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SECTION 2-1

Particulate Solids
PROBLEM 1.1
The size analysis of a powdered material on a mass basis is represented by a straight line from 0 per cent at 1 h m particle size to 100 per cent by mass at 101 pm particle size. Calculate the surface mean diameter of the particles constituting the system.

Solution
See Volume 2, Example 1.1.

PROBLEM 1.2
The equations giving the number distribution curve for a powdered material are dn/dd = d for the size range 0-10 pm, and dn/dd = lo0,000/d4 for the size range 10-100 pm where d is in pm. Sketch the number, surface and mass distribution curves and calculate the surface mean diameter for the powder. Explain briefly how the data for the construction of these curves may be obtained experimentally.

Solution
See Volume 2, Example 1.2.

PROBLEM 1.3
The fineness characteristic of a powder on a cumulative basis is represented by a straight tine from the origin to 100 per cent undersize at a particle size of 50 pm. If the powder is initially dispersed uniformly in a column of liquid, calculate the proportion by mass which remains in suspension in the time from commencement of settling to that at which a 40 pm particle falls the total height of the column. It may be assumed that Stokes’ law is applicable to the settling of the particles over the whole size range.

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PROBLEM 1.046 x 10-6k m/s 2 . During this time.(d3/4800)]p = 0. and one of galena only.(d2/402)1dd = (1/50)[d .(d2/402) and the fraction by mass of particles which are still in suspension is: = l m [ l .4 In a mixture of quartz of density 2650 kg/m3 and galena of density 7500 kg/m3.3 per cent of the particles remain in suspension. where k (= g/18p) is a constant. the sizes of the particles range from 0.2 x 10-6)2(7500.1OOO) = 0.06 x 10-6k m / s For small galena: uo = k(5.2 x 10-6)2(2650 . Stokes’ law. the velocity is proportional to the diameter squared and hence the time taken for a 40 Fm particle to fall a height h m is: t = h/402k where k a constant.Solution For settling in the Stokes’ law region. a particle of diameter d wrn has fallen a distance equal to: kd2h/402k= hd2/402 The proportion of particles of size d which are still in suspension is: = 1 .lO00) = 1.0052 t 0. For large galena: uo = k(25 x 10-6)2(7500 .025 mm. one consisting of quartz only. three fractions are obtained. one a mixture of quartz and galena.24. the mass fraction is: = (1/50) l 40 [ 1 .(d2/402)]dw Since dw/dd = 1/50. What are the ranges of sizes of particles of the two substances in the original mixture? Solution Use is made of equation 3.l0o0) = 4.533 or 53. which may be written as: uo = kd2(ps .176 x 10-6k m/s For large quartz: uo = k(25 x 10-6)2(26J0 .03 x 10% m / s For small quartz: uo = k(5. o On separation in a hydraulic classifier under free settling conditions.P I .1OOO) = 0.

Solution See Volume 2 Example 1 4 .5 A mixture of quartz and galena of a size range from 0. Similarly if the time of settling was such that particles with a velocity equal to 0. that is containing quartz and galena. assuming streamline conditions.6 The size distribution of a dust as measured by a microscope is as follows..1OOO) or d = O.1OOO) or d = O. PROBLEM 1.065 mm is to be separated into two pure fractions using a hindered settling process. the fraction of material in suspension.If the time of settling was such that particles with a velocity equal to 1 0 x lo-% m/s . assuming spherical particles of density 2650 kg/m3.0126 mm PROBLEM 1.oooO126 m or 0. What is the minimum apparent density of the fluid that will give this separation? How will the viscosity of the bed affect the minimum required density? The density of galena is 7500 kg/m3 and the density of quartz is 2650 kg/m3.oooO103 m or 0. Size range (Fm) Number of particles in range (-) 0-2 2-4 4-8 8.3 settled.03 x 1 % = kd2(7500.12 12-16 16-20 20-24 3 2000 600 140 40 15 5 2 .0103 mm. then the top product would contain galena.176 x 10-6k = kd2(2650 .0126 mm. This is not so and hence the maximum size of galena particles still in suspension is given by: 0 1.0103-0. This is not the case and hence the minimum size of quartz in suspension is given by: 0. It may therefore be concluded that. then the bottom product would contain quartz. and calculate the specific surface. Convert these data to obtain the distribution on a mass basis. is made up of particles of sizes in the range 0.176 x m/s did not start to settle.015 mm to 0. .

000k 80. EX.7 wm3. 5. 4 .056 2000 600 140 40 15 5 2 2940 1620 968 C = 21.9 0. is the density of the particles = 2650 kg/m3.000k 106.434.Solution From equation 1. In this case: d n kd3np.968 Thus: d.074.160 29.000k 56. the mass fraction of particles of size dl is given by: XI = nIkld1Psr 3 where kl is a constant.930.200 30.000k 42.20 Vrn This is the size of a particle with the same specific surface as the mixture.168 0.0 The surface mean diameter is given by equation 1.400k X 1 200 3 6 0 0 6 140 10 PO 14 15 18 5 22 2 0.968) = 8.162 0. n1 is the number of particles of size dl. = W d : ) / W l d : ) and hence: d 1 3 6 10 14 18 22 n nd2 2000 5400 5040 4Ooo nd3 2000 16.400k C = 477. = (180.20 b m in diameter = (n/6)8.118 X = 1.000k 77.000.222 0.300.240 40.274.000 41.14: d.056/21.4. The volume of a particle 8.229 0.= 1 and hence the mass fraction is: x1 = nlkld:ps/Xnkd3p.203 = 288.000k 109.160 2 1..296 C = 180.148.136.011 000 . and p.

The surface area of a particle 8.731 pm2/pm3 or 0. PROBLEM 1. and 96 per cent for particles exceeding 10 pm. comment on the quality of the mixture produced and present the data in graphical form showing the variation of mixing index with time.7) = 0.9 The collection efficiency of a cyclone is 45 per cent over the size range 0-5 pm.025 0. Example 1. and hence: the specific surface = (211.. calculate the mass flow of dust emitted. the gas flow is 0 3 m3/s. 80 per cent over the size range 5-10 pm.7 The performance of a solids mixer was assessed by calculating the variance occurring in the mass fraction of a component amongst a selection of samples withdrawn from the mixture.3.018 0. together with the efficiency of collection over each size range is as follows: Size range.015 0.006 0.202)= 2 1 2 pm2 1.2/288.20 pm in diameter = (n x 8.019 If the component analysed represents 20 per cent of the mixture by mass and each of the samples removed contains approximately 100 particles. If the dust burden is 18 g/m3 at entry and . Solution See Volume 2 Example 1 6 . 5 . .8 The size distribution by mass of the dust carried in a gas. The quality w s tested at intervals of 30 s and the data obtained are: a mixing time (s) sample variance (-) 30 60 90 120 150 0. (pm) Mass (per cent) Efficiency (per cent) 0-5 10 20 5-10 15 40 10-20 35 80 20-40 20 90 40-80 1 0 95 80-160 1 0 100 Calculate the overall efficiency of the collector and the percentage by mass of the emitted dust that is smaller than 20 pm in diameter. Solution See Volume 2.731 x lo6 m2/m3 PROBLEM 1. PROBLEM 1.

40 x lo-” 6. estimate the mass of dust in g/m3 of air in the factory.5.1 Number of particles (-) 2000 Mean diameter (Km) 0.78 x lo-’’ 3.10 100 8.54 x lo-’’ 1. Solution If the particles are spherical.0 1.5 x Volume (m3) 6. given the number of particles in the various size ranges to be as follows: Size range (pm) Number of particles (-) 0.0 x 3.5 (m) 0.68 x 8.0 5.78 x 1O-l2 10-14 4-6 200 5.0 x 2.68 x 6.41 x 8. the mass of 1 particle = 2600(x/6)d3 kg and the following table may be produced Size (km) 0. then the volume of 1 particle = (n/6)d3m3.Calculate the efficiency of collection for a dust with a mass distribution of 50 per cent 0-5 pm. PROBLEM 1.97 x 6.97 x lo-” 40 12. Solution See Volume 2.0 8.5 x 3.38 x 1.35 x 9.54 x M s of one particle (kg) 1.41 x lo-” 6 .1 2000 1-2 lo00 2-4 500 4-6 200 6-10 100 10-14 40 It may be assumed that the density of the dust is 2600 kg/m3.10 A sample of dust from the air in a factory is collected on a glass slide.70 x as Mass of one particles in size range (kg) 3.05 x 2.83 x lo-” 3. the particle diameter is d m and the density p = 2600 kg/m3.40 x Size (pm) Number of particles (-) Mean diameter (pm) (m) Volume (m3) M s of one particle (kg) as Mass of one particles in size range (kg) 1-2 2-4 1000 500 1.70 x 1. If dust on the slide was deposited from one cubic centimetre of air.0 x 6.5 3.0 12. 30 per cent 5-10 Fm and 20 per cent above 10 Fm. Example 1. and an appropriate allowance should be made for particle shape.0 x 9.

50 x lo-'' kg.5 d . what s at particle size will the theoretical cut occur? The viscosity of air is 0. Solution See Volume 2.11 A cyclone separator 0.50 x lo-'') x lo3 x lo6 = 0. As this mass is obtained from 1 cm3 of air. If the gas enters at a velocity of 1.018 mNs/m2.2 m long.7. .3 kg/m3 and the density of the particles is 2700 kg/m3. Example 1. the density of air is 1.Total mass of particles = 2. the required dust concentration is given by: (2.3 m in diameter and 1. has a circular inlet 75 mm in diameter and an outlet of the same size.25 g/m3 PROBLEM 1.