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COMPREHENSION AND INTERPRETATION Comprehension Comprehension and interpretation of a set passage of prose – or verse – simply means understanding and

explaining what is written in the passage. Preparation for such an exercise is essentially the same as for a précis or a paraphrase: it involves reading the passage through in order to determine its theme or topic, reading it again to determine the attitude of the author to his subject, and reading it yet again to ensure an understanding of every detail of content and of style. After your first reading you should write down the theme of the passage in a few words; after your second reading you should make a note of the author’s approach or attitude to the theme; and during your third reading you should note significant points of detail. In practising this exercise, you should always consult your dictionary for the meaning of any unknown or uncertain words or phrases. If the passage contains figures of speech, take note of their significant and force in the context. Interpretation You can then proceed to an interpretation of the passage – that is, now that you understand the passage, you can go on to explain it in your own words. You are not required to translate the whole passage, as in a paraphrase, nor to summarise it, as in a précis – though at this point you should be able to do either. Your task is to explain or expand certain points in the passage. Vocabulary, Grammar and Metaphor You may be asked to deal with specific words and phrases: to show their meaning in the context, or to explain their grammatical function, or to indicate their metaphorical point. These are all exercises that you have already done individually. Explanation of Content There may be broader questions about whole sentences in the passage: you may be asked to explain exactly what the author means by a certain sentence, or to express the sentence in a simpler form, or to show the significance of the sentence in the general argument. All these forms of question depend on a complete understanding of the passage and the ability to express its meaning in your own words. Critical Comment With a thorough grasp of the theme, you should also be able to comment on the passage as a whole: to state whether the author’s comment on the passage as a whole: to state whether the author’s argument is a valid one, to say whether or not you agree with the opinions expressed, to explain the outlook or character of the author as revealed in his writing, even to indicate what his attitude would be to a question not dealt with in the passage. Logic of Argument If the passage is one of reasoned argument, it is essential to follow the logic of the argument step by step. There may be flaws in the argument. You should notice them and be able to explain where the fallacy lies. Appreciation of Style Your study of the passage should have given you an appreciation of its style as well as an understanding of its meaning. You should be able to discuss the author’s choice of words and use of language. You should understand the point of any anecdotes or illustrations introduced in the passage and appreciate their effectiveness in strengthening the general argument. The author may use antithesis, repetition, irony, humour or hyperbole to emphasise a point. These are all devices with which you already familiar, but it is important to note just how and why they are employed, and whether and to what extent they are effective. Method of Answering Questions All answers to question on comprehension should be clear and concise, expressed in simple English that follows the rules of grammar and syntax and idiom. Except in the case of meanings of words and phrases, all such answers should be written in complete sentences. Unless otherwise directed, you should base your answers entirely on what is said in passage set, and in these answers your business is to make clear what the writer actually means; you are not concerned with the correctness of his facts or opinions. In the cases in which you are asked for your own opinion on something that the writer says, give it as concisely as possible. In explaining the meaning of a word or phrase, you should take care that the meaning you give is expressed in the same grammatical form as the given word or phrase. Thus, if you are defining a noun or a phrase equivalent to a noun, your definition should be a noun or noun-equivalent; in the case of an

adjective or adjective-equivalent, your definition should also be an adjective or adjective-equivalent; and so on. Specimen A few examples will show how exercises in comprehension should be tackled. Passage 1 As we survey the whole course of man’s development from the earliest times to the present and from the most primitive and simple to the most complex way of living, we are strongly impressed by the fact that wherever men have lived together there has been some group interest in education. As the group becomes more complex this interest grows, and institutions definitely charged with the task of teaching are created. Thus the school comes into existence and an educational system evolves. But so far as we know from the meagre records which have been left, early men had only a very simple educational system. Most of the child’s learning was picked up as he associated with his parents and other members of the family, tribe, clan or larger group. He learned to fish and hunt, to prepare his food, to fight his enemies and to take care of his simple and elementary needs. In short, he learn to survive in the world in which he found himself. As the life of the group, became more complex, certain members of the group took it upon themselves to become thoroughly familiar with the traditions and the customs and devoted most of their time to the teaching of the young. At first, this teaching was done wherever the teacher and a group of learners cared to gather. But later specified places for teaching and learning were set up. These were first schools. Questions 1) How can we say that even the earliest man had interest in education? Ans. Man has always been keenly interest in learning things. Since when man lived in caves, he has been keen to know what is spread around him. This desire to “know” means his interest in education. The difference is of only simplicity and complexity of life, but the fact remains that education has been centre of man’s attention and interest. Since life come into being on this planet. 2) How and when was the first educational institution established? Ans. It is man’s nature to learn new things. Since his birth on this planet, man has been keen to establish education. With the passage of time, life became complex and individual life enlarged into group-life. Then the need grew to educate people in a body. For that purpose, institutions were established to teach the groups. That is how, first institution was created. 3) What kind of educational system did the early man have? Ans. The humble records that we have been able to collect are that early man had only a very simple educational system. Mostly, the learners picked early informations from their parents, other members of the family and tribe. They learnt to fish and hunt, to cook, to defend himself and arrange his basic needs. In other words, man educated himself to survive in the world which he himself had discovered. 4) Can you trace the development of educational system as the society became more complex? Ans. Life became very complicated when man divided himself into different groups. Among these groups certain communities thought it necessary to be familiar with the customs and traditions of their forefathers. They gave much importance teaching of their young ones. Firstly, teaching was done where teachers and learners gathered, but later on the process of education was specifically reserved for certain places. These places are first schools established by human being. 5) Suggest a suitable title for the text. “Education started since man’s birth.” Passage 2 Socrates taught that “the man who is master of himself is truly free”. By being master of oneself he meant first knowing oneself, one’s faults and weaknesses and one’s good points, without making any pretence and without being vain, and then being able to control oneself. This knowledge of himself was what helped a man to be courageous, and the courageous man has very important sort of freedom from fear. Socrates himself, because he was not afraid of the consequences, always felt free to teach what he thought was right, however unpopular this might make him with the powerful people in Athens. Now wonderful all his pupils loved Socrates. But he made some dangerous enemies by his strange ways of teaching and asking questions. Some of the rulers in Athens did not like people to be encouraged to ask questions for fear they would begin asking questions about what their rulers were doing. So they

accused Socrates of teaching young men wicked things and leading them to throw off their religion. This was false, for in fact Socrates was a very religious man. At last his enemies had him arrested, and he was condemned to death. Questions 1) What kind of man is truly free, according to Socrates? Ans. The man who knows himself and is able to control himself is truly free. 2) How did Socrates have enemies? Ans. His strange methods of teaching and asking questions made him some enemies. 3) Why did some rulers dislike people to be encouraged to ask questions? Ans. The rulers feared that if people were encouraged to ask questions they would begin asking questions about their (=the rulers’) actions. They therefore disliked it. 4) What was Socrates accused of? Ans. Socrates was accused of teaching young men evil things and leading them to give up their religion. 5) How can it be said that the accusation was false? Ans. Socrates was a very religious man, so it could not be true that he led people to throw off their religion. Passage 3 There is an immense and justified pride in what our college have done. At the same time there is growing uneasiness about their product. The young boys and girls who carry away our degrees are a very attractive lot – in looks, in bodily fitness, in kindliness, energy; courage and buoyancy. But what of their intellectual equipment? That too in some ways is admirable. Yet the uneasiness persists. When it becomes articulate, it takes the form of wishes that these attractive young products of ours had more intellectual depth and force, more at-homeness in the world of ideas, more of the firm, clear, quiet thoughtfulness that is so potent and so needed a guard against besetting humbug and quackery. The complaints commonly are three. First, granting that our graduates know a good deal, their knowledge lies about in fragments and never gets welded together into the stuff of a tempered and mobile mind. Secondly, our university graduates have been so busy boring holes for themselves, acquiring special knowledge and skills that in later life they have astonishingly little in common in the way of ideas, standards or principles. Thirdly, it is alleged that the past many decades have revealed a singular want of charity about the great ends of living, attachments to which gives significance and direction to a life. These are the three charges against our education. Questions 1) To what an extent is the intellectual development of boys and girls of our college satisfactory? Ans. Our alumni acquire intellectual development to some extent, but there is a general sense of being uneasy. They don’t find themselves equipped for practical utilisation of their intellect. 2) Discuss the three great charges against our education as pointed out in the text. Ans. The three charges which have been enumerated in this passage which are as follows: (i) First is that our students achieve disorganised knowledge and they are never in a position to compile parts of knowledge into a compact form which may assist them in their practical life. (ii) Second blame is that our students master bookish knowledge extensively as well as intensively but this theoretical knowledge has nothing to do with lofty ideals of life which one should cherish. (iii) Third allegation is very convincing and is linked indirectly with second point. It is about the failure of education system in the sense that it does not clearly indicate great purposes and goals of life which are very important for directions to a life. 3) Explain the underlined phrases: i) Their knowledge lies about in fragments: The clause implies that their knowledge is unsystematic and is not in compact form. They are not given impact of certain knowledge as whole; as a result they fail to fully comprehend the things they are taught. ii) Tempered and mobile mind: A mind that is moderate in action and quick and active in making decisions. iii) Great ends of life: sublime ideals of life and lofty ambitions 4) Can you suggest any remedy to remove these complaints?

They are talking about a range of illegal drugs like cannabis. . Nelson ordered his men two times to cease firing on the Redoubtable. that the tiller-ropes which had been shot away. changing our moods and affecting our behaviour. that the wound was mortal. His patriotism. This clause means ‘thinking that the men in the ship had surrendered’. which cannot be openly sold and used. “There is no adjustment between the system of our education and the needs of our life”. in the then situation of the two vessels was not more than fifteen yards from that part of the deck where he was standing. “I hope not!” cried Hardy. We have to devise as early as possible a comprehensive national scheme of education which seeks to bring about a complete and harmonious development of all the factors of human personality. He was thus partly responsible for his death. for as she carried no flag.Ans. upon examination. that it must be talked simultaneously at every level-production. “Yes. there was no means of instantly ascertaining the fact. Then that he might not be seen by the crew he took out his handkerchief ad covered his face and his stars. Ans. they do not mean drugs (medicines) which are sold legally in the market. 5) What qualities in Nelson’s character are revealed by this passage? Ans. He. Had he but concealed these badges of honour from the enemy. When people talk about drug abuse. The ‘mizze-top’ is the platform round the lower part of the mast nearest the stern. just in the heat of action. He fell upon his face on the spot which was covered with his poor secretary’s blood. Passage 5 Drug addiction has become a major social problem and one that particularly threatens young people in their teens and twenties. 3) What do you understand by the ‘missen-top’? Ans. opium and cocaine. insisted that the surgeon should leave him and attend to those to whom he might be useful. These drugs are very powerful in their effects inducing a propound change in mood. that no human care could avail him. Nelson was certain that it would be impossible to save his life. He himself being certain. Setting an example himself. The trade in drugs and the misery it causes has long been recognised as problems that can only be solved by international efforts. “my backbone is shot through!” Yet even now. It is easy though. One thing is as quite clear – drug addiction is such a complex problem and the trade in drugs is so difficult to prevent. saw three men raising him up. This. A ball fired from her mizzen-top which. The student is taught lessons from books but not lessons from life. for users of such drugs to become addicted to them so that the drugs become a permanent part of their lives and existence today has become enormous both in money and in lives. were not yet replaced and ordered that new ones should be roped immediately. was concealed from all. Hardy who was a few steps from him turning round. 4) Why did Nelson insist that the surgeon should leave him and attend to others? Ans. Our system of education calls for a radical change. Drugs are substances that alter the way the human body works. over whose bodies he was with some difficulty conveyed. he twice gave orders to cease firing upon the Redoubtable supposing that she had struck because her great guns were silent. 2) How can Nelson be said to have been partly responsible for his own death? Ans. It was soon perceived. struck the epaulette on his left shoulder about a quarter after one. from the sensation in his back. perhaps would not have had cause to receive with sorrow the news of the battle of Trafalgar. The existing system of our education is predominantly academic and theoretical. Drug addiction is as old as human society itself – but the changes that the 20th century has brought has made it more universal and threatening than ever before. his humanity and his powers of endurance are revealed by this passage. and the medical attendants. and laid upon a pallet in the midshipmen’s berth. “Defects of Our Education System” Passage 4 It has been part of Nelson’s prayer that the British fleet might be distinguished by humanity in the victory which he expected. 5) Suggest a title for the passage. however. and the gush of blood he felt momently within his breast. therefore.” he replied. As Maulana Azad observed. not for a moment losing his presence of mind he observed as they were carrying him down the ladder. the chaplain. Questions 1) What is meant by ‘supposing that she had struck’? Ans. England. insisted that the surgeon should leave him and attend to others. It is theoretical as a rule and practical by chance. From this ship which he had thus twice spared he received his death. From the same ship a ball was fired at him and brought about is death. “They have done for me at last Hardy!” said he. The cockpit was crowded with wounded and dying men. except Captain Hardy.

Coins are themselves the most imperishable antiquities. although we must be careful not to exaggerate their importance. factor. required for the promotion of family planning. The rise in life expectancy or fall in infant morality may be a sufficient condition for the adoption of family planning but certainly these are not the necessary conditions for people to get motivated to adopt family planning. causing changes in behavior and often addiction. The tensions and anxieties have increased so much that every one searches ways to escape from hard realities of life. The study of coins may therefore be expected to yield a considerable amount of information about the past. and were therefore frequently hoarded. Worldwide efforts are to be made to stop the drug traffic at every level. there is absolutely no reason to heed the family planning slogans however nicely designed. C. improve mood. 5) Suggest a suitable title for the passage: Ans. This is purely because of their socio-economic requirements. For them. The result is that they still exist in vast numbers of forgotten generations out of all proportion to other remains of the culture with which they were contemporary. Drugs such as a narcotic or hallucinogen that affects the central nervous system. Drug addiction has become global phenomenon. Asking this majority group to accept the initial inconveniences of family for a better future is going to cut no ice for they have lost all faith in such slogans. and restore the performance of someone overcome with fatigue to near-normal levels. They claim that they use these drugs to relax but they are unaware of the fact that drug addiction in itself is a perpetual source of frustration and depression. For them. just does not exist in the majority of our people. Measures should be taken internationally to wipe it out. it was usual to bury treasury for safety. Let’s say no to drugs. Drug Addiction and its Evil Affects Passage 1 For the majority of people in Pakistan. Sadly the very motivation. with the result that the contents of such ancient and medieval savings banks are frequently turned up by the spade today. These drugs suppress appetite. This necessary motivation can be induced mainly through their economic uplift to a significant level.trafficking dealing. there ought to be some strong and effective economic reasons to accept family planning. treatment and rehabilitation. No single approach can provide a solution but taking together. 2) What is the harm caused by drug? Ans. referred to in the passage? 6) What are the causes of population growth in this country according to the passage? Passage 2 Coins were first issued in east and west in the eighth century B. they have always been highly prized by their owners. by reasoning from known dates to pieces of which the dates are hitherto unknown. has often given . As is still the custom in the east. including population control. they must give some satisfactory results. and since then their use has spread over the whole civilised world. some people use drugs to get rid of depression. Unlike many objects in everyday use. a large family is an asset or at least posses no problems. To achieve satisfactory results there should be reciprocal ‘NO’ to drugs. every additional mouth brings two extra hands. Hence. A study of the find-spots of coins gives an idea of their circulation in ancient times and it is sometimes possible to make deductions about the extent of the dominions of a particular state from this. chronological analysis of finds. For them. Questions 1) How do the drugs affect the functions of the body? Ans. There ought to be necessary and sufficient reasons for the majority of our population to participate actively in any national endeavour. Questions 1) What is the national endeavour referred to in the passage? 2) Why is a large family an asset to most people in Pakistan? 3) “…………just does not exist in the majority of our people” What is the point referred to here? 4) Why should people accept family planning? 5) What are the “initial conveniences”. Coins give us some idea of the wealth and importance of ancient states and cities. 3) How can we stop the trade in drugs? The drug is so pervasive nowadays that it has such firm roots that it is Herculean task to get rid of this malady. 4) Why and how people get addicted to drugs? Ans. The drug-users cannot do without it.

Then the person tries to relax. As long as it indicates relaxation and then tries to imitate that feeling without having to check the biofeedback machine.” They discussed dogs for some time and finally agreed together that dogs could come into the hotel. We don’t want to make them angry. and they did not want people to leave because of dogs. To make this decision known to all their guests Mrs. he said to his wife.” Mrs. the temperature of the area under the devices rises because more blood reaches the area. Tomkins complaint? 2) Why didn’t Goffs want to make their visitors angry? 3) Why couldn’t the Goff afford not to allow dogs into their hotels? 4) Why wasn’t Mr. English dogs may be able to read it. He went to talk the matter over with his wife. Stress may cause as much as 75 percent of all illness. but are asked not go into the dinning-room and not to sit on the furniture. Goff promised to do what he could. (187 words) Questions: a. “It isn’t polite. He and his wife were simple people and had only lately bought the hotel. leg. they won’t understand it. If we refuse to allow dogs in the hotel. “It is very difficult. Questions 1) How old are coins in the east? 2) Why were coins hoarded in the past? 3) Why did the people of the east bury treasure? 4) “………turned up by the spade today”. dog-owners won’t come here to stay. Goff wrote out a rough notice and showed it to her husband. The patience recalls how he or she felt when the buzzer or dial changes.” Mr. or forehead. The arguments from find-shot has to be used with care. as he or she relaxes completely. Goff? 5) Bring out the humour in the last sentence. It’s too severe. When a machine that is attached to the devices detects the rise in temperature a buzzer sounds. or the reading on a dial changes. but not a large profit. The next part of the biofeedback process is learning how to relax without the monitoring devices. Can learning to relax improve health? Explain your viewpoint.” Questions 1) What was Mrs. the frequent finds of Roman gold of the early empire in Pakistan do not show that the Romans ruled there.” said Goff. Goff happy about the first notice prepared by Mrs. What is a biofeedback? Describe it in your own way. but must not sit on the chairs. It’s like an order. the patient tries to maintain the relaxed feeling throughout the day. They needed all the visitors they could get. As long as the patient is relaxed. She herself had noticed this dog and she agreed with Mrs. Goff. what does this mean? 5) What information would the study of coins yield to us? 6) What clues would these ancient coins give us about our past? 7) What do the Roman gold coins tell us about the social and economic aspects of Pakistani life? Passage 3 Biofeedback is a process that allows people with stress-related illnesses such as high blood pressure to monitor and improve their health by learning to relax. Goff went away to think again. “I don’t like it very much. On it were the words: DOGS MUST NOT BE ALLOWED TO SIT ON THE FURNITURE. It read: Dogs are welcome. and we’ll lose money. Tomkins left the south sitting-room of the halfway Hotel in Salisbury and went to find Mr. Tomkins. It was making a profit. In biofeedback. Some time later a notice was put up near the front door of the hotel. b. Thus. After succeeding in doing so. When Goff saw this notice. Goff said doubtfully. therefore. In her opinion. devices that monitor skin temperatures are attached to a patient’s arm. as commercial reasons frequently explain the finding of coins far from their original mints. She complained about a large dog which was frequently to be found sitting in the best arm chair in the sitting room. biofeedback promises to be an outstanding medical tool. “But we don’t want to drive anyone away. . no dog ought to be allowed in the hotel at all. the manager. “I’m still worried about the notice. but corroborate Pliny’s reference to the tremendous drain on Rome to pay for Roman luxuries. c. but if any foreign dogs comet to stay. the buzzer or dial gives encouragement.valuable results. Why is Biofeedback considered to be an instrument with great potential for the treatment of stress related illnesses? Passage 4 Mrs. These people aren’t in the army.

After a short interval there was a moment.” Socrates took the cup cheerfully. and this exercise supplies him with a fund of energy that will last until the evening. By beginning so early. . Stiffness crept up his body. “You have only to drink this and walk about until your legs feel heavy and then lie down. “Shall we make an offering to the gods from it?” “We only prepare so much as we think sufficient. This is so true that the honest preacher preaches to himself even more than to his listeners every season. Questions 1) “To teach others how to be good is nobler. “I suppose I must pray to the gods that my journey hence may be prosperous: that is my prayer. Only the man who is striving to climb the loftiest heights knows just how difficult is the way.” he answered. and is not tempted to hurry over any part of it. my friends?” he exclaimed. be it so”. Most of the men present controlled their grief.” said a wellknown writer. The early riser also finds time to take some exercise in the fresh morning air. Passage 6 “To be good is noble. In the early morning the mind is fresh and there are few sounds or other distractions so that work done at that time is generally well done. without trembling and without any change of colour. Passage 7 The great advantage of early rising is the good start it gives us in our day’s work. Feeling left his limbs. This may explain why in this world there is more of preaching which we get in church. but it is considerable trouble to carry out what we preach.” said Socrates. Socrates.” Why? 2) What does the passage say about parents? 3) What does the man who cannot find modest livelihood pretend? 4) What does the last sentence mean? 5) Suggest a suitable title to the passage. and looked up at the man with the fixed glance of his and asked. “I sent away the women chiefly in order that a man should die in silence. “I understand. It is no trouble to preach. on buses. Then all was still. Questions 1) What did the man who brought poison tell Socrates? 2) How did Socrates receive the cup of poison? 3) “I understand. Where is the parent who does not discover himself telling his child to do just what he himself does regularly? How many people are there who are certain that they have made anything but financial mistakes. So calm yourselves and bear up. Questions 1) What makes work done in the morning better? 2) Why should we take exercise in the fresh morning air? 3) Why is the early riser not tempted to do any work in haste? 4) What makes him relaxed in the evening? 5) Suggest a suitable title to the passage.” – What does the speaker understand? 4) What made the people weep? 5) How did Socrates silence men? 6) Suggest a suitable title to the passage. But one of them burst into a loud cry. but to teach others how to be good is nobler – and no trouble. in the streets and even in the homes of our land. The man who never swam a stroke feels perfectly competent to tell another how to swim. he know that he has plenty of time to do thoroughly all the work he can be expected to do. All his work being finished in good time. but that which is given freely and without stint. But he walked about until his legs were getting heavy and then lay down on his back.6) Suggest a suitable title to the passage. The man who cannot find his way to modest livelihood pretends to know just how to save the nation from all economic ills. With these words he put the cup to his lips and drank the poison calmly and cheerfully. he has a long interval of rest in the evening before he goes to bed.” The men were ashamed and ceased weeping. and it will act for itself. Passage 5 The man came with the poison and said to Socrates. “What are you doing. Then all of them broke down except Socrates.

which can still be seen today. Other thinks that knowledge alone is not enough. who lost interest in all this. so as to make sure they would not tell others what they knew. or tombs called pyramids. the less efficiently will he be able to adjust himself to new conditions to act in new situations. the answer would be true. The most wonderful treasure of all were those of Pharaoh Tat-ankhamen and these were now in Government museum in Cairo. Since the action does not call for attention or at least any high degree of attention. they thought. Moving the great stones in the hot sun was terribly hard work and the slaves were treated very cruelly. there are secret doors which lead to secret passages and then to a secret chamber. Questions 1) What did the Egyptians believe in? 2) Why were treasures buried in pyramids with the Egyptian kings? 3) What is mummification? 4) How did the ancient Egyptians treat the poor? 5) Why were the slaves who built the secret entrances in pyramids killed? Passage 9 If most of us were asked what we know about Issac Newton. if indeed. people would still need many of the things they had on earth. The pyramids were built by slaves. only that . who was also his housekeeper. Those slaves who made the secret entrances to the tombs were killed when the work was finished. and at the same time itself involves little or no fatigue.Passage 8 The Egyptians believed that after people died they would go to another world: In that world. so that it would go on looking the same for thousands of years. The mummy and all the Pharaoh’s treasures were locked in the secret chamber. This method is known as mummification. he ever had any. it frees mental energy for other work. the poor people led very hard lives. both of time and energy. with greater efficiency than is the same action before it has become automatic. So far as it goes. The kings were not buried in the open ground or in graveyards. The habitual act is performed quickly because of the habit. Many of these secret chambers have been found. Questions 1) Who was Isaac Newton? 2) Which incident helped Newton discover the law of gravity? 3) How did Newton’s law of gravity help the scientific world? 4) What does “that charming story” mean? 5) Which country did Newton live in? Passage 10 Of what use is habit? In the first place habits makes for economy. These pyramids. the strangest of all. Because of these advantages it is important that many of our everyday actions should become automatic. we should probably reply that he discovered the law of gravity through watching an apple falling from a tree in his garden. Although the rich people in Egypt enjoyed many wonderful things. whose genius in mathematics laid the foundation for the scientific discoveries of the age of mechanical triumphs which followed and. but in great buildings. for years after that charming story had gone into circulation. Some of the mummies are in the British museum in London. The disadvantage of habits arises from the fact that it fixes a certain mode of thinking and acting and more an individual becomes a creature of habit. as a rule. Questions 1) How does a habit make for economy? 2) What is the relationship between habit and attention? 3) Why is habitual accurate more accurate? 4) What are the disadvantages of habits? 5) Suggest a suitable title to the passage Passage 11 Some people think that the aim of education is merely to give knowledge. In the second place the habitual action is performed with greater accuracy and. Inside. whose discoveries marked the end of one epoch in the history of mankind and the beginning of another. But it tells us too little about the man whose mind was one of the most remarkable in the history of human thought. were made of stone. confirmed the truth of that incident in the garden of the old house at Wookthrope in Lincolnshire. These people who want students to read books and do nothing else. and these treasures were buried with them. Their kings had many wonderful treasures. which were built out in the deserts. There are the Pharaoh’s body was preserved. his niece.

Explain why? 3) What exactly is the meaning of “civilisation?” Do you agree with the author’s view? 4) “Making more beautiful things” stands for what? Make a list of the beautiful things that you would like to make and how you would make them. less to fear and less to fight against. he has more time. And if they do not get their meals when they expect them. he seeks hiding places from those who are too strong for him. “fed with coal”. Still others believe that education should aim solely at making good citizens and good patriots. Machines were made to be man’s servant. and blow up. Man has a better chance today to do these things than he ever had before. For the most part we use our time and energy to make more and better machines. to finding out more and more about the universe. make them self-sufficient and enable them to serve others. yet we use them like small children. It should produce men who love their country but do not want to harm other countries. it must be admitted. yet he has grown so dependent on them that they are in a fair way to become his masters. In what sense has this come about? 2) The use of machine has brought us more leisure and more energy. He tries to defend himself against those he is able to fight. If defrauded or injured. The remedy for this miserable state of things is to be found in a settled government. For example. then I think our civilisation would undoubtedly be the greater. as it would be the most lasting that there has ever been. and they must be kept at the right temperature. or post offices. As a matter of fact. They must be fed with coal. to discovering how to prevent. and the power which the machines have given us. are not civilisation but the aids to civilisation. they grow sulky and refuse to work. government provides soldiers. Were there no government. more energy. we do very little. but more and better machines will only gave us still more time and still more energy. So we have to wait upon them very attentively and do all that we can do to keep them in a good temper. Questions 1) Instead of making machines our servants the author says they have become our masters. I think. Education should not produce citizens who while they love their own freedom take away the freedom of others. But the author says that this has been a curse rather than a blessing. and living rightly and maintaining justice equally between man and man. and spread ruin and destruction all round them. There are police to apprehend criminals. every man would require to carry arms for his defence or to pay other man to defend him. Passage 12 The third great defect of our civilisation is that it does not know what to do with its knowledge. But you will remember that we agreed at the begin that being civilised meant making and linking beautiful things. Already we find it difficult either to work or play without the machines. Already most men spend most of their lives looking after and waiting upon machines. just as we rule the animals. there would be no judges to decide the case. according to some? 2) How many opinions are given in the passage about education? 3) What according to the passage is the purpose of education? 4) What according to the writer a good citizen should not do? 5) Suggest a suitable to the passage. and given petrol to drink. judges to try them. and the new energy they have given us?” On the whole. 5) Mention some plans you may have to prevent poverty in the world. to removing the causes of quarrels between nations. we do not know how to manage our machine. “oil to wash”. and prisons for their confinement. Science has given us powers fit for the gods. And the machines are very stern masters. “given petrol to drink”. is that we should try to become sheer civilised.which enables a man to earn his living can be called education. and why? 6) The author uses phrases like. Questions 1) Where does knowledge come from. “What we do with all the time which the machines have saved for us. And this brings me to the point at which I asked. and what are we to do with them? The answer. For the machines themselves. It should give men knowledge. . If he will give his time and energy which his machines have won for him to making more beautiful things. and a time may come when they will rule us altogether. To guard against foreign enemies and bands of robbers. or any other public services. thinking freely. and oil to wash with. or burst with rage. “kept at the right temperature” What machines would require these needs? Passage 13 Much of the time of a savage is taken up in providing for his safety. education should aim at all these three things put together. Who would receive your most particular attention. Neither would there be any roads.

etc. Many of us may say that the ideal of justice and equality is easier said than done. As a result many tropical countries have developed quite fast in recent years. Questions 1) What is the problem of a savage? 2) Why is a settled government necessary? 3) What would happen if there were no government? 4) What is the purpose of taxes? 5) Pick out the words in the passages which nearly mean: (i) Arrest (ii) the state of being shut up in a small space (iii) deceived Passage 14 Whether the subject should be taught in English in our educational institutions or through urdu is the most controversial issue of the present day. When they are not able to comprehend a point properly. and these countries are no longer unhealthy to live in. Why don’t we learn from this? Why don’t we stop the continuing debate between the supremacy of despotism over democracy or vice versa? Democracy has attracted support since the time of ancient Greece. If a person tried to defend himself it would cost him far more. it is not simply the medium of instruction that counts in the educational affairs. There are some other factors as well to be taken into consideration of mind. Passage 15 Tropical countries are found near the Equator. Our Holy Prophet (Peace be Upon Him) also encouraged the concept of democracy and all of the four caliphs following him based on the system of their government and administration on this form of government. Questions 1) Where do we find the tropical countries on the globe? 2) What was the condition in the tropical countries in the past? 3) Why didn’t the Europeans like to live and work in tropical countries? 4) What causes sleeping sickness? 5) Which sentence in the passage tells us that many of the tropical countries are not dangerous to live in? Passage 16 The tyrannical regimes of several dictators like Stalin. Moreover. All we need is the ability to face up to our rights and demands our rights fearlessly. The ideal and the practice of democracy are inseparably linked because rulers subjected to voter approval are more likely to treat the voters justly. Questions 1) What do the people who oppose English as a medium of instructions hold the opinion? 2) Why can’t we change over to our mother tongue at this stage? 3) What is your personal opinion in this context? 4) What kind of steps should be taken before we can switch over to Urdue? 5) Suggest a suitable title for the passage. but that is not a sensible way of thinking. our mother tongue is still in a stage of infancy. they are evidently unable to express it in accurately. Mussalini and Hitler form a very important part of our world history. But doctors and scientists have now controlled these diseases. we lack true patriotism. This thing mars the growth of intellectual power and as a result their personality remains undeveloped. and. police. judges and other officers. As a matter of fact. It is impossible for it to supersede English at this stage. In short. Those who oppose the introduction of English as a medium of instruction think that the students do not properly understand the subjects taught in English. There are quite a few points to be considered in this connection. In my opinion. Nigeria. they are all in the tropics. Malaysia. they prove a complete failure in their lives. because it represents an ideal of justice as well as a form of government. between the Tropical of Cancer in the North and the Tropic of Capricorn in the in the South. When they are compelled to write the answers in English they feel pained. after all. We still have the right to choose in elections. Hence they develop a sort of inferiority complex. we lack this fearlessness. Tropical countries used to be very unhealthy places to live in.To pay for soldiers. . there must be taxes. the protection would be very insufficient. I admit that our own country reflects this but a country like ours which has ineffective democracy still has a choice. They often caught Malaria from mosquitoes or sleeping sickness from Tsetse flies. Thus. Sri Lanka and the West Indies are all tropical counties. People from Europe did not like working in them at all.

He has no concern with conduct as such. as it later became in Ming times. Oscar Wilde’s paradox is perfectly true: that Nature imitates Art. It covers a distance of 1. God’s artistic masterpiece. but primarily in ideas. and its width from about 25 feet at the bottom to 15 feet at the top.000 miles. covers over 2. The world is. but merely to exhibit them. He has no business with truth as such as the philosopher. through this splendour strive to convey the truth. It is not his function to exhort men to good works. not only the ugly becomes pleasurable. What would shock us in actual life gives us . does not consist merely in line and colour. Beauty may not be useful. The wall was designed to strengthen the nation’s defences. said Wilde. he has got hold of the surest key to the knowledge of God. as an artist. Keats has said that Beauty is Truth. in another sense it was something more than the object. The fogs of London. for instance has. To love beauty. to see it for himself first. where there is a pathway wide enough for six horsemen to ride side by side protected by parapets. the people have a right to overthrow the government. the idea of the object made visible to the eye. must be content with the splendour and. In the eastern section its height varies from 15 to 13 feet. It was Aristotle. That is the explanation of the pleasure we feel in tragedy. of course. that beauty is the best in interpreter of God to man. therefore. But to us here. and then to communicate it to others. such is the inherent delightfulness of beauty that. But beauty must please. though a picture was in one sense certainly a copy and therefore something less than the object. Beauty may not improve our minds. Now. as Plato said. It was.000 towers. this is not true. by its magic touch. for love implies at once vision and reproduction.500 miles as the crow flies. it was not then. that is. But its actual course. when he has got hold of beauty. twisting and turning. and keep out the feared nomads of the Mongolian steppes. were the invention of Whistler. was just of an object – a copy of the idea. sweeping across deep valleys. that. Browning’s Fra Lippo has the last word on the subject: For.But what about a country in which the ruling party is a despot? What if he turns out to be a fascist. To love beauty therefore becomes to the artist. sound and image. has. Plato thought a picture. but it is the artist who lends people eyes to see it with. Indeed. Beauty is. don’t you mark. it crosses the northern provinces of China. as an artist. then what choice are the citizens of the country let with? If the natural rights of life. The artist. for instance. briefly. a substitute for a strong army and State. who pointed out that. the splendour of Truth. liberty and property are not guaranteed. for the majority of men see in Nature what Art has taught them to see in Nature. as the moralist. (a) What was the Greek idea of democracy? (b) Why do we have ineffective democracy in Pakistan? (c) What was the practice of the Holy Prophet (Peace be Upon Him) and the four caliphs in this connection? (d) How does the passage indicate that we lack patriotism? (e) Suggest a title for Democracy Passage 17 The Great Wall of China is said to be the one structure built by man on earth which would be visible to observers on the moon. Art. we’re made so that we love First when we see them painted things we have passed Perhaps a hundred times nor cared to see? In this sense. his first duty. Plato’s pupil. but even sorrow becomes a joy. as an artist. for instance. Questions 1) In what way is the Great Wall of China unique? 2) What is the actual distance that the Great Wall of China covers? 3) How wide is the Wall? 4) How was the Great Wall formed? 5) What was the Great wall originally intended for? 6) What did the Wall become in Ming times? Passage 18 The artist co-operates with God in making increasingly larger numbers of people see the beauty of the world which these people could never see for themselves. When the wall was first built it had about 25. It must be the first article in an artist’s creed. or to prove things. From the Liotung Peninsula westward to the last fortress in Central Asia. each 40 feet square and 40 feet high projecting from it every few hundred yards with holes from which the defenders could shoot at attackers. The great Emperor Shih Huang Ti joined three earlier frontier walls to form a Great Wall which was to act as a boundary between China and the north.

Noblemen and their ideas of their builders. . In what does Art primarily consist? 8. Until it has been translated into the actual life of him who reads. etc. it only aims at exhibiting. Spain set the fashion in matters of taste and whilst the lower middle classes continued their wanted habits of thought and activity. What is the artist’s first duty? Why? 5. from 1580 to 1680 coincides with the heyday of this world domination. It does not succeed until it becomes the vehicle of the vital. What does the artist do for most of us? 2. and by making it significant. the intellectual and emotional activity of all but a few exceptionally gifted men would quickly sink and retract to a narrow circle. What is the surest key to the knowledge of God? Why? 6. And literature cannot be said to have served its true purpose. the court of Madrid Patronised painter. it concerns the living essence. When does sorrow become a joy? Passage 19 The rapid rise and no less rapid fall of Spain’s empire makes it difficult for us to visualise the position she held in Europe. spring up over the Castilion countryside exhibiting the Italian ideas of their builders. And life would be correspondingly degraded. Progress is the gradual result of the unending battle between human reason and human instinct. For tragedy makes experience significant. Questions (a) Can you account for the rapid rise of Spin from 1550-1680? (b) How did the court of Madrid patronise poets and painters. Explain this idea in two sentences. and the still slighter Valentine in The Two Gentlemen of Verona. the generous would tend to disappear for want of accessible storage. architects. exaggerated for the purpose of the stage. is the source of a great book? 2) When does literature serve its true purpose? 3) What is progress according to the author? 4) What is the most important function of literature? 5) Why should reason win over instinct? 6) ‘Literature is a means of life”. Passage 20 Great books do not spring from something accidental in the great men who wrote them.” 4. the noble. Palaces and monasteries built partly. according to the author. in which the former slowly but surely wins. it is its effect. Shakespeare has no heroes. it makes it pleasant. Pleasure is not its aim. In a world deprived of literature. who had quested the formalist El Greco. And yet. European society hoped the manners of Spanish aristocracy. – Armando Menezes Questions 1.pleasure in a tragedy. Noblemen and their ideas of their builders. What is the artist’s real function? 7. except the slight sketch of Henry the fifth. and by making it beautiful. They are effluence of their very core. The broad. because the fallacious idea and the pretty emotion would never feel the upward pull of the ideas and emotions of genius. From the subscriptions of subjects and partly from the wealth of Americans. Noblemen and their ideas had their portraits pointed by velazquez. and the golden age of Spanish art and literature. There is not entirely heroic figure in all his plays. where from money came? (c) What were the activities of Spanish aristocracy during this period? (d) Explain the words given below: i) Heyday ii) monasteries iii) ousted iv) aped (e) Suggest a suitable title for the above passage. it makes it beautiful. Explain: “Nature imitates Art. Literature exists so that where one man has lived finely. It is a means of life. It is the vast reservoir of true ideas and high emotions and life is constituted of ideas and emotions. Questions 1) What. The most powerful engine in this battle is literature. Why does the artist “lend” his eyes to people? 3. Only by conceiving a society without literature can it be clearly realised that the function of literature is to raise the plain towards the top level of the peaks. poets and travellers. he has only heroines. ten thousand may afterwards live finely. Note broadly at the outset. Passage 21 And first let us take Shakespeare. it does not aim at pleasing. Spain set the cultural and social standards of the time. the expression of the life itself of the authors. fashionable.

When this sense is awakened in us. and drowsily speculative. and this feeling calms and satisfies us as no other can”. Kent. The rich do not mind the rise in prices because they have money to buy anything at any price. Romeo an impatient boy. Helena. and last and perhaps the loveliest. etc. no heroines c. whereas there is hardly a play that has not a perfect woman in it. are all faultless. Literature has three main forms. the price rise has gone up by fifty times. “Poetry is a criticism of life” is an epigrammatic summing up of all that he contends for as a writer both of life and letters. not a power of drawing out in black and white an explanation of the mystery of the universe but the powers of so dealing with things as to awaken in us a wonderfully full. the price of gold was about thirty or forty rupees per sovereign but today it is more than three thousand four hundred rupees. followed. Each critic gives his own definition of poetry. Today for the same quantity of rice. steadfast in grave hope and errorless of purpose. is entirely noble at heart. The Merchant of Venice languidly submissive to adverse fortune. The definition at any rate makes one point clear about poetry as Arnold conceived of it. Viola. as to objects without us. Questions 1) According to the passage Shakespeare delineates a. Before the Second World War in the year 1938-39. to be no longer bewildered and oppressed by them. if his simplicity had not been so great as to leave him the prey of every base practice around him. only heroes b. It implies that poetry is more than a mere matter of outward realities. Othello would have been one. one rupee could buy ten seers of fine rice. Prices of all articles have increased in all countries. It is difficult to define poetry. heroines with some flaw or the other d. but to have their secret and to be in harmony with them. Orlando. Perdita. According to him. more than expression of a facile moral or intellectual attitude. Rosalind. Virgilia. The purchasing power of money has declined and has been steadily declining.In his laboured and perfect plays. and the scale of rise in the price of gold also is the same. Questions 1) What should a poet do according to Arnold? 2) What is the main function of poetry? 3) What are the three forms of literature? 4) How is poetry a criticism of life? 5) Why is Arnold’s definition of poetry incomplete? 6) Which point does Arnold’s definition make clear? 7) What does the phrase drawing out in black and white mean? Passage 23 The problem of price hike is a worldwide phenomenon. Queen Katherine. Antony. On 1939. stand in flawed strength. comforted saved by Rosalind. For instance. but too rough and unpolished to be of true use at the critical time and he sinks into the office of a servant only. Sylria. none of the above 2) Who is the only heroic figure among Shakespeare heroes? 3) What weakness does Hamlet suffer from? 4) How is the Merchant of Venice portrayed? 5) Why does the author say that Kent in King Lear cannot be classed as a hero? 6) Who is a toy of chance? How? 7) How has Shakespeare conceived his heroine? Passage 22 Poetry is a form of literature. People are finding it hard to make both ends meet. Arnold says. we have to pay about fifty rupees and if this is taken as a scale. Coriolanus. conceived in the highest heroic type of humanity. Matthew Arnold defines poetry by saying that. Their income has not increased in proportion to the increasing price. and fall by their vanities. the famous remark that. Hamlet is indolent. but he is the only example even approximating to the heroic type. Caesar. poetry is a criticism of life. prose. The problem is acute only in the case of the people of lower economic levels. poetry and drama. you have no hero. HermioneImogen. but this definition begs the question because he employs the terms Poetic beauty and Poetic truth without defining what poetry is. “poetry is a criticism of life bound by the laws of poetic truth and poetic beauty”. That means a poet must interpret life to his readers. “The grand power of poetry is its interpretative power. no less noble. by which I mean. Cordelia. in King Lear. namely. Isabella. Deslemona. we feel ourselves to be in contact with the essential nature of those objects. Has our income increased on the same . is yet the despairing toy of chance. That is why. new and intimate sense of them and of relations with them.

all are not intellectuals and those who are intellectuals have the great responsibility of building others on to the right path. In a society. at any rate. The perception of the truth is almost the same as perception of beauty and the duty of an intellectual is to see this truth or beauty and to reveal it to others. are steeped in absolute poverty. and to breathe in fresh air which conduces to excellent health. Nowadays. falls d. Inch by inch. they keep sinking into a morass of despair. In every village. The water also is sometimes contaminated. and to eat food which is not contaminated. and they. The smoke released by them poisons the atmosphere. scientists. common to all countries in the world 3) when prices rise the value of money a. writers and critics. rises b. he has to give light to others who are in need of it. First of all. We do not get anything that is absolutely pure. it is better to get out of cities at least for some days every month. “The Palace of Art”. The food that we get in cities is also lacking in purity. The intellectual should come out of his ivory tower and try to elevate others to his level.scale? It has not. only a few families have enough and to spare while the others. let alone leading a hand to mouth existence. and if our life is better than that of our primitive ancestors. everything is grown with chemical fertilisers which may cause danger to the consumers of fruits. have a great responsibility towards society. Questions 1) Why has city-life become dangerous these days? 2) Who causes air pollution in cities? 3) What makes the food in cities impure? . all cannot be intellectuals. non of the above 4) Why are the poor people of the lower economic level hit hard when price rise? 5) Why don’t the rich find price rise hard on their finances? 6) Why is life more miserable in villages when price rise? 7) What is meant by ‘hand to mouth existence? Passage 24 An intellectual is one who is enlightened. remains constant c. it is because the intellectuals. and consequently it is dangerous to breathe in this polluted air. it is dangerous to walk about in cities because always various kinds of vehicle keep moving at terrific speeds. This is the theme of Tennyson’s famous poem. have been guiding humanity on the path of felicity and amity. life is more miserable. vegetables and other things grown thus. In every society we find intellectuals such as philosophers. misery and anguish. a majority of them. If today we have our civilisation and culture. from time to time. scholars. Questions 1) To what extent have the prices gone up during the last fifty years? 2) Price-rise is – a. A large majority of people are facing these problems. and hence people feel price-rise acutely since their meagre income is inadequate to buy their basic necessities. but at present. common to all developing countries c. and being enlightened person. Hence. Questions 1) Who are intellectuals according to the passage? 2) What does the passage say about equality of human being in the field of intelligence? 3) What would be a blessed time according to the passage? 4) Who has brought about order and security in life? 5) What is the “Palace of Art”? 6) Who wrote it? 7) What is the theme of the ‘Palace of Art”? 8) What are the responsibilities of the intellectuals? Passage 25 Nowadays life in cities has become dangerous for various reasons. The contemplation of the eternal laws of the universe beings about a tranquil exaltation of the mind. In villages. peculiar to Pakistan b. if we have orders and security in life. The intellectual has the duty of seeing the truth and teaching it to others. as enlightened men. If a time comes when all are intellectuals it would be a blessed time indeed.

What is meant by the word contaminated? What does the passage suggest to city dwellers? What are the advantages of going out of cities? Why is it dangerous to walk about the cities these days? Paraphrasing A paraphrase is a translation of a given passage into another form of words. made more easily intelligible. The metaphor or simile should not appear in the paraphrase. paraphrasing is extremely valuable as an exercise in composition. In examinations in English Literature candidates must be able to paraphrase passages taken from the prescribed books in order to show their grasp of the author’s ideas. Paraphrase – A little trouble taken early will save a great deal of trouble later on. quotes the following passage from a leaflet of Income Tax instructions: A deduction of tax may be claimed in respect of any person whom the individual maintains at his own expense.g. which is frequently encountered in Press reports and official documents. Examples of formal paraphrasing and directions regarding method are given below. thus: If you maintain a relative of yourself or your wife who is unable to work because of old age or infirmity. you can claim an allowance of ………You can claim this allowance if you maintain your windowed mother. sentence by sentence. The given passage is generally of such a character that the paraphrase requires to be written in simpler and clearer language. Sir Ernest Gowers. Paraphrasing as Practice in Expression Apart altogether from its usefulness as a test. Students are therefore strongly advised to make full use of this form of exercise as part of their training in expression. a few require close study so that the author’s ideas may be thoroughly understood and assimilated. Paraphrasing as a Test Paraphrase used regularly to be set in examination in English language as a test of candidates’ power to understand ideas and express them clearly and accurately in their own words. whether incapacitated or not. If you maintain a daughter who lives with you because you or your wife is infirm. without omitting any of the thought. or of his wife. others to be swallowed. much good practice may be obtained by reproducing in your own words the sense of shorter passage such as the following: a) A proverb e. other may be read through rapidly at a sitting. and some few to be chewed and digested. in “Plain Words”. In both exercises the object is to reproduce the sense of a set of passage. or (ii) his or his wife’s widowed mother. Continual practice in reproducing the thoughts of other people in a different form of words helps to give the writer both facility in composition and precision in the choice of words. whereas a paraphrase follows the original. whether she is unable to work or not. and it still finds a place in the papers of some examining bodies. d) A statement couched in legal or technical terms. A stitch in time saves nine. or your wife’s widowed mother. b) A pithy saying or witty remark e. Proverbs are very frequently couched in figurative language. A paraphrase must not be confused with a précis. but a précis involves condensation. you can claim an allowance of ……… Exercise of the kind suggested above will be found at the end of this chapter.g. A sentence or two of “officialese”. or an extract from official regulations (which are often worded in a way that makes them difficult to follow). Some books are to be tasted. In a later edition of the leaflet this sentence was paraphrased. c) 4) 5) 6) 7) . although the exercises have become less formal in character. and incapacitated by old age or infirmity from maintaining himself or herself. While exercises of this kind should be worked from time to time. or (iii) his daughter who is resident with him and upon whose services he is compelled to depend by reason of old age or infirmity. – Bacon Paraphrase – Some books deserve only to be lightly skimmed. and who is (i) a relative of his.

Here are two examples of passages of verse followed by prose rendering of them.Wordsworth Paraphrase Nothing on earth is fairer than this. » Do not be afraid of expanding. read through your paraphrase and make sure that it is written in good. or hill. » It is generally desirable to remove highly figurative language. Even the houses seem asleep. theatres. It is sometimes sufficient to expand metaphors into similes. stand silent against the sky. bare. and temples lie Open unto the fields. Not even wild hill and valley bathed in early morning sunlight present a more splendid picture than this. silent. Never did sun more beautifully steep! In his first splendour. In poetry we find a vocabulary. and buildings of all kinds stretching out towards the fields. » When the original contains long sentences. Sometimes the original word is the only one possible. Make any alterations necessary. break them up into shorter ones. and that it would be perfectly readable and comprehensible to anybody. and to the sky: All bright and glittering in the smokeless air. undisturbed by any craft. and he who could pass on unmoved by such a majestic sight must lack all the finer spiritual qualities. (b) Make notes of words or phrases that are of the distinctly poetical character and will need to be changed. 1802 Earth has not anything to show more fair: Dull would he be of soul who could pass by A sight so touching in its majesty: This City now doth. Poetic style is generally quite different from prose style. (d) Compare this draft with the original. towers. rearrange the parts of sentence so as to secure the normal prose-order. The river flows peacefully on. and all that great human society is at rest. » Where necessary. everyday English. valley. a calm so deep! The river glideth at his own sweet will: Dear God! The very houses seem asleep’ And all that mighty heart is lying still! . (e) Most important. domes. Ne’er saw I. and to replace it by simple common expressions. wear The beauty of the morning. The punctuation of the paraphrase will. The Method to be Followed in Paraphrasing (a) Read the passage two or three times to gain a clear idea of the general meaning.Paraphrasing Verse Passages set for paraphrasing are frequently in verse. (c) Following the original sentence by sentence. rock. and a use of figures of speech (especially simile and metaphor) that would be out of place in prose. Points to be Observed in Paraphrasing Verse » For all words or phrases that are archaic or uncommon substitute words or phrases in common use. never felt. and hence the poet’s idea often cannot be stated in any other form without the use of more words. London appears most beautiful in the bright morning light. Without reference to the original. » It is not necessary to find a synonym for every word in the original. . if necessary. Ships. The language of poetry is generally more terse than that of prose. an order of words and clauses. of course. Ships. be quite different from that of the original. make a rough draft of your paraphrase. like a garment. Examples: Westminster Bridge. and all gleam brightly in the smokeless air. Satisfy yourself that you have adequately restated the meaning. Never have I seen or felt so deep a calm. » Do not alter the person of the original. Hence the changes to be made by the writer of a paraphrase are in the direction of simplicity and normality of expression.

Beauty. He is the scholar of the Spheres probably because the scene of Milton’s great epic is laid partly in heaven and hell. By the magic of his poetry he makes things happy.Specimen LINES ON SEEING A LOCK OF MILTON’S HAIR Chief of organic number! Old Scholar of the Sphere! Thy spirit never slumbers. But rolls about our ears. Giving Delight new joys. By the help of imagination he makes his verse a thing of pleasures. He is the chief composer of harmonious verse. and for ever! O. until I grow high-rife. temperate was my blood. – A lock of thy bright hair. And I was startled when I caught thy name Coupled so unaware. Who to thy sacred and ennobled hearse Would offer a burnt sacrifice of verse And melody. With old phislophy. above or below our earth. The poet asks where Milton lives now after death. and gives wings to pleasures. . Keats in his invocation to Milton says that he (Milton) raises his song to heaven. in things on earth and things above. the epic Muse had led Milton. I’ll think upon this hour. by the soul. And Pleasure nobler pinions! O’where are thy dominions? Lend thine ear To a young Delian oath. And Discord unconfoudest. more joyous. How heavenward thou soundest Live Temple of sweet noise. and of thy works. Because I feel my forehead hot and flushed Even as the simplest vassal of thy power. He blends discords into harmony. Paradise Lost. It would be audacious on the part of any one who should try to write about the exalted character of Milton’s genius. For ever. – Sudden it came. When I do speak. I swear! When every childish fashion Has vanished from my rhyme. But vain is now the burning and the strife. an earthly gust. And mad with glimpses of futurity! For many years my offerings must be hush’d. Yet. He is the god-gifted voice of England. what a mad endeavour Worketh he. Pangs are in vain. Paraphrase Milton is the mighty-mouthed inventor of harmonies. By all that from thy mortal lips did roll. He is a living shelter of sweet music. and of thy life. Will I. – aye. It is immortal. Milton had adapted Ptolmaic conception of universe for is epic. The poetic spirit of Milton always rings in our ears. It never sleeps. to the heaven of heavens. I thought I had beheld it from the flood. that is. at the moment. Urania. And by the kernel of thine earthly love. grey-gone in passion Hymming and Harmony Of thee.

It is painful for him to think that he would no longer live to ruminate over the ceaseless beauties of Nature. Death will separate him from his beloved. at this moment Keats was cool and temperate. Keats pledges that he shall write about the great poet’s life and his poetry. God would not have cared for him. Paraphrase The poet says that the ways of the world are strange. Life appears to him to be an illusion. It is painful for him to think that at the sky full of twinkling stars. The Patriot is going to the scaffold to be executed. A year has passed and the same day has arrived. people have dropped down dead. he thinks that the hanging is a blessing in disguise. He would no longer have the joy of looking at the sky full of twinkling stars. Only six lines before he has told that his head was hot and flushed. fair creatures of an hour. His patriotic deeds became political crimes and offences. I am safer so. But Keats will write about the poetry and melody of Milton when childish fashion (immaturity) vanishes from his poetry. ‘Tis God shall repay. now instead. in taking pains for writing about Milton. his fame turned into defame. But at present there is no sense in burning the mid-night oil. God will definitely reward him for his sacrifices. By all that Milton wrote. and think Till love and Fame to nothingness to do sink The poet is haunted by a fear of imminent death and develops a sense of despair because he that he would not be able to give expression to the teeming plethora of thoughts and feelings in is mind in a large number of books which will be a storehouse of his experiences. Had the people continued to honour and recognise his sincere services. That I shall never look upon thee more. For the journey is done and the summit attained. both material and heavenly. The Patriot says that in such in such victories as have brought him honour people often collapse. When Keats becomes mature in thought and expression. and the impetuosity of youth has worn itself out. the people welcomed the Patriot warmly. Never have relish in the faery power Of unreflecting love! O then. with the magic hand of chance And when I feel. He feels orphaned and lonely. And the barriers fall Though a battle’s to fight ere guerdon be gained. Love and fame appear to him to be totally meaningless. And think that I may never live to trace Their shadows. For many years Keats will remain silent. he shall write a harmonious hymn in honour of Milton’s life and his sublime poetry. . his work and his life. During the course of the year. what dot thou owe Me?’ – God might question. Paid by the world. upon the night’s starred face Huge cloudy symbols of a high romance. in charact’ry Hold like rich garners the full-ripened grain When I behold. Consoling himself like this he snatches victory out of his defeat. He will not write till he becomes a seer and has prophetic visions of future. Here there seems to be a contradiction. But whenever the poet shall begin writing about Milton. and thus I go! In triumphs. So he is now in a better position than he would have been otherwise. he shall remember this occasion when he saw a lock of his hair. At present the poet is hot and flushed with emotions at seeing even the trifle like the lock that is Milton’s. and when he is filled and inspired by the exalted ideas of philosophy. As he is fortunate enough to escape such a death. on the shore Of the wide world I stand alone. by the love he had for the earth. He is going to die the death of a traitor. However. A year ago. He saw the lock all of a sudden and was simply stunned to know that an object like a lock seemingly commonplace was linked with Milton. He shall not write till he grows mature.. and for beauty. When I have fears that I may cease to be When I have fears that I may cease to be Before my pen has gleaned my teeming brain. Before high-piled books. Since the people have mis-rewarded him for his deeds. He felt as if he had seen the lock from the earliest time.Keats requests Milton to listen to him because he is going to make a solemn declaration. Thus I entered.

What are its mission. ere I long had pined A discontented sojourner: Now free. – that were low indeed. from the terror of this arm. for I have just come out of that great city of London where I lived for a long time in an unhappy state. I can now not miss my way. nor is he afraid of the ‘power of the night’. since by fate the strength of gods And this empyreal substance cannot fail. The difficulties. All is not lost. ‘the press of the storm’ and ‘the post of the foe’. even if I choose to follow a sailing cloud as my guide. I look about. . and should the chosen guide Be nothing better than a wandering cloud. he was ever a fighter. The best and the last! Paraphrase Browning shows his optimism and courage in these lines. That were an ignominy and shame beneath This downfall. ‘the mist in his face’. Oh there is blessing in this gentle breeze. With a heart Joyous. He is prepared to face and Arch Fear in a visible form. A visitant that while it fans my cheek Doth seem half conscious of the joy it brings From the green fields. immortal hate. Whatever may be its purpose. the unconquerable will. Now which spot will be my abode? In which valley should I find shelter? Under which grove should I set up my home? Which clear stream will soothe me into rest and sleep with its murmuring sound? The whole earth is wide open before me. And courage never to submit or yield: And what is else not to be overcome? That glory never shall his wrath or might Extort from me. I was ever a fighter. this mild breeze cannot be more cheering to anybody else than to me. And study of revenge.The reward of it all. so – one fight more. their mightiest foe. ‘the snows’ and ‘the blasts’. What dwelling shall receive me? In what valley Shall be my harbour? Underneath what grove Shall I take up my home? And what clear stream Shall with its murmur lull me into rest? The earth is all before me. Since through experience of this great event. and deify his power. He feels that like a strong man he must go forward for he has almost finished his journey of has life and reached its final stage. With a heart full of joy I can look around myself and am not afraid of the newly acquired freedom. He would defy Death openly and would give a battle cry against him. Paraphrase 10 This mild breeze is a gift from heaven to me. Who. He is not afraid of Death. He has now to prove his worth and mettle and has to win the crowning reward of his long venturesome life. his life had been a life of struggle always and so he would fight the last and the best battle without any fear or hesitation. Free as a bird to settle where I will. It is a holy visitor from heaven. seems to be aware of the Joy that it brings for me from the blue sky and the green fields. so late Doubted his empire. He would not budge an inch from the battlefield. To bow and sue for grace With suppliant knee. which. while it caresses my cheek. and from yon azure sky. He does not fear ‘the fog in his throat’. the soft breeze can come To none more grateful than to me: escaped From the vast city. nor scared at its own liberty. the turmoils and tumults of those whose life have come to an end and he has entered the line and the lists of battle against Death. Now I am free and can settle down wherever I like.

we still possess unyielding courage and what else is not to be wrested from us and beaten down – our imperishable essence. in its endless career through the heavens. we are enveloped by celestial influences and light in our infancy. when it comes to this world to dwell in the human form. With forest branches and the trodden weed. Our birth is but a sleep and forgetting: The soul that arises with us. So might I standing on this pleasant lea. therefore. O Attic shape! Fair attitude! With brede Of marble men and maidens overwrought.In arms not worse. since it is decreed by fate that our strength and ethereal essence cannot perish. and says that it baffles and perplexes the human mind as does eternity itself. truth beauty”. we are out of tune. silent form. to whom thou say’st. a sordid boon! The sea that bears its bosom to the moon. Hath had elsewhere its setting. The world is too much with us. For this. for every thing. so in its infinite course through eternity the soul. The winds that will be howling at all hours. sets in another horizon that of heaven. Just as a star. It is as mysterious and unknowable as eternity. – that is all Ye know on earth. When the present generation has died out. which is the star of our life. a friend to man. It would be base indeed to submit to Him and pray for His forgiveness on bended knees and worship his power. Thou shalt remain. Getting and spending. Paraphrase We have not lost our unshakeable determination. who is our home: Heaven lies about us in our infancy! Paraphrase When we are born into this life we lose consciousness of a previous state which is then forgotten or dimly remembered. dost tease us out of thought As doth eternity: Cold Pastoral! When old age shall this generation waste. . The soul carries with it glorious reminiscences of its former life even as the morning star is surrounded by rosy clouds. It comes from heaven not completely forgetful of its previous state. Nor does it come altogether divested of the divine glory that it possessed in its heavenly home before coming to this world. Thou. And cometh from afar: Not in entire forgetfulness. for lately His throne was shaken by the strength of my arm. – Great God! I’d rather be A pagan suckled in a creed outworn. and all ye need to know The poet addresses the Grecian urn embroidered all over with pictures of men and women. And not in utter nakedness. But trailing clouds of glory do we come From God. It would indeed be a disgrace and humiliation worse than our defeat. late and soon. Little we see in Nature that is ours. They move us not. We still burn with persistent desire to take revenge and nourish undying hate. our life’s Star. where it dwelt before taking birth into this world. And are up-gathered now like sleeping flowers. “Beauty is truth. His vengeance or His power cannot rob me of the glory of my personal identity. We have given our hearts away. the urn will live in the midst of the future generations and try to lessen their suffering by its friendly message. sets in one horizon and then reappears in another. It will tell them that Beauty and Truth are identical. and an understanding of this principle alone is sufficient for man during his earthly existence. we lay waste our powers. Our soul comes from God and. of forest trees trodden weeds. in midst of other woe Than ours. Since our late experience shows that we are not inferior in physical strength.

most exciting. drink. For now nothing good and beautiful in Nature moves us. Neither the loveliness of this ocean smiling under the moon. stir our hearts. because there is now no feeling of kinship between Man and Nature. and he wants me to ask some of my friends to join. I would rather be a pagan than live the dead life of modern materialism. it is the most absorbing. You forget everything – food. asking him to join an excursion 23 Shalimar Link Road. Such beautiful sights and sounds of Nature leave us cold and unmoved. Will you be able to come? I shall be so glad if you can. Of all the outdoor games I like tennis best. 2000 My dear Rahim. it gives you plenty of exercise. I take no interest in card games. T. I think we shall muster a party of nine or ten. Road Daroghawala. Some say that the game is very slow. Thanks for your letter. for a chance ball may take the bales of the wickets and you are out for the day. quiet now and gathered up like the petals of sleeping flowers. Perhaps my brief description may make you like the game of chess. Great God. Lahore. it develops quickness of eye and limb. 2001 My dear Daniyal My father is taking me to the river this evening. I might see perhaps the sea-god Protecus rising from the waves. your heart is wholly set upon the pieces that are before you. and it calls your brain. . Paraphrase We are so pre-occupied with material things and our energies are so consumed in the pursuit of wealth and worldly enjoyment that we are out of tune with Nature which does not attract us at all. Shall I wait for you at five in the evening? With kind regards. Or hear old Triton blow his wreathed horn. But from the player’s point of view. Chess is the indoor game I like most. January 14. a training for practical life where only the man who thinks long before taking a step in any direction succeeds. 232 G. Lahore. It is. because they don’t call forth much intelligence and judgement and draughts after chess is of course like water after wine. of the chance that meets you so often in cricket. It promises to be a delightful evening and I hope we shall have a jolly time. It may seem slow to the outsider. of the effeminacy and childishness of badminton. For. a single wrong move may lose you the match. standing on this beautiful meadow I might have beautiful sights of Nature which would make me less lonely and unhappy.Have glimpses that might make me less forlorn. therefore. as a pagan. most rapid and most exacting of all the indoor games. The finer susceptibilities of our nature are deadened by the selfish calculating life that we lead. into action. Yours sincerely. To a friend about your favourite game Gulberg III Industrial Area. nor the wild roaring winds. It sharpens your intelligence and develops your faculty of judgement. You think hard before you move. I remain very Sincerely yours Khuram Khan Reply. Football and hockey do not suit me. But tennis ha in it nothing of the violence of hockey and football. in which you praise as the finest game in the world. your thinking power. 13th of May. and cricket does not always give me sufficient play. sleep. regretting inability to join. or hear old Tirton blowing a trumpet call on his special born. Salim To a friend. I don’t want to dispute that. but it does not happen to be my favourite game. Bridge is a selfish game. 1996 Dear Kamran. 18th of January. Chess is the king of all the indoor games. but how can he enjoy it? He only sees two persons sitting silent and making a move every few minutes.

It is Rs.m.Thanks for your kind note. I am only sharing my experience with you. 12. I remain Yours ever Mubarak Ali A letter to your father requesting to send money 12. hand and the heart. kindly send me Rs. I have to pay the examination fee before 31st of this month. I am study hard for coming examination. 32 McLeod Road. It is a three-days trip and they charge Rs. man cannot get the best out of his education. Mummy is all praise for you because you get up of 5 a. I hope mummy. If you have no objection on my joining to the trip. My love to Mummy and Munni Yours affectionately. He has composed many verse in English. I am hoping to get a rank. 1999 My dear Hassaan. 1999 My dear Khalid. Well. Don’t mistake me for writing this. Wishing you to pleasant evening. Above all. Usman Iqbal A letter of introduction for a friend to another friend who lives in a different part of the country. Nizamabad. He is also fond of going to pictures like you so you should get on well together. I know you will like him immensely. 100 for my expenses on the trip. Lahore. Akbar. I hope you are having happy time. Congratulations! I felt extremely happy to read from mummy’s letter that you stood first in your first terminal examination scoring 97% overall. I am well here by the grace of Allah and your blessings. Lahore. You will soon find in him your best friend and counsellor. 2 February. 1500 for the trip. he is going to Karachi for a few days and will probably stay there for about two months. A little recreation for the mind and exercise for the body are absolutely essential. as he is a man of jolly temperament and lively disposition. 2000 so as to reach me by 30 December. Real education should cater for head. who is an advocate here. Farooq Abad. and read till 11 p. Akbar. Four of our teachers including the Principal are accompanying the party. but I am sorry to write that I cannot join you this evening. Ultimately. I am sure you will do your convenience he may need. You will be fresh to do your studies after an hour on the playground. not even devoting some time for recreations. I would like to join the group if you have no objection. You have often heard me speak of my friend. . December 3. That is well done dear brother but I need to tell you that education aims at helping one to have a sound mind in a sound body. he plays chess. And as I want you to serve as an introduction. Latif Khalid A letter to your younger brother advising him to take part in sports and games. I want you to come up well in life. when the body fails to respond to the calls of the head and heart. and you are a chess enthusiast. February 2. and a man for whom I have great admiration. May I suggest to you that you should devote at least an hour a day in giving some kind of exercise to your body by taking part in sports and games or taking walks in the fresh air of the morning studies.m. 400 – I need another Rs. like you. Munni and you are well. has a great passion for English literature. Wishing you all the best. The students of our class are going on excursion to a number of historical places that have never seen. Lahore. saying why you think each will enjoy knowing other. and are keeping fit. Yours loving brother. The date of excursion is not fixed and it is going to be in the third week of January 1994. As I have already told you the last date for paying the examination fee is 31st December. 2000 My dear father. He is an old friend of mine. It is a splendid achievement. The fact is I must sweat for my examination.

M. Defoe managed this. There is absolutely no scope in law for a beginner. 387= F-II M. Variety is the spice of life and I wish to adopt only that profession which will bring me the greatest amount of happiness. It did me good to hear from you again after such a long silence. 1999 My dear Iffat. a prince. suggesting some interesting books for her to read. A. Every day I meet doctors who.Pay my respects to aunt and uncle Wishing you the best Yours sincerely. I don’t know which road to take. and asking his honest advice on the choice of your profession. and I hope that books like Haji Baba of Isphan and Robinson Crusoe shall fire your imagination and inspire you with a love of adventure. November 3. Various professions have struck my fancy but their respective advantages and disadvantages have ruled all of them out. Johar Town. Moreover. 2000 Dear Anwar. telling him what profession you wish to adopt in life. I cannot settle down as a business man. a beggar. but the profession is so overcrowded that I cannot think of swelling that route. Ijaz Aslam Write a short letter to an old friend. a pipe-stick seller. where he lived all alone careful account of the doings and adventures of a real man. The son of a poor barber of Isphan. They preserve the great thoughts. Tagore’s Short Stories. He is a clever rascal and up to all kinds of tricks: and yet he has his good points. too. the beautiful imaginations. and Stevenson’s New Arabian Nights for the present. I am still at sea. the secretary of a pious Mullah. Yours affectionately. I am glad to learn that you are developing a taste for reading and are utilising. Lahore. I am a prey to all sorts of fears and. “King’s Treasuries”: treasuries not of gold and silver and precious stones but of knowledge and wisdom. Thank you very much for your long letter. but by his detailed and minute description of Crusoe’s difficulties and the ingenious ways in which he overcame them. R III. is a typical Persian adventure. a police officer. the competition is so keen and the struggle is so hard that only those who can live upon ancestral property for at least four or five years can hope to succeed in profession. Lawyers are as plentiful now as ‘blackberries’. as it mars one’s tastes and makes one see only the grim side of human life. Although the story is imaginary. am buoyed up by all sorts of hopes. a criminal fleeing from justice. He assume various disguises. Lahore. Remember me to mother and give her my best respects. Robinson Crusoe is also of no less interest. Most of the lawyers hardly earn enough to make both ends meet. your time in the study of books. for the monotonous and exacting life led by a business man is soul-killing and devitalising. Nor can one fail to find doctors in every nook and corner of the town. a physician. If you want to read short stories. Naeem Write a letter to your sister. there is nothing impossible in it. you can take up Galsworthy’s Caravan. Ruskin called good books. and very successfully. not by any brilliant writing (for his style is very simple and straightforward). I want you to read books of adventure. March 11. It is a question which puzzles my brain and baffles my understanding. Moreover. again. I want to drink ‘the cup of life to the lees’. Sometimes I want to become a lawyer. You have asked me to let you know what profession I intend to follow. He has many hair-breadth escapes and amusing adventures in which you will be interested. I am glad you are getting on well at college and I hope you will get through your examination with credit. but to tell you frankly. Haji Babu is a wonderfully accurate character. and nothing that could not have happened in the given circumstances. and the wise counsels of the master minds of all ages. a barber. do not tell cheerful tale. I have a dislike for this profession. and finally secretary of the Persian Ambassador at Constantinople. You may also profit by Lamb’s Tales from Shakespeare. O. I want to be a professor who is . As one reads the story of the English sailor who after shipwreck was stranded on a desert island. 13-D G. he is in turn the servant of a merchant. His reckless courage and dare-devilry compel us to like him in spite of his knavery.

Recently. Nadeem you could read the article for yourself. I am getting on well at college. he has no margin and cannot help me just now. spending a fair amount of my time in reading magazines and newspapers.always surrounded by students with beaming countenances and cheerful looks. But it is not always the ignorant who hold these fantastic beliefs. Waheed Raza Write a letter. In France. old belief and superstitions linger in people’s minds. I have got to meet the heavy bills of doctors and nurses. In parts of “Wild Wales” it is still the practice to slit the cartilages of children’s ears to cure mental backwardness. and hope you will continue writing to me in the same way in future. where a devastating drought was attributed by the “wise men” of the community to the wrath of God for the sins of the village. Even in the age of scientific inventions and discoveries. In certain Cheshire villages the local witches claim to know a certain cure for toothache. Nadeem Aslam Write a letter to your friend about an interesting article you have recently read in a newspaper. The author tells us something of superstitions prevalent in modern life. Many a village doctor knows that his science will be rejected in favour of the quaint remedies of the local “wise women”. Lahore. I like them very much. 1998 My dear Nadeem. Usman Block. even educated persons are a prey to them. and the persecution of the “wise women” is still prevalent. 10 Lawrence Road. They believe in magic cures. I remain . So if you could possibly help me by giving me a loan of this amount for three or four months it would see me safely round the corner and relieve my mind a great strain. asking a friend for a loan of money. Yours sincerely. The writer further says that even trials for witchcraft are prevalent. Altogether I want about Rs. In their midst I can hope to find real peace and happiness. came to a country doctor and asked him what he could do for her father’s cows. I am extremely sorry to worry you. The ache will pass into the frog and leave the patient. Not long ago a strange case occurred in a tiny Austrian village. on such a subject. Sincerely yours. The next day the four chief sinners of the village were taken forcibly from their beds and killed. she assured him they were bewitched. a poor old priest was done to death brutally because it was said that he cast spells. December 21. you should be able to offer me almost first-hand information. 17. Have tired my brother Munir. but a series operation on my wife has exhausted my small reserve fund and I can’t see my way clear at the moment. 30000 to clear off these bills. Don’t hesitate to say “No” if you really cannot do it – I am sure you will if you can. 1999 My dear Waqar. herself a University graduate. I read a very interesting article in last month’s “Reader’s Digest”. Many Northamptonshire villagers still believe that a cure for a cough is assured placing a hair of the patient’s head between two slices of buttered bread. I was extremely glad to hear from you. The writer says that “wise women” suggest curious remedies for various diseases. January 13. If your curiosity is roused. to be eaten by a dog that will take the cough with the first bite. Garden Town. so much that I would sooner part with any other occupation than with them. Lahore. How strange and yet how interesting these stories are. But I do not want to be too certain about this in advance. and I do not know where to turn for the money. you can ask me for the magazine to send you. old follow. but with his large family. May I ask you to be kind enough to favour me at the earliest with your advice? As your brother is himself a Professor. when it is so essential for Iram’s recovery that she should be sent off to Islamabad for a change of climate. Some years ago a young woman.

I am. all I can do for you at the moment. Rehan Amjad A letter of sympathy and offer to help in a case of illness 35 Punch Road. 2000. Ahmed Write a letter in reply to the previous one. and I want to wish you a quick return to health. I'll be glad to help in any way possible. Allamah Iqbal Town. When you return home I'll be over to see you. Is there any way in which we can be of some slight assistance? When illness is in the house. 53 Lake Road. but if there is any thing we can do. Lahore. 2000 Dear friend. Your sincere friend. My kind regards to both of you. Iqbal Saeed A letter of sympathy to a hospitalised friend. Rahim Ayaz A letter of condolence to a friend on the death of his business friend Jahanzeb Block. however. What started many years ago as a business relationship between Javed and me quickly became a warm friendship. I hope the next few weeks will pass quickly and you'll be home again soon. Don’t feel obliged to pay it in three or four months. one is often hard-put to be able to manage. and I will. Choburji. July 13. Your loving friend. August 19. Jacobs what I can do for her here. Word of your illness just reached me.Ever sincerely yours. Lahore. let you have another 10000 when I get my salary at the end of the next month. Drop me a line if you fail elsewhere. Your many friends will be sorry to learn that you will be in the hospital for a few weeks. 1996 Dear friend. . January 13. It is difficult to tell you how deeply I feel about Mr. and we do hope that you will soon have some better news to report. but perhaps you will be able to gain some slight consolation from the knowledge that many of your friends are feeling for you. Your sincere friend. especially as I cannot just now help you in the way you suggest. Fatimah Jinnah Road. please ask Mrs. Lahore. What rough luck! I’m extremely sorry for you and your plucky wife. In the meantime. I am sure it helps to know that you have a large group of well-wishers. sending you a cheque for Rs. 2000 My dear Bashir. and I will never forget his thoughtfulness and kindness. June 3. if possible. Qadir's untimely death. We are all very sorry to hear about your brother’s illness. It was a privilege to have known him so well. Lahore. You must be dreadfully worried. please do not hesitate to let us know. I ask to share your loss and to extend my heartfelt sympathy. I hope it will clear you off your most pressing difficulties and give you time to try some other friend. 2000 Dear Aftab. but give your wife every possible chance to regain her health – ten months hence will do quite well for me. 38. With great personal sorrow.

Your sincere friend. When the train left Gujranwala. and must be taking up a great deal of your time. Pakistan Railways Lahore. I had with me two boxes containing a few silk suits and some jewelry. I think the University people are extremely callous and inconsiderate in that they allow cases of such obvious injustice to be overlooked. It comes to all in time. Ever yours Shan Ali Write a letter to the Traffic Manager. I know that you are certain to do very well next year if only you apply yourself whole-heartedly to your studies without brooding over the past. During the many years we lived together. Lahore. It is needless to write that I fully sympathise with you in misfortune. I shared her smiles. I was traveling by the train from Lahore to Rawalpindi. I know how deeply you loved and honoured her. It was a long useful. I know her death is a shock to all of you. At Gujranwala Station I found the boxes in their place. Bank Square. Lahore. Amin Irfan To a friend on the Death of his mother. With very sympathy. Failure is no doubt sad. She now enjoys her wellearned rest. Don’t think me cruel if I say that death is not all sadness. Lahore. pious life. For those who are left behind there is the bitterness of parting. Imagine a boy falling by one mark! As if the examiner could ever be perfectly sure that a candidate should not get this one mark! You must start an agitation in the newspapers to wake up these desiccated old mummies. I am shocked to read your letter. the loneliness.Would you ask your two little youngsters to come here for a few days? They are so young and noisy. Model Town. I want to share my sympathy with you. and her time for rest had come. but its poignancy is none the less on that account. April 22. full of fragrant memories. I may assure you that they would be quite happy with Munni and Tahira. I am sure you are too sober-minded and sensible to waste time over what is now past remedy. I know how deeply you must feel the death of your dear mother – the loneliness and regret. Yours sincerely. However. I remain. and the sense of irreparable loss. and most of all her pleasing personality. I being extremely . Pakistan Railways. September 23. No one who knew her will ever forget her. her recipes. 2000 Dear friend. I feel it also as a personal loss to myself. and the loss. Lahore about the loss of two boxes while traveling by train from Lahore to Rawalpindi giving full particulars. I placed them on the upper berth near the door. Dear Sir. In the 11th of April. Sanda Road. of whom one was a European. Johar Town. April 2. 1999. but doubly so in such circumstances. 1999 To The Traffic Manager. Your mother’s life was spent. My love for your mother will last as long as my memory of her. 14. Shaukat Ali A letter of sympathy to a friend who failed in the Intermediate examination by one mark. I was in a first class compartment No. her flowers. for your mother always looked upon me as her own son and never failed to bestow upon me her bet affection and sympathy. 145432g along with three gentlemen. 1998 Dear friend.

If do not recover the boxes I shall suffer a loss of about 10. the number of the brass being 1939 and 1940. The Municipal Committee Kasur. all the refuse from the neighbouring. I wake up. It is impossible to pass through the streets without a feeling of nausea. I think the boxes were removed somewhere between Gujrat and Rawalpindi. 20 Nicholson Road. Lahore.tired. The lane is thicklypopulated and for want of dustbin. On the lid of each were inscribed the initials of my name. It should be cemented. went to sleep. It is just possible that the coolies might have taken them away mistaking them to be some other man’s. so much so that several people have left the houses in this lane because they remained chronically ill. I should be much obliged if you will kindly send your man round at once to see the roof of my house which is leaking badly. therefore. Sir. it will be no wonder if a terrible epidemic breaks out. and found the boxes missing. Moreover. to say nothing about the manner in which the locality. Not only this. and the doors and windows should be painted green. Dear Sir. They weighed about 36 kilograms. If the present state of affair continues. The boxes were made of steel and were painted black. Of much more consequences is the fact that it has affected the health of the people. request the favour of your kindly supplying a dustbin and issuing such instruction to Jamadars as will make the dumpling of rubbish on the roadside impossible. Cantt. There is absolutely darkness in the two big rooms. and have the whole house whitewashed and painted. especially the roof. and the roof. and I think that they must be making inquiries. Mud and water have tricked down the sides of the walls and made the rooms very unsightly. At Gujrat. They were locked. and the whole house should be whitewashed. The house has a dilapidated look about it. I beg to bring the following facts to your notice for immediate inquiry and prompt action in the interest of the health ratepayers of this neighbourhood. Yours faithfully. the plaster is falling from the walls of the kitchen. I request that inquiries must kindly be made at the intermediate stations between Gujrat and Rawalpindi. There have been heavy rains during the last week. I have already sent telegrams to the stationmasters of these stations. 14. I am willing to give a reward of Rs. so ventilators and skylights should be provided for proper air and light to come in. the women throw all sorts of purities things through the windows of their houses to matter. This has damaged the ceiling so much that there is a danger of its falling in. Yours faithfully.000. I should. and thanking in anticipation. 500 to any one who restores to me the missing boxes or gives a clue which may lead to their recovery. which has not been repaired for the last three years. Awaiting an early reply. proved so leaky as to allow the water to percolate through. Asad Write a letter to your landlord asking him to put the house in which you reside in a proper state of repairs. concerning some nuisance in your neighbourhood. College Road. 1999 To The Health Officer. August 20. Some the skylights do not open properly. Broken glass panes should also be replaced. I trust you will kindly give the matter your immediate attention. September 17. Lahore. None of my fellow passengers could give me any clue. The rooms and the veranda in particular. No dustbin has been supplied by the Municipality in the lane that passes behind the Post Office. houses is dumped by the roadside. . The floor of the drawing room is not made of bricks and so it gives out a foul smell. Rehman Khan Write a letter to a health officer. the stink issuing from it. I remain. 1999 Dear Sir.

and remit to me as clearly as possible the sum I claim. A little addition to my salary would make all the difference. 2000 To The Manager. 12000. The railway coolies who handled the furniture roughly when loading it into the railway van evidently caused this damage. complaining that furniture delivered has been damaged in transit and claiming complaints. I enclose herewith a copy of the invoice from Messrs. The bathrooms need repairs. as a proof of the value of the furniture damaged. Five years ago when I joined your firm as an office clerk. I. Green & Company. Dear Sir. To The Editor. you promised to give a favourable consideration to the question if I gave you satisfaction with my work.’ ‘I blesseth him that . Five days ago I went to the station to take delivery of the furniture. People always extol the virtue of charity. 2000 Dear Sir.the chimney in the kitchen does not let out all smoke from the hearth. 27. Fahad Munir Write a letter to the newspapers on the evils of street begging. I am writing to ask if you could consider the question of increasing my present salary. Lahore. I should be much obliged if you allow me a little space in the columns of your esteemed paper to enable me to bring home to your readers the evils of street-begging which is becoming a greater and greater nuisance every day to the shopkeepers and passers-by on our main streets. Lahore. although you will agree that many responsibilities have been added to my work during this period. Also three chairs had their legs broken and a polished drawing room table was very badly scratched. therefore. Your faithfully. Yours faithfully. 15 Macleod Road. I am very happy in the office and like my work. so the railways is responsible for the damage. that they delivered the goods in perfectly sound condition to the Booking Clerk. They say that ‘it is twice blessed. Green Mansions. I shall be obliged if you will pass my claim for damage. The goods were booked at railway risk. Green & Company Ltd. Any one who dares to criticise this custom and point out its evils runs the risk of being dubbed a mean and selfish fellow who cares only for his ownself and not for the wretched lot of the helpless and the downtrodden. Yours faithfully. The Pakistan Times. Dear Sir. Pakistan Railways Lahore. I found the dressing table broken and its long looking glass completely smashed. Begging in the streets is such a long established custom in Pakistan. March 7. that to raise a cry of protest against it seems like a cry in the wilderness. November 8. Pakistan Railway. request you to instruct your men to put the whole house in thorough repair as soon as possible. When I inspected it. During the last five years I have worked to your entire satisfaction. which I estimate at Rs. and the giving of alms has so much religious sanction behind it. if find it difficult to balance my budget. Karim Khan Lodhi Write a letter from an employee asking for an increased salary. But I have not been given any increment so far. but with a growing family at home and ever increasing expenditure. Lahore. Akhtar Ali Write a letter to the Manager. in consequence.

Asif Ali 22 Abbot Road. indiscriminate charity encourages idleness and hypocrisy. to old men who cannot cross the road quickly. and most of them have nothing on their homeless wretches in the open sky. farm-implements and bullocks before they can start work again and earn their daily bread. thousands of villagers are destitute and starving. It is a positive danger to little children who play about on the roads. I shall be glad to head the list with Rs. but it does not solve the problem of poverty. Karachi. and. but no one but an eye-witness can describe the terrible distress which these disastrous floods have caused in the western districts of the State. If we give alms to all without finding out really deserving cases. Discriminate alms-giving is good. therefore. The high speed at which people often drive motorcars along the public roads is a great nuisance. but indiscriminate charity does more harm than good. To give a few paisa to a beggar may ease the conscience of the giver. I am sure I am voicing the feeling of the public. The Nation. we are only making matter worse. I shall be obliged if you will allow me to enter a protest in your columns against the reckless driving of motorcars in the streets of our town. mainly it is the result of reckless driving round the sharp corners. They have lost all their property. Imran Ashraf Write a letter to a newspaper. Te villages will have to be supplied with seeds. I have just returned from the scene of the recent floods. exposed to the inclemency of the weather. Only yesterday.000. suggest sir. so that neither their numbers nor their names can be noted down. They are a heavy burden on the hard earned income of those who to foil and moil for a livelihood. as experience tells us is “No”. to women who with the loads on their heads run the risk of being overrun and to bullock-carts. I. commenting on reckless driving. horse-drawn vehicles and cyclists. Drivers often escape punishment because after knocking some unwary traveller down they speed up. Lahore. A large number of Faqirs or professional beggars in Pakistan. I saw with my own . These floods have been unprecedented in the recent history of the Punjab. Again. Hundreds of village area have been destroyed and vast stores of fodder and food-grains have been swept away. Yours truly. food and clothing. The Dawn. Lahore. 10. No doubt your readers have already been informed of the sad facts by the reports that have recently appeared in your columns. that you should start a relief fund and invite the readers to subscribe liberally for the patriotic and humanitarian object. Respected Sir. Respected Sir. In writing this. No one can deny that Pakistani streets are infested with able-bodied beggars who are capable of earning their living. can unthoughtful and indiscriminate alms-giving be the best way of helping the really poor? The answer to both these questions. “the poor should be pitied. secondly. Write a letter to a newspaper appealing for the victims of a flood. To The Editor. The number of these able-bodied beggars is increasing day by and him that takes. and must ask you to allow me to avail myself of the wide circulation of your paper to appeal to the public for help to relive the poor sufferers.” “Surely!” people cry. The devastation has been so wide-spread that only the fullest co-operation between the Government and the people can adequately relieve the distress caused in the affected areas. To The Editor. notably in Gujrat and Jehlum. quite healthy and strong are living idle lives because they feel that they can live easily on the charity of those who have to sweat for their living. in consequence. and many are because of leak of shelter. Indiscriminate charity is discouraged by our religion. the afflicted and the needy should be helped in their distress by the rich!” But the question is – First: Are all the beggars in our streets really poor and deserving of help? And. Accidents are almost of daily occurrence.

most of the dark and dingy houses in which the rays of the sun hardly penetrate even on the sunniest days should be pulled down and new houses built at the Municipality’s expense. the punishment imposed upon them is so light that it does not at all discourage the evil. they can have little or no effect. I beg to state that I passed my Intermediate examination in 1987 in the First Division. I hope my suggestions will be taken up and acted on. I shall be obliged if you will allow me a little space in your esteemed paper to draw the attention of the public to the bad sanitary condition of our city streets. living as they do in the civil station. Lahore. I also possess sufficient experience of drafting and official correspondence. they should be covered with wooden planks and regularly cleaned and flushed with water. Lahore. about fifteen or twenty dustbins should be supplied so that people may be deterred from throwing all their filth and rubbish into the streets which are at present almost choked with piles of putrefying offal and dirt – the breeding place of diseases germs. even if the offenders are caught. Then and then only will the present nuisance be mitigated. are little aware of the miseries of the poor inhabitants whose unhappy lot it is to live in those unhealthy streets which come to be looked down upon as “slums”. and I feel sure that the awful sights and smells that would greet him there. Again. prosecuted. Sir. I beg to offer myself as candidate for this post. I was immediately offered and accepted a post as a clerk in the Government High School where I have been working ever since. I suggest that the streets should be provided with drains and where there are open drains. As regards my qualification. I remain yours. The poor pedestrians have as much a right to use of the roads as the rich people who own motorcars. No steps have yet been taken by the corporation authorities to improve the sanitation of that unhealthy spot where more than ten thousand people live in a veritable hell as it were. would convince him of the immediate necessity of taking such steps as would improve the sanitation of that part of the city. To The Editor. drawing attention to bad sanitary condition of the city streets.eyes a poor beggar was run over by a car and no trace of the driver could be found as the car had vanished in an instant before the people were even aware that an accident had taken place. The Punjab University. and convicted. First. To The Registrar. but that gentleman. I have good practice in type-writing. Yours truly. 3500 per month. I hope the authorities will adopt proper measures to discourage this dangerous practice of reckless driving. The News. but unless these are rigorously enforced. Secondly. Azeem Akbar Write an application to the Registrar of the Punjab University for the post of a clerk said to have fallen vacant in his office. Truly. We have a corporation and I believe we have half a dozen Health Officers. Let the Mayor himself once take a walk through these streets. “Indignant” Write a letter to a newspaper. It is true there are police regulations which fix speed limits and impose penalties for reckless driving. Being given to understand that a post of a junior clerk has fallen vacant in your office and that the salary of the post is Rs. The best course would be to raise the penalty for exceeding the speed limit so that no one who has once incurred it may dare to repeat the offence. before we have an outbreak of an epidemic. The roads and streets are maintained at public expense and are meant for the use of general public. Lastly. . my latest record being 50 words per minute. Dear Sir. The latter have no right to monopolise these public roads by their reckless driving and to make it impossible for others to use them in comfort and safety.

securing a First Class. offering a reward for recovery. I beg to be allowed to recall myself to your memory and to request you to be so kind as to provide me with a certificate of ability and character. Railway Cooperative Stores. Railway Co-operation Stores. I played in the cricket eleven and was a college perfect during the last two years of my stay. [Advertisement] “Wanted a young man with knowledge of English and Urdu for a Railway office. I passed the High School Examination with a course in type-writing and book-keeping. 1999 To The Police Inspector. I am twenty years of age and passed the B.’ With apologies for troubling you. 2500 per month. If I am given a chance to serve. asking your principal to give you a written character certificate. A. Lahore. experience. 1999] [Reply] To The Manager. Khalid Mehmood Baig Reply to an advertisement for a Junior Clerk. July 25. Government College.I am desirous of leaving my present job simply because it does not offer me such good prospects as I would wish to have. 20 – Hospital Road. and have given my present employers entire satisfaction with my work and behaviour. age. State qualifications. Respected Sir. with 305 marks to my credit and at the same time standing first in the University. I passed my F. Apply to the Manager. Sir. In response to your advertisement in “The Nation” of the 10 July. I have been working since October 1963 in the office of the Lahore Board. Yours faithfully. Sargodha. . If you inquire from my professors they will be able to give you favourable impressions about me. Lahore. as I have to produce one for the post I am about to seek. 1998. I was also the Secretary of the Young Speakers Union. Lahore. Lahore. December 14. Raza Block. 793. My relations with my officers are cordial and my work has been highly appreciated by him as well as evident from the copies of testimonials I enclose herewith. Rehan Nadeem Write a letter to the Police Station. I was in your college during the years 1993-1997 and left after graduating. I may assure you that I shall do my best to give you satisfaction. 1999 for the post of a clerk with a knowledge of English and Urdue for a Railway office. Hoping for a favourable reply. Ghazanfar Ali Write a letter. the Junior Vice-president of the Shakespeare Society. Examination from your college. sir Your obediently. and thanking you in anticipation I remain. Yours faithfully. Sc. I beg respectfully to offer my services. 1998 To The Principal. if any and minimum pay acceptable. and the Assistant Editor of the Miscenllany. Trusting that my application will receive favourable consideration at your hands. Rahim Town. [Advertisement in “The Nation” of July 10. The minimum salary which will induce me to leave the present post is Rs. examination of the Punjab University in June. giving full particulars of a lost dog or bicycle or purse.

and imparted instruction to us in the most pleasing way. Your life itself was a great moral lesson to us. The apt flow of your words. to make inquiries and trace the lost bicycle. The popularity and prestige of an institution depend greatly upon its Old Boys. You perhaps know that the Old Boy’s association of our college which was started in 1989. Adnan Waheed A farewell address to a member of your college on his leaving to become Principal of another college. Lahore. Yours faithfully. I was sending my bicycle with one of my friends who was going back to the hostel. You can well realise what a loss it has been to the institution. It has been in my possession since 1998. but was equally felt in the playground also. Dear Sir. College. We beg to remain. philosopher. M. the students of the Fourth Year class. Sir. 18 September. We. you have also instilled into our hearts great moral principles and moulded our characters on right lines. has been dead for all practical purpose for the last six or seven years. Students of the Fourth Years Government College The old boys of your college have taken no interest in the old Boys association which has been dead for some years. My name is also inscribed on the inside of the Brooke’s saddle fixed to the bicycle. F. All these particulars will enable you. and pray that the Almighty may bless you with a glorious. During the time we sat at your feet. and guide to us. Your influence was not confined to the classroom only where you were a friend. I found my bicycle missing. It was a life of simplicity. or give me a clue which may ultimately load to its recovery. Ph. . A. I reached the place at 5:00 p. Government College. while I was witnessing a cinema show at the Anguri. and went in after buying a ticket at about half past five. but as you are going to a place where you will have a wider scope for the exercise of your rich talents. Your most obedient pupils. I hope. D Litt. 2000 Dear Brother. I lost my bicycle. Last evening. Mine is a Sohrab bicycle 28992A. Lahore. When I came out at about 6:00 p.m. We are sorry to part from you sir. A printed card bearing my name and address is fixed to the tool bag. when the Manager told me that there was no need of troubling my friend as the locked bicycle were quite safe in the cycle shed. It was a pleasure to attend your lectures which were full of sound knowledge. I was persuaded to keep my bicycle along with other bicycles in the shed where one of his servants kept a careful watch. we bid sphere. I believe that some one dressed like me might have walked away with my bicycle. Sir. Consequently. The principal has appointed you its Secretary and asked you to draw a letter that may be sent to all the Old Boys with a view to reviving the Association asking them to take an interest in it.Shalimar Link Road Mughalpura. hard work and devotion to duty. beg leave to approach you on the eve of your departure from our midst with this humble token of love ad gratitude which we always felt for you. your charming eloquence and your patient and perspicuous way of explaining difficulties could not but impress even the most listless. successful and prosperous career.m. 100 to any one who can restore me the bicycle. and so humble and earned. deep learning and high scholarship. Not only have you made us love and appreciate literature. you treated us with the utmost kindness. Lahore. I shall be glad to offer a reward of Rs. To Rehan Ashraf Esq. you were so good and kind.C. where your genial disposition and true sportsmanlike spirit left an indelible impression upon our minds. so noble and sympathetic. but nobody could give me clue. I inquired from several persons.

as I had not been enjoying good health for sometime. till suddenly it was smoothly floating in the air. I remain. I feel much better here than at Lahore. describing a visit to a Hill Station. Here it is at last. I felt as if we were rising and the ground was falling away from us. The signal was given. Temple Road. 61 – The Lower Mall. Thanking you. We too took our seats. I saw the ground dropping away beneath us. There were about fifty people ready to go. so many places to visit. 6. invigorating mountain breezes. so many things to enjoy that I feel passing too swiftly. For in the daytime it is hot in Murree itself whereas up on the hill it is always cool and bracing. The principal purpose is to revive the Old Boys’ Association and hold its meeting at least once a year. Yours sincerely. We rose higher and higher. Looking down. I am fond of walking and riding. There are many hotels here.Association which serves as a connection link between the college and its old alumni. It went faster and faster bumping along. and. What a pleasing view met our eyes! Imagine a large lake of still. Aftab Akbar Write a letter to your friend about a real or imaginary flight in an aeroplane. Lahore. I need not tell you that the Principal. 1999 My dear friend. clear water. I am having a jolly good time. the propellers began to whirl and the plane began to hop slowly over the ground. I was afraid that the aeroplane might strike against the trees or rocks and might come to grief. You have fallen asked me to give you an account of my flight in an aeroplane. 1 per annum is proposed. It will be a pleasant thing for all of us to meet one another. I have at last escaped from the heat of the plains. We were lucky enough to get rooms in a grand hotel close to a beautiful lake. But as soon as we started. once or twice in a year and to revive the memories of the happy days passed together. There was the huge Tiger Moth plane waiting and two smaller machines to go with it as escort. The mountain and valleys below looked small and far away. Lahore. 1999 My dear friend. There are so many pretty sights to see. He has given me every assurance of help and encouragement and has contributed Rs. Our college broken up on May 14. beautifully coloured by the last rays of the setting sun and surrounded by green hills. till we seemed to be in the clouds. May 20. for I had never been in an aeroplane before. again. So you find me here with my father. I felt very nervous. 10000 from his own pocket to the Old Boys’ Association Fund. is very enthusiastic about it and proposes to fix the college Reunion Day – as he calls it sometime in the last week of March when it will be possible for many of us to meet. My brother and I went to the aerodrome at about seven o’ clock in the morning and were told that we would be able to fly in the plane that left for Karachi at 7 a. being himself an old student of college. Saeed Riaz Write a letter to your friend. I visited many places worth seeing and enjoyed climbs to various places. The Old Boys Association. I hope you will be kind enough to extend your full co-operation and support to the Association and send the subscription at your earliest convenience. or that I might fall to the ground while flying in the plane and be dashed to pieces. What a difference between travelling by train and that by aeroplane! We were now hundreds of feet above the clouds. my father thought that a stay in the hills for two months would do me good. To meet the day-to-day expenses of the Association a nominal subscription of Re.m. In the evening we reached Murree. Yours loving friend. Truly. 24th October. I am now enjoying my stay in the hills and breathing the fresh. all such fears vanished. We flew across one range of mountains after another. serves to keep up the relations between the teachers and the old students. He has appointed me its Secretary and asked me to write to all the old boys to remind them of their duty to their alma mater. But soon we shifted to a house high up on the side of the hill. We saw the .

They're individuals who look to us for planning for the years to come . Lahore. Lahore. Haskins & Sells. for the unscrupulous Manager can make heaps of money by catering for the lower tastes of the “four anna” public. After hovering over the city for a few minutes we made an easy landing. Naeem Write a short letter to the District Magistrate of your town complaining about a picturehouse or a theatre near your house. there were feelings of stern anger boiling in my heart over what I consider to be the most depraved.trees on the hillside and they looked mere patches of green. The Manager had purposely shown a film in which sex-appeal predominated.just as much as for our help in filing this year's return. . perhaps. we include thousands of businessmen and professionals among them. as we flew over them. 1979 To The District Magistrate. It will tempt them to eulogise elopements and seductions and idolise the runaway couples who break away all the shackles of modern conventions. or exercising some stock options. And this is not the first time that the Pakistan Talkies at Taxali Gate is showing such a vulgar film. 14. It will engender in them a love for illicit romance and amorous adventure. who indulged in all sorts of enticing movements and gestures to bewitch the young. It was a wonderful experience and I shall never forget it. with its crowded streets and big buildings. You can imagine what a harmful and pernicious effect such a vulgar film is bound to have on the immature and impressionable minds of our young boys and girls who daily visit the picture-house in such large numbers. we'll systematically review your current financial picture and your returns for previous years. In the film were shown three young girls below twenty whom two swaggering young men paid court. these indeed were villages. the two young men were shown to have eloped with the girls. To start with. Now and again I could make out clusters of tiny huts. The rivers. With everything else on your mind. immoral. You are. Haskins & Sells. Zeshan Javed Income Tax Consulting Dear Sir You're probably going to pay too much in personal income taxes this year. if you're the kind of totally involved executive we think you are. After many happy scenes of illicit love. Yours faithfully. April 4. This makes it all the more important that you get the advice and counsel of the professionals at Deloitte. (Who knows? We may very well find refunds you've overlooked. After four hours’ flying we were in sight of Karachi. When the show was over. and vulgar exhibition of a city life. Garden Town. During the last six months. appeared like so many silver threads winding through the valleys and plains. and help you devise financial strategies to meet your long-term business and family needs . I hope you will take immediate steps to bar the exhibitions of such vulgar films. there's a good chance you may fail to take some perfectly appropriate steps to minimize your taxes.your needs for trust arrangements. Sir.) Then we'll go further. Yesterday I went to the Pakistan Talkies to see the film known as “Desire”. Your loving friend. When we say we don't stop at the bottom line in serving clients. or the sale of a family business. O what a relief it was to be safe on land again! I wish you could have been with us and enjoyed an altogether new experience. It was all the more socking when at the end of the film we were entertained with a dance conducted by half-naked chorus-girls. We were now flying over the suburbs of the beautiful seaports. no less than half a dozen such films have been exhibited. At Deloitte. we think income tax and estate planning is a very personal matter.

But if you do. not everybody requires our kind of help. I'll have the Post Office put a tracer on it. . To help us evaluate and improve our service. Please give Patricia our best wishes for continued success as she enters law school. ( . but I wanted to ask if the parcel I mailed you on the 12th of last month has arrived. postpaid card and return it to us. Your assistance is greatly appreciated. pursues her career. We are striving to provide our customers with timely and clearly explained replies. Graduation 2 Dear [[Recipient]]: We just heard that Patricia graduated from the University of California at Berkley with honors. If it hasn't. The sooner.Of course. Acknowledgment of Gift Dear [[Recipient]]: I know this is a busy season for you. the better. Both Harry and I appreciate your kind hospitality. The parcel is a leather portfolio case. and is a thank-you gift for the time you took from your busy schedule to show Harry Longworth some of the interesting parts of Denver. Claim Service Evaluation Dear [[Recipient]]: You recently contacted our claims office by phone.) . and I am happy right along with you. perhaps we should talk. . would you please take a moment to complete the enclosed. You must be extremely proud of her accomplishments.