ci>oav J,lE J,lEyoon rcxornrc rn c.pnJ,ln on IO Mcvrsfo IOV uneoEI~E Ci>~ IOV J,lOVaOIKo xopicpxo m~ eruxpdrercc, npOKEIJ,leVOU va KQTaKInOEI IOU~ nop80u~, nou cno xnipo oipmpooocv tn Pcopoixri E~ouofa. H EIKOva IOU IOn08EIn8nKE ovdpsoo 0T1~ EIKOVE~ ICi>V a8ovaICi>V 8Ec0v me Flounric IOU Inrtoopopiou. 'Eva oyaAJ,lO IOU aVEyep8nKE OIOV Nco IOU Kopivoo KQI am Boon IOU IOn08EIn8nKE n srnvpuqm: "LIOV crirmro 8EO". Mfa oxoAn lopu8nKE npoc nuriv IOU OIO JEpO IOU Aounspxou

94

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KOI 010pl08nKav oUYKEKPI11£vOl IEPEI<; vic va unnpETOUV TOV 8ElKO Koioopo,

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" 'OnCIX; aKpl&k eseivc» nov Booxo»: np6Bara ncu 868JQ OEV e!VQ] KQ] 01 fOlOl npoBara xat BOOJQ, elMa taitoxo: uuu; aV6>rEpn<; q){)an<;, eto: KQ] eseivoi nov exoi»: OPIare! va KVBcpvovv rov<; av8p({)nov<; OEV e!VQ] av8pcunOl, aN1a 8£0/'.

01 POOl1OIOl, nou OEV £BploKav evoxsrmxo TO YEYOvo<; OIl 01 nvsrsc TOU orporou TOU<; erovxcvcv 8dKffiv Il1100V otnv AvaTOi\n KOI ornv Ei\i\ooo, OPXIKO olOl1apTUpn8nKov evovtiov me onofmonc TOOV OTpaIlOOTiKOOV nYETOOV TOU<; va tovxdvoov TOOV 10IOOV Tl1100V KOI crto TOU<; Pcouofooc noi\ITE<;, oMo vprivopo ouvn8100v 0' corriv tnv 10£0, onoo<; OKPIBoo<; £YIVE KOI 11E TOU<; 'EMnvE<; m<; snoxric tnc KOIV(i)VIKn<; ncpoxuric TOU<;, xrn onoo£x8nxcv Oloonni\o 1110 xcrdctcon oEli\n<; uutoiirtotfunonc. &V rirov l1oVOV TO ni\n80<; T(i)V nomtoiv KQI TOOV KOi\i\ITExvoov nou E~U11vOUOOV aOloKono "TOV GerKo Kniocpn'' an' OKPOU EI<; OKPOV 11£00 0' oi\n tn xeopo- 0 i\ao<; KOI n LUYKi\mo<;, snfonc, EnEoeiKvuav 1110 TP011Epo E~EuTEi\Ionxri xm nororni ooui\onp£nElO. 0 Blpymlo<; otnv Ai-

VEIOOO TOU E~U11vOUOE TOV Kofocpo AUyOUOTO 11E OOUi\lKO tpono KOI ni\n80<; oi\i\(i)V oKoi\ou8noE TO nopdosrvpd TOU. 0 Pcopofoc OOTpOi\OYO<; Firrnicus Maternus, nou £znOE xord tn Srdpxsic m<; BOOli\elO<; TOU K(i)VOTOVTIvou, oni\(i)VE OTO spvo TOU "OEPl T(i)V Oi\ovoov nou BEBni\oovouv Tl<; IEp£<; Ai\n8EIE<;":

"Movov 0 Kaioapas; OEV Efapraral ana ra datpa. Elval 0 KVPIO<; oAoKAnpov rov K00J10V, nov rov KvBcpva PE rn aVVKara8Ean reov v!plarcuv 8E6>V. 0 iolO<; 0 Kaioapo; aVnKEJ arov KVK110 rov 8E6>V «at rov vneDclfE n apxevovn Beotnia VIa va ovvexioei xat va attonepatcsoet ol1a ooa avpBafvovv'.

01 8E'iK£<; Tl11£<;, nou npoorpspovrcv OTOU<; BUZOVTlvou<; AUTOKPOTOPE<;, E11nEpl£xoVTOl, nxoun KOI oripspc, om onpnoio tnc i\£~n<; "Buznvnvoc". LTO BUZOVTlo, Ol 8pnOKWTlK£<; Tl11£<; nou onooloovTOV OTOV AUTOKpoTOpa crtoxopoqxovovrov OTO Kow- Tow, £va noiuo AOiOIlKO t81110 nou anaITOUOE 0 KOlVO<; 8vmo<; va ntq>TEI npnvnOOV KOl va OYYIZEI TO xffi11a 11e TO l1£ToonO TOU.

H Popcncri Auroxporopio ElOni\8E OE 1110 xordorcon xpionc, H 11Eyoi\0l10VIO TOOV KuBEpvmffiv me, nou omv nopsic T(i)V mcovcov EIXE oonvnoei omv E~oq>OVIon Ko8E ov8pffimvn<; O~lonp£nelO<; TOOV eKaT01111UPIOOV UnnKOOOV me, omv Tp011Epn EK11EToi\i\won 6i\(i)V TOOV unOTOY11£V(i)V i\offiv KOI otnv OU~OV011Evn olOq>80po oi\oKi\npn<; tnc AUTOKpmopIO<;, eixe olOq>8efpel n81KO TOU<; ov8pffinooc, sixs e~OUOETEpffioEI tnv KOlV(i)VIKn TOU<; ooveionon KOl TOU<; eixe cmovopvoosi ono Ko8e OUV011n OVTIOTOone. 'Etoi, OTO T£i\O<; n AUTOKpmoplO OEV pnopeos va OVI£~El tnv En18Eon IOOV i\Eyo11EV(i)V "BopBopoov", nou

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8PHLKEIA KAI nOI\ITIKH

EnIT£8nKaV us Spunimrc an' oi\E~ nc ni\wp£~ svovriov rnc. Ai\i\o, IO "Flvsupo me Pcounc", aUllCPOOVa llE mv £Kcppaan IOU Li\£vKEi\, En£ZnOE, onoo~ aKpIBeD~ snsznoe KQI IO nveiipc IOU Koioooo-Flornouoo ll£IO rnv rnoion tnc Avmoi\IKn~ AUIOKpmopIa~, KQI Ba8lltala lloi\uvE n~ KQlVOUPVIE~ an8oawIE~ 6uVOllEI~ IOOV rEPllaVIKeDV cpui\eDV, IOOV onoicov 01 orponeonxoi nveIE~ eVlvav poipcic Ki\npovollOl IOOV Kcnoriprov- KQI n Popn srtsznoe lleoa ornv EKKi\noIa, nou avemu~£ uno In popori IOU Ilornopoii IOV Kcnocpiopo otnv uqmi\oIEpn '[£i\EIOInIa m~ 6uvcillEeD~ IOU KQI nou llE tnv nsfopovo EVEPVnIlKOmrQ me Em6fOO~E va perctpsipei oi\n tnv aV8poonOTnIa OE ufc vrvovnoio avei\n KQI va rnv E~avaVKooEI va TE8d uno IO oxrimpo IOU ApXIEpeoo~ me PeDlln~.

Epnvsoousvsc, snionc, cno IO nveouo tnc PeDlln~ onrip~av Oi\E~ EKEIvE~ 01 rno npooqxrrec npoono8EIE~ noi\mKn~ svonoinonc nou ouvxexpnievonomdnxcv am fsppovncri Aoroxporopucri oVIIi\nq>n: 01 toxupsc AUIOKpmopfE~ IOO Aq>BouPVOOV, IOU Kapoi\ou IOU E' KQI IOU <Pli\fnnou IOU B/· 01 BoupBeDVOl, 01 LnouapI~ KQI n Sovoorsfo TOOV Toripcov. Moi\ovon 0 cpopea~ me E~ouafa~ 6EV i\aTPEUETQI ni\eov dusoc oo~ 8EO~, EIVQI "Ei\eoo 8£Ou" Booti\Eu~ KOi nuriroi cno IOU~ onnxoooc IOU, cnsvcvn OIOU~ onofoix EllCPavIZETQI oo~ ov ovcorepcc Ici~EOO~. LIO nspoope IOU xpovoo, n 16ea IOU 8EOUai\i\ozEI, onoo~ nxpiBeD~ KQI n 16ea TOU KpOIOU~ eTUxE noi\i\eDv ai\i\aveDv. Ai\i\o, 0 lluXIO~ xopoxtripac oi\ooV TOOV 8pnaKEleDV napallevEI socei 08IKIO~, onoo~ aKpIBeD~ KQI 0 noonvoc oi\ooV IOOV KpanKeDV noi\mKeDV 6EV eXEI onoorei xcpio ai\i\avn. ElvQI n cpxri me Liuvalln~ nou xpncnponoirBnxe anOTE-

i\EOllanKo svovriov TOOV av8peDnoov ono IOU~ xctoxoo; me £nIVEIQ~ KQI m~ OUpOVta~ E~ouala~' KQI elVQI ndvtoIE IO Opnoxsonxo ouvala8nlla me E~opman~ nou oo8d IOU~ av8peDnou~ otnv onoxori, H KEcpai\n IOU KpOIOU~ 6EV i\mpEUEIQI ni\£ov oo~ 8EO~ otoo; Snuooioo; vaou~, ai\i\o 6ni\eDVEI 610 otoporoc Aou60BIKOU Ill' "To KPOTO~ ElllQl EyeD!". Ai\.i\o, IO KpOIO~ elVQI n ertivsin npOVOIQ. nou npootoreosi TOV ov8poono KQI KmEu8uVEI TQ BnllaHl IOU Via va unv onopospwerci cno IO Spopo IOU vouou o KOIOXO~ m~ E~ouofa~ IOU KpOIOU~, OUveneD~, dVQI ani\eD~ 0 opxispeoc llIa~ 6uvalln~ nou BplaKEI mv EKcppaon me otnv noi\lTlKn, onoo~ aKpIBeD~ KQI 0 aEBaOllo~ npoc IO 8EO BpfoKEI mv eKcppaon TOU om Bpnoxeic.

Monovon 0 IEp£a~ cnotssef TO llWOZOVTQ llETQ~U IOU av8pwnou KQI me aVOOI£pa~ cotric 6uv6llEOO~, one tnv onoiov 0 l610~ 0 ov8poono~ Qla80VEIQI E~npmllevo~ KQI n onofo, xord ooveneic, Ka8farmQl VI' outov nsnpcopeVO, 0 lOXUPIOllo~ TOU Volney on n Bpnoxsio anoIEi\d srnvonon TOOV nondocov cnexsi noi\u cno tnv npcvponKOTnIa, 610n 01 8pnaK£unKe~ avni\nq>EI~ unnpxcv noi\u npiv tn Snuioopvfo me Isponxric KOOTQ~. Mnopoous, snionc, va un08eooullE ps ao<poi\Ela on 0 f610~ 0 IEpea~ ntcv upxixri neneiouevoc Via tnv Op80InIa TOOV avni\n\VEeDV IOU. Ai\i\o, Ba8lliaia OUVEI6nIonofnOE IO lleVE80~ tnc onspioptornc E~ouala~, nou Evano8ETQV OTQ xspic IOU n tucpi\n niotn KQI 0 ZOCPEPO~ cpoBo~ tOOV auvav8peDnov IOU, Ka8eD~ KQI to ni\wvEKTnllma nou 8a unopoooav va npOKU\VOUV YI' outov. 'Etoi, ripxios va ~unvo peaa IOU n ouvd6non me E~ouOla~ Ka8w~ KQI 0 no80~ Via E~ouoIa, nou llEyoi\OOVE OUVEXeD~, cno rn onvpri nou

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E8NIKIEMOE KAI nOI\ITIEMOr

8PHEKEIA KAI nOI\ITIKH

IO Iepcrsfo YIVOTOV 01\0 KOi ruo ~EKOeapa pfo 10lalI£pn KOOTO llEoa ornv xoivovic. Ynoxivoopevn uno tov noeo tnc E~ouofa~, avamuXenKE n "80ul\non Via E~ouofa" KOi EIm onlllouPvnenK£ OIO IEPOIEfo pic 10lOirEpn cvdvxn, neOUllEvO an' ourri rnv ovdvxn, npoondbnoe va KOTEUeUVEI TO epnoKcunKo ouvotofiripcrc IUlV rnoreov npoc oUVKEKPlllEVOU~ OPOllou~ KOi va olallop<pffioEI ps IEIOIOV tpono n~ epnoKEUnKE~ avnl\n\j.lEI~ ffiOI£ va unnpstoov to cimpc IOU IEPOI£fou Via E~ouofa.

KOeE E~ouola rirov cpxixd Iepcnxri KOi OIO 8aeUtOIO noprivo me EXEI nopopefvei IEIOIa llExPI oripspc. H apxafa 10IOpfa vvropfzsi noMa napao£fVllOIa, once 0 poI\o~ IOU IEpEa evocopctcovotcv llazu 11£ IO pol\o IOU nvsuovo KOi IOU VOlloeEm O£ Eva npoorono. Enionc, n EIullol\oYIKn npoel\euon allEIpmUlv tlrl\UlV EUVEv£la~ ana ovouorc, oro onofa £K<PPOZEIOI oa<pffi~ n ieponxri 1\£1- IOUPVIO rcov nol\OlOt£pUlV <POPEUlV IOU~, anoo£IKvUEI usrd 8£80l0Imo~ rnv xoivri KOIaYUlvn me Bpnoxsunxric xcn me KOOllIKn~ £~ouofa~. 0 Alexander Ular eixs llEvol\o OiKQlO, orcv Eypa<p£ otnv £~oxn npovporsfo IOU Via tnv 'Tlohmxri" on 0 Ilornopoc note Ssv ovopixfinxs otnv xocuucri noiutucri, 01\1\0. Ko.e£ KOOllIKO~ nveuovcc npoonOenoE ndvrore va aKol\oued ncmxri nol\ltlKn. Auto~ eivci, snfonc, 0 I\ovo~ Via tov onofov KOeE otxrmpn 0IaKu8Epvnon~, XUlpf~ xopid OIOKpIon, EX£I Eva OUYK£KPlllEVO oumffion Bsoxponxo xopoxrripo,

KOeE EKKl\nola ovevizercn OlOPKffi~ Via rnv en£KTOon trov opkov me £~ouoia~ me KQl VlO m 8aeUIEpn Ell<PUrsoon llEoa OIl~ KapolE~ IUlV aVepffinUlv IOU QlOenllOIO~ tnc E~o.pmOn~. Al\1\0 KQl Ko.eE xoouixri E~ouofa ncpcxr-

V£lTOI ana mv fOlO £meUllia KOl, oovcnox, KQl OIl~ ouo ncpmroosrc 01 npoonoe£I£~ KOIOI£lVOUV npoc IOV fOlO oxono. "Oncoc aKpl8ffi~ om epnoKcla 0 8£0~ efvcn IO nav KQl 0 o.VepUlnO~ tinoto, EIm KQl omv nol\ltIKn IO KpOIO~ elVOI IO nav KOi 0 ormxooc tinoto. 01 Ouo apxE~ me oopovroc KOi tnc enfvsioc £~ouoia~: "EVffi Eipor 0 Kuplo~ OOU KOi 8£0~ coo" KOi "YnoIo~ou ornv E~ouoia", avaBl\uzouv ana mv iOlO nnvri KQl efvoi £vUlllEv£~, onUl~ to LlOllafa aOEI\<pla.

'000 nspiooorspo 0 o.vepUlnO~ llaealvEI va npd IOV 8£0 oav exnpoorono KOeE IEI\£loIma~, IOOO neprcootspo Il£IOIpEnEtOi -ouroc, 0 noovpcnxoc Snutoupvoc tOU 8£Ou- 0' Eva a~loepnvmo oKoul\nKI, OE Ilia zcovrcvri svoripxoon Ko.e£ £niVEla~ llnoalllvomIO~ KQl coovollfa~. 0 e£ol\oyo~ KQl 0 VOllOoloooKal\o~ Ssv KOUpOOenxcv nOIE va IOV olaB£BOlc{)vOUV on eivoi "Eva~ opnprccI\o~ xcpnoc", nou ea pnopouos va oUle£f ana tnv Olffivla KaTOoiKn 1l0VO 11£ tnV anoKol\U\j.ln IUlV £vIOI\c{)V IOU 8£Ou KQl us mv nuornpri onoxori 0' aUtE~. KQl ana tn onvuri nou 0 na{\lo~ unrixooc KQl onpepivoc nol\fm~ npoixros IO Kpdroc llE OI\E~ n~ 1010ImE~ me t£I\EloIma~, unoBoelllO£ IOV fOlo IOU IOV scoro os Ilia cvioxopn KQl nQlOIOOtlKn popioverro, 01 VOllIKE~ aUeEVIi£~ KQl 01 eEOI\OVOI IOU Kpo.IOU~, 11£ m O£IPO IOU~, note Ssv otcudrnoav va IOU evxopooooov tnv sncfoxovtn nenoIenon on OIOV rropnvc tnc unop~£ffi~ IOU rircv npooBEBl\nllEvo~ ana TO uoxdnpd oppsprputo IOU £K VEvEIn~ ncpobdrn, nou Be unopooos va oonvne£l OIO OPOllO tnc enicnuo KaeOplOllEvn~ opstric IlOVOV ana IO VOllO IOU KpOIOU~. To Sovpc IOU nponcropixoo oucpmpotoc eivoi Bsps-

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8PHLKEIA KAI nOi\ITIKH

fllcDOE~ OXI llOVO vio tnv unap~n Ofl(J)V T(J)V llEYOfl(J)v Bpnoxeunxcov ouotnpritov, aMo KQl vic tnv unap~n Ko8E 8e(J)pfa~ TOU KpOTOU~. H nflnpn~ tcnefvcoon TOU av8pcDnou KQl n Soooieovn niom am llnoallivomm Kal otnv allapT(J)flomm me q>uon~ TOU unnp~av aVEKa8EV TO OTEPEOTEPO 8EllEfli0 Ko8E nvsouonxric KQl xoopucic E~ouofa~. To 8ElKO "Eou Oq>elflEI~" KQl TO KuBEpvnnKo "Eoii unoXpEOUOQl" aMnl\ooullnflnpcDVoVTQl TEI\EIO: eVTofln KQl VOllO~ ortotehoov anl\cD~ olOq>opEnKe~ EKq>pOOEI~ tnc folO~ 10Ea~.

AUTO~ sivm 0 flOYO~ vic TOV onofo xcpic xoourxn E~ouoia llEXPI oripspo Sev pnopeos va EYKmaflellpEI m Bpnoxsfo, nou oooioonxd anOTEflel tn 8EllEfllcDon npoiino8Eon me E~ouoIa~. Ln~ nspmrcooeic onou 01 KOTOXOI me xpcnxric E~ouofa~ EvavncD8nKav vic nOflmKou~ flOYOU~ OE pio oovxexprpsvn popori Bpnoxsicc. us EUKoMa siorivovov Eva cifll\o ouornpo Bpnoxeunxric niorne, nou rircv rno EUVO"iKO vic rnv npovpdtcoon T(J)V OTOX(J)V TOU~. Axoun Kal 01 flEYOllEVOI "nsqxonousvot Ssonotsc", nou 01 fOIOi rircv 08eOl, OEV anOTEflEoav E~afpeon 0' aUTOV TOV xovovo. 'Orcv 0 <PPEIOEpfKO~ B' me Flpeocofuc olaKnpu~E on OTO Baofflefo TOU "0 Ka8Eva~ 8a pnopooos va 0(J)8ef ps TO OIKO TOU tporto'', npoUnE8ETE, q>UOlKO, on ufo TETOIO ocompfo OEV 8a ouvxpoootuv, en' ooosvi rponco, ue tn olKn TOU E~ouofa. H nOfluoo~aouevn ovoxri TOU <PPEIOEpfKOU TOU MEYOI\OU 8a rircv EVTEflcD~ olOq>opEnKn, EOV 01 onrixoof TOU, ri EOT(J) Eva llepo~ TOU~, eixov rnv 10Ea on n oormpio TOU~ 8a unoPOUOE va unoxtndef us mv unoripnon me BaOlfllKn~ MEyaflonpenEIO~ n ue tnv ciprupnon T(J)V voueov TOU,

on(J)~ npoonddnoov va KOVOUV am Pcoooic 01 Dukhobors.

o NanoflE(J)v, nou, otov rircv vecpoc a~l(J)llanKo~ TOU nupoBofllKOU, eixs anOKaflEOEI tn 8Eofloyfa "Bo8po Ko8E OEIOlOQlllOVla~ KQl ouvxoonc" KQl sixs unootnpifst on "OE Ko8E ov8p(J)no snpsns va Siveror Eva EYXEIPIOIO vscouerpioc aVTI vrc tnv Korrixnon", llETEBaflflE PIZIKO mv dnoipri TOU, ana m onvpri nou avaKnpu~E TOV ecuro TOU OE AUTOKpoTOpa me r afll\la~. KQl OXI llOVO' OUllq>(J)va llE m olKn TOU opohovic, vio Eva ll£YOflO XPOVIKO Sidomuo q>flEpmpE us mv 10Ea tnc xoroxrnonc me novxoouroc xupiopxioc llE m Bon8EIO TOU nona' enione, E8EOe TO sponnpo EOV Eva KpOTO~ 8a unopouos va OlOmpElTQI X(J)PI~ tn 8pnoKefa. KQI 0 1010~ EO(J)OE rnv ondvrnon:

"H «otvcovia BEv pnopei va vnopfel x6Jpf~ avtootnta otnv IOIoKrnafa KQ] avrn n avtootnta OeV uttopei va vnopfel x6Jpf~ rn epnaKda. 'Evai; nOJ1qJr6Jxo~ OVep6Jtux; nov zei ofnJJQ a' evav nOJ1nJlOvro, BE ea unopoiioe, meav6J~, va aVJ1qJIlII6Jed J1' avrnv rnv xatdotaon, eOV BEv vnnpxe uia ovvaJ1n nov va rov lIieI: eEiuat GilInJ1a GGOv va vtuipxoir» nlIovaIOI xcu ipttaxo! nOV6J otti In, aM6 otov cM?Jov K00j10, otnv aI6JVIOrnra, olIa ea dVQ] OJQqJOPerIKO»".

H xovixri EU8umm nutric me eKq>paon~ npospxetru ue llEyofln neionxotnrc ana evav ov8p(J)no nou 0 101O~ OEV nlOTEuE os tinotn, al\flo nou ritcv opxsrd EUq>un~ VlO va KamfloBEI on Kallia E~ouofa OEV unopsi va 010- mpElTQI uuxponpoflsoun, EOV OEV efVQI nccvri va PlzcDOEI am Bpncxeunxn ouvsionon T(J)V av8pcDn(J)v.

H OTEvn ouvown ll£m~u tnc 8pnoKefa~ KQl tnc no-

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E6NIKILMOL KAI nOAITILMOL

6PHLKEIA KAI nOAITIKH

i\mKne;; O£V rtepiopizercn, Ol1Cl)e;;, am <p£TIXIOTlKn nepiooo too Kpdrouc, xntd tnv onofo n Snpooio £~ouofa EBpIOK£ tnv ni\npEOT£pn EKq>paon me oro npoorono TOU Anohoroo Movripxn. eo nTOV ofiuvnpri qJeuoafoSnon sdv unoSET011£ on oro ouvxpovo OfKOIO ICl)V LuvTOY11anKwv Kporrov EX£I11£Impanei S£l1£i\ICl)OWe;; cutri n oxeonOnox OKpIBwe;; OTO l1£TOY£VEoI£po Opnoxeonxd oootriporc n 10Ea TOU e£OU YIVOTOV oi\o KOl n£pIOOOI£PO conpnuevn KOI onpoocorm, EIOI KOI n 10EO roo KpOTOUe;; EX£I XOO£I EVa l1£yoi\o 11Epoe;; ana to oUYK£KPI11EVO xopcxtripo me KOI EX£I anoouvo£S£f cno rnv oi\IKn rconori me 11£ ro npoocono tou Movdpxn. Ai\i\o, cxoun KOI O£ £KelV£e;; TIe;; xwp£e;; onou 0 OIOXCl)pI0110e;; me EKKi\nofae;; KOI tou Kpdroue EX£I oi\oq>ov£pa npnvpurononjBsf n £OCl)I£pIKn oxson l1£TO~U tnc KOOllIKne;; £~ouofae;; KOI me Bpnoxefnc O£V EX£I, en' ouo£vf rponco, perctpcnsf Ev toutoic, 01 cnuspivof KOroXOI tnc £~ouoloe;; EXOUV ouxvd npoonnBrioei va KmeuSuvouv anoKi\£IOTlKO npoc to Kpdtoc TO SpnoKeunKo ouvaloSn11OTo IOOV noi\nwv tooc, EIm WOT£ va pnv sfvm avaYKaolIEVOJ va poipdzovrm rnv £~ouofo tooc 1I£ rnv EKKi\nofa.

Eivoi y£yovoe;; on OJ l1£yoi\OJ npcotonopoi too oUYxpovoo LuvTOYlIonKou Kprirooc EXOUV TOVIO£I tnv avovxoiotnro tnc SpnoKdae;; vic mv sonpspio tnc KuB£pvnnxric £~ouolae;;, onCl)e;; aKplBwe;; sxovcv.noxroteoc OJ onepcornorec me Anoi\ume;; Movcpxicc. 'Eroi, 0 Pooooto, rtou OTO EPYO TOU "To KOIVCl)VIKO LU11B6i\0I0" npoxdhsos ovenovopuono Ipaullma otnv Anoi\um Movapxfa, 010- Knpu~£ ~£KoSapa on:

"Jia va J1nOpiaEI evo; nao~ nov J10nl~ vevvietcu va

pa8El va EKrIpa ra anapaBfaara 8EpinlQ ttu; [70nmKrl~ xcu va ottanoce: arov~ arolxclcJ&l~ «avove; rov spattKOV Bmaiov. dVQI avavxaio ro anorii'lcapa va xataaiei auia. To KOlV(z)VlKO ttveoua, nov anotehei rov orono rnv vouodeoia«, 8a ttpettet va attotehei ex rov npotepcov rnv Ka80BnynrlKrl apxti avrrl~ ttu; fBlQ~ ttu; vouodeoiac nat 01 aV8pCl)nOl 8a npenei, ttptv axoun ana rn 8iaman rov voutov, va dVQJ ouvtcpotnuevo; ono»; aKpIBcJ~ 8a aVYKporn80vv apvotepa ueoio avrcJv f(Z)V fBl(Z)V rov voiuov. Ai'lna, ana rn ottvut: nov 0 vop08irn~ Bcv unopei ovrc va cfavaYKaacl ovte va tteioet, dVQI avavnaio va KaracpvYEl oe uia avtotepn Bvvapn, n onoia, x(z)pf~ Ef(z)rEplKrl nieon KQI x(z)pf~ va onoxpeovtcu va rov~ tteioei, dVQI ucavti va cv80vOJaacl rov~ av8pcJnov~. Avro~ eivat 0 i'loyo~ ylQ rov ottoiov 01 IBpvri~ rov i8vov~ QJa8av8nKav, a' oi'lc~ tu; ettoxts; rnv avavxn, va natacpcvyovv arov Ovpavo ncu va rIPOVV rov~ f)cov~ ylQ nonmKov~ noyov~. Movov etot 01 av8p(z)nol, nov Efaptcovuu xai ana rov~ vouoi»; rov Kpotoix; nat ana rov~ vouoix; ttv; cpvan~, 8a ondxovav esoooio»; otn Bvvapn eneivn nov BnplOvpynac KQI rov av8p(z)no xat ro npdto; KQI 8a uneuevav ue xatavonon ro Bapo; nov 8a rov~ cniBannE n Snuoota evtvxia. EfvQI Yl' avrov rov vlj.JJaro novo, 0 ottoio; vncpBafvcl ro nveouatuco enineoo rov ani'lcJv av8pcJn(z)v, nov 0 vop08irn~ Baze: tu; anoqxioeu; rov oto otoua tn; Oeotntai; etot dote va npoaci'lKvEl ue ro KVPO~ tn; av(z)ripa~ Bvvapc(z)~ eseivoi»; nov Bcv nc18apxovv arnv av8pcJmvn aocpfa".4

4. Zav ZaK PooocuS: "To K01VUJV1KO IvpBoi\aIO': B1- Bilfo B: &cpdi\aIO Z:

104

105

E8NIKILMOL KAI nOAITILMOL

8PHLKEIA KAI nOAITIKH

o Pofecrnepoc oKol\ou8no£ KOHl vpdupo TO 6o.OKO- 1\0 TOU KOI £01£11\£ TOU~ Epn£pTlmE~ KOI TOU~ I\£yop£VOU~ "I\UOOOOPEVOU~" OTO IKPl(l)PO, £O£16n n oVTl8pnOKEUTlKn TOU~ rtportnvdvon, nou ornv npoypOTIKomm ritcv OVTI£KKl\nOlOOTlKn, P£l(l)V£ TO 0£800po npoc 10 Kpo.TO~ KOI onovoueos TO n81KO TOU 8£pEI\IO. 01 orcoxof Epnepnotec! 'Htcv KOI OUWI o.KOPnTOI ornv niorn WU~, onox 0 "A6Io.<p80po~" KOI 10 nOlpVIO TOU me rIOK(l)8IVIKn~ £KKl\nola~, oMo. n I\OTpWTlKn TOU~ opuri Klvn8nK£ O£ 610<POP£TIK£~ ypoppE~ KOI 6£v unopoiionv vo OVOYV(l)PIOOUV KOPIO ovoitspn 6uvopn ana sxeivnv IOU Kpdrooc, nou rircv YI' OUTOU~ TO dvm I(l)V OyI(l)V. Ynrip~ov Kol\OI nOTpl({)I£~ KOI OTOV PII\OUOOV vio TO "E8vo~" 610KOT£XOVTOV ana tnv 1610 8pnOK£UTlKn zson nou 610- KOTEX£I rov S£OoE8n K0801\1KO, OTOV Pll\o. YIO TO 8£0 TOU. Al\l\o., Ssv ritnv OUWI 01 VOPOSEIE~ me x({)po~ KOI, oovencx, Ssv Kmdxov exsivov IOV n£plq>npo "UlpIOTO I\oyo", nou, oUPCP(l)VO PE tov Pouoo», un£p80Iv£1 10 nVEUpOTlKO £Oln£60 I(l)V onl\wv ovSp({)n(l)v KOI nou rnv cnoeoori IOU 0 vopoflsrnc nocoexei vo tnv £m8£801({)VEl 610. TOU 010POTO~ tnc 8£omTO~.

o PoB£OmEpo~, CPUOIKo., KOTdx£ oorov IOV "UlpIOTO I\oyo". 'Evol(l)S£ IOV £OUI0 IOU VO £IVOI 0 VopoSEm~ tnc "me Plo~ KOI 0610Ip£m~ L1npoKPOTfo~'" EnOIl£v(l)~, onoKol\ouO£ IOV oS£'iollo "1110 OPIOTOKpOTIKn unoSEon" KOI TOU~ on060u~ TOU npo.KIOPE~ TOU OUII\IOP nIT. 'On(l)~ OKpIB({)~ KOI oripepo, 01 Mnol\oEBfKOI, npOK£IIlEVOU VO 61Eydpouv rnv onEx8£10 I(l)V moTCOV, KOTOYYEl\l\oUV oov "cvnsnovooronxri" Ko.S£ 16£0 nou 6EV TOU~ nccvonoiaf LE TOPOYIlEVOU~ KOIpOU~, £vo~ I£IOIO~ xopoKmplollo~ £IVOI Oovorn-

CPOpO £oIKfv6uvo~ KOI 1006uvopo~ us 10 "80VOTcOOIE TOV' Bl\oocpnpno£ 10 8EO!". AUTO EnpEnE vo TO po.Souv KOI 01 EpnEpnOTE~, KOScO~ KOI 10001 0.1\1\01 npiv KOI usrci on' OUWU~. 'HTOV 010101, 01\1\0. OXI opSo60~01' oovenox, snpene vo IOU~ nefoei n YKII\I\OTIVO, on(l)~ 010 nopEI\Sov ensiSE WU~ OIpEnKou~ 0 610. nupo.~ So.VOTO~.

LW p£yo.l\o IOU I\oyo unpootd am LupBOTIKn YIO tnv onspdornon me niotnc 010 YnEpTOIO Ov, 0 Pobeornepoc 6EV OVEmu~£ OXE60v KOPIO npcororonn 16EO. IlpooeooY£ 010 "KOIV(l)VIKO Lup801\0I0" IOU POUOO({), 10 onoio OXOI\IOOE OXOIVOT£V({)~, on(l)~ 10 ouvnthze. AIOSOVOTOV tnv OVOYKOIomm plO~ xpcnxnc SpnoKdo~ vic tn L1n- 1l0KpOTlKn rol\l\lo KOI n I\mpdo IOU YnEpIOTOU 'OVIO~ IOU nTOV xpnoipn YIO VO IOnoS£lnO£1 m ooofc me noI\ITIKn~ IOU 010 otopc me S£omTO~ KOI vic vo tnv npoiKIOEI ue 10 <p6)IOOl£<pOVO me Sc'iKn~ Boul\non~.

H Lup80nKn cnoqxiotoe vo Snuoorsuosi OUI0V IOV I\oyo O£ ol\oKl\npn m fOI\I\IO, vo tov P£TOcppo.OEI O£ ol\£~ n~ yl\woo£~, Sfvovroc, £101, 010 on£xSE~ Sovpc IOU oSEi'opou £vo Bovomoopo nl\nypo, KOI vo YV(l)OIOrtoiriosi O£ ol\ov WV KOOpO tnv ol\nSlvn ouooovio ni- 0IE(l)~ TOU r al\l\lKou I\oou. H I\Eoxn tcov nOK(l)Bfv(l)v IOU Flcpioioo £on£Oo£ va avayydl\£1 tn I\mpda me npoc 10 Yneproro Ov, us PIO 1610ft£po o~lopvnpovEUm 6laKnpu~n tnc, To nepiexopsvo tnc, on(l)~ KOI OUtO tou I\oyou TOU Pofeoruepoo, BOOIZOTOV nl\np(l)~ OTl~ 16E£~ IOU Pocoo({). Avoosporov p£ 1610ltEpn suxopiotncn OE EVO unooncopc IOU T£TOPIOU BIBl\fou IOU "KOIV(l)VIKOU LupBo- 1\010U", rtou EX£I (l)~ £~n~:

"Yndpxs: pia aaq)(~~ rroi\ITIKr1 opoi\oVia ttioteox; KQl 0

106

107

E8NIKILMOL KAI nOAITILMOL

8PHLKEIA KAI nOAITIKH

Ka80pIOpO<; [UW op8pwv ttu; aVnKEI afIOKiklOrlKO otnv tweoia rov Kpdtoix, LlEV nponenoi tooo VIa iva BpnOKEVTlKO o6vpa 600 VIa Ka80fJlKn<; IOXUO<; aoxo; fIOV xiopk; rnv Ka80onvnon rov<; OEV uttopei va VfVEI KOfIOlO<; oine KaJJ6<; fIoNrn<; oine acpoOlwpivo<; vfInKoo<;. To Kpdtoc, xwpf<; va iXEI ro olKafwpa va VfIOXPEWOEI KOfIOlOV va tuateipei avri<; tu; apxi<;, unopei va EfopfoEI onoiovonnoie OEV Tl<; tnoteoet, OXI w<; apaprwJJ6, aJJJJo w<; xdnoiov fIOV fIapa8faoE ro KOIVWVIK6 Lvp86JJalO nat fIOV efVQJ avisavo; va ovonnoei ro vouo KQ] rn OIKQJOouvn PE 6JJn rov rnv Kapola, avinavoc va 8vOlaoEI, 6rav ttapaotei avoven, KQJ rnv fow rov rn zcon VIa ro Ka8nKov rov. Edv KOfIOlO<;, uetd rn onp60JQ anoooxti avrwv rwv fIoJJmKwv ap8pwv tru; niotnc, OVPfIEPlcpipEtai w<; evcu; amoto; 8a ttpettet va Tlpwpn8ef PE rnv noivn rov Bavdioo, Siot: iXEI oJQfIpafEl ro uevioto 6JJwv rov EVKJJnparwv' iXEI IpEvOopKnoEI EVovvElonrw<; EVWtuov rov vouod'.

H vscpri rai\rllKn zmuoxpcric dXE va cvnperonfoei, 6)~ npooqxrrn E~ouafa, noi\i\E~ 6uaKoi\fE~. &v E1xE oxopn tn 61Kn m~ nopdooon KOI, WI ni\Eov, E1xE npoEi\SEI uno tnv cvorponri EVO~ nai\IO\) ouotnpntoc KuplOpxfa~, TOU onoiou 01 8aS£10 PIZ6)llEVOl Bsouoi EnIZOUaaV oxoun os ll£yoi\a tpriporc TOU i\aou. Luv£noo~, ornv nspfrrrcoori me, £m8ai\i\oTOv, neptooorspo uno KOSE oi\i\o KpOTO~, va cteperooer tnv xorvoupvio tnc E~ouafa llEaa am OpnaKCUIlKn ouveffinon IOU i\aou. ElvOI ai\nSEIO OIl 01 KOIOXOI tnc vEa~ E~ouafa~ npofxiocv IO KpaTO~ pe SEiKE~ 1616mtE~ KOI avulp6)aav tn i\mpda IOU "ESvou~" ce pic vso Bpnoxsfc, nou YElllaE tn r ai\i\fa ue axai\fV6)IO EV-

Boixncopo. Al\.i\a, cuto auvE8n llEaa am llESn me uevdi\n~ Enovdorconc, me onofcc 01 acp06pE~ eUEi\i\E~ snpoKEno va vxpsuiooov TOV nai\lo xoouo, Autri n EKaTOan 6EV unopooos va 610pKEaEI vic ndvrc KOI snpoxsrro va opxfosi n uvtiotpopn llEtpnan, OTOV n au~avollEvn onoxordorcon me npspioc So Snutoopvooos TO E6acpo~ vic mo a6)OIE~ aKElpEI~. 610n an' corri tn vee Bpnoxsfc Ei\EmE n nnpdooon, nou anOTEi\E1 Eva ana TO onouooiotspc 60lllKa aTOIXEla me Bpnoxsonxnc ooveiononc. LUvEnoo~, ritcv n i\oYIKn me E6pal6)an~ TOU KpOTOU~ nou oorivnos TOV Pobeomspo va EK6100~EI uno TO vco tn "8EO toU Aoyou" KOI va tnv ovnxorcorrioer pe m i\arpsfc tOU "YnEpTOtOU 'Ovtoc", ME toV tpono nuto, E~aacpoi\laE vio m "Mfa KOI a61alpEm zmpoxpotfo" to anapoitnto 0YIO qxoroorsqicvo.

H npoooorn roropio, enfonc, lla~ nnpexst KOI ai\i\a tstom napa6EfYllOTa. ApKEI va aKEcpSoullE llOVOV tn oopuoxfc tOU Mooooohivi ue tnv KaSoi\IKn EKKi\nafa. o P08EamEpo~ 6EV sixs nOTE apvnS£f mv unap~n toU 8EOU OUtE KOI 0 Pooooo. 0 Mooooohivt, OIl6)~, ntov Eva~ 6laKnpuYllEvO~ aSEo~ Kal Eva~ CP08EPO~ ovtinci\o~ KOSE SpnaKEunKn~ nfornc- KOI 0 qxioiopoc, moroc one avnKi\npIKE~ napa6oaEI~ tnc ltai\IKn~ unoopzooczfa~, EllCPavla8nKE otnv opxn ~ Eva~ xctnvopnponxoc avtfnai\o~ me EKKi\nafa~. Al\.i\o, 0 Moooooaivi. 6)~ Eva~ Eucpun~ SEOi\oyo~ toU Kpdrouc, KOTai\a8E oovtouo on n E~ouala roo unopooos va EXEI 6lapKEla, uovov edv xotopS6)VE va pizrocet oro afaSnlla E~apman~ t6)V uno. K06)V IOU KOI va npooi\a8EI Eva CPOlvOllEVIKO BpnoxeonKO xcpuxrripc. ME auto to xfvnrpo, Srunoopvnoe m vso

108

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E8NIKIL.MOL. KAI nOi\ITIL.MOr.

8PHL.KEIA KAI nOi\ITIKH

Bpnoxsio TOU cxpofoo E8VIKI0l10U, 0 onoioc, us mv EY(i)"iOIlKn TOU anOKAEIOIlKOmW KQ1 TO BfQ10 Srcxropiopo TOU ana OA£~ nc o.AA£~ av8poomv£~ O}lo.o£~, Ssv uvnvvoprZ£ xcuni aVOOT£pn 10Ea ana outriv TOU q>aOIOIlKOU KpdTOU~ KQ1 TOU npooritn TOU, TOU NTOUTO£.

'O}l(i)~, KQ1 0 MOUOOOAlVI, on(i)~ KQ1 0 Pobecrnspoc, Q108ov8nK£ OIl ana TO Sovuc TOU EA£m£ n nnpdooon KQ1 OIl n vsopri £~ouofa TOU OEV ruov EmBAnIlKn. AUTo TOV EKavE npoosxnxo. H E8vIKn nopdooon me IWAfa~ Ssv sixs mv £uvOIa me EKKAnofa~. l1£v sixe oxoun Ano}lovn8d OIl 0 Flcmopoc unnp~£ Ko.nOTE Eva~ ana TOU~ srnxivoovooc ovnnrihouc tnc £8vIKn~ svonoinonc, nou cnllEux8nKE }lOVOV EnEna ana uio ovoucm OUYKPOUan us TO Bonxcvo. AAAo., 01 o.v8p(i)nol TOU IWAIKou Risorgimento, 01 Snuioupvof me IWAIKn~ £8vIKn~ EVOnoinonc, Ssv xcpuxtnpizovrcv ana aVIl8pnOKEUIlKn OTo.an. Oonyn8nKav, xct' ovdvxnv, va aKoAou8noouv pfc aVIlKAnpIKn noiutncri, E~ nrrfnc rnc ordonc TOU Bcmxcvou &v ritcv Ka8oAou 68£01. Axoun KQ1 aUTo~ 0 q>oB£po~ Ex8p6~ TOU KAnpou, 0 rapIBMon~, nou omv eiony(i)yn tcov Avopvrioecov TOU EX£I YPo.lV£1 OIl "0 ttatuu; eivat n npoocononoinon rov 'P£voov~' aiMci 0 'PEvrn~ eivai hnotti; KaI 0 ?morrl~ eivai tpovui; KaI ea uttopoiioa va avoipepco KaI ciilila afI6nolVa xapaxtnptotnca rov Kilnpov", OEV rirov anAoo~ Eva~ Ba8£10. 8pnOK£UO}lEVO~ ov8p(i)no~, on(i)~ EO£I~av 01 E8vIKIOIlKE~ TOU npoond- 8EIE~, MAO n oAn TOU aVTlAnlVn vic tn zeori sfxs Il~ pfz£~ tnc omv niorn TOU 010 8EO. 'E TOI, TO EBoo}lo ana W l1ooo£Ka f\p8pa TOU, nou unoBAn8nKav npoc EYKplon oro LUV£OPIO tnc "LUll}laxla~ vm mv Eiprivn xcn mv

EAEU8£pla", nou OUYKAn8nKE am Fevson TO 1867, 0PIZ£:

"To LvvioPIO VIoecr£l rn epnoK£la rov (9£015 KQl KcieE j1iilo~ rov vnoxpeoincu va aVj186i1i1EI otn oIciooon ttu; OE oiloKilnpo rov K00J10".

KQ1 0 Moroivi, 0 nvsrnc tnc NEa~ haAla~ KQ1 n onuovnxorspn uoppri, pstri TOV r apIBo.AOn, TOU cvcovo vic mv IWAIKn E8V1Kn evonoinon, unnp~£ ow B68n me lVuxn~ TOU OlanOIlO}lEVO~ ana uio ioxoporcrn 8pnoKEUIlKn niam. H oAn TOU q))Aoooq>fa ritnv tva napo.~£vo peivuc 8pnoKEUIlKn~ n811<n~ KQ1 E8vIKO-nOAlTlKOOV £mOlOO~£(i)V, nou, ncpd 10 Snposponxri tnc oipn, sixe £vav £~ OAOKAnpou Ssononko xnpcxtnpo. To ouv8nllo. TOU "e£o~ KQ1 I\ao~" £~Eq>pazE Bcupriom TO oxono TOU, OIOIl TO E8vo~ onorehouos YI' ourov jno 8pnOKEUTlKn lo£a, nou npoortcdouoa va rnv nepropfoei usoc ow nAalOla }lla~ nOAmKn~ EKKAnofa~.

o Mooooosivr, Oll(i)~, KQ1 }lazu TOU 01 noAuo.pl81101 nYETE~ TOU haAIKou rpcoiopoti Sev BPIOKOVWV a' corriv mv a~lOznAEUm 8Eon. Efxav un6p~EI q>OBEpof cvtcvcoVIOT8!; OXI 1l0VOV tnc EKKAnofa~, aAAo. KQ1 me fOIQ~ me 8pnoK£fa~. 'Eva TETOIO napEA80v anOTEAouOE Eva Bapu q>OPTIO, 10IQITEpa OE pro xoopa me onoicc n np(i)TEUOUOa unnp~E vio EKmovT60E~ XpOVIQ TO KEVTPO }lla~ ioxupric EKKAnola~, us XIAlo.OE~ av8poono~ am 010.8£on tnc, 01 onoiot, llE OV(i)8EV EVTOA£~, rircv no.vTOTE ncovoi va Sictnpouv am uvripn TOU Aaou Z(i)VWVO aUTO TO nspibonto napEA80v me nveofoc TOU <PaOlOTlKOU Kpo.TOU~. Kord OUV£nEIQ, rircv EVOEO£IYll£VO ana Il~ nepiordoerc vic TOV IWAIKO qxioiopo va £A8EI OE pic oupqxovfo ue tnv EKKAnOlaOTlKn E~ouola. Kdn T£TOIO, B£BQ1a, OEV ritcv

110

111

E8NIKILMOL KAI nOI\ITILMOL

8PHLKEIA KAI nOI\ITIKH

£UKOi\O, 610n p£m~u IOU Bcnxovou KQ1 IOU hOi\IKOO KpOIOU~ opdcovotcv n 20n }:£nI£p8pIOU IOU 1870, orcv to O1pOU:UPQTO tooBixuopo; EppovounA £loni\Sov am Poun KQ1 £S£oov t£i\o~ omv xoouixri £~ouolo IOU nonIKOU KpOIOU~. Al\i\o, 0 Mooooohivi rirov £IOIPO~ vm KOS£ Boofo, Iic va e~oO(poi\fo£1 mv eipnvn pe IO BonKOVO, ovofinpioopvnos, ov KQ1 oe PIKP,OyPO<PIO, to nonIKO Kpdrn. Anoznufooe OIKOVOPIKO IOV nona YIO mv

" , , , , '

061KIO nou xcnore eixs onoorsi £VO<; £K lOOV npOKQTO-

xov IOU, ovOYVciJPIO£ IOV KOSOi\IKIOPO 00<; enfonun BpnOKElO IOU KpOIOU~ KQl nopsocooe 010 I£pateiO £vo onpcvnxo tpripo tOOV S£OllciJv me Snuooicc £Knof6£uon<;;.

Onoo06nnot£, Ssv rnov 01 Bpnoxeunxoi ri 01 nSIKoI AOYOI nou ciJSnoov IOV Mooooohfv, 0' auto IO Bnpo, ol\i\a 01 ipoxpoi £~ouOloonKol IOU unoAOVIOll01. XP£IQzotov eva nSIKO otripivpc vio mv npoypownoinon rov Ipn£PIQAlonKciJv IOU ox£61OOv KQl Ssv pnopouo£ napa va £v6IQ<pep£tQl iSioirepc ylQ mv dpon tOOV unotptrov, nou sixcv onsvovri IOU 01 oi\i\£~ xciJp£~. tuv£nciJ~, ovozritnce snceri pe mv £~ouolo sxefvn nou elX£ ovmn£~£i\S£1 srntoxex; YIO p£yoi\o XPOVIKO 6100mllo, oe oi\£<;; n<;; 8u£i\i\£<; tOOV xoipov KQl nou n ioxopri nOVKOOllIO opvdvoori me unopouos, uno oUYK£Kplllev£<;; ouvSnK£<;, va on06£lx8d nOAu ernxfvoovn YI' OUtOv. Ecv nsroxs tnv Koi\Ut£pn ouvoi\i\oyn, ElVQl svo zrunuo nou Ssv 110<; cnooxoaei £v npoxsrpevco. Al\l\a, IO V£Yovo~ on unoxp£ciJSnK£ 0 f610<;; 0 "ncvioxopoc NIOUIO£" va OVOI~£I £K VEOU n<; nui\£<; tOU BOtlKOVOU KQl va 8eo£1 Iei\o~ am "<puAaKlon trov Ilonov" £1VQl pia cno nc nopo~£vl£~ tnc rotopicc, nou eX£1 ouv6£8d nspiooorspo on' onorinors

al\i\o us IO OVOjlO IOU Mooooohfvi. Axoun KQl 0 qxioiopo<; unoxp£ciJSnKE, t£AlKO, va ovovvopfoer on KOPIO uoviun £~ouofo Ssv unopsi va S£p£i\looSd OIO pstoivoi\060, t1~ 60i\0<povI£~ KOI to novxpopc, 000 KQl ov cord efvci onopofmm YlO InV socotepixri nohrnxri IOU CPOOlOtlKOU KpOIOU<;. Ii' cuto. 0 Moooooofvi donee omv dxpn IO "<pOOlOtlKO Soupo", pc to onofo onoorripizs OIl ovoy£wn8nK£ 0 hoi\IKO<; l\oo<;, npoxsuievoo "H Peopn va YIV£I, YIO tpim <popo, n Kop61a IOU KOopOU". 'EwI, evezrimos snoori ue mv £~ouofo sxeivn nou avti\ouo£ In pucnxri m<; 6uvapn uno rn xli\I£In nopdooon KQl nou ritov, xord oovensio, nOl\u 6UOKOi\0 va onovopeodsf.

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ePH~KEIA KAI nOi\ITIKH

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PIOOOTEPO ana T£TOIOU Ef60u~ onoroxiec.

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114

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KE~AAAIO 3

H EKKAH:tIA KAI TO KPATOE KATA TO MEEAIUNA

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116

KE«})AAAIO 3:

H EKKAHI:IA KAI TO KPATOI:

KATA TO MEI:AIUNA

H eEMEAIQ~H~ APXH TH~ ESOY~IA~. XPI~TIANI~MO~ KAI KPATO~. nAnI~MO~. H AYfOY~TINEIA "TIOAI~ TOY eEOY". H ArIA EKKAH~IA. 0 ArQNA~ rIA TIArKO~MIA KYPIAPXIA. rPHrOPIO~ 0 2'. INNOKENTIO~ 0 r. H ETII~PA~H TH~ ESOY~IA~ ~TOY~ KATOXOY~ TH~. H PQMH KAI 01 rEPMANOI. 0 rEPMANIKO~ KAI~API~MO~. 0 ArQNA~ rIA TH PQMH. H SENH KYPIAPXIA. 0 KATATIONTI~MO~ TQN TIAAIQN KOINQNIKQN eE~MQN. API~TOKPATIA KAI BA~IAEIA. <l>EOYAAPXI~MO~ KAI AOYAOTIAPOIKIA. H AYTOKPATOPIA TQN <l>PArKQN. KAPAOMArNO~ KAI TIATII~MO~. H AIAMAXH METASY AYTOKPATOPA KAITIATIA.

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H EKKt\HLIA KAI TO KPATOL KATA TO MELAIQNA

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120

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E6NIKIrMor KAI nOJ\lTIrMOr

H EKKI\HrIA KAI TO KPATOr KATA TO MErAK2NA

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122

123

E8NIKILMOL KAI nOi\ITILMOr

H EKKi\HrIA KAI TO KPATOL KA TA TO MELAIQNA

Kn E~ouofa. 'ETOI, usoo ana n~ Xpionovncsc A5Ei\cpomTE~ 5n11loupynSnKE ufo EKKi\nofa noo 5lQcpui\a~E rnord T1~ E~OUOIaOT1KE~ 15EE~ TOOV Kcnocipcov, orcv n PoopalKn Aoroxpctopic OUvETpf8n ono n~ SUEME~ TOOV pEycii\oov uetcvooteocscov TOOV i\a6)V.

H E5pa TOU Emoxonou rnc Pffipn~, nou 8PIOKOTOV otnv [51a mv Kap51ci tnc ncvxoomoc Aotoxporopfoc, TOV E~oni\loE, uno rnv cpxri, PE pia KuplapxlKn E~ouola nriveo OE Oi\E~ n~ cii\i\E~ Xpionovixsc EKKi\noiE~. ~Ion n Poun rtopspsve, oxoun KQl PETci tnv rnoson me AUTOxpctopfoc, n Kap5lci TOU K00110U, TO KEVTPO TOU, onou n Ki\npovoplci TOOV 5EKa piXPI 5EKanivTE noi\mopIKwv rtcpofiooerov 5lQmpOUVTav zrovtnvri KQl nou xporoooe TOV KOOPO uno mv oxorovixnm Ei\~n tnc. Ano tn Pffipn, ernonc, nripcv TO nvio m~ E~ouoia~ 01 vEapE~ KQl dnsipE~ nxopn 5uvcipEI~ TU>V 8ap8cipu>v TOU Boppd, ana n~ OCP05PE~ EmSEoEI~ TOOV onoicov ElXE xoroppeooei n Auroxporopic TOOV Koiodprov. H 515aoKai\fa TOU Xpioncvrouoii, nou sfxe n5n EKCPUi\IOSEI, nScioEUoE n~ ciYPIE~ 5lQSEOEI~ TOU~, nspiopros TI~ EmSupiE~ TOU~ KOI nnoxdi\Ul}JE OTOU~ nYETE~ TOU~ ViE~ pESo50u~, nou civOl~av onpoopsvooc OPIZOVTE~ vic n~ cpli\050~IE~ TOU~. ME E~Unvouc onohovrouooc. 0 aVEpxo11EVO~ Ilornopoc 5cipaoE TO nxopn dnsipo Suvopixo TU>V "8ap8cipu>v" KQl TO xoreornoe E~unnpEnKo TOOV OTOXU>V TOU. ME m 80nSElQ TOU~, o Iloruouoc iSWE TO SEpii\lQ pla~ via~ naYKoOPlQ~ E~ouofa~, nou EnPOKElTO, vic noi\i\ou~ QlWVE~, va KaSoPloEI in zeori TU>V i\affiv me Eupwnn~.

'OTQV 0 AUYOUOTfvo~ erouiozorov va avamu~el n~ 15iE~ TOU OTO spvo TOU "H noi\n TOU BEau", 0 Xpioncvr-

OpO~ EfXE n5n UnOOTEI Evav ni\npn EOU>TEPIKO pETQOXnuonouo. Ano Eva cvnxpcnxo xfvnpc EfXE psrotponef OE pia SpnOKEIa nou onootripizs TO Kodroc KQl nou sfxe onoppoencei ni\nSo~ ~EVU>V OTOIXElu>V. Ai\i\ci, n KOlVOUPvic EKKi\nofa nE{JIEi\cip8avE oxoun OTOU~ Koi\nou~ m~ noi\i\i~ KQl 5lQCPOPETlKi~ anOl}JEI~' me ii\EInE n ouotnuotncomro EKElVn nou Sa rircv uccvri va Sruuoopvriost pfc pEycii\n noi\lTIKn evomrc, n onoio, ocvsrontd KQl 11£ pEyai\n 8E8Qlomra, Sa ofinvouos npoc TOV oacpffi~ xcSOPlOP£VO OTOXO pla~ vEa~ ncvxoojnoc KUPlQPxfa~. 0 AUYOUOTivo~ npcoeqxpe ornv EKKi\nofa curov TO OTOXO. AloScivSnKE rnv rpopspri anoouvSEon tnc snoxric TOU, Ef5E on Xli\lci5Ec,; 5uvcipEI~ npooncuooocv va EnlTUXOUV Xli\lci5E~ 5lQq>opEnKou~ OTOXOU~, Ef5E pE noiov tpono, usoc 0' aUTO TO TPEi\i\O xdoc, oTp081i\IZOVTOV avapEra~u TOUe; KQI nffie;, ocv veovsvvnrsc nou rirov, 5lai\uovTOv ana TOU~ oveuooc ri niSQlvav ciKapnE~, Sion TOUe; ii\EIne 0 oxonoc KQl n Kan:uSuvon. 'EnEITa ana noMie; npoonciSEIE~, 0 Aovoootfvoc KmEi\n~E OTO oounepoopo on ii\EInE ana TOU~ avSpffinou~ pia svonoinpevn E~ouola, nou Sa ESETE iva Tii\oe; om Sixovoio KQl Sa oUYKivTPOOVE n~ 5lEonappive~ 5UVaPEI~ otnv ormpeofc EVO~ avffiTEpOU oxonou

"H noi\n TOU BEOU" TOU AUYOUOTIVOU OEV iXEI rfnors TO KOlVO PE tnv cpxixri 515aoKai\ia TOU XpIOTlaVIO}lOu. AKp18ffie; YI' oorov TO i\oyo, pnopsoe va anOTEi\ioEI TO Oscopnuxo SEpii\IO pla~ naYKoopla~ 15iae; TOU KaSoi\lKOU KOOPOU, vic rnv onofo n otornpic m~ avSpu>nomTO~ Ka80plzorav ana TOU~ OTOXOU~ me EKKi\nofa~. 0 AUYOUOTIVO~ Kmcii\a8e on n EnIKUPlQPxfa me EKKi\n-

124

125

E8NIKILMOL KAI nOI\ITILMOL

H EKKl\HLIA KAI TO KPATOL KATA TO MELAIQNA

ola~ Enp£m: va PIZWo£1 Ba8£10. usoo otnv niom rcov av8pwnrov, sdv mpoK£IIO va cnoxrriosi Sidpxein. Flpoon0.8no£ va rtpcoooscei 0' ourriv 10v nforn pic Bo.on, nou O£v 8a prtopooos va KAoVI08e:f cno xovevov o~uO£PKrl vou. 'E WI, EVIV£ 0 noovuonxoc 8EllEAlroln~ £K£Ivnc 1O~ 8£OAoVIKn~ 8£ropla~ 1O~ ioropfcc, nou anOOIOEI K0.8E av8pwnJvo VEVOVO~ neve am vn am BouAnon lOU 8£Ou, mv onofc OEV unopsf va srmpecosi Ka80Aou

o o.v8prono~.

Kctri m Olo.pKEla IOU nponou Qlwva 0 Xpronnvrouoc £IX£ KnpU~EI nOAE1l0 £vaVIIOV tcov BaOlKWV 10£WV IOU ProllalK~U Kpo.IOU<; KQI EvaVIIOV OArov rcov 8EOl1u)V IOU, us anOIEA£olla va 0£x8Ei nArl80~ olroVllu)v cno coro IO K~o.IO~. 0 A~VOUoIIVO~, aVII8£ra, unootripifs on np08Eon IOU OEV mav va Evavnro8£l ora KaKU)~ xsiusvc IOU KOo1l0U, uno tn onvpri nou "oi)a ra eniveia eiVQJ tpeovai)ia" KQI "n ai)n8Ivn eiptivn watomei uovov ev tou; ovpavole", Kord oUVEn£IQ, oupqxovc us IOV AUVOUorIVO, "0 ai)n8IVo~ tnotoc Sev ttpene: va KaraoIKOZeI rov noi)epO' avu8~r(ll~, npette: va rov Becopei (ll~ iva avavnaio KaKo, (ll~ tua UP(llPIQ emBeBi)npivn arov~ av8pwnov~ ana ro Beo. L1Jou 0 noi)Epo~ dVQJ -ottcoc n navwi)n, 0 i)IPO~ KaI Ko8E waso- n Bela fJfKn VIa tnv uueoia rov av8pwttcov, VIa tn Bei)rf(llan rov~ xcu VIa rnv nooetouioaia rn~ ocotnpku; rov~".

AAAo., VIQ va VIVEI KOIaVOmrl OIOU~ av8pwnou~ n SdKn olaKuB€pvnon, Xp£lo.Z£IQI ufo opntri E~ouola, 010. rnc onoicc 0 8£0<; va £KonAwv£1 rnv ispn IOU BouAnon KQI va oonvei IOU<; allaplroAou~ oIO ccocro Spouo. Kaufo xoouucri £~ouola Sev EivQI Karo.firmfin VI' corn mv

cnootohn, Sion IO Baolfi£lo lOU KOo1l0U sivci Baolfi£lo IOU LaraVo., nou npsnsi va ~£n£pa08d, npOK£lllEVOU 0 o.vSprono<; va ernroxei m orompio IOU. Move omv "MIa AVla EKKAnola", omv una sancta ecclesie, ml<pufio.x8nK£ xrn avarE8nK£ cno IOV fOlo IOV 8£0 outn n anOOIOfirl. H EKKfinola £IVQl 0 1l0VO~ afin8lvo<; sxnpooconoc tnc 8EiKrl~ Boufinon~ ndvco am vn, n KaSoonynnKrl xsip me Flpovoioc, noo 1l0VO ootri Sionpdrrsi IO oooto, Sion <pWrlZ£IQI cno IO 8dKO nvsopo.

LUllCProva ue IOV AUVOUOIIVO, OAa IQ av8pu)nJva vevovorc ouvEBnoav oe i~1 ll£yo.A£~ snoxec, n l£fiEUrala £K reov onoicov o.PXIoE ll£ m vsvvnon IOU XploIOU. Luvenu)~, 01 o.v8pronOJ rtpsnsr va ~EPOUV on EnIK£Hal IO Iifio~ IOU KOO1l0U. H £VKaSiopuon, i\omov, IOU BaOli\£lou IOU Osoii ndvo am vn £nJBo.i\i\£lQI emtcxnxci Via va OCJ)Souv 01 \Vux£~ cno 10v ouovm npropic KQI VIQ va nposIOilla080uv OJ o.v8pwnOJ Via tnv oopdvro lepouoonrip. AnD tn onvuri, 0llw<;, nou n EKKi\nola anol£i\Ei IOV 1l0- vaOIKO KnpUKa m<; Boui\no£ro~ IOU 8eou, npenst va efVQl onoocrinote aOlo.i\fiaKm, Sion 0 fOlo~ 0 o.vSpCJ)no~ Ssv unopsi va VVCJ)PIZ£l IO Kai\o KQI IO KaKO. H EKKi\nala O£V pnopsi va xdvsi mv rtcpojnxpri ncpoxopnon am i\OVIKrl IOU avSpCJ)nlvou nveouctoc, Sion Ko.s£ vvoon EfvQI uoroiotnto KQI n avSpu)nJvn oooio O£V unopsi va unEplOXUOEI IOU 8wU. 'EIOI, n niorn OEV anolEi\Ef eva psoo VIQ mv npovpdtoxm EVO~ oxonoo, ai\fio. svcv autooxono, 0 o.vSpCJ)no<; npensi va nJOlEUEI Xo.PIV me nioIECJ)~ KQI Sev npsnei va emtpensi one \VEUoQlo8noEI~ 10<; i\OVIKrl~ va IOV ~Eolparlzouv cno IO orooro uovondII, Sion to i\oVIQ, nou onoofSovtcu OlOV T£PlUi\i\IQVO,

126

127

E6NIKILMOL KAI nOI\ITILMOL

H EKKAHLIA KAI TO KPATOL KA TA TO MELAIQNA

II Credo quia absurdum esf' (" To moteiuo, ene/on dVQ] napan0 vo"), £1VOl op80 KOI Sion povo n niorn sivoi IKavri va anai\i\o~el IOV ov8pumo ana TO VUXIO IOU LOTavo.

01 lo£e~ IOU AUYOUOIIVOU vic IOV KOOj.lO xopuipxnccv, vic 0I6:JVe~, usee OIOV Xpionoviouo. Le oi\n tn olopKela IOU Mscukovo, IO KUPO~ nou anoi\oj.lBave unopouos va oUYKpl8el j.lOVO j.le aUIO IOU APloIOI£i\n. 0 Aovooorivoc ol£oCl)oe OIOU~ av8p6:Jnou~ rnv niotn oe pio ovonopeoxm poipu KOI ouv£owe corriv tnv rtiotn pe IOV cvovo vic rnv noi\1I1Krl svortoinon me EKKi\nofcc, nou 0I08av8nKe IOV ecoro rnc apj.loolo vic rnv enavEYKa8iopuon m~ anCl)i\e08doa~ naYKOOJ1la~ xopiopxia~ IOU Peoucixoo Kcroopiouou KOI vic rnv ustutponri IOU OE E~unnpEnKO opvcvo EVO~ aV6:JIEpOU oxonou

01 enfoxonoi me Pc0j.ln~ sixcv trope tva OIOXO nou npoO£OIOE one <Pli\ooo~ie~ IOU~ Eva wpu neofo Spdoeoc. Ai\i\o, vic va unopsoouv va IOV npovuoronoirioouv KOI vic va perorpsipoov tnv EKKi\nola OE tva ncvfoxopo opvcvo vic noi\mKou~ oxonooc, EnpenE 01 nY£IE~ ICl)V aMCl)v Xpionovncrov EKKi\nOlc0v va nel8apxrioouv 0' curov IO oroxo. Mexpi tnv npovudtecn auIOU IOU oroxoo, n novxoopio xopiopxic IOU Flornouou nopspsve tva OVElpO. H EKKi\noia, vio va pnopeoei va emBoi\el m Boui\non me OIOU~ KOTOXOU~ me KOOJ1IKn~ E~ouola~, £npene nporo va evonomdsi EOCl)IEPIKO.

Aotri n svortoinon Sev ritcv Ka80i\ou eUKoi\n, Sion 01 Xpionovixe; EKKi\noiE~ nopeuervcv, vic j.lEyai\O XPOVIKO Sidornuo, ani\£~ xai\ap£~ OJ.laOE~, nou E~£i\Eyav IOU~ IEPEi~ KOI IOU~ nY£IE~ IOU~ KOI unopouoov, avo noaa cnvpri, va IOU~ Ka801p£00UV, EOV OEV enIIei\ouoav 0Cl)-

ala IO Ka8nKovlo IOU~. Enfonc, Ko8e EKKi\noia sixs IO iolO aKpIBc0~ OIKOIc0j.lOTa ue oi\e~ n~ 6i\i\e~. Llmu8uve n~ OIK£~ me un08£oEI~ KOI ritcv 0 aOIOj.lq>IOBnmIO~ KUPIO~ IOU OIKOU me, Znrnporo. nou unEpiBOIvav tnv apj.loolotntc ICl)V IOmKc0V KOlVOlnICl)V, olw8EIOUVIOV ana snopxlaKE~ ouvooou~ n ana EKKi\nOlaonKE~ ouvei\euoel~, nou EKi\£yovrav Ei\Eu8epa ana IOU~ rnorooc. no zntripctn niOIECl)~, j.lnOpOUOE va i\aj.lBOVEI onoqxiosrc j.lOVOV n OlKOUj.lEVIKn LUVOOO~, oni\aon n EKKi\nolaonKn YEvIKn ouv£i\won.

H upxncn opvdvcoon me EKKi\noia~ ritov, ouven6:J~, EVIEi\c0~ Snuoxpcnxri KOI noi\u xai\apn KOI OEV pnopoiioe va xpnoiportomdsi Cl)~ Boon IOU Iloruouoo vic tnv enirw~n ICl)V noi\mKc0v IOU OIOXCl)V. 'Oucoc, 01 enioxonoi ICl)V j.l£YOi\UIEpu)V EKKi\nOlc0v onexmocv Ba8j.llaia pfo ovotepn 8£on, E~ alIia~ IOU j.leyai\ulepou KUKi\OU me smpporic IOU~. 'EWI, n LUVOOO~ me NIKaia~ IOU~ napaxc0pnoE OIK0I6:Jj.lOTa £i\£yxou sni ICl)V j.lIKpOIEPCl)V EKKflnOlc0v, aVaBIBazOVIO~ IOU~ OE Mnrponohirec KOI Apxiernoxonooc. Qorooo, 0 Mnrpononitrs; tnc P6:Jj.ln~ Ssv £1xE neproootspo OIKOIc0j.lOTa ana IOU~ 6i\i\ou~ Mmponoi\irE~. Ll£v prtopooos Ka80i\ou va avaj.l£lx8ei on~ uno- , 8£OEI~ IOU~ xcn n 8£an IOU emoxrozotov. OPIOJ1£VE~ q>op£~, ana tnv srnppori nou ooxooos 0 Mntponosimc KCl)VOIOvnvoonooecoc.

To EPYO ICl)V enIOKOnCl)V me P6:Jj.ln~ ouvnvtouos, ouvenc0~, ni\n80~ j.lEyOi\Cl)V OUOKOi\16:JV, vic tnv aVn}l£I6:Jman ICl)V onoicov Ssv ritcv 0i\01 E~IOOU rxovoi- KOI snpene va nspdoouv 0I6:JVE~, vic va unopscoov va EOP0l6:Joouv tnv xupiopxic IOU~ usoo otnv ni\EIO\pn<pia IOU

128

129

H EKK!\H~IA KAI TO KPATO~ KATA TO ME~AIQNA

EeNIKI~MO~ KAI nO/\ITI~MO~

Kflnpou, YEYOVOr, nou rircv E~QlPEIIKO ouaKoflo, KOSWr, 01 enfoxonoi ICDV OIOCPOPCDV XCDPWV E~OPIWVIOV ouxvd, rooo YIO rnv doxncn ooo KQI YIO m Srorripnon mr, E~oualor, IOUr" cno IOUr, KOIOXOUr, tnc KOCJIlIKnr, E~OUoicc. Ev IOUIOlr" 01 enfoxonoi rnc PWllnr, EnIOICD~OV IO oxono IOUr, us E~unvour, unofloYICJIlOUr, KQI llE enfuovec npoanoSEIEr,. OUIE eixcv KOSOflOU EUQlaSnaIEr, aIO zritnuc me EnIfloynr, ICDV usocov- IOUr, upxoiios va EIVQI OnOIEflECJIlOIlKO.

ME noon ovcrotlnofo 01 KOIOXOI IOU EKKflnOloanKou Opovoo me Pu)llnr, EnIOICD~OV IO oroxo IOUr, cnooeiKVUEIQI ono rnv E~unvn xprion, nou £KOVOV, ICDV nspfqmueov "IOIOWPEICDV LlIOIO~ECDV", nou 0 nOflu YVCDalor, ioropucoc POVKE £XEI nEplypotpEI CDr, "1l10 EVIEflWr, aUVEISnrri KQI nflnpCDr, KOfloaxEOlOallEvn, aMo OflocpovEpn nfloaIOypocpnan'" npOKEIIQI vic pic xpion nou OEV cuqnofinrenrn oxsoov ana KOVEVOV oripspo. Qaroao, npiv oxopn YIVEI cvnsnnrri n nfloaIOypocpnan OUlu)V ICDV VIOKOUllEVICDV, eixe non ernrsoxflsi 0 oroxoc. BOOlZOllEVOr, aIO KUpOr, IOUr" 0 Ildno; EopOICDaE mv KUPIOPXIO IOU CDr, torrompntric IOU BEOU erri mr, ynr" orov onofov o Flsrpoc sfxs EllnIalEUIEI IO KflEIOIO IOU Oopovoii To auvoflo IOU Kflnpou urtotrixflruce am Bouflnan IOU. Tou EKxCDpnSnKE IO OIKOICDllO va aUYKMc.f YEVIKEr, oovooour" ICDV onofeov IO aUllnEpOCJIlOIo pnopooos va cnoOEXEIQI ri va cnoppfrnsr, aUllCPCDVO ps tnv xpfon IOU. KQI IO anllovIIKOIEPO OflCDV, EKc.ivEr, 01 nflaaIEr, "IOIOWPEIEr, LlIOIO~Elr," onflCDvov OIl, oe KOSE npootptbri llEIO~U ICDV KOCJIlIKWV KPOIu)V KQI IOU Kflnpou, n cnopoon svonoxerIO, os IEfllKn ovofluan, aIOV nona. Qr, EK IOUIOU, EnpE-

ne va opSd KOSE OIKQlOOOalO tnc KOCJIlIKn~ E~oualo~ nrivco orov Kflnpo YIO va unopeoei 0 Ildnoc va EOPQlCDSEI aIOSEpoIEPO orov Bpovo IOU. KQI npoanoSEIE~ npoc corri tnv KOIEuSuvan EIXOV non YIVEI KQI npiv I1<;; "101- OU)PEIE~ LllQIO~EIr,". 'Elm, 0 Enioxonoc me PWlln~ Symachus (498 - 514) dXE oloKnpu~EI OIl OEV ntov unofloyo~ oe KOVEVOV oMov EKIO<;; cno IOV BEG- KQI dKOOl XPOVIO npiv mv spqxivion ICDV "IOIOWPEICDV .lllaIO~ECDV", n LUVOOO~ ICDV Ilopiofrov (829) sfxs olaKnp,u~EI on 0 BaOlfllor, rirov unofloyo~ ornv EKKflnala KQl on n E~ouafa IOU Kflnpou BplaKoIOv ndve uno KOSE vrnvn E~ouala. AUIE~ 01 nflOaIEr, OIOIO~EI~, flomov, eixcv onflu)r, CD~ oxono IOUr, va npoodcoooov one OIEKoIKnaEI~ mr, EKKflnala~ ufo acpPoYloo vojnpotntcc.

ME IOV Ipnvopio IOV Z' (1073 - 85) OPXIZEI n npov- 1l0IlKn nvsuovio IOU Flcrnouou, n snoxri tnc "Chiesa trionfante" (me EKKflnalar, TCDV 1l0KOPICDv EV IOIr, copevoic). 'HIOV 0 npwIO~ nou OflOCPOVEPO KQI XCDPlr, xovevov nepiopiouo urtnirnos npovojncxn SEan vic tnv EKKflnalo onevovn oe KOSE KOCJIlIKn E~oualo KQl nco, OKOun KQl npiv tnv nvcppixnon IOU aIOV nOnIKO Bpovo, eixe EPyoaSEI ue llEYMn sruuovri npoc ourriv tnv xcIEUSuvan. nOVCD an' OflO, eronvovs SEllEflIWOElr, oflflaYEr, llEao otnv 1010 mv EKKflnalo vic va tnv KOIOan1- aEI, oco IO OUVOIOV nsptooorepo. EVa opvcvo E~unnpEmonc ICDV oxonrov IOU. H OVMEnr, rpoxomtd IOU xcrdCPEPE onOIEflECJIlOnKO va EnIBMflEI rnv ovopic IOU Kflnpou, nou sixe ouxvd aIO nopEflSoV npOIOSEI, OflflG nOTE OEV EIXE unopeosi va Ecpaplloa8d. ME IOV tponov aUTO, Srunoopvnos vic IOV EOUTO IOU EVa olESvn aIPOIO, nou

130

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E8NIKIrMor KAI nOI\ITlrMOr

H EKKt\HrIA KAI TO KPATOr KATA TO MErAIQNA

IO Ka8£ l1Ei\O~ IOU, xU)Pl~ KOVEVOV npootornxo KOOl1IKO 0:0110, ,8£U)Pouo£ IOV £OUIO IOU nvnnpooono m~ nomKne; Boui\non~. H ncofvvoorri IOU priori on "n ExxlInafa Se 8a unopoooe note va an£1I£v8£pUJ8d ana rn oovllda ttu; X00j11xn~ £fovo[a~, edv 0 J£pia~ Sev an£1I£v8£pUJ-

'" '" " "

vorav atto rn yvvQJxa Komo£IKvu£1 11£ OOCPr1V£IO IO

OIOXO nou £nIOfu)K£ n l1Emppu81110l1 IOU.

,0 Ipnvopio; r1I?V Evae; nnvoupvoc KOl noi\u O~UOEPKne; noi\mKoe;, ni\npU)e; n£n£IOl1EVOe; vio IO OfKOlO Tu)V a~l~o£~V IOU. ~ne; £moIOi\i~ IOU npoc IOV Enioxono Xsppcv IOU M£Ie;, cvorrnioosi nc 10E£e; IOU 11£ ni\npn copnveio, ornpizopevoc ornv "noi\n IOU Oeoo" IOU AuyouOlfv?u. Aoxfzovrnc l1E tnv un08£On me; iopuone; me; EKKi\nOlo~ ano IOV 1010 to 0EO, oounspcfver on O£ Ka8E OIKn IOU onoeoon anoKai\um£IOl n Bourmon IOU 0£Ou KOl on ~ Ildnoc, U)e; tonotnpnrric IOU 0£Ou ern me; vnc, a~oI£i\£1 IOV £~cppaOTn me; 8EIKr1e; Boui\none;. ~uv£nu)e;, Ka~£ a~unaKon n~oe; curov cnorshsf ovonoxori npoc to 0£O. Ka8E KOOl1lKn £~ouofa O£V onoteasf napa Eva aouvcuo Onl1l0upynl1a IOU av8p~nou, onU)e; Ka8ioIatOl al1£- 0U)e; rpcvspo cno TO y£yovoe; on IO Kpdto; EX£I xntupvriOEI tnv 100Imo l1£IQ~U Iu)V av8pu)nU)v Ko8u)e; KOl cno IO on n iom n xorcvevri IOU urropsf va avaxS£f uovo ornv Kmvu)On Bfa KOl otnv aOIKfo. Ka8£ BaOli\la~, nou Ssv uno~aOO£IOl, dvso opov one OlatOYEe; me; EKKi\noiae;, £1- VOl svoc ooui\oe; IOU LlmBoi\ou KOl EVOe; £xSpoe; IOU XPIonuvropoii. To KaSnKov rnc EKKi\nofae; sfvoi va EVu)O£l mv avSpU)noIma OE l1fa l1Eyai\n xoivomm, KuB£pvu)l1Ev~ uovov ana IOUe; V0110ue; IOU 0£Ou, IOUe; onoxexchoul1EVOU~ OlOUe; avSpu)noue; Ola IOU oroucroc IOU Fldno.

o Ipnvopioc ayU)vl08nKE l1E oi\n tnv aomMa~ia IOU 10XUPOU IOU xopoxtnpo YlO tnv npovuctonoinon cutcov Iu)V oxoncov KOl KatacpEp£, av KOl 0 iOlo~ EnEoE, I£i\IKa, SUl1a rnc noi\mKne; IOU, va EYKOSIOPUO£I tnv nvspovlc me; EKKMoiae; KOl va mv l1£IatPElpEI, vic Olu)v£e;, OlOV 10XUPOI£PO nopdvovrc tnc EupU)nolKn~ ioropicc. OJ al1EOOl olaooxof IOU, Ol1U)e;, Sev xoteixov OUI£ IO KOi\Ovepionxo nsiouc IOU OUIE tnv xcpoxmpiouxri IOU oxai\lvU)m svepvnnxorntc KOl YI' aUTO onoxopnoov O£ noMa onusfo one; avnnopa8EO£Ie; IOUe; ue tnv KOOl1IKn £~ouala. Ai\i\a, 11£ IOV Ivvoxevno IOV r' (1198 - 1216), 10 nornxo oxrinrpo n£plr1i\SE am xspic EVOe; ov8pu)nou nou OEV eixe oni\~e; tn omUY£la Iu)V OlOXu)V KOl mv ai\UYIam Boui\non IOU Fpnvopiou, oi\i\a onspsfxe xctd noi\u U)e; npoc tn rpuotxri IOU ncovotnrc.

o Ivvoxsvnoc 0 I" npovunronoinoe IOV UlplOIO 010- XO me; EKKi\nofoe; KOl me; npoceoeooe 111a ouvol1n nou Ssv sixs nOIE rtpiv. Llmu8uvE IOU~ KoPOlvai\ioue; IOU us tn O£OnOnKr1 Bourmon £voe; oUIOKpaIOpa nou Ssv OiV£1 i\oyo OE KOVEVOV KOl OVtll1EIu)nIZ£ IOUe; KatOXOU~ m~ KOOl1IKI1e; E~ouolae; l1E 111a onspoipio, nou KovEvae; uno IOU~ npOKatOXOUe; IOU OEV dXE IOi\l1I10£1 va £nIO£f~El. Flpoc IOV Flcrpuipxn Kovotuvnvoortoheeoc EypalpE cord to unspormxd i\oym:

"0 e£o~ Sev tupnoe ota xeina rov Iletpo» 110VOV rnv xVPJQPxia ttavto ornv EXKlInaia, a1Il1a rov avi8£a£ sen rnv KVPJQPxia tuivco 0' olloKlInpo rov K00j10".

Ilpoc IOV an£OTai\l1EvO IOU rai\i\ou Bomi\la <Pli\innou AUYouOIOu £InE:

"Irov~ npivnnne; iX£J oo8d 110VOV £niY£JQ eiovoia,

132

133

EE>NIKI~MO~ KAI nOi\ITI~MO~

H EKKi\H~IA KAI TO KPATO~ KATA TO ME~AIQNA

eVCt5 0 lepia~ efOVO](iZel xat orov~ oopavoix; 0 npivxntto; exe: eioooia uovov ttavco ora ocsuata r(J)v »nnxoov rov, evCt5 0 lepia~ exe: efovoia xat nav» O[]~ lpvxi~ rzov avBpCt5n(J)v. LVVenCt5~, 0 Mnpo~ onepexe: KoBe KooJ.1lKn~ efovoia~, 6n(J)~ aKplBCt5~ onepexe: n lpvxn rov ocouato; evto; rov onoiov xcuomei".

o Ivvoxsvnoc KmopSu>oe va emBoi\i\EI rn Boui\nOll IOU OE oi\e~ nc KOOj.lIKE~ E~ouofE~ me Eup(J)nn~. 'Ox 1 j.lOVOV aVaj.lEIYvuOTOV 0' Oi\E~ n~ unoSEoEI~ Iu>V .6uvaOIEI(J)V, ai\i\o xnvovize cxopn KGI IOU~ vduooc IU>V KOOJ.lIK(J)V nveuovov KGI' otnv nepirmoon nou n yaj.lni\1Q Evu>on Ssv IOU toipioze, IOU~ E~avoYKazE va ncipvoov Smzuvio. Lm LIKei\la, om Nednohn KQI om Laponvfa rirov npcvpcnxoc povdpxnc n KaoTfi\n, n l\u(J)v, n NaBBopa, n nopIoyai\i\fa KQI n Apovovio rircv unoIEi\d~ IOU. Lm Boui\non IOU undxoucv n Ouyyapfa, n Boovfo, n LEpBfa, n Boui\yapla, n noi\u>vfa, n Bonufc KQI 01 LKavOlvaBIKE~ X(J)PE~. Ilopevebn om Olaj.loxn j.lETO~U IOU <Pli\fnnou me LaBo i a~ KQI IOU 'OSu>vo~ IOU .6' vic IO Isppovnco ouroxporopixo orspuc xm IO npoooeps OIOV 'OSu>va, j.lOVO KQI j.lOVO vic va IOU IO a<pQlPEOEI noi\1 opvotspo KQI va IO npootpepei orov <PPEIOEpfKO IOV B'. E~ alIla~ me OI£VE~n~ IOU j.lE IOv'Ayyi\O BaOli\lo Ioxivvn IOV AKInj.lOVa, EnE8ai\E OIO Baofi\Elo IOU anavopsoon "IEi\EOEU>~ IU>V leP(J)V puotnptov KQI me Sda~ i\ElIoupyfa~" KGI OXI j.lOVOV IOV uvdvxuos va unoraxSd ni\npu>~ 0' aUIOV, ai\i\o IOV onoxpscooe oxoun va anOOExSd on n xcopo IOU OEV EfVQI napa Eva nudpio nou IOU nopoxcopnos 0 ncina~ KQI va ni\np(J)vEI <popo onerei\da~ YI' curriv rnv Ilornxri j.leyai\oSuj.lla.

o IwoK£vno~ avni\aj.l8avorav IOV eouro IOU U>~ nona KQI U>~ Koiocpc oovxpovroc xcn SEU>POUOE on 01 xoopiKOl nvsuovec snperts va dVQI onorovuevoi ornv E~OU~ oio IOU. ME QUInV tnv EVVOIa, EypmVE npoc IO BaOli\1Q

me Ayyi\fa~:

II 0 Ge6~ exe: 8epeJUWOel ndvco otnv EKKlInoia / rn BoO/lIda «a: rov Kilnpo, etot Ct50re 0 KlInpo~ va eivcu BaO/lIIK6~ «a: IT Booiheia lepaflKn' avra cpaiv~ral feK~Bapa an6 tu; El11orolIi~ rov Iletpov ~al atto rov~ ;'0- uov; rov M(J)von. LVVenw~, 0 BaO/lI~v~ ~(J)v BaO/lIe(J)V i8eoe ivav tutepdvo» 6nwv, rov otiotov opioe (J)~ tono-

, , 'f

tnpntn rov ttavco otti yn .

ME rnv KaSIEpu>on me npo<popIKn~ E~oj.loi\oynon~ KQI mv opycivu>on IU>V EnaII(J)v povcxov, 0 IVVOKEVIIO~ ?nEKmOE pic rpouspn E~ouoia. Eni nMov, xpnOlj.lOnomoE apKEI£~ <POPE~ IO IOXUPOTOIO oni\o m~ a~ayoPEuon~,"I~~ i\EOEU>~ IU>V lEP(J)V puctnpicov KQI tnc SEIQ~ i\ElIoupYla~ , nou IO EnE8ai\E, us oKi\nporpoxni\n ano<paOloIlKOIma, OE oi\oKi\npE~ X(J)PE~, pe oxono va unoro~El ornv E~?Uoic IOU IOU~ KOOj.lIKOUe;; nYEj.lOVE~. 'EIOl, OE KOS; xropn nou 0 IVVOKEVIlO~ dXE EmBoi\EI com mv onovopeuon. Oi\E~ 01 EKKi\noiE~ ncpsuevcv Ki\ElarE~~ Ka~la xounovc OEV Kai\ouoE IOU~ morooc vic npooeuxn. OUIE 8amloEI~ vfvovtov OUIE vdpoi. OUIE IEi\ouvra~ IO j.lUOI~PIO m~ E~0j.l0i\Oyr10EU>~ OUIE otooc EIOIj.lOSa~mou~ Ylvor,av,Emxpion 010 IOU nvmousvoo Ei\afo~ OUIE, 01 ~EKPOI Sa80- VTOV OE nvinouevo xopc. .Mnopei KaVEIe;; CUKOi\a_ va qxiVTOOId nc rpouspsc OUVEnEIE~ conic me xotcotuonc ndve OIO nvsouo IU>V avSp(J)nu>v j.llae;; snoxnc, xnrd mv onoio n niotn SEu>pouvrav u>e;; xon IO onsptoro.

134

135 .

E8NIKIrMor KAI noxrrunor

H EKKt\HrIA KAI TO KPATOr KATA TO MErAIQNA

o Ivvoxsvnoc, onw~ aKpIBw~ 5ev aVeXOIOV xoufo e~Ouola va efVQI 1005uva}ln us tn 51Kn IOU, Etal KQI Ssv snstperte xcvsvo Sovuo, nou nape~EKi\IVe, EOTW KQI KOI' ei\axloIOv, ana IOU~ xcvovsc me EKKi\nola~, oxopn KQI sdv spnveorcv ni\npw~ ana IO nvsopo IOU ai\n8lvou Xpioncvrouou H Kai\UTepn poptopio, KQI l1ai\lOIO QI}latnpri, ouroo IOU YeyOVOIO~ efVQI n <poBepn orcopopopfo evovrfov TWV QlPenKWV me Nonce f afli\fa~, nou l1eTErpeips oe Epnl10 ufo ana n~ ruo av8npE~ nePIOXE~ tnc Eupwnn~. To <pli\o50~0 KUPlQPXIKO nVeU}la ouroo IOU TpO}lePOU av8pwnou 5EV 5foIOZE va xpnoiportorriosi onOl05nnOTE }lEOO, npOKEI}lEVOU va nspnppooprioei tnv onspiopiorn E~ouofa m~ EKKi\nola~. OOTOOO, 0 Ivvoxsvnoc 5EV rircv napa oKi\aBo~ }lla~ oueroxivntnc 15Ea~, nou xputooos IO nvsopo IOU <pui\aKIO}lEVO KQI onoucKPUO}lEVO ana Ka8E av8pwmvn EYVOlQ. H qJuxwon IOU ue rnv E~ouofa IOV EKavE uovnxixo KQI 5UOIUXIOIlEVO' IOU EYIVe 0 KaKo~ npooornxoc TOU Soiuovoc, onox OU}lBafvEI I1E IOU~ nepioootspouc ana EKefvOU~ nou xuvnyouv tnv E~ouofa. 'Eroi, xdnors eins vio IOV sooto IOU:

"L1Ev exco TOV EJJdj8EPO xpovo va aaxoJJouJ1QJ J1E ta EYKOaJ1IQ' J10JJI~ nov Bpiox» TO xpovo va avaodvco. Fltxivuau, npettet tooo noJJu va ZCr) ylQ rov~ ciJJJJov~, cxne exco anofEVCr)8t:f ana rov [810 J10v rov eavtd:

Anotensf uoonxri xorripc me E~ouofa~ va cnoflofvei poipcio OXI uovo vic IO 8U}lOIa tnc, aMa KQI vm IOU~ KOIOXOU~ tnc. H ani\n OKEqJn on KanOIO~ rtpensi va ZEI vic rnv eniIEU~n EVO~ oxonou, nou avmf8EIQI OE Ka8E UYIE~ av8pwmvo af08nl1a KQI nou aUTO~ Ka8EaUTO~ sfVQI oxorcvonroc, I1ETOIpEnEI Ba8}llafa IOV f510 IOV xri-

TOXO me E~ouofa~ OE pre VEKpn unxovri, a<pou npcorc aUIO~ sixe E~avaYKaOEI OE ufo unxcvixri oncxori am Boui\non IOU oi\ou~ OOOU~ sixcv nEpIEi\8el uno rnv KUpicpxio me E~ouofa~ IOU. YnapXEI am qnxm Ko8E E~OUofa~ xdn oav pic Tu<pi\n 5uva}ln, nou EKnnYOZEI ana n~ f51E~ me n~ qJEU5Ql08nOEI~ KQI nou npo05f5£1 cvovxoOIIKa pfn oustoxivnm poptpri OE Ko8£ n us TO onoio iPXETQI OE ena<pn. KQI Oi\E~ aUTi~ Ol aooi\EUTE~ }lop<pi~ oovexizoov va zouv l1ioa otnv nopcooon cxopn KQI I1ETO TO 80VOIO me TEi\EUwfa~ IK}lo5a~ tnc zwn~ TOU~ KQI nnotshouv ivav £<pIMm vic IO nveouo EKEIVWV nou onoxeivrm ornv srnppon IOU~.

AUTn mv ai\n8Ela unoxpEw8nKav va tnv KOIai\oBouv, }lioa ana mv f5lQ IOU~ mv rteipo, IO fEPllaVIKO KQI xorornv IO Li\aBIKo <pui\a, nou eixcv nopopsivei vic I1Eyoi\o XPOVIKO 51ooml1a anpooBi\ma ana tnv 0i\£8pla srnppori IOU PWl1a'iKou Korcopiopoo. Axoun KQI I1£TO mv PWI1a'iKn «mixmon TWV f£Pl1aVIKWv e5a<pwv ana TOV Pnvo I1EXPI IOv'Ei\Ba, n srnppon TWV Pouokov nepropiofiruce £vTEi\~ one 5unKe~ nepioxsc. 0 a<pli\o~Evo~ xopnxtripoc me nepioxric, n onofa rirov YE}lOm ana tspdono 500n xcn ana ii\n, 5EV IOU~ Bon8noE note va ow8£ponOlnoouv mv KUPlQPxfa TOU~. 'Omv, E~ alIfa~ me ooppoxioc TWV fEPpavIKwv <pui\wv, 0 Pwpa'iKo~ OIpOIO~ OUvETpfBn oi\oKi\npomxd ow T£UIOVIKO i100n xcn IO pEyai\uTEpo }lepo~ nov <pPOUPIWV TWV ~evwv KOIaKTmwv KOIEOTpo<pn, n Pwpa'iKn KUPlQPxfa omv Isppovic 5lQM8nKE. Axoun KQl 01 TPEI~ EKOIpOIefE~, Ol snovopozouevec fEp}laVIKe~, nou E~anoi\u8nKav svovriov TWV ovonoroxtrov f£ppavIKwv <pui\wv, Sev pnopsoov va ai\i\a~ouv tnv xordoroon.

136

137

E8NIKIL.MOL KAI nOi\ITILMOL

H EKKt\HL.IA KAI TO KPATOL KATA TO MEL.AIQNA

'OJl(J)<;, ueoco me P(J)JlO"iKlk srnpporic, OnJlloupyn8nK£ usoo OTOU<; 1010U<; TOU<; Isppcvouc evo<; nol\u cnIKlvOUVO~ £x8po<;, OTOV onoiov OUVTOJlO unexinpov, iSmirspc OJ nyeT£<; TOU~. To f£PJlOVIKO CPUI\O, nou, vio Jl£yol\o XPOVIKO OIOOmJlO, £KTclVOVTOV uno TO 60uvoBn Jlexpi rnv BOI\TlKn KOI uno TOV Privo Jlexpi TOV 'EI\Bo, xopcKtnPIZOVTOV cno mv unop~n JlIO~ nol\u onpcvnxric eve~opmolot;;. To nepiooorspo cpul\O rirov non JlOVIJl(J)t;; £yKOtsornpsvo, OTOV np80v os snceri us TOUt;; Pcopoiooc}.lOVO TO OVOTol\lKO TJln}.lO me xffipo<; BPIOKOTOV oxoun O£ nJllvOJlOOIKn KOTooTOon. Ano TO P(J)JlO"iKO XPOVIKO KQl cno Ol\l\£t;; petovevecrspec nnyet;; sivcr qxivepo OTI n xoivcovncri opvdvroon T(J)V Iappovrov rircv OKOJln nOl\u nporovovn. 01 OIOCPOP£<; cpul\£<; onoresoovrcv uno OIKOyevel£t;;, nou ouvoeovTOv JlETO~U TOU~ JlE O£OJlou~ OIJlOTO<;' ouvn8(J)~, £KOTO TeTOIE~ oIKoyev£le~ zooccv OE 010- oxopmousvooc OIKIOJlOU~ usoc OTO 1010 KOJlJlOn vnc- E~ ou KOl 0 xopcxmpiouoc "eKOTovToOO". Ava oeKo !lexpi elKOOI TerolEt;; "EKOTOVTOOE<;;" onotehouonv JlIO cpul\n, me onoioc n nspioxri xnpoxmprzorov (J)t;; xounreio (Gau). Ano tnv eV(J)on T(J)V ouvvsvucov CPUI\WV SrunoopvooVTOV evot;; 1\00t;;. 01 EKOTOVTOO£~ Olev£l!lov rn vn Jl£TO~U roue, YI' aUTO K0810I0VTO OVOYKOlet;; OJ nepiOOIKe<; OVOOIOVOJle~ me, AUTO TO y£yovo~ !lOt;; OEIXVEI on, vic Jl£yOI\O XPOVIKO OIOOmJlO, Ssv onripxs OVOJlEOO TOU~ n OToJlIKn xctoxri me vnc KOl OTI n OTOJlIKn 1010Kmofo nepiopizotov OTO onl\O, OTO £pyOl\elO nou KOTOOKeuOZOVTOV OTO orrin KOl O£ 01\1\0 OVTlKe1Jl£VO K08nJlEpIVnt;; xpnosox. H KOl\l\lepYElO TOU £OOCPOUt;; YIVOTOV KUPI(J)t;; uno YUVOIK£~ KOl OOUl\out;;. 'Eva Jlepot;; T(J)V ovopwv ou-

xvd nrivoivs oe nOI\EJlIKet;; KQl I\nOTpIKet;; £mopoJlet;;, Evffi eva 01\1\0 nopspsve, EK nspnponnc, OTO Eoocpn T(J)V £KOTOVTOO(J)V KOl coxohouvtov ue TIt;; un08eOElt;; me onovoJln~ tnc OIKOloouvn~ KOl me Sictripnonc me KaI\n~ ouJlnEplcpopOt;;.

'Ol\£t;; 01 OnJlOVTIKet;; un08eo£l~ oozntoovrcv one fEVIKe~ LUVEI\£uoEI~ TOU I\oou KOl EK£l 1\0JlBOVOVTOV 01 onoqxiosic. L' OUTe~ TI<;; OUVEI\£UO£I~ OUJlJleTelXOV 01\01 OJ £1\£U8£POI OVop£~, 01 lKOVOI va cpepouv onl\o. LuvepXOVTOV, ouvn8(J)t;;, KOTO mv novoel\nvo KOI unnp~ov, YI0 eva Jl£yOI\O XPOVIKO OIOOtnJlO, 0 OVWTQTO~ 8£OJlO~ TOU fEPJlOVIKOIJ I\oou. 61eu8£TOuvTOV Ol\£t;; 01 OlOcpope~ KQl E~EI\£YETO 0 un£u8uvo~ YIO tn OlOXe1pIOn T(J)V KOJVWV K08w~ KOl 0 cpxnvoc TOU arpOTOU KOTO tn OIOPKEIO TOU nol\eJlOu. L' OUIE~ TIt;; EKl\oye~, 0 npOO(J)mKO~ xcpcxrripoe KOl n OTOJlIKn spnsipio nTOV, 0PXIKO, 01 K080PIOTlxof nopOYOVTEt;;. Apvotepc, OJl(J)~, 10lOltEPO OTOV 01 OXEOEI~ JlE TOU~ P(J)JlOIOU~ eYlvov OUXVOTEPEt;; KOl OTEVOIEpsc, 01 OnOKOI\OUJlEVOJ "npoxprtoi" n Furstern ("npIYKnnsc") £~El\£yovTO OXEOOV onOKI\EIOTlKO cno TO JlEl\n I(J)V ernqxivcov OIKOY£VEIWV, 01 onOIE~, JlE TO OIIlOI\OYIKO me npOYJlOI1Kn~ ri tnc qxivtoonxric npootpopdc TOU~ npoc tnv KOJVOlmo, EI\OJlBovov W:yOI\UT£PO JlEPIOIO cno TO 1\0CPUpo, TIt;; £Iocpopet;; KOl TO Owpo, JlE onorsosopo va ortoxrriooov EVOV nl\ouTO nou TOU~ snstpsne va SicmpOUV JlIO OUVOOelO EJln£lp(J)V nOI\£JlIOIWV KOI va cnoxtriooov, EVI£I\W~ CPUOIOI\OYIKO, OUYK£KPI!lEVO npovoJlIO. '000 OUXVOTE:PO OJ f£PJlOVOl epxovTOV OE srtmpn JlE TOUt;; P(J)JlOIOut;; TOOO nEpIOOOT£PO uneKEIVTO ornv ~Evn smppori, xdn nou nTOV OXeOOV cvnnorpeuxto, cno tn

138

139

EeNIKI~MO~ KAI nOi\ITI~MO~

H EKKt\H~IA KAI TO KPATO~ KATA TO ME~AIQNA

onvpri nco n Pcullo"iKn KOUflTOUPO KOI tsxvixri rircv, ana Oi\E~ I1~ OnOlpEI~, ovonepn ana rn Isppovnoi. Axoun KOI npiv rnv xoroxrnon me fEPllavia~ ana IOU~ Pcopofooc, OE KanOJE~ q>ui\£~, nou eixov OPXfOEI va usroxivouvrm, rropoxcoprifhuccv ana roo; Pospofouc oUYKEKplllevE~ rrsPIOXE~ KOI Oq>Eli\OV, cu~ ovrMi\aYlla, va onnpstoov oro Pcopoixo otpcto. Lrnv npcvpcnxomro, 01 Ispuovof otpcnwrE~ ElXOV non olOopallarioEI Eva onuovnxo poi\o otnv xcrdxtnon rn~ foi\arfo~ cno IOU~ Peuofooc. 0 Ioui\lo~ Kcioopoc otpctoaovnos noMou~ Ispucvoo; orpouerE~ one q>ai\i\OYYE~ IOU KOI 0 IOIO~ nepioroixizorcv ndvtore ana uic Eq>mnn OCUPOIOq>ui\oKn retpcxooicov Tsurovev noi\Elllaroov.

noi\i\of orrovovoi tcov fEPPOVOOV EKElVCUV nou ElXOV unnpetrioei IOU~ Pcouciooc EnEOrpElpOV cpvorspc oro Eooq>n IOU~ KOI xpnoiuonoinoov ra i\6q>upo nou sixov KEPOIOEI Ko800~ KOI rnv nsfpc nou eixcv cnoxtriosi cno rooc Pcopofouc YIO va EVra~OUV IOU~ oupnorpiorE~ IOU~ ornv onnpsofc IOU~. 'Etoi, Eva~ ana ourou~, o Mopunovr, Karaq>EPE llE IOV KOlpO va ensxrefvei rnv xupiopxic IOU nrivco 0' EVa llEyai\o opI8po IspuoVIKOOV q>ui\wv KOI va unoro~El oi\n rn xospo llEra~u IOU 'Ovtep KOI IOU 'Ei\Ba, ana rn Bonpic ll£XPI rn Bcnmcri. AKolln KOI 0 Xsppov, "0 AnEi\Eu8Epcurn~", ortordxflnxe ornv srnppon rn~ Pcullo'iKn~ Boui\non~ YIO E~ouofa, tnv onoio npoonciunos, PETO rnv Emotporpn IOU ora fEPllOVIK6 E56q>n, va EmB6i\EI oro i\oo IOU. 0 XEPlloV KOI 0 Moppnovr OEV Eznoov udtore om Poun, onoo 0106xenKov to noaa tspriono Ei\~n OOKEI n E~ouofo one <Pli\ooo~iE~ trov ov8pwncuv.

01 <Pli\ooo~fE~ roo XEPl10V YIO noiunxri E~ouofa, nou yfvovrav oi\o KOI mo EI1q>avEk I1E10 mv xctuorpoori IOU PCUPOiKOU otporoii KOI rnv anEi\Eu8Epcuon me rEppovla~ ana rn Pcullai'Kn xopropxio, spqiovfzovrcn ue Evav Koncu~ IOIOPOpq>O rpono, 'EYIVE OUVIOllo ~EKa8opo OXlPOVOV on o EUYEvn~ tnc <pui\n~ nov Cherusci sixs Oloox8El om PW}ln tnv tsxvn tnc ovonepnc noi\E}lIKn~, oi\i\6 KOI on n noi\lIlKn E~oumoonKn rsxvtxri teov Peuokov Koiocpcov sixs OOOOEI OtI~ q>1i\ooo~IE~ tou }lIO ioxopri w8non, nou OUVIO}lO E~Ei\lx8nKov OE }lIO ernxivoovn Boui\non vic E~ouoio. napOKIVn}lEVO~ ana ra E~oumonK6 IOU OXEOIO. npoondbnos llE oi\o ra llEOO va ustcrpeipet OE povum tnv opoonovoic teov Cherusci, teov Chatti, teov Marsi, rcov Brukteri KOI 6i\i\oov YEPllOVIKOOV <pui\oov, psrd rn vixn IOU~ WI teov Pcopoiov KOI tnv xoroorpopri lOOV PcopulKOOV i\EYEWVCUV aIO TWIOVIKO .6aon. Meta rnv rEi\IKo unoxopnon lCUV Popckov, cwtopc ovo}lEix8nKE OE EVOV otuompo noi\E110 l1E IOV Mcpunovr, nou 110VOOIKO IOU oxono sixe tnv KUPlOpxio OE oi\n rn Ispuovio. "Orcv 0 oroxoc roo Xipl10V vc OVOYOPEUOEI IOV scuro IOU ana EKi\EY}l£VO nvsm lCUV Cherusci OE Bomi\la tnc <pui\n~ too KOI ai\i\cuv q>ui\wv £YIVE OPKEla oaq>n~, ooi\o<povn- 8nKE unoui\o ana roue OIKOU~ IOU OUYYEVEl~.

'O}lCU~, OJ Ieppnvoi OEV ntcv Ko80i\ou EVOOll£vOI orov oyOOVO roue EVOVIIOV lCUV Popofcov. Ynnpxov OVaPEOO IOU~ OJKoyivEIE~ EUYEVWV nou onootnpizov OVOIXIO IOU~ Popciooc. noMoi ana auIOu~ IOU~ WYEVEl~ ElXOV roxei P6.)PO"iKWV nllwv KOI OIOKpioE6.)V, ElXOV onooEx8El rnv 1010rnra IOU Peuofoo noi\im KOI nopEpEIVOV aro8Epo rnotoi am Pcopn, oxoun KOI ustd rn i\EyollEvn Herrna-

140

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H EKKf\HLIA KAI TO KPATOr KATA TO MErAIQNA

nnsschlacht Cllo.xn IOU XEPlloV"). M£TO~U OUTOOV rirov KOI 0 1010e; 0 oO£l\cpoe; IOU Xspucv, 0 <Pl\o.BIOe;, KOSOOe; KOI 0 nES£pOe; IOU, 0 L£YEonOe;, nou sixs nopoooooel OIOUe; P(i.)llOIOUe; tnv 1010 IOU tnv xopn, rn ouzovo IOU X£PllOV, tnv 80uov£l\vw. AUIOI eixcv npoeioonorriosi IOV Bdpooc, IOV Propcio ovnBoOll\lo., YIO tnv oovouoala nou e~ucp01voTOV evovtiov IOU, 01\1\0. n ellnIOIOOUVn IOU npoc IOV XEPllOV, nou Xo.PIV me ocpoOloooeooe; IOU efxs vfvei Popcfoc Inrtomc, ritcv TOOO ll£YMn oooTe oipriqmoe ol\ee; ne; npo£100n0I110£1e; KOI En£o£ us KI\£IOTo. llano omv nOYloo nou IOU sixe 0I110£1 0 Xspunv. X(i.)pf~ ourn rnv enIOE~1O KOI unoxpmxn oSEmon nforecoc £K llEpOUe; IOU Xspunv, n Spul\lKn "Mdxn me; Anel\euSEpooone;" OTO TWIOVIKo. 60.0n Ssv So efxs nors oUllBef.

01 replloVIKEe; cpUI\Ee;, nou oouusrefxcv 0' curriv mv oovcopoofo vio va onel\wSepooSouv uno rn pionrri Pcopcixri KUPIOPXIO, usrd OUOKOI\fO~ unopoov vo snmsnxSouv YI' ourriv TOU~ rnv evEpY£lo.'OllOO~, YIO IOV XEP- 1l0V npOOOOnIKOOe;, OUTn n eUI£l\ne; oSEmon nlOIe(i.)e; £VEX£I EVO Srrro vonpo, Sion n xoroorpopri IOU P(i.)lloi"KOU OI~OIOU cnotshoiios YI' OUTOV 1l0VOV EVO 11£00 YIO mv ertsxroon T(i.)V nOl\lTIKOOv IOU ox£ofoov, TO onoio Ellel\/\£ vo KQIol\n~ouv otnv £nIBol\n evoe; VEOU zovoo ndve OIOUe; onel\wS£p(J.)llEVOue; I\ooue;.

Eivcn evvevi~ VVOOPIOllO ol\OOV T(J.)V CPII\OOO~IOOV VIa nohmxri e~ouofo TO V£yovo~ on sxefvot nou epnveovrm on' OUIEe; Ssv OIOIo.ZOUV va xpnouionomooov onoioorinote llEOO IOUe; onooxstor erntuxio, cxopn KOI OV oorri npsrre: va cnoxrnflsf 11£ npoooofn, 11£ qJillllQIO, 11£ novoopvfsc KOI 11£ unOKpIIIKEe; pOOIoupvle~. H opxri on 0

oxonoc OYlo.ZEI TO 11£00 unnp~E novtots IO npoiro o.pSpo niorsox ol\OOV T(J.)V nOl\lIIKcilv e~ouOIcilv. &v Xp£lo.ZOVTOV 01 Inooofrsc vic va IO srnvorioouv, Ko.S£ e~ouolol\o.vvoe; KOIoKTmne;, KaSe noI\IIIKO~, sits £IVOI Lnlllme; sits rep- 11 ovoc , sfre sivcn Pcopcfoc eire MoYVol\oe;, tnv npoounovpacpel, Sron n nOTOnomTO T(i.)V lleSoo(J.)V aivci TOOO OTEvd ouvO£o£llEvn 11£ TO qxnvousvo me; £~OUOIOe; 000 siVOl n orupn us TO So.VOIO.

Apvorspo, OTOV 01 OUWOI £loEBai\ov omv Eopcorm, npoKai\cilvTOe; e~ovoYKoonKEe; ll£TOVOOT£UOEIC; TOOV I\ooov nou OUVOVIOUOOV OTO olo.Bo IOUe;, oxopn KOI 01 nUKvEe; OpOE~ TOOV r £PllOVIKOOV cpul\OOv ll£TOKlvnSnKov npoc TO vonc KOI npoc TO vonooorucd me; Hneipoo, £PXOll£VOl O£ ouxvri snoon 11£ TOUe; POOllofoue; KOI KOIQIOOOOll£VOI 1l0ZIKO one; POOlloi"Kie; l\eVEoovEC;. To Pouolxd OIPQIEU- 1l0W oloBpooSnKov E~ ol\oKl\npou ana TOUe; r£PllOVOU~ orponortec, ETOI OOOI£, TEI\IKa, rircv ovcnopeoxro EVOe; e~ OUTOOV, 0 Isppovoc opxnvoc OOOOKpoe;, va £K0100~£I, IO 476, IOV T£I\WTOIO P(i.)llOIO OUIOKpo.TOPO ana IO Sp6- VO K01 vo ovoxnpoxbai 0 101Oe; OUIOKpo.IOpOe; ana IOUe; OIponooTee; IOU. AMo. KOI OUTO~, usrd ana XPOVIO 01110- tnpov OUYKPOUO£(i.)V, vIKnSnK£ ono IOV 8EOOOOPIXO, IOV Bnotiud TOOV OOIPOVOTS(i.)V, nou TOV ool\ocpovno£ ue W 1610 IOU TO XEPI0 OTOV snionpo £OPIQOllo £V 0\1>£1 m~ ouvocpSdone; ll£TO~U IOUe; LuvSnKne; Eiprivnc.

'01\0 TO KPOIlKO oxnporc nou onlllouPynSnKov £KE}vn mv nepfooo pe tn ouvOlln IOU ~ICPOUC; -IQ BOOIl\EI0 TOOV BOVOM(i.)V, T(J.)V OmpOYOTS(i.)V, T(J.)V BnOlYOTSooV, T(i.)V J\OllBopooov, TOOV OUWOOV- OlOnOIloSnKOV orro mv 10EO IOU K0100PI0ll0U KQ1 01 Snuioopvoi IOUe; S£oopOUOOV TOUe;

142

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H EKKAHrIA KAI TO KPATor KATA TO MErAIQNA

eaurou~ roue Ki\npovo110U~ me PW11n~. AlIi\o., OlOV avwva VlG tn Poun KQ) n~ PU)l1a'iKe~ Ktnoel~ 01 nai\lol 8eopof KQ) to nai\1o. e8111a reov Isppcvucov <pui\oov nspiensoov oe cxpnorio, xU)pf~ va oIQopapatlzouv xcvsvo onuovnxo poi\o peoa one KQ)voupVle~ ouv8nKe~. EfvQI ai\n8ela on opiouevec 11e11ovU)peve~ <pui\e~ pete<pepav to nai\1o. e81po. tooc 11eoa oro PU)pa'iKO KOapO, ai\i\o. auto. e~a08evloav KQ) e~a<pavi08nKav usoo oro veo nepI8o.i\i\ov rooc, Sion eYKatei\wpav ro KOIVU)VIKO eo a<po~ sxsfvo 11eoa oro onofo 8a unopouoov va av8foouv.

Aotri n pem80i\n npovporonomdnxe toxororo, e<p' OOOV cpxsro non xpovo rrpiv Il~ 11eyo.i\e~ petavaoteuoel~ elxav ouvIei\e08d optouevsc 8epei\lwoel~ ai\i\aye~ ornv koivcovixn zcori tU)V Ieppovnceiv qmi\oov. 0 Toxnoc ava<pepetQ) oe evo» veo tpono Srovounc tnc vnc oupqxovc pe tnv unspoxri 01o.<pOPu)V otxovevsicov, pia npcxnxn tnv onofc 0 Kofoopoc Ssv ava<pepel Ka8oi\ou. Kord IOV 1010 tpono, n Sroxeipron tU)V Snpooicov un08eoeU)v nopotxndzsi pia eIQ<popeIIKn sixovc. H srnppori tU)V anoKai\oupevU)v "eovsvcov" KQ) Iu)V oIpanu)I1KOOV cpxnvov sfxs ncvtou au~n8d. 'Oi\a to ortooocic KOIVU)VIKo. zntriperc ouzntoovtov Kat' apxo.~ os ~eXCl)pIOIe~ ouveopidoel~ ICI)V £uyev6:JV KQ) xntomv un086.i\i\ovtaV OI1~ Luvei\euoel~ IOU I\aou ("Folk- Things), one onofsc, Cl)OlOOO, nopeustvs IO OIKalCl)pa i\n\t'eU)~ IU)V Iei\IK6:JV cnoqxioecov. '01lU)~, 01 onaeol, nou oovxevrpcovcv Vu~ IOU~ 01 £Uvevef~ KQ) nou ouxvd zooocv pazu IOU~ KGl eIpU)yav am tponszro IOUC;, ritcv <pUOlKO va au~o.vouv tnv sruppori Iu)V £uyevwv peoa OI1~ i\a'iKec; ouvei\euoel~. 0 IPOnoc 11e tov onoio i\eltoupynoe outri n 11e8oo£uon Ka8i-

OIatQ) oa<pn~ ana to aKoi\ou8a i\oVIQ IOU T dxnoo:

"'OnoJO~ am uaxn Sev aKollov8d pixPI 8avorov rov Kupl6 rov, eiotuxutet rnv la6BlQ OVO].1ivEla KQJ xatcuaxuvn. Eivat oneotato Ka8nKov rov nOflEplarn va onepaonizei rov KVPIO rov, va rov npootatevei xat aKopn va anoofoEI a' avrov ra OIKO rov npcoini: Karop8~para. o npfVKnna~ nOflEpo VIQ rn vixn: 01 vnotehek; ttohepouv VIa rov KVPIO tooc".

H ouvsxric snccri ps IO Propofxo KOOpO ritov <pUOIKO va srnopdoer ndve OIl~ KOIvU)vIKec; pOP<PE~ ICl)V IsppovrKWV i\a6:Jv. 'E WI, a<punvi08nKe, 10IQlrepa pem~u ICI)V eoY£vwv, 0 no80e; Yla e~ouofa,. nou 8a8111ala oonvnoe oe pic ovnouvxpomon nov OPCl)V me; KOIVCl)VIKn~ zoric, Apvorspo, OWV ei\a8e xopo n peyo.i\n uercvdctsoon, Eva onunvnxo tunpo tau Isppnvixou i\aou rirov non Sicnonouevo ana I1~ PCI)pa'iKee; loee~ KQI 8wpoue;. Ta vso xponxd oxriporo, non nponi\8av cno n~ l1eyo.i\ec; pcrovooteuoel~ ICl)V <PUi\6:JV KQI tcov i\acbv emrdxovcv ovcvxocnxd rnv eotorsprxn anoouv8eon reov nai\loov 8£O}loov.

LE oi\n tnv Eoporrn, Srunoopvridnxcv veE~ xupiopxle~, 11eaa ora ni\aiOla ICI)V onoiev 01 vIKme~ oxnprinoav ufo npovouiouxc Io.~n, nou we8ai\E m 8ei\non m~ ndveo OIOV epvozopsvo ni\n8uopo KQI ZOUOE nopcomxd £le; 8GPo~ roo. 01 e1080i\el~, 11EtG m VIKn IOU~, OleVElpav !lem~u IOu~ pEy6.i\E~ EKto.0EI~ tov xctcxmuevcov nspioxoiv KQ) en.s8ai\av <popoue; OIOUe; xorofxooc KQ) nrcv ovonooeoxro, peoa a' outri m OIQoIKaofa, 01 OlPGI)CJ)Ilxoi opxnvoi va eovooov IOU~ aKoi\ou80u~ IOU~' Ano tn oIlV11n nou 0 oxsnxd 11IKPO~ apl8poe;: tcov KGIaKtmwV Ssv IOU~ ensrpsrte va zouv 11azu OE !levo.i\ee;: oixovs-

144

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H EKK!\HnA KAI TO KPATOL KATA TO MELAIQNA

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snpene va npootpepouv TIe;; unnpsoiec TOUt; xord TOV nOI\£Jlo. Ii' uutri TOUe;; tnv npootpopd aVTOJlelBoVTOV JlE nl\ouOIa <p£ouoa ana TO Eooq:>n nou cvnxnv croix nrmJltvOUt; I\aout;.

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146

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sxsi 0 nojunopoc avSlz£1 KOla TOV KaAUTepo tpono.

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H E20yrIA ENANTION TOY nOI\ITIrMOY

otnv IOIOpfa. lllaKOO}lEltOl us \lJeuoEf~ IfrAOU~ nj.ln~ vro va npOOOeDOEI ornv ovucovomrd me uio eniqxion onj.lIOUpYIKoIma~. KOI £OeD srtionc, IG AOYla IOU Nitoe orov Znporoootpo efvci eooroxororo.

"Onovonnou: evcu; nao~ EfaKonov8d va otuipxe), OEV &fXVEI xatavonon VIa ro Kpdtoc, aMo ro plod oav ro POrI rov OJQB6nov «cu oav iva iYKnnpa evavtiov rcov vouiov xa: rU)v E8fpU)v. La~ cpipvU) avro ro pnvvpa: Ko8E nao~ iXEI rn OIKrJ rov ynwaaa rov Kanov «at rov KaKOU, nov 01 YEIrOVIKOf Xao! OEV rnv Karai\aBafvovv. Ko8E nao~ Efl1VOnaE rn oIKn rov ynwaaa VIa rov~ VOJ.lOV~ xcu Yla ra i81J.la. Ai\no ro Kpdto; IpEv&ral 0' onE~ rI~ ynCl5oae; rov Kanou KQJ rov KaKOU' xcu !pEu&ral, orIOnnOrE sat av nie!. KQJ orIOnnOrE xatexs; ro iXEI KnEppivo. Ta tuivta yupU) ano ro Kpdto; dVQJ !pEvon. LlaYKwvEI nvooaoueva J.lE IpEUrIKa OOVrIa. AKOJ.ln xa: ro 8oppo~ rov dVQJ IpEUrIKO'.

H E~ouofa novrote EVEPYEI xorootpoqnxd, Sion 01 KOIOxof tnc npoortofloov OUVEXeD~ va nEplO<pfy~ouv OAa IG qxnvopsvo tnc KOIVUlvIKn~ zU)n~ j.lEoa OIOV xopoe IUlV VOj.lUlV m~ KOI va tnc npOOOeDOOUV Eva opionxo oxripn. To VEKPO Sovpc e1VOI n nvsouonxri EK<ppaon m~ E~ouofa~ KOI n KmVeDOn~ Bfa n <puOIKn EKonAUlon IOU civcn tnc. AUIn n eMEI\lJn eu<pufa~ one EmOleD~EI~ me E~ouola~ a<pnvEI Eva avoAoyo onj.lool nrivco OIG npooconc IUlV £KnpOOeDnUlV tnc, KaSIOIeDVIG~ IOU~, BaSuioio, rtvsopcnxd KmeDIEpOU~ KOI KmVeDOEI~, cxopn KOI EOV cpxixd ritcv nponaouevoi ue E~alpEIG xopiouoro, TInoIE OEV anOBAaKeDVEI IO nveouo KOI tnv ipuxri IOU

avSpeDnOU 000 n meAEIUlm povorovic m~ pootivcc- KOI n E~ouofa elVOI xor' ouofav pootivc,

Ano IOIE nou 0 Xopnc Snuooiecos tnv epvcofo IOU 'Tlspi IOU nOAfIOU", 01 10eE~ IOU OEV exouv anUlAEoEI note tn Snuonxornrd IOU~. LE j.lfa olOopoj.ln IPleDV OIeDVUlV OEV otcpdmouv, ps tn pfc n ue mv MAn uoppri, va KIVOUV ro EVOIO<pEPOV KOI onuepo, nspioootepo ono note, va efvm KupfapxE~ j.lEOa om oxeipn IUlV avSpu). nov. '000 KOI av 0 uAloIn~ Xounc OEV oInpl~£ n~ 10eE~ IOU neve OIG Sovporc m~ EKKAnofa~, auto OEV rov Ej.lnOOIOE va onceionomuef tn poipofc pnon: "0 OVSpUlnoc EIVOI SEj.lEAIUlOeD~ KaKo~". 'OAO~ 0 q»AOOO<PIKO~ IOU oroxcouoc BaofzEIOI nriveo 0' curriv tnv npoiinofieon, Iic IOV Xounc. 0 ovSpUlno~ rirov anAeD~ Eva YEWnj.leVO xtrivoc, nou KmeuSuVOIGV ana evcoionxd EVOnKIG, XUlPI~ xoufo svvoic vic IOU~ ouvavSpeDnou~ IOU. Movov IO KpOIO~ ESEOE Eva IEAO~ 0' oumv m ouvSnKn IOU "noM..: pou OAUlV evovnov OAUlV" KOI anOIEA£OE pfo enivsm Ilpovoio, m~ onofcc n Stctdoooooc KOI nuopooou XEIP Ej.lnOOIZE IOV ovSpUlno ana mv anEAmoa KmaBuSlon IOU usoc oro BOUPKO me KmvUlola~. 'EIOI, oupqxovc j.l8 tov Xopnc, to Kpdroc unnp~E 0 rtpcvpcnxoc Snpioopyo~ IOU nonmouou, E~avaYKoZOVIG~ us m OIonpo IOU xsipc IOV ovSpwno va aVU\lJUlSef OE Eva ovorrepo snins- 00 unop~EUl~, aOla<popU)vIG~ vic IO nooo curo Sa unoPOUOE va aVIIKEIIOI omv 1010 tn <puon IOU avSpu)nou. Ano IOIE, coroc 0 j.luSO~ IOU noiunonxoe Onj.lIOupYIKOU POAOU IOU KpOIOU~ eXEI enavaAn<pSef oxoronoootc KOI eXEI onSEv enaAnSeuIef ana xorvoopvtu vsvovorc.

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E8NIKILMOL KAI nOI\ITILMOL

H E::::OYLIA ENANTION TOY nOI\ITILMOY

KQl OllUl~, aUTl1 n a8EllEftfUlm 18£a cvnqxioxei npoc oftn tnv IOTopIKn eurtstpio. Lmv npovponxomro. eivoi IO f810 IO KpOIO~ nou £XEI EnlllEftciJ<; 8lQmpnOEI usoc OIO nepcouo IUlV QlciJVUlV KQl £XEI £~unva KaftftlEPynoEI tn KmOftOma me KmvUl8fa~, KftnpOVOlllO IOU av8pciJnou ana IOU<; upxniouc npovovooc IOU. 0 naYKOOllIO<; noftEllo<; llE n<; E18Ex8ei<; llE8080u<; IUlV llazlKciJv av8pUlnoKIOvlciJV, 01 onpspivsc ouv8nKE<; ornv haMa IOU Moueooftfvl KQl OIO TpfIO POIX IOU XlrftEP 8a £npEnE va nsfooov oxoun KQl IOU<; mo IU<pftOU<; vio IO n npcvuonxd eivoi IO ortoxonoopevo "noiunouevo KPOIO<;".

Ko8E cvonepn nvsuponxri ouftftmpn, Ko8E vee qxion me nVEU11OIIKr1<; ovdrmxnc, Ko8E OK£\pn 11lQ<; OUYKExpipevnc EnOXr1<;, nou ovoI~av vsooc OpfZOVIE<; one nOftlIlOnK£<; Spcornpiomrsc IUlV av8pwnUlv, KOIO<pEpav va smxpotrioouv psoc ono 08Evapou<; aywvE<; 11£ rnv £~ouofa me EKKftnofa<; KQl IOU KpOIOU<; KQl a<pou 01 onoornpixrsc IOU<; eixcv vic oi\oKftnpe<; snoxsc unoorsi. ftOYUl IUlV nEn0l8noewv IOU<;, rspocnec 8uofE~ ornv neproooio TOU<;, rnv efteu8epfa KQl m zcori IOU<;. 'Orov n EKKi\nofa KQl IO KpOIO~ ovovvcoprznv, IEi\IKO, I£IOIOU ef80u<; cvoveoosic me nveoucnxric zcoric, aUTO vivorov novtors EnEI8n rirov nMov aKOIa110XnTE<; KQl 01 KOIOXOI me E~ouofa<; 8EV pnopoooov me va n<; cnoqnivoov. Ai\ftO cxopn KQ) outri n ovnvvopion, n KOIaKm11£vn 1l0VO llEIO cno Bfam cvtiorocn. oonvnoe, one nEplOoOIEPE<; rtepmtoxreic, oe pic oxsfaoopevn Sovuuronoinon IUlV V£UlV 18ewv, 01 ortoisc. KOIUl orro mv nVEU11OIOKTOVo xnoepovio tnc E~ouofa<;, Ba811lafa

anWftEOaV nftnpUl<; tnv ZUlVTOVlQ IOU<;, oncoc ouv£Bn KQI 11E OftE<; n<; nponvoopevsc ononsrpsc va 8nllIOUPyn80uv V£E~ nVEU11anK£<; npOOnIIK£<;.

To f610 IO YEYOVO<; on K08E ouornpc KUPlQPxfa<; 8EllEftlWVEIQI nrivo am Boui\non 11lQ<; rtpovopiouxnc llEIOtIJncpla<;, nou £XEI unOIo~EI IO ftao ps tnv novoopvio n llE tnv KmvciJ8n Bfa, evw Ko8E 18lQlrepn qxion IOU noiunopou eK<ppozEI ani\w<; tnv cvovopn ZUlnKOIma m<; xo.vornroc, £1VQI Ev8elKIlKo IOU EOUlIEPIKOU ovrcvovrOllOU llEra~u TOU KPOIOU<; KQI IOU rroiunopoo. H E~ouofa nOVIOIE efvm ornv xctoxri oroprov ri 11IKPciJv 01l08Ulv oroucov, EVW 0 noi\lIlollo<; £XEI II<; PIZE<; IOU usoc otnv xorvornro, H e~ouofa anoIei\ef ndvrors IO orsfpo OIOIxsio ll£oa otnv xoivovio, nou opvsiroi K08e 8nllIOUPYIxri 8uva11n. 0 noi\lIlOlJo<;, aVIf8EIO, nEplftallBovEI m voviponoio Boui\non, rn 8n11louPYIKn opuri, tn 8lQnftaOIIKn ncpoppnon, nou K08E onvun ftaxrapouv va £Krppuotouv. H e~ouofa unopsi va OUYKPI8£f llE tnv neivc, nou n ixcvonoinon me Sictnpsf IO drouo zeovrcvo 11£XPI<; EVO<; oUYKEKPlll£vOU OPIOU nftIKla<;. 0 noftlIl011o<;. avrf8eIa, ornv mo Ba8el0 IOU onucoio, eiVQI oav tn voviuonoio oppri nou Siornpei ZUlVIOVO to £18n. To OIO- 110 nE8alvel, EVciJ n xotvcovio nOI£. Ta xpritn E~a<pavlzoVIOl, EVW 01 nohmopoi ani\w<; afti\ozouv to ne81a SpdOEciJ<; IOU<; KQl II<; 1l0PCP£<; EK<ppooew<; IOU<;.

To KpOIO<; onoompizsr 1l0VOV eK£1vE<; nc 1l0P<P£<; noftIIlOIIKn<; Spoornpiornrcc nou IO Bon80uv va Srornpei tnv e~ouola IOU. Kma81WKEI llE alleli\IKIO 11100<; K08E 8paompIOIma nou unspfoive: to OPlQ, IO Ie8EIllEva ono

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E8NIKILMOL KAI nOI\ITILMOL

H E30YLIA ENANTION TOY nOI\ITILMOY

aUTO, KOI nou opq>IOBmd mv unop~n too. LUVEnc0~, EIVOl KOI cvonro KOI ovoi\n8E~ TO va Pli\a KavEf~ VIQ "noi\mopo TOU KpaTOU~", Sion £lVOI aKpIBc0~ TO KpaTO~ rtou ZEI OE 010pKn noi\Epo us Ko8E ovotspn uoppn nVEUpanKOU noxmouo» KOI nou naVTOTE npoona8Ef va onoq>EUVEI m Srunoopvrxn Boui\non TOU noi\mapou.

H E~ouofa KOI 0 noi\mapo~, 000 KOI av EfvOI 01 ovrieETOI noi\ol rnc 10TOpfa~, EXOUV, £V TOUTOI~, Eva KOIVO nEolo OpaOEu)~ pEoa otnv KOIVU)VIKn ouvspvuofo Tu)V av8pc0nU)v KOI rtpertsr, KOT' ovdvxnv, va EUPOUV Eva modus vivendi. '000 010 Oi\OKi\npU)nKa n noi\monKn 6paomplomTO TOU av8pc0nou UnaVETOI OlOV Ei\EVXO m~ E~ouofa~, PE toon llEvai\uTEpn outprivsm olaBi\Enoup£ mv aKap1.pla Tu)V popqxov TOU rrohmouoo, mv oxpeotnpicon rnc onplOupVIKn~ KOI ernvonnxric TOU~ evspvn .. nK6mTO~, m Ba811lafa ntpoqiio me ncpnvcovncnc TOU~ 60ui\non~. Ano mv oMn, PE 000 llEvai\uTEpo otppfvoc 0 noi\ITlapo~ me KOlvU)vfa~ Sroppnvvoei TOU~ nepiopiouooc, tOU~ TE8£lpEvou~ ana rnv noi\mKn £~ouofa, rooo i\IVO" rspo ncpeunoofzstci n q>UOlKn TOU avamu~n ana m 8pnOKEUUKn KOI mv noiunxri xorcnfeon. L' ourriv mv nspinrcoon. 0 noi\map6~ Ka81OlOTOI VEVIKO Eva~ 6.11Eoo~ KIVSuvoc VIa m uovipomrn me E~ouofa~.

01 noi\monKE~ ouvaP£I~ rnc KOlvU)vfa~ enovcotntoov au86Pllma svovtiov TOU E~avaVKaollou Tu)V 8EollOOV tnc noi\ITlKne:; E~ouofae:;, nou ndvco one OIxpnpEe:; me VU)VfEe:; ouv£xc0e:; ni\nvc0vovrOl. Flpoortoflouv, ooveiontd n ceovEf6ma, va Bpoiioouv nc aKallnIEe:; q>OPllEe:; nou epnooizoov m q>UOlKr1 TOU~ ovdrrrofn, EVEfpovTO~ OUVEXOO~

pnpoord TOU~ v£ou~ q>paVlloue:;. II' aUTO, 01 KaTOXOI me £~ouofae:; npensi ouvExc0e:; va snovponvoov pnv TUXOV KOI 0 nveopcnxoc noi\mopo~ rnc snoxric IOU~ nopextponsi npoc cnovopeopevc povondnc KOI £tal 01OTOpa~£1 ri KOI napai\uoEI EvrEi\c0~ ne:; noi\mKEe:; TOUe:; Spaotnpiornrsc. Ano cutnv m 01OPKr1 nai\n tcov ouo cvtnvu)vlonKc0v rdcsov, nou n pio nOVTOrE cvnnpooconeoei TO TO~IKa oupq>£pOVTO me npovopiooxcc pEI01.pnq>fae:; KOI n 6i\i\n TO OUllq>EpoVTO tnc KOIvomTOe:;, avaouErOl Ba8- 111010 ufc ouvxexpiuevn vouncri aXE on, En! m BaoEI m~ onoioc TO opic me ernpporic TOU KpOTOUe:; KOI me KOIVu)vice. me noi\mKne:; KOI me oixovopioc -EV oi\fYOIe:;, me E~ouola~ KOI TOU noiunopou- cvcnpoocppozovtoi nsPIOOIKO KOI ernxopevovror ana VOPIKE~ OIOTO~£I~.

AUTO nou EpEf~ oripspc OVOlloZOUIlE "OfKOIO" ri "otivrovpc" OEV EfvOI tinore 6.Mo napa TO rtvsopcnxo izn- 110 nutric tnc oxordncoornc n6i\ne:;, noo Ki\lvEI nets npoc milia KOI note npo; mv oi\i\n ni\EUpa, avai\oya pE TO nord ana n~ OUO rdosrc, n E~ouola ri 0 noiunouoc, E01- ruVXaVEI pia npooopivri UnEpOXr1 llEoa am zon m~ xoivormoc, Ano m onvpri noo OEV unopsi va un6.p~EI outs vic pia onvun KPOTO~ xcopic KOIVU)Vla, noiunxri xU)pfe:; oixovouio, E~ouofaxU)pfe:; nohmouo KOI ana m onvun nou, ana mv oMn ni\EUpa, 0 noi\mapoe:; OEV Olo8nKE IKavo~ PEXPI onvuric va £~aq>avloEI mv £~ouoiconxri npxn ana m oui\i\oYIKn KOIVU)VIKr1 zeori trov av8pc0nU)v, TO ofKalo enrouizercn TO poi\o TOU npoq>ui\axrripc llETO~u aurc0v teov ouo aVTOvU)vIOtIKOOV tdoscov, nou E~a08EvfzEI TOU~ Kpaoaollou~ KOI npoOlOTEuEI mv

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E8NIKIL.MOL. KAI nOi\ITIL.MOL.

H E20YL.IA ENANTION TOY nOi\ITIL.MOY

KOIVuWI0 ono J.lI0 KmOOIOOn OUVEXo\)~ xorcotpopric.

Kot' cpxdc, ElVQI ovovxofo va OIOKpIVOUJ.lE T1~ ouo J.lOp<pE~ TOU OIKOIOU: TO "<pUOIKO OIKQlO" KOI TO i\Ey0J.lEVO "SETIKO OIKQlO". To <pUOIKO OIKOIO undpxsi OIOV n KOIVCI)via OEV EXEI OKOJ.ln oPYOVCI)SEI nohmxd, oni\oon npotou EJ.l<pOVIOTEl TO KpoTO~ J.lE TO ouomuo ICI)V KOOTOOV KQI TCI)V TO~ECI)V. L' cotnv rnv nspirncoon, TO 01KQlO ElVOI TO onoTEi\EOJ.lO oJ.lolBoICl)v OUJ.l<PCl)VIOOV J.lEIO~U TCI)V ovSpooncov, nou oi\i\ni\oOUJ.lnEpl<pEpOVTQI CI)~ Ei\EUSEPOl KOI 1001, nopOKIVnll£VOI ono IO 1010 OUll<PEPOVIO KQI onoi\oJ.lBoVOVIO~ E~ 100u KOSE o~lonpEnElo nou OPJ.lOZEI OIO cvSPulnIVO OVIO. To SEnKo OIKOIO OVOnTUOOEIOI, xot' cpXO~, J.lEOO otnv nohmxri OOJ.ln TOU KPOTOU~ KQI orpopd ovSpoonou~ nou oi\i\ni\ooIOXCI)PIZOVTQI E~ OITIO~ TCI)V 010- <POPETIKOOV OIKOVOJ.lIKOOV TOU~ OUJ.l<PEpOVTCI)V KOI nou cvnKOUV, J.lEOO OTO YEVIKO ni\olOlo m~ KOIVCI)VIKn~ cvioornIO~, OE OIO<pOPE~ KOOTE~ KOI TO~EI~.

To SEnKo OiKOIO KoSiOTmOl onoTEi\EOJ.lOTlKO, npoooiOOVIO~, ono tn J.l10 ni\EUpo, EVa VOJ.lIJ.lO xopoxtripc oro KPOTO~ (TO onoio ncvtoo J.lEOO omv iotopio EXEI n~ PIZE~ IOU omv Kmvooon Bio, otnv xcrdxrnon KOI omv unoooui\CI)on TCI)V KQTOKmJ.lEVCI)v) KOI npoonoSooVTo~, ono tnv oi\i\n ni\EUpo, va £nITUXEI J.lIO olEuStmon J.lEIO~U TCI)V OIKOICI)J.lOTCI)V, TCI)V unoXpEOOOECI)V KQI TCI)V npovouicov TCI)V OIO<pOPCl)V TO~ECI)V me KOIVCI)VI0~. 'OJ.lCl)~, curri n OIEUSEmon OIOPKEl povo YIO 000 XPOVIKO Sidompo 01 J.l0- ZE~ TCI)V KmOKmJ.lEVCI)V unOtOOOovTOI orotx unopxovrec VOJ.lOU~ n OEV OIOSOVOVTQI OPKETO 10XUPE~ OOOTE va TOU~ ovcrpeipoov. AVIISEIO, J.lEIOB6i\i\EIOI OIOV n oncfrnon

LOU i\oou vic J.lEIOPPUSJ.lIOn TCI)V VOJ.lCl)V KoSioTmOI TOOO nI£OTlK,n KOI cxotoudxnm OOOTE n xopiopxn E~OUOIO, E~CI)~OUJ.lEvn ono tnv ovdvxn KOI OXI uno J.lIO EOCl)TEplKn ncpopunon, va UnOXpECI)SEI va i\OBEI un' ounv tnc cum tnv EmSUJ.lIO TOU i\oou, EOV OEV SEi\EI va OIOIPE~EI TOV Klvouvo va OUVTPIBEI E~ oi\oKi\npou ono J.lI0 Bfom snovdotcon. L' OUTllV tn oEuTEpn nspfrrrcoon. n vsc KuBEPvnon OnJ.lIOuPyEl KQlVOUPYIOU~ VOJ.lOU~, nou So ElvOI TOOO nEplOooTEPO q»i\£i\EUSEPOl 000 neprooorepo EVEPvnnxd So UnaPXEI KOI So EK<PPOZ£TQI J.lEOO om i\oo n EnOVOOIOnKn Boui\non.

LIO OEOnOTlKO Boofserotnc Apxolo~ AOIO~, onou oi\n n E~ouofo EVOOPKCI)VOIOV om npooeono TOU Seonorn nou 01 OnO<paOEI~ tou OEV EnnpEOZOIOV KOSOi\OU cno T~ OIOJ.lOprupIO m~ KOIVOmIO~, n E~ouofo Srunoopvooos cno uovn me ro VOJ.lo us rnv ni\npn onucofo tnc i\£~n~. An? m onvpri nou 0 Seonornc i\mpEUOIOV CI)~ OJ.lEOO~ ~noyovo~ ,m~ SE?TmO~, n Boui\non LOU KUPIOPXOUOE CI)~ ounotoc VOJ.lO~ J.lEOO om xcopo, nou OEV OV£XOIOV KallIO oi\i\n o~ICI)on. Eni ncpooefvpcn, 0 nspienuo; KooolKo~ TOU Xoupoopcunf BoOlzOIOV £~ oi\oKi\npou ndvo om "SElKo V0J.lO", TOV onoKEKoi\UJ.lJ.l£vo OTOU~ ovSpoonou~ 010 tnc IEpn~ £vmi\n~, KQI xord oovensm OEV unopooos va UnOKEIT?I, E~ OITI0~ tnc 1010~ roo rnc npoEi\EUon~, otnv OvSpCl)nIvn xpion.

Ev mUTOI~, 01 VOJ.lIKE~ 10E£~ nou EK<PPOZOVTOI J.lEOO OLOU~ KOOOIK£~ £vo~ Aotoxpdtopn OEV EK<ppozouv nors oni\oo~ KQI povov tn Boui\non TOU Ssonom. ElvQI ndvroIE OUVO£OEJ.lEVE~ us IO oPXOI0 nSn KOJ TO nopOOOOJOKO

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EeNIKl~MO~ KAI nOt\ITI~MO~

H EOY~IA ENANTION TOY nOi\ITI~MOY

E8111a, us to onoio 01 OV8p6)nOl EXOUV zriosi llEoa OIO nspcopo 16)V QI~V6)V, KQI onOI££\OUV onoppoic me oui\i\oYIKnc; KOIV6)VIKnc; IOUC; z6)nc;. 0 K~5IKOC; IOU Xnpuoopcpni 5EV anoIEi\Ei E~olpwn 0' curov IOV xovovo, 510n Oi\Ol 01 npoxnxoi KOVOVEe; IOU BoBui\6)VlaKOU VOllOU, sxnnvdzovtcc ana nc; OVOYK£C; tnc KOIV6)VIKnc; z6)nc;, 10XUOV n5n llEm~u IOU i\oou noM npiv 0 Xouuoopopni 8EOEI IEi\oC; omv KUPIOPXIO 16)V Ei\olllI~V KOl noM npiv IOn08ElnoEI to 8EllEi\1O lllac; £vonoInllEvnc; uovopxioc 11£06) me xctdxtnonc mc; /\opoo KOI IOU T zOllouIllnai\.

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