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The International



the BOOK

Volume 7, Number 4

The Progression of Digital Publishing: Innovation and the E-volution of E-books
John W. Warren

no part of this work may be reproduced without written permission from the THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE BOOK is peer-reviewed.Book-Journal. First published in 2010 in Champaign. please contact <cg-support@commongroundpublishing.THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE BOOK http://www. © 2010 (individual papers). Illinois. tables and maps. .com. ensuring that only intellectual work of the greatest substance and highest significance is published. Typeset in Common Ground Markup Language using CGCreator multichannel typesetting system http://www. Apart from fair use for the purposes of study. USA by Common Ground Publishing LLC www. quotations. All rights reserved. ISSN: 1447-9516 Publisher Site: http://www. For permissions and other inquiries.commongroundpublishing. criticism or review as permitted under the Copyright Act (Australia).Book-Journal.CommonGroundPublishing. supported by rigorous processes of criterion-referenced article ranking and qualitative>. the author(s) © 2010 (selection and editorial matter) Common Ground Authors are responsible for the accuracy of citations.

CA. Sony has released seven since 2005.Book-Journal. Digital Tools. I discussed the theme of e-books and innovation (Warren. represented loss of control to elites. and e-book sales have grown. including apps associated with the Kindle. Stanza.S. sound. Number 4. Each case study provides insight into the possible future of the e-book. In an earlier article. 2010. 2009). Information Society. The third is a survey of efforts to create digital textbooks with online study resources. and Plastic Logic have garnered media attention and customers. RAND Corporation. Today. The past 12 months have been marked by significant media attention on e-books. iRex Technologies. health care system. ISSN 1447-9516 © Common Ground. As of December 2009. While the Amazon Kindle has captured much of the hype and publicity. descriptions of policy proposals. and Barnes & Noble and individual book apps appearing as some of the most popular The International Journal of the Book Volume 7. e-book devices from Sony. The iPhone has seen the popularity of e-book apps soar. as printed books threatened the livelihood of monks. This article discusses these trends and examines new case studies of innovative e-books in order to glimpse further into the future of the book. Warren. including some with color screens. others have used the electronic format to broaden the spectrum of publishing in the digital age. the e-book is emerging from a similar transition. and led inexorably to the democratization of books and reading. 1492. They were even considered dangerous. during the 50-year transitional phase from the 1454 Gutenberg Bible to 1501. many players are jostling for market share. Today. These books were initially considered inferior to illuminated manuscripts (Trithemius. Collaboration. Future of E-books Out of Incunabula E -BOOKS ARE EMERGING from their incunabula state. The first is an online resource providing information on the U. although this transition is far from complete. Permissions: cg-support@commongroundpublishing. 35). . from the Latin for “cradle” or “swaddling clothes”) refers to the earliest books printed with movable type. USA Abstract: E-books are beginning to emerge from their incunabula stage. A dozen or more new devices from various manufacturers have been announced for 2010. with three different devices in 2009 alone.The Progression of Digital Publishing: Innovation and the E-volution of E-books John W. p. and gaming in and an interactive microsimulation model that estimates the effects of commonly proposed policy changes. This paper examines three innovative examples that demonstrate the potential and challenges of electronic publications. While some may think of an e-book as just an electronic image of a paper product. All Rights Reserved. images. The second example is a digital novel utilizing text. Barnes & Noble. John W. Warren. Electronic Texts. Innovation. numerous ereader devices have entered the market. and both have released various software upgrades. Keywords: E-books. The term incubula (meaning infancy. Amazon has released three devices or iterations since the first Kindle was released in 2007.

Still. e-book-only publishers. including ebrary. 50). Major e-book wholesalers. 2009. in its 2009 “Hype Cycle of Emerging Technologies.6 percent a year before (Epps. Ingram Digital. reported that in a survey of approximately 4.THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE BOOK apps on the Apple store (Teicher.” has buried many a hyped technology (Gartner Group. EBL/ebooks. while warning that the nearly $166 million total for 2009 represents only trade eBook sales via wholesale channels. 2010. Inc. the “Trough of Disillusionment.” perched e-book readers at the hype cycle’s “Peak of Inflated Expectations”. Forrester Research. widespread adoption still lags. while other major ebook sources include Google Books. But while awareness of e-book readers has risen significantly in the past 12 months. and an impressive number of self-published authors. are starting to arrive. 2009). and Smashwords. and the proportion who had seen but never used an electronic book device rose from 21 to 36 percent. Used with permission.. compared with 0. or professional electronic sales. 2009). NetLibrary. most publishers report that only 1 or 2 percent of total revenue from book sales comes from ebooks (Book Industry Study Group. 2010). perhaps more importantly. especially among libraries. the statistics do not include retail.500 online consumers. the cycle’s next phase. p. The Gartner Group. But the proportion of consumers who owned such a device was only 1.) 38 . the percentage of consumers who had never heard of an electronic book device dropped from 37 percent in Quarter 2 of 2008 to 17 percent in the same quarter of 2009. E-book sales have expanded dramatically yet still represent a small portion of most publishers’ revenues. educational. Project Gutenberg (with volunteers keying in out-ofcopyright works since 1971). now produced by nonfiction and fiction trade publishers.5 percent. The International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF) reports that wholesale e-book sales increased by an impressive 210 percent from 2008 to 2009. 2009). though some outliers. E-books. Scribd. and. earn a higher percentage of earnings from electronic texts. such as O’Reilly Media. (Source: International Digital Publishing Forum. represent only data submitted from approximately 12 to 15 major trade publishers (International Digital Publishing Rich and Stone. for example. academic and scholarly publishers. library. have been carving into the nascent market for years. and Overdrive. 2009.

would have been published as a traditional monograph or report. Faber. 2009). . . Michel Foucault takes it further: “This is not a pipe . 82–83) What do today’s more innovative e-books and digital publishing initiatives tell us about the future of the book? Ceci n ’ est pas un livre Viewing René Magritte’s famous painting of a pipe. with the text below indicating “Ceci n’est pas une pipe” (“This is not a pipe”). . . 49). I examine three case studies that explore this question. it is certainly not a pipe. pp. they shouldn’t be able to access their previously purchased e-books. This first case study examines a research project. Certainly.S. and access (Warren. 2009). at first the viewer thinks. but rather a representation of a pipe.” (Foucault. the RAND Corporation launched the COMPARE (Comprehensive Assessment of Reform Efforts) website (http://www. As I mentioned in my previous article. Consumers know that they will not generally be able to lend an e-book as easily as lending a new hardcover. . Despite the often personal. evocative relationship many of us have with printed books. health care system and descriptions of policy proposals. It’s not books you need. Online access. e-books are often perceived as a solution to something that isn’t a problem—books work fine as a technology. . 2009). WARREN E-books still struggle for mainstream adoption and acceptance. a character in Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451. . and they don’t understand why. Fundamentally. Instead.randcompare. the findings of which. peer-reviewed information and statistics on the U. improved search. the myriad of e-book devices. health. (Bradbury. Although health care spending in the United States exceeds $2 trillion annually. “Of course it is a pipe!” But on reflection. Most publishers insist on Digital Rights Management—which is generally disliked by users (JISC Collections. COMPARE deconstructs the scholarly monograph. how they stitched the patches of the universe together into one garment for us. offering users the ability to create their own “narrative” but based on objective factual research. electronic texts can provide benefits not possible with a printed in January 2009. a drawing of a pipe that simulates a drawing of a pipe. The COMPARE website is a unique online resource providing objective. and consumer financial risk (RAND COMPARE.JOHN W. most e-books today are merely a “picture of a book”—a book that has been digitized but adds little value besides portability. five or ten years ago. proprietary formats. even as it represents in some sense the knowledge one would expect from a book? In the rest of this paper. more than 45 million Americans were uninsured in 2007. and portability are noted advantages (JISC Collections. p. a pipe (drawn other than as a drawing) that is the simulacrum of a pipe. . with a microsimulation model to estimate the effects of policy changes on cost. remarked. if they originally purchase an Amazon Kindle and later replace it with a Sony Reader. E-books raise similar philosophical issues. Books were only one type of receptacle where we stored a lot of things we were afraid we might forget. it’s some of the things that once were in books. coverage. The magic is only in what books say. and Americans on average receive only 39 . At what point is an electronic text not a book. and access routes to e-books and e-content create confusion among potential consumers. 1982. 2009). There is nothing magical in them at all. 1954. but rather a text that simulates a pipe. searchability.

and save content in their MyCOMPARE library. Clicking on a particular dimension brings up a brief description of that dimension. patient experience. and specific descriptions. coverage. share and bookmark pages. Visitors can customize reports. linked to a full report with statistics and other information. The COMPARE website’s “dashboard” assesses health reform policy options across nine dimensions: spending. health. families. Used with permission) Perhaps the most unique feature of the site is the COMPARE microsimulation model. The COMPARE website also features a description of federal and state policy initiatives. (Source: RAND COMPARE.THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE BOOK about 55 percent of recommended care. consumer financial risk. insurers. firms. reliability. the status of these proposals. Proposals by nongovernmental organizations or coalitions are also included on the site. 2009. Website 40 . and operational feasibility. capacity. which utilizes computer software to estimate how individuals. Users can easily drill down through information depending on their level of interest—the site presents chunks of knowledge backed by lengthier material. and the federal and state governments will respond to health system changes. waste. It offers RAND an opportunity to publish microsimulation model findings quickly and be able to inform the health care reform debate while it’s happening. listing various policy proposals. The COMPARE website’s unique framework offers some significant advantages over a traditional monograph.

The goal of COMPARE was not to generate sales. in essence. As readers progress through each episode—four are available. The supporting documents and website undergo multiple rounds of editing. high-quality research and analysis. learns to make games on a fictitious device.inanimatealice. congressional staff. special effects. legislative analysts. While peer review for a document or article fits into an easily understood model in research and higher education. while the website requires proofreading apart from the original text to prevent character errors from being introduced in the transformation from Microsoft Word to HTML. Results have been briefed within Congress and the Executive Branch and been the subject of public forums. indeed—but it also must be continually updated to stay current and relevant as new research is reviewed and new policy options are considered by federal and state policymakers. a fifth is expected soon. example of a digital narrative that would not exist in the same way in printed form. instead it was aimed at reaching key decisionmakers and improving the quality of the policy debate with objective. Written and directed by writer Kate Pullinger and digital artist Chris Joseph. provides and underscores Alice’s emotional journey. The microsimulation model followed its own quality assurance process. COMPARE has been able to reach its primary audience of policy experts. Alice. WARREN content can be updated continually as new data become available or new policy options are introduced. which the reader learns to play. 2010). In this case. gaming. COMPARE’s framework. provides another. and produced by Ian Harper. and health writers. Hyperactive • The Digi-Novel Inanimate Alice (www. while the analytic features of COMPARE were briefed to the Congressional Budget Office and congressional committee staff members to help in their evaluation of health reform proposals (Thomson. are part of the story (Pullinger. also presents challenges. as well as the player/reader. These continual updates can present a challenge in terms of peer review and archiving. and a total of ten episodes are planned—their participation level increases. 2009). a detailed document on the website describes data sources used and assumptions employed in the analysis and the model. the peer review process used for the analysis—the COMPARE dashboard—is the same strict quality assurance process that RAND employs for a traditional monograph. The website can be updated. however. the character. audio. The player/device. video. 41 . and gaming to explore a form of storytelling in which the reader is converted into an active participant. This type of online product also requires a large amount of oversight for version control. though quite different. this “digital novel” combines text.JOHN W. peer review for a continually changing website may be less familiar.

arising both from her desire to explore new digital tools and her sense that the digital form seemed the best way to tell the story. Dedicated sites have sprung up from educators and schools in Australia. The form also provides a great opportunity for collaboration—between the writer and digital artist. The games within the story get more complicated as Inanimate Alice progresses.) According to Kate Pullinger. Great Britain. Inanimate Alice.THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE BOOK (Source: Kate Pullinger and Chris Joseph. without a strong push from the authors or producer.flightpaths. educators. and the United States. including the Institute for the Future of the Book. and many students have created their own episode 5 to continue the series (Laccetti. and university students.html). It has had an unexpectedly wide appeal. 2009. 2009). but certainly not with their opposition. Used with permission. The use of music. The digital novel sprung up to tell a story. A range of electronic curriculum and reader-created stories ensued almost naturally. foremost of which is that the income stream from the project has presented (and presents) a conundrum. Inanimate Alice was conceived and created in digital form from the outset. Harper. the 42 . this hasn’t translated into revenue. it is impractical to expect the reader to dive headlong into complicated gaming scenarios. Creating these stories presents a challenge in deciding how much text the multimedia can support and how the various elements work together. notes and Lifelines (www. Pullinger and Joseph have subsequently collaborated on two other series that utilize a similar storytelling framework.katepullinger. Another challenge is the need to gradually bring the reader up to speed because of inexperience with form. images. and though it has been embraced by many fans. Inanimate Alice also offers challenges. Nevertheless. and subsequently with the audience. Pullinger. Flightpaths is funded by four nonprofit groups. not to fit a business model. and Lifelines is funded by a UK educational publisher and intended for curricular use in the UK school system. and sound and video effects seems to fit organically into the story instead of feeling tacked on. while telling quite different stories: Flightpaths (http://www. among elementary and secondary school students.

2009). parents. Digital revenue in K–12 has been lower. provides an interesting example of how digital textbooks are making their way into classrooms. Books may become multimedia events. total digital revenue is estimated at less than $100 million. offer content for free. Flat World Knowledge. 2009. 4). a start-up company backed by over $10 million in venture capital. and professors protesting the high price of traditional textbooks in higher education and denouncing the weight of textbooks in K–12 (Allen. video. 2009). and budget crises (Book Industry Study Group. the study pointed out that online learning combined with face-to-face instruction delivered the best outcomes. e-book sales contribute approximately 5 percent to that figure. such as the Vook or the Amanda Project. such as the iPhone. Nichols. 2009. The researchers examined 1. Interactive stories may employ reader’s use of avatar to become a character that navigates through and interacts with the story (Pressman. for fiction and nonfiction. standardized testing. The retirement of baby-boom teachers and the full emergence of digital natives—younger teachers who have always grown up around computers and integrate them more seamlessly into their lives—are also fueling the increase of digital content in the classroom (Acker. In the higher education market. While there is little consensus on a definition of digital storytelling or new media writing.JOHN W. concept. The researchers also cautioned that most of the studies were in higher education or professional training. has been called Web 2. Nevertheless. audio. A recent U. online. 2009). There is a growing movement by students. 2009). the use of digital textbooks and other content is likely to rise (Freedman. and interactivity/gaming—can be blended in ways impossible in printed books. and encourage the purchase of add-on and convenience products in multiple formats. combining microcontent and social media to create distributed conversations. Flat World’s co-founder and chief marketing officer. Another type of emerging digital storytelling. The business model is to provide content for textbook adoption that is as good as or better than the textbook a professor currently uses. the use of a computer or electronic device.. The company offers free. is the unique component of both writing and reading digital stories. Harper.0 storytelling (Alexander and Levine. explained Eric Frank. Inc. Multimedia—including text. students in online learning conditions performed better than those receiving face-to-face instruction alone. While the online version of a textbook is free.S. seem largely marketing-driven (Penenberg. 2008). Digital storytelling provides many new opportunities for both the artist and audience. p. 2008). The Rise of the Digital Textbook A variety of forces are converging to dramatically increase use of digital textbooks and online learning. WARREN key challenge is to find a new way of storytelling that fits into the commercial market (Pullinger. 2008. 2009). Hypertext. due to focus on core reading and mathematics standards. provides opportunities for alternative construction. peer-reviewed textbooks on its website (www. A recent “Kindle in Every Backpack” policy paper recommends public funding for student e-book devices. which I discussed in my previous article. Department of Department of Education meta-analysis found that.132 studies of online learning and found only 51 that met the criterion of comparing online and face-to-face approaches. which are perfectly suited to the online or e-book form. though many of the attempts so far. on average. with very few in K–12 (U. students can buy a PDF download of the book or specific 43 . 2009). and characterization.S. but even without public funding.

Frank reports that adoption has increased from approximately 1. purchase a black-and-white print-on-demand (POD) version for about $30. distribute. editing or adding to content at the sentence level. web-based. The PDF download also includes print-yourown capability (Frank. collaborative model termed the “FlexBook.) So far. Professors are encouraged to create custom books. which include faster time to publication. Flat World’s textbooks are published under a Creative Commons (open-source) license. 2009).000 students at 470 schools in fall 2009.flatworldknlowedge. Self-assessment is one of the key factors that can be automated in digital texts and help students. Flat World Knowledge. 2009). Flat World Knowledge plans to integrate more assessment into the texts. Approximately 65 percent of students make some kind of purchase. the CK-12 Foundation hopes to make digital textbooks affordable for districts and schools. CK-12 offers tools to create. Going with increased understanding of which modules or concepts need refined explanation or additional material.THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE BOOK chapters. www. professors. and a 20 percent royalty on any sale. and the company provides tools to modify and remix texts. downloadable. averaging about $30. In the K–12 market. delivering unique books as online. a greater ease of creating and updating texts. and customize high-quality educational content in an open-content. practice quizzes. or purchase a color POD version for about $60. Performance data will help professors better teach their courses.000 students in 30 schools in spring 2009 to approximately 40. Frank also points out that royalties are more consistent over time.” Educators can create customized 44 . 2009). Flat World’s model of publishing commercial open-source college textbooks appears to be working. and authors (Young. encouraging new derivatives and adaptation. 2009). by providing access to free texts aligned to state standards with developmentally correct content. Every chapter of every book includes digital study guides. Used with permission. (Source. such as flashcards. there isn’t a steep drop in sales and royalties as when a traditional textbook hits the used book market (Frank. and POD versions to students (Snyder. and audio guides. anonymous performance data will help authors develop better texts. and more adaptable for teachers and classrooms. while aggregated. Authors enjoy the incentives.

WARREN digital text from existing texts. CK-12 Foundation. Students in grades 6–12 offered their ideas about desired features and functionality of digital textbooks. licensing partnerships.) The foundation hopes to encourage collaborative learning via a community in which authors. 2009). and web pages under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike license. and students create. incentives for community-based authorship. 2009. with key functionalities that include: • • • • • • • • Ability for teachers and students to personalize digital texts with highlights and notes (63%) Self-assessment (62%) or self-paced tutorials (46%) as part of the text Links to real-time data.000 students from K–12 in all 50 U. Seven Flexbooks have been submitted by CK-12 to the California Learning Resource Network for state textbook adoption in math and science.S. Yet to be seen. (Source. access. rate. as a sort of Ultimate Digital Textbook (Project Tomorrow. and podcasts from subject experts (34%) Ability for students to create their own podcasts or videos to support learning (48%). and publish these free texts. published by the New Media Consortium and the Educause Learning Initi45 . chapters. such as from NASA and Google Earth (52%) Ability to tap into an online tutor whenever necessary (53%) Links to PowerPoint presentations of lectures supporting content (55%) Explore concepts through games (57%) or animations and simulations (55%) Access to videos (51%).JOHN W. however. 2009). The 2010 Horizon Most of these capabilities are possible today. Used with permission. www. states on education and technology. California Learning Resource Network. and university collaborations. videoconferences (30%). and they met the state’s academic content standards by an average of 95 percent: Four met 100 percent of the standards. and are becoming more accessible. teachers. The texts are currently provided through a combination of author donations. and none scored below 82 percent (Khosla. The nonprofit group Project Tomorrow surveyed 281. share. is whether this model is sustainable.

Smith. or endowment support (Jaschik. Researcher David Annand concluded that e-books cost less to produce than printed texts. Interactive. Nusca and Bergen. particularly for courses with large enrollment. identified both mobile computing and open content as technologies that will have considerable impact on teaching and learning within the next 12 months (L. “The World Is Open. 2009). even within the same reports (e. grant. the current Kindle lacks most of the capabilities described above in the digital textbook shopping list. Some experts predict that within five years. Digital Initiatives. early student reviews of the Kindle DX in education settings have not been not positive (Canon. Paxhia and Trippe. as well as some evidence for the reverse. But challenges for digital textbooks remain significant. possibly accelerated by a proposal announced by President Barack Obama to invest in creating free online community college courses (Lewin. The challenge is how to make the best use of a medium that already shares three of our five senses—sight. at least for now. capitalizing on lower production and 46 . and/or foundation. 2008). 2009. Andrew Savikas. “Digital first” strategies. But hybrid learning—combining online learning and digital texts with traditional. Keeping content contextualized to local and regional requirements as well as global curriculum standards is another significant challenge. gaming and simulations. increasing speed of access. enhanced products or services. most publishers create both print and electronic versions of texts.” 2009).e. but frequently overlooked. Vice President. Whether to create digital learning products from today’s print products or create entirely new models is still unclear. factor is the difficulty in changing the mindsets of educators who claim to not have the time to contribute—it may be not only insufficient technological capability (i. online tutors. 2009. Johnson et al. There is evidence that digital formats are more forgiving. learning. 2009).. and a nearly always on Web connection. and enriching the review process by improving the linking of texts to ancillary materials. 23. and Loy. reducing sales of exam copies to the used book market. 2009).” POD sales. 2009). face-to-face methods—shows considerable promise (Kolowich. pp. participatory learning spaces using assessments. while gesturebased computing and visual data analysis are expected to have an impact over the far term (4–5 years out). A significant. O’Reilly Media.. are still largely unproven for long-term sustainability. the majority of students will be using digital textbooks. reducing manufacturing and shipping costs. color video. with fewer up-front costs and lower manufacturing and distributing costs. Maron. sums it up nicely: Thinking of the problem as “how do we get a textbook onto an iPhone” is framing it wrong. 2010). (Savikas. to accomplish the “job” of educating a student. digital native teacher) but a very real work overload that keeps teachers from customizing and contributing (Khosla. 2009). 2009).g. 4. and hearing—along with geolocation. Open-access business models.THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE BOOK ative. and creative expression over the second adoption horizon (2–3 years out). speech. digital exam copies will become predominant. Thus far. Electronic books and simple augmented reality are likely to impact teaching. Notably. “Free” texts depend on the success of “bundling. and virtual reality environments are expensive to produce and maintain. In the future. but usability issues led users to prefer printed texts (Annand. while attractive from a common-goods standpoint.. but may ultimately cost less on a variable cost basis than printed equivalents.

and collaborations between authors. All sites. You’ll read it on a device that combines facets of the cell phone. Nature Publishing Group. an analysis and consulting firm focused on content technologies. Cengage. the Library of Congress. instead of being static images.JOHN W. Flip camera. and text (Talbot. hardware. The Gilbane Group. conversations. WARREN distribution costs. operating systems. In our e-book of the future. even relatively static ones. A Creative Commons license encourages modules to be remixed and repurposed. 2008). fluency in metadata. Management and staff must make a commitment to growth in digital products. Mexico. The Future E-Book Let’s take a sneak peek at the (possible) future e-book by imagining a future scholarly book about new research on the Americas before Columbus. Technical efforts should be aligned with defined business goals. while open video allows easier editing and remixing of video. Augmented reality. ongoing comments. 2009). with a color touch screen and multimedia capabilities. digital products often lend themselves to easier measurement and experimentation. 2009. Leadership must have a vision for digital product development and the commitment to see it through. will allow authors. and the ability to repurpose digital content and spread costs over a range of projects (as in the case of Flat World Knowledge or CK-12). a gallery of photos is embedded in the e-text. General Electric. you’ll be able to take a photo and instantly upload it to the book’s gallery of images for all to see. often including web content management and digital asset management as a hub for internal and external distribution. professional content. Wright. The future e-book fosters continuous learning by including links to further scholarship or modules about topics of particular interest to the reader. publishers.” Place the cursor next to an unfamiliar term and it brings up its definition. As you visit the Palenque ruins in Chiapas. Extensive social web features promote distributed. The firm must undertake systemic and large-scale digitization efforts. 2005). 2009). Maps of migrations or empires. and laptop. but with realistic expectations and a strong focus on metrics. and producers to create content for niches and market segments that would not have been feasible with traditional publishing. Instead of a single picture depicting a particular Mayan city or artifact. and the Smithsonian. in trade. scholarly. making an investment in content management technology. are working to preserve websites and other digital resources. audio. These capabilities are possible now. 2009. and K-12. surveyed publishers across the industry. often including encoding content in XML (Paxhia and Trippe. dynamically depict their spread and flow over time and place. in one way or another. higher education. such as McGraw-Hill. I’ll call it a “Podkinfliptop. publishers 47 . care must also be taken to sustain the resource itself. Electronic resources are fragile: URLs may become broken or entire websites disappear. and applications change. even the departure of key personnel can imperil a digital resource. 2009). among others. While the Internet Archive. and other readers (Alexander and Levine. Deep web semantic search unlocks additional indepth. iPod. Click on a place-name and it deploys Google Earth. 2009). and Random House. but have yet to be fully harnessed. Fortunately. scholars. embedded in the text. need active stewardship (Cohen and Rosenzweig. shows an Incan tomb in 3-D when you hold it up to your device’s web camera (Rosen. Kindle. returning results customized to the reader’s interest that are not cluttered by irrelevant content (Renear and Palmer. and cautions that technical and organizational forces must be aligned for successful digital publishing.

The year 2010 may prove the “tipping point” for e-books and e-book devices. 2009). and plasticity (adding value by modularizing. and grants. and distributing huge amounts of microcontent). Forrester Research forecast sales of 3 million e-readers in the United States during 2009. including a dedicated and entrepreneurial leadership willing to test new ideas.0 age. development of diverse revenue sources and creative business models. and Loy. and creating quality products for a niche (Haque. include revelation (discovering and publishing valuable niche content). customers purchased more e-books than physical books on Christmas Day. 2009). and other creative means. Haque argues for a new set of competencies that includes economies of speed. may not be able to thrive through book sales alone. standardizing. partnerships. New sources of revenue are key. wherein “the more a high-quality microchunk is consumed. in a Media 2. and managing the organization to adapt to new technical platforms and digital products (Skillset. yet so is survival under the current publishing model. “Change or Die. the iPad. and clear accountability and metrics for success (Maron. networking connected producers/consumers. director of strategic web communications for the National Academies. new multifunction tablet devices. The skills needed for today’s publishing professionals include the ability to sell disaggregated content across new formats to nontraditional markets. and a greater selection of e-books will lead to a greater percentage of e-book sales relative to print. for example. and more about managing digital assets and metadata for increased customization and findability. being able to respond to the rapid pace of change by tracking and understanding markets. Apple recently announced that its long-rumored tablet device.” 2009). He describes a snowball effect. including subscriptions.THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE BOOK must be proactive toward the storage of digital files as well as the ability to understand and read those files in the distant future. Developing a plan for sustainability is critical. Michael Jensen. identified similar success characteristics for sustainability of digital resources. creating production economies of scale and scope. and the more that microchunk is consumed” (Haque. aggregation (centralizing. will ship in April 2010 and include an e-book reader 48 . and content providers. providing access and control to digital products through better understanding of intellectual property rights. author fees. that is a demanding challenge. Skillset. for the first time ever. endowments. In today’s institutional climate. In this evolution. Cheaper e-book devices. A recent report by Ithaka. and predicted sales to reach 10 million units in 2010 (Gonsalves. Smith. corporate sponsorships. cheaper content. Amazon reported that the Kindle was the most gifted item in the company’s history and that. 2009). minimizing direct costs through outsourcing. advertisers. the role of the publisher has changed. and 25 percent via institutional support (Jaschik. 25 percent from POD services. storing. Umair Haque writes about the rise of micromedia—media that can be consumed in unbundled microchunks—in the post-blockbuster age. 2005). which supports skills and training for UK creative media industries. 2005). envisions a future in which academic presses earn 50 percent of their revenue through value-added features not part of the basic digital book. The sources of value in creating and successfully exploiting micromedia. custom services. licensing to publishers and users. the more value is added by consumers. identification of a clear value proposition based on an understanding of users’ needs. or extending content). reported that digitization has exposed critical skill gaps in publishing. Publishing in the future will be less about finding “hits” and managing authors. a nonprofit group focused on the academic community. University presses.

including Cambridge University Press and the University of Michigan Press. The e-book of the future forms part of a global conversation. Coda: Digital Genesis The future includes an ever-more-vibrant past. Cambridge Library Collection. hence showing some of the promise. 4th-century Bible. have digitized ancient book collections. the Internet Archive. or proselytizing about the same information. a conversation is available about the paragraph or even sentence you are reading. especially across genres. Analysts’ early sales forecasts for the iPad in its first year of release are from 4 to 10 million units (Hughes. As I mentioned in my previous article. only a few of these resources are comprehensively linked. 2009). for the time being we are most likely to see a hybrid model. new tools are constantly emerging to help us find the kernels of knowledge in our particular niche. at least. It’s remarkable how much the acts of research. including the oldest complete copy of the New Testament.JOHN W. The text contains the Christian Bible in Greek. Reading books will go from being a fundamentally private activity—a direct exchange between author and reader—to a 49 . One of the fascinating aspects of digitization is the increasing ability to access images.600 years ago. and to connect us to others around the world seeking. postulating. 2009). writing. As you read. texts. and video and audio that enhance readers’ experience of the text.000 works of Greek literature. 2009). the Codex Sinaiticus—the oldest substantial book to survive antiquity. and Loy. by Google. global book club. including both subscription-based and open access to texts from ancient to modern (Maron. Many university presses. video. with helpful internal and external links. The Thesaurus Linguae Graecae offers a digital repository of over 12. and other information resources. 2010). Digitization of classic works is accelerating. navigation that allows possibilities based on each reader’s particular needs or level of interest. Data on our past and present proliferate exponentially. handwritten more than 1. The Codex is now fully available online and the international collaboration that coordinated the project recently held a conference of scholars and parties to the digitization. you will know that at any given moment. providing high-quality images and in some cases transcriptions. as Steven Johnson writes: Think of it as a permanent. As our e-book of the future evolves. interactive. not quite the unique digital experience of Inanimate Alice or RAND COMPARE. It’s not hard to imagine that within a few years e-books could account for 20 percent or more of book sales. of deep semantic search in providing more discoverability to these treasures. Although our ability to sift through this explosion of bits may lag behind. Google Books and Sony have partnered to provide a half-million public domain books online for free. and a popular book (Codex Sinaiticus Project. such as the Library of Congress and British Library. but digital books enhanced with extra content. represents the digital. WARREN called iBooks and an online bookstore called iBookStore. Thus far. Numerous other institutions. Wikipedia. Nobody will read alone anymore. Still in the planning stages are print facsimile. exhibition. are collaborating with their institution’s library to make important historical works accessible as POD and e-books (Eisen. 2009. and audio of the world’s treasures from any computer or device. Smith. and reading have been vastly transformed in just the past 20 years.

bringing us into a new space beyond the printed word. homepage.cfm?volID=7&IssueID=23&ArticleID=120). 2005 (as of December 19. Brevy. Allen. “Will Digital Texts Succeed?” Campus Technology. Summer 2008 (as of December 19. “Learning Efficacy and Cost-Effectiveness of Print Versus E-Book Instructional Material in an Introductory Financial Accounting Course. however. 2009: http://net. but Stumbles on Textbook Duty. “Free Digital Textbook Initiative Report. 2009: http://www. in which the isolated author. . Publishers and other companies able to encourage and develop these authors.asp?id2=44596). 2009 (as of October 4.” Inside Higher Ed. 7. Nicole. Canon. and How to Set Them Straight. “How Big Is the eReader Opportunity?” Forrester Research.html) 50 . Vol. Eisen. 2009: http://www.” UVAToday. before. Preserving. 2009. effective in exploiting technologies while nurturing stronger connections with their audience. huddled away over a masterpiece. also http://www. and Alan Levine. multimedia. and customization.insidehighered. “Early Reviews: Kindle Great for Reading. 2.educause. California Learning Resource Network. No. with every isolated paragraph the launching pad for a conversation with strangers around the world.gmu.aspx).org/newsroom. Cambridge Library Collection website. While the world may always come to recognize the brilliance of a Joyce. August 3. David. will be the ones to survive. Alexander. 2009: http://www. August 3.virginia.” August 11. Annand. 2008 (as of October 4. Cohen. during.. Inc. 2009: http://campustechnology. 2009 Bradbury. Fahrenheit 451. Codex Sinaiticus Project. .ncolr.THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE BOOK community interactivity. Book Industry Study 2009 (as of November 30. authors savvy enough to have a multimodal “platform” will be those most likely to rise out of the bog of our evergrowing information superabundance. 2009: http://blogs. The future of the e-book is clearly just beginning. “Web 2009: http://www. Bryan. Digital History: A Guide to Gathering. or after the act of creation. Ray. is increasingly the exception to the rule.” Educause Review. Epps. and Presenting the Past on the Web.cambridge.pdf). It is not hard to imagine a future.php?id=9832). New York: Ballantine . (as of October 4. and while word-of-mouth phenomena like Stieg Larsson will doubtlessly continue to emerge seemingly from out of” Journal of Interactive Online Learning. September 23. University of Pennsylvania Press. 2009 (as of October 5.. 2009 (as of November 19. 2009: http://www. 2009 (as of October 5. “Course Correction: How Digital Textbooks are Off Track. March Book Industry Trends 2009. Sarah Rottman.” August 2008 (as of October (S. “Brand New. and Roy Rosenzweig. University of Virginia. November/December 2008 (as of October 4. Stephen R. 2009: http://www. 2009) It’s reasonable to wonder how many authors will have the time for or interest in this type of extended Ben. Johnson. Salinger.0 Storytelling: Emergence of a New Genre. director of the Student PIRGs. 2009: http://www. And the e-books that grab and hold our attention will be those that embrace interconnection. References Acker. 2009: http://chnm. New York. or Pynchon.

also Flat World Knowledge website (as of October “In a Digital 2009: http://www.htm).” Chronicle of Higher Education. 2009. “‘Digi-Novel’ Combines Book. Final Report. Haque.wsj. 2009 (as of October 10. International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF). 2009: www.. R. TX: New Media Consortium. 2010 (as of January 26. also The Brad Field Company website (as of February 10. Frank. “Sustainable Hybrids. Connected Consumption. WARREN Foucault. 2009 (as of October 1. Gartner Group. The 2010 Horizon Report. 2010: http://appleinsider. A Kindle in Every Backpack: A Proposal for eTextbooks in American Schools.html). March 2010. Lewin.pdf). November 2009 (as of December 20. 2009 (as of October 1. Jess. “Hype Cycle of Emerging Technologies. A.html). Johnson. November 18. 2010. August 2009 (as of October 1. Harper.. Neil. September 22.flatworldknowledge. This Is Not a Pipe.ppt).” Inside Higher Ed. 2009: http://www. Eric.” New York Times.” Reuters. 2009 (as of October 1. phone interview. “Sustaining Digital Resources: An On-theGround View of Projects Today: Ithaka Case Studies in Sustainability. 2009: http://www. JISC Collections. (as of October 4.ck12. Nancy L.html). 2009. June 22.” Apple “Wall Street Expects Apple's 'Risky' iPad to Sell 1M–5M in First Year.jhtml?articleID=222100175).” Gonsalves. 1982. “E-Books Beat Regular Books on Xmas. January 28. September 2. Johnson.” Ithaka August 25. (as of October September 9. Smart Grid Augmented Reality (website). October 2009–February 2010. Umair. Kirby Smith. July 2009 (as of October 1. Steve. 2009: http://online. “How the E-Book Will Change the Way We Read and Write. 2010: April 20.” Information Week. 2010: http://www. L. Antone. Michel. Neeru. Co-Founder and Executive Director of CK-12 Foundation. phone interview. Nichols. Kolowich. Laccetti. 2009: http://www. and Stone.. 2009:http://ge. Levine. “Change or Die?” Inside Higher Ed.jisc. also CK-12 Foundation website (as of October 4.ecomagination. “The New Economics of Media: Micromedia. Movie and website. Michelle.nytimes. 2010: http://www. Smith. Tamar. “US Trade Wholesale Electronic Book Sales. 2009 (as of December 30.insidehighered. Los Angeles: University of California Press. James Harkness. trans. 2009: and Matthew Loy. 2009: http://www. Textbooks Are History. 2009 (as of October 1. ———. 2009. 2009: http://www. JISC National E-Books Observatory Project: Key Findings and Recommendations.dlc.JOHN W. K.insidehighered. 2009. Freedman. (as of October 10.” (as of March 29. Maron. phone and email interviews.bubblegeneration..” Wall Street Journal.reuters. and the Snowball Effect. 2009: www.nmc. 2007 (as of October 4. “Inanimate Alice Pedagogy Pack: Lesson Plans and Education Resource Pack. Flat World Knowledge.informationweek. 51 . 2009: http://www. Co-founder. 2009: http://www. Austin. August 9. General Electric. Ian. July 2009 (as of October 2009: “The World Is Open. Thomas December The New Democratic Leadership Council. 2009: http://www.. 2009: http://www.” Spring 2005. (as of January

Santa Monica.skillset. “Strategic Reading.html?). 2009: http://www. July/August 2009 (as of October 1. “Amazon Kindle DX: The Solution to a Problem That Doesn't Exist. 2009: www.” RAND Corporation. 2009 (as of October 1. Department of Education. 2009 (as of October 4. “Cellphone Apps Challenge the Rise of E-Readers. February 2008 (as of November 4. phone interview. Project Tomorrow. 1974. May 2009 (as of October 1. translated by Roland Behrendt. 2009 (as of October 4.pdf). ———. Trithemius. (as of February 4.S.html). 2009 (as of October 1. 2009: http://www. and the Future of Scientific Publishing.” demo of Lifelines (as of October 1. and Chris Joseph.” New York Times. Vice President.php?id=14). Lawrence. episodes 1–4 (as of October” The ToyBox. “Books Go 3-D Starting with Ology Series in U. 828–832. August 14. “Kima’s Story.sciencemag.” 2009 (as of October 1. 2010: http://www.. Inanimate “Flat World Knowledge to Bring Free Textbooks into Blackboard. 2010 (as of March 31. February 4. Pullinger. Talbot.asp) Snyder. 2009.” Science. with introduction. 2010: Renear. U.eliterature. KS: Coronado Press.ed. “The App Boom Hits Publishing: Will Hand-Held Devices Change How We Think About Books?” Publishers Weekly.zdnet. episodes 1–5 (as of October 1. 2009: http://www. no. 2009: http://www. Rich.” Wired.html) 52 .org/publishing/article_7355_1.html). by Klaus Andrew. Allen H. Skillset. Kate. “Digital Platforms and Technologies for Publishers: Implementations Beyond ‘eBook. 2009 (as of October 1. November personal email to author.inanimatealice. Paxhia. Pressman. originally posted on Read 2.” Publishers Weekly. “Our Tube. In Praise of Scribes (de Laude Scriptorum). 2009: http://www. Originally written 1492. 2009: http://www. May 29.publishersweekly. 2009: “Navigating Electronic Literature.html).html#beyond-ebook-report). 2010. and Brad Stone. ———. July 6.” Technology Review. 5942. Motoko. March 24. Vol.” Fast Company. Savikas. Adam L. David. and Carole L.0 listserv. Craig Morgan. “Publishing Sector Profile and Action 2009: http://www. Andrew. Penenberg. and Jennifer Bergen. see also http://www. Johannes.html). 2009: http://gilbane. Steve. 2009: http://www. James A. “2009 Year in Review. September/October edited. 2009 (as of October 5.html. also website (as of October 1. Kate. pp. Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practices in Online Learning: A MetaAnalysis and Review of Online Learning Studies. September 8. 2009. May 6th. September 7..” Electronic Literature: New Horizons for the Literary (ebsite). O’Reilly Media. “Amazon Taps Its Inner Apple. 2009: http://blogs. Chris. 2009: http://www. Selected National Findings: Speak Up 2008 for Students. Digital Initiatives. Thomson. Flightpaths.K. 2009: http://newhorizons. Judith. RAND COMPARE (Comprehensive Assessment of Reform Efforts) website.randcompare. 2009 (as of November 30. Parents and Administrators. (as of October 5. September 24. and Bill Trippe. Ontologies.publishersweekly. 2009: http://www.katepullinger. 2009: http://www.’” The Gilbane Group.tomorrow.THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE BOOK Nusca.

.cgpublisher.27/prod. 1. a nonprofit institution that helps improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. Jeffrey R... He has presented at major publishing conferences in the United States and internationally. Warren is Director of Marketing.” Chronicle of Higher Education. at the RAND Corporation. 2009 (as of October 1. Vol. 83–94. John managed marketing efforts for Mexican publisher Fondo de Cultura Económica. 2009. also at http://www.rand. San Diego. John is the winner of the Common Ground International Award for Excellence in the area of the Book. “New E-Textbooks Do More Than Inform: They'll Even Grade You. Young. Warren John W.273. Previously.JOHN W. with special focus on marketing and digital publishing. WARREN Warren. Publications. (as of October 10. About the Author John W.html). 2009: http://ijb. and has provided consulting services to firms seeking to expand business in Mexico and South America. 2009: http://chronicle. John has nearly two decades of experience in the publishing industry.nytimes. September 8. 2009: http://www. “Innovation and the Future of E-Books. and Sylvan Learning. February 23. “Exploring a ‘Deep Web’ That Google Can’t Grasp.” The International Journal of the Book. Inc. pp. Alex.” New York Times. 53 .com/2009/02/23/technology/internet/23search. He has a Masters in International Management from the Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies (IR/PS) at the University of California. 2009 (as of October 4. Sage Publications. John W.


USA. Stanford University. London. Bowker. Urbana-Champaign.EDITORS Bill Cope. University of Illinois. Angus Phillips.C. USA. USA. Madrid. USA. Archives and Libraries of Ministry of Culture. International Development Research Centre. Oxford. Madrid. IPR Systems Pty Ltd. USA. Spain. Sarah Pedersen.. Alfred Rolington. Jason Epstein. José Borghino. EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD Florentina Armaselu. National Library of Australia. Parkes. Boston. UK. Abderdeen. Canberra. Jane’s Information Group. Neville Freeman Agency. Reading and Spanish Literatura of Ministry of Culture. Madrid. Spain. International Centre of Graphic Technologies. Melbourne. RMIT University. Montreal. John Willinsky. Oxford. Michael Jon Jensen. Sydney. Please visit the Journal website at http://www. Warren. Mónica Fernández Muñoz. The Australian National University. Laurie Gerber. Agnes Ponsati. Ottawa. 3 Billion Books. Oxford Brookes University. Susan Bridge. Sydney. Oxford International Centre for Publishing Studies. USA. Sidney Berger. Book. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. USA. Simmons College. Jan Fullerton. David Emblidge. Spanish National Research Council (CSIC). Centre for Research on Intermediality (CRI). Ballarat. Australia. Language Weaver. Patrick Callioni. Paul Callister. Australian Government Information Management Office. Washington D. Spain. Michael Cairns. Australia. Stanford. USA John Man. Norman Paskin. . The Robert Gordon University Aberdeen. Michael Peters. Emerson College. Australia. Australia. Promotion of Books. University of Ballarat. USA. New York. Bibliotecas Digitales. Australia. Margaret Zeegers. John W. Rogelio Blanco Martínez. Scholarly Information Strategies. Boston. DeWitt Henry. USA. Sydney. Renato Iannella. New Providence. UK. Australian Publishers Association. Australian Society of Authors. National Academies Press. Enhanced Printing Industry Competitiveness Scheme/Printing Industries Association of for further information about the Journal or to subscribe. Spain. Australia. Canada. Oxford. Kansas City. USA. Santa Monica. RAND Corporation. Bill Carman. Oliver Freeman. UK. USA. University of Missouri-Kansas City. Richard Vines. UK. Bloch Law Library. Australia. San Diego. Karim Gherab Martín. Emerson College. Leon E. USA. Boston. Colin Steele. Australia. Canada. International DOI Foundation. Howard Dare. Mary Kalantzis. Departments of English and Communications. Madrid. Australia. UK. University of Montreal. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.Book-Journal.

present and future of books. ISSN 1835-2030 Sets out to foster inquiry. ISSN 1835-2030 http://www. ISSN: 1832-2077 http://www. ISSN: 1447-9559 http://www. ISSN: 1833-1874 http://www. in an era otherwise dominated by scientific. ISSN: 1447-9540 http://www. ISSN: 1447-9583 Addresses the key question: How can the institution of the museum become more inclusive? ISSN 1835-2014 http://www. and their inter-relationships with society.Diversity-Journal. ISSN: 1447-9567 http://www. ISSN 1835-4432 http://www. PLEASE CONTACT invite dialogue and build a body of knowledge on the nature and future of Maps and interprets new trends and patterns in globalisation.THE UNIVERSITY PRESS JOURNALS Creates a space for dialogue on innovative theories and practices in the arts. natural and applied sciences. in school and throughout everyday life.Sustainability-Journal. publishing.Socialsciences-Journal.GlobalStudiesJournal. literacy and learning in the information society. knowledge and Discusses disciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to knowledge creation within and across the various social sciences and between the . Examines the meaning and purpose of ‘design’ while also speaking in grounded ways about the task of design and the use of designed artefacts and Provides a forum for discussion and builds a body of knowledge on the forms and dynamics of difference and diversity. technical and economic FOR SUBSCRIPTION Explores the past.Humanities-Journal. ISSN: 1833-1866 Explores the meaning and purpose of the academy in times of striking social transformation. ISSN: 1833-1882 Focuses on a range of critically important themes in the various fields that address the complex and subtle relationships between technology. ISSN: 1447-9575 Discusses the role of the humanities in contemplating the future and the Creates a space for discussion of the nature and future of organisations. Draws from the various fields and perspectives through which we can address fundamental questions of Investigates the affordances for learning in the digital media. in all their forms and manifestations.Arts-Journal.Book-Journal.Museum-Journal. ISSN: 1832-3669 http://www.