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Profile of Pakistan Economy Pakistan is the world’s most populous countary. Estimated population of Pakistan was 169.

9 million and anuaul growth rate of 2.05% as at end june 2009. total working age population was 121.08 million with the size of employed labour force estimated at 52.7 million as of 2008-2009. Table There are approximately 7 million Pakistanis living abroad, remitting close to US dollar 8 million annually through formal channels to paistan. Worker remittance are the 2nd largest source of foreign excange after exports. Labouforce and Employment. According to the size of the labour force, Pakistan is the 10th largest country of the world. According to the labor force servey 2008-09, the labor force is estimated at 53.72 million of the total labor force. 50.79 are employed, while 2.93 million persons are unemployed, resulting is an unemployment rate of 5.5% There has a decline in umemployment rate since 2003-04 accompanied by a substantial rise in the unpaid family helpers particulary females. In 2008-09 the estimated labor force grew 3.71 %. The force of female labor force was greater than male labor force and the increase in female employment was greater. Employment comprises all persons ten years of age and above who worked at least one hour during the refernce period and were either paid employed or self employed. Table 2.2 Umemployment rate is higher as compared to the last statistics Table 2.3 Civilian labor force, employed and umemployed for Pakistan. Table Labor force participation rate Labor force participation rate is divided into two catagories. i.e crude and refined. Crude activity rate is the currently active population expressed as percentage of the total population of Pakistan. Refined activity rate is the currently active population expressed as percentage of the total population of Pakistan 10 years and above. Table 2.4 The table shows that crude activity rate for female is higher (35.10) in the rural areas as compared with the urban areas(8.60). Augmented activity rate based on probing questions from the person not included in the conventional measures of labor force, to net

During 2008 a year characterized by supply shocks. female participation rate is higher (28. and they cannot hope for increased securitry.8% point from 9 to 71. Although labor market access for women improved over the years. the proportion of women in the labor force has been increased in Pakistan. Table 2. As the table shows in the rural areas. own construction of own dwelling.7 shows a very small portion of female work in industry and service sector as compared to males.30) than in urban area (9.80% in 2008) work in agriculture sector mainly as contributing family workers under the tough working condition with little of no economic marginal economic activities like substance agriculture. informal employment is only soruce of income.80% in 2008 still very low if considered from an international or regional point of view. 7 out of 10 women (73. Employment status of women As a result of labor related vulnarabilities people are socially weaker. It was with 21. Table 2.70) Women working condition in Pakistan. Table 2. Table 2. A vast majority of women worked in agriculture .7 Informal sector and females Informal employment is mostly defined as unstayble and insecure work and therefore generally considered as non-decent.4 shows that refined activity rate of female in rural area is more than in urban area. speciall in those areas where cultural norms restrict them from work outside of the home.8% increase for males.8 The table showes that between 2007 and 2008.6 The female labor force participation increased over time.5 Labor market trends for women During the last decade. this has not gone hand in hand with progress in the creation of decent work opportunities for the same Table 2. informal sector employment for women become a necessary survival strategy for many families reflecting the lack of social safety nets in the country. Table2.7 % compare to a 0. Table 2.the share of female employment in the informal sector increased by1.9 . Formally women. Some women cannot undertake regular employee working hours due to house hold responsibilities. They cannot provide a better future to their families since they donot earn enough to make their living.

The table shows that in 2008 almost 6 out of 10 female employees were engaged in casual of piece rate work. Working of 49 working hours per week if often considered as excessive and it reflects low prodicitity for reasons including the harmful effects to physical and mental health. Workers are of 3 types according hours of time. Proportion of female working in the 35 to 39 hours bracket shows the strongest increase between 2000 and 2008. In Pakistan a normal or full time working week is thought of 35 hours week. To ensure sustainable developlent and competitiveness of enterprises in the country. Working hours of women The fundamental inductor of productive employment and decent work is the period of time during which the worker is bound to carry out his economic activities or duties. but wage and salaried women are likely to be hired in more insecure employment arrangements. 1) regualar employees with fixed wages (non vulnable) 2) casual paid employees 3) paid workers by piece rate or work performed 4) paid non family apprentices the last three kind of employees lack decent work. while the longer hours ( shows significant decreases). decent and productive working hours are essential for workers to have acceptable livelihoods for themselves and their families. However there is a again an important difference between men and women as hours of work for men. 1) full time workers 2) part time workers 3) excessive workers part time workers are those whose working hours are less than full time workers.10 shows that mainly women (40. Wage and salaried men are mostly hired in regular paid positions (56.5%) in 2008. wage salaried workers in the county consists out of 4 sub groups. . Table 2.80%) works less than the threshold of 35 hours a week even since more and more women are working full time.