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V. Factors Affecting the Force, Velocity, and Duration of Muscle Contraction A. Factors affecting the force of contraction 1.

Number of muscle fibers stimulated 2. Relative size of the muscle 3. Degree of muscle stretch B. Factors affecting the velocity and duration of contraction 1. Muscle fiber type a. Slow-twitch or Type I fibers, slow-oxidative fibers b. Fast-twitch or Type II fibers, fast-glycolytic fibers c. Type IIA fibers, fast oxidative VI. Effects of Exercise A. Improved ability to obtain ATP from oxidative phosphorylation B. Increase size and number of mitochondria C. Less lactic acid produce per given amount of time D. Increased myoglobin content E. Increased intramuscular triglyceride content F. Increased lipoprotein lipase (enzyme needed to utilize lipids from blood) G. Lower rate of glycogen depletion during exercise H. Improved efficiency in extracting oxygen from blood I. Decrease number of type II (fast glycolytic fibers); increased number of type IIA (fast oxidative) VII. Smooth Muscle A. Physiology 1. Ca+2 and calmodulin activate myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) 2. MLCK transfers a phosphate group from ATP to myosin heads 3. Cross-bridge formation occurs with phosphorylation of myosin heads 4. Detachment of myosin heads requires myosin phosphatase (removes Pi from myosin heads) B. Types of smooth muscle 1. Visceral, or unitary smooth muscle a. More common – muscle of digestive, reproductive, and urinary tracts b. Numerous gap junctions allow action potentials to pass from one fiber to another c. Muscle fibers function as a unit (like the 3 Musketeers – “All for one and one for all”! d. Is often autorhythmic (digestive); some contracts only when stimulated (urinary) 2. Multiunit a. Occurs as sheets (blood vessels), as small bundles (arrector pili, iris) b. Fewer gap junctions; cells or groups of cells act as independent units c. Contracts only when stimulated by hormones or nerves C. Electrical properties of smooth muscle 1. Slow waves of depolarization 2. Action potentials superimposed on a slow wave of depolarization 3. Spontaneously generated action potentials a. Characteristic of muscle in the uterus, ureter, and digestive system D. Functional properties of smooth muscle 1. Some smooth muscle exhibits autorhythmic contractions 2. Smooth muscle tends to contract in response to being stretched; a slow increase in length produces less of a response than a more rapid increase in length E. Regulation of smooth muscle 1. Most important neurotransmitters are ACh and norepinephrine 2. Hormones (epinephrine, oxytocin) 3. Locally-produced substances (carbon dioxide, prostaglandins, histamine)

Uptake of Ca ++ and relaxation of muscle III.. relaxation of muscle is not required before a second action potential can stimulate a second contraction. Motor units – respond as a single unit • All fibers of a MN contract to produce a constant force in response to threshold stimulus 4. Stimulus frequency and muscle contraction 1.g. Exposure of myosin binding sites by movement of tropomysin j. Latent period 2. sustained contractions D. a. Force-Velocity 1. Action potential which causes contraction is completed long before the contraction phase is completed. Maximal Oxygen Uptake (VO2 max) B. Incomplete tetanus c. Length-Tension Relationship of Muscle Contraction E. 2. 3. Lactate threshold C. Energy Sources for Muscle Contraction A. Isotonic contractions 2. Subthreshold stimulus produces no action potential and thus no contraction 2. Isometric contractions 3. Period of relaxation B. Contractile mechanism of muscle exhibits no refractory period.e. Physiology of Skeletal Muscles A. Powerstroke process (see above) k. Conformation change in DHP receptors opens calcium release channels (Ryanodine receptors) that allows calcium diffusion into the sarcoplasm from sarcoplasmic reticulum h. Anaerobic glycolysis and lactic acid formation 3. Whole muscle responses • More complex than those of individual muscle fibers or motor units • Respond to stimuli in graded fashion – strength of contraction can range from weak to strong • Multiple motor unit summation (recruitment) – force of contraction increases as more and more motor units are recruited • Asynchronous activation of motor units – alternate response of motor units to produce smooth. Summation • Tension produced by a muscle increases as the frequency of contraction increases b. Treppe – the staircase effect C. The muscle twitch 1. Binding of Ca++ to torponin (Tn-C site) i. the frequency of contraction increases. Direct phosphorylation of ADP by creatine phosphate 2. Shows the inverse relationship between “load” and the velocity of muscle shortening F. Period of contraction 3. i. as frequency of action potentials increase. Therefore. Eccentric contractions IV. Aerobic respiration . Complete tetanus d. Threshold stimulus produces an action potential and a contraction 3. Type of muscle contractions 1. Energy pathways in muscle contraction 1. Stimulus strength and muscle contraction 1.

Hydrolysis of ATP to ADP + Pi. Depolarization of T-tubules activates voltage-gated calcium channels (DHP receptors) . Powerstroke of muscle contraction a. Ach binds to nicotinic receptor on sarcolemma of muscle fiber and increases Na+ influx d. Attachment of new ATP to myosin causes detachment of cross bridge from actin 5. Contraction of muscle due to shortening of sarcomeres a. many make up F-actin o Myosin-binding site (MBS) • Tropomyosin – blocks MBS on G-actins when muscle is relaxed • Troponin o Tropomyosin-binding site (Tn-T) o Actin-binding site (Tn-I) o Calcium-binding site (Tn-C) d. Na+ influx causes development of motor end plate potential on sarcolemma e. Binding of Ca++ to troponin and its subsequent effects 4. Motor units – one motor neuron and the number of muscle fibers it innervates II. Sarcomere 1) Z disk – anchor actin filaments 2) A band – length of myosin filaments within a sarcomere 3) H band . Regulation of contraction a. energizes myosin head c. Review of Skeletal Muscle Anatomy A. and actin in preventing muscle contractions 3. Action potential arrives at the presynaptic terminal of a somatic motor neuron b. Role of Ca++ in muscle contraction a. Release of ACh from motor neuron c. Myofilaments 1) Myosin filaments • Heavy chains (tails) • Light chains (heads) o ATP-ase site o Actin binding site 2) Structure of actin filaments (F-actin) • G-actin (single molecule). Release Pi causes cross bridge to produce ‘powerstroke-movement of actin over myosin e. Gross anatomy 1. Movement of actin filaments over myosin but pulling action of myosin cross bridges 2. Microscopic anatomy of a muscle fiber (=muscle cell) a.Human Physiology (AP 201) Muscle Physiology I. Sarcoplasmic reticulum and the terminal cisternae c. Role of troponin. Release of ADP after powerstroke f. bound Pi is released d. tropomyosin. SKELETAL MUSCLE CONTRACTION AT THE MOLECULAR LEVEL A. Excitation-Contraction Coupling and Relaxation a. Sarcolemnma and the transverse tubules b. Spread of action potential over sarcolemma and down into T-tubule f. Binding of ATP to myosin head b. Sliding Filament Theory of Contraction 1.area between ends of actin filaments within a sarcomere 4) I band – from end of myosin in one sarcomere to another myosin in a diff sarcomere 2. Attachment of myosin head to actin.