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CHAPTER TWO __________


Oliver Cromwell proved himself a surprisingly able executive who provided a
strong and competent leadership in domestic and foreign programs. But if his rule brought peace at home and prestige abroad, the English population paid a heavy price. Military rule had now replaced the relatively moderate monarchy so dear to every Englishman's heart, while taxes had begun to soar to unprecedented heights. Most disturbing of all were the restraints which the Lord Protector's Puritanical zeal had imposed on the people. In order to make his subjects live up to the rigid ethical code of Puritanism, Cromwell had meanwhile enacted the so-called blue laws, which carefully regulated the amusement of the population, and which they, in turn, resented as an interference with their personal freedom. The average Englishman, perhaps less inspired by religious ideals than was Cromwell, soon became tired of being good - at least the Puritan version of goodness; yet as long as the strong arm of the Lord Protector was at the helm, all discontent was kept under tight control. But Oliver Cromwell died in 1658, and thereafter the situation changed rapidly. Cromwell's son and successor, Richard, was as uninterested in as he was unable of continuing his father's work. There followed a short period of uncertainty during which the army actually controlled the government - an entirely unacceptable situation to the English people, and one which finally came to the aid of the opposition. It was becoming clear that the only way to end this military dictatorship and to prevent yet another civil war was to restore the House of Stuart to the English throne. In 1659, a newly elected Parliament invited Charles, the son of the executed king, to return to England. From Holland, where he had fled earlier, Charles immediately issued a declaration of amnesty, and on May 29, 1660, he entered London, where he was joyfully welcomed and immediately crowned as Charles II, King of England. The Stuart kings had always been inclined to rule their country in an autocratic fashion. Charles II might well have liked to continue his ancestors' policies, but his bitter years in exile had convinced him otherwise. Charles, at any rate, was determined to do nothing that might endanger his newly acquired throne and ´send him on his travels again.µ As a result, King and Parliament were to get along with each other without any serious problems during most of the reign of Charles II.

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The English colonies in America had now been in existence for half a century, and for the most part they were well on their way to a reasonable prosperity. But the English upper classes at home still regarded these overseas settlements as little more than plantations of questionable value, especially when compared with the holdings of the Spanish empire. Every English colony except Virginia had grown up through the efforts of individuals and small groups, and the English government had as yet developed no clear policy toward these outposts of English civilization. Occasionally, acts such as the Navigation Act of 1651 attempted to promote governmental influence, but in general colonial trade and development was allowed to go its own way. But with the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 came the beginnings of what might be considered a colonial policy, though this policy was only one part of a much greater plan, the increase of all imperial trade through the system known as mercantilism. This mercantilism was by no means a peculiarly English institution, but was promoted by all colonial powers. Its major objective was to strengthen and enrich the mother country, whose power was measured in terms of wealth, population, and the size of its merchant marine. The first necessity was wealth, the amounts of precious metals, mainly gold and silver, in a country's control. To accumulate such wealth, it was necessary to achieve a favorable balance of trade - meaning, of course, that more goods had to be exported than were being imported, thus leaving a net balance in one's own country. Insular England had always been forced into a self-sufficiency, or at least not to rely on too many imports because, in case of a war, the entire country could easily be cut off from all foreign supplies. Domestic manufactures had therefore always been encouraged, not only to satisfy English needs, but also to provide a surplus for exportation which, in turn, would contribute to a more favorable trade balance. A large population was a vital necessity for such a system; not only would it constitute the consuming public at home, but at the same time it would provide a large potential labor supply for industry. More people also meant a wider circulation of money throughout the country, which would again promote additional increases in domestic manufactures. The English government now set out to promote mercantilism in several ways: new industries were to be aided with bounties and rebates; competition from foreign countries was to be limited by restrictive measures, such as imposing higher import duties. The English merchant marine was to be encouraged with a monopoly of the imperial trade, which would increase shipbuilding and the training of more seamen. The fisheries were to be promoted so that they, too, would need more ships and sailors and provide yet another export item. And this enlarged merchant marine, together with the fishing fleets, would contribute ships and trained men to a stronger English navy.

The American colonies were counted on to play a vital part in this mercantilistic system. English merchants and manufacturers had long found a profitable market among the more prosperous settlers who still demanded English imports, if not for necessities then for status. Thus the colonies would not only provide a market for English goods, but also supply England with raw materials which otherwise would have to be imported from other countries. And by keeping all such trade in English ships, the merchant marine and the navy would again be strengthened. Charles II and his royal family, however, had a personal stake as well in this new policy. The king had returned to England nearly broke, and while ordinary government expenses could be met through taxes, the cost of maintaining the royal court in proper splendor required new sources of revenues. The colonies, in fact, were already providing some of that revenue to the hard-pressed king in the form of import duties; in 1660 it was said that American tobacco alone ´paies more Custome to his Majestie than the East Indies four times over.µ Charles' uncle, Prince Rupert, moreover, was not only Lord High Admiral of the Navy, but also a heavy investor in fur and slave-trading companies, particularly the Hudson's Bay Company. Mercantilism's goals of trade and colonization, therefore, became a personal interest as well as a national policy to Charles II. Parliament began by enacting a series of measures designed to increase English shipping and tighten the controls over the colonies. The Navigation Act of 1660 was little more than a continuation of the act of 1651, made necessary because Charles II had already cancelled all legislation passed under the Commonwealth. But at the same time, the Navigation Act of 1660 closed loopholes in the earlier statute, through which Dutch traders had meanwhile found their way. An English ship had previously been defined as one in which half the crew were English - a condition which the Dutch easily filled by simply hiring more English sailors. Under the new act, however, it was now required that the master as well as three-fourths of the crews be English. No other ships were allowed to trade with the colonies, and colonial governors were ordered to take an oath to enforce the act and to keep records of all vessels trading with their territory. Another addition was the enumeration clause. All enumerated - or listed - items and products must hereafter be shipped only to England or another English colony. To enforce this clause, all ship captains were now required to post a bond at their departure port, which they could recover at their port of arrival only after giving proof that they had complied with the law. The Navigation Act of 1660 specified only tobacco, sugar, indigo, ginger and dyewood, but eventually all colonial products came to be included on the enumerated item list. The clause, however, favored New England commerce, whose products were mainly fish and lumber, which already competed with English products. New England merchants therefore continued to freely buy and sell wherever they wished, as long as they shipped in English vessels. This enumeration principle became the first serious step in the attempt to control all colonial trade. Enumerated products paid custom duties, which meant a considerable increase in royal revenues. Trading these products to other European countries was no longer allowed, so the English merchants gained a lucrative monopoly

in goods on which the Dutch had already prospered. Besides, the sugar which now flowed only into England had to be refined or distilled into molasses; the tobacco needed sorting, cutting and rolling; cotton had to be spun, woven and dyed. All this meant thousands of new jobs for English workmen and additional shipping income to shippers. The colonies, on the other hand, were assured a market for their products. They were relieved of competition from the Dutch, and their own shipbuilding increased considerably. And they were still free to import and export all but enumerated articles to and from any foreign country they chose. But this relative commercial freedom of the colonies soon provoked increasing complaints from the powerful English merchants who saw many profitable ventures slip through their fingers. In 1663, Parliament finally obliged them by passing the Staple Act, which decreed that all foreign items imported by the colonies had first to be shipped to England, from where English ships would then transport them to the colonies. The Staple Act, of course, was designed to prevent the colonies from developing an independent trade; at the same time it would develop an English wholesale business, handled by English middlemen. While the colonies were now forced to turn to the mother country for all their purchases, England would become the market place for all European imports to them. As might have been anticipated, the colonists were quick to find ways to evade the required duties and bonds in shipping enumerated items. Tobacco, for example, was legally shipped from one English colony to another, often under deceptive labels, and was then shipped illegally to foreign ports. In 1673, Parliament attempted to check such practices through the Plantation Duty Act; payment of duties was now required even when a ship cleared one colonial port for another, and English customs officers now appeared in America to collect such duties. The effect of such statutes on England seems to have been immediate and dramatic. Merchant shipping doubled within the first 25 years, during which time the Dutch lost their previously uncontested lead in world commerce. Refining and finishing industries sprouted throughout England, while the protective navigation system kept cheaper competing goods out. The immediate effects on the American colonies, however, were negligible, mainly because the settlers of New England and Chesapeake Bay had already been used to doing business with England long before the Navigation Acts insisted that they do so. New Englanders always preferred English goods, and the Chesapeake colonists were accustomed to market their tobacco with the merchants of London. And if some of these new laws were occasionally annoying, the general lack of an effective enforcement machinery made them easy enough to evade. But the English government realized very well that enforcement of the Navigation Acts needed improvements if these laws were to have any effect. Before such enforcement was possible, however, there had to be some sort of uniform administration over all the colonies, and that became the next goal. First, the Privy Council appointed a Committee for Foreign Plantations to gather information about the colonies, to investigate charters and land grants, and to evaluate the colonial

governments. Then in 1675, a new agency was created, the Lord Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, commonly known as the Lords of Trade. 24 members of the Privy Council were given broad powers to draft commissions and instructions for royal governors, to send out questionnaires to colonial officials, and to make reports on all colonial affairs. For the next twenty years, these Lords of Trade were to rule over American colonial affairs.

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With Charles II seated happily and securely on his throne, his first concern was to reward those who had assisted him. Hoping that they might be counted on to keep him in power, Charles proceeded to court the favor of the large landowners, merchants, and influential courtiers of his kingdom. With little else to offer, the king issued enormous land grants in his New World possessions to deserving individuals and groups. It was during that time that one such favored group received an enormous proprietary grant which covered the entire area of today's North and South Carolina. Much of the region embraced by this grant had originally been included in the Virginia charter of 1606, but for years thereafter no one had attempted any settlements at all in this wilderness, usually known as South Virginia, New Brittaine, or even North Florida. Occasionally it was also spoken of as Carolina, the Land of Charles, but it is not known whether this name referred to Charles I of England, or whether those luckless Huguenots at Port Royal had had in mind Charles IX of France. In 1622, John Pory, the presiding officer of that first assembly in Virginia, had made a 60-mile trip to the Albermarle Sound region, which he later described as ´very fruitful and pleasant Country, yielding two harvests in a yeare.µ But before any further exploration could be made, Virginia became a royal colony, and all ungranted lands reverted beck to the king. Then, in 1629, Charles I presented his attorney-general, Sir Robert Heath, with the region called the Province of Carolina, all the lands between 31 and 36 degrees latitude. Heath never attempted to settle his domain, and neither did his successor in title, the Duke of Norfolk. But hunters and trappers and traders had by that time begun to drift into the area from Virginia, and in 1650 one of these men, Edward Bland, published a promotional tract called The Discovery of New Brittaine. In it, Bland described the fine tobacco he had seen, sugar cane ´25 feet long and six inches round,µ and agreed with earlier reports that the local natives ´have two crops of Indian Corne yearly, whereas Virginia hath but one.µ In 1653, the Virginia assembly enacted ´Upon the petition of Roger Green Clarke . . . that tenn thousand acres of land be granted unto one hundred such persons who shall first seateµ along the Roanoke River and south, ´ . . . provided that such seaters settle advantageously for security and be sufficiently furnished with ammunition and strength . . . .µ Clark and his men, presumably sufficiently furnished with firelocks, bullets and

and soon large plantations. if not more freedoms of all sorts as they might find anywhere in America. In fact. for reasons and with reputations good and bad.powder horns. Lord High Chancellor. The small planters and the white servants who had completed their indentures found themselves with no place to go. and only two years later the plantations contained some 800 people and appeared to be thriving. back again as governor of Virginia and his brother. Proprietary shares were ´alienable and heritable. In order to attract settlers to this new province. as always conforming to those of England. but after 1640. and their cabins remained far apart. but despite the governor's best efforts. in April of 1663. But now. as well as full liberty of conscience and religious freedom. But the Earl was also realistic enough to realize that religious freedom had proven an effective way to entice people into the wilderness.µ All liberties and privileges of English subjects were guaranteed. use. That island had once been covered by small and medium-sized farms which had produced diversified crops. Other hardy folks followed slowly. Charles II granted to eight ´True and Absolute Proprietorsµ once again all the territory between 31 and 36 degrees north latitude. the proprietors promised all prospective settlers as much. There was nothing out there but forests and streams. The white population increased only slowly. Men came with and without families. some hunting and fishing. Lord John Berkeley. by that time already a fiercely persecuted sect. in their subsequent promotional campaign. and the name of Carolina soon became synonymous with backwoods hinterland. And there was Sir William Berkeley. William Hilton of Barbados had explored the Cape Fear region in 1663. assent and approbation of the freemen. frontier's land. were to be enacted only with ´the advice. One group of these islanders began a settlement near Cape Fear in 1664. ´and to the west as far as the south seas. and enjoyµ all powers usually granted over such lands. among them Quakers. and the Earl of Clarendon. little progress was made in that territory. Indians and bears and wolves. dominated the landscape. In 1665 the proprietors finally divided Carolina into three counties . and they lived off some agriculture. the inhabitants· rights and privileges were carefully guarded and stipulated. It was in this same year that Rhode Island had received royal approval for her own experiment in toleration for much the same reason. there was Sir Anthony Ashley-Cooper. Chancellor of the Exchequer. so strict an Anglican that his name had become synonymous with religious intolerance.Albermarle . set out into this wilderness.µ and the proprietors were ´to have. Laws. This last promise must have been a hard concession for the Earl of Clarendon. sugar had become the main export. both in Virginia and England. The northern section had little to offer that an established Virginia could not grant at better terms and conditions. manned by black slaves. exercise. all of whom already owned land in the West Indies. But the southern part was a different story. and his reports had aroused great enthusiasm among many of the smaller planters of Barbados. and the traded with the Indians.µ These new proprietors included members of the Privy Council such as Sir George Carteret and Sir John Collton. Governor Berkeley was assigned authority over the northern part of the Carolina grant.

the requirement that all representatives should live within the district which they represented. proved a cumbersome instrument. and explicitly encouraged the development of black slave labor. three ships set out from England with settlers and supplies and various seeds to try out in the Carolina soil and climate. Cooper·s Fundamental Constitution. the constitution foresaw the shortage of labor on large estates. and over the following three decades of trial and revisions it gradually faded away. in fact. and then to begin their agricultural experiments. with which he hoped to attract well-to-do gentlemen as well as the small planters and settlers. Most of the proprietors. Mr. the remaining two-fifths was to be reserved for nobility. Cooper had also offered to purchase all crops grown at London prices. Cooper's constitution right up to the American Revolution. 1670. and £200 more annually for the next four years to get the colony on its feet. governor and council. Clarendon and Craven in the south . however. The entire Carolina territory was divided into county squares of 12. Several features in this constitution had been added to fit American conditions and to avoid previous mistakes. Cooper had instructed them to provide first ´for the bellyµ by planting stores of provisions. were ready to abandon the entire project until Sir AshleyCooper persuaded his partners to pledge another £500 each to launch one more effort. The future of Carolina now looked dismal. The three ships with the settlers aboard arrived at Port Royal in April. Late in the summer of 1669. as was the registration of land titles. where. but all hope for an independent colony seemed at an end. But the supply ship was wrecked at sea. complete with baronies for an American nobility and precincts to be settled by the freeholders. it resembled Mr. Cooper was convinced that a nobility was the very life and soul of society. Orderly settlement was difficult to impose on a people who preferred to mix whenever and wherever they felt the urge. and its settlers dispersed into the woods. where French Huguenots so long ago had erected their own ill-fated enterprise. To avoid the disorderly type of settlement experienced in the Chesapeake region. in the meantime. stripped of the landed nobility. and deaths was stipulated. marriages. some settlers still remained in the Albermarle region. but unrestricted it became ´the utter bane and destruction of the state. after .in the north. And then the seemingly successful Cape Fear settlement folded as well. To encourage such experiments and give the settlers a boost when they most needed it. Three-fifths of each county was to become the property of freeholders. The registration of all births. which was blamed on the complete absence of towns. especially in South Carolina. The constitution also continued what was already becoming an American tradition . three ships left Barbados to establish a colony at Port Royal. and the planned settlement was abandoned before it ever got started. the constitution offered trading privileges and exemptions to any towns erected within Carolina. had drawn up a Fundamental Constitution for Carolina. In the same year. Cooper. But many of the features of the document survived. And finally.000 acres each.µ The three-fifths of each county in the hands of the freeholders would therefore assure them that they would always remain in control.each with its own assembly. which amounted to a hefty subsidy on the part of the proprietors.

Farmers up the river floated their crop down to the town. Charleston ships sold their cargo at Barbados.000 more had spread outward from Charleston in the south. however. this trade. the settlers there lived on small farms carved out from the forest. a party of 45 Huguenots came in 1680. Carolina . they followed the waterways. a spot safer from attacks but still ´in the very chops of the Spanish. which stopped Virginia's spread toward the west. They had their own governor and assembly. economic ties. at any rate. It was there that began the so-called triangular trade. Soon a Spanish force did in fact try to evict these new intruders. the corn. and though a Spanish force managed to wipe out that settlement. and a well-timed relief ship arrived to carry the English through their first winter without the usual starving time. became so regular and profitable a pattern that Carolina traders seldom bothered to enter the trade routes of the other American colonies. remained as a witness to Cooper's orderly dream. founded in 1680 at the junction of these two rivers. but most of those were soon abandoned. They survive today as half-forgotten examples of European attempts to impose some order on the chaos in this new land. were carried to Barbados. in fact. Charleston prospered in part also because the Appalachian Mountains.µ said one of the settlers. as well as the origin of many of the settlers. and built their homes all along the rivers named Ashley and Cooper. reloaded with sugar and ginger. Charleston followed a pattern which had been begun by New Haven and was to be continued by Philadelphia and scores of other towns yet to be laid out in the American wilderness. Cooper's plans lasted very long in the Carolina wilderness. the Scots stayed on and rebuilt. Augustine. ignoring the grid plan for settlement. lemons. this trade brought a tidy profit at every stop. Neat tenacre plots had been laid out around the original fort to give the settlers space to experiment with such crops as oranges. Two years later there were once again more than 800 colonists. but little else distinguished them from those who called themselves Virginians. What's more. about 3. and exchanged that in England for manufactured goods which were then sold again back in Charleston. and from there the pork. growing tobacco for cash crops but otherwise living a largely isolated existence.a miserable eight-month voyage. ´stoop to your lordship's dominions and lay open a prospect into unlimited empires. and many more soon followed. and later the rice. soon focused almost exclusively on the town of Charleston. Few of Mr. oriented Charleston toward the West Indies rather than toward their mainland neighbors. The people began to drift inland. To the shipowners. Only Charles Town. rice and cotton. they soon moved northward and built a fort at Albermarle Point. Laid out in checkerboard fashion. By the end of the 17th century. The memory of the French Huguenots who had settled there so long ago may have reminded the Englishmen of the nearby Spanish at St. In 1681 a group of Scots founded Stuart's Town. and some 5.µ Through that access to the hinterland flowed a lucrative fur trade and a heavy traffic in Indian slaves through Charleston.000 people had settled around Albermarle Sound in the northern part of Carolina. Life in the southern part of Carolina. But the northern part always remained dependent on Virginia. the lumber and cattle. but a storm chased them off again.

he not only granted his brother all the lands from Delaware Bay to the Connecticut River. but the Dutch by degrees drove our people out of it. George II permanently divided the colony into North and South Carolina. 1664. pushed their frontier westward faster and farther than the settlers in any other English colony. Chickasaw and the Choctaw meanwhile kept the backcountry in constant turmoil by dividing their allegiances among the white intruders. It was this Carolina trade and its frequent collisions with French and Spanish settlers.µ In March of 1664. in fact.µ if necessary. when they sold all the territory back to the Crown. debtors. and some members even declared themselves ready to ´pawn their estates to maintain a war. and three weeks later the king informed New England of his decisions. In fact. and the town of New Amsterdam was the center of illegal trade between the American colonies and foreign nations. ´did belong to England heretofore. Duke of York and Albany. Colonel Richard Nicolls was appointed lieutenant-general of the territory still in Dutch hands. but Maine and Martha's Vinyard as well. runaway slaves and servants and all sorts of discreditable persons. Early in April.traders. * * * New Netherland had meanwhile become a real thorn in the royal eye of Charles II. Creek. including all of Long Island. because of its sea-to-sea grant. from where Frenchmen were already trekking eastward. Governor Nicolls arrived at New Amsterdam with four ships . Parliament readily approved all these actions. he declared. Thirty years later. Spain. was to become even more furious when in 1732 George II granted the southernmost. South Carolina was glad to be rid of the poor but independent settlers to the north. Connecticut. Charles II needed little convincing. By the end of the century they had already brushed the Spanish presence aside and had reached the Mississippi River. that would involve the colony in every imperial war of the next generation. Cherokee. the entire region embraced by New Netherland. In 1691. And Long Island was settled mostly by Englishmen who loudly complained about their ´cruel and rapacious neighbours. claimed large tracts of New Netherland territory as its own. Its strategic location was an obstacle to overland communications between New England and the Chesapeake region. New Netherland. In August. each with its own government. Indian tribes such as the Catawba.µ the Dutch. Well-born Virginians. regarded North Carolina as little more than a hiding place for pirates. and finally jurisdiction over all New England. in turn. and insisted that a conquest of New Netherland would be an easy task. and still unsettled part of South Carolina to yet another British group. north and south. at any rate. he granted to his brother James. the Carolina proprietors finally divided their territory into two parts. already outraged by the formation of South Carolina on her borders. in honor of their generous king. who gratefully renamed it Georgia.

New Amsterdam became New York. 1664. and the Swedes along the Delaware. a custom that is still practiced in many European countries today. St. in fact. long unhappy over their governor's tyranny. cookie. With the conquest of New Netherland. Such familiar American words as bowery for farm. England had suddenly inherited a large international population. In the forty years of Dutch rule only a few of their own people had become permanent settlers in the colony. Thus. Governor Stuyvesant stomped his wooden leg in helpless anger and declared that he would rather ´be carried out deadµ than surrender. Nicholas became the American symbol of Christmas. and America offered them no religious or political advantages they did not already enjoy. ironically. and the State of New York some of its most prominent citizens with names like Van Rensselaer. The Dutch gave the Easter egg and Santa Claus to America. and a small number of African blacks. was spoken by some Albany residents as late as the 1890s. cruller. considering the temper of most New Netherland governors. and on his birthday.000 inhabitants of New Netherland in general included French. the opposite might well have been true. Scots. Still. The Dutch also gave New York City its seal and colors. The parochial school. was an innovation in education. and Roosevelt. Besides the Dutch. There were few advantages to any Dutch people in migrating to America. and they refused to support Stuyvesant's stubborn stand. Nicholas had been the patron saint of New Amsterdam.and calmly demanded the city's surrender. were convinced that they could be no worse off under English rule. The gap was filled the English colonies now reached from the borders of French Canada to those of Spanish Florida in one unbroken line. this same St. their homeland was not overcrowded. Fort Orange was renamed Albany. Norwegians. but the town continued as a Dutch settlement. Their fort was falling apart. The city's inhabitants. Dutch children set out their shoes to receive his gifts. there was the English population on Long Island. that as early as 1664 it was claimed that eighteen different languages could be heard around New Amsterdam. New Netherland had always depended heavily on foreigners. Walloons. on August 26. Dutch habits long continued in many areas of New York State. and the nearly 8. their provisions were running low. the Dutch left strong imprints on New York's and America's social life and customs. In fact. but even he knew it was useless to resist. devised to keep alive the Dutch language. Irish. Germans. December 6. so much so. and religion under English rule. and the gunpowder was nearly gone. it was the Catholics who would later benefit most from the parochial school system. all were originally Dutch words. The familiar New York front stoop is a Dutch word as well as a Dutch architectural innovation. as were boss and dope and kill for creek. spook for ghost. the Dutch language. brief for letter. Van Buren. controlled by Dutch political and social leaders. traditions. and all of New Netherland surrendered without a single shot being fired. As a result. yacht. Danes. . Much later. And sleigh riding and ice skating were traditional Dutch customs. a term still used in many Mid-Atlantic states.

to seek the advice and consent of the freemen for any of his actions. he substituted New York City's government with a mayor. Long Island. Nicolls organized an English government. religious toleration quietly became his policy. he made no changes at all in the government of the colony. appointed by the governor. Drawn mostly from the codes of Massachusetts and New Haven. and once again the defenseless town was forced to give up after firing only a few harmless shots. though he did require each community to support at least one church. Duke of York. For a short 15 months. wisdom. The only limits to his power were the stipulations that all laws must be in harmony with those of England. and trials by jury. James managed his colony for nearly two decades without any representative assembly whatsoever. for James. and that appeals to the Privy Council in England be allowed. Governor Nicolls realized from the start that the proprietor's dictatorial opinions would have to be tempered by concessions to local feelings. and intelligence. until the Peace of Westminster returned the town and colony . as was Lord Baltimore. Finally. and religious freedom was guaranteed to everyone. In 1673. however. Present Westchester County. Francis Lovelace. was in complete sympathy with the authoritarian views of the Dutch West Indies Company. The duke was not even required. and Staten Island were united in a district called Yorkshire. a process which took months for most other charters. Little had been done to improve the colonial defenses since the change in ownership. all the inhabitants had been promised the same terms of freedom of worship. and for this territory the governor compiled what became known as the Duke's Law. for example. Punishment for crime. that the Dutch inhabitants of the colony praised his ´gentleness. who held his post only little longer than his predecessor. all of whom were personally selected by him. leaving the administration in the hands of the Dutch officials. by direct order from the proprietor. New York again became New Netherland. but delegated his authority to a governor and council. and a continuance of their widely varied customs. during yet another Dutch-Anglo war. There were justices of the peace. But having a brother as King of England was certainly not an obstacle in such matters. proved to be a wise choice. as a result. Nicolls showed such exceptional wisdom and tact in the exercise of the enormous powers entrusted to him. these statutes turned town government over to a constable and a board of overseers.Such Dutch traditions continued in New York with the full blessing of the proprietor. for example. Only four years later. was liberal when compared to English practices of the time. Governor Nicolls was replaced by a royal friend. For the English inhabitants. The extraordinarily brief charter for New York was hastily written and passed the seals in only four days. This Duke's Law was eventually extended over the entire colony of New York.µ and soon declared that their rights were now ´better protected than ever before. property rights. aldermen and sheriffs. The first governor. Richard Nicolls. For nearly a year. however. elected by the freeholders. a strong Dutch fleet appeared before New York and demanded its surrender. however. Nicolls also realized that his instructions to establish the Anglican Church as the only church were impossible to carry out. however.µ Along with the Dutch. The Duke of York never came to America himself.

. had meanwhile been recalled to England. King Charles II died. no doubt he hoped to make his choice more acceptable to the strongly anti-Catholic settlers by authorizing Dongan to call an elected assembly. the situation grew more critical each day as revenues in the colony decreased to a point where the government was nearly bankrupt and unable to function. however. however. This aristocratic officer demanded unquestioning obedience from subordinates and subjects alike. When the governor levied a tax to erect badly needed fortifications around the town of New York. the colonists considered the matter settled and refused to make further payments. his background and his military training. English New York's first representative assembly was finally convened. 1685. The Duke of York finally yielded. In England permanently. and when Governor Andros was recalled that same year and failed to renew them. he said. it was common knowledge. Major Edmund Andros. he finally recommended such action to his Lord Proprietor. who had not even been in the colony at the time of its surrender. though the proprietor still reserved for himself the right to approve them or to reject them later. the Long Island villages refused to pay since this tax had been assessed without the consent of a representative assembly.µ The protests grew more frequent and ever louder. and now the colonial officials urged the proprietor to give in as the only means of raising the desperately needed funds. All laws passed by this body were to become effective immediately. Two years later they were still rejecting the governor's suggestions for voluntary contributions and still demanded the same privileges other English colonies were enjoying. When Andros was petitioned to allow at least some deputies to sit with him and his council. Andros came from a moderately wealthy family. events in England had already changed the entire situation once again. but they had once again been imposed without the consent of the people. The Duke of York actually approved this charter in October. He had meanwhile chosen as his new governor an Irish Catholic named Thomas Dongan. and his brother. the next time over customs duties. Again the towns of Long Island petitioned for a representative assembly. had shaped him into an administrator whose temperament was poorly suited to American demands. succeeded him to the throne as James II. Governor Lovelace. were necessarily different from those of James the Duke. that such deputies usually ´prove destructive to . 1683. But the Duke of York refused. These duties were actually very modest ones. This first assembly. The duties were to expire in 1680. About 40 years old at that time. for example. James the King's policies. but by the time the document was returned to New York. For months thereafter. however. and his insensitivity to popular feelings were to entangle him in continuous and bitter quarrels with the independent inhabitants of his territory. English imperial plans had already begun to bring the . In October. 1684. though probably for reasons of his own. . where he was later tried and convicted of negligence of duty. the Duke of York. the peace of the government wherein they are allowed.a constitution of sorts for the colony. the Duke of York now sent out to America an army officer. Restored to proprietorship. lasted barely long enough to pass its Charter of Liberties and Privileges . and like all such taxes they were deeply resented.

to another friend. New York's population nearly quadrupled. James II rejected the very same charter he himself had approved only six months earlier. and this royal authority was about to be extended by suppressing all colonial legislatures. and in addition demanded an oath of loyalty. his operations in the vast grant were continuously in the red and James gradually began slicing away on his possession. It was also included in the grant made by Charles II to his brother James. Though the town of New York long remained Dutch in tone and appearance. But the governor arrived on a confused scene. a colony within a colony. in fact. Fortunately for New York's population. therefore. But the duke had quickly realized that this was far more territory than he could handle. Sir George's 66-year old cousin. To his friends Lord Berkeley and George Carteret. In March. was chosen as the first governor of the New Jersey province. there were certain to be stormy times ahead for this royal province. In 1665. During the first 25 years under English rule. creating. new habits and customs gradually developed with new arrivals. Inevitably. Dongan proved to be one of those rare exceptions in colonial history. James' original grant. and he sailed with about thirty new recruits to an already established settlement called Elizabethtown. too. with a few closely knit wealthy families of Dutch background dominant in the colony's politics. Many of these settlers had received land grants from Governor Nicolls of New York. trouble began immediately. he ceded the lands between the Hudson and Delaware Rivers as the Province of Nova Ceasaria or New Jersey. still the principal economy of New York as well. William Penn. in effect. In Governor Dongan's new commission all powers were returned to him and his council. And with the French to the north beginning to tighten their control over the western sources of the fur trade. . Later he relinquished the three Lower Counties. When Governor Carteret now attempted to collect taxes and quitrents on these lands. there was a sprinkling of Swedish and Dutch settlers in the Delaware Valley. * * * The area of today's New Jersey had originally been a part of New Netherland and had become English property along with the rest of the Dutch colony. a man of outstanding ability who somehow managed to administer his province to the satisfaction of both the inhabitants and his royal master. but allowed them to set up their own General Assembly. however. 1685. while a representative assembly was never even mentioned. and in the eastern part were settled about 250 Dutch colonists and several Puritan families from Long Island and New Haven. was soon so trimmed down that for a while it included little more than Long Island and a narrow strip along the Hudson River.colonies into a closer dependency to the Crown. as Delaware was then called. these newcomers began to resent the entrenched elite. Philip Carteret. already deeply involved in the Carolina project. with patents which not only exempted them from taxation for two years.

µ The growing taxes imposed on many of the colonies became a major issue. The rebellion soon spread throughout the settlements. and printing has divulged them and libels against the best governments! God keep us from both!µ All of which did not keep the good governor himself from his love for books and the writing of several plays. Sir William Berkeley. was the Old Dominion. Berkeley also was thoroughly convinced that voting and office holding were the exclusive privileges of the wealthy.µ and his decidedly undemocratic rule became a major cause of complaints from Virginia. * * * While the English colonies had expanded and increased in numbers. after all. as many of the inhabitants never failed to boast. until the Duke of York solved the entire dispute by revoking all of Governor Nicolls' grants. of greater freedom and opportunity. Berkeley was a man of the upper class and. During his years in office he was capable of writing home that ´I thank God there are no free schools nor printing. he held an utter contempt for the general population. Virginians had led relatively quiet lives during the years of the Commonwealth. as so many of his peers. He and . ostensibly to discuss ´the safety of the country. to his king and colony.µ A group of settlers met in an unauthorized assembly.complaints about arbitrary. found proprietary government something ´we simple creatures never heard of before. for learning has brought disobedience into the world. the only colony that had remained loyal to the Stuarts. And in the north. resistance. Berkeley's previous popularity quickly dwindled while he ´grew in narrowness as he grew in years. as he saw it. and I hope we shall not have these for a hundred years. But this time. just as they had always been in England. a royal government was returned to the colony without any incidents. Wars. the old and familiar protests were being heard again . there were signs of deep unrest among many of the people. The English subjects dutifully obeyed.Puritans.´ but actually to devise resistance to proprietary authority. Virginia. and when the restoration of Charles II was proclaimed in September. Now. and while most seemed to thrive and prosper. subsided. the governor began a ruthlessly efficient administration. already accustomed to governing themselves in this new land for half a century. Only those who held proprietary grants and who paid quitrents were from now on to be considered freeholders. with the Indians kept the population in constant insecurity and restlessness. and dishonest governments and demands for a ´free Parliament. the popular former governor. 1660. And royal government was returned to Virginia in the person of that staunch old Royalist. for the time being at least. the spread of Catholic French Canada had become a major concern to the Puritans of New England. frequently only rumors of wars. inefficient. So many of these settlers had come to the colonies of America in the hope. however. faithful. and often with the explicit promise.

if at all. taxes to build forts ´in each of the riversµ to protect the colony against Indians. Complaints grew against these sheriffs for collecting excessive fees. and pillory. a severe epidemic among the cattle. There were special taxes for the improvement of Jamestown. as early as 1663 there were several uprisings among them. and he appointed the sheriffs. and in 1673 the King himself seems to have become fed up. and arresting citizens for non-payment of taxes. than by the discretions in their votes provide for the conservation thereof. Whereas the usuall way of chuseing burgessesby the votes of all persons who haveing served their tyme are freemen of this country. in 1670. who were the executive officers. and a drop in the price of tobacco from three pence to a half penny a pound. The problems continued to mount. Harsh servant and slave laws were passed.his personally appointed council. between 1660 and 1674. and to keep the masses under control. Berkeley appointed justices of the peace who presided over the county courts. In that year. the authorized forts were never built. prisons were erected in every county. The mounting unrest extended to servants and finally to the growing slave population. who haveing little interest in the country doe oftener make tumults at the election to the disturbance of His Majestie's peace. But the trouble which finally led to open insurrection began with a dispute over . but for the next three years Virginia remained a proprietary colony. not garrisoned. The country cried out in anger. and by their majority vote they meant to keep it that way. ´harrying poor debtors. ´Poore people not knowing for what they were levyed did always admire how their taxes could be so high. And whereas the lawes of England grant a voyce in such elections only to such as by their estates real or personall have interest enough to tye them to the endeavour of the public good. There were poll taxes. and under his pressure the legislature even refused equitable representation to newer counties on the frontier.µ At the same time. and ducking stools appeared.µ It did not matter much in any case. and the assembly sent agents to London to protest the grant. refused to fill council vacancies.µ Then there were several bad crop years. Then. stock.µ misusing public funds. As one unhappy Virginian expressed it in the quaint dialogue of the day. region. whose members enjoyed freedom from taxation and quitrents. to whom in misfortune Virginia had been so loyal. came voter restriction: ´Act III. But the people had many other grievances against their governor. Election of Burgesses by whom. granted ´all that entire tract. It is hereby enacted that none but freeholders and housekeepers who only are answerable to the publique for the levies shall hereafter have a voyce in the elections of any burgesses in this country. Berkeley kept a virtual rubber-stamp House of Burgesses in session without any elections at all. territory. They were never audited properly. Charles II. and the contemplated towns never materialized. And taxes there were many. and dominion of land and water commonly called Virginiaµ to Lord Culpeper and the Earl of Arlington. He passed laws as he saw fit. and a 30-pound tobacco assessment ´to encourage the building of towns. or if they were. controlled the government. it was becoming clear that much of these public funds were being wasted. by makeing choyce of persons fitly qualifyed for the discharge of soe greate a trust.

so that there is no fear of them. All freemen were restored to full citizenship. There was no need for a large militia. But when the governor tried to call out the militia units of several counties. demanding the immediate election of a new assembly by ´open franchise. But when a large band of Susquehannocks killed 36 people out on the frontier only a few months later. however. had become a member of the governor's council. The assembly eventually did declare war on the Indians. Governor Berkely refused to send out troops. in 1675. and was well on his way to becoming a member of Virginia's gentry. than Berkeley once again dissolved the assembly and proclaimed the entire militia force as rebels. and then set out upriver to fight Indians. Back in Jamestown. Nathaniel Bacon was elected Burgess from Henrico County. Yet. they attacked a group of Indians and in a short battle killed nearly 150 of them. Governor Berkeley refused even to grant a commission for this enterprise. he led these men into Jamestown. when several men on his plantation became victims of still another Indian attack. where sometimes single families had built lonely cabins in the wilderness. Nathaniel Bacon. Bacon had meanwhile already raised an armed force of 500 men. Thus. the governor promptly denounced Bacon as a rebel and suspended him from his council. declared Goivernor Berkeley. saying that he would do nothing until the legislature met. ´our neighbours. but by that time the tide of discontent had begun to roll. they forced Governor Berkeley to sign a commission appointing Bacon as head of the militia. are absolutely subjected. Frontiersmen had long complained that they had no protection at all from Indian attacks.000 troops to prosecute the already declared war against the Indians. and in June 1676. much less subjected.µ In the major settlements there was indeed no need to fear the Indians. And when the Indian attacks continued without reprisals. the Indians were anything but neighborly. and they frequently attacked and killed entire families of settlers. Armed settlers descended on the capital. No sooner had they left town. since no military support was voted to prosecute that war. There. a recent settler in Henrico County. and promptly set out to reform Virginia's laws. they refused to fight against Bacon and became so hostile that Berkeley considered himself endangered enough to flee the capital.µ and the aging governor had little choice but to yield to the will of his people. and many of the offending statutes and offices were changed. but the settlers went ahead anyway. it was a different story. despite the governor's optimistic statements. and the governor ignored all demands for a larger militia in order not to jeopardize his profits from the fur trade. the settlers finally took matters in their own hands. but it was an empty gesture. By the time that assembly was finally called. had inherited large tracts of land. In a turbulent election a new assembly was chosen. after a band of Indians had killed two men in Stafford County.the governor's Indian policy. . for the Indians. but on the edges of the English world. another 250 of Virginia's pioneers had lost their lives in repeated attacks by hostile Indians. the militia went out and killed some Indians in return. and was now authorized to raise up to 1. he raised nearly 300 volunteers to march off in revenge. The authorized forts had never been built.

Governor Berkeley returned during one of Bacon's frequent absences and he and about 600 armed men were admitted peacefully. but that was the end of the rebellion. His true character is in dispute. nearly forty of the rebels were hanged by order of the uncompromising governor. They found only conflicting testimony. Though Jamestown was still controlled by the rebels. In one more act of defiance his troops burned Jamestown to the ground. Berkeley's poorly trained men were no match for these seasoned Indian fighters who knew very well that they had to win or be hanged as rebels. who led a similar revolt in North Carolina at that time. Even the so-called Bacon Assembly and its reforms had little input by him. and he even conferred with John Culpeper. a somewhat unsavory one at that. Charles II had sent out a force of 1. in fact. But Sir William's time had also come. however. was already coming to an end. But Nathaniel Bacon's dream.000 soldiers to restore order in America. He seems to have been more of an Indian hater than a political reformer and. It is true that he hoped other colonies might join him. and all of Bacon's surviving followers received pardons. and everyone swore to oppose any troops which might be sent out against them from England. when historians began to view his rebellion as a forerunner of all the political upheavals yet to come. The commissioners finally concluded that the grievances expressed did not indicate ´the existence of a dangerous spirit of revolt. In May of 1677. 1676. Just how much of a revolution Nathaniel Bacon had in mind is now hard to determine. on October 26. Bacon consolidated his men. For the first time the people of a colony had risen against a royal governor and . though most settlers unanimously condemned the plundering by both Berkely and Bacon. the not yet 30-year old Bacon died. who took his opportunity to slaughter countless of Virginia's Indians. Berkeley was relieved of his duties. his reprisals against Virginia's Indians fell as much on those allied with the colony as it did on those guilty of attacks. Two special commissioners had meanwhile begun to investigate the causes of the uprising in Virginia. Berkeley returned to power and immediately rescinded all of the recent reform measures. where he died shortly after his arrival. yet it is very likely that in real life he was no more than what Governor Berkeley called him . Exactly one month later. one who already envisioned a distant American Revolution. but there is little evidence to point toward much of a democratic spirit in Bacon's ideals. and despite an earlier promise of pardon. They also declared that all his actions had been legal.µ but they did recommend the restoration of most of the recent reform laws. and with his death the revolt collapsed. Bacon returned from another Indian expedition and unceremoniously evicted the governor from the capital.a rebel.All during August. Over a century later.µ pledging to assist him. whatever it might have been. Nathaniel Bacon will probably remain forever as a prominent and heroic figure in American mythology. Bacon's image became that of an early Patriot. Only a month later. all of whom had taken an ´Oath of Fidelity. the now 71-year old troubled governor sailed back to England. As soon as news of the rebellion had reached England. those of the governor illegal and ruinous to the colony.

* * * In Maryland. quitrents . the secretary and collector of customs. had regularly seized goods being imported and exported in violation of the acts. Both men were banished from the colony. too. collector of the customs and acting governor of the colony. in 1681. The dispute finally spilled over into the countryside. the same month Bacon leveled Jamestown. More royal governors soon arrived to continue to exploit the colony. an unruly mob demonstrated against the government. but the news from Virginia caused the Maryland authorities to react strongly. but Maryland had not heard the last of John Coode. Indians. when the proprietors and settlers had struggled for control of the government. and soon every problem taxes. The Carolina proprietors. but the settlers had learned to push actively for their demands. The Protestant majority in the Lower House bickered steadily with the Catholic Upper House of the legislature. Troubles began in 1677 with the proprietors' efforts to enforce the Navigation Acts. as reports of a Catholic conspiracy drifted in from England. Lord Baltimore's Catholicism had embroiled the colony's affairs from the beginning. had . The affair amounted to little. But when he threatened to arrest George Durant. a settler who had only recently arrived from South Carolina. Both men were arrested after they declared that ´Papists and Indians were joined togetherµ to crush the Maryland Protestants. Thereafter discontent simmered quietly for a few years until. too. They seized the customs revenues. and elected an assembly which chose John Culpeper. Durant's many supporters rose in protest. though the immediate results were negligible. and all the leaders of the demonstration were hanged. had its share of troubles with roots that went back almost as far as the beginning of settlement. all other concerns in Maryland were buried under the religious issue. James II. until in September 1676. and every future governor was forced to yield a few more rights to the colonists of the Old Dominion. had already appointed Thomas Eastchurch as governor of Albermarle County. however. both under Charles II and his brother and successor. as the new governor. jailed Miller.the rule of the privileged classes. one of the original settlers who had meanwhile become a large tobacco planter. Josiah Fendall. there was dissention between those in power and those out. and John Coode led another protest. and in the 1670s. * * * North Carolina. and the leader of the proprietors' opposition. Thomas Miller. and even arrested and imprisoned ship captains for evasion of such laws. a legislator. Miller. a former governor. but here it was religion that became the dividing line.became religiously intertwined.

especially when exercised by strong men who believe that they are God's instruments in keeping the faith and morals of the community untainted. The provincial government had meanwhile limited the franchise once again to church members only. he found that much of New England had only nominal connections with his kingdom. had refused to proclaim the new ruler. No sooner had Charles become king. and when Charles II ascended the throne in 1660. with Miller in jail. the grandsons of John Mason and Ferdinand Gorges complained that New Hampshire and Maine had been annexed to Massachusetts in complete disregard of their proprietary rights. had by that time come completely under the influence of a small group of leading men. The habit of authority grows quickly. except Rhode Island. Miller. however. since there had been ´no settled governmentµ in Carolina at that time. many of these settlements had developed into little autonomous republics. No English king. however. and throughout New England the Navigation laws were being flagrantly violated. Culpeper was arrested and tried for treason. the rebels continued to govern North Carolina for more than a year. But Eastchurch suddenly died before the issue could be resolved. the rebel governor was found guilty only of ´riot. and all the colonies. Although the North Carolina assembly sent Culpeper to represent them in England. managed to escape and made his way to England to report to the proprietors. especially not a Stuart king. and the rebels declared that if he were to try to assume the governorship of North Carolina. Massachusetts. In the process. And in Massachusetts such . Massachusetts Bay had persecuted Quakers in violation of English law. * * * New England posed an entirely different problem. and there were boundary disputes between many of the New England settlements which no one seemed to be able to satisfy.were now harbored in New England. in fact.the judges who had sentenced the king's father to death . in particular. when numerous complaints against Massachusetts Bay came before the Privy Council. Culpeper sent armed forces to the Virginia border to prevent the governor from entering the province. Miller obviously held all the cards.actually been sent out by Eastchurch ´to settle affayres against his coming. Two of the so-called regicides . ´they would serve him the same sauceµ they had already administered to Miller. To carry out this threat. would allow such a situation to continue for very long. The Puritan Revolution had occupied so much of the English government's attention that the fellow faithful in the New England settlements had been allowed more or less to go their own way.µ The entire incident was finally settled peacefully when the proprietors sent a new governor to North Carolina and made a satisfactory settlement with the English customs for the seized revenues. however. Puritan ministers who had gained absolute control and authority over the lives of the people.µ The governor himself arrived in Virginia just as the rebellion in his province broke out.

Not that Massachusetts was ever liberal-minded. perhaps. From the very first days on there existed long lists of sins. their version must have been exceptionally creepy. and even couples who married each other later were not immune. that by then he was old enough to know better. Over the years this sort of leniency filtered downward to the ordinary people to some extent. though that practice was decidedly less severe than the death penalty imposed at least twice for that same offense in early Massachusetts Bay.presumably a place where a parson's morals mattered less. under whose rule faithfulness to Puritan ideals reached a point of fanatic cruelty. scores of people of all faiths in the Bay Colony had been tortured. many of which were of an erotic nature. One most notable exception must be the Reverend John Cotton. Premarital relations between couples likely to marry became so common. reasoning. Though they barred the old gentleman from church membership for two years. when the Reverend seemed unable to repent sufficiently. and hanged for the many offenses considered evil sins by Puritans. but an old institution straight out of Merrie Old England's medieval times. he was finally assigned to a Puritan congregation in Charleston. or at least commonly known. A foreign visitor to Hartford was amazed to see a man and a woman who had thus anticipated their vows getting whipped in public . South Carolina . were hanged in Boston for the heinous crime of testifying to divine revelations. for example. The generous-minded and courteous John Winthrop had died in 1649. Quakers. who was dismissed for notorious violations of the Seventh Commandment. and before the 17th century mercifully expired. John Endicott. and had been succeeded in the government by one of the harshest and most bigoted of Puritan Saints. And then there was the Reverend Stephen Batchellor of Hampton. Perhaps they did. husband of a ´lusty comely woman. the offending couples were usually required to stand up at the meeting next Sabbath and deliver extended and earnest public testimony of guilt and remorse.and then being further punished through six weeks' enforced separation. the Puritans well deserved their reputation in such matters. but it is also very likely that such upper-class infraction were frequently hushed up and never appear in the official records at all. mutilated. They really did brand the adulterous man or woman with the infamous scarlet letter. The lash punished simple fornication. A suspiciously early birth of a first child.µ She told her husband. thereby saving the Reverend at least from actual adultery.µ already eighty years old when he ´did solicit the chastity of his neighbour's wife. Such pious pretensions were common practice in many colonies. that many congregations chose to ignore them altogether - . sent many a married couple to the pillory as well. he was then reinstated again. or even one who appeared too mature to be considered premature. but judging by the many Massachusetts accounts of such self-humiliations staged by Bay colonists. It was not even an invention of Puritans. son of the eminent minister. Yet even after such humiliating ordeals.beliefs had developed into their most uncompromising and often downright cruel forms. From the surviving accounts of that period in Massachusetts history one might well conclude that non-Puritan servants contributed more than their share of erotic sins. New Hampshire.

with Winthrop's approval formally given on request. two goats. .In Europe during those same years. some ministers refused to baptize any Sunday-born infants. just as the Bible prescribes. Strange interpretations resulted from the Puritans unwavering faith in the literal words of the Bible. also one eye blemished just like an eye of a loose fellow in the town. or secret alliances with Satan. especially so in the Bay Colony. which God had laid down as rules for the early Hebrews. . witch hunts sent untold thousands to the gallows and the stake. whose irreverent conduct with a man other than her husband had already earned her a formal reproach in her youth. based for the most part on evidence supplied by excited children and hystericalwomen. Such activity should therefore never be made a part of common games.a mare. and the elderly culprit was finally properly punished by being thrown out of the church. Some performed their unholy work in human bodies.a harsh and relentless new minister dug up the old story and arraigned her for the same violation all over again. .at various times . Salem's actions were not unusual at all. . But strange habits persisted. Puritans deplored gambling . an indentured servant in his late teens. mostly women. Witnesses obligingly testified to things they swore they still remembered after all this time. Since lying with one's wife on a Sunday was considered a intolerable blasphemy. As late as 1692. ´a sow . according to none other than John Winthrop. Essex County in England alone executed sixty suspected witches in the year 1644.Considering how obsessed the entire Western world of the 1600s was with witches. in either case. . in particular. statute of limitations on sin . who were thought to exercise malevolent powers by allying themselves with Satan. Thomas Granger of Duxbury. only their victims were able to see and identify them. the punishment was death in conformance with the Biblical injunction: Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live. nineteen persons. two calves and a turkey. others by assuming the appearance of black cats. has since become synonymous with witchcraft trials. they put him to death. . Witches were flesh-and-blood beings. Events involving witchcraft were recorded early in most of the colonies. generally women. because the Old Testament recommends the casting of lots to ascertain God's will. Less comical was the plight of one Abigail Muxon of Buzzard's Bay. for which . confessed to having abused carnally . . and some other human resemblances . among other pigs had one without hair. The Bay Colony dutifully hanged him after killing each of the defiled animals before his eyes. however. which occasioning him to be suspected. and in all of them. but history has made far too much of that episode.µ . a cow.not out of any sense of economic responsibility but. were hanged in Salem for witchcraft. long believed that children born on Sunday had to have been conceived on a Sunday. Salem. . Thirty years later . At New Haven. he confessed . as in Great Britain. Among many activities. according to Cotton Mather. and Old . New Englanders. five sheep.unless the interval between marriage and childbed came too close to be justified in reasonable moral terms. for example. the odds tripped up one of these same parsons by blessing him with twins on a Sunday.

whether from mischief.and later of other near-by places . So convincing were their antics. began denouncing grownups in their town . Even Charlestown had already hanged one witch forty years earlier. the American colonists displayed extraordinary restraints. three children in Littleton. long after Salem had given up. three luckless women on a vessel bound for Virginia were hanged for allegedly conjuring up storms during that voyage. feverish imagination. and in 1711 the Massachusetts legislature voted damages to some of the victims' families. no one . Samuel Sewall. and none apparently brought any convictions. particularly Cotton Mather. not the legislature . common sense had controlled such superstitions most everywhere. no prosecutions for witchcraft occurred anywhere in New England after Salem. Virginia. Salem. the youngsters. Starting in 1647. As late as 1720. unquestionably accepted the fact of witchcraft. calmly heard out one man accusing his neighbor of witchcraft. Though by that time it had become abundantly clear that the unfortunate people had suffered a gross miscarriage of justice. That mysterious outbreak of witches was actually little more than a case of community hysteria that started innocently enough when two little girls told friends about terrifying accounts of Barbadian voodooism told to the by a slave woman. Maryland and North Carolina still conducted some trials as late as 1712.England and much of non-Puritan Europe were still hunting witches well into the 1700s. at least twelve women were sent to the gallows in these two colonies before the wholesale death-dealing at Salem ended the spectacle once and for all in 1692. accused a woman of witchcraft.went as far as to reject the potential existence of witches. By comparison. In view of their widespread prestige and the hysterical use they made of it. might never have had to endure this experience at all had it not been for some of the Puritan ministers. but these were the final ones in America. in fact. but until the Puritan parsons of New England began their clamor. and there were none at all in the eighteenth century. and though Quakers. for example. the wonder is that towns like Boston and New Haven did not join in as well. court records reveal not a single conviction in Pennsylvania. At the ensuing trials the children. that a number of those arrested actually confessed to being witches. too. One Rebecca Fowler was the only person ever to pay with her life for practicing witchcraft in Maryland.not the judges.were executed. one of the judges in the Salem proceedings. It was left to Connecticut and Massachusetts to exhibit the greatest zeal in this respect. who drummed up the menace of black magic to a fever pitch. Before this madness ran its course.for practicing black magic on them. and two others died in jail while awaiting trial. and then .one an ordained minister . In the 1650s. Thus a magistrate at Plymouth. seated conspicuously in the courtroom. but she died before the alarmed community was able to haul her into a courtroom. Years later. and so powerful the effect of mass suggestion. Pennsylvania. apologized publicly for the naivete of the court in assessing the evidence. During the entire colonial period only thirty-six persons are known to have been sentenced to death. fourteen women and six men . shrieked and jerked and fell into fits as palpable proof of the truth of their charges. Joining forces. In fact. or an urge for attention. near Boston.

Since all freemen were now to have the right to vote. they declared that the King of England had no powers in their colony except those specified in their original charter. When the charter was granted. They were to hear appeals. and therefore was in no position to enforce any of its measures. The order about Anglican freedom of worship was utterly disregarded. settle disputes. and a minister of an approved church could only mean a Puritan clergyman.µ they reported to the King. As might have been predicted. and in its final report. ´Our time is lost upon men puffed up with the spirit of independence. and complaints against the colonial government never ceased.µ A committee of the Privy Council in England was finally appointed to consider the affairs of all the New England colonies. As a result. and they warned all inhabitants of Massachusetts that anyone who appeared before this commission to testify would be subject to dire punishments. it was certainly never intended that the English government should relinquish its authority over the colony. the royal commissioners accomplished next to nothing in Massachusetts. Charles II finally sent out four royal commissioners. but particularly those of Massachusetts Bay. and specifically declared the right of Anglicans to worship freely. The English government had no representatives in New England. were clearly meant to indicate that the English government would decide whether any such statutes met these requirements. and they returned to England fully convinced that the only solution was the abrogation of the Massachusetts Bay charter. The Puritan leaders of Massachusetts had thus raised an issue which the Crown could not afford to ignore. see to it that the Navigation Acts were being enforced. Charles was furious. The standard charter provision that all laws enacted should be in harmony with those of England. Only men over the age of 24 who paid an annual tax of ten shilling or more were now certified as freemen by a minister of an approved church. the population in general charged ´that they were ruled like slavesµ by their government. .µ regardless of church membership. In 1664. had the English government accepted this statement by one colony and applied the same principle to all her overseas dominions. the British Empire would have vanished overnight. Such statements and outright threats could simply not be ignored by the mother country.equally calmly slapped him with a heavy fine for malicious slander. Within much of New England there were thus serious complaints against Puritan control. this committee placed special emphasis on the restriction of suffrage and religious freedom in the colonies. But this time the rulers of Massachusetts went too far. no Puritan minister would have been willing to certify anyone not his faith. and that religious freedoms were granted. The position taken by the Bay Colony was therefore an open defiance of imperial control. ´and would soon have no more privileges than heathens unless the church discipline were amended. once again with orders to investigate the conditions in all New England. the Puritan leaders of Massachusetts immediately evaded the royal orders by simply redefining the meaning of freeman. Charles II ordered in September 1661 that the right to vote should be extended to all persons of ´good estate.

problems between these two adverse systems of life became commonplace. however. with governor.µ Less stubborn and less willing to invite trouble. where the Appalachian Mountains stopped them as effectively as did the savage Iroquois. Little by little. was not ´obliged to the King but by civility. and in return both colonies received charters so liberal as to be totally out of character for Charles II. And in that year it proved its ineffectiveness one more time as New England experienced the costliest Indian war in its entire history. By 1675. a population far larger than that of the natives. the white men. declined firmly. both colonies were granted the right of complete selfgovernment. both Connecticut and Rhode Island complied with all the royal orders. they stood to lose in either case. The losses of their ancient hunting grounds had long bred resentment among the Indians everywhere. lost its separate identity altogether by being incorporated into Connecticut. the colony. These charters created practically independent republics. To the people of the colony the outcome would matter very little. if the Puritan government won out. The Algonquians were not even able to retreat into the vast lands to the west. many of the reasons that had made this union necessary had been eliminated over the years. assistants and assembly all chosen by the voters. New England's Indians had always been a hunting people. France and Holland. White settlers in general regarded the native populations as mere obstacles in their westward progress. a Massachusetts in miniature version. There was not even the previously standard provision for royal veto rights of laws. it would only strengthen their position and the old policy of intolerance would continue as before. If the king prevailed. and the defiant Bay Colony was allowed to go its own way for another decade. on the other hand. the long-troubled New England Confederation experienced another major crisis. and repeated incidents of violence on both sides closed all doors to any sort of understanding. Massachusetts was now in virtual rebellion against the Crown and English troops were expected any day to bring the colony to terms. a way of life that required wide forests and small populations. New Haven. nearly 50. were primarily farmers. whose agriculture demanded cleared areas and the sacrifice of forest lands. too. and by 1675 the Confederation had become little more than a name on a document. As the white population of New England expanded and their farms and villages penetrated ever farther into the Indians' hunting grounds.000 people had settled in the northern a circular letter to the colonies he expressed his royal displeasure and commanded all New England to send representatives to England to answer the charges brought against them. their rights covered by the existing charter would be lost forever. on the other hand. and the majority of them were farmers whose clearings encroached relentlessly on the Indians' ancestral lands. By this time. it declared. The Indians were often punished . and the shady practices of many of the English fur traders did little to improve the situation. The Massachusetts General Court. But at this time renewed war broke out with England's perennial enemies. Rhode Island's charter also confirmed that colony's liberal religious policy.

of course. the Pequots in 1637 carried off two white girls from a Connecticut settlement . the son of Massasoit. under the leadership of their Chief Massasoit. Metacom was a familiar figure to the English of Massachusetts. but in the belief that any white person could teach them how to make gunpowder. and . had befriended the first Pilgrims at Plymouth more than a half century earlier. they.Indians had come to live in the Puritan communities. and John Eliot had also done much to relieve tensions. In 1662. he was vain enough to have his clothes made by a Boston tailor. most of which they did not even know existed. for nearly 40 years serious problems between the white men and the Indians had been avoided. and had long been actively conspiring with other tribes to rid himself of the white intruders once and for all. too. the white men thereby hoped to increase their hold over the peltry trade .and they were fined if they became drunk on the alcoholic drink sold to them by the white men. and of course the ever-present fire water from the traders. Somehow the news leaked out that Philip was plotting against the colonists. however. amazingly enough. The ´heathen savagesµ still roamed the forests. Still. Actually. They bought blankets and kettles and trinkets. as it turned out after they had been rescued. and they grumbled as settlers appropriated ever more of their territory and trampled across their hunting grounds. jailed if they stole whatever it was the white man considered stealing .cruelly for violations of colonial laws. to do them any harm. and firearms and ammunition had long since replaced the bow and arrow as their weapon. Governor John Winthrop.µ King Charles II of England. and his regal mannerism and frequent references to his ´brother. though neither laws nor consideration for public safety would keep fur traders from bartering whatever was profitable. He deeply resented the intrusions on his people's lands and freedoms. however. Though outwardly peaceful and even sympathetic toward the white men. since they could not produce the necessary ammunition themselves. even now it was still very much in Indian memory and helped restrain whatever war fever there might have been among them. most colonial governments had already prohibited the sale of guns and ammunition to Indians. had become dependent on the white man's civilization. had become the tribal chief. had long since earned him the nickname of King Philip. One of New England's more influential tribes were the Wampanoag who. adopting white men's ways and all but severing ties with their own people. But they did little more than grumble. perhaps a thousand converted or praying .never mind that a potential enemy was given a superior weapon in the process. Some colonists also thought it clever to make the Indians dependent on firearms. The Pequots' total annihilation in 1637 had accomplished exactly what the English had had in mind. The missionary work of such men as Roger Williams. Metacom had other plans. Metacom.not. Thomas Mayhew. Such attitudes had occasional tragic-comic consequences. Thus Indians were punished for hunting and fishing on Sundays. deep in the fur trade himself. and which they never would have understood had they been known to them. complained as early as the 1630s that the Dutch and the French on New England's frontiers got the bulk of the Indians' beaver skins by offering guns and powder in spite of formal renunciations of such trade.

and Massachusetts. refugees streamed in from the frontier and before long it seemed as if all New England was trying to crowd into the coastal towns. Meanwhile the Indians leveled Springfield. a group of Wampanoags murdered a family of settlers at Swansea. Early in 1676. Food and housing became scarce and led to profiteering. ´but now we find that all the craft is in catching them. Connecticut stopped every able-bodied man from leaving the territory. in November. The situation was quickly becoming desperate. Hatfield. and that in the meanwhile they give us many a sore nip. the New England Confederation enacted a draft law under which all male inhabitants between sixteen and sixty were made liable to military service. they appeared to attack Hadley. Lancaster. ´We were ready to think that we could easily suppress that flea. other tribes began attacks on Lancaster. in turn. In late 1676. Finally. fixed the death penalty for anyone who refused to serve since so many tried to evade the draft by ´sulking from one town to another. the Indians slipped away and burned Springfield.µ By the end of the summer. He was sentenced to pay a heavy fine and forced to concede that he and his people were subject to English law. Hadley and Northfield. while the towns began to argue about who should bear responsibility for the welfare of those made widows and orphans by the war. the entire Connecticut-Massachusetts frontier was in flames. ill-tempered as ever. Sudbury. Deerfield. Though the New England Confederation declared war on the Indians on September 9. What had started out as a private grievance between one tribe and Plymouth now suddenly became the cause of all the Indians of New England. Scituate and even Plymouth and Providence. In quick succession. similar attacks occurred at Mendon. all before the middle of September. and several smaller communities. and all but five villages had been abandoned. The Indians outmaneuvered the colonists at every turn. Massachusetts. The proud Indians chief returned to his tribe deeply humiliated and swore deadly vengeance on the white men. Late in June of 1675. this time led by Metacom. Brookfield. The Plymouth court then impounded all the Wampanoags' guns and divided them among the colony's towns. Within a few years after this incident began the bloodiest Indian war of colonial America.µ said John Eliot. Over the following two months the English wiped out most of the older men and the women and children of the tribe. was again attacked by an Indian force. They attacked during Sunday 1671. though privately it was agreed that it had been Plymouth's harshness toward Metacom and his people had provoked this war. and Puritan scorn for their Indian neighbors now bore bitter fruit as the war spread swiftly from the Atlantic coast up the Connecticut River Valley. The Indians were caught immediately and executed for murder. a militia force struck back at the Narragansetts. militiamen from Plymouth set out to arrest the chief on charges of conspiracy. and when the neighboring Springfield militia responded to the call for help. and by 1676 had forced all the warriors to flee the area.µ . remembered now as King Philip's War. several months were wasted as inexperienced militia commanders quarreled among themselves over details. but Swansea. All New England officially backed this slaughter.

The latest war between England and Holland had ended in 1674. Onetenth of Massachusetts' 5. They had received no aid from the French as had been expected. men were told to stop swearing and women to shed their ostentatious clothing and to dress plainly. Some of the tribes to the north continued to raid settlements in Maine and New Hampshire into the following year. that had provoked the Indian enemy. New England's commerce was disrupted for more than a year. a sum greater than the personal property of all the inhabitants of New England.As the war continued. would live to rise again. searched far and wide for the transgressions that had so angered God. but as the winter of 1677 came to an end. And a final victim of King Philip's War was the New England Confederation. While Boston's ships drew on other colonies for food and supplies. which had proven itself all but obsolete in this latest emergency. But their tribes continued to exist. always anxious to root out sin. and the colonies themselves estimated the cost of the war at approximately £100. the clergy stepped up its exhortations.000. and thereafter the war fever gradually abated.µ he said. all the tribes faced near-starvation. In proportion to the white population of the time. a friend of the Indians. Then Metacom was shot and killed by one of the ´prayingµ Indians whose help Massachusetts had enlisted in desperation. and great numbers of their warriors were shipped to the West Indies as slaves. Ministers. God had punished sinful New England with sickness and bad crops. it was the ´sins of persecution. and when peace finally came they did not even have the consolation that anything had improved for them. Yet Peter Folger.000 men of military age were captured or killed. Indian resistance declined through hunger and diseases and mounting battle losses. determined to bring order to the growing unrest and problems in their overseas possessions. now He had inflicted a terrible war upon the people. At least thirteen frontier villages were totally destroyed and six more partially burned. * * * The English government had meanwhile begun to cast an eye across the Atlantic Ocean. had known the answers all along. But the war had cost the Indians heavily as well. only along the Maine frontier had they been supplied with some arms and ammunition. and the . To atone for past sins. It was time rather than prayers and atonement that finally saved New England. but the tribes of southern New England had already given up and signed peace treaties with the white men. King Philip's War inflicted greater casualties on the people than any other war in all American history. Five years earlier. days of public fasting and prayers were ordered. The critical need for food supplies had already forced many of the Indians repeatedly to break off fighting. the survivors. their hatred intact and undiminished. Many of their leaders were executed by the English. perhaps more so than the white population.

again a violation. But the situation with New England was quite different. in turn. . and that it be done quickly. One English visitor returning from a three months' stay at Boston reported that New England's trade was ´very large both to the West Indies and to most parts of Europe. or at least that a profitable fishing industry would develop to strengthen England's position in competition with France.µ Customs commissioners stated that ships of other European nations regularly landed at New England's ports in open violation of the Navigation Act. but in fact they competed with the mother country in Newfoundland waters. but he considered it ´advisable to hinder their growth as much as can be. The Southern colonies and those in the Caribbean had always fitted neatly into the mercantilistic system of England. it would almost certainly destroy all English trade to the colonies. ´but they were undecided as to the proper course. and though fishing and whaling did become major industries. and was beginning to compete with England in the sale of provisions to the West Indies. not only did they not help English commerce. the Lords of Trade now turned their special attention toward the always prickly and defiant New England colonies. Neither hope had been realized by the 1670s. they remained purely colonial enterprises. And now Massachusetts had even tried to build up local industries to compete with Britishmade products.µ The Earl of Sandwich. English leadership had hoped that colonization in that region would produce naval stores which until then were being imported from Sweden and other Baltic countries.New England brought few returns: some fish. but had also enabled the country to build up a large re-export trade which.µ The Earl did not think it would be possible to prevent New England's growth.µwithin twenty years more they would be ´mighty rich and powerful and not at all carefull of their dependence upon Old England. The sugar. some ships and ship masts for the royal navy. thus threatening to eliminate a profitable market for English manufacturers. declared that New England was ´a numerous and thriving people. Several of the more influential English statesmen had long regarded the New England colonies as the ´unfortunate results of misdirected efforts. they said.following year the Lords of Trade had been created. if it was not of the basic objectives of mercantilism . President of the Council for Plantations. the naval stores and other products from these areas had not only freed England from dependence on foreign nations. and that the colonies were sending goods directly to Continental countries. . The naval store industry was a hopeless failure. As a source of raw materials . a few furs. The merchants therefore requested of the Lords of Trade that ´the people of New England be reduced or compelled to trade according as Your Majesty's laws have prescribed . had given her a comfortable credit balance in the European market. cost England £60. oil.µ The Lords of Trade agreed that something needed to be done.µ Sending out another royal .µ All reports and indications seemed to confirm the Earl's statements. This illegal trade. the tobacco. charged with the supervision of all the English colonies.000 a year in lost customs revenues. London merchants and artisans complained that New England was supplying other colonies with silk and cloth which had been bought directly from France and Italy.

µ and they still protected ´the murderers of Charles I. and Massachusetts Governor John Leverett declared in piqued tones that the complaints against his people were based on ´impertinences. Edward Randolph was sent back to Massachusetts. he quickly realized that there could never be an impartial investigation.µ When Randolph pointed out that he had personally seen several ships from Spain and France. The Massachusetts officials had ´noe right either to Land or Government in any part of New England and have always been usurpers. before the end of the year he returned to London and presented to Charles II a list of twenty-four ´Assumed Powersµ which had never been granted to Massachusetts in its charter. however. Faced with such conditions. It was finally decided that the King should order Massachusetts to send agents to England to answer the charges against the colony.a tightening of control over all colonial affairs. . he was soon followed by William Dyer. Edward Randolph saw little purpose in wasting any more of his time in the colonies. the king would appoint a single commissioner to New England with full powers to make a thorough and impartial investigation of all aspects of this confused situation. and contrary to other plantations do not take the Oath of Allegiance. ´ Randolph recommended that the Massachusetts charter be revoked and that the colony be made a royal province with a guarantee of religious freedom to all the inhabitants. this time as collector of the customs in New England. and two years later the Lords of Trade threatened the Bay Colony with charter repeal if agents were not presented in England at once. its substance amounted to a serious indictment of much of New England's people and form of government. When Commissioner Randolph arrived in Boston in the summer of 1676. delivering goods to Boston in open violation of every trade law. they had imposed an oath of fidelity of their own to be ´true and faithful to their government. he was advised that laws passed by the English Parliament had no authority in Massachusetts. ´by which they have impressed the greater part of the West Indies trade whereby his Majesty is damaged in his Customs above 100. particularly the enforcement of the trade and navigation acts.µ Worse yet. denying any appeals to England. Randolph had put into words what English colonial officials had already been working on .000 pounds yearly. But Massachusetts continued its merry ways. was the violation of all the acts of trade and navigation. they had ´coined Money with their owne Impress. surveyor-general of customs for all the English colonies in America.µ yet they had ´formed themselves into a Common Wealth. besides.commission to investigate New England was rejected as too expensive and probably useless as well. it would only serve to antagonize the colonials still further.µ The Massachusetts officials had opposed any royal commissioners ever sent out to America. New Hampshire's towns were separated from the Massachusetts government and reestablished as a royal colony in 1679. . mistakes and falsehoods. As a first step in that direction. in turn. For this important mission the Lords of Trade chose a government official named Edward Randolph.µ The most flagrant offense. persistently . stubborn as always. The royal request for agents to England had simply been ignored. Though the document's language was somewhat biased and exaggerated.

that they would have to guarantee enforcement of all the trade laws. They were now told that Massachusetts would have to ask for a royal pardon. Joseph Dudley. they were told. were deprived of their long-standing privilege of ruling the majority of the people and forcing them to conform to their peculiar ideas of religious practices. eliminating all laws contrary to those of England. free . not until 1683. When the Massachusetts agents refused to accept any such terms. New Hampshire was to come first. All attempts at negotiating these demands were refused. Maine and New Hampshire thus became united with Massachusetts into one royal province. and ´plans were afoot to make the colony the center of illegal trade. reported to England that his council and the ´chief inhabitants are part of a grand combination of Church members and Congregational assemblies throughout New England. the small Puritan minority. But by the time the Massachusetts agents arrived in London to defend their colony.µ They held no loyalties whatsoever toward England. England would then be able to exercise a unified and effective control. he took the opportunity to throw in New Hampshire as well. the King of England. the High Court of the Chancery declared the 55-year old charter of the Massachusetts Bay Colony to be ´vacated. But the English government had a still grander vision. Edward Cranfield. in fact. it had become a matter of too little. The requirement of church membership for voting in the colony was ended. or it took immediate steps to annul that colony's charter. cancelled and annihilated. a native of Massachusetts and acting governor of the colony. On June 21. and for one troublesome year he ruled over this enlarged province of New England. too late. was so disgusted with his subjects that he finally asked to be relieved of his post and ´never be sent to New Hampshire again. one of a united New England and possibly of all the mainland colonies combined into one sprawling dominion. Edward Randolph could do little more than to produce one critical report after another. had no intentions of dealing with his own subjects as if they were emissaries of a foreign nation. but Randolph wrote endless letters complaining about wholesale evasions of the trade laws by the colonists. Even the royal governor.µ And when in 1685 the British attorney-general ruled that all ungranted lands in Maine had reverted to the Crown with the revocation of the Massachusetts charter. A royal government had already been instituted there. was named president. the next move was to consolidate smaller and weaker colonies into one or more larger ones under the tight control of a few royal governors. There could be little doubt about the outcome. that a new charter would have to be drawn up.µ Cranfield. 1684.µ The only immediate effects of this action were actually minor victories for the people of Massachusetts. when he finally returned to England to lend his personal support to a move at revoking the Bay Colony's charter. the entire situation finally reached a stalemate: either the British government accepted what amounted to virtual secession of a colony from the Empire. and that the colony would have to accept royal revenue officials. did Massachusetts make an attempt at reconciliation.evading both royal orders and Parliamentary acts. But the revocation of the Massachusetts charter had been only the first step in English plans. the certified members of the Congregational Church.

Sir Edmund Andros. determined that the instructions of his royal master should be carried out to the letter. Canada. granting lands. however. arrive in Boston with a commission as the ´Governor-General of the Dominion of New England. Connecticut. but Andros had also been made commander-in-chief of the colonial armed forces and the red coats whom he brought with him. the Duke of York. There was no mention made of an elective assembly in this Dominion of New England. and New Jersey all lost their independence to the growing Dominion. had no recourse in any case. was annexed to the Dominion as well. there was little protest. This time. since the colony had never had a royal patent at all. Though the governor-general appears to have been an honest and faithful administrator. United as a crown colony under a great administrator. as a royal province. was of course no stranger to American conditions. Andros appointed deputy governors and councils for the outlying districts. having already experienced his share of problems with the inhabitants of New York a decade earlier. Colonial defense would be improved and unified. French explorers had already reached the Far West. and New Jersey's questionable and troubled state prevented most potential opposition within its borders. and religious practices could be enforced equally. recently knighted. But in attempting to govern a people who had been so completely independent of any outside control for more than half a century. but before any kind of action could be taken. penetrated down the Mississippi River. No doubt. Tentative plans for a consolidated New England were worked out as 1685 began.µ Plymouth now became a permanent part of the territory. his full powers included the usual provisions such as enacting and enforcing laws and ordinances. Before the end of the year. If the English were to meet this spreading menace. Such a consolidation would also be more economical. New York. the fear of French Canada was another powerful motive for the creation of such a consolidated government. there would have to be unity in the American colonies. Andros faced a formidable .of all these bothersome legislatures and ´separatist tendenciesµ so evident now in the different colonies. to show their protest. he was still the same uncompromising servant to the Crown. now almost 50 years old. A single dominion could be effectively developed for all its resources. under threat of charter revocation. and imposing taxes. and had even attempted to seduce the hostile Iroquois from their English alliance. the much tormented former governor of New York. had suddenly become a growing power along the northern frontier. Not until December of 1686 did Sir Edmund Andros. with which the English colonists had lived on reasonably good terms until then. New York. Connecticut objected strenuously until it was threatened as Rhode Island had been. and divert the inhabitants from independent manufacturing and foreign trade. Charles II died and was succeeded by his brother James. but since the new territory was far too extensive to be administered by the governor-general and his council alone. Rhode Island. the people of Connecticut were said to have hidden their charter in a hollow oak tree. one set of officials was obviously cheaper than ten or twelve. In rapid succession during 1687.

and his religious doctrine was aimed at bringing these sinners to their senses again. he said. And he also did not believe that any man should be required to bear arms against anyone or take an oath for any reason. Episcopal church services were begun in Puritan Boston. ´that evil genius of New England. only fifteen years later. in fact. they must be eternal ´quakers.µ The magistrate was amused. churchmen and merchants alike railed against ´Tyrant Androsµ and the Dominion Secretary. Taxpayers. in particular. James.µ A deeply religious man. It would take radical changes in England before the Bay Colony could ever hope to regain any of its former privileges. . Fox was particularly offended by the required payment of tithes to organized churches. no need at all for a priesthood. when Fox was sentenced to one of his periodic visits to jail. The governor attacked the entire New England land system. God did not ´dwell in temples made with the handsµ of man. president of Harvard University. rich and poor.µ but at some time in the 1650s. he suggested that since Fox and his followers were so afraid of the Lord's word. Neither was there any room in this religion for elaborate rites and ceremonies of the established churches. Edward Randolph. sailed for England where he repeatedly tried to presented James II with the grievances of New England against Andros and petitioned for the restoration of the old charter. landholders. and new taxes appeared on the rolls without the approval or prior knowledge of a single Bay colonist. Mr. there was. however. the Inner Light came to all men alike.µ For the first time now. To George Fox. He dismissed the Massachusetts General Court. an estimated 80. At first his followers were called the ´Children of the Light. too. George Fox had become alarmed with the laxity and open depravity in the everyday lives of his fellow men. and within an amazingly short time thousands had begun to flock to hear him speak. educated and ignorant. of course. rejected all such petitions. New Englanders had quitrents imposed on them.000 Englishmen had become converts to his beliefs. Freedom of the press ceased to exist in the former Bay Colony. Fox had begun to preach this doctrine in 1649. religion was a strictly personal and individual matter. It mattered little to the people that the same governor also improved frontier fortifications and signed treaties with the Indians. * * * Back during the years of the civil war.µ The name stuck. he had cautioned the presiding judge to ´tremble at the word of the Lord. a 25-year old Englishman had begun to preach the doctrine of what he called the ´Inner Light. the governor finally cracked down heavily on Massachusetts. high and low. questioning land titles and declaring that the signature of Indians on deeds were worth no more ´than a scratch of a bear's paw. abolished colonial courts and dispensed justice as he alone saw fit. Exasperated by stubborn resistance to every one of his acts. while England was still convulsed with religious and political radicalism.challenge.µ Increase Mather.

The Quakers also were staunch pacifists who never consented to bear arms. And the Friends shared with Puritans an unshakable belief that every person's actions should always be directed to the welfare of the community. and many were punished much more severely. From the very beginning. held opinions and beliefs which many of their contemporaries found strange.The Society of Friends. In their refusal to pay tithes to the Established Church. Fox's teachings were clearly drawn from the same sources that had inspired early Puritans. held the same privileges in church as did men. since Friends were always sincere. if not outright dangerous to established society. but also that God still revealed himself to his children. Women. The pronouns thou and thee were used in speaking to all persons. however. Quakers insisted on uncompromising sincerity of speech and refused to use any titles in addressing others. requiring a person to take an oath implied that this person might otherwise not speak the truth. primarily because the Bible said ´thou shalt not swear. they had no paid ministers at all. The Friends refused to take oaths of any sort. they dropped the pagan names for the days of the week and substituted First Day for Sunday. under Oliver . and in their total opposition to war. incidentally. the Friends became the victims of greater persecution than had fallen on any other nonconforming groups. there was no need for such affirmation. the Friends would still meet twice a week for public worship. Above all. although in mid-17th century England these terms were generally used only in addressing servants or persons of low rank. Even their manner of dress and speech was calculated to make everyone around them look frivolous by comparison. but the Quakers became far more righteous than even the strictest of Puritans. and capital punishment for any reason was opposed by them at a time when the English penal code still recognized nearly 200 offenses as punishable by death. felt inclined to share his spiritual experience with his brethren and sisters. Such unconventional behavior was bound to arouse the resentment of a society that had shown little inclination to tolerate dissenters of any sort. to take oaths in court. the Quakers carried the doctrine of private judgment in religion to its extreme. Second Day for Monday. and so on. Quakers were persecuted by both Puritans and Anglicans. Because they believed all rites and ceremonies of the church to be unnecessary. and that Christ was being reincarnated in the lives of all Christians. moved by the spirit within him. The church became the Friends' meeting house. but in the process they offended a good number of influential people. At such times they sat together in quiet contemplation until someone. as they called themselves.µ But beyond that. to make it perfectly clear that all days were alike in God's eyes. you was the word used to address equals or superiors. In their daily lives. Heavy fines were regularly imposed on them. They rapidly became undesirable citizens and the strictest punishments were invariably meted out to them. Friends did believe that the Bible was indeed the revelation of God. since the essence of worship consisted in communion with God. By their method of speech the Friends obviously intended to show their disregard for class distinctions. they were striking at the very foundations of authority in both church and state.

and when found in any of these colonies they experienced the full wrath of a pitiless society. The Society of Friends. literally.000 were imprisoned during the Commonwealth period alone. and in the prisonhouse. In America they set out in a relentless and quixotic quest for martyrdom. dedicated to raising an accusing and critical voice. but in America they became something else entirely. Some 3. they frequently behaved in the most obnoxious and disagreeable manner possible. the death penalty was enforced. Punishment for the first offense was imprisonment.µ From this point of view. though none ever welcomed them and most dealt with them as severely. While other religious sects saw in this new land an opportunity to pursue their orthodoxy unmolested. and thousands left their homeland for the colonies in America. Then. It is not merely that these men and women preferred ´to die for the whole truth rather than live with a half truth. Never have any people gone to such pains or traveled so far for the rapture of suffering for their Lord. After that date. many of the Quakers truly saw the light. Their spirit was well expressed by William Densbury. and refusal to take an oath was made punishable by fine or imprisonment and eventual deportation. in 1664. and should he or she feel compelled to return to England anyway. Yet it was in America where the Society of Friends found its ultimate expression of faith. New England banished them entirely. which made it illegal in all England to attend any religious meetings other than those provided by the Anglican Church. I sang praises to my God and esteemed the bolts and locks upon me as jewels. Quaker meetings were forbidden entirely. the second time the culprit was deported. The story of the earliest Quaker activities in America is a most mystifying account of a determined people. pacifists they were. the Quakers were never satisfied with being left in peace. In England. Parliament passed the Conventicle Acts. Brother Densbury said that he ´as joyfully entered prisons as palaces. on the contrary. And never were such rewards more readily administered than by the Puritans of New England. so did their exodus to the colonies. .000 of them were eventually imprisoned and hundreds more deported. and as their persecution in England increased. under Charles II. stark naked. a leading English Quaker who helped ship so many of his sect to America. made no attempts at all to ease their lot.Cromwell and under the Stuart kings. Quakers always remained a minority. could anyone have sympathized with another fervent Friend who dramatically ´bore conclusive evidence of the fall of manµ by running up the aisle of the church. often tramping thousands of wilderness miles. Quakers sought refuge in every one of the English colonies. It must have been all but impossible to reason with a Quaker who rose during an Anglican church service to interrupt the minister with insults. Nor. the early Quaker immigrants to America found adornment in spades. Some of the Friends had begun to seek a refuge in America as early as 1653. for that matter. Since Quakers chose to disregard such statutes. and who emphasized his rantings by breaking an empty bottle over his head. until many Englishmen began to question their sanity. more than 13. often far worse than had the mother country.µ they actually seemed to crave hardships. risking Indians and wild animals in a relentless effort to find their martyrdom.

to Salem. the exasperated governor of the colony finally inflicted upon them a punishment brutal even by Massachusetts standards. He did not get very far. But that was not the Quaker way. Then they were confined to a bare cell.after a barbaric public whipping. for example. 1659. during which one of the Bostonian spectators fainted. the two women ´felt movedµ to go to Boston. someone seized him by the hair and evicted him from the church. without bedding. Yet Friend Holder continued his preaching until he and a like-minded companion were packed off to Boston. starting with fifteen lashes and increasing them by three more each time. they came prepared. after a sermon cursing them. where he spent the remainder of the winter. along with two men who had shared her mission. First the two men were given thirty lashes a piece with a three-cord knotted whip. Having miraculously survived this ordeal. Governor Endicott pronounced the death sentence over them. she was tried and convicted. preaching his gospel unmolested. Mary Dyer returned to Boston to prove that there was nothing the Bay Colony could do to prevent the coming of those ´you call cursed Quakers. Mary set out to demonstrate once and for all a Quaker's persistence in earning the crown of martyrdom. Dissatisfied at the lax attitude in this peaceful town. however. the two ladies were merely kicked out of Massachusetts and shipped back to Rhode Island. After that they were imprisoned during nine weeks of New England winter without any fire. In 1658. Yet even he was surpassed by Mary Dyer. Massachusetts. mostly on foot. however. Holder was arrested in Dedham. When the two Quakers still refused to cease their protestations. One week later. during that time the prisoners were whipped twice each week. he was bold enough to speak a few choice words after the minister had finished. But they still did not receive the desired results . permitted them to preach undisturbed for about two weeks. and traveled. sleeping in the winter woods and surviving a furious March blizzard. Even Puritan Salem. two young women named Sarah Gibbons and Dorothy Waugh left Rhode Island. the three marched to the gallows while drums beat loudly to prevent the spectators from hearing anything the condemned people were sure to be preaching along the way.µ On October 19. By special order. After only a brief stay in Newport. one Sunday morning in September of 1657. and this time one of his ears was cut off. in August of that same year. Almost immediately she and her companion were banished from Massachusetts on pain of death. where no one had ever bothered them. In Salem. presumably to recover. and then Mary Dyer had her arms and legs bound and her face covered as the final preparations for the hanging. The two men were executed first.µ Unflinching in the face of the threat of death. By the spring of 1658 he was back in Rhode Island. who had arrived from England in 1656 to preach the gospel of his sect. One of the most persistent of the martyrs was Christopher Holder. was again taken to Boston. for three days and nights without food or drink. even bringing linen for wrapping their dead bodies. . Holder set out to Barbados.There are countless examples of the Friends' dauntless and often bizarre spirit. however. In 1659 she left her husband in Newport to court danger and defy worldly evil in Boston. The next day. where they arrived to ´look your Bloody Laws in the Face.

µ declared Mary Dyer. less than a year after the near-hanging and the banishment from the colony. however. William Penn was a most curious . for all inhabitable lands along the coast had already been claimed. George Fox gradually conceived the idea of a separate colony in America for the Society of Friends. Why would these zealots not stay in Rhode interfere in their plans? The Puritans. But the project never got off the ground. If the Massachusetts authorities had expected to be rid of Mary Dyer so easily. but much like the Quakers. after all. however. George Fox's dream. . The New England Puritans were not sadists. without political influence. where they were tolerated? As one Puritan minister said in defending the 117 lashes with a tarred rope which had brought Friend William Brend near death: he had ´indeavored to beat the Gospel ordinances black and blewµ. The most prominent of all Quakers. Faced with such attitudes everywhere. In May of 1660. in obedience to the will of God I came and in His will I abide faithful to death. however. . in fact. it seemed only just to beat him black and blue in turn. there was strong reaction to the severe punishments directed at the Quakers. Actually. they too wished to be left alone to pursue their brand of orthodoxy and to build a Zion according to their model. the irrepressible Mary was back in Boston and once more heard the death sentence pronounced over her. the Puritan officials had planned all along to deprive her of the martyr's ecstasy.µ The first attempts at a Quaker colony were planned along Chesapeake Bay and along the Susquehanna River. and for the most part the excesses stopped though nothing could prevent the average colonist from disliking the Quakers. and again. the Massachusetts General Court had secretly decided to banish her instead. ´I cannot . Mary Dyer. these Quakers had come in quest of such punishment. the frustrated judges. but as a final warning had agreed that she be present at the execution and be prepared as if the official verdict was to be carried out. they were sadly mistaken. would probably never have been realized at all had it not been for the influence of William Penn and for the troubles in New Jersey.or anyone else for that matter . hoping against hope that Mary Dyer would realized the error of her ways. She refused to accept the reprieve unless the very laws against the Society of Friends were repealed. ´Nay. But this time she was not to be denied the final victory. In 1672 he personally visited America and found many Friends ´widely scattered and without unity . she was reprieved from the gallows. however.µ And death it was. What right had Quakers . The only exception was Rhode Island. had not sought out the Quakers in order to punish them. though he tolerated their presence. . as she stood on the ladder to the gallows. Governor Endicott offered her a reprieve if she would only leave the colony and never return.At the very last second. responded in true Quaker fashion. Gradually. ignored her protests and sent her off on horseback in the direction of Rhode Island. During the trial. They too had traveled thousands of miles for their own opportunities. they were single-minded men. and even there Roger Williams. railed against their doctrines to the end of his life. But again there were appeals for her life. .

when someone paid the fine anonymously. Though he returned two years later from a tour of the Continent ´with much of the vanity of the French garb and affected manner of speech and gait. In 1670. An idealist in political matters. an enormous sum of money which the only 39-year old Admiral was nevertheless able to produce. William Penn had become as eager as George Fox to establish a separate Quaker colony in America. and shortly thereafter was rewarded by Cromwell with several estates in Ireland. young William Penn was expelled from Oxford for his open disgust over the religious conformity the Earl of Clarendon was then attempting to enforce. a leader of one of the most extreme Protestant sects and an intimate friend of an intolerant Catholic monarch. only to be released a few weeks later. In 1662. For reasons still not clear. The new proprietors. By that time.µ He began to publish religious tracts. William Penn was a member of Britain's highest social circles. This association seems to have been close enough that the newly-crowned Charles felt free to ask Admiral Penn for a loan of £16. Though his father was deeply offended by his son's conversion to the Society of Friends. By 1674. Charles II and James. the Admiral wound up in the Tower of London toward the end of the Commonwealth. Lord Berkeley had become so thoroughly disgusted with the never-ending problems in New Jersey that he sold his entire interest in that colony to two English Quakers. A century later. Penn briefly studied law.000. at about the same time his father had joined sides with the forces of Oliver Cromwell. Admiral Penn distinguished himself in the services of the Commonwealth in several expeditions. John Fenwick and Edward Byllynge. but he soon met with Friends again. William Penn was arrested under the Conventicle Articles for attending Quaker meetings and insisting on Quaker practices. and soon he was offered the first opportunity. He was soon released.000 loan. and after only brief exposure he suddenly announced his conversion to the ´despised sect which was everywhere spoken against. he left his son an estate that yielded £1. . Penn had meanwhile also become acquainted with the Society of Friends.µ that seems to have been a short-lived attraction. and when the Admiral died in 1670. yet at the same time his convictions made him a member of the most despised religious sect of his day.combination of personalities: a religious zealot who at the same time was a courtier in one of the most corrupt courts of Europe.500 a year. however. By the time of the restoration of Charles II. 16-year old William was off to Oxford University. including the one which seized Jamaica in 1655. while his father had joined forces with the royal brothers. Duke of York. and he outraged his father by using Quaker plain language and declaring that he would refuse to uncover his head even before the king. No Crown became one of the ablest defenses of Quaker doctrines. and his No Cross. Once free. there never was a complete break between the two. Even more significant was the claim against the Crown for the £16. however. however.µ William Penn was born in October 1644. he was a shrewd and often ruthless businessman. mainly to manage his father's estates in Ireland. he took his family away from the intrigues of London to his estate in Ireland. Benjamin Franklin wrote of William Penn that he had united ´the subtlety of the serpent with the innocence of the dove.

stood little chance.however. not only did the king grant the request. and James. Secretary of State. but the Lords of Trade were actively consolidating all the existing colonies under royal authority. and West New Jersey for the Quakers. became a royal province. all of New Jersey. thereafter gave up all claims over both provinces. in 1688. the charter was issued in little more than six months. Still. There was no mention made of a haven for the oppressed or of conducting any holy experiment. But around this time. new troubles arose immediately. Scotch and Scotch-Irish Presbyterians were beginning to arrive in the colony in increasing numbers. to be managed by three trustees. Yet there was to be no peace in New Jersey. in 1680 William Penn petitioned Charles II for a grant between the New York and Maryland colonies in consideration of ´the debts due him and his father from the crown. When Carteret died in 1680. Quakercontrolled government. The purpose of this new colony was to ´extend our British Empire. when Edmund Andros arrived as governor of New York. In 1674. a new and separate colony was essential if the Friends were ever to find peace. one of whom was William Penn. each part of New Jersey drifted off into different directions under different ownerships until. No sooner had the Quaker government been established. In that year. another group of Quakers bought out his share and soon all New Jersey was united under a single. than the Duke of York decided to reclaim his authority over his domain. administered by the new Governor-General Edmund Andros as a part of the Dominion of New England. Yet the timing seemed all wrong.µ It seems very unlikely that Charles would have been overly concerned about the repayment of this debt. At any rate. The establishment of yet another proprietary colony. William Penn and the Society of Friends had already realized that New Jersey was far from an ideal haven for the Quakers. the confusing issue was finally settled. his commission included New Jersey as well. a fact which made the Puritan settlers none the happier. old friend of the Penn family.East New Jersey for Carteret. An impartial arbitrator finally decided in favor of the Jersey proprietors. Long before that time. the original partner in the enterprise. Duke of York. however. For several years thereafter. The New England Puritans in the eastern portions still claimed their independence and refused to pay taxes or swear allegiance to the proprietor. but the petition did provide a public reason for a land grant to a personal friend. but when he insisted on collecting duties in both Jerseys and tried to exercise governmental powers over the provinces. no doubt. not only were there strong anti-Quaker feelings in England. but he personally saw to it that the charter was processed as quickly as possible. The colonial charter was skillfully written to avoid any opposition.µ to increase British . With the help of Lord Sunderland. By 1680 the arguments had become so heated that Charles II was petitioned for a decision. the intent was to save Penn and his fellow Quakers from an impending royal purge of all dissidents. and they gradually displaced Quaker influence everywhere. together with New York. especially one under Quaker control. and in 1676 New Jersey was finally divided into two parts . quickly began to argue among themselves and with Sir George Carteret.

the Land of Woods. despite Penn's fears that in un-Quaker like manner ´it should be looked on as a vanity in men. The Thirty Years' War caused such total destruction in that country that for a while it seemed that Germany would never again recover. and went to the king to have it struck out and altered. Anxious for a harbor. for example. a place of such total desperation that it was said . Dutch. Penn then proposed the name Sylvania.commerce. and to convert the Indians. and he made full use of it. laid plans for a capital city. William Penn. and though I much opposed it. He now had nearly a century of English colonization experience to draw on. these pamphlets helped make Pennsylvania the best advertised colony in English history. Northwards of New Castle Townµ north to ´the beginning of the 40th degree. Ireland.µ but a Welshman in authority refused to allow that name to be attached to a Quaker colony. Pamphlets were written by Penn. Dutch. The boundaries were to be the ´Delaware River. and all through the Continent to spread the word about Pennsylvania. and designed a constitution for the colony. drew a line 19 miles south of the 40th parallel. when two English surveyors. While still in England. from 12 miles distance. promising complete political and religious freedom to all. he arranged for land grants. he proceeded with the Quaker plans to establish their Holy Experiment. nor could twenty guineas move the under secretary to vary the name .µ and westwards five degrees. translated into French. Wales. One county was estimated to have lost nearly three-quarters of its people and over eighty percent of its livestock. had become a virtual desert. ´they added Penn to it. The entire grant was officially called ´The Province of Pennsylvania. Maryland's claim was finally settled in 1767. There was no sea-to-sea grant this time. disputes which were not completely resolved until nearly a century later. Pennsylvania's border disputes with New York were to drag on another twenty years more. once the most fertile province in all Germany. Germany became an especially rich source for the Quaker colony. there was no seaboard at all. As soon as Penn received his charter. however. . though that was acceptable. and other parts fared little better. The Palatinate. he said it was past and would not take it upon him. Penn therefore obtained from the Duke of York two more deeds which granted him a territory almost identical to today's Delaware. became absolute proprietor of all the lands with all the usual powers. and English settlers had already entered the region around the mouth of the Schuylkill River. . Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon. and German. Meanwhile he had already sent out agents in England.µ Penn had at first hoped to name his colony New Wales because it was ´pretty hilly country. and the Territories there unto annexed. A few Swedish. publicizing the venture wherever these agents went. Scotland. This so-called Mason-Dixon Line thus became the official southern border of Pennsylvania long before it became subverted for more sinister purposes in the next century. and Penn encouraged these people to remain in the colony. and the territory became known as Pennsylvania. The boundaries of their new colony almost immediately involved Pennsylvanians in bitter disputes with every one of their neighbors.µ the name stayed on the charter. in fact.µ Despite the attempted bribe.

preaching by the spirit. had landed in Pennsylvania and established one of the first settlements. whom he describes as ´near to Friends. he now turned to this ready-made source of useful and generally skilled emigrants. Although its fertile ground and the people's skill in agriculture enabled them to make a slow recovery. both Quaker-like sectarians. at the eve of the American Revolution.µ As for the town itself. Third Street. from Wuerttemberg. when for more than a decade the armies of France had rampaged through the German countryside. as to silence in meeting. then by the war of the League of Augsburg. Second. etc. Penn had made a tour of Germany and was struck by these people. the peasants of Germany set out on a mass emigration to America. Hoping to avoid the example of the congested cities of Europe and the disastrous London fire of 1660. looting and burning and killing. Penn also added: ´Let every house be placed . That tide of immigration became so massive that only fifty years later. only to have them carried off by the invading armies. . From the Rhine country. There also were already several German sects which closely resembled the Quakers. The next year Penn's dazzling propaganda leaflets increased this traffic to a steady flow. thousands upon thousands of families began to flee the wars which so regularly devastated their ancient homelands. many parts of Germany were devastated all over again.µ To people his colony. the promise of this peaceful new land across the Atlantic furnished abundant manpower for emigration and settlement. he added. Spruce Street. the proprietor covered the establishment of a main port. while the people themselves were treated with barbarous cruelty by the soldiers of nations which boasted of themselves as being the leaders of Western civilization. those perpendicular to the river were named after trees . dry and healthy. ´where it is most navigable. Within the first year. more than ten percent of the white settlers of the country. and finally by the War of Spanish Succession.Pine Street. Once the possibilities of a better life in America became known to them. Streets parallel to the river were to be called. several shiploads of Mennonites and Pietists. and so on. First. plainness in garb and furniture in their house. so there may be ground on each side for gardens or orchards or fields. which quickly became a virtual flood.µ Out of this design grew the checkerboard layout of Philadelphia.µ . which became known as Germantown. His surveyors were directed to select a site along the Delaware River. during the 1670s. And once ways were developed to get these povertystricken people to these lands. . the City of Brotherly Love. with Quaker simplicity. from Baden. Among the first instructions to Pennsylvanians. the harassment was resumed by the tyranny of their own petty rulers. first by the campaigns of Louis XIV. that it may be a green country town. Chestnut Street. which will never be burned and always be wholesome. ´be sure to settle the figure of the town so that the streets hereafter may be uniform down to the water. And if foreign nations left them in peace for a short while. The desperate peasants again and again planted crops.for a while its inhabitants practiced cannibalism in order to survive. the German population in the once solid English American colonies had swelled to about two hundred thousand. high. until the masses of the German people were left without hope and with no chance ever to rise above the poverty and near-starvation.

µ The city also held ´three fairs every year. Some 4. of course. like clocks. they will cure it. Outside these two towns. During this time the settlers not only traveled unarmed throughout the country. ´go from the motion men give them. Wherefore governments rather depend upon men than men upon governments. if it be ill. In 1682. William Penn himself arrived in America after a terrible voyage during which nearly one-third of the passengers had died. Welsh immigrants had begun to arrive about 1682 and had been granted a tract of 5. William Penn had every reason to be pleased: none of those who had arrived earlier had endured a starving time.In the midst of all these activities. agents of the Duke of York officially turned the colony over to him. This constitution provided for an elected council who was to be responsible for all legislation.µ One important reason for the immediate success of Pennsylvania was a sincere effort by the colonists to stay on friendly terms with the Indians. ´Governments. and more ´people were coming in fast. almost onethird of the people lived in Philadelphia. and Penn immediately entered into a series of treaties with them that kept the peace for more than half a century. When the population of Pennsylvania had reached nearly 7.000 houses. after the mode in London. and so governments are made and moved by men. the town almost overnight began to challenge Boston in the number of ships coming to her docks. The town of Philadelphia rapidly grew into one of the largest ports of colonial America.µ he declared. too. but Quaker farmers frequently left their children in care of Indians if they had to leave home for any extended periods. Only less than a decade after Philadelphia's founding. however.000 people already lived in Pennsylvania when the proprietor arrived. most of them stately brick structures.000 acres. But Penn was far more concerned with the government's moral character than with its actual form. The tribes of the area had already cooperated with the earlier Swedish and Dutch settlers. excellent businessmen who turned their town into the leading industrial and shipping center on the Atlantic coast. and the government cannot be bad.000. and all Christians were eligible to vote and to hold office. had for many years already been intimidated by their Iroquois neighbors. four committees of this council were to act as the executive. and as many as several families in each. Pennsylvania was to became a secure retreat for Protestants of every persuasion. and they probably welcomed the white settlers as protectors against these ancient enemies. All believers in God were to enjoy the blessing of free worship. and two markets every week. most Pennsylvanians were farmers. William Penn still found time to draw up a government for his colony. . he issued a First Frame of Government which he later amended twice. all of them well-fed and beginning to prosper. Let men be good. The majority of Philadelphia's inhabitants were English and Welsh Quakers. In October 1682. mostly Mennonites and related German sects. so by them they are ruined too. The Delaware Indians.µ In accordance with Quaker convictions. since the established settlers in the area had supplied them with food until the first harvest could be brought in. headed by a governor. had grown to several hundred inhabitants. ´generally three stories high. a resident wrote that this ´noble and beautiful cityµ contained 2.µ Germantown. At New Castle. Penn avoided giving legal preference or support to any one church in the colony.

known as New Wales. as talented as Philadelphians were in business. and these so-called Pennsylvania Dutch quickly gained a reputation as skilled and energetic farmers. they might still have survived on their farms had they been allowed to live in peace. sheep in considerable numbers. Some of these Pennsylvania farmers were said to own as many as ´300 heads of Cattle. Radnor. The promoters soon brought in thrifty and hardworking Lowland Scots as tenants. Parliament enacted several trade laws between 1665 and 1680. lands of the rebellious Irish in the northern counties were confiscated and placed under the control of developers' companies with the provision that they be peopled by non-Catholic farmers. bricklayers. And to add to this success story. First they developed a livestock industry so thriving that Irish cattle became famous for their excellence. driven from their Irish homelands and the poverty brought on by repeated measures of the British government. the Scotch-Irish farmers ran into serious conflicts with the powerful landed interests in these countries. German settlers were beginning to spread far into interior Pennsylvania. including wheat. shoemakers. the Scotch-Irish shifted their efforts to wool growing and the manufacture of cloth. Parliament bowed to pressure. Pennsylvania ranked third among all the English colonies in wealth and population. tailors. This combination of skills and industry soon proved successful beyond expectations. barley. peas. within less than twenty years of its founding. and the Scottish Parliament soon followed suit. Again they became so successful that they ran into conflict with the English wool industry. and a new racial group. carpenters. flax. But only a few years later. their skill and industry quickly converted Ulster from the most backward to the most prosperous part of all Ireland. they soon became too efficient competitors of the English landlords and manufacturers. the so-called Scotch-Irish. The uprising was quickly suppressed. however. Within a few more years they had established such places as Heverford. the colony had already attracted an unusually large number of skilled artisans.µ and horses and oxen. beans. Back during the days of James I's reign. Comparable to the German immigration to America were the Scotch-Irish. their English . the Catholic population of Ireland had begun armed resistance against their sovereign in far-off London and his English overlords in their country. carrots and a large variety of fruits. again. Pennsylvania was well supplied with blacksmiths. Presbyterianism replaced Catholicism as the dominant religion of Ulster. and by the Woolen Act of 1699 prohibited the export of raw wool and woolen cloth from Ireland to any country. rye. But since their best export markets were in England and Scotland. hemp. turnips. industrious and skillful as they were. The loss of their foreign markets was a serious blow to the Scotch-Irish farmers. almost from the beginning. Under their intense pressure. had been created. and Merian. oats. potatoes. which prohibited the importation into England of Irish cattle and other livestock. corn. Undaunted and with an amazing enterprise and adaptability. Her farmers grew the most varied crops of any English in America. Unfortunately for these Scotch-Irish. but James I was determined to prevent all further such incidents. English garrisons were now established throughout the country. weavers and other crafts.

Welsh. All these different groups might well have put a quick end to the Quakers' Holy Experiment. And once established in their own province. . and other newcomers. During the early 18th century. There were many heated arguments on the proper course of government. the Scotch-Irish were often rather impatient with the restraints of Pennsylvania law. in fact. the Presbyterian Scotch-Irish had suddenly become virtual outlaws. And when these Scotch-Irish arrived in America. and the Society of Friends thus managed to hold control of the government despite the fact that Quakers never represented more than one-third of Pennsylvania's population. ´. so many arguments were there. . me. and the poor country . they were left without hope and threatened by ever-mounting famine and diseases. for the love of God. Hardy fighters and independent spirits. once it came to actual warfare. but such arguments were always between the Quakers themselves. . they brought with them a bitter hatred of everything English that would never be forgiven not forgotten. By the thousands they soon left Ireland to find new homes in the Promised Land across the ocean. as was being done in every other colony. be not so Governmentish!µ But Governmentish they did become. and in many cases by language barriers as well. however. apparently jealous of their tenant's successes. Friends. ironically. But the Germans usually voted with the Quakers on all issues. the Scotch-Irish also became the main targets and at the same time served as a buffer for the more peaceful settlements. Scotch-Irish. The very ways which early Quaker martyrs had used to show contempt for rank and customs in other societies. but in Pennsylvania they began an uneasy relationship with their Quaker neighbors. Germans. partly for the same reasons as had others who had set out before them in holy experimentation. unwilling and unable to pay these enormous rents. partly out of necessity. now became customs in themselves. Anglicans. suddenly raised their rents double or even threefold. they suddenly became more interested in perfecting their own truths than in spreading them throughout the world. Handicapped by the trade laws. The doctrine of the Inner Light was as incomprehensible to these new arrivals as was the Friends' Indian policy. dispossessed by the owners of their lands. as rigid and often as absurd as those they had once sought to displace. and they could no longer hold any political offices. a curious thing happened to Quakers. And since these Scotch-Irish usually settled far out on the frontier. the Scotch-Irish became a dominant part of immigration to America in general. they never could understand why they should have to buy their land from the Indians when they could just as easily be driven off or killed. To complete the misfortune of these people. that William Penn finally felt it necessary to chastise his people.absentee landlords. they were forbidden to maintain schools. faced by religious persecution. under the Test Act of 1704. . they quickly stirred up the previously peaceful Indians. were now evicted in wholesale numbers and replaced. Their chapels were closed. whose standard of living had meanwhile shrunk to nearly sub-human levels. with Irish farmers. all were separated by religious convictions and national differences. The Scotch-Irish. The Quaker refusal to remove one's hat now became as arrogant and meaningless a symbol as the .

however. as George Fox had declared. the . Finally. There was.µ Several years later. all other persons required by the laws of England to take an oath must have them administered. the Great Law provided that anyone might give testimony by ´solemnly promising to speak the truth. the matter of oaths. from their defiant use of thee and thou to their own ways of marriage and burials. but as the non-Quaker population of Pennsylvania increased. ·swear not at all . From their earliest days in England. the Pennsylvania Quakers therefore tried to resolve the entire matter. At the same time. would make it difficult. either the Quaker officials began to administer oaths or they would have to be removed. The drab Quaker costume. from serving as jurors. To that the Quakers had also added such common-sense reasons that no oath would turn a liar into an man of truth. From the very beginnings of Pennsylvania. if they refused to swear allegiance to anyone or anything? Could one believe witnesses and jurors who refused to take a harmless oath? Quaker refusal to administer oaths eventually became as controversial as their refusal to take them. if strictly interpreted and adhered to. For a while. at least. many of the Irish and Germans added their objections to those of the English government. an English law permitted Quakers to make this simple affirmation. the law also prohibited these Quakers from giving evidence in criminal cases.· ´ It was the ¶light in every man· which gave him the truth and made him testify to it. . in fact. to run a government. and the Quaker majority in the Pennsylvania assembly was forced to fight off several attempts to disqualify them because they would neither take nor administer oaths. ´Christ our Lord and Master saith. they asked. and nothing but the truth. Quakers had refused to swear to anything because. but others were still required to swear. now became a uniform to which the Friends assigned as much or more importance than did their neighbors to their elegant clothing.µ Pennsylvania was now faced with a difficult choice. How could rulers be trusted. At the same time. but far different to try to rule by them. Silence at the meetings became in itself a form of worship. Quakers were able to govern their colony only by compromising one principle after another. or ´all their proceedings are declared null and void. in 1703. the Quakers managed to ignore this ban on office holding. In 1682. and the previously spontaneous revelations now became a compulsory part of every meeting. too. the whole truth. It was one thing to live by Quaker principles. until the very fundaments of their beliefs forced them to make the ultimate decision. And there always was the argument that requiring a man to be sworn in to assure his truthfulness somehow implied that he was a liar when not under oath. The same rigid emphasis on difference became a required feature of every aspect of Quaker life. the Lords of Trade declared that Quakers might qualify for office by a legally prescribed affirmation in place of an oath. for example. once meant to express indifference to a person's outward appearance. or from holding public office. .non-Quaker's perception of common courtesy. Quakers were beginning to realize a completely different kind of truth: their religious principles. perhaps even impossible. oaths and swearing were but ´idle wordsµ for which every man would answer on the Day of Judgment.

Apparently. Quakers had supplied the ammunition to force them out of office. it had already become difficult to find anyone to serve as justices willing to administer oaths. Some Quaker office holders began to compromise. found guilty and were quickly executed. and more serious prices to pay by the Friends for trying to preserve their principles. take a simple affirmation instead. and once again the Society of Friends compromised to stay in office. But the issue long kept Pennsylvania affairs in a turmoil. Quakers thereafter refused any offices that might compromise their beliefs. the attorney-general in London replied that since English law required juries to be sworn in capital cases. The most orthodox Quakers were gradually forced out of office by this law. apparently without much objection by the Quakers. Once again. As a rule. In 1650. The argument was far from academic. but when the news reached London that British subjects in Pennsylvania were being convicted on the testimony of unsworn witnesses and executed on the verdict of unsworn juries. the suspects were tried. but even in such cases it presented a real dilemma. at his option. no colonial charter could change so fundamental a requirement. but no official could refuse to administer an oath to any person who so preferred. Many others resigned rather than compromise their principles. But then a new deputy governor came into office. there was no protection or security in a predominantly Quaker community against any sort of serious crime. But there were other. In 1718. the suspects remained free on bail. in fact. since no Quaker could give evidence in court. The entire subject was dramatically illustrated in 1715. and that statute has remained substantially the basis of Pennsylvania's attitude on the subject of oaths. the same act of 1718 which allowed persons to take office without an oath also increased the capital crimes of Quaker Pennsylvania to match those of England. And that was where it remained. and he quietly reopened the case.alternative was total chaos in all legal and governmental proceedings. when a prominent citizen of Chester County was murdered. but in their roles as the governing people they were now confronted by the issue of capital punishment. and at least some jurors were bound to be Quakers at the trial of the captured suspects. a law slipped quietly through the Pennsylvania assembly. at least sparing the Friends the embarrassment of having to do away with human lives in violation of their principles. Their Great Law of 1682 had already eliminated all but treason and murder as capital crimes. George Fox had gone to jail in England rather than take up arms for the Commonwealth against the . however. there was an angry outcry. In some counties. William Penn argued that his charter had granted the Quakers freedom from oaths. before anyone was able to raise much objection. the judges. for three years thereafter. either administering the oaths themselves or allowing others to do so under their authority. justice had been done after all. no trial was possible. Since Chester County was predominantly Quaker. a few disobeyed the Quaker principles and held on to their posts. Anyone required to swear an oath could. Quakers were opposed to the taking of human lives for any reason whatsoever. Another of the Friends' cherished principles was pacifism. But since these Quakers refused to take the oath required in capital cases. of course. most witnesses.

going to jail in England for a personal ideal was quite different than insisting on pacifism in the American wilderness. forced to the issue by Indian wars in 1756. but. Quaker rule in Pennsylvania had come to an end . Judged by the company one keeps. and after his return from Pennsylvania became a personal advisor to the King. and . but by abdication. Quaker insistence on peace at any cost was a dangerous ideal under such circumstances. as a Catholic himself. made the colony an important link in the English settlements along the Atlantic coast. William Penn truly believed in the sincerity of his royal friend. They were careful to select deputy governors who were non-Quakers and therefore less scrupulous in the ordinary business of government. But once again. Though he returned for another stay of two years in 1699. the Quakers. the remaining eighteen years of his life were spent in England. in the eyes of England. 1688. for many years the Pennsylvania Quakers managed to evade the issue. King of England. James II. James had gone to every extreme in protecting his fellowbelievers. however. neither Quakers nor political leaders trusted the ´two-facedµ courtier. fled his palace. spent only a few years in his colony. ´from Conviction of Judgmentµ and ´for the Peace of our own Minds. After a stormy three-quarter century. In his efforts to improve the lot of his own sect.not by defeat. the guiding spirit of the Society of Friends in America. Pennsylvania's central location. Still. where such sentiments endangered the lives of every Pennsylvanian. by not coming to the aid of their own backwoods settlers. Penn thus became guilty by associationwith an arbitrary ruler. he tried to perform the impossible feat of being a royal courtier and still holding on to his Quaker principles. its contacts with the Five Nations of the Iroquois and the always hostile French. James. William Penn.Stuart heir. his capital. an association that did much harm to his own reputation. In 1684 he returned to England to stand by his fellowQuakers in the homeland and to settle the boundary disputes of Pennsylvania. as head of the Anglican Church. the Quaker rulers of Pennsylvania endangered not only themselves and their colony. however. and the Reputation of our religious Professionµ resigned nearly all their seats in the Assembly. Sooner or later. even setting aside Parliamentary laws and antagonizing every powerful person in his kingdom. was bound by oath to enforce the anti-Catholic laws of his country. There he continued his friendship with James II. they once again had to choose between the alternatives of compromising their principles or withdrawing from the government. In the end he managed only to offend both sides. * * * On December 18. the entire British Empire. By the mid-18th century the time for that decision had come once and for all. Quaker and non-Quaker alike. who were in constant danger of attacks.

and with this one action the new king had acknowledged the sovereignty of the British legislature. William of Orange. 1689. In August 1688. The theory of divine rights of the royal rulers of England had come to an abrupt end. Indians had once again raided the village of Northfield in the Connecticut Valley. Desperate to avoid any such possibility. had accepted his crown at the hands of the Parliament. ´When the body is disturbed. This bloodless change in royal succession became known in English history as the Glorious Revolution. William came and was so enthusiastically received by the people that James II must have been reminded of his own father's fate forty years earlier. and in apparent fear for his life he abandoned the crown and fled to France.µ The Dominion of New England had continued its troubled existence. the members need be affected. But while the Declaration of Indulgence was still being debated by the people of England. Only Catholics remained outcasts as before. however. He issued a Declaration of Indulgence. In less than three years of his reign he had managed to antagonize every influential group in England with his obvious determination to foster his own Catholic faith. and he was expected to be succeeded very soon by his Protestant daughter Mary. it suddenly appeared that the Catholic dynasty might become a permanent one. Four months later. the Protestant Stadtholder of the Dutch Netherlands. suspending the Parliamentary acts against dissenters and Catholics in particular. who was married to William of Orange. since this son was also certain to be educated as a Catholic. The King of England suddenly stood in open violation of the laws of the land. According to English law. on April 11. it was mainly to encourage the inhabitants there to stage revolts of their own. which clearly established Parliamentary powers and authority. a few English noblemen invited William of Orange to come to England and head a movement against his father-in-law. ´therefore we here can expect no settled times till England is at peace. never again thereafter were the decisions of Parliament disputed by any British monarch. . * * * If this Glorious Revolution had any effect on the English colonies in America. At first there had been surprisingly little reaction to such royal high-handedness. On several occasions he had even violated his own oath and his country's laws by appointing Catholics to high office. granting freedom of worship to all religious sects of the Protestant faith. this son was the lawful successor to the throne of England.finally deserted his kingdom for France.µ remarked William Byrd of Virginia. and finally he had decided to settle the matter once and for all. and the Toleration Act. William III and Mary were crowned joint rulers of the British Empire. as if to justify the state of colonial affairs. it was announced that a son had been born to James II. James was getting on in age. And only the next year came the Bill of Rights.

But without any funds coming in. however. ´There is a great general buzzing among the people. Andros had promptly announced the birth of James' son as heir apparent. or of any sort of official recognition from England. Rumors had already begun to circulate in Boston that James II would soon be forced from the throne. there were the everyday expenses of administration. hitherto. ´but now that the Lord has prospered the undertaking of the Prince of Orange. already in a rebellious mood. That was the real reason why he had appointed Catholic officers to lead the militia to the northern frontier. At any rate. ´We have been quiet. did not reach Boston until April 1689. Bostonians needed little persuasion that Andros must be prevented from carrying out the rumored plans. The lack of a charter. But if they had hoped that everything would now return to normal. made their selfproclaimed government something that could simply be ignored. This time Governor Andros called out the reluctant militia. they also proclaimed William and Mary and pledged the colony's allegiance to them. the colony's inhabitants. many of the governmental activities came to a grinding halt. and soldiers were ´kept in readiness for any emergency. until English authorities ordered them released and returned home.µ The emergency came only a few days later. now refused to pay any sort of taxes to this rebel government. The rebels then occupied the fort in Boston harbor and issued a Manifesto. and he and his colleagues remained imprisoned for nearly a year. however. they had misjudged the independent spirit of their own people. the news of the Glorious Revolution. The governor himself was well aware of the danger.µ Though Andros briefly managed to escape. All governments need money. the official notice of William and Mary's coronation had been withheld by one of New England's own agents. of course. Secretary Randolph. and he had seen to it that the notification never reached Boston. or they know not what. accusing Andros of ¶misgovernment· and blaming the loss of the Massachusetts charter on the ´slanderous accusationsµ of Edward Randolph.µ declared the rebels. Actually.µ All civil officers were instructed to continue in their posts. the governor planned to turn all New England over to the French. seize the vile persons who oppressed us. and the governor was immediately accused of having suppressed this information for his own benefit.µ he wrote. a mob overwhelmed the Dominion offices and captured and imprisoned Governor Andros. and there was the campaign in England for the restoration of the charter. now it was said that Andros was a secret Papist. and Massachusetts needed it desperately. on April 18. he was soon recaptured. where it might prevent the anticipated ouster of Andros. therefore. Increase Mather was in London at the time as Massachusetts' agent.three months later another attack struck at settlements on Penobscot Bay in Maine. We. and several other officials. ´great with expectations of their old charter. The rebels had meanwhile called a convention to reestablish their government as it had existed under the old charter. and soon there was no more money to pay the troops on the . there were Indians to be fought on the frontiers. we think we should follow his example. whose hesitancy quickly turned to active resistance when it was discovered that several of their commanding officers were Catholics. and should James really be removed.

Every colony had received orders to proclaim William and Mary as rulers of the British Empire. 1691. Penn personally renewed his pledge to William and Mary. however. a small concession to those who demanded the consolidation of the American colonies. still trying to regain the old Massachusetts charter. the people of Connecticut now also retrieved their hidden charter from that old oak tree. only the deputy governor and his council of three local men. a compromise was finally worked out: a new charter was issued to Massachusetts. Francis Nicholson. under which its governor was appointed by the crown. In October. the monarchs could hardly punish an entire colony for the same sort of actions that had won for themselves the throne of England. the Dominion of New England had ceased to exist. Though he had probably convinced the royal couple to recall Andros. Increase Mather was still in London. and his frequent lack of self-control had long since earned him the disrespect of the population. both of whom were suspect because of their personal friendships with James II. Both Connecticut and Rhode Island took immediate advantage of the situation and reestablished their old charter however. while a council was chosen by the elected Lower House of the Assembly. In New York. a string of petitions was beginning to arrive in England from citizens of the Bay Colony. and Pennsylvania remained the property of the Penn family until the American Revolution wiped out that grant as well. William finally recalled both charters and replaced the proprietors with royal governors. pleading for the restoration of royal government. but delays and misunderstandings apparently kept these assurances from reaching London. Maryland. New York had been governed by Andros' deputy. there was little chance for the restoration of the charter. a rebellion broke out in the wake of the Glorious Revolution. With the new government of Massachusetts in place. On the other hand. The British attorney-general concluded that since neither colony had ever been officially deprived of their charters. As a part of the Dominion of New England. and the resulting disputes would mark the affairs of that colony for nearly a century thereafter. each was therefore entitled to resume business as usual. his charter was reinstated. Presumably. there was no representative assembly. and Pennsylvania all were all quietly returned to the control of their respective proprietors. New Jersey. England was not long in obliging. but special mandates had been sent to William Penn and Lord Baltimore. in a colony known for strong anti-Catholic feelings. at which time the American Revolution made any sort of colonial charter a thing of the past. But Francis Nicholson was no man for this responsible position. Both proprietors immediately pledged their loyalty to the new monarchs. William and Mary had no intentions of reversing two decades of increasing control over her colonies. This charter also made Plymouth and Maine a permanent part of the Bay Colony. It was under this charter that Massachusetts Bay continued for another eighty-five years. And suddenly a curious thing happened. of course. In 1694. nearly all the important posts in the . of course. To make matters worse.

the Livingstons. But that march became unnecessary. and this time the deputy governor himself lit the fuse. Farmers along the Hudson raged over the monopoly of flour production that had been granted to the merchants of New York City. Though he had since married into a prominent Dutch family and had become one of the wealthiest merchants in the colony.Jacob Leisler. Schuylers and Van Rensselaers. It is now difficult to determine why a man of Leisler's position would become involved in revolutionary activities. Germany. there apparently was a real fear in New York that Nicholson and his Catholic officials were conspiring with the French in Canada. still controlled much of the city and colony of New York. Nicholson also failed to proclaim New York's allegiance to William and Mary. the Bayards. Still.µ as they considered most of the other colonists. The farmers of Long Island and Westchester County had already threatened to march on New York City. and as long as the king himself was a Catholic. Nicholson once again lost his shaky self-control and screamed that he would sooner see the city in flames than have it destroyed by incompetence. for lack of official orders. New York had already been splintered into a number of factions. embellished along the way by colonial imagination and fears. 1689. because in May. they used this power to protect their own interests. Jacob Leisler was either an ´ignorant. Nicholson himself. A volatile situation such as this needed little spark to cause an explosion. And when. was strongly suspected of secret Catholic leanings. The Puritans on Long Island had meanwhile transferred their initial hatred for the Dutch rulers to the Catholic representatives of the English government. where they could almost certainly count on the support of the mechanics and small traders. for most descriptions of him are usually slanted in the extreme. it proved to be the final straw. all New York soon whispered that the governor was planning to burn the city to the ground. the city ¶rabble· seized Fort James on Manhattan Island. especially after he had been seen kneeling at a Catholic mass. Deputy Governor Nicholson had suddenly lost both his superiors. a native of Frankfurt. But then the news arrived that James II had deserted his throne and that Edmund Andros had been deposed as governor of the Dominion. One man quickly emerged as the leader of this uprising . depending on which side furnished the information.µ a ´fanatical . frequently to the detriment of the ´rabble. New York was a royal colony. and within days the people rose throughout the city in open revolt against the Nicholson government. it had put the farmers at a distinct disadvantage since they were forced to sell their wheat at prices controlled by these city merchants. there was never any real trouble. the upper classes of New York never really accepted him. Enraged by some mistake made by a subordinate. As in New England. each bitterly hostile to the others and to those in control.government were held by Catholics. though an Anglican. And a few influential families. who had come to New Amsterdam in 1660 as a soldier in the Dutch West Indies Company. coarse demagogue. not surprisingly. and overnight his position in New York had become an extremely shaky one. This thoughtless statement quickly circulated throughout the colony.

only after Sloughter arrived with the proper commission was the fort . however. . and he seems to have run so efficient a government that even some aristocratic families like the DePeysters and Delanceys began to support him. Dispatched with the new governor were two companies of English troops under the command of Major Richard Ingoldesby. Needless to say.µ Since no names were mentioned in these orders. Someone would have to be selected who had no previous connections at all with New York.µ he called a convention. and after some hesitation the messenger turned the papers over to him. . Francis Nicholson fled to England. however. of the illegal King James. But the majority of the upper classes never accepted this upstart lieutenant-governor. Leisler refused. Leisler. and both factions repeatedly sent representatives to England to plead their case to King and Queen. authorizing ´Our Lieutenant-Governor and Commander-in-Chiefof Our Province of New York. and a nephew of Peter Stuyvesant. but the man finally chosen turned out to be a most unfortunate candidate. a wealthy landowner. member of the governor's council. however. and soon after the town surrendered to the new government. and Major Ingoldesby immediately proceeded to Fort James to demand its surrender. Jacob Millborne. Colonel Henry Sloughter was described as a ´profilgate. Leisler's son-in-law and deputy. the residents of Albany began to reconsider. disregarded such ´popishly affected Dogs and Rogues.Germanµ who was the ´leader of a mob and rabble. needy. convinced the residents that William and Mary would soon be deposed. orders arrived from William III. Since Leisler also controlled the colonial militia. however.µ But Robert Livingston. the members of Nicholson's former council demanded that the dispatches be turned over to them. The Captain of the Fort now became lieutenant-governor of New York and proceeded to govern the colony according to the instructions sent by William and Mary. Leisler ruled New York for more than a year. . one of the most influential people in Albany. to keep the peace and administer the laws. traveled up to the village to convince ´the common people . his detractors consisted mostly of the Catholic officials and the aristocratic Protestant families of the colony. In December of that year. Under this authority Leisler set up a Committee of Public Safety and convened a legislature in which only Suffolk. and narrow-minded adventurerµ whose major interest in life seems to have been the bottle. But the troops arrived in New York ahead of the governor. too. Albany alone now held out against the rabble governor. power in New York passed to Leisler. for the time being took care. was well aware that choosing a governor from either side would only increase the problems. while the ruling classes had grouped together under Nicholas Bayard. William III. killing several of the inhabitants. that it was in their power to free themselves from the yoke of arbitrary power . Shortly thereafter.µ or he was an extremely well educated man. or in his absence to such as for the time being take care. Ulster. and delegates from seven counties of the colony promptly elected him Captain of the Fort and Commander-in-Chief of the Province. Leisler. Two weeks after the takeover of Fort James. and Albany counties were absent. considerate to the needs of the people. and the town rejected Millborne's efforts. Since the commander carried no official authority for such demands. a band of French Canadians and Indians demolished the nearby village of Schenectady. .

generations that knew only America. in effect reversing the treason conviction. the Empire seemed to work. at any rate. they intensified the mutual hatred between the inhabitants and the aristocratic families of the colony. had settled very little in New York. William and Mary. however. Generations had come of age in the Chesapeake region and in New England . never again was there an attempt made to rule the colonies without a representative legislature. . But it would require statesmanship and understanding and a give-and-take disposition on both sides to keep this balance in working order. however. A balance of sorts between the royal and local authorities had been struck. William and Mary did begin a tight control over their American dominion. The real significance of these events became apparent only long afterwards. Future generations of colonists in America would look back on the Glorious Revolution as a turning point: the previously unchecked power of the royal government began to fade thereafter. and traces of this rivalry could still be detected at the time of the American Revolution. William III probably never realized just how bitter the true feelings in New York had become. that their heads shall be struck off and their bodies cut in four parts. Leisler and his son-in-law were duly executed before any appeals could be made to the king whom they had properly recognized and proclaimed two years earlier. that their bowels be taken out and they being alive. who were thus left to the mercy of the opposition. In the summer of 1691. By that time. had instructed Governor Sloughter to convene an elected assembly. but Leisler and Millborne were condemned in true 17th-century fashion: they were to be ´hanged by the neck and. For decades thereafter. The colonists. six were found guilty and pardoned. and the idea of a centralized government was never mentioned anymore. but their new regulations always tried to make allowances for local feelings and customs. Leisler's son got Parliament to return to him his father's confiscated properties. And for a while. if anything.surrendered. the ghost of Jacob Leisler was to haunt New York politics. and it was already molding a different people. at long last. It was a different land. realizing that one of the causes of the unrest in New York had been the absence of proper representatives in government. and they had in the process become something more and something less than simply transplanted Englishmen. In 1697. at least. had now been at it for more than eighty years. for a while at least. had won its fight for representative government. Leisler and ten of his followers were tried before the governor's council. and in May 1691. two were acquitted. found less reason to complain. Sloughter's commission contained no instructions about what to do with the rebels. their bodies be cut down to the earth. being alive. Charged with treason. The executions.µ Sloughter signed the death warrant. New York. and usually respected the rights of the highly individualistic settlers. But the delay had given Leisler's enemies enough time to fix up a charge of treason against him. And colonial America. burnt before their faces.