WHAT IS ICT?

Definition:
ICT covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information electronically in a digital form. For example, personal computers, digital television, email, robots. So ICT is concerned with the storage, retrieval, manipulation, transmission or receipt of digital data. Importantly, it is also concerned with the way these different uses can work with each other. ICT is an acronym that stands for Information Communications Technology However, apart from explaining an acronym, there is not a universally accepted definition of ICT. Why? Because the concepts, methods and applications involved in ICT are constantly evolving on an almost daily basis. It¶s difficult to keep up with the changes - they happen so fast. Let¶s focus on the three words behind ICT: - INFORMATION - COMMUNICATIONS - TECHNOLOGY A good way to think about ICT is to consider all the uses of digital technology that already exist to help individuals, businesses and organizations use information.

Two broad types of product of ICT:
1. The Traditional Computer-based Technologies:Things you can typically do on a personal computer or using computers at home or at work); and 2. Digital Communication Technologies:The more recent, and fast-growing range which allow people and organizations to communicate and share information digitally Let's take a brief look at these two categories to demonstrate the kinds of products and ideas that are covered by ICT:

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TRADITIONAL COMPUTER BASED TECHNOLOGIES

In it two types of applications are involved 1. Standard Office Applications 2. Specialist Applications

1. Standard Office Application:

Application
Word processing Spreadsheets

EXAMPLES
Microsoft Word: Write letters, reports etc. Microsoft Excel; Analyze financial information; calculations;create forecasting models etc E.g. Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, Access; Managing data in many forms,from basic lists

Database software

(e.g. customer contacts through to complex material (e.g. catalogue) Microsoft PowerPoint; make presentations, either directly using acomputer screen or data

Presentation software

Projector. Publish in digital format via email or over the Internet Adobe In design, Quark Express, Microsoft Publisher; produce newsletters, magazines and

Desktop publishing Graphics software

Other complex documents. Adobe Photoshop and Illustrator; Macromedia Freehand and Fireworks;create and edit Images such as logos, drawings or pictures for use in DTP, web sites or other publications.

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2. Specialist Applications: Application EXAMPLES

Manage an organization¶s accounts including revenues/sales, purchases, bank account Accounting package A wide range of systems is available ranging from basic packages suitable for small businesses through to sophisticated ones aimed at multinational companies. Computer Aided Design (CAD) is the use of computers to assist the design process. Computer Aided Design Specialized CAD programs exist for many types of design: architectural, engineering, electronics, roadways Software that allows businesses to better understand their customers by collecting and Customer Relations Management (CRM) Analyzing data on them such as their product preferences, buying habits etc. Often Linked to software applications that run call centers and loyalty cards for example.

ICT IN A BROADER CONTEXT

Beside application like spreadsheets, word etc, ICT will also consider the following important topics that deal with the way ICT is used and managed in an organization:  The nature of information:(the "I" in ICT); this covers topics such as the meaning and value of information; how information is controlled; the limitations of ICT; legal considerations  Management of information:This covers how data is captured, verified and stored for effective use; the manipulation, processing and distribution of information; keeping information secure; designing networks to share information  Information systems strategy:This considers how ICT can be used within a business or organization as part of achieving goals and objective.

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DIGITAL COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

Diigital Communication Technologies: The C part of ICT refers to the communication of data by electronic means, usually over some distance. This is often achieved via networks of sending and receiving equipment, wires and satellite links. The technologies involved in communication tend to be complex. You certainly don't need to understand them for your ICT course. However, there are aspects of digital communications that you needs to be aware of. These relate primarily to the types of network and the ways of connecting to the Internet. Let's look at these two briefly (further revision notes provide much more detail to support your study).

Internal Networks: Usually referred to as a local area network (LAN), this involves linking a number of hardware items (input and output devices plus computer processing) together within an office or building. The aim of a LAN is to be able to share hardware facilities such as printers or scanners, software applications and data. This type of network is invaluable in the office environment where colleagues need to have access to common data or programs.

External Networks: Often you need to communicate with someone outside your internal network, in this case you will need to be part of a Wide Area Network (WAN). The Internet is the ultimate WAN - it is a vast network of networks.

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THE POTENTIAL USES OF ICT
ICT applications are useful in numerous instances to facilitate the developments of various aspects of the society.

ICT In Improving The Quality of Life

Health:
ICT applications are becoming valuable resources in the medical field. They support efficient exchange of information between health professionals, they enable transfer of patient records between sites and they can improve clinical effectiveness, continuity, and quality of care by health professionals (Mansell and Wehn 1998). ICT applications facilitate telemedicine - "the use of ICTs to provide medical demand independent of person-to-person contact" (ibid: 85). Telemedicine provides medical service to people in geographically diverse settings: at home and in isolated places or in emergencies. An example of the impact of ICTs on medicine is the recent operation that was performed at the Chris Hani Baragwaneth Hospital. Separated by 8 917km, two surgeons made South African medical history when they jointly performed an operation on a two-year-old. Dr Bob Banieghbal at Chris Hani Baragwaneth Hospital in Soweto and Professor BennoUre at his offices in Hannover, Germany, made use of the latest advancement in surgery - the tele-mentoring system, 'Socrates' - to perform a laparoscopic surgery (Green, 2003). 'Socrates' works by linking surgeons in the operating room with colleagues anywhere in the world. A voice-controlled robotic arm (Aesop) positions and holds an endoscope (a minute camera used to view internal organs) which is inserted into the patient via the navel (ibid.)

Special Needs (for the Physically Challenged):
For many people with physical disabilities, ICTs can be extremely useful in providing access to communication, education and open up opportunities for them. The use of Braille keyboards and printers can help alleviate some common literacy and numeracy problems for visually impaired or blind people. Most telecommunications infrastructures are now being designed with the capabilities of meeting the special needs of the physically challenged. For instance, the Short Message Service (SMS) can be used to send and receive messaged by the hearing impaired, the voice activated dialing service can be used by visually impaired.
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Education:
The education sector is arguably one major area that ICTs are playing remarkable role. These technologies help in facilitating learn ship and exchange of educational materials. ICTs are helping library professionals store and manage academic information. Libraries have migrated from the traditional Dewey cataloguing system to an on-line system, which is a web-based cataloguing and search application. The online learning system is another web-based application that is revolutionalising the learning platform of education. This system compliments the traditional face-to face teaching and learning format. In the on-line system, students can access class notes, submit assignment and also join a discussion group with other learners.

Environment:
ICT applications can help in collecting data about environmental issues. They allow access to information and provide support system to manage and monitor environmental issues. For example, the Geographical Information focuses on the collection, storage, analysis, display and application of geographic data (Mansell and When 1998). The Geographic Information System (GIS) is one of the Geographic Information Technology applications. The GIS can be regarded as an advanced equivalent of a traditional map from which a wide array of information can be extracted for specific purposes. The GIS is an automated system that enables the capture, storage, checking, integration, manipulation, analysis, display, and modeling of complex spatial data (ibid.). The GIS can be useful in the integration of information on climate, soils, and terrains from different sources.

Agriculture:
At the micro level, ICTs applications can be used to impart information directly to farmers and the farming community. There are expert system designed to handle agricultural issues such as water utilization and management, pest control, harvest management and so forth.

Sharing Knowledge and Improving Access to Information:
This has been one of the most recognized uses of the ICTs. Various communication technologies, ranging from broadcasting to telecommunications and to the Internet are playing effective roles in the acquisition and sharing of information. The concepts of the 'information revolution' and 'information society' are driven by enormous advancements in ICTs and their application. The Internet for example, has provided platforms for sharing information in applications such as the E-Mail and The World Wide Web.

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ICT Is Facilitating In Business Sector

Manufacturing:
ICTs applications are linking the process chains in manufacturing as opposed to improving or facilitating single steps in the production lines. The old 'Fordist' or mass production of goods and services is gradually giving way to a network-based production and manufacturing system. There has been a shift from the old production system to a new mode which is facilitated by information and communication technology. While the old production and manufacturing system is energy-intensive, standardized and departmentalized the new manufacturing system facilitated by ICTs is information-intensive, customized, networked and integrated. Furthermore, the design stage of product manufacturing benefits enormously from the use of ICTs. For instance, the use of Computer-aided-design (CAD) has improved the design stages of machine tools.

Electronic Commerce:
Electronic commerce or e-commerce is the use of telecommunications or the Internet to carry out business of any type. Common examples of e-commerce are business-to-business e-commerce, online shopping, online banking, online stock trading etc. One of the advantages of e-commerce is the reduction of transaction costs. Electronic transaction of business activities has 'redefined' the concepts of 'market', 'seller' and 'buyers', as they all converge now on the electronic space. Billions of dollars worth of transactions are completed on the Internet. This development has warranted national government involvement in regulating e-commerce activities.

Travel and Tourism:
The travel and tourism industry has been heavily affected by ICT applications. The Internet, in particular, has been useful in many regards to the travel and tourism sector. It is used to provide multimedia information about destination to prospective travelers. It also affects auxiliary industries, such as the transport sector, which plays a major role in the tourism industry. With the aid of ICT applications, prospective travelers can view a destination, book accommodation, book the flight and other forms of transport and pay for all these without leaving their homes. The use of ICTs has permeated the travel and tourism industry. ICTs in this industry consist of various components that include computerized reservation systems, teleconferencing, video, video brochures, management information systems, airline electronic information systems, electronic funds transfer, digital telephone networks, smart cards, mobile communication, e-mail, and Internet (Mansell& When, 1998). These various communication technologies are being used in all sectors travel and tourism industry and related sectors

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ICT Is Facilitating In Public And Private Sector Public Administration:
Public administration is a key aspect of civil society and it includes a range of services to citizens and industry. It provides various functions that enhance the social, economic and political developments of the citizenry. Most importantly, it provides public information that is useful to the community at large.E-Government, a concept that defines a situation where government activities and public information can be made available uses ICTs. The South African Minister of Communication notes that: The Public Information Terminal, or PIT, entails the installation of Internet kiosks in post offices around the country. The kiosks will provide instant access to the Internet, e-mail, government and educational services as well as e-commerce. The link to government websites, for example, will provide information on aspects of regulation, legislation, welfare, support, grants and rebates. Interactive directories of various tertiary institutions will also be available (MatsepeCasaburri, 2000).

Urban and Rural Development:
ICT applications are useful in facilitating development programs in many countries. These technologies help in supporting economic and social developments. Mansell&Wehn (1998: 83) note that "diverse current and historical data sets on health, education, water supplies, sanitation, and population growth and movement can be captured, collated, manipulated, and presented" The establishment of telecasters in rural communities can facilitate economic empowerment..

Transport:
In the transport sector, ICT applications can be used to improve road, air and rail transportation. The development of smart cards helps facilitate the smooth operations of the transport system. These operations include payment for parking meters, identification of authorized parking space occupants. In Africa the smart card system is not widely used, however, in South Africa the smart cards used to ease the hassles of boarding public transportation. For example, the SABTA (South Africa Black Taxi Association) trial application in Bloemfontein was to address the growing demand for prepayment services. Minibus taxis are the preferred mode of transport between the townships and places of work in South Africa. These taxis are licensed to carry up to 14 passengers. The Taxi proprietors were pleased with the tighter controls the system offers and more especially that it reduced the risk of loss cash in the system (Townsend, 1996). Currently, some Taxi operators are using the smart card system.

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TAJIKISTAN HOSPITAL USING ICT IN DAILY TASKS
Nine medical personnel of the Central Hospital in Garm, Tajikistan, (CHG) reported a host of improvements in professionalism and efficiency in their work, their hospital, and the medical college where they pass along their skills. They attributed these enhancements to ICT skills training they completed at the Garm IATP center in March 2009. The doctors were recruited by IATP Garm Administrator RavshanSirojev. On February 17, Sirojev conducted the IATP outreach presentation on ICT for medical personnel at CHG, showing its doctors the many ways they could benefit from ICT training. Doctor of Family Medicine MirzoevSobirjon found that ICT improved his productivity. He found it ³amazing that through the internet we can find modern medical treatment recommendations for various diseases.´ ³Until now,´ he continued, ³I submitted my reports to Dushanbe by post or though my friends, but now I can send them through e-mail.´ CHG Surgeon ZoirovDehoti also teaches anatomy at the local Medical College, an endeavor complicated by his and his students¶ previous lack of access to current information on medical topics. ICT training helped Dehoti access new resource tools. He noted ³through the internet I found www.anatomy.tj and www.e-anatomy.ru ± sites that contain important information for students. My colleagues and I decided to translate some materials to our national language, develop some modules and brochures, and provide them for our students.´ Ophthalmologist NosirovFayzali used the internet to find ³a laser microscope used for eye examinations. We plan to order such equipment from Moscow. Just a few years ago, finding such a device would require traveling abroad and spending much time physically looking for it.´ Thanks to IATP training, CHG¶s medical staff is using ICT skills to improve their hospital, make their work more efficient, and acquire better equipment for patient care.

Source. http://iatpnews.typepad.com/iatp/2009/04/tajikistan-hospital-benefits-from-using-ict-in-dailytasks-1.html

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ABOUT PIMS

Since Its opening In 1985, P.I.M.S. has been expanding Its services and equipment to meet the growing healthcare needs of the human community. Objectives of P.I.M.S. are to provide a tertiary level patient care and serve as referral hospital also to conduct teaching/ training of doctors and other health workers at various level in the field of medicine and surgery. The establishment of the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (P.I.M.S) in Islamabad heralds a bright new era for the citizens of Pakistan, especially the residents of the Federal Capital. The plan, conceived in the sixties(1960s), has finally been implemented. Initially named as the Islamabad Hospital Complex ( IHC ), the original site was located within the premises of the National Institute of Health but was shifted in favor of the present site due to its central position. In 1975, the Capital Development Authority (CDA) outlined a plan for the construction of an inpatients block. Pakistani engineers prepared a master plan by 1978, envisaging ample room for future alteration and expansion. Apart from providing medical facilities to the resident of Rawalpindi-Islamabad and surrounding areas, the PIMS will function as a National Reference Centre for providing specialized diagnostic and curative services to the patients referred by other hospitals/institution. When fully functional the Pakistan Institute of medical Sciences will be a centre of excellence and a model of medical education and research.

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ADMINISTRATION

Ex-Executive Director
Prof. Dr. GhazalaMehmud FRCOG(UK), FCPS
Tel: 051-9260500

Joint Executive Director
(Administration) Dr. Jehanzeb Khan Aurakzai B.S.c, MBBS, FRCS
Tel: 051- 9260383

Joint Executive Director (CH)
Dr. Raja AmjadMahmood MBBS, DPH, MBA (Exe)
Tel: 051-9260187

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DEPARTMENTS AT PIMS

ACCIDENT & EMERGENCY

GYNAE/OBSTETRICS PATHOLOGY HOSPITAL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM NEONATOLOGY NEPHROLOGY NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY ONCOLOGY

ANESTHESIA

PHARMACY

BLOOD BANK CARDIOLOGY DENTISTRY DERMATOLOGY E.N.T.

PLASTIC SURGERY PSYCHIATRY PULMONOLOGY RADIOLOGY RHEUMATOLOGY/PHYSICAL MEDICINE UROLOGY PAEDIATRIC MEDICINE Burn Centre

GASTROENTEROLOGY OPTHOlMOLOGY GEN. MEDICINE GEN. SURGERY Critical Care ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY PAEDIATRIC SURGERY

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SERVICESOFFERED BY PIMS

GEN. SURGERY Hepatobiliary Surgery. Colorectal Surgery. Pancreatic Surgery. Esophageal Surgery. Endocrine Surgery. Breast Surgery. Thoracic & Vascular Surgery. Laparoscopic Surgery. NEUROSURGERY Brain Tumor Surgery. Spinal instrumentation. Disc Surgery. Emergency Surgery for head Injury. Nerve Repair. V-P shunting. Paediatric Surgery. PATHOLOGY Histopathology. Cytology. F.N.A. Hematology. Bone marrow Aspiration. Coagulation Tests. Chemistry Blood Gases Stone Analysis. Electrolytes. Microbiology. Serology HCV (Elisa). HBsAg (Elisa). Parasitology. All routine tests. DENTAL

GEN. MEDICINE Diabetes Clinic. Hematology. Infectious diseases.

ONCOLOGY Chemotherapy. Solid Tumor. Palliative Care. Adjuvant Neo-Adjuvant. Hormone Therapy. Terminal Care. Cancer Surveillance. CARDIOLOGY Electrocardiography. Echocardiography. Transthoracic. Trans Esophageal. Stress Echo. Holter Monitoring. Exercise testing. Nuclear Cardiology & Lung Scan. Coronary Angiography. Diagnostic. Interventional. Peripheral Angiography. Temporary & Permanent Pacemakers.

UROLOGY

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Minor Oral Surgery. Endodontic treatment. OPG. Conservative Dentistry. Preventive Dentistry. BLOOD BANK HIV, HBsAg, HCV for Donors. Cross match. Rh Antibodies. Coombs Test. Plasma Pharases. Single platelet Donor. PSYCHIATRY E.C.T. E.E.G. OPHTHALMOLOGY FFA. Automated Retraction. Laser Therapy. Perimetry. PHARMACY Drugs/medicines. Zakat patients. Reimbursement bills. Information about medicines.

Conventional urology Endocopic urology. Reconstructive urology. Renal Transplantation. Infertility & Impotence Clinic. Lithotripsy. DERMATOLOGY PUVA Therapy. Cautery. Diagnostic & Operative procedures.

RHEUMATOLOGY/PHYSICAL MEDICINE Specialized Rheumatic disease clinics. Physiotherapy. NEUROLOGY E.E.G. E.M.G. N.C.S. E.P. Testing. E.N.T. Syringing. Audiometry. Cryo Surgery. Cautery procedures. Speech therapy. P.T.A. RADIOLOGY Sonography. Invasive Sonography. CT Scan. Barium meal. Barium enema. Barium Swallow. I.V.U. Ultrasound.

GASTROENTEROLOGY Liver Biopsy. EGD. Colonoscopy. ERCP/EST/STENT PLACEMENT Sigmoidoscopy. Sclerotherapy/Banding. Esophageal Dilatation. Polypectomy.

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PTC.

Mylogram Mammography. MCU. RUG. All routine X-Rays. ORTHOPEDICS General Orthopedics & Trauma. Joint Replacement Surgery. Arthroscopy. Poliomyelitis - Cerebral pulsy. Tumor Surgery. NEPHROLOGY Hemodialysis. Renal Transplant. Diagnostic Nephrology. Renal Biopsies. Peritoneal Dialysis. Vascular catheter placement.

PLASTIC SURGERY Reconstructive Plastic Surgery. Hand Surgery. Burn Surgery.

PULMONOLOGY Bronchoscopy. Pleural Biopsy. Lung Biopsy. P.F.T.

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ICT IN ISLAMABAD HOSPITAL (PIMS)

Online Doctors:
Islamabad hospital is also Using ICT Using different application and one of the major application they are using is online doctors system. This system is designed for the patients who are far away from the capital city and are not able concern with the best doctors of the country about their health issues so its making it easy to communicate with doctors easy weather they are using a dialup connect or they have mobile phone. There is a complete detail about every doctors, his name qualification and specialization which helps a patient or other doctors in small city to concern the well educated and expericed doctors sitting in capital of Pakistan.

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You can find online help to cure and suggestion about your disease. We can give you a better guideline and online prescription if possible. Please click on the department you feel that is relevant to your disease so feel free to send us about your conditions: ACCIDENT & EMERGENCY ANESTHESIA BLOOD BANK CARDIOLOGY DENTISTRY DERMATOLOGY E.N.T. GASTROENTEROLOGY GEN. MEDICINE GEN. SURGERY GYNAE/OBSTETRICS NEONATOLOGY NEPHROLOGY NEUROLOGY NEUROSURGERY ONCOLOGY OPHTHALMOLOGY ORTHOPEADIC SURGERY PAEDIATRIC SURGERY PATHOLOGY PHARMACY PLASTIC SURGERY PSYCHIATRY PULMONOLOGY RADIOLOGY RHEUMATOLOGY/PHYSICAL MEDICINE UROLOGY

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OTHER TECHNOLOGIES USED IN PIMS

Manual Tests are not so fast to make different tests of patients and distribute them with all the doctors or nurses which require that data. Technology is at best grow now a days and due to technology now we have many machines which are making tests creating results and throw network theses reports can be accessed on the desktop of every doctors and nurses. It has mad it easy and fast to check the condition of patient also to share the information with other doctors throughout the work which can help the local doctors to handle the patient very effectively and efficiently.

Few of these technologies are : One of the major component of PIMS is Islamabad hospital which contain 6 Medical wards and 6 Surgical Ward these ward have Laboratory near them also containing new technological machines to make different tests of patients quickly.

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HITACHI CHEMISTRY ANALYZER

The Hitachi 917 is an automated biochemistry analyzer used by medical laboratories to process biological fluid specimens, such as urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and most commonly, blood. The 917 has two trays for racks, plus a stat rack. Racks that hold five test tubes slide in on the left side of the machine. There are two reagents carousels on the right side of the 917. In the centre, towards the back, are the reaction vessels, where the chemical reactions take place.
y y y y y

Type:Chemistry Analyzer Parameters: 69 analyses Method: Spectrophotometric Method. Weight: 455 kilos W x D x H: 60x30x44 inches / 152x76x112 cm

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PHILIPS BRILLIANCE CT SCAN MACHINE

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ENDOSCOPY MACHINE

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NICU MACHINE

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NETWORK DIAGRAM OF ISLAMABAD HOSPITAL (PIMS)

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A Snap of Data Link Center at HMIS

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